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Sample records for acid glycine nh2ch2cooh

  1. IR and quantum-chemical studies of carboxylic acid and glycine adsorption on rutile TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ojamäe, Lars; Aulin, Christian; Pedersen, Henrik; Käll, Per-Olov

    2006-04-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 powders of the rutile polymorph, synthesized by a sol-gel method, were treated with water solutions containing, respectively, formic, acetic, and citric acid and glycine in order to study the adsorption properties of these organic species. The samples were characterized by FTIR, Raman, powder XRD, and TEM. It was found that HCOOH, CH3COOH and HOC(COOH)(CH2COOH)2--but not NH2CH2COOH--adsorbed onto TiO2. The adsorption of HCOOH, CH3COOH and NH2CH2COOH onto the (110) surface of rutile was also studied by quantum-chemical periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The organic molecules were from the computations found to adsorb strongly to the surfaces in a bridge-coordinating mode, where the two oxygens of the deprotonated carboxylic acid bind to two surface titanium ions. Surface relaxation is found to influence adsorption geometries and energies significantly. The results from DFT calculations and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of formic acid adsorption onto TiO2 are compared and match well with the experimental IR measurements, supporting the bridge-binding geometry of carboxylic-acid adsorption on the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  2. A DFT study of adsorption of glycine onto the surface of BC2N nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Azmoodeh, Zivar; Javan, Masoud Bezi; Lemeski, E. Tazikeh; Karami, Leila

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of structure and the energy interaction of amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) with BC2N nanotube is crucial for apperception behavior occurring at the nanobiointerface. Herein, we studied the adsorption of glycine in their radical and zwitterionic forms upon the surface of BC2N nanotube using M06 functional and 6-311G** standard basis set. We also considered the different orientations of the glycine amino acid on the surface of adsorbent. Further, we found out that the stability of glycine from its carbonyl group is higher than hydroxyl and amine groups. Our results also indicated that the electronic structure of BC2N nanotube on the adsorption of glycine from its amine group is more altered than the other groups. Our study exhibits that opto-electronic property of adsorbent is changed after the glycine adsorption.

  3. Cometary Glycine Detected in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2006, NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth. The Stardust cometary collector consisted of aerogel cells lined with aluminum foils designed to capture impacting particles and facilitate removal of the aerogel. Preliminary examinations of these comet-exposed materials revealed a suite of organic compounds, including several amines and amino acids which were later examined in more detail. Methylamine (NH2CH3) and ethylamine (NH2C2H5) were detected in the exposed aerogel at concentrations greatly exceeding those found in control samples, while the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) was detected in several foil samples as well as in the comet-exposed aerogel. None of these three compounds had been previously detected in comets, although methylamine had been observed in the interstellar medium. Although comparison with control samples suggested that the detected glycine was cometary. the previous work was not able to conclusively identify its origin. Here, we present the results of compound-specific carbon isotopic analysis of glycine in Stardust cometary collector foils. Several foils from the interstellar side of the Stardust collector were also analyzed for amino acid abundance, but concentrations were too low to perform isotopic ana!ysis.

  4. Chiral glycine formation on cold interstellar grains by quantum tunneling hydrogen-deuterium substitution reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Kouchi, Akira

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that chiral glycine (NH2CHDCOOH) is formed by the surface reaction of normal glycine (NH2CH2COOH) solid with deuterium (D) atom at 12 K under the simulative conditions of interstellar molecular clouds. Chiral glycine formation is most likely initiated by the tunneling abstraction reaction of H atom by D atom followed by the addition of D atom to the glycine radical (NH2CHCOOH). Given that chiral glycine can form in such a primordial low-temperature environment, it might source molecular chirality as molecular clouds evolve into planetary systems.

  5. A Sensitive VLA Search for Small-Scale Glycine Emission Toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Snyder, L. E.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Palmer, Patrick; Liu, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a deep Q-band (lambda-7 mm) search with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward OMC-1 for the lowest energy conformation (conformer I) of glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in four rotational transitions: the 6(sub 15)- 5(sub 14), 6(sub 24)-5(sub 23), 7(sub 17- 6(sub 16), and 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06). Our VLA observations sample the smallest-scale structures to date in the search for glycine toward OMC-1. No glycine emission features were detected. Thus if glycine exists in OMC-1, either it is below our detection limit, or it is more spatially extended than other large molecules in this source, or it is primarily in its high energy form (conformer II). Our VLA glycine fractional abundance limits in OMC-1 are comparable to those determined from previous IRAM 30m measurements -- somewhat better or worse depending on the specific source model -- and the entire approximately 1 foot primary beam of the VLA was searched while sensitive to an areal spatial scale approximately 150 times smaller than the 24 inch beam of the IRAM single-element telescope. In the course of this work, we detected and imaged the 4(sub 14)-3(sub 13) A and E transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and also the 2(sub 02) - 1(sub 01) transition of formic acid (HCOOH). Since formic acid is a possible precursor to glycine, our glycine limits and formic acid results provide a constraint on this potential formation chemistry route for glycine in OMC-1.

  6. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions. II. Acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Santos, A. C. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.

    2006-04-01

    Fragments from organic molecule dissociation (such as reactive ions and radicals) can form interstellar complex molecules like amino acids. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoionization and photodissociation processes of acetic acid (CH3COOH), a glycine (NH2CH2COOH) precursor molecule, by soft X-ray photons. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline (100-310 eV). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, that only 4-6% of CH3COOH survive the strong ionization field. CH3CO^+, COOH+ and CH3+ ions are the main fragments, and the presence of the former may indicate that the production-destruction process of acetic acid in hot molecular cores (HMCs) could decrease the H2O abundance since the net result of this process converts H2O into OH + H^+. The COOH+ ion plays an important role in ion-molecule reactions to form large biomolecules like glycine.

  7. The Formation of Glycine in Hot Cores: New Gas-grain Chemical Simulations of Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin

    2012-07-01

    Organic molecules of increasing complexity have been detected in the warm envelopes of star-forming cores, commonly referred to as "hot cores". Spectroscopic searches at mm/sub-mm wavelengths have uncovered both amines and carboxylic acids in these regions, as well as a range of other compounds including alcohols, ethers, esters, and nitriles. However, the simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has not yet been reliably detected in the ISM. There has been much interest in this molecule, due to its importance to the formation of proteins, and to life, while the positive identification of interstellar molecules of similar or greater complexity suggests that its existence in star-forming regions is plausible. I will present the results of recent models of hot-core chemistry that simulate the formation of both simple and complex molecules on the surfaces or within the ice mantles of dust grains. I will also present results from the first gas-grain astrochemical model to approach the question of amino-acid formation in hot cores. The formation of glycine in moderate abundance is found to be as efficient as that for similarly complex species, while its sublimation from the grains occurs at somewhat higher temperatures. However, simulated emission spectra based on the model results show that the degree of compactness of high-abundance regions, and the density and temperature profiles of the cores may be the key variables affecting the future detection of glycine, as well as other amino acids, and may explain its non-detection to date.

  8. Preferential Pathway for Glycine Formation in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Baptista, L.; Santos A. C., F.

    Interstellar clouds, similar to that from which the solar system was formed, contain many organic molecules including aldehydes, acids, ketones, and sugars Ehrenfreund & Charnley (2000). Those organic compounds have important functions in terrestrial biochemistry and could also have been important in prebiotic synthesis. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), was recently detected in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2 Kuan et al. (2003). The formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid(CH3COOH) have also been detected in those regions Liu et al. (2002), Remijan et al. (2004). The goal of this work is to study experimentally photoionization and photodissociation processes of glycine precursor molecules, acetic acid and formic acid to elucidate a possible preferentially in the glycine synthesis between ice and gas phase. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). The experimental set up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for both molecules were also determined Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos (2005). Due to the high photodissociation cross section of formic acid it is possible that in PDRs regions, just after molecules evaporation from the grains surface, it is almost destructed by soft X-rays, justifying the observed low abundance of HCOOH in gaseous phase Ehrenfreund et al. (2001). Acetic acid have shown to be more stable to the ionizing field, and its main outcomes from dissociation process were the reactive ionic fragments COOH+ and CH3CO+. To

  9. Processing of formic acid-containing ice by heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantini, A.; Pilling, S.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.; Andrade, D. P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) has been extensively detected in space environments, including interstellar medium (gas and grains), comets and meteorites. Such environments are often subjected to the action of ionizing agents, which may cause changes in the molecular structure, thus leading to formation of new species. Formic acid is a possible precursor of pre-biotic species, such as Glycine (NH2CH2COOH). This work investigates experimentally the physicochemical effects resulting from interaction of heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues (46 MeV 58Ni11 +) in H2O:HCOOH (1:1) ice, at 15 K, in ultrahigh vacuum regime, using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the mid-infrared region (4000-600 cm-1 or 2.5-12.5 μm). After the bombardment, the sample was slowly heated to room temperature. The results show the dissociation cross-section for the formic acid of 2.4 × 10-13 cm2, and half-life due to galactic cosmic rays of ˜8 × 107 yr. The IR spectra show intense formation of CO and CO2, and small production of more complex species at high fluences.

  10. Discovery of Objects Richest in CH3NH2, Candidates for Future Glycine Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Masatoshi

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that prebiotic chemical evolution from small to large and complex molecules would have resulted in the Origin of Life. If amino acids are formed in interstellar clouds, significant amount of amino acids may be delivered to planets. Thus detection of amino acids would accelerate the discussion concerning the universality of “life”.So far, many trials to detect the simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), were made towards Sgr B2 and other high-mass forming regions, but none of them were successful. One idea to overcome this situation would be to search for precursors to glycine. Although the chemical evolution of interstellar N-bearing COMs is poorly known, methylamine (CH3NH2) is proposed as one precursor to glycine. CH3NH2 can be formed from abundant species, CH4 and NH3, on icy dust surface. Further methyleneimine (CH2NH) would be related to CH3NH2 (Holtom et al., 2005; Kim & Kaiser et al., 2011). Another possible route to form CH3NH2 is hydrogenation to HCN on dust surface : HCN → CH2NH→ CH3NH2 (Theule et al., 2011).In the past CH2NH was reported only in Sgr B2, W51, Orion KL, and G34.3+0.15 (Dickens et al., 1997). In April 2013, we extended this survey by using the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope towards CH3OH-rich sources. We succeeded to detect four new CH2NH sources. The derived fractional abundances of CH2NH relative to H2 are as high as 6x10-8, implying that CH2NH may exist widely in the ISM.If this is the case, further hydrogenation would efficiently produce CH3NH2. Based on this idea we conducted a survey of CH3NH2 towards CH2NH-rich sources in spring of 2014, and succeeded to detect CH3NH2 towards two sources. The estimated fractional abundance of CH3NH2 to H2 was ~ 10-8, about 10 times higher than that reported towards SgrB2(N).Since it is well known that CO2 exists in most of molecular clouds, CH3NH2 could be a direct precursor candidate to glycine - the simplest amino acid— , CH3NH2-rich sources would turn into

  11. Effect of glycine substitution on the ferroelectric phase of betaine arsenate [(CH 3) 3NCH 2COO·H 3AsO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekola, T.; Ribeiro, J. L.; Klöpperpieper, A.

    2011-09-01

    The present work reports an experimental investigation on the influence of glycine (NH 2CH 2COOH) substitution in the polar properties and the critical dynamics of the molecular ferroelectric betaine arsenate, (CH 3) 3NCH 2COO·H 3AsO 4. The dielectric dispersion (20 Hz<ν<3 MHz) and the thermally induced displacement currents are investigated in detail over the extended Curie region of the system (130 K< T<100 K). The results obtained for a single crystal with nominal glycine content of 20% are analyzed, compared with those obtained for pure betaine arsenate and discussed within the scope of a phenomenological Landau model previously used to describe a system with competing ferroelectric and structural instabilities.

  12. A Rigorous Attempt to Verify Interstellar Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Hollis, J. M.; Friedel, D. N.; Jewell, P. R.; Remijan, A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Kuan, Charnley, and co-workers reported the detection of interstellar glycine (NH2CH2COOH) based on observations of 27 lines in 19 different spectral bands in one or more of the sources Sgr BP(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2. They supported their detection report with rotational temperature diagrams for all three sources. In this paper, we present essential criteria which can be used in a straightforward analysis technique to confirm the identity of an interstellar asymmetric rotor such as glycine. We use new laboratory measurements of glycine as a basis for applying this analysis technique, both to our previously unpublished 12 m telescope data and to the previously published SEST data of Nummelin and colleagues. We conclude that key lines necessary for an interstellar glycine identification have not yet been found. We identify several common molecular candidates that should be examined further as more likely carriers of the lines reported as glycine. Finally, we illustrate that rotational temperature diagrams used without the support of correct spectroscopic assignments are not a reliable tool for the identification of interstellar molecules. Subject headings: ISM: abundances - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual (Sagittarius B2[N-

  13. Review on hydroxylamine, a precursor to amino-acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Jean Louis

    2015-08-01

    Does life on earth come from interstellar space (IS)?It has been recently demonstrated that part of the terrestrial water is of IS origin [Cleeves et al. Science 2014]. This raises the question whether materials like amino-acids or their pre-biotic molecular precursors could have been formed and brought to earth in the same way than water. Another question is whether these molecules were formed in the gas phase or through reactions on the surface/volume of ice-covered grains. This may then have occurred in the vicinity of proto-stellar cores or deep into a pristine dense molecular clouds at very low temperatures.As far as bio-related molecules are concerned, chemistry with nitrogen-bearing molecules (like NH3 and NO) is involved. I review recent experimental work showing that hydroxylamine (NH2OH) could be formed either by surface or by volume reactions in conditions close to those prevailing in dense media. They use either electron-UV irradiation of water-ammonia ices [Zheng & Kaiser JCPA 2010] or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide[Congiu, Fedoseev & al. ApJL.2012] or the simple oxidation of ammonia [He, Vidali, Lemaire & Garrod, ApJ, 2015] or the reaction of ammonia with hydroxyl radicals in a rare gas matrix [Zins & Krim, 2014, 69th ISMS]. A step further, the synthesis of the simplest amino-acids, glycine (NH2CH2COOH) and L- or D-alanine (NH2CH3CHCOOH) has already been obtained via reactions in the gas phase involving NH2OH+ [Blagojevic & al. MNRAS 2003].In addition to several earlier models demonstrating that the formation of all these molecules is possible in the gas phase, a new recent three-phase gas-grain chemical kinetics model of hot cores [Garrod ApJ 2013] shows that the results of ammonia oxidation we obtain are plausible by surface/volume reactions.Although none of the aforementioned molecules (except glycine in a sample of cometary origin) has been yet detected in the IS, they all are considered by many observers and modelers as likely

  14. Theoretical investigation of the atomic and electronic structure of amino acids on Si(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuan; Qian, Gefei; Sagui, Celeste; Roland, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    There are currently considerable efforts underway to combine silicon-based device technology with myriad of organic molecules, thereby fabricating new structures that take advantage of the tunable electronic and optical properties of organic molecules. A key aspect of this integration process is binding of the organics to the silicon surfaces. As part of this effort, we have been investigating the binding of several amino acids -- the building blocks for proteins -- on the Si (100) surface with state-of-the art density functional theory methods. Specifically, the binding between the buckled Si(100) and the NH2, CH2, COOH, C=0 and NC entities at various surface sites have been investigated. We report and discuss on the resulting structures and their electronic properties.

  15. Beneficial Effects of the Amino Acid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zuniga-Munoz, Alejandra María; Guarner-Lans, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is the smallest non-essential, neutral and metabolically inert amino acid, with a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms, and to an amino and a carboxyl group. This amino acid is an essential substrate for the synthesis of several biologically important biomolecules and compounds. It participates in the synthesis of proteins, of the tripeptide glutathione and in detoxification reactions. It has a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties. To exert its actions, glycine binds to different receptors. The GlyR anion channel is the most studied receptor for glycine. However, there are GlyR-independent mechanisms for glycine cytoprotection and other possible binding molecules of glycine are the NMDA receptor and receptors GlyT1 and GlyT2. Although, in humans, the normal serum level of glycine is approximately 300 μM, increasing glycine intake can lead to blood levels of more than 900 μM that increase its benefic actions without having harmful side effects. The herbal pesticide glyphosate might disrupt glycine homeostasis. Many in vitro studies involving different cell types have demonstrated beneficial effects of the addition of glycine. Glycine also improved conditions of isolated perfused or stored organs. In vivo studies in experimental animals have also tested glycine as a protector molecule and some studies on the beneficial effects of glycine after its clinical application have been done. Although at high-doses, glycine may cause toxic effects, further studies are needed to investigate the safe range of usage of this aminoacid and to test the diverse routes of administration.

  16. Arachidonic acid inhibits glycine transport in cultured glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, F; Alcantara, R; Gomeza, J; Aragon, C; Gimenez, C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid on glycine uptake, exchange and efflux in C6 glioma cells were investigated. Arachidonic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of high-affinity glycine uptake. This effect was not due to a simple detergent-like action on membranes, as the inhibition of glycine transport was most pronounced with cis-unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, whereas saturated and trans-unsaturated fatty acids had relatively little or no effect. Endogenous unsaturated non-esterified fatty acids may exert a similar inhibitory effect on the transport of glycine. The mechanism for this inhibitory effect has been examined in a plasma membrane vesicle preparation derived from C6 cells, which avoids metabolic or compartmentation interferences. The results suggest that part of the selective inhibition of glycine transport by arachidonic acid could be due to the effects of the arachidonic acid on the lipid domain surrounding the carrier. PMID:2121132

  17. Anticoagulant Effects of Heparin Complexes with Prolyl-Glycine Peptide and Glycine and Proline Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, M E; Obergan, T Yu; Maystrenko, E S; Kalugina, M D

    2016-05-01

    The study demonstrates the formation of heparin complexes with prolyl-glycine peptide and proline and glycine amino acids. The method was developed for in vitro production of these complexes at 1:1 dipeptide to heparin molar ratio and 2:1 amino acid to heparin molar ratio. These complexes, unlike the constituents, proline and glycine, exhibited significant anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and fibrin-depolymerization activities of varying degree in vitro and in vivo. The heparin-dipeptide complex produced maximum effect. The dipeptide by itself also showed anticoagulant properties, but less pronounced than in the complex with heparin.

  18. Quantum chemical calculations of glycine glutaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arioǧlu, ćaǧla; Tamer, Ömer; Avci, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of glycine glutaric acid were performed by using B3LYP levels with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The theoretical structural parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles are in a good agreement with the experimental values of the title compound. HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated, and the obtained energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs in the title compound. Vibrational frequencies were calculated and compare with experimental ones. 3D molecular surfaces of the title compound were simulated using the same level and basis set. Finally, the 13C and 1H NMR chemical shift values were calculated by the application of the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  19. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Begum, Pathan Shajahan

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states. PMID:28337245

  20. Kinematics of the SgrB2(N-LMH) Molecular Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Boboltz, D. A.; Liu, S.-Y.; Snyder, L. E.; Palmer, Patrick; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) emission and absorption have been imaged with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward SgrB2(N-LMH) by means of the 5(sub 15)-4(sub 14) rotational transition at 43.5 GHz (lambda approx. 7 mm). The 1.5" x 1.4" VLA beam shows two principal sources of ethyl cyanide emission: an unresolved source approx. 5" north of the LMH that is kinematically consistent with simple expansion, contraction, or small-scale turbulence, and the resolved LMH core source itself that shows kinematics indicating an edge-on rotating disk that extends 23" (approx. 0.1 pc) in the approximate east-west direction. A search for the 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06) rotational transition of the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) at 43.7 GHz toward SgrB2(N-LMH) gave negative results.

  1. Nitrate and amino acid availability affects glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine in response to changes of salinity in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Fukaya, Minoru; Rai, Vandna; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-12-01

    A halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica thrives in extreme salinity with accumulation of a potent osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Recently, this cyanobacterium was shown to accumulate sunscreen molecule mycosporine-2-glycine significantly at high salinity. In this study, we investigated effects of nitrate and amino acid provision on the accumulation of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine. With elevated nitrate concentrations at high salinity, intracellular levels of both metabolites were enhanced. Six-fold high nitrate concentration increased the relative amounts of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine to be 1.5 and 2.0 folds compared with control condition : Increased levels were time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous supply of glycine/serine at high salinity resulted in the similar trends as observed in excess nitrate experiment. Intracellular level of glycine betaine increased ∼1.6 folds with glycine/serine supplementation. These supplementations also caused the increased level of mycosporine-2-glycine, namely 1.4 and 2 folds by glycine and serine, respectively. The transcription of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine biosynthetic genes was strongly induced under high-nitrate-salt condition. These results suggest the dependence of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine productions on substrate availability, and the effect of nitrate was possibly associated with stimulation of osmoprotectant increment in this extremophile.

  2. Glycine as a d-amino acid surrogate in the K+-selectivity filter

    PubMed Central

    Valiyaveetil, Francis I.; Sekedat, Matthew; MacKinnon, Roderick; Muir, Tom W.

    2004-01-01

    The K+ channel-selectivity filter consists of two absolutely conserved glycine residues. Crystal structures show that the first glycine in the selectivity filter, Gly-77 in KcsA, is in a left-handed helical conformation. Although the left-handed helical conformation is not favorable for the naturally occurring l-amino acids, it is favorable for the chirally opposite d-amino acids. Here, we demonstrate that Gly-77 can be replaced by d-Ala with almost complete retention of function. In contrast, substitution with an l-amino acid results in a nonfunctional channel. This finding suggests that glycine is used as a surrogate d-amino acid in the selectivity filter. The absolute conservation of glycine in the K+-selectivity filter can be explained as a result of glycine being the only natural amino acid that can play this role. PMID:15563591

  3. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  4. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no longer regards glycine and its... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. Taurine activates glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Kohno, Tatsuro; Georgiev, Stefan K; Ikoma, Miho; Ishii, Hideaki; Petrenko, Andrey B; Baba, Hiroshi

    2008-02-12

    Taurine has been suggested to modulate nociceptive information at the spinal cord level. In this study, the pharmacological properties of taurine were investigated in adult rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine seemed to have higher efficacy than glycine on glycine receptors in SG neurons. An increase in chloride conductance was responsible for taurine-induced currents. Taurine at 0.3 mM activated glycine receptors, whereas at 3 mM activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors. The currents activated by coapplication of taurine and glycine are cross inhibitive. Altogether these results show that taurine might represent another important neurotransmitter or modulator in SG neurons, which may be involved in antinociception.

  6. Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2009-04-01

    The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

  7. The Infrared Spectrum of Matrix Isolated Aminoacetonitrile: A Precursor to the Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral data from matrix isolation experiments and density functional theory calculations on the pre-biologically interesting molecule aminoacetonitrile, a precursor to glycine. We find that this nitrile has an unusually weak nitrile (C=N) stretch in the infrared, in contrast to expectations based on measurements and models of other nitriles under astrophysical conditions. The absence of an observable nitrile absorption feature in the infrared will make the IR search for this molecule considerably more difficult, and will raise estimates of upper limits on nitriles in interstellar and outer Solar System ices. This is also of relevance to assessing the formation routes of the amino acid glycine, since aminoacetonitrile is the putative precursor to glycine via the Strecker synthesis, the mechanism postulated to have produced the amino acids in meteorites.

  8. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. Acid phosphatase activities during the germination of Glycine max seeds.

    PubMed

    dos Prazeres, Janaina Nicanuzia; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a study concerning the determination of some characteristics of soybean seedlings and the detection of acid phosphatase activities towards different substrates during the germination. Enzyme activities with p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) as substrates were detected from the 5th and 7th days after germination, respectively. Acid phosphatase activities with tyrosine phosphate (TyrP), glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) were also observed but to a lesser extent. Under the same conditions, no enzyme activity was detected with phytic acid (PhyAc) as substrate. The appearance of phosphatase activity was coincident with the decrease of inorganic phosphate content during germination; over the same period, the protein content increased up to the 5th day, decreased until the 8th day, and remained constant after this period. Relative to phosphatase activity in the cotyledons, the activities detected in the hypocotyl and roots were 82% and 38%, respectively. During storage the enzyme maintained about 63% of its activity for 3 months at 5 degrees C. The specificity constant (Vmax/Km) values for pNPP and PPi were 212 and 64 mu kat mM-1 mg-1, respectively. Amongst the substrates tested, PPi could be a potential physiological substrate for acid phosphatase during the germination of soybean seeds.

  13. Effect of Pressure on the Release of Radioactive Glycine and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid from Spinal Cord Synaptosomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    include Security Classification) Effect of Pressure on the Release of Radioactive Glycine and-Aminobutyric Acid from Spinal Cord Synaptosomes 12. PERSONAL... Spinal Cord ; Synaptosomes 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) AkcoSSSiOf For @TIC NTIS GRA&I (o.pyr DTIC TAR...Neurochemistry Effect of Pressure on the Release of Radioactive Glycine and 7-Aminobutyric Acid from Spinal Cord Synaptosomes Sara C. Gilman, Joel S. Colton

  14. Pharmacology of the inhibitory glycine receptor: agonist and antagonist actions of amino acids and piperidine carboxylic acid compounds.

    PubMed

    Schmieden, V; Betz, H

    1995-11-01

    To define structure-activity relations for ligands binding to the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR), the agonistic and antagonistic properties of alpha- and beta-amino acids were analyzed at the recombinant human alpha 1 GlyR expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The agonistic activity of alpha-amino acids exhibited a marked stereoselectivity and was highly susceptible to substitutions at the C alpha-atom. In contrast, alpha-amino acid antagonism was not enantiomer dependent and was influenced little by C alpha-atom substitutions. The beta-amino acids taurine, beta-aminobutyric acid (beta-ABA), and beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIBA) are partial agonists at the GlyR. Low concentrations of these compounds competitively inhibited glycine responses, whereas higher concentrations elicited a significant membrane current. Nipecotic acid, which contains a trans-beta-amino acid configuration, behaved as purely competitive GlyR antagonist. Our data are consistent with the existence of a common binding site for all amino acid agonists and antagonists, at which the functional consequences of binding depend on the particular conformation a given ligand adopts within the binding pocket. In the case of beta-amino acids, the trans conformation appears to mediate antagonistic receptor binding, and the cis conformation appears to mediate agonistic receptor binding. This led us to propose that the partial agonist activity of a given beta-amino acid is determined by the relative mole fractions of the respective cis/trans conformers.

  15. Tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in ferroelectric amino acid glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedhosseini, E.; Bdikin, I.; Ivanov, M.; Vasileva, D.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-08-01

    Bioorganic ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics are becoming increasingly important in view of their intrinsic compatibility with biological environment and biofunctionality combined with strong piezoelectric effect and a switchable polarization at room temperature. Here, we study tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in the smallest amino acid β-glycine, representing a broad class of non-centrosymmetric amino acids. We show that β-glycine is indeed a room-temperature ferroelectric and polarization can be switched by applying a bias to non-polar cuts via a conducting tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). Dynamics of these in-plane domains is studied as a function of an applied voltage and pulse duration. The domain shape is dictated by polarization screening at the domain boundaries and mediated by growth defects. Thermodynamic theory is applied to explain the domain propagation induced by the AFM tip. Our findings suggest that the properties of β-glycine are controlled by the charged domain walls which in turn can be manipulated by an external bias.

  16. Tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in ferroelectric amino acid glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Seyedhosseini, E. Ivanov, M.; Bdikin, I.; Vasileva, D.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-08-21

    Bioorganic ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics are becoming increasingly important in view of their intrinsic compatibility with biological environment and biofunctionality combined with strong piezoelectric effect and a switchable polarization at room temperature. Here, we study tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in the smallest amino acid β-glycine, representing a broad class of non-centrosymmetric amino acids. We show that β-glycine is indeed a room-temperature ferroelectric and polarization can be switched by applying a bias to non-polar cuts via a conducting tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). Dynamics of these in-plane domains is studied as a function of an applied voltage and pulse duration. The domain shape is dictated by polarization screening at the domain boundaries and mediated by growth defects. Thermodynamic theory is applied to explain the domain propagation induced by the AFM tip. Our findings suggest that the properties of β-glycine are controlled by the charged domain walls which in turn can be manipulated by an external bias.

  17. A theoretical investigation of the relative stability of hydrated glycine and methylcarbamic acid--from water clusters to interstellar ices.

    PubMed

    Kayi, Hakan; Kaiser, Ralf I; Head, John D

    2012-04-14

    We have theoretically investigated how the low-energy conformers of the neutral and the zwitterionic forms of glycine as well as methylcarbamic acid are stabilized by the presence water. The MP2/6-311++G(d,p) method was utilized to conduct calculations on glycine and methylcarbamic acid in both isolated clusters and in clusters embedded in the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (C-PCM), where the clusters explicitly contain between one and ten water molecules. The neutral forms of glycine and methylcarbamic acid were found to have similar hydration energies, whereas the neutral methylcarbamic acid was determined to be approximately 32 kJ mol(-1) more stable than the neutral glycine in the isolated clusters and 30 kJ mol(-1) more stable in the C-PCM embedded clusters. Both the number and strength of the hydrogen bonding interactions between water and the zwitterions drive the stability. This lowers the relative energy of the glycine zwitterion from 50 kJ mol(-1) above neutral glycine, when there are two water molecules in the clusters to 11 kJ mol(-1) below for the clusters containing ten water molecules. For the methylcarbamic acid clusters with two water molecules, the zwitterion is 51 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy than the neutral form, but it remains 13 kJ mol(-1) above the neutral methylcarbamic acid in the clusters containing ten water molecules. When the bulk water environment is simulated by the C-PCM calculations, we find both the methylcarbamic acid and glycine zwitterionic forms have similar energies at 20 kJ mol(-1) above the neutral methylcarbamic acid energy and 10 kJ mol(-1) lower than the neutral glycine energy. Although neither methylcarbamic acid nor glycine have been detected in the interstellar medium yet, our findings indicate that methylcarbamic acid is the more stable product from methylamine and carbon dioxide reactions in a water ice. This suggests that methylcarbamic acid likely plays a role in the intermediate steps if glycine is

  18. Synthesis of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic [correction of caboxylic] acids as potent NMDA-glycine antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katayama, S; Ae, N; Nagata, R

    2001-05-18

    The practical synthesis of a series of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic acids, 7-chloro-3-arylaminocarbonylmethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenz[cd]indole-2-carboxylic acids, as a new class of potent NMDA-glycine antagonists is described. The synthetic route to the key intermediate 12a comprises a regioselective iodination of 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene, modified Reissert indole synthesis, Jeffery's Heck-type reaction with allyl alcohol, Wittig-Horner-Emmons reaction, and iodination at the indole C-3 position. The key step in the route is an intramolecular cyclization of 12a to give the tricyclic indole structure. Two methods of cyclization, (1) an intramolecular radical cyclization of 12a and (2) a sequence of intramolecular Heck reaction of 12a followed by a 1,4-reduction, were performed. The resulting tricyclic indole diester 13a was selectively hydrolyzed to afford the desired tricyclic indole monocarboxylic acid 16 on a multihundred gram scale without any chromatographic purifications. Optical resolution of 16 to (-)-isomer 17 and (+)-isomer 18 was carried out, and the resulting isomers were derivatized, respectively. Evaluation of the optically active derivatives for affinity to the NMDA-glycine binding site using the radio ligand binding assay with [(3)H]-5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid revealed that the derivatives of (-)-isomer 17 were more potent than the others and that especially substituted anilide (-)-isomer 24 (K(i) = 0.8 nM) showed high affinity.

  19. Response of Meloidogyne spp., Heterodera glycines, and Radopholus similis to Tannic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, T E; Hewlett, E M; Dickson, D W

    1997-12-01

    Tannins, which are water-soluble polyphenols, are toxic to numerous fungi, bacteria, and yeasts. Our objectives were to study the efficacy of tannic acid in control of Meloidogyne arenaria on tomato and its effects on the behavior of M. arenaria, M. incognita, Heterodera glycines, and Radopholus similis. Three concentrations of tannic acid, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 g/500 cm(3) of soil, were applied preplant (powder) and at-plant (powder and drench) into soil infested with M. arenaria. Tannic acid at the 1.0-g rate reduced galling compared with the untreated control, regardless of methods of application. The 0.1-g rate resulted in no reduction in galling when applied preplant but reduced galling when applied as a drench and in one of two experiments when applied at-plant. The 10-g rate was phytotoxic to tomato seedlings except when applied 7 days preplant. In the latter case, root galling was suppressed to very low numbers. In behavior studies on water agar, Meloidogyne second-stage juveniles were attracted to areas with an increasing tannic acid gradient. Radopholus similis was repelled from the tannic acid gradient in one of two experiments. There was no effect on H. glycines. The response of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles to different concentrations of tannic acid dissolved in alginate was tested. Movement behavior of the second-stage juveniles were observed at 1,000 and 10,000 mug/ml of tannic acid, but not at 10 and 100 mug/ml.

  20. Interaction of flavanols with amino acids: postoxidative reactivity of the B-ring of catechin with glycine.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Paula Vanessa; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2014-04-30

    Flavanol-related structures such as epicatechin and catechins have been associated with potential antioxidant activity in food and are known to interfere with the Maillard reaction through scavenging of reactive dicarbonyl compounds. High-resolution ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and an isotope labeling technique were used to assess the reactivity of glycine with (+)-catechin heated under oxidative conditions at 120 °C for 70 min. Evidence based on accurate mass analysis of the products obtained and the isotope incorporation pattern of [(13)C-1]glycine, [(13)C-2]glycine, and [(15)N]glycine experiments indicated that (+)-catechin formed various adducts with glycine; two of them incorporated a single amino acid, and three adducts incorporated two amino acid moieties. Some of these adducts underwent dehydration reaction at ring C, and in some the C-ring remained intact. Detailed MS/MS analyses of the fragmentation patterns of these adducts have confirmed the addition of amino acid moieties to the oxidized B-ring of (+)-catechin through the formation of Schiff bases. Formation of such nonvolatile (+)-catechin/amino acid adducts provides insight into how amino acid can have the potential of modifying the antioxidant properties of (+)-catechin and how catechin in turn has the potential of modifying the profile of the Maillard reaction.

  1. Lignification and related enzymes in Glycine max root growth-inhibition by ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes L; Finger, Aline; Teixeira, Aline C N; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2004-06-01

    Changes in soluble and cell wall bound peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) activity, and lignin content in roots of ferulic acid-stressed soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings and their relationships with root growth were investigated. Three-day-old soybean seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution containing 1.0 mM ferulic acid for 24-72 hr. Length, fresh weight, and dry weight of roots decreased, while soluble and cell wall bound POD activity, PAL activity, and lignin content increased after ferulic acid treatment. These enzymes probably participate in root growth reduction in association with cell wall stiffening related to the formation of cross-linking among cell wall polymers and lignin production.

  2. Studies on Crystal Growth, Vibrational, Electronic Properties of Nonlinear Optical Crystal: Triglycine Phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meera, M. R.; Dipuna Das, C. N.; Bena Jothy, V.; Rayar, S. L.

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear optics is a topic of much current interest that exhibits a great diversity. This is due to the technological potentials of certain nonlinear optical effects for photonic based technologies. Many NLO crystals grown by mixing amino acids with various organic and inorganic acids have been reported in the literature. Hence, glycine mixed semi-organic material will be of special interest as a fundamental building block to develop many complex crystals with improved NLO properties. In this context, the present work it is attempted to grow NLO active Triglycine phosphate [(NH2CH2COOH)3H3PO4](TGP) crystal from aqueous solution at room temperature by slow evaporation method. The geometry, intermolecular hydrogen bonding and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of TGP was investigated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) methods. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond. Second harmonic frequency generation was examined by Kurtz and Perry powder test. Theoretical first order hyperpolarizability value was calculated.

  3. Protective effects of dietary glycine and glutamic acid toward the toxic effects of oxidized mustard oil in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Saleem Ur

    2017-01-25

    The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil. Oxidized, un-oxidized mustard oils, glycine and glutamic acid were given to rabbits alone or in combination. The biochemical responses were studied in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology. It has been observed that biochemical and haematological parameters were adversely affected by the oxidized oil, while supplementation of both amino acids was beneficial in normalizing these parameters. Both amino acids alone have no significant effects, however, oxidized oil affected the liver by enhancing fat accumulation, causing hepatitis, reactive Kupffer cells and necrosis. The co-administration of oxidized oils with glycine or glutamic acid revealed significant recovery of the liver structure and function. In conclusion, glycine or glutamic acid is beneficial and protective against food toxicity and can be considered as an ameliorative food supplement.

  4. Syntheses, Characterization, Resolution, and Biological Studies of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid and Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Akinkunmi, Ezekiel; Ojo, Isaac; Adebajo, Clement; Isabirye, David

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomerically enriched coordination compounds of aspartic acid and racemic mixtures of coordination compounds of glycine metal-ligand ratio 1 : 3 were synthesized and characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Five of the complexes were resolved using (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, (+)-bis(glycinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride, and (+)-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) chloride as resolving agents. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these complexes were then determined. The results obtained indicated that aspartic acid and glycine coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The enantiomeric purity of the compounds was in the range of 22.10–32.10%, with (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complex as the more efficient resolving agent. The resolved complexes exhibited better activity in some cases compared to the parent complexes for both biological activities. It was therefore inferred that although the increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes may assist in the permeability of the complexes through the cell membrane of the pathogens, the enantiomeric purity of the complexes is also of importance in their activity as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:28293149

  5. Syntheses, Characterization, Resolution, and Biological Studies of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid and Glycine.

    PubMed

    Aiyelabola, Temitayo; Akinkunmi, Ezekiel; Ojo, Isaac; Obuotor, Efere; Adebajo, Clement; Isabirye, David

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomerically enriched coordination compounds of aspartic acid and racemic mixtures of coordination compounds of glycine metal-ligand ratio 1 : 3 were synthesized and characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Five of the complexes were resolved using (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, (+)-bis(glycinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride, and (+)-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) chloride as resolving agents. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these complexes were then determined. The results obtained indicated that aspartic acid and glycine coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The enantiomeric purity of the compounds was in the range of 22.10-32.10%, with (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complex as the more efficient resolving agent. The resolved complexes exhibited better activity in some cases compared to the parent complexes for both biological activities. It was therefore inferred that although the increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes may assist in the permeability of the complexes through the cell membrane of the pathogens, the enantiomeric purity of the complexes is also of importance in their activity as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  6. Contribution towards a Metabolite Profile of the Detoxification of Benzoic Acid through Glycine Conjugation: An Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Shayne; Mienie, Lodewyk J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Reinecke, Carolus J.

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is widely used as a preservative in food products and is detoxified in humans through glycine conjugation. Different viewpoints prevail on the physiological significance of the glycine conjugation reaction and concerns have been raised on potential public health consequences following uncontrolled benzoic acid ingestion. We performed a metabolomics study which used commercial benzoic acid containing flavored water as vehicle for designed interventions, and report here on the controlled consumption of the benzoic acid by 21 cases across 6 time points for a total of 126 time points. Metabolomics data from urinary samples analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were generated in a time-dependent cross-over study. We used ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and unfolded principal component analysis (unfolded PCA) to supplement conventional statistical methods to uncover fully the metabolic perturbations due to the xenobiotic intervention, encapsulated in the metabolomics tensor (three-dimensional matrices having cases, spectral areas and time as axes). Identification of the biologically important metabolites by the novel combination of statistical methods proved the power of this approach for metabolomics studies having complex data structures in general. The study disclosed a high degree of inter-individual variation in detoxification of the xenobiotic and revealed metabolic information, indicating that detoxification of benzoic acid through glycine conjugation to hippuric acid does not indicate glycine depletion, but is supplemented by ample glycine regeneration. The observations lend support to the view of maintenance of glycine homeostasis during detoxification. The study indicates also that time-dependent metabolomics investigations, using designed interventions, provide a way of interpreting the variation induced by the different factors of a designed experiment–an approach

  7. Genetics Home Reference: glycine encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a molecule called glycine. This molecule is an amino acid , which is a building block of proteins. Glycine ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health ...

  8. Thermodynamic characteristics of acid-base equilibria of glycyl-glycyl-glycine in water-ethanol solutions at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Thi, L.; Usacheva, T. R.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The enthalpies of the acid dissociation of glycyl-glycyl-glycine zwitterions and triglycinium ions are determined calorimetrically in water-ethanol solvents containing 0.0, 0.10, 0.30, and 0.50 molar fractions of ethanol at ionic strengths of 0.1 (maintained by sodium perchlorate) and T = 298.15 K. It is found that increasing the ethanol content in the solvent enhances the endothermic effect of triglycinium ion dissociation and reduces the endothermic effect of glycyl-glycyl-glycine dissociation. The results are discussed in terms of the solvation thermodynamics.

  9. Mixed complexes of palladium(II) with 1-aminoethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid and glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsaryk, N. V.; Dudko, A. V.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Trachevsky, V. V.; Rozhenko, A. B.; Novotortsev, V. M.; Eremenko, I. L.

    2012-10-01

    The complexing of palladium(II) with two biological active reagents: glycine (Gly, HA) and 1-aminoethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (AEDP, H4L) at concentrations of chloride ions (0.15 mol/L) corresponding to physiological levels is studied by means of spectrophotometry, pH potentiometry, and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The formation constants for mixed complexes with compositions of [PdH2LA]- (logβ = 43.7) and [PdHLA]2- (logβ = 39.05) are determined. The both ligands are found to be coordinated to palladium(II) in a bidentant-cyclic manner: through amine nitrogen and the oxygen atom of the carboxyl group (in the case of Gly), or through the phosphonic group (in the case of AEDP). A diagram of the distribution of equilibrium concentrations of the complexes depending on pH is calculated for the system K2[PdCl4]: Gly: AEDP = 1: 1: 1. It is demonstrated that there are complexes with compositions of [PdHLA]2-, [PdA2], and [Pd(HL)2]4- in solutions with C_{Cl^ - } = 0.15 mol/L and pH 6-7.

  10. Predicting three-dimensional conformations of peptides constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine.

    PubMed

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  11. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  12. DL-β-Aminobutyric Acid-Induced Resistance in Soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yunpeng; Wang, Biao; Yan, Junhui; Cheng, Linjing; Yao, Luming; Xiao, Liang; Wu, Tianlong

    2014-01-01

    Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA) was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), chitinase (CHI), and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU) in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA. PMID:24454805

  13. Amino acids as a nitrogen source in temperate upland grasslands: the use of dual labelled ((13)C, (15)N) glycine to test for direct uptake by dominant grasses.

    PubMed

    Streeter, T C; Bol, R; Bardgett, R D

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that soil amino acids are a principal source of nitrogen (N) for certain plants, and especially those of N-limited environments. This study of temperate upland grasslands used glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N and ((15)NH4)(2)SO(4) labelling techniques to test the hypothesis that plant species which dominate 'unimproved' semi-natural grasslands (Festuca-Agrostis-Galium) are able to utilise amino acid N for growth, whereas those plants which dominate 'improved' grasslands (Lolium-Cynosurus), that receive regular applications of inorganic fertiliser, use inorganic N forms as their main N source. Data from field experiments confirmed that 'free' amino acids were more abundant in 'unimproved' than 'improved' grassland and that glycine was the dominant amino acid type (up to 42% of total). Secondly, the injection of representative amounts of glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N (4.76 and 42.86 mM) into intact soil cores from the two grassland types provided evidence of direct uptake of glycine by plants, with both (15)N and (13)C being detected in plant material of both grasslands. Finally, a microcosm experiment demonstrated no preferential uptake of amino acid N by the grasses which dominate the grassland types, namely Holcus lanatus, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris from the 'unimproved' grassland, and Lolium perenne from the 'improved' grassland. Again, both (13)C and (15)N were detected in all grass species suggesting uptake of intact glycine by these plants.

  14. Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists, glycine, taurine and neuropeptides on acetylcholine release from the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J R; Neal, M J

    1983-03-01

    The light-evoked release of [3H]acetylcholine (ACh) from the rabbit retina in vivo was measured and taken as an index of cholinergic amacrine cell activity. The light-evoked release of [3H]ACh was reduced by locally applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), muscimol and 3-aminopropanesulphonic acid (3-APS). The concentrations of these drugs which reduced the light-evoked release of [3H]ACh by 50% (EC50) were 900, 0.3 and 5 microM respectively. In contrast, (-)-baclofen (5 mM), but not (+)-baclofen, significantly increased the light-evoked release of [3H]ACh. The GABA antagonist, bicuculline increased the resting release of [3H]ACh but abolished the inhibitory action of muscimol on the light-evoked release of [3H]ACh. Glycine and taurine also reduced the light-evoked release of [3H]ACh from the retina, their EC50 values being 1.5 and 0.3 mM respectively. This action was blocked by strychnine, but not by bicuculline. In contrast to the GABA antagonist, strychnine did not affect the spontaneous resting release of [3H]ACh. Retinal [3H]ACh release was not affected by dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) morphine, substance P, somatostatin, cholecystokinin sulphate, thyrotropin releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone or angiotensin. Electroretinographic changes produced by amino acids and GABA agonists involved mainly the b-wave and were not correlated with their effects on ACh release. Thus, GABA increased the b-wave amplitude, 3-APS had no effect, whilst muscimol, taurine and glycine either had no effect, or reduced the b-wave amplitude. No obvious changes in the e.r.g. were produced by baclofen, dopamine, 5-HT, morphine or any of the peptides studied with the exception of somatostatin, which reduced the amplitude of the b-wave. It is concluded that cholinergic amacrine cell activity in the rabbit retina may be affected by inputs from other amacrines using GABA or glycine (taurine) as their transmitters, but probably not by inputs from peptidergic or

  15. Free amino acid content and metabolic activities of setting and aborting soybean ovaries. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiasi, H.; Paech, C.; Dybing, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fruits of soybean (glycine max (L.) Merr.) that are destined to abscise shortly after anthesis grow more slowly than fruits that will be retained. In this work, amino acid composition, protein metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism were studied in setting and abscising soybean ovaries from anthesis to 6 days after anthesis. Principal free amino acids were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glutamine. Percent aspartate and glutamate declined as the ovaries grew, with aspartate declining more in abscising and glutamate more in setting ovaries. Percent glutamate was positively correlated to percent abscission throughout the period. Proline, serine, and leucine were positively correlated to abscission from 0 to 2 days after anthesis, whereas significant negative correlations were observed at these ages for ethanolamine and arginine. /sup 75/Se fed as selenate and /sup 14/C fed as sucrose, glycine, and alanine were readily incorporated into soluble and insoluble proteins in a 24-hour in vitro incubation. Radioactivity of total proteins, expressed on a per-ovary basis, was negatively correlated with percent abscission and positively correlated with ovary weight. (/sup 14/C)Glutamine and serine followed the opposite pattern, with greater protein labeling in abscising than in setting ovaries. When data were expressed as disintegrations per minute per milligram ovary fresh weight, protein labeling from alanine was seen to be significantly greater in abscising ovaries at anthesis and throughout the sampling period. Nucleic acid labeling from uridine was highly correlated to ovary weight; labeling from thymidine was greater in setting than abscising ovaries at anthesis and in abscising ovaries at later stages of development.

  16. Effects of inhibitory amino acids on expression of GABAA Rα and glycine Rα1 in hypoxic rat cortical neurons during development

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H; Feng, Y; He, XZ; Yang, YL; Sung, JH; Xia, Y

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that GABA and glycine are protective to mature but toxic to immature cortical neurons during prolonged hypoxia. Since the action of these inhibitory amino acids is mediated by GABA and glycine receptors, the expression of these receptors is a critical factor in determining neuronal response to GABAA and glycine in hypoxia. Therefore, we asked whether in rat cortical neurons, 1) hypoxia alters the expression of the GABA and glycine receptors; 2) inhibitory amino acids change the course of GABA and glycine receptor expression; and 3) there are any differences between the immature and mature neurons. In cultured rat cortical neurons from day 4 (4 Days in Vitro or DIV 4) to day 20 (DIV 20), we observed that 1) GABAARα and GlyRα1 underwent differential changes in expression during the development in-vitro; 2) hypoxia for 3 days decreased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in the neurons in-between DIV 4 and DIV 20, but did not induce a major change in immature (DIV 4) and mature (DIV 20) neurons; 3) during normoxia GABA, glycine and taurine decreased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in the immature neurons, but had a tendency to increase the density in the mature neurons, except for taurine; 4) under hypoxia, all these amino acids decreased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in most groups of the immature neurons with a slight effect on the mature neurons; and 5) δ-opioid receptor activation with DADLE increased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in both the immature and mature neurons under normoxia and in the mature neurons under hypoxic condition. These data suggest that inhibitory amino acids differentially regulate the expression of GABAA and glycine receptors in rat cortical neurons in normoxic and hypoxic conditions with major differences between the immature and mature neurons. PMID:22018691

  17. Vibrational analysis of amino acids and short peptides in hydrated media. I. L-glycine and L-leucine.

    PubMed

    Derbel, Najoua; Hernández, Belén; Pflüger, Fernando; Liquier, Jean; Geinguenaud, Frédéric; Jaïdane, Nejmeddine; Lakhdar, Zohra Ben; Ghomi, Mahmoud

    2007-02-15

    Raman scattering and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) attenuated transmission reflectance (ATR) spectra of two alpha-amino acids (alpha-AAs), i.e., glycine and leucine, were measured in H2O and D2O (at neutral pH and pD). This series of observed vibrational data gave us the opportunity to analyze vibrational features of both AAs in hydrated media by density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31++G* level. Harmonic vibrational modes calculated after geometry optimization on the clusters containing each AA and 12 surrounding water molecules, which represent primary models for hydration scheme of amino acids, allowed us to assign the main observed peaks.

  18. Stereoselective Michael Addition of Glycine Anions to Chiral Fischer Alkenylcarbene Complexes. Asymmetric Synthesis of beta-Substituted Glutamic Acids.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra, Jesús; Pedregal, Concepción; Merino, Isabel; Flórez, Josefa; Barluenga, José; García-Granda, Santiago; Llorca, María-Amparo

    1999-09-03

    The reaction of lithium enolates of achiral N-protected glycine esters with chiral alkoxyalkenylcarbene complexes of chromium provided the corresponding Michael adducts with either high anti or syn selectivity depending on the nature of the nitrogen protecting group, and high diastereofacial selectivity when carbene complexes containing the (-)-8-phenylmenthyloxy group were employed. Subsequent oxidation of the metal-carbene moiety followed by deprotection of the amine group and hydrolysis of both carboxylic esters afforded enantiomerically enriched 3-substituted glutamic acids of natural as well as unnatural stereochemistry. Alternatively, when the deprotection step was performed previously to the oxidation, cyclic aminocarbene complexes were formed, which finally led to optically active 3-substituted pyroglutamic acids.

  19. Conformational characterization of peptides rich in the cycloaliphatic C alpha,alpha-disubstituted glycine 1-aminocyclononane-1-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Gatos, M; Formaggio, F; Crisma, M; Valle, G; Toniolo, C; Bonora, G M; Saviano, M; Iacovino, R; Menchise, V; Galdiero, S; Pedone, C; Benedetti, E

    1997-01-01

    A series of N- and C-protected, monodispersed homo-oligopeptides (to the pentamer level) from the cycloaliphatic C alpha,alpha-dialkylated glycine 1-aminocyclononane-1-carboxylic acid (Ac9c) and two Ala/Ac9c tripeptides have been synthesized by solution methods and fully characterized. The conformational preferences of all the model peptides were determined in deuterochloroform solution by FT-IR absorption and 1H-NMR. The molecular structures of the amino acid derivatives mCIAc-Ac9c-OH and Z-Ac9c-OtBu, the dipeptide pBrBz-(Ac9c)2-OtBu, the tetrapeptide Z-(Ac9c)4-OtBu, and the pentapeptide Z-(Ac9c)5-OtBu were determined in the crystal state by X-ray diffraction. Based on this information, the average geometry and the preferred conformation for the cyclononyl moiety of the Ac9c residue have been assessed. The backbone conformational data are strongly in favour of the conclusion that the Ac9c residue is a strong beta-turn and helix former. A comparison with the structural propensity of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, the prototype of C alpha,alpha-dialkylated glycines, and the other extensively investigated members of the family of 1-aminocycloalkane-1-carboxylic acids (Acnc, with n = 3-8) is made and the implications for the use of the Ac9c residue in conformationally constrained analogues of bioactive peptides are briefly examined.

  20. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  1. N- Trichloro- and dichloroacetyl amino acids and compounds of amino acids with halogeno acetic acids: 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy; crystal structure of N- trichloroacetyl- glycine, - DL-alanine, and - L-alanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Shi-qi; Kehrer, Armin; Ofial, Armin R.; Weiss, Alarich

    1995-02-01

    The crystal structures of N- trichloroacetyl- glycine ( N- TCA- G), N-trichloroacetyl-dl-alanine ( N-TCA- dl-A ), and N-trichloroacetyl- l-alanine ( N-TCA- l-A ) were determined. In addition, the 35Cl NQR spectra of these N-trichloroacetyl amino acids, of N-trichloroacetyl- l-valine ( N-TCA- l-V ), and of N- dichloroacetyl- glycine and - L-alanine were measured, mostly as a function of temperature. Compounds of glycine and L-alanine with chlorodifluoroacetic acid, of glycine and L-leucine with monochloroacetic acid, of glycine and L-leucine with dichloroacetic acid, and of glycine and L-leucine with trichloroacetic acid were also studied using 35Cl NQR. The structures (in picometres and degrees) were found to be as follows. N- TCA- G: Pna2 1, Z = 8, a = 1641, b = 1002, c = 1018. N-TCA- dl-A : {C2}/{c}, Z = 8, a = 3280, b = 556, c = 1031, β = 96.68. N-TCA- l-A: P1 , Z = 2, a = 967, b = 949, c = 619, α = 74.97, β = 74.20, γ = 61.20. The 35Cl NQR frequencies (ν) were observed in the range 35-41 MHz, and decrease with increasing temperature. Some of the resonances bleach out at a temperature ( Tb) far below the melting temperature; this provides information about the crystal structures at 77 K. No phase transitions were observed by differential thermal analysis between 77 and 295 K. The crystal structures are discussed in connection with the NQR results, and conclusions are drawn about the structures of the compounds for which only 35Cl NQR data are available.

  2. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures.

  3. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby

    2017-04-01

    The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD.IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered. Here, we

  4. Growth, Optical, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Non-Linear Optical Single Crystal: Glycine-Phthalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Sagadevan

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of glycine-phthalic acid (GPA) were grown by slow evaporation process using aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine its cell structure and it was found that the GPA crystal corresponded to the orthorhombic system. To identify absorption range and cut-off wavelength for the GPA crystal, UV-visible spectrum was recorded. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient, electrical susceptibility, and optical conductivity. As a function of different frequencies and temperatures, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were examined. The electrical properties like plasma energy, Penn gap, Fermi energy, and polarizability were determined for the analysis of the second harmonic generation (SHG). Using the Kurtz powder technique, the SHG of the GPA crystal was studied. Investigations relating to hysteresis were carried out to ascertain the ferroelectric nature of the material.

  5. Glycinium semi-malonate and a glutaric acid-glycine cocrystal: new structures with short O-H...O hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Losev, Evgeniy A; Zakharov, Boris A; Drebushchak, Tatiana N; Boldyreva, Elena V

    2011-08-01

    Glycinium semi-malonate, C(2)H(6)NO(2)(+)·C(3)H(3)O(4)(-), (I), and glutaric acid-glycine (1/1), C(2)H(5)NO(2)·C(5)H(8)O(4), (II), are new examples of two-component crystal structures containing glycine and carboxylic acids. (II) is the first example of a glycine cocrystal which cannot be classified as a salt, as glutaric acid remains completely protonated. In the structure of (I), there are chains formed exclusively by glycinium cations, or exclusively by malonate anions, and these chains are linked with each other. Two types of very short O-H...O hydrogen bonds are present in the structure of (I), one linking glycinium cations with malonate anions, and the other linking malonate anions with each other. In contrast to (I), no direct linkages between molecules of the same type can be found in (II); all the hydrogen-bonded chains are heteromolecular, with molecules of neutral glutaric acid alternating with glycine zwitterions, linked by two types of short O-H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. γ-Aminobutyric acid-, glycine-, and glutamate-immunopositive boutons on mesencephalic trigeminal neurons that innervate jaw-closing muscle spindles in the rat: ultrastructure and development.

    PubMed

    Paik, Sang Kyoo; Kwak, Myung Kyw; Bae, Jin Young; Yi, Hyun Won; Yoshida, Atsushi; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Bae, Yong Chul

    2012-10-15

    Unlike other primary sensory neurons, the neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Vmes) receive most of their synaptic input onto their somata. Detailed description of the synaptic boutons onto Vmes neurons is crucial for understanding the synaptic input onto these neurons and their role in the motor control of masticatory muscles. For this, we investigated the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-, glycine-, and glutamate-immunopositive (+) boutons on Vmes neurons and their ultrastructural parameters that relate to transmitter release: Vmes neurons that innervate masseteric muscle spindles were identified by labeling with horseradish peroxidase injected into the muscle, and immunogold staining and quantitative ultrastructural analysis of synapses onto these neurons were performed in adult rats and during postnatal development. The bouton volume, mitochondrial volume, and active zone area of the boutons contacting labeled somata (axosomatic synapses) were similar to those of boutons forming axoaxonic synapses with Vmes neurons but smaller than those of boutons forming axodendritic or axosomatic synapses with most other neurons. GABA+ , glycine+ , and glutamate+ boutons constituted a large majority (83%) of all boutons on labeled somata. A considerable fraction of boutons (28%) was glycine(+) , and all glycine+ boutons were also GABA+ . Bouton size remained unchanged during postnatal development. These findings suggest that the excitability of Vmes neurons is determined to a great extent by GABA, glycine, and glutamate and that the relatively lower synaptic strength of axosomatic synapses may reflect the role of the Vmes neurons in modulating orofacial motor function.

  7. Suppression of glycine-15N incorporation into urinary uric acid by adenine-8-13C in normal and gouty subjects

    PubMed Central

    Seegmiller, J. Edwin; Klinenberg, James R.; Miller, John; Watts, R. W. E.

    1968-01-01

    Adenine inhibited the de novo synthesis of purines in both normal and gouty man as shown by inhibition of the incorporation of glycine-15N into urinary uric acid without altering the incorporation of glycine-15N into urinary creatinine. The diminished purine synthesis did not result in a diminution in the 24 hr excretion of uric acid. This observation was explainable in part by the prompt conversion of adenine to uric acid. In addition to this direct conversion, adenine-8-13C provided a slow and prolonged contribution to urinary uric acid. A feedback inhibition of purine synthesis by nucleotides derived from adenine provides the best interpretation of these results. PMID:5645862

  8. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality.

  9. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  10. Water deficit-induced changes in abscisic acid, growth polysomes, and translatable RNA in soybean hypocotyls. [Glycine max L

    SciTech Connect

    Bensen, R.J.; Boyer, J.S.; Mullet, J.E. )

    1988-01-01

    Soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) were germinated and dark-grown in water-saturated vermiculite for 48 hours, then transferred either to water-saturated vermiculite or to low water potential vermiculite. A decrease in growth rate was detectable within 0.8 hour post-transfer to low water potential vermiculite. A fourfold increase in the abscisic acid content of the elongating region was observed within 0.5 hour. At 24 hours post-transfer, hypocotyl elongation was severely arrested and abscisic acid reached its highest measured level. A comparison of the polyA{sup +} RNA populations isolated at 24 hours post-transfer from the elongating region of water-saturated and low water potential vermiculite-grown seedlings was made by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis of in vitro translation products. It revealed both increases and decreases in the relative amounts of a number of translation products. Rewatering seedlings grown in low water potential vermiculite at 24 hours post-transfer led to a total recovery in growth rate within 0.5 hour, while abscisic acid in the elongating hypocotyl region required 1 to 2 hours to return to uninduced levels. Application of 1.0 millimolar {+-} abscisic acid to well-watered seedlings resulted in a 48% reduction in hypocotyl growth rate during the first 2 hours after treatment. Plants treated with abscisic acid for 24 hours had a lower polysome content than control plants. However, hypocotyl growth inhibition in abscisic acid-treated seedlings preceded the decline in polysome content.

  11. Syn-Selective Synthesis of β-Branched α-Amino Acids by Alkylation of Glycine-Derived Imines with Secondary Sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; McKenna, Grace M; Tymonko, Steven A; Ramirez, Antonio; Benkovics, Tamas; Conlon, David A; González-Bobes, Francisco

    2015-10-16

    A syn-selective synthesis of β-branched α-amino acids has been developed based on the alkylation of glycine imine esters with secondary sulfonates. The potassium counterion for the enolate, the solvent, and the leaving group on the electrophile were key levers to maximize the diasteroselectivity of the alkylation. The optimized conditions enabled a straightforward preparation of a number of β-branched α-amino acids that can be challenging to obtain.

  12. Glycine betaine protects tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants at low temperature by inducing fatty acid desaturase7 and lipoxygenase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Karabudak, T; Bor, M; Özdemir, F; Türkan, İ

    2014-03-01

    Cold stress is among the environmental stressors limiting productivity, yield and quality of agricultural plants. Tolerance to cold stress is associated with the increased unsaturated fatty acids ratio in the plant membranes which are also known to be substrates of octadecanoid pathway for jasmonate and other oxylipins biosynthesis. Accumulation of osmoprotectant, glycine betaine (GB) is well known to be effective in the protecting membranes and mitigating cold stress effects but, the mode of action is poorly understood. We studied the role of GB in cold stress responses of two tomato cultivated varieties; Gerry (cold stress sensitive) and T47657 (moderately cold stress tolerant) and compared the differences in lypoxygenase-13 (TomLOXF) and fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) gene expression profiles and physiological parameters including relative growth rates, relative water content, osmotic potential, photosynthetic efficiency, membrane leakage, lipid peroxidation levels. Our results indicated that GB might have a role in inducing FAD7 and LOX expressions for providing protection against cold stress in tomato plants which could be related to the desaturation process of lipids leading to increased membrane stability and/or induction of other genes related to stress defense mechanisms via octadecanoid pathway or lipid peroxidation products.

  13. Improved synthesis of glycine, taurine and sulfate conjugated bile acids as reference compounds and internal standards for ESI-MS/MS urinary profiling of inborn errors of bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Donazzolo, Elena; Gucciardi, Antonina; Mazzier, Daniela; Peggion, Cristina; Pirillo, Paola; Naturale, Mauro; Moretto, Alessandro; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2017-03-11

    Bile acid synthesis defects are rare genetic disorders characterized by a failure to produce normal bile acids (BAs), and by an accumulation of unusual and intermediary cholanoids. Measurements of cholanoids in urine samples by mass spectrometry are a gold standard for the diagnosis of these diseases. In this work improved methods for the chemical synthesis of 30 BAs conjugated with glycine, taurine and sulfate were developed. Diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC) and diphenyl phosphoryl azide (DPPA) were used as coupling reagents for glycine and taurine conjugation. Sulfated BAs were obtained by sulfur trioxide-triethylamine complex (SO3-TEA) as sulfating agent and thereafter conjugated with glycine and taurine. All products were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The use of these compounds as internal standards allows an improved accuracy of both identification and quantification of urinary bile acids.

  14. Comparison of oleic acid metabolism in the soybean (Glycine max (L. ) Merr. ) genotypes Williams and A5, a mutant with decreased linoleic acid in the seed

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.A.; Rinne, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    The metabolism of oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) was examined in developing seed from two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes: Williams, a standard cultivar and A5, a mutant containing nearly twice the oleic acid (18:1) content of Williams. The in vitro rates of esterification of oleoyl-CoA to lysophosphatides by acyl-CoA: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase was similar in both genotypes and lysophosphatidyl-ethanolamine was a poor substrate. Crude extracts desaturated exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine at 14% of the rate achieved with (1-/sup 14/C)oleoyl-CoA, and 50 micromolar lysophosphaatidylcholine. The desaturase enzyme also required NADH for full activity. Extracts from Williams contained 1.5-fold more oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase activity, on a fresh weight basis, than did A5 and appeared to have a similar affinity for oleoyl-CoA. There was 1.2- to 1.9-fold more linoleic acid (18:2) in phosphatidylcholine from Williams than from A5, measured at two stages of development, but both genotypes had a similar distribution of fatty acids in the one and two positions. Phosphatidylethanolamine in A5 contained relatively more linoleic acid (18:2) in the one position than did Williams. The increased oleic acid (18:1) content in A5 appeared to be a result of decreased rates of 18:1 desaturation of oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine in this genotype.

  15. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  16. Characterization of an Acidic Chitinase from Seeds of Black Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr Tainan No. 3)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Min; Chen, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Chui-Liang; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N′,N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3) as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain length from 3 to 5 (GlcNAcn, n = 3-5), and pNp-GlcNAc4 was the most degradable substrate. Using pNp-GlcNAc4 as a substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.0; kinetic parameters Km and kcat were 245 µM and 10.31 min−1, respectively. This enzyme also showed activity toward CM-chitin-RBV, a polymer form of chitin, and N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides, an oligomer form of chitin. The smallest oligomer substrate was an N-acetylglucosamine tetramer. These results suggested that this enzyme was an endo-splitting chitinase with short substrate cleavage activity and useful for biotechnological applications, in particular for the production of N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides. PMID:25437446

  17. Submillimeter-wave Spectrum of Aminoacetonitrile and its Deuterated Isotopologues, Possible Precursors of the Simplest Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoki, Yuta; Tsunoda, Yukari; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kaori

    2013-12-01

    Aminoacetonitrile, CH2NH2CN, has been considered one of the important precursors of glycine, the simplest amino acid, and was identified in Sgr B2(N) by Belloche et al. based on their reanalysis of previous laboratory measurements. However, these laboratory measurements were limited to the 1 mm wavelength region even for the normal species, and recent new radio telescopes like ALMA require rest frequencies in a higher frequency range. Therefore, we have extended the pure rotational spectra of aminoacetonitrile and its amino-hydrogen-deuterated isotopologues (NHDCH2CN and ND2CH2CN) up to 1.2 THz and 0.6 THz, respectively. Belloche et al. indicated that the normal species may have been misassigned in a previous microwave study by Bogey et al. We found that two more b-type spectral transitions were misassigned, and all b-type transition frequencies above Ka = 2 had to be remeasured. For isotopologues, spectra above 40 GHz were observed for the first time and higher order centrifugal distortion constants have been determined. The extension of the measurements helped improve the molecular constants. The errors in the frequency catalog data of normal and deuterated isotopologues are on the order of 100 kHz up to 1.2 THz and 0.6 THz, respectively, which are precise enough for the future astronomical observations.

  18. Characterization of an acidic chitinase from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr Tainan No. 3).

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Min; Chen, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Chui-Liang; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3) as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain length from 3 to 5 (GlcNAcn, n = 3-5), and pNp-GlcNAc4 was the most degradable substrate. Using pNp-GlcNAc4 as a substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.0; kinetic parameters Km and kcat were 245 µM and 10.31 min-1, respectively. This enzyme also showed activity toward CM-chitin-RBV, a polymer form of chitin, and N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides, an oligomer form of chitin. The smallest oligomer substrate was an N-acetylglucosamine tetramer. These results suggested that this enzyme was an endo-splitting chitinase with short substrate cleavage activity and useful for biotechnological applications, in particular for the production of N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides.

  19. Combination of cathodic reduction with adsorption for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) through reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes modified with sulfuric acid-glycine co-doped polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xi; Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Song, Pei-pei; Wang, Li-ke

    2015-04-09

    Improving the reduction kinetics is crucial in the electroreduction process of Cr(VI). In this study, we developed a novel adsorption-electroreduction system for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) by employing reticulated vitreous carbon electrode modified with sulfuric acid-glycine co-doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA-GLY). Firstly, response surface methodology confirmed the optimum polymerization condition of co-doped polyaniline for modifying electrodes (Aniline, sulfuric acid and glycine, respectively, of 0.2 mol/L, 0.85 mol/L, 0.93 mol/L) when untraditional dopant glycine was added. Subsequently, RVC/PANI-SA-GLY showed higher Cr(VI) removal percentages in electroreduction experiments over RVC electrode modified with sulfuric acid doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA) and bare RVC electrode. In contrast to RVC/PANI-SA, the improvement by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was more significant and especially obvious at more negative potential, lower initial Cr(VI) concentration, relatively less acidic solution and higher current densities, best achieving 7.84% higher removal efficiency with entire Cr(VI) eliminated after 900 s. Current efficiencies were likewise enhanced by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY under quite negative potentials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis revealed a possible adsorption-reduction mechanism of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY, which greatly contributed to the faster reduction kinetics and was probably relative to the absorption between protonated amine groups of glycine and HCrO4(-). Eventually, the stability of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was proven relatively satisfactory.

  20. Incorporation of glycine-2-C-14 in acid-insoluble proteins of rat bones and teeth during hypokinesia and administration of thyrocalcitonine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stekolnikov, L. I.; Uglova, N. N.; Potkin, V. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A forced limitation of the motor activity in rats (from 5 to 60 days) results in reduced incorporation of glycine 2-C14 in the total acid insoluble proteins of limb bones and its increase in the teeth and mandibular-maxillary bones. Daily administration of five micrograms of thyrocalcitonine together with polyvinylpyrrolidone normalizes the protein metabolism in the bone tissues during the 40 days of experimentation.

  1. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis.

  2. Effect of chaotropic agents on reversible unfolding of a soybean (Glycine max) seed acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Cavagis, Alexandre Donizeti Martins; Granjeiro, Paulo Afonso; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    In this work we examined the effect of urea and guanidinium chloride on the structural stability of a single isoform of soybean seed acid phosphatase, based on the intensity of tryptophan fluorescence as a function of denaturant concentration. The free energy of unfolding, DeltaGu, was calculated at 25 degrees C as a function of the concentrations of both chaotropic agents; the conformational stability, DeltaG (H2O), was determined to be 2.48 kcal mol(-1). Center of mass, determined from analysis of fluorescence data, was used as a parameter to assess conformational changes. Our results indicate that complete enzyme inactivation occurred before full enzyme unfolding in both cases, and suggest that there are differences between the conformational flexibility of the active-site and that of the macromolecule as a whole.

  3. Poly(ornithine-co-arginine-co-glycine-co-aspartic Acid): Preparation via NCA Polymerization and its Potential as a Polymeric Tumor-Penetrating Agent.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyang; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dawei; Song, Wantong; Duan, Taicheng; Gu, Jingkai; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-06-01

    A novel random copolypeptide of ornithine, arginine, glycine, and aspartic acid [Poly(ornithine-co-arginine-co-glycine-co-aspartic acid), Poly(O,R,G,D)] has been prepared through ring-opening polymerization of N-δ-carbobenzoxy-l-ornithine N-carboxyanhydride [Orn(Cbz)-NCA)], l-glycine N-carboxyanhydride (Gly-NCA) and β-benzyl l-aspartate N-carboxyanhydride [Asp(Bn)-NCA], following by subsequent deprotection and guanidization. The structure of Poly(O,R,G,D) was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Low cytotoxicity of Poly(O,R,G,D) was confirmed from MTT assay. The Poly(O,R,G,D) contain some internal sequences of RXXR (X = O, R, G, or D) that could be proteolytically cleaved to expose the cryptic CendR element and bind to Neuropilin-1. This would lead to vascular and tissue permeabilization. Therefore trypsin-cleaved Poly(O,R,G,D) increase the vascular leakage of Evans blue from dermal microvessels at the injection site in vivo skin permeability assay. The intratumoral injection of the Poly(O,R,G,D) significantly enhanced the concentration of cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles in MCF-7 solid tumors. These results show that Poly(O,R,G,D) could increase the vascular leakage and tissue penetration of nanoparticles in a solid tumor and can be used as a potential polymeric tumor-penetrating agent.

  4. The interaction of salicylic acid and Ca(2+) alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Lan, Tu; You, Jiangfeng; Kong, Lingnan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Minghui; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Both calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and salicylic acid (SA) influence various stress responses in plants. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) toxicity adversely affects crop yield. In this study, we determined the influences of Ca(2+) and SA on root elongation, Al accumulation, and citrate secretion in soybean plant. We also investigated the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Al-exposed soybean roots. Root elongation was severally inhibited when the roots were exposed to 30 μM Al. The Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was ameliorated by Ca(2+) and SA but aggravated by Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (VP), CaM antagonists (TFP), Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA), and SA biosynthesis inhibitor (PAC). Furthermore, 1.0 mM CaCl2 and 10 μM SA reduced the accumulation of Al in roots, but their inhibitors stimulated the accumulation of Al in roots. Citrate secretion from these roots increased with the addition of either 1.0 mM CaCl2 or 10 μM SA but did not increase significantly when treated with higher Ca(2+) concentration. Enzymatic analysis showed that Ca(2+) and SA stimulated the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in Al-treated roots. In addition, SA restored the inhibition of Ca(2+) inhibitors on root elongation and Al content. Thus, both Ca(2+) and SA contribute to Al tolerance in soybean. Furthermore, Ca(2+) supplements rapidly increased Al-induced accumulation of free-SA or conjugated SA (SAG), while Ca(2+) inhibitors delayed the accumulation of SA for more than 8 h. Within 4 h of treatment, SA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in Al-treated roots, and upregulated the expression of four genes that possibly encode calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. These findings indicate that SA is involved in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways in Al tolerance.

  5. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiao; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:10:1.5, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 2 ml/min and 25 °C, respectively. In a single operation, 33 mg of GCDCA, 38 mg of GHDCA and 23 mg of GHCA were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract with the purity of 95.65%, 96.72% and 96.63%, respectively, in one step separation. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three glycine-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. PMID:23008527

  6. Aqueous V(V)-peroxo-amino acid chemistry. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of unusual ternary dinuclear tetraperoxo vanadium(V)-glycine complexes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, C; Kaliva, M; Venetis, J; Baran, P; Rodriguez-Escudero, I; Voyiatzis, G; Zervou, M; Salifoglou, A

    2009-01-19

    Vanadium participation in cellular events entails in-depth comprehension of its soluble and bioavailable forms bearing physiological ligands in aqueous distributions of binary and ternary systems. Poised to understand the ternary V(V)-H(2)O(2)-amino acid interactions relevant to that metal ion's biological role, we have launched synthetic efforts involving the physiological ligands glycine and H(2)O(2). In a pH-specific fashion, V(2)O(5), glycine, and H(2)O(2) reacted and afforded the unusual complexes (H(3)O)(2)[V(2)(O)(2)(mu(2):eta(2):eta(1)-O(2))(2)(eta(2)-O(2))(2)(C(2)H(5)NO(2))] x 5/4 H(2)O (1) and K(2)[V(2)(O)(2)(mu(2):eta(2):eta(1)-O(2))(2)(eta(2)-O(2))(2)(C(2)H(5)NO(2))] x H(2)O (2). 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 7.805(4) A, b = 8.134(5) A, c = 12.010(7) A, alpha = 72.298(9) degrees, beta = 72.991(9) degrees, gamma = 64.111(9) degrees, V = 641.9(6) A(3), and Z = 2. 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 7.6766(9) A, b = 7.9534(9) A, c = 11.7494(13) A, alpha = 71.768(2) degrees, beta = 73.233(2) degrees, gamma = 65.660(2) degrees, V = 610.15(12) A(3), and Z = 2. Both complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by UV/visible, LC-MS, FT-IR, Raman, NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The structures of 1 and 2 reveal the presence of unusual ternary dinuclear vanadium-tetraperoxo-glycine complexes containing [(V(V)=O)(O(2))(2)](-) units interacting through long V-O bonds and an effective glycinate bridge. The latter ligand is present in the dianionic assembly as a bidentate moiety spanning both V(V) centers in a zwitterionic form. The collective physicochemical properties of the two ternary species 1 and 2 project the chemical role of the low molecular mass biosubstrate glycine in binding V(V)-diperoxo units, thereby stabilizing a dinuclear V(V)-tetraperoxo dianion. Structural comparisons of the anions in 1 and 2 with other known dinuclear V(V)-tetraperoxo binary anionic species provide insight

  7. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Piner, Lucy W.; Huffman, Kim M.; Slentz, Cris A.; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Stevens, Robert D.; Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Methods Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). Results IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. Conclusions/interpretation A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941 PMID:26254576

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases; Part 1: alkyl halide alkylations.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2013-10-01

    Alkylations of chiral or achiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases constitute a landmark in the development of practical methodology for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids. Straightforward, easy preparation as well as high reactivity of these Ni(II) complexes render them ready available and inexpensive glycine equivalents for preparing a wide variety of α-amino acids, in particular on a relatively large scale. In the case of Ni(II) complexes containing benzylproline moiety as a chiral auxiliary, their alkylation proceeds with high thermodynamically controlled diastereoselectivity. Similar type of Ni(II) complexes derived from alanine can also be used for alkylation providing convenient access to quaternary, α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids. Achiral type of Ni(II) complexes can be prepared from picolinic acid or via recently developed modular approach using simple secondary or primary amines. These Ni(II) complexes can be easily mono/bis-alkylated under homogeneous or phase-transfer catalysis conditions. Origin of diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the alkylations reactions, aspects of practicality, generality and limitations of this methodology is critically discussed.

  9. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PMID:27242811

  10. Expression of glycine-rich protein genes, AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, induced by the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Ho; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho

    2008-11-01

    Glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) belong to a large family of heterogenous proteins that are enriched in glycine residues. The expression of two GRP genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, was induced by 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin. The expression of AtGRP3, which encodes a GRP protein that is structurally different from AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, was not responsive to HPA application. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of the pathogen-related PR-1 and PR-4 genes. Abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments enhanced the transcript levels of AtGRP5 and AtGRP23 as well as those of AtGRP3. It was also demonstrated that HPA effectively elicited the accumulation of H2O2 in rosette leaves of Arabidopsis. Results suggest the possible role of some species of GRPs, such as AtGRP5 and AtGRP23, in response to the pathogenic invasion mediated by cutin monomers in plants.

  11. Cyanobacteria Produce N-(2-Aminoethyl)Glycine, a Backbone for Peptide Nucleic Acids Which May Have Been the First Genetic Molecules for Life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Metcalf, James S.; Jiang, Liying; Craighead, Derek; Ilag, Leopold L.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the evolution of DNA-based organisms on earth over 3.5 billion years ago it is hypothesized that RNA was the primary genetic molecule. Before RNA-based organisms arose, peptide nucleic acids may have been used to transmit genetic information by the earliest forms of life on earth. We discovered that cyanobacteria produce N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG), a backbone for peptide nucleic acids. We detected AEG in axenic strains of cyanobacteria with an average concentration of 1 µg/g. We also detected AEG in environmental samples of cyanobacteria as both a free or weakly bound molecule and a tightly bound form released by acid hydrolysis, at concentrations ranging from not detected to 34 µg/g. The production of AEG by diverse taxa of cyanobacteria suggests that AEG may be a primitive feature which arose early in the evolution of life on earth. PMID:23145061

  12. Computational Identification of Amino-Acid Mutations that Further Improve the Activity of a Chalcone–Flavonone Isomerase from Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Wu, Jiaqi; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Jiakuan; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Qiang; Nan, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Protein design for improving enzymatic activity remains a challenge in biochemistry, especially to identify target amino-acid sites for mutagenesis and to design beneficial mutations for those sites. Here, we employ a computational approach that combines multiple sequence alignment, positive selection detection, and molecular docking to identify and design beneficial amino-acid mutations that further improve the intramolecular-cyclization activity of a chalcone–flavonone isomerase from Glycine max (GmCHI). By this approach, two GmCHI mutants with higher activities were predicted and verified. The results demonstrate that this approach could determine the beneficial amino-acid mutations for improving the enzymatic activity, and may find more applications in engineering of enzymes. PMID:28286513

  13. Cyanobacteria produce N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine, a backbone for peptide nucleic acids which may have been the first genetic molecules for life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Metcalf, James S; Jiang, Liying; Craighead, Derek; Ilag, Leopold L; Cox, Paul Alan

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the evolution of DNA-based organisms on earth over 3.5 billion years ago it is hypothesized that RNA was the primary genetic molecule. Before RNA-based organisms arose, peptide nucleic acids may have been used to transmit genetic information by the earliest forms of life on earth. We discovered that cyanobacteria produce N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG), a backbone for peptide nucleic acids. We detected AEG in axenic strains of cyanobacteria with an average concentration of 1 µg/g. We also detected AEG in environmental samples of cyanobacteria as both a free or weakly bound molecule and a tightly bound form released by acid hydrolysis, at concentrations ranging from not detected to 34 µg/g. The production of AEG by diverse taxa of cyanobacteria suggests that AEG may be a primitive feature which arose early in the evolution of life on earth.

  14. Radiolysis of amino acids by heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues in simulated space environments: α-glycine zwitterion form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, Williamary; Pilling, Sergio; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Andrade, Diana P. P.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we studied the stability of the glycine molecule in the crystalline zwitterion form, known as α-glycine (+NH3CH2COO-), under the action of heavy cosmic ray analogues. The experiments were conducted in a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), in Caen, France. The samples were bombarded at two temperatures (14 and 300 K) by 58Ni11+ ions of 46 MeV, up to a final fluence of 1013 ion cm-2. The chemical evolution of the sample was evaluated in situ using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). The bombardment at 14 K produced several daughter species, such as OCN-, CO, CO2 and CN-. The results also suggest the appearance of peptide bonds during irradiation, but this must be confirmed by further experiments. The half-life of glycine in the interstellar medium was estimated to be 7.8 × 103 yr (300 K) and 2.8 × 103 yr (14 K). In the Solar system, the values were 8.4 × 102 yr (300 K) and 3.6 × 103 yr (14 K). It is believed that glycine could be present in space environments that suffered aqueous changes, such as the interiors of comets, meteorites and planetesimals. This molecule is present in the proteins of all living beings. Therefore, studying its stability in these environments will provide further understanding of the role of this species in prebiotic chemistry on Earth.

  15. Isovaleric, methylmalonic, and propionic acid decrease anesthetic EC50 in tadpoles, modulate glycine receptor function, and interact with the lipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yun; Hsu, Tienyi Theresa; Zhao, Jing; Nishimura, Stefanie; Fuller, Gerald G.; Sonner, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Elevated concentrations of isovaleric, methylmalonic, and propionic acid are associated with impaired consciousness in genetic diseases (organic acidemias). We conjectured that part of the central nervous system depression observed in these disorders was due to anesthetic effects of these metabolites. We tested three hypotheses. First, that these metabolites would have anesthetic-sparing effects, possibly being anesthetics by themselves. Second, that these compounds would modulate glycine and GABAA receptor function, increasing chloride currents through these channels as potent clinical inhaled anesthetics do. Third, that these compounds would affect physical properties of lipids. Methods Anesthetic EC50’s were measured in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Glycine and GABAA receptors were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied using two-electrode voltage clamping. Pressure-area isotherms of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) monolayers were measured with and without added organic acids. Results Isovaleric acid was an anesthetic in tadpoles, while methylmalonic and propionic acid decreased isoflurane’s EC50 by half. All three organic acids concentration-dependently increased current through α1 glycine receptors. There were minimal effects on α1β2γ2s GABAA receptors. The organic acids increased total lateral pressure (surface pressure) of DPPC monolayers, including at mean molecular areas typical of bilayers. Conclusion Isovaleric, methylmalonic, and propionic acid have anesthetic affects in tadpoles, positively modulate glycine receptor fuction, and affect physical properties of DPPC monolayers. PMID:19372333

  16. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  17. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  18. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  19. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  20. Size dependent electrical and magnetic properties of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by the combustion method: Comparison between aspartic acid and glycine as fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavani, A.; Kalai Selvan, R.; Layek, Samar; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-03-01

    Using two different fuels such as aspartic acid and glycine, the spinel zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the combustion method at different pH values. The thermochemical calculations for both the fuel assisted materials and its adiabatic flame temperature were calculated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of single phase ZnFe2O4 with high crystallinity. The characteristic functional groups of Fe3O and Zn3O were identified through FTIR analysis. Uniform size distribution of spherical particle in the average size range of 35-100 nm was inferred from SEM images. The room temperature DC conductivities of ZnFe2O4 particles prepared by using aspartic and glycine are in the order of 10-7 and 10-8 respectively. The dielectric spectral analysis inferred that the obtained dielectric constant is high at low frequency and decreases with increase in frequency. This dielectric behavior is in accordance with the Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. VSM and Mössbauer analysis revealed that the prepared material exhibits paramagnetic behavior and Fe3+ state of iron content in ZnFe2O4 at room temperature.

  1. GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

  2. Host-pathogen interactions. XXIX. Oligogalacturonides released from sodium polypectate by endopolygalacturonic acid lyase are elicitors of phytoalexins in soybean. [Glycine max L

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.R.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.; Dell, A.

    1986-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that an apparently homogeneous preparation of an ..cap alpha..-1,4-D-endopolygalacturonic acid lyase (EC 4.2,2.2) isolated from the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora induced phytoalexin accumulation in cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wayne) and that this pectin-degrading enzyme released heat-stable elicitors of phytoalexins from soybean cell walls, citrus pectin, and sodium polypectate. The present paper reports the purification, by anion-exchange chromatography on QAE-Sephadex columns followed by gel-permeation chromatography on a Bio-Gel P-6 column, of the two fractions with highest specific elicitor activity present in a crude elicitor-preparation obtained by lyase treatment of sodium polypectate. Structural analysis of the fraction with highest specific elicitor activity indicated that the major, if not only, component was a decasaccharide of ..cap alpha..-1,4-D-galactosyluronic acid that contained the expected product of lyase cleavage, 4-deoxy-..beta..-L-5-threo-hexopyranos-4-enyluronic acid (4,5-unsaturated galactosyluronic acid), at the nonreducing terminus. This modified decagalacturonide fraction exhibited half-maximum and maximum elicitor activity at 1 microgram/cotyledon (6 micromolar) and 5 micrograms/cotyledon (32 micromolar) galactosyluronic acid equivalents, respectively. Reducing 90 to 95% of the carboxyl groups of the galactosyluronic acid residues abolished the elicitor activity of the decagalacturonide fraction. The second most elicitor-active fraction contained mostly undeca-..cap alpha..-1,4-D-galactosyluronic acid that contained 4,5-unsaturated galactosyluronic acid at the nonreducing termini. This fraction exhibited half-maximum and maximum elicitor activity at approximately 3 micrograms/cotyledon (17 micromolar) and 6 micrograms/cotyledon (34 micromolar) galactosyluronic acid equivalents, respectively.

  3. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-polyethylene glycol-polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugate improves liver-cell aggregation and function in 3-D spheroid culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanfei; Lian, Fen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yanling; Tang, Nanhong

    The polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a type of macromolecule material, has been used in spheroidal cell culture and drug delivery in recent years. However, PAMAM is not involved in the study of hepatic cell-spheroid culture or its biological activity, particularly in detoxification function. Here, we constructed a PAMAM-dendrimer conjugate decorated by an integrin ligand: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Our studies demonstrate that RGD-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PAMAM conjugates can promote singly floating hepatic cells to aggregate together in a sphere-like growth with a weak reactive oxygen species. Moreover, RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates can activate the AKT-MAPK pathway in hepatic cells to promote cell proliferation and improve basic function and ammonia metabolism. Together, our data support the hepatocyte sphere treated by RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates as a potential source of hepatic cells for a biological artificial liver system.

  4. Protective effect of Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B upon oxidative stress caused by ozone and acid rain in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba".

    PubMed

    Esposito, Jéssica Bordotti Nobre; Esposito, Breno Pannia; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Cruz, Luciano Soares; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Mn complex (Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B (MnDFB)) on oxidative stress in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba" following exposure to ozone and acid rain. We determined the suitable dose of MnDFB to apply to G. max seedlings using a dose-response curve. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Mn content in leaves were found upon the application of 8 μM MnDFB. Thus, G. max seedlings pretreated with 8 μM MnDFB were individually exposed to ozone and acid rain simulated. Pretreatment with MnDFB reduced lipid peroxidation upon ozone exposure and increased SOD activity in leaves; it did not alter the metal content in any part of the plant. Conversely, following acid rain exposure, neither the metal content in leaves nor SOD enzyme activity were directly affected by MnDFB, unlike pH. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous MnDFB application before ozone exposure may modulate the MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, and FeSOD activities to combat the ROS excess in the cell. Here, we demonstrated that the applied dose of MnDFB enhances antioxidative defenses in soybean following exposure to acid rain and especially to ozone.

  5. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2013-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  6. Limiting values of diffusion coefficients of glycine, alanine, [Formula: see text]-amino butyric acid, norvaline and norleucine in a relevant physiological aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Diana M; Verissimo, Luis M P; Barros, Marisa C F; Rodrigues, Daniela F S L; Rodrigo, Maria Melia; Esteso, Miguel A; Romero, Carmen M; Ribeiro, Ana C F

    2017-02-01

    The side chain effect on transport in ionic aqueous salt solutions was investigated for [Formula: see text]-amino acids glycine, alanine, [Formula: see text]-amino butyric acid, norvaline, and norleucine --that together define a chemical homologous series based on the length of the characteristic side chain which increases from zero to four carbons, respectively. Binary mutual diffusion coefficients at infinitesimal concentration in aqueous solutions of NaCl (0.15 mol kg (-1)) are measured by means of Taylor dispersion technique for this series and significant differences were found against previous published results for identical systems in pure water. In this way, NaCl effect on the transport of each amino acid is thus assessed and discussed in terms of salting-out effects. Also, solvated Stokes hydrodynamic radii were computed for the series showing comparable results in water and NaCl solution. The new information should prove useful in the design and characterization of transport-controlled systems in physiological and pharmacological studies.

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity studies of ternary metal complexes containing glycine amino acid and the anti-inflammatory drug lornoxicam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.

    2015-02-01

    Mixed ligand complexes were synthesized using lornoxicam (LOR) as the primary ligand and glycine amino acid (HGly) as the secondary ligand. They were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral studies, TG-DTG, X-ray powder diffraction and physical analytical studies. From the molar conductance, magnetic moment and electronic spectral data of the synthesized complexes, general formulae of [M(LOR)2(Gly)]·Xn·yH2O where M = Cr(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 3), Mn(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 1), Co(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 0), Cu(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and Zn(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and (M = Fe(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 1) and Fe(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 1) with an octahedral structure were proposed. Thermal analyses show that the complexes lose water molecules of hydration initially and subsequently expel anionic parts and organic ligands in continuous steps. The kinetic parameters namely E, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ illustrate the spontaneous association of the metal and ligands in the formation of the complexes. The antimicrobial efficiency of the LOR and HGly ligands and the ternary complexes were examined by in vitro method against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes were found to possess efficient antimicrobial properties compared to lornoxicam and most of these complexes could turn out to be excellent models for the design of effective antibiotic drug substances. Also, the two ligands, in comparison to ternary metal complexes are screened for their anticancer activity against breastic cancer cell line. The results showed that the metal complexes be more active than the parent LOR and glycine free ligands except Cr(III) ternary complex which was found to be inactive.

  8. Growth, structural, optical and mechanical studies on acid mixed glycine metal salt (GABN) crystal as potential NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, Mahendra M.; Dongare, Shailesh S.; Patil, Shirish B.; Pati, Shankar P.

    2012-03-01

    Transparent crystals of α-glycine with ammonium nitrate and barium nitrate (GABN) have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 11 × 7 × 4 mm 3 have been obtained in about 3-4 weeks time. The solubility of GABN has been determined in water. The grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with cell parameters a = 7.317 A.U, b = 12.154 A.U and c = 5.468 A.U with a unit cell volume 486.35 (A.U) 3. The presence of chemical components/groups has been identified by CHN, EDAX and NMR analysis. Comparative IR and Raman studies indicate a molecule with a lack of centre of symmetry. A wide transparency window useful for optoelectronic applications is indicated by the UV Studies. Using a Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm), the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency of GABN is found to be 1.406 times of that of standard KDP. On exposure to light the GABN crystals are found to exhibit negative photoconductivity. I-V characteristics, SEM studies, dielectrics studies, and Vickers micro hardness measurement have been carried out.

  9. The glycine transport inhibitor sarcosine is an NMDA receptor co-agonist that differs from glycine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Sarcosine is an amino acid involved in one-carbon metabolism and a promising therapy for schizophrenia because it enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function by inhibiting glycine uptake. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine led us to hypothesize that sarcosine is also an agonist like glycine. We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that sarcosine is an NMDAR co-agonist at the glycine binding site. However, sarcosine differed from glycine because less NMDAR desensitization occurred with sarcosine than with glycine as the co-agonist. This finding led us to examine whether the physiological effects of NMDAR activation with these two co-agonists are the same. The difference in desensitization probably accounts for rises in intracellular Ca2+, as assessed by the fluorescent indicator fura-FF, being larger when NMDAR activation occurred with sarcosine than with glycine. In addition, Ca2+-activated K+ currents following NMDAR activation were larger with sarcosine than with glycine. Compared to glycine, NMDAR-mediated autaptic currents decayed faster with sarcosine suggesting that NMDAR deactivation also differs with these two co-agonists. Despite these differences, NMDAR-dependent neuronal death as assessed by propidium iodide was similar with both co-agonists. The same was true for neuronal bursting. Thus, sarcosine may enhance NMDAR function by more than one mechanism and may have different effects from other NMDAR co-agonists. PMID:19433577

  10. Spectroscopic investigations of humic-like acids formed via polycondensation reactions between glycine, catechol and glucose in the presence of natural zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Shigeki; Miura, Akitaka; Okabe, Ryo; Fukushima, Masami; Sasaki, Masahide; Sato, Tsutomu

    2010-10-01

    Polycondensation reactions between low-molecular-weight compounds, such as amino acids, sugars and phenols, are crucially important processes in the formation of humic substances, and clay minerals have the ability to catalyze these reactions. In the present study, catechol (CT), glycine (Gly) and glucose (Gl) were used as representative phenols, amino acids and sugars, respectively, and the effects of the catalytic activities of natural zeolites on polycondensation reactions between these compounds were investigated. The extent of polycondensation was evaluated by measuring the specific absorbance at 600 nm ( E600) as an index of the degree of darkening. After a 3-week incubation period, the E600 values for solutions that contained zeolite samples were 4-10 times greater than those measured in the absence of zeolite, suggesting that the zeolite had, in fact, catalyzed the polycondensation reaction. The humic-like acids (HLAs) produced in the reactions were isolated, and their elemental composition and molecular weights determined. When formed in the presence of a zeolite, the nitrogen contents and molecular weights for the HLAs were significantly higher, compared to the HLA sample formed in the absence of zeolite. In addition, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR spectra and carboxylic group analyses of the HLA samples indicated that the concentration of carbonyl carbon species for quinones and ketones produced in the presence of zeolite were higher than the corresponding values for samples produced in the absence of a zeolite. Carbonyl carbons in quinones and ketones indicate the nucleophilic characteristics of the samples. Therefore, a nitrogen atom in Gly, which serves as nucleophile, is incorporated into quinones and ketones in CT and Gl. The differences in the catalytic activities of the zeolite samples can be attributed to differences in their transition metal content (Fe, Mn and Ti), which function as Lewis acids.

  11. Elution behavior of metal ions with mixed glycine-nitric acid eluents in Dowex 50W-X8 column: separation of Th(IV), Ce(IV), Bi(III), Fe(III), and Al(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Eusebius, L.; Ghose, A.; Dey, A.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution coefficients (K) determined by the batch technique in acidic glycine media using Dowex 50W-X8 cation exchanger (H/sup +/-form, 100-200 mesh size) revealed that this medium can effectively be employed to separate a number of tetravalent and trivalent metal ions from bivalent metal ions. In fixed glycine (0.40 M) and varying concentration of nitric acid (0.10 to 1.0 M), a number of mixtures containing two or three metal ions were resolved on columns using about 8 g of exchanger. In 0.40 M glycine-1.0 M HNO/sub 3/ medium, Th(IV)/Ce(IV) were separated from Al(III)/Fe(III)/Bi(III)/Co(II)/Ni(II)/Cu(II)/Zn(II)/Cd(II)/Hg(II)/Pb(II)/Ag(I) and also Al(III)/Bi(III) from a number of divalent metal ions. In 0.40 M glycine-0.50 M HNO/sub 3/ medium, the resolution of following ternary mixtures were also achieved: Th(IV)/Ce(IV)-Al(III)/Bi(III)-Fe(III)/Co(II)/Ni(II)/Cu(II)/Zn(II)/Cd(II)/Hg(II)/Pb(II)/Ag(I). Th(IV)/Al(III)/Fe(III)/Bi(III) were also separated from other divalent metal ions in 1.60 M glycine-0.50 M HNO/sub 3/ medium. The values of K, elution characteristics of metal ions, elution curves, and the results of the resolution of a number of mixtures of metal ions along with standard deviations are reported.

  12. New chiral didehydroamino acid derivatives from a cyclic glycine template with 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one structure: applications to the asymmetric synthesis of nonproteinogenic alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, R; Falvello, L R; Galindo, N; Nájera, C

    2000-05-19

    New chiral (Z)-alpha,beta-didehydroamino acid (DDAA) derivatives with 3,5-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one structure 11a-f have been stereoselectively prepared after condensation of chiral glycine equivalent 7 with aldehydes in the presence of K(2)CO(3) under mild solid-liquid phase-transfer catalysis reaction conditions. These new systems have been used in diastereoselective cyclopropanation reactions using Corey's ylide for the asymmetric synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (ACCs) such as allo-corononamic and allo-norcoronamic acids. The hydrogenation reaction of these systems at ambient pressure in the presence of formaldehyde affords saturated oxazinones and N-methylated oxazinones which have been transformed into the N-methyl-alpha-amino acids (N-MAAs) (S)-2-(methylamino)butanoic acid and (S)-N-methylleucine. In addition, the parent alpha, beta-didehydroalanine derivative 11g has been prepared by a direct aminomethylation-elimination sequence from 7 and Eschenmoser's salt and has been used in Diels-Alder cycloaddition with endo selectivity for the synthesis of the enantiomerically pure bicyclic alpha-amino acids (-)-2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic and (-)-2-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acids.

  13. Two step derivatization for the analyses of organic, amino acids and glycines on filter paper plasma by GC-MS/SIM.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye-Ran

    2007-03-01

    A rapid dried-filter paper plasma-spot analytical method was developed to quantify organic acids, amino acids, and glycines simultaneously in a two-step derivatization procedure with good sensitivity and specificity. The new method involves a two-step trimethylsilyl (TMS) - trifluoroacyl (TFA) derivatization procedure using GC-MS/ selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM). The dried-filter paper plasma was fortified with an internal standard (tropate) as well as a standard mixture of distilled water and methanol. Methyl orange was added to the residue as an indicator. N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide) and N-methyl-bis-trifluoroacetamide were then added and heated to 60 degrees C for 10 and 15 min to produce the TMS and TFA derivatives, respectively. Using this method, the silylation of carboxylic functional groups was carried out, which was followed by the trifluoroacyl derivatization of the amino functional group. The derivatives were analyzed by GC-MS/SIM. A calibration cure showed a linear relationship for the target compounds between concentrations of 10-500 ng/mL. The limit of detection and quantification on a plasma spot were 10-90 ng/mL (S/N=9) and 80-500 ng/ mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.938 and 0.999. When applied to the samples from positive patients, the method clearly differentiated normal subjects from the patients with various metabolic disorders such as PKU, MSUD, OTC and a Propionic Aciduria. The new developed method might be useful for making a rapid, sensitive and simultaneous diagnosis of inherited organic and amino acid disorders. In addition, this method is expected to be an alternative method for screening newborns for metabolic disorders in laboratories where expensive MS/MS is unavailable.

  14. Ligustrazine-Oleanolic Acid Glycine Derivative, G-TOA, Selectively Inhibited the Proliferation and Induced Apoptosis of Activated HSC-T6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Siling; Chu, Fuhao; Wang, Mina; Li, Bi; Mao, Pei; Zhang, Huazheng; Wang, Penglong; Guo, Wenbo; Xu, Liang; Ren, Liwei; Lei, Haimin; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2016-11-23

    Hepatic fibrosis is a naturally occurring wound-healing reaction, with an imbalance of extracellular matrix (ECM) during tissue repair response, which can further deteriorate to hepatocellular carcinoma without timely treatment. Inhibiting activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and inducing apoptosis are the main methods for the treatment of liver fibrosis. In our previous study, we found that the TOA-glycine derivative (G-TOA) had exhibited more significant inhibitory activity against HepG2 cells and better hydrophilicity than TOA, ligustrazine (TMP), and oleanolic acid (OA). However, inhibiting activated HSC proliferation and inducing apoptosis by G-TOA had not been reported. In this paper, the selective cytotoxicity of G-TOA was evaluated on HSC-T6 cells and L02 cells, and apoptosis mechanisms were explored. It was found that G-TOA could selectively inhibit the proliferation of activated HSC-T6 cells, induce morphological changes, early apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, increase intracellular free calcium levels, downregulate the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 protein, and decrease the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, thereby inducing HSC-T6 cell apoptosis. Thence, G-TOA might be a potential antifibrosis agent for the therapy of hepatic fibrosis, provided that it exerts anti-fibrosis effects on activated HSC-T6 cells.

  15. Differentiation of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis by glycine utilization.

    PubMed

    Murai, T; Nakamura, Y; Kano, R; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A

    2002-06-01

    The genus Malassezia has been revised to include six lipophilic species and one nonlipophilic species. These Malassezia species have been investigated to differentiate their morphological and physiological characteristics. However, assimilation of amino acids as a nitrogen source by these species was not well elucidated. In the present study, isolates of Malassezia species were examined with a glycine medium (containing 7-266 mmol glycine, 7.4 mmol KH(2)PO(4), 4.1 mmol MgSO(4)7H(2)O, 29.6 mmol thiamine, 0.5% Tween-80 and 2% agar) and a modified Dixon glycine medium (0.6% peptone, 3.6% malt extract, 2% ox-bile, 1% Tween-40, 0.2% glycerol, 0.2% oleic acid, 7 mmol glycine and 2% agar). All M. furfur isolates developed on the glycine medium, assimilating glycine at concentrations of at least 7 mmol l(-1). However, the other six Malassezia species were unable to grow on the glycine medium. Also, many colonies of M. furfur grew rapidly, within 2-3 days on the modified Dixon glycine medium, although the other six species showed slow and poor development. From these results, it was suggested that M. furfur might be able to utilize glycine as a single nitrogen source, which the other Malassezia species could not. Therefore, glycine medium was recommended for the differentiation of M. furfur from other species of Malassezia.

  16. Modulatory role of jasmonic acid on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants and stress markers of Glycine max L. under nickel stress.

    PubMed

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Sharma, Poonam; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Kaur, Harpreet; Mushtaq, Ruquia

    2015-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a very young candidate of plant growth regulators which is being explored for various antistress properties. Present study deals with the hypothesis that JA can modulate antioxidant mechanism of higher plants with tight regulation of biomembrane peroxidation, making plants tolerant to toxic Ni(2+). 2 mM NiCl2 as a source of Ni(2+) appeared as sub lethal dose for the growth of 15 days old Glycine max seedlings. Exogenous application of 1 μM and 1 nM JA prior to NiCl2 exposure, made seedlings of Glycine max more tolerant to Ni(2+)stress as compared to control untreated seedlings. Regulatory inhibition of MDA and H2O2 production by JA with or without Ni(2+) treatment made plants more resistant to Ni(2+) stress which may be associated with ameliorative activity of antioxidant enzymes system composed of SOD, POD, CAT and APOX. Ascorbate, a secondary metabolite synthesized from D-glucose act as an antioxidant in plant cells. Many fold enhancements in AsA content of Ni(2+) treated seedlings supplemented with different concentrations of JA was observed. Significant improvement in AsA levels by JA with or without Ni(2+) stress may involve two aspects, either denovo synthesis level regulation of AsA or recycling of AsA from an oxidized form. Improvement in total protein content showed the uplift modulation of transcriptional machinery by JA which was also maintained under Ni(2+) stress. Photosynthetic pigments as total chl, chl a and b showed inhibition in presence of Ni(2+) stress which was not found much effective under JA supplementation as compared to control. Present findings revealed that although JA was not helpful for protection of photosynthetic pigments but it modulates the other machinery of plants significantly including various antioxidants positively, while tightly inhibiting stress related processes responsible for lipid peroxidation to make plants tolerant to Ni(2+) stress.

  17. Advanced asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid by alkylation/cyclization of newly designed axially chiral Ni(II) complex of glycine Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Aki; Shu, Shuangjie; Takeda, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Akie; Sato, Tatsunori; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Wang, Jiang; Izawa, Kunisuke; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is in extremely high demand due to the pharmaceutical importance of this tailor-made, sterically constrained α-amino acid. Here we report the development of an advanced procedure for preparation of the target amino acid via two-step SN2 and SN2' alkylation of novel axially chiral nucleophilic glycine equivalent. Excellent yields and diastereoselectivity coupled with reliable and easy scalability render this method of immediate use for practical synthesis of (1R,2S)-vinyl-ACCA.

  18. Effects of two low phytic acid mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhu, Dan-Hua; Deng, Bo; Fu, Xu-Jun; Dong, De-Kun; Zhu, Shen-Long; Li, Bai-Quan; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2009-05-13

    Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties.

  19. Photoinhibition and recovery in a herbicide-resistant mutant from Glycine max (L.) Merr. cell cultures deficient in fatty acid unsaturation.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Miguel; Collados, Raquel; Yruela, Inmaculada; Picorel, Rafael

    2004-07-01

    Photoinhibition and recovery were studied in two photosynthetic cell suspensions from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr): the wild type (WT) and the herbicide-resistant D1 mutant STR7. This mutant also showed an increase in saturated fatty acids from thylakoid lipids. STR7 was more sensitive to photoinhibition under culture conditions. In vivo photoinhibition experiments in the presence of chloramphenicol, in vitro studies in isolated thylakoid membranes, and immunoblot analysis indicated that the process of light-induced degradation of the D1 protein was not involved in the response of STR7 to light. At growth temperature (24 degrees C), the recovery rate of photoinhibited photosystem II (PSII) was slower in STR7 relative to WT. Photoinhibition and recovery were differentially affected by temperature in both cell lines. The rates of photoinhibition were faster in STR7 at any temperature below 27 degrees C. The rates of PSII recovery from STR7 were more severely affected than those of WT at temperatures lower than 24 degrees C. The photoinhibition and recovery rates of WT at 17 degrees C mimicked those of STR7 at 24 degrees C. In organelle translation studies indicated that synthesis and elongation of D1 were substantially similar in both cell lines. However, sucrose gradient fractionation of chloroplast membranes demonstrated that D1 and also other PSII proteins such as D2, OEE33, and LCHII had a reduced capability to incorporate into PSII to yield a mature assembled complex in STR7. This effect may become the rate-limiting step during the recovery of photoinhibited PSII and may explain the increased sensitivity to high light found in STR7. Our data may hint at a possible role of fatty acids from membrane lipids in the assembly and dynamics of PSII.

  20. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties of amino acid - coumarin/quinolinone conjugates incorporating glycine, alanine and phenylalanine moieties.

    PubMed

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Küçükbay, Hasan; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    N-Protected amino acids (Gly, Ala and Phe) were reacted with amino substituted coumarin and quinolinone derivatives, leading to the corresponding N-protected amino acid-coumarin/quinolinone conjugates. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity of the new compounds was assessed against various human (h) isoforms, such as hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV and hCA XII. The quinolinone conjugates were inactive as enzyme inhibitors, whereas the coumarins were ineffective hCA I/II inhibitors (KIs > 50 μM) but were submicromolar hCA IV and XII inhibitors, with inhibition constants ranging between 92 nM and 1.19 μM for hCA IV, and between 0.11 and 0.79 μM for hCA XII. These coumarin derivatives, as many others reported earlier, thus show an interesting selective inhibitory profile for the membrane-bound over the cytosolic CA isoforms.

  1. The Kinetics of Intramolecular Distribution of 15N in Uric Acid after Administration of [15N]Glycine A REAPPRAISAL OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PREFERENTIAL LABELING OF N-(3 + 9) OF URIC ACID IN PRIMARY GOUT

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Oded; Wyngaarden, James B.; Starmer, C. Frank

    1973-01-01

    The concept of an abnormality of glutamine metabolism in primary gout was first proposed on the basis of isotope data: when [15N]glycine was administered to gouty subjects, there was disproportionately great enrichment of N-(3 + 9) of uric acid, which derive from the amide-N of glutamine. An unduly high concentration of 15N in glutamine was postulated, and attributed to a hypothetical defect in catabolism of glutamine. Excess glutamine was proposed as the driving force of uric acid overproduction. We have reexamined this proposition in four gouty subjects: one mild overproducer of uric acid with “idiopathic gout,” one marked overproducer with high-grade but “partial” hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase deficiency, and two extraordinary overproducers with superactive phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetases. In the last three, the driving force of excessive purine biosynthesis is a known surplus of α-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. Disproportionately high labeling of N-(3 + 9) was present in all four gouty subjects, most marked in the most flamboyant overproducers. The precursor glucine pool was sampled by periodic administration of benzoic acid and isolation of urinary hippuric acid. Similarly, the precursor glutamine pool was sampled by periodic administration of phenylacetic acid and isolation of the amide-N of urinary phenylacetylglutamine. The time course of 15N enrichment of hippurate differed from that of the amide-N of glutamine. Whereas initial enrichment values of hippurate were very high, those of glutamine-amide-N were low, increasing to a maximum at about 3 h, and then declining less rapidly than those of hippurate. However, enrichment values of hippurate and of phenacetyl glutamine were normal in all of the gouty subjects studied. Thus, preferential enrichment of N-(3 + 9) in gouty overproducers given [15N]glycine does not necessarily reflect a specific abnormality of glutamine metabolism, but rather appears to be a kinetic

  2. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  3. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  4. Chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer magnetic resonance imaging to map gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, myoinositol, glycine, and asparagine: Phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jang-Hoon; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Woo, Dong-Cheol; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Lee, Soo Yeol; Jahng, Geon-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The physical and technical development of chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using clinical 3 T MRI was explored with the goal of mapping asparagine (Asn), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), glycine (Gly), and myoinositol (MI), which exist in the brain. Phantoms with nine different conditions at concentrations of 10, 30, and 50 mM and pH values of 5.6, 6.2, and 7.4 were prepared for the five target molecules to evaluate the dependence of the CEST effect in the concentration, the pH, and the amplitude of the applied radiofrequency field B1. CEST images in the offset frequency range of ±6 parts per million (ppm) were acquired using a pulsed radio-frequency saturation scheme with a clinical 3 T MRI system. A voxel-based main magnetic field B0 inhomogeneity correction, where B0 is the center frequency offset at zero ppm, was performed by using the spline interpolation method to fit the full Z-spectrum to estimate the center frequency. A voxel-based CEST asymmetry map was calculated to evaluate amide (-NH), amine (-NH2), and hydroxyl (-OH) groups for the five target molecules. The CEST effect for Glu, GABA, and Gly clearly increased with increasing concentrations. The CEST effect for MI was minimal, with no noticeable differences at different concentrations. The CEST effect for Glu and Gly increased with increasing acidity. The highest CEST asymmetry for GABA was observed at pH 6.2. The CEST effect for Glu, GABA, and Gly increased with increasing B1 amplitude. For all target molecules, the CEST effect for the human 3 T MRI system increased with increasing concentration and B1 amplitude, but varied with pH, depending on the characteristics of the molecules. The CEST effect for MI may be not suitable with clinical MRI systems. These results show that CEST imaging in the brain with the amine protons by using 3 T MRI is possible for several neuronal diseases.

  5. Preparation of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-modified biopolymeric nanoparticles containing epigalloccatechin-3-gallate for targeting vascular endothelial cells to inhibit corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Che-Yi; Wang, Ming-Chen; Miyagawa, Takuya; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, Ko-Hua; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Tseng, Ching-Li

    2017-01-01

    Neovascularization (NV) of the cornea can disrupt visual function, causing ocular diseases, including blindness. Therefore, treatment of corneal NV has a high public health impact. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), presenting antiangiogenesis effects, was chosen as an inhibitor to treat human vascular endothelial cells for corneal NV treatment. An arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-hyaluronic acid (HA)-conjugated complex coating on the gelatin/EGCG self-assembly nanoparticles (GEH-RGD NPs) was synthesized for targeting the αvβ3 integrin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in this study, and a corneal NV mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of this nanomedicine used as eyedrops. HA-RGD conjugation via COOH and amine groups was confirmed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The average diameter of GEH-RGD NPs was 168.87±22.5 nm with positive charge (19.7±2 mV), with an EGCG-loading efficiency up to 95%. Images of GEH-RGD NPs acquired from transmission electron microscopy showed a spherical shape and shell structure of about 200 nm. A slow-release pattern was observed in the nanoformulation at about 30% after 30 hours. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed that GEH-RGD NPs specifically bound to the integrin αvβ3. In vitro cell-viability assay showed that GEH-RGD efficiently inhibited HUVEC proliferation at low EGCG concentrations (20 μg/mL) when compared with EGCG or non-RGD-modified NPs. Furthermore, GEH-RGD NPs significantly inhibited HUVEC migration down to 58%, lasting for 24 hours. In the corneal NV mouse model, fewer and thinner vessels were observed in the alkali-burned cornea after treatment with GEH-RGD NP eyedrops. Overall, this study indicates that GEH-RGD NPs were successfully developed and synthesized as an inhibitor of vascular endothelial cells with specific targeting capacity. Moreover, they can be used in eyedrops to inhibit angiogenesis in corneal NV mice.

  6. Rapid and sensitive step gradient assays of glutamate, glycine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with o-phthalaldehyde-mercaptoethanol derivatization with an emphasis on microdialysis samples.

    PubMed

    Piepponen, T P; Skujins, A

    2001-06-15

    We developed a rapid step-gradient HPLC method for determination of glutamate, glycine and taurine, and a separate method for determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in striatal microdialysates. The amino acids were pre-column derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde-2-mercaptoethanol by using an automated refrigerated autoinjector. Separation of the amino acids was established with a non-porous ODS-II HPLC column, late-eluting substances were washed out with a one-step low-pressure gradient. Concentrations of the amino acids were determined with a fixed-wavelength fluorescence detector. The detection limit for GABA was 80 fmol in a 15 microl sample, detection limits for glutamate, glycine and taurine were not determined because their concentrations in striatal perfusates were far above their detection limits. Total analysis time was less than 12 min, including the wash-out step. The methods described are relatively simple, sensitive, inexpensive, and fast enough to keep up with the microdialysis sampling.

  7. Un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine, alanine, serine, threonine, and aspartic acid in gas phase: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Snehasis; Singh, Ajeet; Ojha, Animesh K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present report, un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and aspartic acid (Asp) has been investigated in gas phase via two steps reaction mechanism and concerted mechanism at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. The peptide bond is formed through a nucleophilic reaction via transition states, TS1 and TS2 in stepwise mechanism. The TS1 reveals formation of a new C-N bond while TS2 illustrate the formation of C=O bond. In case of concerted mechanism, C-N bond is formed by a single four-centre transition state (TS3). The energy barrier is used to explain the involvement of energy at each step of the reaction. The energy barrier (20-48 kcal/mol) is required for the transformation of reactant state R1 to TS1 state and intermediate state I1 to TS2 state. The large value of energy barrier is explained in terms of distortion and interaction energies for stepwise mechanism. The energy barrier of TS3 in concerted mechanism is very close to the energy barrier of the first transition state (TS1) of the stepwise mechanism for the formation of Gly-Gly and Ala-Ala di- peptide. However, in case of Ser-Ser, Thr-Thr and Asp-Asp di-peptide, the energy barrier of TS3 is relatively high than that of the energy barrier of TS1 calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. In both the mechanisms, the value of energy barrier calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory is greater than that of the value calculated at M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theory.

  8. Identification of combined conjugation of nabumetone phase I metabolites with glucuronic acid and glycine in minipig biotransformation using coupling high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Česlová, Lenka; Holčapek, Michal; Nobilis, Milan

    2014-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was applied for the analysis of nabumetone metabolites during the biotransformation in minipigs. In addition to known phase I metabolites, the identification of phase II metabolites was achieved on the basis of their full-scan mass spectra and subsequent MS(n) analysis using both positive-ion and negative-ion ESI mode. Some phase I metabolites are conjugated with both glucuronide acid and glycine, which is quite unusual type of phase II metabolite not presented so far for nabumetone. These metabolites were found in small intestine content, but they were absent in minipigs urine.

  9. Substitutions of aspartic acid for glycine-220 and of arginine for glycine-664 in the triple helix of the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen produce lethal osteogenesis imperfecta and disrupt the ability of collagen fibrils to incorporate crystalline hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, A A; Lowe, M P; Atkinson, M; Byers, P H; Wallis, G A; Kadler, K E

    1995-01-01

    We identified two infants with lethal (type II) osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) who were heterozygous for mutations in the COL1A1 gene that resulted in substitutions of aspartic acid for glycine at position 220 and arginine for glycine at position 664 in the product of one COL1A1 allele in each individual. In normal age- and site-matched bone, approximately 70% (by number) of the collagen fibrils were encrusted with plate-like crystallites of hydroxyapatite. In contrast, approximately 5% (by number) of the collagen fibrils in the probands' bone contained crystallites. In contrast with normal bone, the c-axes of hydroxyapatite crystallites were sometimes poorly aligned with the long axis of fibrils obtained from OI bone. Chemical analysis showed that the OI samples contained normal amounts of calcium. The probands' bone samples contained type I collagen, overmodified type I collagen and elevated levels of type III and V collagens. On the basis of biochemical and morphological data, the fibrils in the OI samples were co-polymers of normal and mutant collagen. The results are consistent with a model of fibril mineralization in which the presence of abnormal type I collagen prevents normal collagen in the same fibril from incorporating hydroxyapatite crystallites. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7487936

  10. GLYCINE RESISTANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Robert E.

    1962-01-01

    Beardsley, Robert E. (Manhattan College, New York, N. Y.). Glycine resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 83:6–13. 1962.—The application of the fluctuation test of Luria and Delbrück to the distribution of glycine-resistant bacteria among cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 indicates that resistance arises by mutation in the absence of glycine. On glycine-supplemented medium, additional resistant colonies arise during prolonged periods of incubation. Their appearance is proceded by L-form growth. In general, the number of generations over which glycine resistance is inherited in the absence of glycine is increased by serial transfers on the selection medium. In liquid medium containing glycine, sensitive bacteria form spheroplasts. Resistant bacteria continue to grow as rod forms. In the medium employed, spheroplasts are unstable. Images PMID:13866159

  11. Catalysis of Dialanine Formation by Glycine in the Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1998-02-01

    Mutual catalysis of amino acids in the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction is demonstrated for the case of glycine/alanine. The presence of glycine enhances dialanine formation by a factor up to 50 and enables dialanine formation at much lower alanine concentrations. The actual amounts of glycine play an important role for this catalytic effect, the optimal glycine concentration is 1/8 of the alanine concentration. The mechanism appears to be based on the formation of the intermediate Gly-Ala-Ala tripeptide, connected to one coordination site of copper(II) ion, and subsequent hydrolysis to dialanine and glycine.

  12. Nucleotide Accumulation Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.; Birge, Claire H.

    1965-01-01

    Strominger, Jack L. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.), and Claire H. Birge. Nucleotide accumulation induced in Staphylococcus aureus by glycine. J. Bacteriol. 89:1124–1127. 1965.—High concentrations of glycine induce accumulation of four uridine nucleotides in Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations of their structure suggest that these compounds are uridine diphosphate (UDP)-acetylmuramic acid, UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys, UDP-acetylmuramyl-l-ala-d-glu-l-lys and UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys-d-ala-d-ala. The mechanism by which glycine may induce uridine nucleotide accumulation and protoplast formation is discussed. Images PMID:14276106

  13. Glycine and Glycine Receptor Signalling in Non-Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    den Eynden, Jimmy Van; Ali, Sheen Saheb; Horwood, Nikki; Carmans, Sofie; Brône, Bert; Hellings, Niels; Steels, Paul; Harvey, Robert J.; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting mainly in the caudal part of the central nervous system. Besides this neurotransmitter function, glycine has cytoprotective and modulatory effects in different non-neuronal cell types. Modulatory effects were mainly described in immune cells, endothelial cells and macroglial cells, where glycine modulates proliferation, differentiation, migration and cytokine production. Activation of glycine receptors (GlyRs) causes membrane potential changes that in turn modulate calcium flux and downstream effects in these cells. Cytoprotective effects were mainly described in renal cells, hepatocytes and endothelial cells, where glycine protects cells from ischemic cell death. In these cell types, glycine has been suggested to stabilize porous defects that develop in the plasma membranes of ischemic cells, leading to leakage of macromolecules and subsequent cell death. Although there is some evidence linking these effects to the activation of GlyRs, they seem to operate in an entirely different mode from classical neuronal subtypes. PMID:19738917

  14. GABA and glycine actions on spinal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Krnjević, K; Puil, E; Werman, R

    1977-06-01

    Applied microiontophoretically in the spinal cord of cats, glycine is consistently more powerful than gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in raising the membrane conductance of lumbosacral motoneurons (mean ratio of equipotent iontophoretic currents tested on same cells is 5.6:1). This is the reverse of the situation in cerebral cortex. The effect of glycine is well maintained during applications lasting about 1 min, but that of GABA, after an early peak, drops to a much lower plateau (mean plateau-over-peak ratio is 0.23). The reversal potentials for the action of GABA and glycine are initially similar but they behave differently during a prolonged application; that for glycine usually remains constant or becomes more negative whereas that for GABA tends to shift in the positive direction. Various explanations of these phenomena are considered. It is suggested that a single process, electrogenic uptake of GABA, may account for both desensitization (by removing GABA from its site of action) and the positive shift in GABA reversal potential (became uptake is probably associated with an influx of Na+).

  15. Replacement of glycine 232 by aspartic acid in the KdpA subunit broadens the ion specificity of the K(+)-translocating KdpFABC complex.

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, M; Fendler, K; Bamberg, E; Gassel, M; Epstein, W; Altendorf, K; Dröse, S

    2000-01-01

    Replacement of glycine residue 232 with aspartate in the KdpA subunit of the K(+)-translocating KdpFABC complex of Escherichia coli leads to a transport complex that has reduced affinity for K(+) and has lost the ability to discriminate Rb(+) ions (, J. Biol. Chem. 270:6678-6685). This glycine residue is the first in a highly conserved GGG motif that was aligned with the GYG sequence of the selectivity filter (P- or H5-loop) of K(+) channels (, Nature. 371:119-122). Investigations with the purified and reconstituted KdpFABC complex using the potential sensitive fluorescent dye DiSC(3)(5) and the "caged-ATP/planar bilayer method" confirm the altered ion specificity observed in uptake measurements with whole cells. In the absence of cations a transient current was observed in the planar bilayer measurements, a phenomenon that was previously observed with the wild-type enzyme and with another kdpA mutant (A:Q116R) and most likely represents the movement of a protein-fixed charge during a conformational transition. After addition of K(+) or Rb(+), a stationary current could be observed, representing the continuous pumping activity of the KdpFABC complex. In addition, DiSC(3)(5) and planar bilayer measurements indicate that the A:G232D Kdp-ATPase also transports Na(+), Li(+), and H(+) with a reduced rate. Similarities to mutations in the GYG motif of K(+) channels are discussed. PMID:10920013

  16. Putative glycine receptors in Hydra: a biochemical and behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, P; Minei, R; Porcu, P; Sogliano, C; Tino, A; Marino, G; Biggio, G; Concas, A

    2001-11-01

    Glycine acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord of vertebrate species, while very few data are yet available to support a similar role in invertebrate nervous systems. Here we report the identification and characterization of glycine receptors in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) by biochemical and behavioural studies. Saturation experiments revealed the occurrence of one population of binding sites of nanomolar affinity (KD = 33 nm) and low capacity (Bmax = 79 fmol/mg protein) for [(3)H]strychnine. The addition of glycine or taurine (0.1 microm-1 mm) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of [(3)H]strychnine binding. Beta-alanine (0.1-1 mm) did not significantly affect [(3)H]strychnine binding. The pharmacological properties of these receptors compare with those of vertebrate glycine receptors. Stimulation of Hydra polyps by reduced glutathione resulted in a significant increase in the duration of mouth opening in the presence of glycine, taurine or beta-alanine. The enhancement of the response was related both to amino acid (10-100 microm) and to glutathione concentration (1-10 microm). The effects of glycine or its agonists were suppressed by strychnine (1-10 microm). D-serine, a glycine agonist at the vertebrate NMDA receptor, produced opposite effects to those of glycine. The effects of d-serine were suppressed by 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid but not by strychnine. In vitro, [(3)H]strychnine binding was not displaced by d-serine. These results indicate a dual action of glycine in Hydra tissues. The hypothesis that NMDA receptors may also be present in this elementary nervous system is proposed.

  17. Genome-enabled determination of amino acid biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and identification of biosynthetic pathways for alanine, glycine, and isoleucine by 13C-isotopologue profiling.

    PubMed

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Rückert, Christian; Becker, Anke; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten

    2011-10-01

    To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways for all proteinogenic amino acids in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, this study combines results obtained by in silico genome analysis and by (13)C-NMR-based isotopologue profiling to provide a panoramic view on a substantial section of bacterial metabolism. Initially, biosynthesis pathways were reconstructed from an improved annotation of the complete genome of X. campestris pv. campestris B100. This metabolic reconstruction resulted in the unequivocal identification of biosynthesis routes for 17 amino acids in total: arginine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. Ambiguous pathways were reconstructed from the genome data for alanine, glycine, and isoleucine biosynthesis. (13)C-NMR analyses supported the identification of the metabolically active pathways. The biosynthetic routes for these amino acids were derived from the precursor molecules pyruvate, serine, and pyruvate, respectively. By combining genome analysis and isotopologue profiling, a comprehensive set of biosynthetic pathways covering all proteinogenic amino acids was unraveled for this plant pathogenic bacterium, which plays an important role in biotechnology as a producer of the exopolysaccharide xanthan. The data obtained lay ground for subsequent functional analyses in post-genomics and biotechnology, while the innovative combination of in silico and wet lab technology described here is promising as a general approach to elucidate metabolic pathways.

  18. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Dufay, J Noelia; Steele, Shelby L; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Coombs, Andrew J; Liwski, Robert S; Fernandez, Conrad V; Berman, Jason N; McMaster, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  19. Strychnine-sensitive glycine responses of neonatal rat hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S; Cherubini, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings employing current and voltage clamp techniques were used to study the effects of glycine on rat CA3 hippocampal neurones during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) life. 2. Glycine (0.3-1 mM) depolarized neurones from rats less than 4 days old (P4). Neurones from older neonates (P5-P7) were hyperpolarized by glycine, whereas adult neurones were unaffected. 3. Both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses were associated with large conductance increases; they reversed polarity at a potential which changed with the extracellular chloride concentration. The responses persisted in tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or in a solution with a much reduced calcium concentration. 4. Strychnine (1 microM) but not bicuculline (10-50 microM) antagonized the effects of glycine. The action of strychnine was apparently competitive with a dissociation constant of 350 nM. 5. In voltage clamp experiments, glycine elicited a non-desensitizing outward current at -60 mV. When a maximal concentration of glycine was applied at the same time as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the conductance increase induced by the two agonists was additive, suggesting the activation of different populations of channels. 6. Concentrations of glycine lower than 100 microM did not affect membrane potential. However, at 30-50 microM glycine increased the frequency of spontaneous GABA-mediated synaptic responses; this action was not blocked by strychnine. 7. It is concluded that during the first 2 weeks of life glycine acts at strychnine-sensitive receptors to open chloride channels. PMID:1804982

  20. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Dufay, J. Noelia; Steele, Shelby L.; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Coombs, Andrew J.; Liwski, Robert S.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Berman, Jason N.; McMaster, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia. PMID:26821380

  1. DETECTABILITY OF GLYCINE IN SOLAR-TYPE SYSTEM PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Testi, Leonardo; Caselli, Paola; Viti, Serena E-mail: ltesti@eso.org E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the simplest amino acid relevant to life. Its detection in the interstellar medium is key to understanding the formation mechanisms of pre-biotic molecules and their subsequent delivery onto planetary systems. Glycine has been extensively searched for toward hot molecular cores, although these studies did not yield any firm detection. In contrast to hot cores, low-mass star forming regions, in particular their earliest stages represented by cold pre-stellar cores, may be better suited for the detection of glycine as well as more relevant to the study of pre-biotic chemistry in young solar system analogs. We present one-dimensional spherically symmetric radiative transfer calculations of the glycine emission expected to arise from the low-mass pre-stellar core L1544. Water vapor has recently been reported toward this core, indicating that a small fraction of the grain mantles in L1544 (∼0.5%) has been injected into the gas phase. Assuming that glycine is photo-desorbed together with water in L1544, and considering a solid abundance of glycine on ices of ∼10{sup –4} with respect to water, our calculations reveal that several glycine lines between 67 GHz and 80 GHz have peak intensities larger than 10 mK. These results show for the first time that glycine could reach detectable levels in cold objects such as L1544. This opens up the possibility of detecting glycine, and other pre-biotic species, at the coldest and earliest stages in the formation of solar-type systems with near-future instrumentation such as the Band 2 receivers of ALMA.

  2. Some Operational Characteristics of Glycine Release in Rat Retina: The Role of Reverse Mode Operation of Glycine Transporter Type-1 (GlyT-1) in Ischemic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanuska, Adrienn; Szénási, Gábor; Albert, Mihaly; Koles, Laszlo; Varga, Agoston; Szabo, Andras; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2016-02-01

    Rat posterior eyecups containing the retina were prepared, loaded with [(3)H]glycine and superfused in order to determine its release originated from glycinergic amacrine cells and/or glial cells. Deprivation of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs-bicarbonate buffer used for superfusion evoked a marked increase of [(3)H]glycine release, an effect that was found to be external Ca(2+)-independent. Whereas oxygen and glucose deprivation increased [(3)H]glycine release, its uptake was reduced suggesting that energy deficiency shifts glycine transporter type-1 operation from normal to reverse mode. The increased release of [(3)H]glycine evoked by oxygen and glucose deprivation was suspended by addition of the non-competitive glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor NFPS and the competitive inhibitor ACPPB further suggesting the involvement of this transporter in the mediation of [(3)H]glycine release. Oxygen and glucose deprivation also evoked [(3)H]glutamate release from rat retina and the concomitantly occurring release of the NMDA receptor agonist glutamate and the coagonist glycine makes NMDA receptor pathological overstimulation possible in hypoxic conditions. [(3)H]Glutamate release was suspended by addition of the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA. Sarcosine, a substrate inhibitor of glycine transporter type-1, also increased [(3)H]glycine release probably by heteroexchange shifting transporter operation into reverse mode. This effect of sarcosine was also external Ca(2+)-independent and could be suspended by NFPS. Energy deficiency in retina induced by ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-dependent ATPase, and by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor added with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose, led to increase of retinal [(3)H]glycine efflux. These effects of ouabain and rotenone/2-deoxy-D-glucose could also be blocked by NFPS pointed to the preferential reverse mode operation of glycine transporter type-1 as a consequence of

  3. Time-Domain TeraHertz Spectroscopy and Observational Probes of Prebiotic Interstellar Gas and Ice Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Brett Andrew

    Understanding the origin of life on Earth has long fascinated the minds of the global community, and has been a driving factor in interdisciplinary research for centuries. Beyond the pioneering work of Darwin, perhaps the most widely known study in the last century is that of Miller & Urey, who examined the possibility of the formation of prebiotic chemical precursors on the primordial Earth. More recent studies have shown that amino acids, the chemical building blocks of the biopolymers that comprise life as we know it on Earth, are present in meteoritic samples, and that the molecules extracted from the meteorites display isotopic signatures indicative of an extraterrestrial origin. The most recent major discovery in this area has been the detection of glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, in pristine cometary samples returned by the NASA STARDUST mission. Indeed, the open questions left by these discoveries, both in the public and scientific communities, hold such fascination that NASA has designated the understanding of our "Cosmic Origins" as a key mission priority. Despite these exciting discoveries, our understanding of the chemical and physical pathways to the formation of prebiotic molecules is woefully incomplete. This is largely because we do not yet fully understand how the interplay between grain-surface and sub-surface ice reactions and the gasphase affects astrophysical chemical evolution, and our knowledge of chemical inventories in these regions is incomplete. The research presented here aims to directly address both these issues, so that future work to understand the formation of prebiotic molecules has a solid foundation from which to work. From an observational standpoint, a dedicated campaign to identify hydroxylamine (NH2OH), potentially a direct precursor to glycine, in the gas-phase was undertaken. No trace of NH2OH was found. These observations motivated a refinement of the chemical models of glycine formation, and have largely

  4. Compositions containing poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1992-02-18

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and the apparatus used in effecting the removal are described. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 figs.

  5. Compositions containing poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  6. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  7. Chemical synthesis of (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine: precursors of the [22,23-(3)H] labelled tracers.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Adachi, Yuuki; Kakiyama, Genta; Shimada, Miki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Iida, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine were synthesized from cholic acid. The key reactions employed are: 1) degradation of the side chain in intermediary C(24) 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxylated bile acid to the corresponding C(22) 23,24-dinor-aldehyde, followed by Wittig reaction with methyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate and 2) N-acylamidation of the unconjugated tetrahydroxy-Delta(22)-5beta-cholenoic acid with glycine (or taurine) in the presence of diethylphosphorocyanide and triethylamine as coupling reagents.

  8. THE EFFECT OF THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION ON THE RATE OF HYDROLYSIS OF GLYCYL GLYCINE, GLYCYL LEUCINE, GLYCYL ALANINE, GLYCYL ASPARAGINE, GLYCYL ASPARTIC ACID, AND BIURET BASE BY EREPSIN.

    PubMed

    Northrop, J H; Simms, H S

    1928-11-20

    1. The rate of hydrolysis at different pH values of glycyl glycine, glycyl leucine, glycyl alanine, glycyl asparagine, glycyl aspartic acid and biuret base has been determined. 2. The pH-activity curves obtained in this way differ for the different substrates. 3. The curves can be satisfactorily predicted by the assumption that erepsin is a weak acid or base with a dissociation constant of 10(-7.6) and that the reaction takes place between a particular ionic species of the enzyme and of the substrate. There are several possible arrangements which will predict the experimental results. 4. The rate of inactivation of erepsin at various pH values has been determined and found to agree with the assumption used above, that the enzyme is a weak acid or base with a dissociation constant of about 10(-7.6). 5. It is pointed out that if the mechanism assumed is correct, the determination of a significant value for the relative rate of hydrolysis of various peptides is a very uncertain procedure.

  9. Estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the placenta mesotherapy has been widely used to treat menopause. Placenta contains amino acids, peptides, minerals, and estrogen. Here, we investigated the estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine (a main ingredient of placenta) in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause. We assessed the effect of glycine on MG-63 osteoblast cell line, MCF-7 estrogen-dependent cell line, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Glycine significantly increased the MG-63 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase were increased by glycine in MG-63 cells. Glycine also increased the BrdU-incorporation and Ki-67 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Glycine induced the up-regulation of estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression and estrogen-response element-luciferase activity in MG-63 and MCF-7 cells. In OVX mice, glycine was administered orally at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks. Glycine resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. Meanwhile, vaginal weight reduced by ovariectomy was increased by glycine. Glycine significantly increased the ALP activity in OVX mice. MicroCT-analysis showed that glycine significantly enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density in OVX mice. Moreover, glycine significantly increased the serum 17β-estradiol levels reduced by ovariectomy. Glycine has an estrogen-like osteoprotective effect in menopause models. Therefore, we suggest that glycine may be useful for the treatment of menopause.

  10. 75 FR 63444 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... purity and is used as a sweetener/taste enhancer, a buffering agent, reabsorbable amino acid, chemical... glycine to the United States are manufactured by Paras, in India, from monochloro acetic acid and...

  11. Alpha-amylase from germinating soybean (Glycine max) seeds--purification, characterization and sequential similarity of conserved and catalytic amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Arpana; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Fitter, Jörg; Polen, Tino; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Starch hydrolyzing amylase from germinated soybeans seeds (Glycine max) has been purified 400-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity with a final specific activity of 384 units/mg. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein band of 100 kDa, whereas molecular mass was determined to be 84 kDa by MALDI-TOF and gel filtration on Superdex-200 (FPLC). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.5 and a pI value of 4.85. The energy of activation was determined to be 6.09 kcal/mol in the temperature range 25-85 degrees C. Apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)((app))) for starch was 0.71 mg/mL and turnover number (k(cat)) was 280 s(-1) in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. Thermal inactivation studies at 85 degrees C showed first-order kinetics with rate constant (k) equal to 0.0063 min(-1). Soybean alpha-amylase showed high specificity for its primary substrate starch. High similarity of soybean alpha-amylase with known amylases suggests that this alpha-amylase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 13. Cereal alpha-amylases have gained importance due to their compatibility for biotechnological applications. Wide availability and easy purification protocol make soybean as an attractive alternative for plant alpha-amylase. Soybean can be used as commercially viable source of alpha-amylase for various industrial applications.

  12. The Glycine Transport Inhibitor Sarcosine Is an Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sarcosine is an endogenous amino acid that is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist, and an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. Its therapeutic potential for schizophrenia further underscores its clinical importance. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine and sarcosine's ability to serve as an NMDAR co-agonist led us to examine whether sarcosine is also an agonist at the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons and found that sarcosine evoked a dose-dependent, strychnine sensitive, Cl- current that cross-inhibited glycine currents. Sarcosine evoked this current with Li+ in the extracellular solution to block GlyT1, in neurons treated with the essentially irreversible GlyT1 inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS), and in neurons plated in the absence of glia. These results indicate that the sarcosine currents did not result from GlyT1 inhibition or heteroexchange. We conclude that sarcosine is a GlyR agonist. PMID:19619564

  13. Molecular basis for substrate discrimination by glycine transporters.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Robert J; Shaddick, Kim; Ju, Pengchu

    2007-05-11

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brain stem, where it acts on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, and is also an excitatory neurotransmitter throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it acts on the N-methyl-d-aspartate family of receptors. There are two Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent glycine transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, which control extracellular glycine concentrations and these transporters show differences in substrate selectivity and blocker sensitivity. A bacterial Na(+)-dependent leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) has recently been crystallized and its structure determined. When the amino acid residues within the leucine binding site of LeuT(Aa) are aligned with residues of the two glycine transporters there are a number of identical residues and also some key differences. In this report, we demonstrate that the LeuT(Aa) structure represents a good working model of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitters and that differences in substrate selectivity can be attributed to a single difference of a glycine residue in transmembrane domain 6 of GLYT1 for a serine residue at the corresponding position of GLYT2.

  14. Reaction Behaviors of Glycine under Super- and Subcritical Water Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alargov, Dimitar K.; Deguchi, Shigeru; Tsujii, Kaoru; Horikoshi, Koki

    2002-02-01

    The influence of temperature and pressure on the dimerization and decomposition of glycine under simulated hydrothermal system conditions was studied by injecting a glycine solution into water in the sub- and supercritical state. The experiments at five different temperatures of supplied water - 250, 300, 350, 374, and 400 °C - were performed at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa. At 350 °C, experiments under 15.0-40.0 MPa were conducted. Diglycine, triglycine (trace), diketopiperazine, and an unidentified product with a high molecular mass (433 Da) were the main products of oligomerization. The results show that temperature and pressure influence the extent of dimerization and decomposition of glycine. The maximum of dimers formation was observed at 350 and 375 °C at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa, respectively, and coincided with a high rate of glycine decomposition. Glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, as well as other amino acids, were obtained by injecting a mixture of formaldehyde and ammonia. The results support the oligomerization and synthesis of amino acids in a submarine hydrothermal system.

  15. Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol: role of phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Paola Mascia, Maria; Wick, Marilee J; Martinez, Larry D; Harris, R Adron

    1998-01-01

    The effects of several kinase inhibitors (staurosporine, GF 109203X, H89, KN62, genistein) and of the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A were studied on the ethanol potentiation and on the function of homomeric α1 glycine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a two electrode voltage clamp recording technique.The function of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor was not modified in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with kinase inhibitors or with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The potentiation of the glycine receptor function induced by ethanol (10–200 mM) was significantly reduced in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with the PKC inhibitors staurosporine or GF 109203X.No differences in propofol (2.5 μM) or halothane (250 μM) actions were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes to staurosporine.No differences in ethanol sensitivity were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing glycine α1 receptors to H89, KN62, genistein or to the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The mutant α1 (S391A), in which the PKC phosphorylation site at serine 391 was mutated to alanine, was less sensitive to the effects of ethanol than was the α1 wild type receptor. Moreover, the ethanol potentiation of the glycine receptor function was not affected by treatment with staurosporine in oocytes expressing α1 (S391A).The splice variant of the α1 glycine receptor subunit, α1ins, containing eight additional amino acids and a potential phosphorylation site for PKA, did not differ from wild type for sensitivity to ethanol.These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor subunit modulates ethanol potentiation, but not the function of the glycine receptor. PMID:9786497

  16. Amino Acid Residues Critical for the Specificity for Betaine Aldehyde of the Plant ALDH10 Isoenzyme Involved in the Synthesis of Glycine Betaine1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel G.; González-Segura, Lilian; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Montiel, Carmina; Martínez-Castilla, León P.; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. The crystal structure of SoBADH reported here shows tyrosine (Tyr)-160, tryptophan (Trp)-167, Trp-285, and Trp-456 in an arrangement suitable for cation-π interactions with the trimethylammonium group of BAL. Mutation of these residues to alanine (Ala) resulted in significant Km(BAL) increases and Vmax/Km(BAL) decreases, particularly in the Y160A mutant. Tyr-160 and Trp-456, strictly conserved in plant ALDH10s, form a pocket where the bulky trimethylammonium group binds. This space is reduced in ALDH10s with low BADH activity, because an isoleucine (Ile) pushes the Trp against the Tyr. Those with high BADH activity instead have Ala (Ala-441 in SoBADH) or cysteine, which allow enough room for binding of BAL. Accordingly, the mutation A441I decreased the Vmax/Km(BAL) of SoBADH approximately 200 times, while the mutation A441C had no effect. The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. A survey of the known sequences indicates that plants have two ALDH10 isoenzymes: those known to be GB accumulators have a high-BAL-affinity isoenzyme with Ala or cysteine in this critical position, while non GB accumulators have low-BAL-affinity isoenzymes containing Ile. Therefore, BADH activity appears to restrict GB synthesis in non-GB-accumulator plants. PMID:22345508

  17. UV and fluorescence spectral changes induced by neodymium binding of N,N'-ethylenebis[2-(o-hydroxyphenolic)glycine] and N,N'-di(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N' diacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijun; Yang, Binsheng

    2006-11-01

    In 0.01 M 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (Hepes), pH 7.4 and room temperature, the binding of neodymium to N,N'-ethylenebis[2-(o-hydroxyphenolic)glycine] (EHPG), or N,N'-di(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N' diacetic acid (HBED) had been studied from 210 to 330 nm by means of difference UV spectra. Two peaks at 240 and 292 nm appear in difference UV spectra after neodymium binding to EHPG or HBED. The 1:1 stable complex can be confirmed from spectral titration curves. The molar extinction coefficient of Nd-EHPG and Nd-HBED complexes are Deltaepsilon(Nd-EHPG)=(12.93+/-0.21) x 10(3)cm(-1)M(-1), Deltaepsilon(Nd-HBED)=(14.45+/-0.51) x 10(5)cm(-1)M(-1) at 240 nm, respectively. Using EDTA as a competitor, the conditional equilibrium constants of the complexes are logK(Nd-EHPG)=11.89+/-0.09 and logK(Nd-HBED)=12.19+/-0.15, respectively. At the same conditions, fluorescence measurements show that neodymium binding to EHPG leads to a quenching of the fluorescence of EHPG at near 310 nm. However, there is no obvious fluorescence change of HBED at 318 nm with the binding of neodymium to HBED.

  18. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  19. Lack of positive allosteric modulation of mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors by cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Foadi, Nilufar; Leuwer, Martin; Demir, Reyhan; Dengler, Reinhard; Buchholz, Vanessa; de la Roche, Jeanne; Karst, Matthias; Haeseler, Gertrud; Ahrens, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Ajulemic acid and HU210 are non-psychotropic, synthetic cannabinoids. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic plant constituent of cannabis sativa. There are hints that non-cannabinoid receptor mechanisms of these cannabinoids might be mediated via glycine receptors. In this study, we investigated the impact of the amino acid residue serine at position 267 on the glycine-modulatory effects of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. Mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors transiently expressed in HEK293 cells were studied by utilising the whole-cell clamp technique. The mutation of the alpha(1) subunit TM2 serine residue to isoleucine abolished the co-activation and the direct activation of the glycine receptor by the investigated cannabinoids. The nature of the TM2 (267) residue of the glycine alpha(1) subunit is crucial for the glycine-modulatory effect of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. An investigation of the impact of such mutations on the in vivo interaction of cannabinoids with glycine receptors should permit a better understanding of the molecular determinants of action of cannabinoids.

  20. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  1. Analytical continuation in coupling constant method; application to the calculation of resonance energies and widths for organic molecules: Glycine, alanine and valine and dimer of formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, P.; Matejčík, Š.; Mach, P.; Urban, J.; Paidarová, I.; Horáček, J.

    2013-06-01

    The method of analytic continuation in the coupling constant (ACCC) in combination with use of the statistical Padé approximation is applied to the determination of resonance energy and width of some amino acids and formic acid dimer. Standard quantum chemistry codes provide accurate data which can be used for analytic continuation in the coupling constant to obtain the resonance energy and width of organic molecules with a good accuracy. The obtained results are compared with the existing experimental ones.

  2. New organic reference materials for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements: caffeines, n-alkanes, fatty acid methyl esters, glycines, L-valines, polyethylenes, and oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F.; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Sauer, Peter E.; Sessions, Alex L.; Werner, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope−δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (caffeine). These new RMs enable users to normalize measurements of samples to isotope−δ scales. The RMs span a range of δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values from −210.8 to +397.0 mUr or ‰, for δ13CVPDB-LSVEC from −40.81 to +0.49 mUr and for δ15NAir from −5.21 to +61.53 mUr. Many of the new RMs are amenable to gas and liquid chromatography. The RMs include triads of isotopically contrasting caffeines, C16 n-alkanes, n-C20-fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), glycines, and l-valines, together with polyethylene powder and string, one n-C17-FAME, a vacuum oil (NBS 22a) to replace NBS 22 oil, and a 2H-enriched vacuum oil. A total of 11 laboratories from 7 countries used multiple analytical approaches and instrumentation for 2-point isotopic normalization against international primary measurement standards. The use of reference waters in silver tubes allowed direct normalization of δ2H values of organic materials against isotopic reference waters following the principle of identical treatment. Bayesian statistical analysis yielded the mean values reported here. New RMs are numbered from USGS61 through USGS78, in addition to NBS 22a. Because of exchangeable hydrogen, amino acid RMs currently are recommended only for carbon- and nitrogen-isotope measurements. Some amino acids contain 13C and carbon-bound organic 2H-enrichments at different molecular sites to provide RMs for potential site-specific isotopic analysis in future studies.

  3. Possible Transfer of Resistance to Heterodera glycines from Glycine tomentella to Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.; Wang, S.; Singh, R. J.; Hymowitz, T.

    1998-01-01

    Eight wild perennial Glycine species (G. argyrea, G. canescens, G. curvata, G. cyrtoloba, G. latifolia, G. microphylla, G. tabacina, and G. tomentella) were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 1, 3, and 14 of Heterodera glycines. In a second experiment, reproduction of isolates of races 3, 5, and 14 of H. glycines on five of the wild perennial species was determined. Seventy-one derived fertile lines (2n = 40) that were hybrids between G. max cv Clark 63 and G. tomentella also were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 3, 5, and 14. All of the wild perennial Glycine species were resistant (Female Indices [FI] less than 10) to all of the isolates that were tested on them. In most cases no females matured. The soybean cvs. Clark 63 and Altona, which were tested at the same time as the hybrids, were susceptible to all isolates of H. glycines tested. When the tests were combined and a single FI calculated with the average number of females on Lee 74, one derived fertile line was resistant to race 3, three derived fertile lines were resistant to race 5, and five derived fertile lines were resistant to race 14. Thus, transfer of resistance to H. glycines from G. tomentella to G. max apparently occurred. PMID:19274245

  4. Interactions between glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT-1) and some inhibitor molecules - glycine transporter type 1 and its inhibitors (review).

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Zsilla, G; Matyus, P; Nagy, K M; Marko, B; Gyarmati, Zs; Timar, J

    2012-03-01

    Glycine is a mandatory positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. Elevation of glycine concentrations by inhibition of its reuptake in the vicinity of NMDA receptors may positively influence receptor functions as glycine B binding site on NR1 receptor subunit is not saturated in physiological conditions. Synaptic and extrasynaptic concentrations of glycine are regulated by its type-1 glycine transporter, which is primarily expressed in astroglial and glutamatergic cell membranes. Alteration of synaptic glycine levels may have importance in the treatment of various forms of endogenous psychosis characterized by hypofunctional NMDA receptors. Several lines of evidence indicate that impaired NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in development of the negative (and partly the positive) symptoms and the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Inhibitors of glycine transporter type-1 may represent a newly developed therapeutic intervention in treatment of this mental illness. We have synthesized a novel series of N-substituted sarcosines, analogues of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor NFPS (N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)-propyl]sarcosine). Of the pyridazinone-containing compounds, SzV-1997 was found to be a potent glycine transporter-1 inhibitor in rat brain synaptosomes and it markedly increased extracellular glycine concentrations in conscious rat striatum. SzV-1997 did not exhibit toxic symptoms such as hyperlocomotion, restless movements, respiratory depression, and lethality, characteristic for NFPS. Besides pyridazinone-based, sarcosine-containing glycine transporter-1 inhibitors, a series of substrate-type amino acid inhibitors was investigated in order to obtain better insight into the ligand-binding characteristics of the substrate binding cavity of the transporter.

  5. Combining pharmacophore search, automated docking, and molecular dynamics simulations as a novel strategy for flexible docking. Proof of concept: docking of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-like compounds into the alphavbeta3 binding site.

    PubMed

    Moitessier, Nicolas; Henry, Christophe; Maigret, Bernard; Chapleur, Yves

    2004-08-12

    A novel and highly efficient flexible docking approach is presented where the conformations (internal degrees of freedom) and orientations (external degrees of freedom) of the ligands are successively considered. This hybrid method takes advantage of the synergistic effects of structure-based and ligand-based drug design techniques. Preliminary antagonist-derived pharmacophore determination provides the postulated bioactive conformation. Subsequent docking of this pharmacophore to the receptor crystal structure results in a postulated pharmacophore/receptor binding mode. Pharmacophore-oriented docking of antagonists is subsequently achieved by matching ligand interacting groups with pharmacophore points. Molecular dynamics in water refines the proposed complexes. To validate the method, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) containing peptides, pseudopeptides, and RGD-like antagonists were docked to the crystal structure of alphavbeta3 holoprotein and apoprotein. The proposed directed docking was found to be more accurate, faster, and less biased with respect to the protein structure (holo and apoprotein) than DOCK, Autodock, and FlexX docking methods. The successful docking of an antagonist recently cocrystallized with the receptor to both apo and holoprotein is particularly appealing. The results summarized in this report illustrated the efficiency of our light CoMFA/rigid body docking hybrid method.

  6. Integrin αvβ3 as a Promising Target to Image Neoangiogenesis Using In-House Generator-Produced Positron Emitter (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA-Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD) Ligand.

    PubMed

    Vatsa, Rakhee; Bhusari, Priya; Kumar, Sunil; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh; Singh, Gurpreet; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Shukla, Jaya; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-06-01

    For the growth and spread of a tumor beyond 2 mm, angiogenesis plays a crucial role, and association of various integrins with angiogenesis is evidential. The aim of the study was radiolabeling of DOTA-chelated RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptide with (68)Ga for PET imaging in locally advanced breast carcinoma. DOTA-RGD was incubated with (68)GaCl3, eluted in 0.05 m HCl. Elution volume, peptide amount, and reaction pH were studied. Radio-ITLC, gas chromatography, endotoxin, and sterility testing were performed. Serial (n=3) and whole-body (n=2) PET/CT imaging was done on patients post i.v. injection of 111-185 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD. Maximum radiolabeling yield was achieved with 3 mL elution volume of 15-20 μg peptide at pH 3.5-4.0 with 10 minutes of incubation at 95°C. Product samples were sterile having 99.5% radiochemical purity with residual ethanol content and endotoxins in injectable limits. Intense radiotracer uptake was noticed in the tumor with SUVmax 15.3 at 45 minutes in serial images. Physiological radiotracer uptake was seen in the liver, spleen, ventricles, and thyroid with excretion through the kidneys. The authors concluded that (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD has the potential for imaging α,vβ3 integrin-expressing tumors.

  7. Activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine receptors by taurine in preoptic hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Chun, Sang Woo; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-11-03

    Taurine is an essential amino-sulfonic acid having a fundamental function in the brain, participating in both cell volume regulation and neurotransmission. Using a whole cell voltage patch clamp technique, the taurine-activated neurotransmitter receptors in the preoptic hypothalamic area (PHA) neurons were investigated. In the first set of experiments, different concentrations of taurine were applied on PHA neurons. Taurine-induced responses were concentration-dependent. Taurine-induced currents were action potential-independent and sensitive to strychnine, suggesting the involvement of glycine receptors. In addition, taurine activated not only α-homomeric, but also αβ-heteromeric glycine receptors in PHA neurons. Interestingly, a low concentration of taurine (0.5mM) activated glycine receptors, whereas a higher concentration (3mM) activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in PHA neurons. These results suggest that PHA neurons are influenced by taurine and respond via glycine and GABAA receptors.

  8. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  9. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-05-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the catabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formation from (1-/sup 14/C)- and (2-/sup 14/C)glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate.

  10. Effect of tannic acid on properties of soybean (Glycine max) seed ferritin: a model for interaction between naturally-occurring components in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Li, Meiliang; Jia, Xiaoling; Yang, Jingyun; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Guanghua

    2012-07-15

    There are many components with different properties co-existing in food, so interactions among these components are likely to occur, thereby affecting food quality. However, relatively little information is available on such interactions. In this study, we focus on the interaction between tannic acid (TA) and soybean seed ferritin (SSF), since they co-exist in many foodstuffs, and the consequence of this interaction. As expected, TA interacts with SSF, resulting in changes in the tertiary/quaternary structure of the protein, while having no effect on its primary and secondary structure. On one hand, such interaction leads to protein association, which markedly inhibited ferritin degradation by pepsin at pH 4.0 and trypsin at pH 7.5. On the other hand, iron release was faster with TA than with ascorbic acid, and such release has a negative effect on iron supplementation. These results help to understand the interactions of food components.

  11. Beta-alanine and taurine as endogenous agonists at glycine receptors in rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro; Gähwiler, Beat H; Gerber, Urs

    2002-02-15

    Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of glycine receptors were characterized in hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate and GABA(B) receptor antagonists, pressure-application of glycine onto CA3 pyramidal cells induced a current associated with increased chloride conductance, which was inhibited by strychnine. Similar chloride currents could also be induced with beta-alanine or taurine. Whole-cell glycine responses were significantly greater in CA3 pyramidal cells than in CA1 pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells, while responses to GABA were similar among these three cell types. Although these results demonstrate the presence of functional glycine receptors in the hippocampus, no evidence for their activation during synaptic stimulation was found. Gabazine, a selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist, totally blocked evoked IPSCs in CA3 pyramidal cells. Glycine receptor activation is not dependent on transporter-controlled levels of extracellular glycine, as no chloride current was observed in response to sarcosine, an inhibitor of glycine transporters. In contrast, application of guanidinoethanesulfonic acid, an uptake inhibitor of beta-alanine and taurine, induced strychnine-sensitive chloride current in the presence of gabazine. These data indicate that modulation of transporters for the endogenous amino acids, beta-alanine and taurine, can regulate tonic activation of glycine receptors, which may function in maintenance of inhibitory tone in the hippocampus.

  12. Investigation of the mechanism of chlorination of glyphosate and glycine in water.

    PubMed

    Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Bleeke, Marian; Brosillon, Stephan; Laplanche, Alain; Roche, Pascal

    2006-09-01

    The chlorination reactions of glyphosate and glycine in water were thoroughly studied. Utilizing isotopically enriched (13C and 15N) samples of glycine and glyphosate and 1H, 13C, 31P, and 15N NMR spectroscopy we were able to identify all significant terminal chlorination products of glycine and glyphosate, and show that glyphosate degradation closely parallels that of glycine. We have determined that the C1 carboxylic acid carbon of glycine/glyphosate is quantitatively converted to CO2 upon chlorination. The C2 methylene carbon of glycine/glyphosate is converted to CO2 and methanediol. The relative abundance of these two products is a function of the pH of the chlorination reactions. Under near neutral to basic reaction conditions (pH 6-9), CO2 is the predominant product, whereas, under acidic reaction conditions (pH < 6) the formation of methanediol is favored. The C3 phosphonomethylene carbon of glyphosate is quantitatively converted to methanediol under all conditions tested. The nitrogen atom of glycine/glyphosate is transformed into nitrogen gas and nitrate, and the phosphorus moiety of glyphosate produces phosphoric acid upon chlorination. In addition to these terminal chlorination products, a number of labile intermediates were also identified including N-chloromethanimine, N-chloroaminomethanol, and cyanogen chloride. The chlorination products identified in this study are not unique to glyphosate and are similar to those expected from chlorination of amino acids, proteins, peptides, and many other natural organic matters present in drinking water.

  13. Quest for Cells Responsible for Age-related Increase of Salivary Glycine and Proline.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Horie, Norio; Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shoji; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that salivary glycine and proline levels are increased to nearly butanoate level in elderly people. In order to identify the source of glycine and proline, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of amino acid production to a total of seven oral cells before and after stimulation with inflammation inducers. We found that production of amino acids (per a given number of cells) by normal oral mesenchymal cells (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell, periodontal ligament fibroblast) was approximately three-fold that of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22), and that production of glycine and especially proline by all these seven cells was much lower than that of glutamine and glutamic acid. Treatment of three oral mesenchymal cells with interleukin (IL)-1β or lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) reproducibly increased the production of glutamic acid and glutamine, but not that of glycine and proline. Glycine and proline only marginally stimulated the IL-8 production by IL-1β-stimulated gingival fibroblast, whereas glycine dose-dependently inhibited the nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. These data demonstrated that normal oral mesenchymal cells are not the major source of glycine and proline that accumulates in the saliva of aged people, suggesting the involvement of the deregulation of collagen metabolism during aging.

  14. 76 FR 55109 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... glycine from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... 2011), entitled Glycine from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-718 (Third Review). By order of...

  15. Fast heavy-ion radiation damage of glycine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinji; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Furuya, Ryosuke; Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Fast heavy-ion radiolysis of biomolecules in aqueous solution is investigated for an atomistic understanding of radiation damage to normal cells during heavy-particle beam therapy. The smallest amino acid glycine was used as a model biomaterial. Microjets of aqueous glycine solutions under vacuum were irradiated with 4.0-MeV carbon ions corresponding to energies in the Bragg peak region. To understand the effects of the water environment on molecular damage, the yield of glycine dissociation was measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The yield was significantly reduced relative to gas-phase glycine targets. This implies that the numerous water molecules surrounding a single glycine molecule act as a buffer that suppresses dissociation. This is an environmental effect similar to that observed for other biomolecular cluster targets.

  16. A region rich in aspartic acid, arginine, tyrosine, and glycine (DRYG) mediates eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) self-association and interaction with eIF3.

    PubMed Central

    Méthot, N; Song, M S; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    The binding of mRNA to the ribosome is mediated by eukaryotic initiation factors eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), eIF4B, eIF4A, and eIF3, eIF4F binds to the mRNA cap structure and, in combination with eIF4B, is believed to unwind the secondary structure in the 5' untranslated region to facilitate ribosome binding. eIF3 associates with the 40S ribosomal subunit prior to mRNA binding. eIF4B copurifies with eIF3 and eIF4F through several purification steps, suggesting the involvement of a multisubunit complex during translation initiation. To understand the mechanism by which eIF4B promotes 40S ribosome binding to the mRNA, we studied its interactions with partner proteins by using a filter overlay (protein-protein [far Western]) assay and the two-hybrid system. In this report, we show that eIF4B self-associates and also interacts directly with the p170 subunit of eIF3. A region rich in aspartic acid, arginine, tyrosine, and glycine, termed the DRYG domain, is sufficient for self-association of eIF4B, both in vitro and in vivo, and for interaction with the p170 subunit of eIF3. These experiments suggest that eIF4B participates in mRNA-ribosome binding by acting as an intermediary between the mRNA and eIF3, via a direct interaction with the p170 subunit of eIF3. PMID:8816444

  17. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  18. A THREE-PHASE CHEMICAL MODEL OF HOT CORES: THE FORMATION OF GLYCINE

    SciTech Connect

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures {approx}40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, occurring at {approx}200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH{sub 2}, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  19. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-05-01

    Two different mutations were found in two unrelated probands with lethal chondrodysplasias, one with achondrogenesis type II and the other with the less severe phenotype of hypochondrogenesis. The mutations in the COL2A1 gene were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA followed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing and restriction site analysis. The proband with achondrogenesis type II had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted aspartate for glycine at position 310 of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II procollagen. The proband with hypochondrogenesis had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted serine for glycine at position 805. Type II collagen extracted from cartilage from the probands demonstrated the presence of type I collagen and a delayed electrophoretic mobility, indicating post-translational overmodifications. Analysis of CNBr peptides showed that, in proband 1, the entire peptides were overmodified. Examination of chondrocytes cultured in agarose or alginate indicated that there was a delayed secretion of type II procollagen. In addition, type II collagen synthesized by cartilage fragments from the probands demonstrated a decreased thermal stability. The melting temperature of the type II collagen containing the aspartate-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 4 degrees C, and that of the collagen containing the serine-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 2 degrees C. Electron microscopy of the extracellular matrix from the chondrocyte cultures showed a decreased density of matrix and the presence of unusually short and thin fibrils. Our results indicate that glycine substitutions in the N-terminal region of the type II collagen molecule can produce more severe phenotypes than mutations in the C-terminal region. The aspartate-for-glycine substitution at position 310, which was associated with defective secretion and a probable increased degradation of collagen, is the most destabilizing

  20. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-01-01

    Two different mutations were found in two unrelated probands with lethal chondrodysplasias, one with achondrogenesis type II and the other with the less severe phenotype of hypochondrogenesis. The mutations in the COL2A1 gene were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA followed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing and restriction site analysis. The proband with achondrogenesis type II had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted aspartate for glycine at position 310 of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II procollagen. The proband with hypochondrogenesis had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted serine for glycine at position 805. Type II collagen extracted from cartilage from the probands demonstrated the presence of type I collagen and a delayed electrophoretic mobility, indicating post-translational overmodifications. Analysis of CNBr peptides showed that, in proband 1, the entire peptides were overmodified. Examination of chondrocytes cultured in agarose or alginate indicated that there was a delayed secretion of type II procollagen. In addition, type II collagen synthesized by cartilage fragments from the probands demonstrated a decreased thermal stability. The melting temperature of the type II collagen containing the aspartate-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 4 degrees C, and that of the collagen containing the serine-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 2 degrees C. Electron microscopy of the extracellular matrix from the chondrocyte cultures showed a decreased density of matrix and the presence of unusually short and thin fibrils. Our results indicate that glycine substitutions in the N-terminal region of the type II collagen molecule can produce more severe phenotypes than mutations in the C-terminal region. The aspartate-for-glycine substitution at position 310, which was associated with defective secretion and a probable increased degradation of collagen, is the most destabilizing

  1. Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, Michael T.; Soh, David H.; Tylka, Gregory L.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females) and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity. PMID:24466080

  2. Environmental stress causes oxidative damage to plant mitochondria leading to inhibition of glycine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicolas L; Day, David A; Millar, A Harvey

    2002-11-08

    A cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), rapidly inhibited glycine, malate/pyruvate, and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent O2 consumption by pea leaf mitochondria. Dose- and time-dependence of inhibition showed that glycine oxidation was the most severely affected with a K(0.5) of 30 microm. Several mitochondrial proteins containing lipoic acid moieties differentially lost their reactivity to a lipoic acid antibody following HNE treatment. The most dramatic loss of antigenicity was seen with the 17-kDa glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) H-protein, which was correlated with the loss of glycine-dependent O2 consumption. Paraquat treatment of pea seedlings induced lipid peroxidation, which resulted in the rapid loss of glycine-dependent respiration and loss of H-protein reactivity with lipoic acid antibodies. Pea plants exposed to chilling and water deficit responded similarly. In contrast, the damage to other lipoic acid-containing mitochondrial enzymes was minor under these conditions. The implication of the acute sensitivity of glycine decarboxylase complex H-protein to lipid peroxidation products is discussed in the context of photorespiration and potential repair mechanisms in plant mitochondria.

  3. Glycine receptors mediate excitation of subplate neurons in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Kilb, W; Hanganu, I L; Okabe, A; Sava, B A; Shimizu-Okabe, C; Fukuda, A; Luhmann, H J

    2008-08-01

    The development of the cerebral cortex depends on genetic factors and early electrical activity patterns that form immature neuronal networks. Subplate neurons (SPn) are involved in the construction of thalamocortical innervation, generation of oscillatory network activity, and in the proper formation of the cortical columnar architecture. Because glycine receptors play an important role during early corticogenesis, we analyzed the functional consequences of glycine receptor activation in visually identified SPn in neocortical slices from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P4 rats using whole cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings. In all SPn the glycinergic agonists glycine, beta-alanine, and taurine induced dose-dependent inward currents with the affinity for glycine being higher than that for beta-alanine and taurine. Glycine-induced responses were blocked by the glycinergic antagonist strychnine, but were unaffected by either the GABAergic antagonist gabazine, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, or picrotoxin and cyanotriphenylborate, antagonists of alpha-homomeric and alpha1-subunit-containing glycine receptors, respectively. Under perforated-patch conditions, glycine induced membrane depolarizations that were sufficient to trigger action potentials (APs) in most cells. Furthermore, glycine and taurine decreased the injection currents as well as the synaptic stimulation strength required to elicit APs, indicating that glycine receptors have a consistent excitatory effect on SPn. Inhibition of taurine transport and application of hypoosmolar solutions induced strychnine-sensitive inward currents, suggesting that taurine can act as a possible endogenous agonist on SPn. In summary, these results demonstrate that SPn express glycine receptors that mediate robust excitatory membrane responses during early postnatal development.

  4. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-03

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments.

  5. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH_2^+ fragment.

  6. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine.

    PubMed

    Itälä, E; Kooser, K; Rachlew, E; Huels, M A; Kukk, E

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH(2)(+) fragment.

  7. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C–C{sub α} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  8. Development of the Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of alkoxy- and aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates.

    PubMed

    Tellam, James P; Carbery, David R

    2010-11-19

    The Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 3-alkoxy- and 3-aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates is presented. This [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement route offers direct access to syn β-alkoxy and β-aryloxy α-amino acid systems. In particular, N,N-diboc glycine esters rearrange with excellent diastereoselectivities (dr > 25:1). The synthesis of substrates, rearrangement optimization, and a discussion of stereoselection are presented.

  9. Helix packing in polytopic membrane proteins: role of glycine in transmembrane helix association.

    PubMed Central

    Javadpour, M M; Eilers, M; Groesbeek, M; Smith, S O

    1999-01-01

    The nature and distribution of amino acids in the helix interfaces of four polytopic membrane proteins (cytochrome c oxidase, bacteriorhodopsin, the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and the potassium channel of Streptomyces lividans) are studied to address the role of glycine in transmembrane helix packing. In contrast to soluble proteins where glycine is a noted helix breaker, the backbone dihedral angles of glycine in transmembrane helices largely fall in the standard alpha-helical region of a Ramachandran plot. An analysis of helix packing reveals that glycine residues in the transmembrane region of these proteins are predominantly oriented toward helix-helix interfaces and have a high occurrence at helix crossing points. Moreover, packing voids are generally not formed at the position of glycine in folded protein structures. This suggests that transmembrane glycine residues mediate helix-helix interactions in polytopic membrane proteins in a fashion similar to that seen in oligomers of membrane proteins with single membrane-spanning helices. The picture that emerges is one where glycine residues serve as molecular notches for orienting multiple helices in a folded protein complex. PMID:10465772

  10. Pharmacology of intracisternal or intrathecal glycine, muscimol, and baclofen in strychnine-induced thermal hyperalgesia of mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il Ok; Son, Jin Kook; Lim, Eui-Sung; Kim, Yeon-Soo

    2011-10-01

    Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are localized and released by the same interneurons in the spinal cord. Although the effects of glycine and GABA on analgesia are well known, little is known about the effect of GABA in strychnine-induced hyperalgesia. To investigate the effect of GABA and the role of the glycine receptor in thermal hyperalgesia, we designed an experiment involving the injection of muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) or glycine with strychnine (strychnine sensitive glycine receptor antagonist). Glycine, muscimol, or baclofen with strychnine was injected into the cisterna magna or lumbar subarachnoidal spaces of mice. The effects of treatment on strychnine-induced heat hyperalgesia were observed using the pain threshold index via the hot plate test. The dosages of experimental drugs and strychnine we chose had no effects on motor behavior in conscious mice. Intracisternal or intrathecal administration of strychnine produced thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Glycine antagonize the effects of strychnine, whereas, muscimol or baclofen does not. Our results indicate that glycine has anti-thermal hyperalgesic properties in vivo; and GABA receptor agonists may lack the binding abilities of glycine receptor antagonists with their sites in the central nervous system.

  11. Activation-induced structural change in the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; Takahashi, Hirohide; Srivats, Shyam; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the response of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor to activation. • GluN1 and GluN3A subunits interacted within transfected cells. • The GluN1/GluN3A receptor was functionally active. • Glycine or D-serine caused a ∼1 nm height reduction in bilayer-integrated receptors. • This height reduction was abolished by the glycine antagonist DCKA. - Abstract: Unlike GluN2-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which require both glycine and glutamate for activation, receptors composed of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits are activated by glycine alone. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to examine the response to activation of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor. GluN1 and GluN3A subunits were shown to interact intimately within transfected tsA 201 cells. Isolated GluN1/GluN3A receptors integrated into lipid bilayers responded to addition of either glycine or D-serine, but not glutamate, with a ∼1 nm reduction in height of the extracellular domain. The height reduction in response to glycine was abolished by the glycine antagonist 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid. Our results represent the first demonstration of the effect of activation on the conformation of this receptor.

  12. Plasma glycine and serine levels in schizophrenia compared to normal controls and major depression: relation to negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Anil, A Elif; Jin, Dai; Jayathilake, Karu; Lee, Myung; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested decreased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor function may contribute to increased negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, glycine, a co-agonist at NMDA receptors, has been reported to improve negative symptoms associated with the illness. This study was performed to determine if plasma levels of glycine or its ratio to serine, a precursor of glycine, are decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal control subjects or patients with major depression. We also tested the hypothesis that these amino acids were correlated with negative symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. Plasma levels of glycine, serine, and their ratio, were compared in 144 patients with schizophrenia, 44 patients with major depression, and 49 normal control subjects. All subjects were medication-free. Psychopathology was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Plasma glycine levels and glycine/serine ratios were decreased in patients with schizophrenia relative to control subjects and patients with major depression. By contrast, serine levels were increased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal subjects but not compared to major depression. Patients with major depression also had increased plasma serine levels and decreased glycine/serine ratios compared to normal controls, but glycine levels were not different from those of normal controls. In subjects with schizophrenia, glycine levels predicted the Withdrawal-Retardation score (BPRS), whereas no such correlation was found in subjects with major depression. These results provide additional evidence that decreased availability of glycine may be related to the pathophysiology of negative symptoms. The decreases in plasma glycine levels support the evidence for an abnormality in the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia, and provide additional support for efforts to improve negative symptoms by augmentation of

  13. Glycine, a simple physiological compound protecting by yet puzzling mechanism(s) against ischaemia–reperfusion injury: current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Petrat, Frank; Boengler, Kerstin; Schulz, Rainer; de Groot, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Ischaemia is amongst the leading causes of death. Despite this importance, there are only a few therapeutic approaches to protect from ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). In experimental studies, the amino acid glycine effectively protected from IRI. In the prevention of IRI by glycine in cells and isolated perfused or cold-stored organs (tissues), direct cytoprotection plays a crucial role, most likely by prevention of the formation of pathological plasma membrane pores. Under in vivo conditions, the mechanism of protection by glycine is less clear, partly due to the physiological presence of the amino acid. Here, inhibition of the inflammatory response in the injured tissue is considered to contribute decisively to the glycine-induced reduction of IRI. However, attenuation of IRI recently achieved in experimental animals by low-dose glycine treatment regimens suggests additional/other (unknown) protective mechanisms. Despite the convincing experimental evidence and the large therapeutic width of glycine, there are only a few clinical trials on the protection from IRI by glycine with ambivalent results. Thus, both the mechanism(s) behind the protection of glycine against IRI in vivo and its true clinical potential remain to be addressed in future experimental studies/clinical trials. PMID:22044190

  14. Glycine Transporter 1 is a Target for the Treatment of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hai-Ying; van Vliet, Erwin; Bright, Kerry-Ann; Hanthorn, Marissa; Lytle, Nikki; Gorter, Jan; Aronica, Eleonora; Boison, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brainstem and spinal cord, whereas in hippocampus glycine exerts dual modulatory roles on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and on the strychnine-insensitive glycineB site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). In hippocampus, the synaptic availability of glycine is largely under control of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). Since epilepsy is a disorder of disrupted network homeostasis affecting the equilibrium of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, we hypothesized that changes in hippocampal GlyT1 expression and resulting disruption of glycine homeostasis might be implicated in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Using two different rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) – the intrahippocampal kainic acid model of TLE in mice, and the rat model of tetanic stimulation-induced TLE – we first demonstrated robust overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation, suggesting dysfunctional glycine signaling in epilepsy. Overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation was corroborated in human TLE samples by quantitative real time PCR. In support of a role of dysfunctional glycine signaling in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, both the genetic deletion of GlyT1 in hippocampus and the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109 increased seizure thresholds in mice. Importantly, chronic seizures in the mouse model of TLE were robustly suppressed by systemic administration of the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109. We conclude that GlyT1 overexpression in the epileptic brain constitutes a new target for therapeutic intervention, and that GlyT1 inhibitors constitute a new class of antiictogenic drugs. These findings are of translational value since GlyT1 inhibitors are already in clinical development to treat cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26302655

  15. Glycine in an electronically excited state: ab initio electronic structure and dynamical calculations.

    PubMed

    Muchová, Eva; Slavícek, Petr; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Hobza, Pavel

    2007-06-21

    The goal of this study is to explore the photochemical processes following optical excitation of the glycine molecule into its two low-lying excited states. We employed electronic structure methods at various levels to map the PES of the ground state and the two low-lying excited states of glycine. It follows from our calculations that the photochemistry of glycine can be regarded as a combination of photochemical behavior of amines and carboxylic acid. The first channel (connected to the presence of amino group) results in ultrafast decay, while the channels characteristic for the carboxylic group occur on a longer time scale. Dynamical calculations provided the branching ratio for these channels. We also addressed the question whether conformationally dependent photochemistry can be observed for glycine. While electronic structure calculations favor this possibility, the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) calculations showed only minor relevance of the reaction path resulting in conformationally dependent dynamics.

  16. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  17. 76 FR 8771 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  18. 75 FR 62141 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission... from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant...

  19. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The food additive glycine may be safely used for technological purposes in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive complies with...

  20. Dissociation of gaseous zwitterion glycine-betaine by slow electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopyra, J.; Abdoul-Carime, H.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we investigate dissociation processes induced by low-energy electrons to gas phase N,N,N-trimethylglycine [glycine-betaine, (CH3)3N+CH2COO-] molecules. Glycine-betaine represents a model system for zwitterions. All negative fragments are observed to be produced only at subelectronic excitation energies (<4 eV). With the exception of the loss of a neutral H atom that could arise from any CH bond breaking, we tentatively suggest that the zwitterion dissociates exclusively from the fragmentation of the cation site of the molecule, subsequent to the attachment of the excess electron. Within the context of radiation induced damage to biological systems, the present findings contribute to a more complete description of the fragmentation mechanism occurring to amino acids, peptides, and proteins since they adopt usually a zwitterion structure.

  1. Glycine: an important potential component of spinal shock.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R K; Robertson, C S; Goodman, J C

    1993-08-01

    Amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs) play a major role in maintenance of muscle tone. Abnormal AANT concentrations are associated with hyper- or hypotonic states. Flaccidity from spinal shock commonly occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI) and may be associated with changes in AANT concentrations. Ischemic SCIs created in the lumbar region of rabbits by intraaortic balloon occlusion produced spastic or flaccid injuries. Microdialysis sampling of AANTs from the injured segmental structures was done 3 days after SCI. Evoked potentials were used to monitor spinal cord stability. No significant changes in AANT levels occurred in the spastic or flaccid group after 4 hour sampling. However, flaccid animals had baseline glycine levels 2-3 times higher (p < 0.001) than spastic animals or controls. High concentrations of the inhibitory AANT glycine is associated with flaccidity following SCI, or spinal shock, but not spasticity. Glycinergic compounds directed toward suppression of excess muscle tone deserve further study.

  2. Quantitative analysis of urinary glycine conjugates by high performance liquid chromatography: excretion of hippuric acid and methylhippuric acids in the urine of subjects exposed to vapours of toluene and xylenes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, M; Taguchi, T

    1986-01-01

    A new method for the direct determination of hippuric acid (HA) and o-, m- and p-methylhippuric acids (MHAs) in the urine, metabolites of toluene and o-, m- and p-xylenes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. A stainless-steel column packed with silica gel having dinitrophenyl residue and a mixed solution of methanol/water/acetic acid (80/20/0.2) containing tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (0.2% w/v) as mobile phase was used. Concentrations of HA and MHAs were estimated from their peak height at a wave length of 225 nm. Urine can be analyzed directly without solvent extraction or pretreatment to obtain complete separation of HA and o-, m- and p-MHAs. Urine samples from male workers exposed to toluene or xylenes were analyzed for HA or MHAs. The urinary levels of HA and MHAs increased by exposure to toluene and xylenes in proportion to the environmental concentrations of the solvents, although there is a considerable variation in metabolite concentrations. The slope of regression line between toluene and HA and that between m-xylene and m-MHA were similar. The urinary concentrations of HA and MHAs corresponding to 100 ppm (TLV) of toluene was 2.35 g/g creatinine and that of m-MHA corresponding to 100 ppm (TLV) of m-xylene was 2.05 g/g creatinine. The warning levels of the urinary metabolite concentrations of a group of workers and that of an individual worker corresponding to TLV of organic solvent concentration is discussed.

  3. Glycine receptors and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Ariel; Nguyen, Laurent; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride ion channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and the brainstem. There, they are mainly involved in motor control and pain perception in the adult. However, these receptors are also expressed in upper regions of the central nervous system, where they participate in different processes including synaptic neurotransmission. Moreover, GlyRs are present since early stages of brain development and might influence this process. Here, we discuss the current state of the art regarding GlyRs during embryonic and postnatal brain development in light of recent findings about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control brain development. PMID:24155690

  4. Influence of Heterodera glycines on Interspecific and Intraspecific Competition Associated with Glycine max and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bird, G W; Renner, K A

    1995-03-01

    The influence of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) on the interspecific and intraspecific competition associated with Glycine max (soybean) and Chenopodium album (common lambsquarters) was studied in 1988 and 1989 in three de Wit replacement series experiments in growth chambers and microplots. Glycine max was grown alone (1 plant/experimental unit), in intraspecific competition (2 plants/experimental unit), in interspecific competition with C. album, and in presence or absence of H. glycines. No significant effects of H. glycines and C. album on G. max growth were observed 14 days after planting. By 42 days after planting, both H. glycines and C. album had a negative (P = 0.05) influence on the growth of G. max. Relative crowding coefficients for G. max were lower and deviated (P = 0.05 and P = 0.001) from 1.0 in the presence of H. glycines, compared to that of C. album and early emerged C. album in the absence of the nematode, respectively. Glycine max, therefore, became less competitive than C. album. There was a trend that the presence of H. glycines decreased the competitiveness of G. max on measures of the aggressivity and relative mixture response. Heterodera glycines decreased the aggressivity of G. max (ca. 150-350%) and increased the relative effects of intraspecific interference on G. max (ca. 10-50%) and interspecific interference (ca. 60-350%) after 42 days of plant growth, compared with plants grown in the absence of H. glycines. No H. glycines x C. album interactions were detected. Observations showed that H. glycines and early emerged C. album inhibited the growth of G. max 5-13%, as measured by plant dry weight.

  5. Unique Immunogenic Proteins in Heterodera glycines Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M. J.; Schoelz, J. E.; Donald, P. A.; Niblack, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against Heterodera glycines eggshells to determine the feasibility of developing an immunoassay for H. glycines eggs. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed from anfisera collected 10 weeks after the initial injection. From serial dilutions of sonicated eggshells or whole eggs, a sensitivity of detection to 5 ng/ml sonicated eggshells or 1 egg of H. glycines was determined. The method of eggshell preparation had no effect on the antibodies produced; however, the antibodies cross-reacted with sonicated J2 of H. glycines and eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and H. schachtii. Most of the proteins in both life stages of H. glycines and eggs of M. incognita and H. schachtii had similar migration properties when separated on SDS-PAGE gels and stained with Coomassie blue. Western blot analysis, with antisera adsorbed with homogenized J2 of H. glycines, showed proteins that were specifically localized to eggshells of H. glycines. Monoclonal antibodies might provide a useful immunoassay where polyclonal antibodies lack sufficient specificity. PMID:19274159

  6. Interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Ying; Shi, Hai-Bo; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2012-09-07

    Taurine, one of the most abundant endogenous amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), is involved in neural development and many physiological functions. In this study, the interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors was investigated in young rat (P13-P15) anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine at low (0.1mM) and high (1mM) concentrations activated both GABA(A) and glycine receptors, but not AMPA and NMDA receptors. The reversal potentials of taurine-, GABA- or glycine-evoked currents were close to the expected chloride equilibrium potential, indicating that receptors activated by these agonists were mediating chloride conductance. Moreover, our results showed that the currents activated by co-application of GABA and glycine were cross-inhibitive. Sequential application of GABA and glycine or vice versa also reduced the glycine or GABA evoked currents. There was no cross-inhibition when taurine and GABA or taurine and glycine were applied simultaneously, but the response was larger than that evoked by GABA or glycine alone. These results suggest that taurine can serve as a neuromodulator to strengthen GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission in the rat AVCN.

  7. Relative hydrophobicity between the phases and partition of cytochrome-c in glycine ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changzeng; Wang, Jianji; Li, Zhiyong; Jing, Jun; Wang, Huiyong

    2013-08-30

    In this work, glycine ionic liquids tetramethylammonium glycine ([N1111][Gly]), tetraethylammonium glycine ([N2222][Gly]), tetra-n-butylammonium glycine ([N4444][Gly]), tetra-n-butylphosphonium glycine ([P4444][Gly]) and tetra-n-pentylammonium glycine ([N5555][Gly]) were synthesized and used to prepare aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) in the presence of K2HPO4. Binodal curves of such ATPSs and partition coefficients of a series of dinitrophenylated (DNP) amino acids in these ATPSs were determined at 298.15K to understand the effect of cationic structure of the ionic liquids on the phase-forming ability of glycine ionic liquids, relative hydrophobicity between the phases in the ionic liquids ATPSs, and polarity of the ionic liquids-rich phases. With the attempt to correlate the relative hydrophobicity of the phases in the ATPSs with their extraction capability for proteins, partition coefficients of cytochrome-c in the ATPSs were also determined. It was shown that partition coefficients of cytochrome-c were in the range from 2.83 to 20.7 under the studied pH conditions. Then, hydrophobic interactions between cytochrome-c and the ionic liquid are suggested to be the main driving force for the preferential partition of cytochrome-c in the glycine ionic liquid-rich phases of the ATPSs. Result derived from polarity of the ionic liquids-rich phases supports this mechanism.

  8. Allosteric modulation of glycine receptors is more efficacious for partial rather than full agonists.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Tímea; Maksay, Gábor

    2004-06-01

    Allosteric modulation of [3H]strychnine binding to glycine receptors (GlyRs) was examined in synaptosomal membranes of rat spinal cord. An allosteric model enabled us to determine the cooperativity factors of the allosteric agents with [3H]strychnine and glycine bindings (alpha and beta, respectively). We modified the allosteric model with a slope factor because the slope values of the displacement curves of partial agonists (beta-alanine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid) were beyond unity. The slope factor was reduced only by 100 microM propofol. Further, propofol showed positive cooperativity (beta < 1) stronger with taurine than with glycine. The extent of the positive cooperativity of propofol was nearly independent from the potencies and structures of partial agonists. The steroidal alphaxalone and minaxolone also potentiated taurine better than glycine. Alphaxalone exerted weak negative cooperativity with [3H]strychnine binding. Displacement by taurine is attenuated by granisetron and m-chlorophenylbiguanide representing negative cooperativity (beta > 1) greater than with glycine. The results suggest a developmental role of elevated perinatal levels of taurine and neurosteroids as well as a better allosteric modulation of decreased agonist efficacies for impaired glycine receptor-ionophores.

  9. NMDA receptor coagonist glycine site: evidence for a role in lateral hypothalamic stimulation of feeding.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B G; Butterfield, B S; Grewal, R S

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the role of the glycine coagonist binding site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in feeding control, we injected the glycine site antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK) into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of satiated rats before LH injection of NMDA, 7-CK (10-44 nmol) blocked the 6- to 10-g eating response elicited by NMDA. This block was reversed by LH pretreatment with glycine, arguing for a specific action at the glycine site. In contrast to the suppression produced by high doses, 7-CK at 0.1 nmol enhanced NMDA-elicited eating. For examination of behavioral specificity, 7-CK was injected into the LH before kainic acid (KA) or DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA). 7-CK at a dose of 0.1 nmol suppressed feeding elicited by KA or AMPA, but at 10 nmol it suppressed eating elicited by AMPA while enhancing eating elicited by KA. Finally, bilateral LH injection of 7-CK effectively suppressed eating produced by fasting. These findings support a role for the NMDA receptor coagonist glycine site in LH regulation of eating behavior.

  10. GABA and glycine are protective to mature but toxic to immature rat cortical neurons under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Qian, Hong; Xia, Ying

    2005-07-01

    Although recent studies suggest that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine may be 'inhibitory' to mature neurons, but 'excitatory' to immature neurons under normoxia, it is unknown whether inhibitory neurotransmitters are differentially involved in neuronal response to hypoxia in immature and mature neurons. In the present study, we exposed rat cortical neurons to hypoxia (1% O2) and examined the effects of three major inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA, glycine and taurine) on the hypoxic neurons at different neuronal ages [days in vitro (DIV)4-20]. Our data showed that the cortical neurons expressed both GABA(A) and glycine receptors with differential developmental profiles. GABA (10-2000 microm) was neuroprotective to hypoxic neurons of DIV20, but enhanced hypoxic injury in neurons of Glycine at low concentrations (10-100 microm) exhibited a similar pattern to GABA. However, higher concentrations of glycine (1000-2000 microm) for long-term exposure (48-72 h) displayed neuroprotection at all ages (DIV4-20). Taurine (10-2000 microm), unlike GABA and glycine, displayed protection only in DIV4 neurons, and was slightly toxic to neurons>DIV4. In comparison with delta-opioid receptor (DOR)-induced protection in DIV20 neurons exposed to 72 h of hypoxia, glycine-induced protection was weaker than that of DOR but stronger than that of GABA and taurine. These data suggest that the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitters on hypoxic cortical neurons are age-dependent, with GABA and glycine being neurotoxic to immature neurons and neuroprotective to mature neurons.

  11. Differential cytoprotection by glycine against oxidant damage to proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, K; Roeser, N F; Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M

    1996-09-01

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) injured freshly isolated proximal tubules in an Fe-dependent fashion that was ameliorated by a lipophilic antioxidant, diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), but was only minimally affected by glycine. Menadione-induced injury was Fe-independent and was unaffected by DPPD, but was strongly blocked by glycine. Fe was highly toxic when intracellular loading was facilitated by concomitant treatment with hydroxyquinoline (HQ). This toxicity was blocked by DPPD or chelating the Fe, but not by glycine. All of the lesions were characterized by severe depletion of glutathione and other soluble thiols. Menadione induced large increases in protein associated with the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton and decreases in protein thiol content, consistent with extensive cross linking, but did not increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). tBHP and HQ + Fe had either no effect or only moderate, delayed effects on cytoskeletal proteins, but induced substantial increases of TBARS. Glycine did not the alter changes in cytoskeletal proteins, thiols, or TBARS produced by any of the agents. Protection against tBHP toxicity by deferoxamine and DPPD was accompanied by substantial suppression of TBARS accumulation. Superimposition of hypoxia during tBHP exposure reduced TBARS accumulation and restored cytoprotective activity to glycine. Thus, in contrast to its consistently strong cytoprotection against a number of other insults, glycine is only variably cytoprotective against oxidant lesions in freshly isolated proximal tubules. Extensive oxidative crosslinking of proteins is compatible with maintenance of glycine cytoprotection against lethal membrane damage. Fe-induced injury to proximal tubules associated with lipid peroxidation as manifested by TBARS formation is a relatively glycine-insensitive insult.

  12. Microbial Community Responses to Glycine Addition in Kansas Prairie Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottos, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; White, R. A., III; Brislawn, C.; Fansler, S.; Kim, Y. M.; Metz, T. O.; McCue, L. A.; Jansson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding our abilities to unravel aspects of microbial community structure and function in complex systems like soil; however, characterizing the highly diverse communities is problematic, due primarily to challenges in data analysis. To tackle this problem, we aimed to constrain the microbial diversity in a soil by enriching for particular functional groups within a community through addition of "trigger substrates". Such trigger substrates, characterized by low molecular weight, readily soluble and diffusible in soil solution, representative of soil organic matter derivatives, would also be rapidly degradable. A relatively small energy investment to maintain the cell in a state of metabolic alertness for such substrates would be a better evolutionary strategy and presumably select for a cohort of microorganisms with the energetics and cellular machinery for utilization and growth. We chose glycine, a free amino acid (AA) known to have short turnover times (in the range of hours) in soil. As such, AAs are a good source of nitrogen and easily degradable, and can serve as building blocks for microbial proteins and other biomass components. We hypothesized that the addition of glycine as a trigger substrate will decrease microbial diversity and evenness, as taxa capable of metabolizing it are enriched in relation to those that are not. We tested this hypothesis by incubating three Kansas native prairie soils with glycine for 24 hours at 21 degree Celsius, and measured community level responses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Preliminary evaluation of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed minor changes in bacterial community composition in response to glycine addition. We will also present data on functional gene abundance and expression. The results of these analyses will be useful in designing sequencing strategies aimed at dissecting and deciphering complex microbial communities.

  13. A Didactic Experience of Statistical Analysis for the Determination of Glycine in a Nonaqueous Medium Using ANOVA and a Computer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Delgado, M. J.; Larrea-Tarruella, L.

    2004-01-01

    The back-titration methods are compared statistically to establish glycine in a nonaqueous medium of acetic acid. Important variations in the mean values of glycine are observed due to the interaction effects between the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique and a statistical study through a computer software.

  14. A novel treatment of global cerebral ischaemia with a glycine partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Von Lubitz, D K; Lin, R C; McKenzie, R J; Devlin, T M; McCabe, R T; Skolnick, P

    1992-08-14

    Chronic treatment of gerbils with 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (a high affinity, partial agonist at strychnine-insensitive glycine receptors) resulted in a 3-fold increase in survival, a significant improvement in neurological status, and an extensive protection of vulnerable brain regions following severe forebrain ischaemia. A bolus of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid 30 min prior to ischaemia did not further improve outcome compared to gerbils receiving their last injection 24 h prior to ischaemia. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic treatment with a glycine partial agonist desensitizes the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. Pharmacological intervention at the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor may be an effective means of ameliorating the consequences of neuronal degeneration caused by excitotoxic phenomena.

  15. Glycine decreases desensitization of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and is required for NMDA responses.

    PubMed

    Lerma, J; Zukin, R S; Bennett, M V

    1990-03-01

    In Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA, as in neurons, glycine greatly potentiated responses of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of excitatory amino acid receptor. Injected oocytes generated a partially desensitizing inward current in response to NMDA with 30 nM added glycine. As the added glycine concentration was increased from 30 nM to 1 microM, the NMDA response was increased and exhibited less desensitization. The relationship between the NMDA peak response and added glycine concentration indicated a single component response with apparent affinity of 0.29 microM and a Hill coefficient of 0.77. The desensitized response was also fit by the Hill relation with a lower affinity but similar coefficient. The time course of desensitization at 500 microM NMDA was exponential with a time constant (350 msec) that was independent of glycine concentration between 0.03 and 0.3 microM. At higher glycine concentration a slower component of decay (tau = 1.4 sec) was observed. This component was enhanced by increasing the extracellular Ca2+. NMDA without added glycine evoked a small transient response. However this response was suppressed completely by prewashing with the glycine antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid, suggesting that it may have been due to glycine contamination. The dose-response relation for low concentrations of glycine indicated that the measured level of glycine contamination accounted for these responses. These results indicate that glycine has at least two actions at the NMDA receptor: it enables channel opening by the agonist and decreases desensitization.

  16. Glycine exists mainly as monomers, not dimers, in supersaturated aqueous solutions: implications for understanding its crystallization and polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Stringfellow, Thomas C; Yu, Lian

    2008-10-22

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, is described as existing as hydrogen-bonded cyclic dimers in supersaturated aqueous solutions and, as a result, crystallizing in a centrosymmetric polymorph (polymorph alpha) for which the dimer can be viewed as the building unit, in favor of other polymorphs of polar structures. In exhibiting this relation between polymorphic selectivity and self-association in solution, glycine is thought to illustrate a general principle. We measured the freezing-point depression of glycine-water up to 30% supersaturation and found that glycine exists mainly as monomers, not dimers, and that the dimer stability constant K D is smaller than 0.1 kg of H 2O/mol if the observed osmotic abnormality is attributed to dimerization. We also revisited a report cited as evidence for glycine dimerization: the slowdown of glycine diffusion with solution age. Pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy was used in place of the previous method of Gouy interferometry to avoid perturbations to sloution structure caused by the interdiffusion between two solutions of different concentrations. No aging effect was observed on glycine diffusion up to 24% supersaturation after five days. The solute size calculated from diffusivity, viscosity, and the Stokes-Einstein relation showed no increase with concentration or solution age. We conclude that glycine exists in supersaturated aqueous solutions mainly as monomers, not dimers, and remains so upon aging. This result does not invalidate the theories of how pH and additives affect glycine's polymorphic preference, because they begin with the assumption that alpha glycine is the preferred polymorph under normal conditions, but requires a new explanation for that assumption itself.

  17. Computation of energy interaction parameters as well as electric dipole intensity parameters for the absorption spectral study of the interaction of Pr(III) with L-phenylalanine, L-glycine, L-alanine and L-aspartic acid in the presence and absence of Ca 2+ in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaienla, T.; Singh, Th. David; Singh, N. Rajmuhon; Devi, M. Indira

    2009-10-01

    Studying the absorption difference and comparative absorption spectra of the interaction of Pr(III) and Nd(III) with L-phenylalanine, L-glycine, L-alanine and L-aspartic acid in the presence and absence of Ca 2+ in organic solvents, various energy interaction parameters like Slater-Condon ( FK), Racah ( Ek), Lande factor ( ξ4f), nephelauxetic ratio ( β), bonding ( b1/2), percentage-covalency ( δ) have been evaluated applying partial and multiple regression analysis. The values of oscillator strength ( P) and Judd-Ofelt electric dipole intensity parameter Tλ ( λ = 2, 4, 6) for different 4f-4f transitions have been computed. On analysis of the variation of the various energy interaction parameters as well as the changes in the oscillator strength ( P) and Tλ values reveal the mode of binding with different ligands.

  18. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series.

  19. Survivability and reactivity of glycine and alanine in early oceans: effects of meteorite impacts.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Yuhei; Fukunaga, Nao; Sekine, Toshimori; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Nakazawa, Hiromoto

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotic oceans might have contained abundant amino acids, and were subjected to meteorite impacts, especially during the late heavy bombardment. It is so far unknown how meteorite impacts affected amino acids in the early oceans. Impact experiments were performed under the conditions where glycine was synthesized from carbon, ammonia, and water, using aqueous solutions containing (13)C-labeled glycine and alanine. Selected amino acids and amines in samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In particular, the (13)C-labeled reaction products were analyzed to distinguish between run products and contaminants. The results revealed that both amino acids survived partially in the early ocean through meteorite impacts, that part of glycine changed into alanine, and that large amounts of methylamine and ethylamine were formed. Fast decarboxylation was confirmed to occur during such impact processes. Furthermore, the formation of n-butylamine, detected only in the samples recovered from the solutions with additional nitrogen and carbon sources of ammonia and benzene, suggests that chemical reactions to form new biomolecules can proceed through marine impacts. Methylamine and ethylamine from glycine and alanine increased considerably in the presence of hematite rather than olivine under similar impact conditions. These results also suggest that amino acids present in early oceans can contribute further to impact-induced reactions, implying that impact energy plays a potential role in the prebiotic formation of various biomolecules, although the reactions are complicated and depend upon the chemical environments as well.

  20. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  1. Changes in Heterodera glycines Egg Population Density in Continuous Glycine max over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Donald, P. A.; Donald, W. W.; Keaster, A. J.; Kremer, R. J.; Kendig, J. A.; Sims, B. S.; Mihail, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is found throughout soybean production areas of the United States, but the nematode's distribution is not uniform within states, counties, and individual fields. The goal of this research was to determine the spatial pattern of H. glycines population density in a field in southeastern Missouri and whether it changed over time in the absence of management practices. Geostatistical methods were used to describe and map the distribution of H. glycines over 4 years in a soybean (Glycine max) field in southeastern Missouri. Semivariograms and kriging, an interpolation method, were used to prepare isoarithmic contour maps and associated error maps. In the field studied, fall H. glycines population density (Pf) was poorly related to density the following spring (Pi). The distribution of peak H. glycines population density within the field changed from year to year, although high densities were often detected in the same general region of the field. The patchiness of H. glycines distribution within a field was verified. Yield was not related to H. glycines egg population density at planting, indicating that unmeasured variables were also reducing yield. PMID:19270874

  2. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  3. Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P.; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H.-M.; Vandenberghe, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs available for detailed study. Four patients also had high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (>1000 U/ml), and one had high voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody (2442 pM). Seven patients with very low titres (<1:50) and unknown or alternative diagnoses were excluded from further study. Three of the remaining 45 patients had newly-identified thymomas and one had a lymphoma. Thirty-three patients were classified as progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus, and two as stiff person syndrome; five had a limbic encephalitis or epileptic encephalopathy, two had brainstem features mainly, two had demyelinating optic neuropathies and one had an unclear diagnosis. Four patients (9%) died during the acute disease, but most showed marked improvement with immunotherapies. At most recent follow-up, (2–7 years, median 3 years, since first antibody detection), the median modified Rankin scale scores (excluding the four deaths) decreased from 5 at maximal severity to 1 (P < 0.0001), but relapses have occurred in five patients and a proportion are on reducing steroids or other maintenance immunotherapies as well as symptomatic treatments. The glycine receptor antibodies activated complement on glycine receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells at room temperature, and caused internalization and lysosomal degradation of the glycine receptors at 37°C. Immunoglobulin G antibodies bound to rodent spinal cord and brainstem co-localizing with

  4. Mutation of glycine receptor subunit creates beta-alanine receptor responsive to GABA.

    PubMed

    Schmieden, V; Kuhse, J; Betz, H

    1993-10-08

    The amino acid at position 160 of the ligand-binding subunit, alpha 1, is an important determinant of agonist and antagonist binding to the glycine receptor. Exchange of the neighboring residues, phenylalanine at position 159 and tyrosine at position 161, increased the efficacy of amino acid agonists. Whereas wild-type alpha 1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes required 0.7 millimolar beta-alanine for a half-maximal response, the doubly mutated (F159Y,Y161F) alpha 1 subunit had an affinity for beta-alanine (which was more potent than glycine) that was 110-fold that of the wild type. Also, gamma-aminobutyric acid and D-serine, amino acids that do not activate wild-type alpha 1 receptors, efficiently gated the mutant channel. Thus, aromatic hydroxyl groups are crucial for ligand discrimination at inhibitory amino acid receptors.

  5. Oral supplementation with glycine reduces oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome, improving their systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Margarita; Cruz, Miguel; Duran-Reyes, Genoveva; Munguia-Miranda, Catarina; Loza-Rodríguez, Hilda; Pulido-Casas, Evelyn; Torres-Ramírez, Nayeli; Gaja-Rodriguez, Olga; Kumate, Jesus; Baiza-Gutman, Luis Arturo; Hernández-Saavedra, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species derived from abdominal fat and uncontrolled glucose metabolism are contributing factors to both oxidative stress and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of daily administration of an oral glycine supplement on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in MetS patients. The study included 60 volunteers: 30 individuals that were supplemented with glycine (15 g/day) and 30 that were given a placebo for 3 months. We analysed thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) in plasma; the enzymatic activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in erythrocytes; and the expression of CAT, GPX, and SOD2 in leukocytes. Individuals treated with glycine showed a 25% decrease in TBARS compared with the placebo-treated group. Furthermore, there was a 20% reduction in SOD-specific activity in the glycine-treated group, which correlated with SOD2 expression. G6PD activity and SNO-Hb levels increased in the glycine-treated male group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) also showed a significant decrease in the glycine-treated men (p = 0.043). Glycine plays an important role in balancing the redox reactions in the human body, thus protecting against oxidative damage in MetS patients.

  6. Kinetic study of carbon dioxide absorption into glycine promoted diethanolamine (DEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Lily; Susianto, Altway, Ali; IC, Maria Hestia; Arsi, Kartika

    2015-12-01

    In industry, especially petrochemical, oil and natural gas industry, required separation process of CO2 gas which is a corrosive gas (acid gas). This characteristic can damage the plant utility and piping systems as well as reducing the caloric value of natural gas. Corrosive characteristic of CO2 will appear in areas where there is a decrease in temperature and pressure, such as at the elbow pipe, tubing, cooler and injector turbine. From disadvantages as described above, then it is important to do separation process in the CO2 gas stream, one of the method for remove CO2 from the gas stream is reactive absorption using alkanolamine based solution with promotor. Therefore, this study is done to determine the kinetics constant of CO2 absorption in diethanolamine (DEA) solution using a glycine promoter. Glycine is chosen as a promoter because glycine is a primary amine compound which is reactive, moreover, glycine has resistance to high temperatures so it will not easy to degradable and suitable for application in industry. The method used in this study is absorption using laboratory scale wetted wall column equipment at atmospheric of pressure. This study will to provide the reaction kinetics data information in order to optimize the separation process of CO2 in the industrialized world. The experimental results show that rising temperatures from 303,15 - 328,15 K and the increase of concentration of glycine from 1% - 3% weight will increase the absorption rate of carbon dioxide in DEA promoted with glycine by 24,2% and 59,764% respectively, also the reaction kinetic constant is 1.419 × 1012 exp (-3634/T) (m3/kmol.s). This result show that the addition of glycine as a promoter can increase absorption rate of carbon dioxide in diethanolamine solution and cover the weaknesses of diethanolamine solution.

  7. Development of 2′-substituted (2S,1′R,2′S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine analogues as potent N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Risgaard, Rune; Nielsen, Simon D.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Jensen, Christina M.; Nielsen, Birgitte; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 2′-substituted analogues of the selective NMDA receptor ligand (2S,1′R,2′S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine ((S)-CCG-IV) have been designed, synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. The design was based on a docking study hypothesizing that substituents in the 2′-position would protrude into a region where differences among the NMDA receptor GluN2 subunits exist. Various synthetic routes were explored, and two different routes provided a series of alkyl-substituted analogues. Pharmacological characterization revealed that these compounds are NMDA receptor agonists and that potency decreases with increasing size of the alkyl groups. Variations in agonist activity are observed at the different recombinant NMDA receptor subtypes. This study demonstrates that it is possible to introduce substituents in the 2′-position of (S)-CCG-IV while maintaining agonist activity and that variation among NMDA receptor subtypes may be achieved by probing this region of the receptor. PMID:23614571

  8. Effects of isosmotic and hyperosmotic glycine solutions on the fluid balance in conscious sheep.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R; Hjelmqvist, H; Rundgren, M

    1989-01-01

    Glycine 0.55 g.kg-1 was given as an isosmotic (285 mosmol.kg-1) and a hyperosmotic (approx. 3,000 mosmol.kg-1) solution by intravenous infusion during 30 min to six euhydrated ewes. Urine and blood samples were collected, and the distribution of the administered water between the intra- and extracellular fluids (ICF and ECF) was calculated for up to 150 min after the infusions. Both solutions produced an osmotic diuresis with a marked increase of the urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and amino acids. A paradoxical increase of the plasma vasopressin concentration occurred from the isosmotic but not from the hyperosmotic glycine solution. At the end of the follow-up period, the isosmotic glycine solution had resulted in hyperhydration of the ICF and the hyperosmotic solution in dehydration of the ICF, whereas with both fluids, the ECF resumed the same volume as before the experiments.

  9. Modulation of calcium channels by taurine acting via a metabotropic-like glycine receptor.

    PubMed

    Albiñana, E; Sacristán, S; Martín del Río, R; Solís, J M; Hernández-Guijo, J M

    2010-11-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the central nervous system, where it displays several functions. However, its molecular targets remain unknown. It is well known that taurine can activate GABA-A and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, which increases a chloride conductance. In this study, we describe that acute application of taurine induces a dose-dependent inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medullae. This taurine effect was not explained by the activation of either GABA-A, GABA-B or strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. Interestingly, glycine mimicked the modulatory action exerted by taurine on calcium channels, although the acute application of glycine did not elicit any ionic current in these cells. Additionally, the modulation of calcium channels exerted by both taurine and glycine was prevented by the intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S. Thus, the modulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels by taurine seems to be mediated by a metabotropic-like glycinergic receptor coupled to G-protein activation in a membrane delimited pathway.

  10. Positron and electron scattering by glycine and alanine: Shape resonances and methylation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Fernanda B.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Sanchez, Sergio d'Almeida

    2016-12-01

    We report integral cross sections (ICSs) for both positron and electron scattering by glycine and alanine amino acids. These molecules differ only by a methyl group. We computed the scattering cross sections using the Schwinger multichannel method for both glycine and alanine in different levels of approximation for both projectiles. The alanine ICSs are greater in magnitude than the glycine ICSs for both positron and electron scattering, probably due to the larger size of the molecule. In electron scattering calculations, we found two resonances for each molecule. Glycine presents one at 1.8 eV, and another centered at around 8.5 eV, in the static-exchange plus polarization (SEP) approximation. The ICS for alanine shows one resonance at 2.5 eV and another at around 9.5 eV, also in SEP approximation. The results are in good agreement with most of the data present in the literature. The comparison of the electron scattering ICSs for both molecules indicates that the methylation of glycine destabilizes the resonances, shifting them to higher energies.

  11. Glycine as a regulator of tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Barchmann, Thorsten; Hort, Wiebke; Krämer, Hans-Joachim; Mayser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the addition of different amino nitrogens on growth, morphology and secondary metabolism of Malassezia furfur were investigated. After primary culture on Dixon agar, M. furfur CBS 1878 was transferred into a fluid medium together with the nitrogen sources, glycine (Gly) or tryptophan (Trp), or a combination of both. Growth was measured by means of a direct cell counting method and pigment synthesis was photometrically assessed. Addition of glycine resulted in an exponential increase in biomass, but not in pigment production. Tryptophan as the sole nitrogen source caused distinct brown staining of the medium, without increasing biomass. Simultaneous equimolar addition of both amino acids resulted in an initial increase in biomass as a sign of preferential metabolism of glycine, followed by a growth plateau and pigment production which, caused by higher biomass, occurred more rapidly than after addition of tryptophan alone. The yeast-cell morphology changed from round to oval. Addition of glycine to the tryptophan-containing liquid culture stopped pigment formation with simultaneous growth induction. These in vitro on-off phenomena depending on the nitrogen source might be significant in the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor: hyperhidrosis followed by preferential consumption of individual nitrogen sources such as glycine with exponential growth and thereafter transamination of tryptophan and TRP-dependent pigment synthesis.

  12. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current.

  13. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current. PMID:26730381

  14. Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerk, S. A.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a direct dependence between the concentration of the amino acid in a model solution and its content in the solid phase.

  15. GcsR, a TyrR-Like Enhancer-Binding Protein, Regulates Expression of the Glycine Cleavage System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Zaara; Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Grassa, Michael T.; Wang, Michael X.; Gribble, Megan; Moffat, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycine serves as a major source of single carbon units for biochemical reactions within bacterial cells. Utilization of glycine is tightly regulated and revolves around a key group of proteins known as the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Our lab previously identified the transcriptional regulator GcsR (PA2449) as being required for catabolism of glycine in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In an effort to clarify and have an overall better understanding of the role of GcsR in glycine metabolism, a combination of transcriptome sequencing and electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to identify target genes of this transcriptional regulator. It was found that GcsR binds to an 18-bp consensus sequence (TGTAACG-N4-CGTTCCG) upstream of the gcs2 operon, consisting of the gcvH2, gcvP2, glyA2, sdaA, and gcvT2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes, namely, the GCS (GcvH2-GcvP2-GcvT2), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA2), and serine dehydratase (SdaA), form a metabolic pathway for the conversion of glycine into pyruvate, which can enter the central metabolism. GcsR activates transcription of the gcs2 operon in response to glycine. Interestingly, GcsR belongs to a family of transcriptional regulators known as TyrR-like enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs). Until this study, TyrR-like EBPs were only known to function in regulating aromatic amino acid metabolism. GcsR is the founding member of a new class of TyrR-like EBPs that function in the regulation of glycine metabolism. Indeed, homologs of GcsR and its target genes are present in almost all sequenced genomes of the Pseudomonadales order, suggesting that this genetic regulatory mechanism is a common theme for pseudomonads. IMPORTANCE Glycine is required for various cellular functions, including cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. Regulating levels of glycine metabolism allows P. aeruginosa to maintain the metabolic flux

  16. Three transport systems for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine operate in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of OpuD.

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, R M; Kempf, B; Bremer, E

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from exogenous sources provides a high degree of osmotic tolerance to Bacillus subtilis. We have identified, through functional complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant defective in glycine betaine uptake, a new glycine betaine transport system from B. subtilis. The DNA sequence of a 2,310-bp segment of the cloned region revealed a single gene (opuD) whose product (OpuD) was essential for glycine betaine uptake and osmoprotection in E. coli. The opuD gene encodes a hydrophobic 56.13-kDa protein (512 amino acid residues). OpuD shows a significant degree of sequence identity to the choline transporter BetT and the carnitine transporter CaiT from E. coli and a BetT-like protein from Haemophilus influenzae. These membrane proteins form a family of transporters involved in the uptake of trimethylammonium compounds. The OpuD-mediated glycine betaine transport activity in B. subtilis is controlled by the environmental osmolarity. High osmolarity stimulates de novo synthesis of OpuD and activates preexisting OpuD proteins to achieve maximal glycine betaine uptake activity. An opuD mutant was constructed by marker replacement, and the OpuD-mediated glycine betaine uptake activity was compared with that of the previously identified multicomponent OpuA and OpuC (ProU) glycine betaine uptake systems. In addition, a set of mutants was constructed, each of which synthesized only one of the three glycine betaine uptake systems. These mutants were used to determine the kinetic parameters for glycine betaine transport through OpuA, OpuC, and OpuD. Each of these uptake systems shows high substrate affinity, with Km values in the low micromolar range, which should allow B. subtilis to efficiently acquire the osmoprotectant from the environment. The systems differed in their contribution to the overall glycine betaine accumulation and osmoprotection. A triple opuA, opuC, and opuD mutant strain was isolated, and it showed no

  17. Rapid crystallization of glycine using metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization: the effect of engineered surfaces and sample volume

    PubMed Central

    Grell, Tsehai A.J.; Pinard, Melissa A.; Pettis, Danielle; Aslan, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC), is a new approach to crystallization of drug compounds, amino acids, DNA and proteins. In this work, we report our additional findings on the effect of engineered surfaces and sample volume on the rapid crystallization of glycine. With the use of hydrophilic functionalized surfaces and the MA-MAEC technique, glycine crystals ~1 mm in size were grown in 35 seconds with 100% selectivity for the α-form.The use of moderately hydrophobic surfaces resulted in the growth of glycine crystals only at room temperature. An increase in volume of initial glycine solution (5-100 μL) resulted in an increase in crystal size without a significant increase in total crystallization time. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction results demonstrated that the glycine crystals grown on engineered surfaces were structurally identical to those grown using conventional evaporative crystallization. PMID:23336084

  18. Engineering and characterization of fluorogenic glycine riboswitches

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Simon; Gladis, Lukas; Kozica, Adnan; Meier, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A set of 12 fluorogenic glycine riboswitches with different thermodynamic and kinetic response properties was engineered. For the design of functional riboswitches, a three-part RNA approach was applied based on the idea of linking a RNA sensor, transmitter and actuator part together. For the RNA sensor and actuator part, we used the tandem glycine aptamer structure from Bacillus subtillis, and fluorogenic aptamer Spinach, respectively. To achieve optimal signal transduction from the sensor to the actuator, a riboswitch library with variable transmitter was screened with a microfluidic large-scale integration chip. This allowed us to establish the complete thermodynamic binding profiles of the riboswitch library. Glycine dissociation constants of the 12 strong fluorescence response riboswitches varied between 99.7 and 570 μM. Furthermore, the kinetic glycine binding (kon), and dissociation (koff) rates, and corresponding energy barriers of the 10 strongest fluorescence response riboswitches were determined with the same chip platform. kon and koff were in the order of 10−3s−1 and 10−2s−1, respectively. Conclusively, we demonstrate that systematic screening of synthetic and natural linked RNA parts with microfluidic chip technology is an effective approach to rapidly generate fluorogenic metabolite riboswitches with a broad range of biophysical response properties. PMID:27220466

  19. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  20. Glycine Substitutions in Collagen Heterotrimers Alter Triple Helical Assembly.

    PubMed

    Clements, Katherine A; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Walker, Douglas R; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-13

    Osteogenesis imperfecta typically results from missense mutations in the collagen genome where the required glycine residues are replaced with another amino acid. Many models have attempted to replicate the structure of mutated collagen on the triple helix level. However, composition and register control of the triple helix is complicated and requires extreme precision, especially when these destabilizing mutations are present. Here we present mutations to a composition- and register-controlled AAB helix where one of the requisite glycines in the A chain of the triple helix is changed to serine or alanine. We see a loss of compositional control when the A chain is mutated, resulting in an A'BB composition that minimizes the number of mutations included in the triple helix. However, when both A and B chains are mutated and no nonmutated peptide chains are available, the designed A'A'B' composition is reestablished. Our work shows the ability of the mutations to influence and alter the composition and register of the collagen triple helix.

  1. Pressure Effects on the Abiotic Polymerization of Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Shohei; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Hiromoto

    2007-06-01

    Polymerization experiments were performed using dry glycine under various pressures of 5 100 MPa at 150°C for 1 32 days. The series of experiments was carried out under the assumption that the pore space of deep sediments was adequate for dehydration polymerization of pre-biotic molecules. The products show various colors ranging from dark brown to light yellow, depending on the pressure. Visible and infrared spectroscopy reveal that the coloring is the result of formation of melanoidins at lower pressures. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of the products show that: (1) glycine in all the experimental runs oligomerizes from 2-mer to 10-mer; (2) the yields are dependent on pressure up to 25 MPa and decrease slightly thereafter; and (3) polymerization progressed for the first 8 days, while the amounts of oligomers remained constant for longer-duration runs of up to 32 days. These results suggest that pressure inhibits the decomposition of amino acids and encourages polymerization in the absence of a catalyst. Our results further imply that abiotic polymerization could have occurred during diagenesis in deep sediments rather than in oceans.

  2. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  3. Oral glycine administration increases brain glycine/creatine ratios in men: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Marc J.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Ongur, Dost; Evins, A. Eden; Barros, Tanya L.; Medeiros, Carissa L.; Covell, Julie; Wang, Liqun; Fava, Maurizio; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    Oral high-dose glycine administration has been used as an adjuvant treatment for schizophrenia to enhance glutamate neurotransmission and mitigate glutamate system hypofunction thought to contribute to the disorder. Prior studies in schizophrenia subjects documented clinical improvements after 2 weeks of oral glycine administration, suggesting that brain glycine levels are sufficiently elevated to evoke a clinical response within that time frame. However, no human study has reported on brain glycine changes induced by its administration. We utilized a noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique termed echo time-averaged (TEAV) 1H-MRS, which permits noninvasive quantification of brain glycine in vivo, to determine whether 2 weeks of oral glycine administration (peak dose of 0.8g/kg/day) increased brain glycine/creatine (Gly/Cr) ratios in 11 healthy adult men. In scans obtained 17 hours after the last glycine dose, brain (Gly/Cr) ratios were significantly increased. The data indicate that it is possible to measure brain glycine changes with proton spectroscopy. Developing a more comprehensive understanding of human brain glycine dynamics may lead to optimized use of glycine site agonists and glycine transporter inhibitors to treat schizophrenia, and possibly to treat other disorders associated with glutamate system dysfunction. PMID:19556112

  4. Sorption of Cu(II) complexes with ligands tartrate, glycine and quadrol by chitosan.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, Ona; Binkiene, Rima; Butkiene, Rita

    2009-11-15

    The sorption by chitosan in Cu(II) solutions containing tartrate, glycine (amino acetic acid) and quadrol (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) as ligands has been investigated. The degree of sorbate removal strongly depends on pH. In solutions containing tartrate almost complete sorption of both Cu(II) and tartrate proceeds in mildly acidic and neutral solutions. The sorption of Cu(II) is also complete in alkaline solutions containing glycine; meanwhile a substantial sorption of glycine proceeds at pH approximately 6. The Cu(II) sorption in solutions containing quadrol is insignificant. Any sorption of quadrol does not proceed in the whole range of pH investigated. The investigations under equilibrium conditions showed that the Cu(II) sorption from tartrate containing solutions obeys Freundlich equation and in solutions containing glycine and quadrol it fits Langmuir equation. Supposedly, Cu(II) sorption onto chitosan proceeds with formation of amino complexes onto the surface of chitosan; the sorption of tartrate proceeds as electrostatic as well as with formation of amide bonds. Applying of electrolysis enables a complete removal of sorbed Cu(II) and ligands without changes in physical and chemical properties of chitosan. This is confirmed by sorption ability of regenerated chitosan, measurements of its molecular weight, the deacetylation degree and FT-IR spectra.

  5. Activation of glycine receptor phase-shifts the circadian rhythm in neuronal activity in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mordel, Jérôme; Karnas, Diana; Inyushkin, Alexey; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Meissl, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In mammals, the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is composed of numerous synchronized oscillating cells that drive daily behavioural and physiological processes. Several entrainment pathways, afferent inputs to the SCN with their neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, can reset the circadian system regularly and also modulate neuronal activity within the SCN. In the present study, we investigated the function of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine on neuronal activity in the mouse SCN and on resetting of the circadian clock. The effects of glycine on the electrical activity of SCN cells from C57Bl/6 mice were studied either by patch-clamp recordings from acute brain slices or by long-term recordings from organotypic brain slices using multi-microelectrode arrays (MEA). Voltage-clamp recordings confirmed the existence of glycine-induced, chloride-selective currents in SCN neurons. These currents were reversibly suppressed by strychnine, phenylbenzene ω-phosphono-α-amino acid (PMBA) or ginkgolide B, selective blockers of glycine receptors (GlyRs). Long-term recordings of the spontaneous activity of SCN neurons revealed that glycine application induces a phase advance during the subjective day and a phase delay during the early subjective night. Both effects were suppressed by strychnine or by PMBA. These results suggest that glycine is able to modulate circadian activity by acting directly on its specific receptors in SCN neurons. PMID:21486797

  6. Effects of Glycine, Water, Ammonia, and Ammonium Bicarbonate on the Oligomerization of Methionine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of water, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, pH, and glycine on the oligomerization and degradation of methionine under high pressure (150 MPa) and high temperature conditions (175 °C) for 96 h. Methionine is more difficult to oligomerize than glycine and methionine dimer was formed in the incubation of dry powder of methionine. Methionine oligomers as long as trimers, as well as methionylglycine and glycylmethionine, were formed under every condition with these additional compounds. Among the compounds tested, the oligomerization reaction rate was accelerated by the presence of water and by an increase in pH. Ammonia also increased the oligomerization rate but consumed methionine by side reactions and resulted in the rapid degradation of methionine and its peptides. Similarly, glycine accelerated the oligomerization rate of methionine and the degradation of methionine, producing water, ammonia, and bicarbonate through its decomposition. With Gly, heterogeneous dimers (methionylglycine and glycylmethionine) were formed in greater amounts than with other additional compounds although smaller amount of these heterogeneous dimers were formed with other additional compounds. These results suggest that accelerated reaction rates induced by water and co-existing reactive compounds promote the oligomerization

  7. Effects of Glycine, Water, Ammonia, and Ammonium Bicarbonate on the Oligomerization of Methionine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-09-23

    The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of water, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, pH, and glycine on the oligomerization and degradation of methionine under high pressure (150 MPa) and high temperature conditions (175 °C) for 96 h. Methionine is more difficult to oligomerize than glycine and methionine dimer was formed in the incubation of dry powder of methionine. Methionine oligomers as long as trimers, as well as methionylglycine and glycylmethionine, were formed under every condition with these additional compounds. Among the compounds tested, the oligomerization reaction rate was accelerated by the presence of water and by an increase in pH. Ammonia also increased the oligomerization rate but consumed methionine by side reactions and resulted in the rapid degradation of methionine and its peptides. Similarly, glycine accelerated the oligomerization rate of methionine and the degradation of methionine, producing water, ammonia, and bicarbonate through its decomposition. With Gly, heterogeneous dimers (methionylglycine and glycylmethionine) were formed in greater amounts than with other additional compounds although smaller amount of these heterogeneous dimers were formed with other additional compounds. These results suggest that accelerated reaction rates induced by water and co-existing reactive compounds promote the

  8. Increased plasma concentrations of aspartate, glutamate and glycine in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Y; Ikeda, K; Shiojima, T; Kinoshita, M

    1992-10-12

    We measured fasting plasma amino acids in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 controls matched for age and sex. PD patients had significant elevations in plasma levels of aspartate, glutamate and glycine. The levels of other amino acids were not significantly different from those found in controls. No correlation was noted between PD severity and the degree of abnormality of plasma amino acids. We conclude that excitatory amino acids may be altered in patients with PD, and raise the possibility that neuroexcitotoxic mechanisms may be involved in the neurodegeneration of PD.

  9. Glycine supplementation in vitro enhances porcine preimplantation embryo cell number and decreases apoptosis but does not lead to live births

    PubMed Central

    Redel, Bethany K.; Spate, Lee D.; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Whitworth, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most in vitro culture conditions are less‐than‐optimal for embryo development. Here, we used a transcriptional‐profiling database to identify culture‐induced differences in gene expression in porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo‐produced counterparts. Genes involved in glycine transport (SLC6A9), glycine metabolism (GLDC, GCSH, DLD, and AMT), and serine metabolism (PSAT1, PSPH, and PHGDH) were differentially expressed. Addition of 10 mM glycine to the culture medium (currently containing 0.1 mM) reduced the abundance of SLC6A9 transcript and increased total cell number, primarily in the trophectoderm lineage (P = 0.003); this was likely by decreasing the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. As serine and glycine can be reversibly metabolized by serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), we assessed the abundance of SHMT2 transcript as well as its functional role by inhibiting it with aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a glycine analog, during in vitro culture. Both AMPA supplementation and elevated glycine decreased the mRNA abundance of SHMT2 and tumor protein p53 (TP53), which is activated in response to cellular stress, compared to controls (P ≤ 0.02). On the other hand, mitochondrial activity of blastocysts, mtDNA copy number, and abundance of mitochondria‐related transcripts did not differ between control and 10 mM glycine culture conditions. Despite improvements to these metrics of blastocyst quality, transfer of embryos cultured in 10 mM glycine did not result in pregnancy whereas the transfer of in vitro‐produced embryos cultured in control medium yielded live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 246–258, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. PMID:26824641

  10. Individual ((f,t) A)- and ((f,t) C)-Fullerene-Based Nickel(II) Glycinates: Protected Chiral Amino Acids Directly Linked to a Chiral π-Electron System.

    PubMed

    Levitskiy, Oleg A; Grishin, Yuri K; Semivrazhskaya, Olesya O; Ambartsumyan, Asmik A; Kochetkov, Konstantin A; Magdesieva, Tatiana V

    2017-03-01

    Stereoselective electrosynthesis of the first individual ((f,t) A)- and ((f,t) C)-1,4-fullerene derivatives with a non-inherently chiral functionalization pattern is described, as well as the first example of an optically pure protected primary amino acid directly linked to the fullerene through only the chiral α-amino-acid carbon atom. An application of an auxiliary chiral nickel-Schiff base moiety as derivatizing agent allowed separation of ((f,t) A)- and ((f,t) C)-1,4-fullerene derivatives using an achiral stationary phase, a separation which has never been done before.

  11. Degradation of glycine and alanine on irradiated quartz.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Maciej; Benko, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz P

    2013-04-01

    Recent researches suggest participation of minerals in the formation of life under primordial conditions. Among all of the minerals, quartz seems to be one of the most probable to take part in such processes. However, an external source of energy is needed, e.g. electric discharge. A device simulating the proposed conditions was designed and was used to simulate prebiotic conditions. Investigation of processes occurring during the stimulation of quartz with electric discharge was studied by means of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, in order to monitor the generation kinetics of free radicals. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy was applied to identify chemical reaction products created in a solution of alanine or glycine, in the presence of quartz treated with electric discharge. Formation of increased amounts of free radicals, compared to experiments performed without quartz and/or amino acid, is reported, along with identification of possible degradation products of alanine. No synthetic reactions were observed.

  12. Developmental expression of glycine immunoreactivity and its colocalization with GABA in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Berki, A C; O'Donovan, M J; Antal, M

    1995-11-27

    The development of immunoreactivity for the putative inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter glycine was investigated in the embryonic and posthatched chick lumbosacral spinal cord by using postembedding immunocytochemical methods. Glycine immunoreactive perikarya were first observed at embryonic day 8 (E8) both in the dorsal and ventral gray matters. The number of immunostained neurons sharply increased by E10 and was gradually augmented further at later developmental stages. The general pattern of glycine immunoreactivity characteristic of mature animals had been achieved by E12 and was only slightly altered afterward. Most of the immunostained neurons were located in the presumptive deep dorsal horn (laminae IV-VI) and lamina VII, although glycine-immunoreactive neurons were scattered throughout the entire extent of the spinal gray matter. By using some of our previously obtained and published data concerning the development of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons in the embryonic chick lumbosacral spinal cord, we have compared the numbers, sizes, and distribution of glycine- and GABA-immunoreactive spinal neurons at various developmental stages and found the following marked differences in the developmental characteristics of these two populations of putative inhibitory interneurons. (i) GABA immunoreactivity was expressed very early (E4), whereas immunoreactivity for glycine appeared relatively late (E8) in embryonic development. (ii) In the ventral horn, GABA immunoreactivity declined, whereas immunoreactivity for glycine gradually increased from E8 onward in such a manner that the sum of glycinergic and GABAergic perikarya remained constant during the second half of embryonic development. (iii) Glycinergic and GABAergic neurons showed different distribution patterns in the spinal gray matter throughout the entire course of embryogenesis as well as in the posthatched animal. When investigating the colocalization of glycine and GABA immunoreactivities

  13. Chlorine transfer between glycine, taurine, and histamine: reaction rates and impact on cellular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Alexander V; Midwinter, Robyn G; Harwood, David T; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2005-02-01

    Hypochlorous acid formed by activated neutrophils reacts with amines to produce chloramines. Chloramines vary in stability, reactivity, and cell permeability. We have examined whether chloramine exchange occurs between physiologically important amines or amino acids and if this affects interactions of chloramines with cells. We have demonstrated transchlorination reactions between histamine, glycine, and taurine chloramines by measuring chloramine decay rates with mixtures as well as by mass spectrometry. Kinetic analysis suggested the formation of an intermediate complex with a high Km. Apparent second-order rate constants, determined for concentrations glycine chloramine (Gly-Cl) and taurine, Gly-Cl and histamine, histamine chloramine and glycine, and taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) and glycine, respectively. Thus with 10 mM amine concentrations, half-lives for chloramine exchange are of the order of a few minutes. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity in cells was measured as an indicator of permeability of the chloramines. When endothelial or Jurkat cells were treated in Hanks' buffer, Gly-Cl inhibited GAPDH, whereas Tau-Cl, which does not penetrate the cells, did not. Adding glycine to Tau-Cl brought about inhibition, whereas taurine mitigated the effect of Gly-Cl. For cells in full medium, high chloramine concentrations were needed to inhibit GAPDH because of scavenging by methionine and other constituents. In methionine-free medium, chlorine exchange resulted in GAPDH inhibition by Tau-Cl, whereas Gly-Cl was less effective than in Hanks' buffer. Thus interchange between chloramines occurs readily and modulates their cellular effects.

  14. Chlorine transfer between glycine, taurine, and histamine: reaction rates and impact on cellular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Alexander V; Midwinter, Robyn G; Harwood, David T; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2004-11-15

    Hypochlorous acid formed by activated neutrophils reacts with amines to produce chloramines. Chloramines vary in stability, reactivity, and cell permeability. We have examined whether chloramine exchange occurs between physiologically important amines or amino acids and if this affects interactions of chloramines with cells. We have demonstrated transchlorination reactions between histamine, glycine, and taurine chloramines by measuring chloramine decay rates with mixtures as well as by mass spectrometry. Kinetic analysis suggested the formation of an intermediate complex with a high K(m). Apparent second-order rate constants, determined for concentrations glycine chloramine (Gly-Cl) and taurine, Gly-Cl and histamine, histamine chloramine and glycine, and taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) and glycine, respectively. Thus with 10 mM amine concentrations, half-lives for chloramine exchange are on the order of a few minutes. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity in cells was measured as an indicator of permeability of the chloramines. When endothelial or Jurkat cells were treated in Hanks' buffer, Gly-Cl inhibited GAPDH, whereas Tau-Cl, which does not penetrate the cells, did not. Adding glycine to Tau-Cl brought about inhibition, whereas taurine mitigated the effect of Gly-Cl. For cells in full medium, high chloramine concentrations were needed to inhibit GAPDH because of scavenging by methionine and other constituents. In methionine-free medium, chlorine exchange resulted in GAPDH inhibition by Tau-Cl, whereas Gly-Cl was less effective than in Hanks' buffer. Thus interchange between chloramines occurs readily and modulates their cellular effects.

  15. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  16. Glycine post-synthetic modification of MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic framework with enhanced and stable peroxidase-like activity for sensitive glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenfei; Yang, Liaoyuan; Huang, Yuming

    2017-05-15

    A facile and rapid post-synthetic strategy was proposed to prepare a glycine functionalized MIL-53(Fe), namely glycine-MIL-53(Fe), by a simple mixing of water dispersible MIL-53(Fe) and glycine. The FT-IR, SEM, XRD and zeta potential were used to characterize the glycine-MIL-53(Fe). The result showed that glycine post-synthetic modification of MIL-53(Fe) did not change in the morphology and crystal structure of MIL-53(Fe). Interestingly, compared with MIL-53(Fe), the glycine-MIL-53(Fe) exhibits an enhanced peroxidase-like activity, which could catalyze the oxidation of TMB by H2O2 to produce an intensive color reaction. Kinetic analysis indicated that the Km of glycine-MIL-53(Fe) for TMB was one-tenth of that of MIL-53(Fe). The glycine-MIL-53(Fe) as peroxidase mimetic displays better stability under alkaline or acidic conditions than MIL-53(Fe). The good performance of glycine-MIL-53(Fe) over MIL-53(Fe) may be attributed to the increase of affinity between TMB and the glycine-MIL-53(Fe). With these characteristics, a simple and sensitive method was developed for the detection of H2O2 and glucose. The linear detection range for H2O2 is 0.10-10μM with a detection limit of 49nM, and glucose could be linearly detected in the range from 0.25 to 10μM with a detection limit of 0.13μM. The proposed method was successfully used for glucose detection in human serum samples.

  17. Decontamination of solutions containing Cu(II) and ligands tartrate, glycine and quadrol using metallic iron.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, Ona; Vengris, Tomas; Nivinskiene, Ona; Binkiene, Rima

    2010-03-15

    Decontamination of solutions containing Cu(II) complexes with tartrate, glycine and quadrol (N,N,N'N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) using metallic iron depends on pH and proceeds best in mildly acidic solutions. Cu(II) is completely removed from all solutions containing the ligands investigated. The degree of ligand removal from solutions considerably differs. Tartrate is relatively rapidly and completely removed from solutions. A complete removal of glycine is prolonged. The removal of quadrol from solutions using metallic iron is negligible. Electrochemical investigations showed that tartrate and glycine have inhibitory influence on anodic dissolution of iron at pH 2 and enhance it at pH 4. Quadrol does not exhibit any significant influence on iron dissolution. Chemical analysis and FT-IR investigations have shown that the content of organic compounds is the greatest in the precipitate formed in solutions containing tartrate, while it is considerably lower in glycine containing solutions. The precipitate formed in quadrol-containing solutions during the treatment with metallic iron contains only negligible amount of organics.

  18. Taurine acts as a glycine receptor agonist in slices of rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Wang, Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Xu, Tian-Le; Chen, Lin

    2006-10-01

    Taurine is an important endogenous amino acid for neural development and for many physiological functions, but little is known about its functional role in the central auditory system. We investigated in young rats (P10-P14) the effects of taurine on the neuronal responses and synaptic transmissions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) with a brain slice preparation and with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Perfusion of taurine at 1mM reliably evoked a current across the membrane and decreased the input resistance in neurons of the ICC. Taurine also depressed the spontaneous and current-evoked firing of ICC neurons. All these effects were reversible after washout and could be blocked by 3 microM strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptors, but not by 10 microM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABA(A) receptors. When the inhibitory receptors were not pharmacologically blocked, taurine reversibly reduced the postsynaptic currents/potentials evoked by electrically stimulating the commissure of the inferior colliculus or the ipsilateral lateral lemniscus. The results demonstrate that taurine reduces the neuronal excitability and depresses the synaptic transmission in the ICC by activating glycine-gated chloride channels. Our findings suggest that taurine acts as a ligand of glycine receptors in the ICC and can be involved in the information processing of the central auditory system similarly like the neurotransmitter glycine.

  19. Characterization of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in acutely isolated adult rat basolateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    McCool, B A; Botting, S K

    2000-03-24

    Large concentrations of the beta-amino acid, taurine, can be found in many forebrain areas such as the basolateral amygdala, a portion of the limbic forebrain intimately associated with the regulation of fear/anxiety-like behaviors. In addition to its cytoprotective and osmoregulatory roles, taurine may also serve as an agonist at GABA(A)- and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. In this latter context, the present study demonstrates that application of taurine to acutely isolated neurons from the basolateral amygdala of adult rats causes significant alterations in resting membrane current, as measured by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Using standard pharmacological approaches, we find that currents gated by concentrations of taurine glycine receptors expressed in brainstem and spinal cord. While amygdala glycine receptors can be distinguished from GABA(A) receptors expressed by the same neurons, these two chloride channels are functionally expressed at comparable levels. Given that a number of clinically relevant compounds are associated with the regulation of GABA(A) receptors in this brain region, the presence of both strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and their agonist, taurine, in the basolateral amygdala may suggest an important role for these receptors in the limbic forebrain of adult rats.

  20. Binding of glycine and L-cysteine on Si(111)-7 x 7.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing Yan; Ning, Yue Sheng; Yong, Kian Soon; Cai, Ying Hui; Tang, Hai Hua; Shao, Yan Xia; Alshahateet, Solhe F; Sun, Yue Ming; Xu, Guo Qin

    2007-05-22

    The adsorption of glycine and l-cysteine on Si(111)-7 x 7 was investigated using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The observation of the characteristic vibrational modes and electronic structures of NH3+ and COO- groups for physisorbed glycine (l-cysteine) demonstrates the formation of zwitterionic species in multilayers. For chemisorbed molecules, the appearance of nu(Si-H), nu(Si-O), and nu(C=Omicron) and the absence of nu(O-H) clearly indicate that glycine and l-cysteine dissociate to produce monodentate carboxylate adducts on Si(111)-7 x 7. XPS results further verified the coexistence of two chemisorption states for each amino acid, corresponding to a Si-NH-CH2-COO-Si [Si-NHCH(CH2SH)COO-Si] species with new sigma-linkages of Si-N and Si-O, and a NH2-CH2-COO-Si [NH2CH(CH2SH)COO-Si] product through the cleavage of the O-H bond, respectively. Glycine/Si(111)-7 x 7 and l-cysteine/Si(111)-7 x 7 can be viewed as model systems for further modification of Si surfaces with biological molecules.

  1. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-23

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  2. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  3. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    PubMed

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.

  4. Synthesis of glycine-containing complexes in impacts of comets on early Earth.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Nir; Reed, Evan J; Fried, Laurence E; William Kuo, I-F; Maiti, Amitesh

    2010-11-01

    Delivery of prebiotic compounds to early Earth from an impacting comet is thought to be an unlikely mechanism for the origins of life because of unfavourable chemical conditions on the planet and the high heat from impact. In contrast, we find that impact-induced shock compression of cometary ices followed by expansion to ambient conditions can produce complexes that resemble the amino acid glycine. Our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that shock waves drive the synthesis of transient C-N bonded oligomers at extreme pressures and temperatures. On post impact quenching to lower pressures, the oligomers break apart to form a metastable glycine-containing complex. We show that impact from cometary ice could possibly yield amino acids by a synthetic route independent of the pre-existing atmospheric conditions and materials on the planet.

  5. Cysteamine inhibition of (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in cystinosis and of glycine cleavage system in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yudkoff, M.; Nissim, I.; Schneider, A.; Segal, S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to clarify the hyperglycinemic effect of cysteamine treatment in children with nephropathic cystinosis, we measured (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in three affected patients. Administration of cysteamine lowered the glycine flux and the glycine metabolic clearance rate but did not alter the glycine pool size. Formation of (/sup 15/N)-serine from (/sup 15/N)-glycine was lower in untreated patients than in control subjects and was reduced still further by cysteamine. Studies in vitro with isolated rat liver mitochondria and acetone extracts of mitochondria indicated that even low cysteamine concentrations (0.1 mM) inhibited the glycine cleavage system in both the direction of glycine oxidation and glycine synthesis. Cysteamine was a more potent inhibitor of the glycine cleavage system than any other sulfhydryl containing compound. Although no ill effects of cysteamine treatment were immediately apparent, patients receiving cysteamine should be monitored carefully for the appearance of any neurologic symptoms which might be referable to inhibition of the glycine cleavage system.

  6. Metabolism of glycine- and hydroxyproline-containing peptides by the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Lowry, M; Hall, D E; Brosnan, J T

    1985-07-15

    Isolated perfused rat kidneys removed considerable quantities of glycyltyrosine, glycylhydroxyproline, tetraglycine and prolylhydroxyproline from the perfusate. The component amino acids are released into the perfusate and, in the case of the glycine-containing peptides, there is increased synthesis of serine. Removal of peptides was more than could be accounted for on the basis of filtration, so antiluminal metabolism is indicated. Metabolism of such peptides by the kidney may contribute to renal serine synthesis in vivo.

  7. Metabolism of glycine- and hydroxyproline-containing peptides by the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, M; Hall, D E; Brosnan, J T

    1985-01-01

    Isolated perfused rat kidneys removed considerable quantities of glycyltyrosine, glycylhydroxyproline, tetraglycine and prolylhydroxyproline from the perfusate. The component amino acids are released into the perfusate and, in the case of the glycine-containing peptides, there is increased synthesis of serine. Removal of peptides was more than could be accounted for on the basis of filtration, so antiluminal metabolism is indicated. Metabolism of such peptides by the kidney may contribute to renal serine synthesis in vivo. PMID:4038280

  8. Conformational properties of surfactant-like peptides with variable glycine tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkın, Handan

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structures of surfactant-like peptides containing 4-10 glycines as the components of the hydrophobic tails and aspartic acids as the hydrophilic heads (G 4D 2, G 6D 2, G 8D 2, G 10D 2) are investigated by using the multicanonical simulation procedure. The thermodynamically most stable low energy structures of the sequences are determined. Ramachandran plots are prepared and analyzed to predict the secondary structure motifs of the molecules.

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron(III)-Glycine Formation Constant in Aqueous Medium Using Competitive Ligand Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Rajendra; Prasad, Surendra

    2009-01-01

    The formation constant of iron(III) complex with glycine (Gly) ligand in aqueous acidic medium (0.2 M HNO[subscript 3], I = 0.2 M at 28 plus or minus 1 degree C) was determined spectrophotometrically in which a competing color reaction between Fe(III) and SCN[superscript -] was used as an indicator reaction. Under the specified conditions Fe(III)…

  10. Evaluation of mechanical properties of some glycine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju, D.; Raja Shekar, P. V.; Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Rao, K. Kishan; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2014-04-24

    The variation of Vickers hardness with load for (101) glycine zinc chloride (GZC), (001) glycine lithium sulphate (GLS), (001) triglycine sulphate (TGS) and (010) glycine phosphite (GPI) crystals was studied. From the cracks initiated along the corners of the indentation impression, crack lengths were measured and the fracture toughness value and brittle index number were determined. The hardness related parameters viz. yield strength and Young’s modulus were also estimated. The anisotropic nature of the crystals was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  11. A cDNA encoding a cold-induced glycine-rich RNA binding protein from Prunus avium expressed in embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Stephen, John R; Dent, Katherine C; Finch-Savage, William E

    2003-11-27

    A cDNA clone encoding a presumed full-length glycine-rich ribonucleic acid (RNA) binding protein was isolated from a lambda-ZAP Express cDNA library generated from primarily nondormant Prunus avium (wild cherry) embryonic axes. The cDNA, designated Pa-RRM-GRP1 (Prunus avium RNA recognition motif glycine-rich protein 1), contains a single N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM) and single C-terminal glycine-rich domain. The glycine-rich domain is unusually long at 91 amino acids, 58 of which are glycines. The 534-base pair (bp) open reading frame (ORF) of this clone encodes a 178-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 17.33 kDa and pI of 7.84. Comparative sequence alignment of Pa-RRM-GRP1 reveals extensive homology to known and presumed glycine-rich RNA binding proteins from angiosperms and gymnosperms. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that this gene exists as a single copy in P. avium. Expression of this gene in P. avium embryonic axes during low-temperature dormancy-breaking treatments was studied and found to be induced by cold (3 degrees C) using real-time PCR of total cDNA supported by Northern blot analysis of total RNA. Expression dropped during prolonged storage at 3 degrees C and was reduced to control levels by interruption of cold treatment by warming to 20 degrees C.

  12. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of gallium-68-labeled glycine and hippurate conjugates for positron emission tomography renography.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Gopal; Hedrick, Andria F; January, Spenser E; Galbraith, Wendy K; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Arnold, Charles D; Cowley, Benjamin D; Gali, Hariprasad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four new (68) Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-cyclododeca-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)/1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid derived (NODAGA)-glycine/hippurate conjugates and select a lead candidate for potential application in positron emission tomography (PET) renography. The non-metallated conjugates were synthesized by a solid phase peptide synthesis method. The (68) Ga labeling was achieved by reacting an excess of the non-metallated conjugate with (68) GaCl4 (-) at pH -4.5 and 10-min incubation either at room temperature for NODAGA or 90 °C for DOTA. Radiochemical purity of all (68) Ga conjugates was found to be >98%. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine displayed the lowest serum protein binding (0.4%) in vitro among the four (68) Ga conjugates. Biodistribution of (68) Ga conjugates in healthy Sprague Dawley rats at 1-h post-injection revealed an efficient clearance from circulation primarily through the renal-urinary pathway with <0.2% of injected dose per gram remaining in the blood. The kidney/blood and kidney/muscle ratios of (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine were significantly higher than other (68) Ga conjugates. On the basis of these results, (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine was selected as the lead candidate. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine PET renograms obtained in healthy rats suggest (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine as a PET alternate of (99m) Tc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA).

  13. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  14. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  15. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  16. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  17. Isolation of a mRNA encoding a glycine-proline-rich beta-keratin expressed in the regenerating epidermis of lizard.

    PubMed

    Dalla Valle, Luisa; Toffolo, Vania; Belvedere, Paola; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    During scale regeneration in lizard tail, an active differentiation of beta-keratin synthesizing cells occurs. The cDNA and amino acid sequence of a lizard beta-keratin has been obtained from mRNA isolated from regenerating epidermis. Degenerate oligonucleotides, selected from the translated amino acid sequence of a lizard claw protein, were used to amplify a specific lizard keratin cDNA fragment from the mRNA after reverse transcription with poly dT primer and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, 3'-RACE). The new sequence was used to design specific primers to obtain the complete cDNA sequence by 5'-RACE. The 835-nucleotide cDNA sequence encodes a glycine-proline-rich protein containing 163 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa; 4.3% of its amino acids is represented by cysteine, 4.9% by tyrosine, 8.0% by proline, and 29.4% by glycine. Tyrosine is linked to glycine, and proline is present mainly in the central region of the protein. Repeated glycine-glycine-X and glycine-X amino acid sequences are localized near the N-amino and C-terminal regions. The protein has the central amino acid region similar to that of claw-feather, whereas the head and tail regions are similar to glycine-tyrosine-rich proteins of mammalian hairs. In situ hybridization analysis at light and electron microscope reveals that the corresponding mRNA is expressed in cells of the differentiating beta-layers of the regenerating scales. The synthesis of beta-keratin from its mRNA occurs among ribosomes or is associated with the surface of beta-keratin filaments.

  18. Activation of a glycine transporter on spinal cord neurons causes enhanced glutamate release in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Raiteri, Luca; Paolucci, Egle; Prisco, Simona; Raiteri, Maurizio; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2003-01-01

    The release of [3H]D-aspartate ([3H]D-ASP) or [3H]GABA evoked by glycine from spinal cord synaptosomes was compared in mice expressing mutant human SOD1 with a Gly93 Ala substitution ([SOD1-G93A(+)]), a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and in control mice. Mice expressing mutated SOD1 were killed at the advanced phase of the pathology, when they showed signs of ingestion disability, because of paralysis of the posterior limbs. In control mice glycine concentration-dependently evoked [3H]D-ASP and [3H]GABA release. Potentiation of the spontaneous release of both amino acids is likely to be mediated by activation of a glycine transporter, since the effects of glycine were counteracted by the glycine transporter blocker glycyldodecylamide but not by the glycine receptor antagonists strychnine and 5,7-dichlorokynurenate. The glycine-evoked release of [3H]D-ASP, but not that of [3H]GABA, was significantly more pronounced in SOD1-G93A(+) than in control animals. PMID:12684256

  19. Glycine-coated photoluminescent silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Vira V.; Culhane, Kyle; Dmitruk, Igor M.; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2012-03-01

    We present experimental results on the multicolor (blue and green) photoluminescence from glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles which can be used as novel probes for bio-imaging. Glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles were synthesized using thermal reduction of silver nitrate in a glycine matrix, according to a modified procedure described in literature. The size characterization with mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the diameters of luminescent silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles vary from 0.5 nm to 17 nm. Extinction spectroscopy revealed that the absorption band of the luminescent nanoclusters and nanoparticles was blue-shifted as compared to the nonluminescent larger silver nanoparticles. This effect indicated the well-known size dependence of the surface plasmon resonance in silver. The most pronounced photoluminescence peak was observed around 410 nm (characteristic SPR wavelength for silver) which strongly suggests the enhancement of the photoluminescence from silver nanoparticles by the SPR. The relative quantum yield of the photoluminescence of silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles was evaluated to be 0.09. In terms of their small size, brightness and photostability, noble metal nanoclusters and nanoparticles hold the most promise as candidates for biological cell imaging, competing with commonly used semiconductor quantum dots, fluorescent proteins and organic dyes. When applied to the problem of intracellular imaging, metal nanoclusters and small nanoparticles offer advantages over their much larger sized semiconductor counterparts in terms of ease of biological delivery. In addition, noble metal nanoparticles and nanoclusters are photostable. The high quantum yield (QY) of the photoluminescence emission signal enables the isolation of their photoluminescence from the cellular autofluorescence in cell imaging, improving the image contrast.

  20. Evaluating Progeny of Glycine max by Glycine tomentella for Novel Disease Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization with wild relatives of crops is an important tool for improving traits such as disease resistance and our objective is to expand the use of wild relatives for disease resistance in soybean. Glycine tomentella (2n=78) is a wild, perennial species in the tertiary gene pool of soybean (G....

  1. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  2. Glycine transport accounts for the differential role of glycine vs. D-serine at NMDA receptor coagonist sites in the salamander retina

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Eric R.; Gustafson, Eric C.; Miller, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that D-serine interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist sites of retinal ganglion cells of the tiger salamander retina by showing that exogenous D-serine overcomes the competitive antagonism of 7-chlorokynurenic acid for this site. Additionally, we show that exogenous D-serine was more than 30 times as effective at potentiating NMDAR currents compared with glycine. We thus examined the importance of glycine transport through the application of selective antagonists of the GlyT1 (NFPS) and GlyT2 (ALX-5670) transport systems, while simultaneously evaluating the degree of occupancy of the NMDAR coagonist binding sites. Analysis was carried out with electrophysiological recordings from the inner retina, including whole-cell recordings from retinal ganglion cells and extracellular recordings of the proximal negative field potential. Blocking the GlyT2 transport system had no effect on the light-evoked NMDAR currents or on the sensitivity of these currents to exogenous D-serine. In contrast, when the GlyT1 system was blocked, the coagonist sites of NMDARs showed full occupancy. These findings clearly establish the importance of the GlyT1 transporter as an essential component for maintaining the coagonist sites of NMDARs in a non-saturated state. The normal, unsaturated state of the NMDAR coagonist binding sites allows modulation of the NMDAR currents, by release of either D-serine or glycine. These results are discussed in light of contemporary findings which favor D-serine over glycine as the major coagonist of the NMDARs found in ganglion cells of the tiger salamander retina. PMID:20374282

  3. Barrier-free intermolecular proton transfer in the uracil-glycine complex induced by excess electron attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, M.; Dąbkowska, I.; Rak, J.; Xu, S.; Nilles, J. M.; Radisic, D.; Bowen, K. H., Jr.

    2002-09-01

    The photoelectron spectra (PES) of anions of uracil-glycine and uracil-phenylalanine complexes reveal broad features with maxima at 1.8 and 2.0 eV. The results of ab initio density functional B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset theory calculations indicate that the excess electron occupies a π^* orbital localized on uracil. The excess electron attachment to the complex can induce a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) from the carboxylic group of glycine to the O8 atom of uracil. As a result, the four most stable structures of the anion of uracil-glycine complex can be characterized as the neutral radical of hydrogenated uracil solvated by the anion of deprotonated glycine. The similarity between the PES spectra for the uracil complexes with glycine and phenylalanine suggests that the BFPT is also operative in the case of the latter anionic species. The BFPT to the O8 atom of uracil may be related to the damage of nucleic acid bases by low energy electrons because the O8 atom is involved in a hydrogen bond with adenine in the standard Watson-Crick pairing scheme.

  4. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  5. Effect of bromide ion on the reaction pathway between hydroxyl radical and glycine.

    PubMed

    Ying, Liwen; Dong, Wenbo; Yuan, Haixia; Liu, Yan; Ma, Luming

    2015-06-01

    Br(-) and nitrogen-containing organic pollutants, such as amino acids, protein, etc., were often detected in water and wastewater treatment plants using advanced oxidation technologies. All these technologies have one common characteristic, that is, the removal processes involve ·OH. Therefore, it is necessary to study the different reaction pathways among ·OH, Br(-), and amino acids. In this research, glycine was chosen as the representative of amino acids and H2O2 was selected as ·OH precursor. Results showed that Br(-) had a shielding effect on [Formula: see text] of α-carbon in glycine, when it was abstracted by ·OH. The main reaction pathway in the system containing Br(-) was the abstraction of H from amino group in glycine by ·OH, contributing 85 % of total abstracted H. This system had a prominent phenomenon of decarboxylation and performed as alkali production dominating. However, in the system not containing Br(-), the main reaction pathway was the abstraction of H from α-carbon in glycine by ·OH, contributing 97 % of total abstracted H. This system performed as acid production dominating. By laser flash photolysis, the second-order rate constants of abstraction of H from both α-carbon and amino group in glycine by ·OH were obtained as (3.3 ± 0.5) × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1) and (8.2 ± 0.8) × 10(8) M(-1)·s(-1), respectively. The second-order rate constants of the reaction between [Formula: see text], HṄCH2COO(-) and H2O2 were (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1) and (4.4 ± 0.3) × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1), respectively. In addition, Br(-) was found to play a catalytic role in the decomposition of H2O2 under UV radiation. The results mentioned above were significant for the application of advanced oxidation technologies for water containing both amino acids and Br(-) in water and wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid- and fibrinogen gamma-chain carboxyterminal peptides inhibit platelet adherence to arterial subendothelium at high wall shear rates. An effect dissociable from interference with adhesive protein binding.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J B; Kramer, W S; McKeown, L P; Williams, S B; Gralnick, H R

    1990-01-01

    Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)- and fibrinogen gamma-chain carboxyterminal (GQQHHLGGAKQAGDV) peptides inhibit fibrinogen, fibronectin (Fn), vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding to the platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (GP IIb-IIIa). GP IIb-IIIa, vWF, and Fn are essential for normal platelet adherence to subendothelium. We added peptides to normal citrated whole blood before perfusion over human umbilical artery subendothelium and evaluated platelet adherence morphometrically at high (2,600 s-1) and low (800 s-1) wall shear rates. We also examined the effects of the peptides on platelet adhesion to collagen in a static system. At the high wall shear rate, RGDS and GQQHHLGGAKQAGDV caused dose-dependent reduction in the surface coverage with spread and adherent platelets. Amino acid transposition and conservative substitutions of RGD peptides and the AGDV peptide significantly inhibited platelet adherence at 2,600 s-1. By contrast, the modified RGD peptides and AGDV do not affect adhesive protein binding to platelets. None of the native or modified RGD- or fibrinogen gamma-chain peptides significantly inhibited either platelet adherence to subendothelium at 800 s-1 or platelet adhesion to collagen. Our findings demonstrate that peptides that interfere with adhesive protein binding to GP IIb-IIIa inhibit platelet adherence to vascular subendothelium with flowing blood only at high wall shear rates. Platelet adherence to subendothelium at high wall shear rates appears to be mediated by different recognition specificities from those required for fluid-phase adhesive protein binding or static platelet adhesion. PMID:2243140

  7. COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE FORMATION OCCURRING AT RADICAL SURFACES OF WATER-ICE DUST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2012-07-20

    Glycine is the simplest amino acid, and due to the significant astrobiological implications that suppose its detection, the search for it in the interstellar medium (ISM), meteorites, and comets is intensively investigated. In the present work, quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory have been used to model the glycine formation on water-ice clusters present in the ISM. The removal of either one H atom or one electron from the water-ice cluster has been considered to simulate the effect of photolytic radiation and of ionizing particles, respectively, which lead to the formation of OH{sup .} radical and H{sub 3}O{sup +} surface defects. The coupling of incoming CO molecules with the surface OH{sup .} radicals on the ice clusters yields the formation of the COOH{sup .} radicals via ZPE-corrected energy barriers and reaction energies of about 4-5 kcal mol{sup -1} and -22 kcal mol{sup -1}, respectively. The COOH{sup .} radicals couple with incoming NH=CH{sub 2} molecules (experimentally detected in the ISM) to form the NHCH{sub 2}COOH{sup .} radical glycine through energy barriers of 12 kcal mol{sup -1}, exceedingly high at ISM cryogenic temperatures. Nonetheless, when H{sub 3}O{sup +} is present, one proton may be barrierless transferred to NH=CH{sub 2} to give NH{sub 2}=CH{sub 2}{sup +}. This latter may react with the COOH{sup .} radical to give the NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH{sup +.} glycine radical cation which can then be transformed into the NH{sub 2}CHC(OH){sub 2}{sup +.} species (the most stable form of glycine in its radical cation state) or into the NH{sub 2}CHCOOH{sup .} neutral radical glycine. Estimated rate constants of these events suggest that they are kinetically feasible at temperatures of 100-200 K, which indicate that their occurrence may take place in hot molecular cores or in comets exposed to warmer regions of solar systems. Present results provide quantum chemical evidence that defects formed on water ices due to the harsh

  8. Functional characterization of a member of alanine or glycine: cation symporter family in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Bualuang, Aporn; Kageyama, Hakuto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins of amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes. The alanine or glycine: cation symporter (AGCS) family belongs to APC superfamily and is found in prokaryotes, but its substrate specificity remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that a halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica has two putative ApagcS genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of genes, ApagcS1, exhibited high homology to Pseudomonas AgcS. The ApagcS1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli JW4166 which is deficient in glycine uptake. Kinetics studies in JW4166 revealed that ApAgcS1 is a sodium-dependent glycine transporter. Competition experiments showed the significant inhibition by glutamine, asparagine, and glycine. The level of mRNA for ApagcS1 was induced by NaCl and nitrogen-deficient stresses. Uptake of glutamine by ApAgcS1 was also observed. Based on these data, the physiological role of ApAgcS1 was discussed.

  9. Effects of glycine, beta-alanine and diazepam upon morphine-tolerant-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L

    1980-05-01

    The effects in mice of glycine, beta-alanine and diazepam on the analgesic response to morphine, on the intensity of tolerance and on the physical dependence on the analgesic have been examined. The two amino acids increased the analgesic response to morphine in a dose-related manner. However, both compounds were ineffective in the analgesic test (hot plate) when administered without morphine. Diazepam was ineffective in the analgesic test and it did not alter morphine analgesia, except when administered in a high dose which decreased and analgesic response. Glycine, either in single or repeated doses, did not modify tolerance to morphine, whereas beta-alanine induced a dose-related partial antagonism, which promptly reached a plateau. Diazepam induced a small decrease in the intensity of tolerance to the analgesic. The abstinence syndrome to morphine, induced by naloxone administration to primed mice, was reduced by single doses of glycine or beta-alanine. Diazepam behaved as a weak inhibitor of the abstinence syndrome when administered at a high dose. The potentiation of morphine analgesia and the antagonism of the abstinence syndrome induced by the amino acids may be related to their hyperpolarizing action in the c.n. system. The effects of beta-alanine on morphine tolerance cannot be explained by the same mechanism.

  10. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Lambrechts, Mark J; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Yin, Rutie; Xi, Mingrong; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy.

  11. Coordination properties of the oxime analogue of glycine to Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Georgieva, I; Trendafilova, N; Rodríguez-Santiago, L; Sodupe, M

    2005-06-30

    The coordination of Cu2+ by glyoxilic acid oxime (gao)--the oxime analogue of glycine amino acid--and its deprotonated (gao- and gao2-) species has been studied with different density functional methods. Single-point calculations have also been carried out at the single- and double- (triple) excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)) level of theory. The isomers studied involve coordination of Cu2+ to electron-rich sites (O,N) of neutral, anionic, and dianionic gao species in different conformations. In contrast to Cu2+-glycine, for which the ground-state structure is bidentate with the CO2(-) terminus of zwitterionic glycine, for Cu2+-gao the most stable isomer shows monodentate binding of Cu2+ with the carbonylic oxygen of the neutral form. The most stable complexes of Cu2+ interacting with deprotonated gao species (gao- and gao2-) also take place through the carboxylic oxygens but in a bidentate manner. The results with different functionals show that, for these open shell (Cu2+-L) systems, the relative stability of complexes with different coordination environments (and so, different spin distribution) can be quite sensitive to the amount of "Hartree-Fock" exchange included in the functional. Among all the functionals tested in this work, the BHandHLYP is the one that better compares to CCSD(T) results.

  12. Taurine and beta-alanine act on both GABA and glycine receptors in Xenopus oocyte injected with mouse brain messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, T; Asanuma, A; Yanagisawa, K; Anzai, K; Goto, S

    1988-09-01

    The responding pathway (process from agonist binding to channel opening) of taurine and beta-alanine was investigated in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse brain poly(A)+ RNA. Responses to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, taurine and beta-alanine were induced in oocytes injected with poly(A)+ RNA extracted from 3 regions, cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem of the mouse brain. From comparison, responses to these 4 inhibitory amino acids in each regional poly(A)+ RNA-injected oocytes were categorized into at least 3 groups: (1) GABA, (2) glycine, and (3) taurine and beta-alanine. No cross-desensitization was observed between GABA response and glycine response, but taurine and beta-alanine responses cross-desensitized both the GABA and glycine responses. Taurine and beta-alanine responses were partially inhibited by the GABA antagonist, bicuculline, and also by the glycine antagonist, strychnine. The results suggest that the taurine or the beta-alanine response in the brain is caused through both the GABA receptor and the glycine receptor.

  13. The Radiolytic Destruction of Glycine Diluted in H2O and CO2 Ice: Implications for Mars and Other Planetary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, R. L.

    2013-10-01

    Future missions to Mars and other planetary surfaces will probe under the surfaces of these worlds for signs of organic chemistry. In previous studies we have shown that glycine and other amino acids have radiolytic destruction rates that depend on temperature and on dilution within an H2O ice matrix (Gerakines et al., 2012; Gerakines and Hudson 2013). In the new work presented here, we have examined the destruction of glycine diluted in CO2 ice at various concentrations and irradiated with protons at 0.8 MeV, typical of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. Destruction rates for glycine were measured by infrared spectroscopy in situ, without removing or warming the ice samples. New results on the half life of glycine in solid CO2 will be compared to those found in H2O ice matrices. The survivability of glycine in icy planetary surfaces rich in H2O and CO2 ice will be discussed, and the implications for planetary science missions will be considered. References: Gerakines, P. A., Hudson, R. L., Moore, M. H., and Bell, J-L. (2012). In-situ Measurements of the Radiation Stability of Amino Acids at 15 - 140 K. Icarus, 220, 647-659. Gerakines, P. A. and Hudson, R. L. (2013). Glycine's Radiolytic Destruction in Ices: First in situ Laboratory Measurements for Mars. Astrobiology, 13, 647-655.

  14. Thinking outside the synapse: glycine at extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gray, John A; Nicoll, Roger A

    2012-08-03

    In this issue, Papouin et al. show that glycine is the endogenous coagonist for extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), unlike at synapses where the coagonist is d-serine. By enzymatically degrading endogenous glycine, they begin to address the enigmatic physiological and pathological roles for extrasynaptic NMDARs.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous solutions of glycine betaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civera, Monica; Fornili, Arianna; Sironi, Maurizio; Fornili, Sandro L.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate hydration properties of glycine betaine in a large range of solute concentrations. Statistical analyses of the system trajectories evidence microscopic details suggesting an interpretation of experimental results recently obtained for aqueous solutions of trimethylamine- N-oxide, a bioprotectant closely related to glycine betaine.

  16. Glycine betaine as a direct substrate for methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.).

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew J; Roussel, Erwan G; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners.

  17. Characterization of seed storage proteins of several perennial glycine species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean ...

  18. New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in the USA are estimated to be over $1 billion. These losses have remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over time nematode...

  19. New soybean accessions identified with resistance to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious root-parasite of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in USA are estimated to be nearly $1 billion. These losses have remained stable at current levels with the use of resistant cultivars bu...

  20. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.)] in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the U.S. and Canada, suggesting large scale dispersals and rapid adaptations to new environment...

  1. Role of Conserved Glycines in pH Gating of Kir1.1 (ROMK)

    PubMed Central

    Sackin, Henry; Nanazashvili, Mikheil; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Li, Hui

    2006-01-01

    Gating of inward rectifier Kir1.1 potassium channels by internal pH is believed to occur when large hydrophobic leucines, on each of the four subunits, obstruct the permeation path at the cytoplasmic end of the inner transmembrane helices (TM2). In this study, we examined whether closure of the channel at this point involves bending of the inner helix at one or both of two highly conserved glycine residues (corresponding to G134 and G143 in KirBac1.1) that have been proposed as putative “gating hinges” for potassium channels. Replacement of these conserved inner helical glycines by less flexible alanines did not abolish gating but shifted the apparent pKa from 6.6 ± 0.01 (wild-type) to 7.1 ± 0.01 for G157A-Kir1.1b, and to 7.3 ± 0.01 for G148A-Kir1.1b. When both glycines were mutated the effect was additive, shifting the pKa by 1.2 pH units to 7.8 ± 0.04 for the double mutant: G157A+G148A. At this pKa, the double mutant would remain completely closed under physiological conditions. In contrast, when the glycine at G148 was replaced by a proline, the pKa was shifted in the opposite direction from 6.6 ± 0.01 (wild-type) to 5.7 ± 0.01 for G148P. Although conserved glycines at G148 and G157 made it significantly easier to open the channel, they were not an absolute requirement for pH gating in Kir1.1. In addition, none of the glycine mutants produced more than small changes in either the cell-attached or excised single-channel kinetics which, in this channel, argues against changes in the selectivity filter. The putative pH sensor at K61-Kir1.1b, (equivalent to K80-Kir1.1a) was also examined. Mutation of this lysine to an untitratable methionine did not abolish pH gating, but shifted the pKa into an acid range from 6.6 ± 0.01 to 5.4 ± 0.04, similar to pH gating in Kir2.1. Hence K61-Kir1.1b cannot function as the exclusive pH sensor for the channel, although it may act as one of multiple pH sensors, or as a link between a cytoplasmic sensor and the channel

  2. Glycine toxicity and unexpected intra-operative death.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Harrison, R; Wells, R; Gilbert, J D

    2001-09-01

    A rare complication of the use of glycine irrigation fluid during prostatic surgery in a 69-year-old man is described. Following cystolithopexy and transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatomegaly, abdominal distension developed with increasing ventilatory pressures. Despite retroperitoneal fluid evacuation at subsequent urgent laparotomy, cardiac arrest occurred that was not amenable to resuscitation. At autopsy a traumatic defect in the posterior bladder wall filled with calculus debris was confirmed that did not communicate with the peritoneal cavity. Hyponatremia with markedly elevated levels of blood, urine, and body fluid glycine were demonstrated. Death was, therefore, attributed to glycine toxicity following tracking of glycine through a surgical defect in the posterior bladder wall. Careful dissection of surgical sites is required in such cases to demonstrate any additional trauma that may be associated with the fatal episode. Analysis of body fluids for glycine and electrolytes is also necessary to assist in the determination of possible mechanisms of death.

  3. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  4. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K.; Ogienko, A. G.; Drebushchak, V. A.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Ancharov, A. I.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Boldyreva, E. V.

    2012-08-01

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice Ih was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice Ih and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine "X-phase") at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. The "X-phase" was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a = 6.648 Å, b = 25.867 Å, c = 5.610 Å, β = 113.12°); the formation of "X-phase" from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into β-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  5. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cysts nematode heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  6. Positive Modulation of the Glycine Receptor by Means of Glycine Receptor–Binding Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Aneiros, Eduardo; Blank, Michael; Mueller, Johan; Nyman, Eva; Blind, Michael; Dabrowski, Michael A.; Andersson, Christin V.; Sandberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    According to the gate control theory of pain, the glycine receptors (GlyRs) are putative targets for development of therapeutic analgesics. A possible approach for novel analgesics is to develop a positive modulator of the glycine-activated Cl− channels. Unfortunately, there has been limited success in developing drug-like small molecules to study the impact of agonists or positive modulators on GlyRs. Eight RNA aptamers with low nanomolar affinity to GlyRα1 were generated, and their pharmacological properties analyzed. Cytochemistry using fluorescein-labeled aptamers demonstrated GlyRα1-dependent binding to the plasma membrane but also intracellular binding. Using a fluorescent membrane potential assay, we could identify five aptamers to be positive modulators. The positive modulation of one of the aptamers was confirmed by patch-clamp electrophysiology on L(tk) cells expressing GlyRα1 and/or GlyRα1β. This aptamer potentiated whole-cell Cl− currents in the presence of low concentrations of glycine. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration ever of RNA aptamers acting as positive modulators for an ion channel. We believe that these aptamers are unique and valuable tools for further studies of GlyR biology and possibly also as tools for assay development in identifying small-molecule agonists and positive modulators. PMID:26071243

  7. [Changes of polyamines level in Glycine soja and Glycine max seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bingjun; Ji, Xiaojia; Liu, Jun; Liu, Youliang

    2004-07-01

    With internationally common-used Glycine max (the salt-tolerant Lee68) and Glycine soja (the salt-sensitive N23232) as reference, this paper studied the polyamines (PAs) contents and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activities in the highly salt-tolerant BB52 (Glycine soja) seedlings, which showed that under 150mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress for 2d, the decrease of Put and Spd contents was more significant, but that of Spd content was less significant in roots of BB52 than in those of Lee68 and N23232. For leaves, the decrease of Put and increase of Spd contents were markedly observed in BB52. The ascent of (Spm + Spd)/Put ratios and descent of Put/PAs ratios showed a positive relation to their salt tolerance. The PAO activity in roots and leaves was all increased, and most obvious in N23232. The relationship between PAs levels in BB52 and its salt tolerance was also discussed.

  8. Murine startle mutant Nmf11 affects the structural stability of the glycine receptor and increases deactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Megan E.; Caley, Alex; Gielen, Marc C.; Harvey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Hyperekplexia or startle disease is a serious neurological condition affecting newborn children and usually involves dysfunctional glycinergic neurotransmission.Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are major mediators of inhibition in the spinal cord and brainstem.A missense mutation, replacing asparagine (N) with lysine (K), at position 46 in the GlyR α1 subunit induced hyperekplexia following a reduction in the potency of the transmitter glycine; this resulted from a rapid deactivation of the agonist current at mutant GlyRs.These effects of N46K were rescued by mutating a juxtaposed residue, N61 on binding Loop D, suggesting these two asparagines may interact.Asparagine 46 is considered to be important for the structural stability of the subunit interface and glycine binding site, and its mutation represents a new mechanism by which GlyR dysfunction induces startle disease. Abstract Dysfunctional glycinergic inhibitory transmission underlies the debilitating neurological condition, hyperekplexia, which is characterised by exaggerated startle reflexes, muscle hypertonia and apnoea. Here we investigated the N46K missense mutation in the GlyR α1 subunit gene found in the ethylnitrosourea (ENU) murine mutant, Nmf11, which causes reduced body size, evoked tremor, seizures, muscle stiffness, and morbidity by postnatal day 21. Introducing the N46K mutation into recombinant GlyR α1 homomeric receptors, expressed in HEK cells, reduced the potencies of glycine, β‐alanine and taurine by 9‐, 6‐ and 3‐fold respectively, and that of the competitive antagonist strychnine by 15‐fold. Replacing N46 with hydrophobic, charged or polar residues revealed that the amide moiety of asparagine was crucial for GlyR activation. Co‐mutating N61, located on a neighbouring β loop to N46, rescued the wild‐type phenotype depending on the amino acid charge. Single‐channel recording identified that burst length for the N46K mutant was reduced and fast agonist application

  9. Glycine input induces the synaptic facilitation in salamander rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Baoqin

    2008-11-01

    Glycinergic synapses in photoreceptors are made by centrifugal feedback neurons in the network, but the function of the synapses is largely unknown. Here we report that glycinergic input enhances photoreceptor synapses in amphibian retinas. Using specific antibodies against a glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glycine receptor beta subunit, we identified the morphology of glycinergic input in photoreceptor terminals. Electrophysiological recordings indicated that 10 muM glycine depolarized rods and activated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in the neurons. The effects facilitated glutamate vesicle release in photoreceptors, meanwhile increased the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in Off-bipolar cells. Endogenous glycine feedback also enhanced glutamate transmission in photoreceptors. Additionally, inhibition of a Cl(-) uptake transporter NKCC1 with bumetanid effectively eliminated glycine-evoked a weak depolarization in rods, suggesting that NKCC1 maintains a high Cl(-) level in rods, which causes to depolarize in responding to glycine input. This study reveals a new function of glycine in retinal synaptic transmission.

  10. Glycine uptake in heath plants and soil microbes responds to elevated temperature, CO 2 and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Louise C.; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven; Beier, Claus; Ambus, Per

    2009-11-01

    Temperate terrestrial ecosystems are currently exposed to climatic and air quality changes with increased atmospheric CO 2, increased temperature and prolonged droughts. The responses of natural ecosystems to these changes are focus for research, due to the potential feedbacks to the climate. We here present results from a field experiment in which the effects of these three climate change factors are investigated solely and in all combinations at a temperate heath dominated by heather ( Calluna vulgaris) and wavy hair-grass ( Deschampsia flexuosa). Climate induced increases in plant production may increase plant root exudation of dissolved organic compounds such as amino acids, and the release of amino acids during decomposition of organic matter. Such free amino acids in soil serve as substrates for soil microorganisms and are also acquired as nutrients directly by plants. We investigated the magnitude of the response to the potential climate change treatments on uptake of organic nitrogen in an in situ pulse labelling experiment with 15N 13C 2-labelled glycine (amino acid) injected into the soil. In situ root nitrogen acquisition by grasses responded significantly to the climate change treatments, with larger 15N uptake in response to warming and elevated CO 2 but not additively when the treatments were combined. Also, a larger grass leaf biomass in the combined T and CO 2 treatment than in individual treatments suggest that responses to combined climate change factors cannot be predicted from the responses to single factors treatments. The soil microbes were superior to plants in the short-term competition for the added glycine, as indicated by an 18 times larger 15N recovery in the microbial biomass compared to the plant biomass. The soil microbes acquired glycine largely as an intact compound (87%), with no effects of the multi factorial climate change treatment through one year.

  11. The pepsin residue glycine-76 contributes to active-site loop flexibility and participates in catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewska, M; Tanaka, T; Yada, R Y

    2000-01-01

    Glycine residues are known to contribute to conformational flexibility of polypeptide chains, and have been found to contribute to flexibility of some loops associated with enzymic catalysis. A comparison of porcine pepsin in zymogen, mature and inhibited forms revealed that a loop (a flap), consisting of residues 71--80, located near the active site changed its position upon substrate binding. The loop residue, glycine-76, has been implicated in the catalytic process and thought to participate in a hydrogen-bond network aligning the substrate. This study investigated the role of glycine-76 using site-directed mutagenesis. Three mutants, G76A, G76V and G76S, were constructed to increase conformational restriction of a polypeptide chain. In addition, the serine mutant introduced a hydrogen-bonding potential at position 76 similar to that observed in human renin. All the mutants, regardless of amino acid size and polarity, had lower catalytic efficiency and activated more slowly than the wild-type enzyme. The slower activation process was associated directly with altered proteolytic activity. Consequently, it was proposed that a proteolytic cleavage represents a limiting step of the activation process. Lower catalytic efficiency of the mutants was explained as a decrease in the flap flexibility and, therefore, a different pattern of hydrogen bonds responsible for substrate alignment and flap conformation. The results demonstrated that flap flexibility is essential for efficient catalytic and activation processes. PMID:10861225

  12. Surface modification of ultrafiltration membranes by grafting glycine-functionalized PVA based on polydopamine coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Ye, Jianfeng; Yang, Linming; Deng, Chunhua; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Due to the ease of processing and stability during filtration, polydopamine (PD) coatings with grafted hydrophilic polymers have recently received significant attention. In this study, glycine-functionalized PVA was synthesized and grafted to a PD-coated ultrafiltration (UF) membrane to improve its performance during wastewater filtration. The membranes were modified by grafting PD with glycine-functionalized PVA (PD-g-PVA), and the resultant materials were characterized using surface morphology analyses, contact angle measurements, flux, oil/water emulsion separation tests, and grafted layer stability tests. The performance of the PD-g-PVA membrane was compared to that of the membrane modified with PD-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG). After grafting the PD-g-PVA, the surface roughness of the membranes decreased significantly. The grafted PVA layer, which was stable under acidic and alkaline conditions, protected the PD layer. The filtration experiments with an oil/water emulsion indicated that modifying the glycine-functionalized PVA by grafting can significantly improve the antifouling ability of membranes.

  13. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycine: its role in cadmium resistance in plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, P J; Unkefer, C J; Doolen, J A; Watt, K; Robinson, N J

    1987-01-01

    Angiosperms can be selected for the ability to grow in the presence of normally toxic concentrations of certain trace metal ions. Addition of Cd and Cu to Cd-resistant Datura innoxia cell cultures results in the rapid synthesis and accumulation of sulfur-rich, metal-binding polypeptides. The structure of these compounds was determined using amino acid analysis, 13C NMR, and site-specific enzymic digestion. These compounds are poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines. Greater than 80% of the cellular Cd is bound to the bis and tris forms in Cd-resistant cells. There is a direct correlation between the maximum accumulation of the metal-binding polypeptides and the concentration of toxic ions to which the cells are resistant. In the presence of metal ions, the polypeptides form multimeric aggregates that can be resolved by gel chromatography. Cd binds to both the high and low molecular weight aggregates, whereas Cu preferentially binds to the higher molecular weight forms. The presence of gamma-carboxamide linkages between glutamyl and adjacent cysteinyl residues indicates that these polypeptides are products of biosynthetic pathways. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines bind metals and, in this respect, appear to be functional analogs of the protein metallothionein. However, in the absence of supraoptimal concentrations of trace metal ions, the functions of metallothionein in animals and microorganisms and poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines in plants may differ. PMID:3477793

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of a unique sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Suk; Park, Hyoung-Joon; Heu, Sunggi; Jung, Jin

    2004-01-01

    A novel sucrose hydrolase (SUH) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, a causative agent of bacterial pustule disease on soybeans, was studied at the functional and molecular levels. SUH was shown to act rather specifically on sucrose (K(m) = 2.5 mM) but not on sucrose-6-phosphate. Protein analysis of purified SUH revealed that, in this monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular mass of 70,223 +/- 12 Da, amino acid sequences determined for several segments have corresponding nucleotide sequences in XAC3490, a protein-coding gene found in the genome of X. axonopodis pv. citri. Based on this information, the SUH gene, consisting of an open reading frame of 1,935 bp, was cloned by screening a genomic library of X. axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra. Database searches and sequence comparison revealed that SUH has significant homology to some family 13 enzymes, with all of the crucial invariant residues involved in the catalytic mechanism conserved, but it shows no similarity to known invertases belonging to family 32. suh expression in X. axonopodis pv. glycines requires sucrose induction, and insertional mutagenesis resulted in an absence of sucrose-inducible sucrose hydrolase activity in crude protein extracts and a sucrose-negative phenotype. Recombinant SUH, overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified, was shown to have the same enzymatic characteristics in terms of kinetic parameters.

  15. Deficit in acoustic signal-in-noise detection in glycine receptor α3 subunit knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tziridis, Konstantin; Buerbank, Stefanie; Eulenburg, Volker; Dlugaiczyk, Julia; Schulze, Holger

    2017-02-01

    Hearing is an essential sense for communication in animals and humans. Normal function of the cochlea of higher vertebrates relies on a fine-tuned interplay of afferent and efferent innervation of both inner and outer hair cells. Efferent inhibition is controlled via olivocochlear feedback loops, mediated mainly by acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine, and is one of the first sites affected by synapto- and neuropathy in the development of hearing loss. While the functions of acetylcholine, GABA and other inhibitory transmitters within these feedback loops are at least partially understood, especially the function of glycine still remains elusive. To address this question, we investigated hearing in glycine receptor (GlyR) α3 knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice. We found no differences in pure tone hearing thresholds at 11.3 and 16 kHz between the two groups as assessed by auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements. Detailed analysis of the ABR waves at 11.3 kHz, however, revealed a latency decrease of wave III and an amplitude increase of wave IV in KO compared to WT animals. GlyRα3 KO animals showed significantly impaired prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle response in a noisy environment, indicating that GlyRα3-mediated glycinergic inhibition is important for signal-in-noise detection.

  16. Cyanide Formation from Oxidation of Glycine by a Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Frode

    1974-01-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent Km (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 × 10−4 M. PMID:4813896

  17. Cyanide formation from oxidation of glycine of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wissing, F

    1974-03-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent K(m) (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 x 10(-4) M.

  18. Glycine receptor heterogeneity in rat spinal cord during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C M; Hoch, W; Betz, H

    1988-01-01

    Two different isoforms of the inhibitory glycine receptor were identified during postnatal development of rat spinal cord. A neonatal form characterized by low strychnine binding affinity, altered antigenicity, and a ligand binding subunit differing in mol. wt (49 kd) from that of the adult receptor (48 kd) predominates at birth (70% of the total receptor protein). Separation from the adult form could be achieved by either use of a selective antibody or glycine gradient elution of 2-aminostrychnine affinity columns. Both isoforms co-purify with the mol. wt 93 kd peripheral membrane protein of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex. Images PMID:2850172

  19. An automated and efficient conformational search of glycine and a glycine-water heterodimer both in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Stable conformers and the conformational isomerization pathways of glycine and the glycine-H2O heterodimer were explored using an efficient automated conformational searching method. The Gibbs energies of the conformers and transition structures of glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer at 400, 298, and 150 K were also calculated. In addition, estimated ratios of conformers, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, were calculated and compared with the results of spectroscopic experiments. Solvent effects were introduced into the exploration process using the polarizable continuum model (PCM), and conversion (tautomerization) pathways from neutral to zwitterionic states for both glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer in aqueous solution were compared.

  20. Proline and Glycine Betaine Influence Protein Solvation 1

    PubMed Central

    Paleg, Leslie G.; Stewart, George R.; Bradbeer, Joseph W.

    1984-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase from barley (Hordeum distichum L.) is precipitated by polyethylene glycol (PEG). Proline, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduces the amount of enzyme precipitated by PEG, although the effect of the imino acid can be counteracted by raising the level of PEG. The effect of PEG is a function of mer number and concentration and the influence of both elements can be ameliorated by proline. PEG-induced enzyme precipitation is a function of pH, as is its interaction with both proline and betaine in the reaction. The lack of effect of amount of enzyme on the proline and PEG effects supports the conclusion that, in this system, proline and PEG do not function through interaction with the protein. Other compounds, such as glycine, glucose, and sucrose, can decrease the PEG-induced precipitation of the enzyme, although glycerol was not active under the conditions employed. The results are consistent with the proposition that a protein-containing system in which high concentrations of proline and/or betaine are present, is better `protected' against the biologically unfavorable consequences of dehydration-induced thermodynamic perturbation. PMID:16663771

  1. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of glycine as biomarker in brain microdialysis and cerebrospinal fluid samples within 5min.

    PubMed

    Voehringer, Patrizia; Fuertig, René; Ferger, Boris

    2013-11-15

    Glycine is an important amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and a useful biomarker to indicate biological activity of drugs such as glycine reuptake inhibitors (GRI) in the brain. Here, we report how a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the fast and reliable analysis of glycine in brain microdialysates and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples has been established. Additionally, we compare this method with the conventional approach of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). The present LC-MS/MS method did not require any derivatisation step. Fifteen microliters of sample were injected for analysis. Glycine was detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. The total running time was 5min. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was determined as 100nM, while linearity was given in the range from 100nM to 100μM. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the LC-MS/MS method, we measured glycine levels in striatal in vivo microdialysates and CSF of rats after administration of the commercially available glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor LY 2365109 (10mg/kg, p.o.). LY 2365109 produced 2-fold and 3-fold elevated glycine concentrations from 1.52μM to 3.6μM in striatal microdialysates and from 10.38μM to 36μM in CSF, respectively. In conclusion, we established a fast and reliable LC-MS/MS method, which can be used for the quantification of glycine in brain microdialysis and CSF samples in biomarker studies.

  2. Complex organisation of the 5'-end of the human glycine tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Mudge, S J; Williams, J H; Eyre, H J; Sutherland, G R; Cowan, P J; Power, D A

    1998-03-16

    Glycine tRNA synthetase (glyRS) catalyses the addition of the amino acid glycine to its cognate tRNA molecules. In the silk moth worm Bombyx mori, this gene is subject to complex transcriptional regulation because of the predominance of glycine in silk. In vertebrates, glycine is a major constituent of collagen but there have been no studies of glyRS regulation. In this study we have isolated and mapped a genomic clone containing the 5'-end of glyRS. Primer extension studies identified only one transcriptional start point (TSP) in three different cell lines. Expression of the transcript identified may be regulated translationally because it contains five potential initiation codons, three of which are in good context for initiation. The most 3' of the potential initiation codons has previously been predicted to be the initiating codon for cytoplasmic glyRS. Two of the upstream codons are in-frame with this codon, and both are predicted to extend the N-terminus of glyRS to include a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Sequencing of genomic DNA surrounding the TSP showed features common to the promoters of housekeeping genes, as well as a canonical TATA box at the unusual position of +9. Surprisingly, promoter activity in vitro was not specified by a 1.9 kb genomic fragment containing the TSP and TATA box, but by a contiguous 0.4 kb fragment immediately downstream. These studies suggest that the transcription of glyRS from a single start point requires downstream promoter elements.

  3. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  4. 77 FR 21532 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Partial Affirmative Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... that certain Chinese glycine further processed in India did not change the country of origin of such... determine whether U.S. imports of glycine exported by AICO and Paras, and made from Chinese- origin glycine... from companies in China, processing and/or repackaging the Chinese-origin glycine, and then...

  5. GC/MS-based metabolomic studies reveal key roles of glycine in regulating silk synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanmei; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinjie; Xiong, Ying; Xu, Guowang; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic profiling of silkworm, especially the factors that affect silk synthesis at the metabolic level, is little known. Herein, metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to identify key metabolic changes in silk synthesis deficient silkworms. Forty-six differential metabolites were identified in Nd group with the defect of silk synthesis. Significant changes in the levels of glycine and uric acid (up-regulation), carbohydrates and free fatty acids (down-regulation) were observed. The further metabolomics of silk synthesis deficient silkworms by decreasing silk proteins synthesis using knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene or extirpating silk glands operation showed that the changes of the metabolites were almost consistent with those of the Nd group. Furthermore, the increased silk yields by supplying more glycine or its related metabolite confirmed that glycine is a key metabolite to regulate silk synthesis. These findings provide important insights into the regulation between metabolic profiling and silk synthesis.

  6. Spectral Luminescent Properties of the Glycine Molecule in a Gas Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    General, A. A.; Migovich, M. I.; Kelman, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Zvenigorodsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the luminescence spectra of glycine powder in the plasma of a repetitively pulsed longitudinal discharge in argon-glycine and helium-glycine mixtures. We have identified the main fragments of the glycine molecule emitting in the 200-1000 nm region. The emitting molecules due to fragmentation of glycine and dissociation of the carboxyl (-COOH) and amino (-NH2) groups are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and cyanogen molecules.

  7. Effects of gassericins A and T, bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus gasseri, with glycine on custard cream preservation.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Kawai, Y; Iioka, H; Tanioka, M; Nishimura, J; Kitazawa, H; Tsurumi, K; Saito, T

    2009-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 and LA158 isolated from human-infant feces produce bacteriocins named gassericins A and T, respectively. Both gassericins have high heat stability (121 degrees C, 10 min), good pH tolerance (pH 2-11), and strong bactericidality against many gram-positive bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria, and thus are expected to be effective food preservatives. A microwell plate assay against 12 strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria showed that the gassericins had broader antibacterial spectra than nisin A. Although the gassericins allowed gram-negative isolates to grow, they successfully inhibited the growth of all tested bacterial strains in microwells with the addition of glycine. Glycine was bacteriostatic against many strains except lactic acid bacteria. For practical use, gassericin A was efficiently produced by cultivation in a food-grade medium improved using cheese whey, nourishing proteose peptone, and surfactant yolk lecithin. The practical preservative effect of gassericin A and glycine was verified from the viability of 4 isolated strains, Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, in custard creams. Custard cream containing 123 arbitrary units of gassericin A per milliliter entirely growth-inhibited the 2 gram-positive strains. In custard cream containing an insufficient amount of gassericin A (49 arbitrary units/mL), the gram-positive strains gradually grew but were completely inhibited by the addition of 0.5% (wt/wt) glycine. The 2 gram-negative strains did not multiply even in the additive-free custard cream, probably because of the unsuitable growth environment. This is the first report showing the combined effect of bacteriocin and glycine and their application for food preservation, which may be helpful for future use in the food industry.

  8. In-situ Measurements Of The Radiolytic Destruction Of Glycine In Ices: Applications To The Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, R. L.

    2012-10-01

    Amino acids and other organic molecules are thought to be easily destroyed on the surface of Mars by the high flux of incident ultraviolet rays or by chemical interactions with oxidizing substances in the soil. However, organic molecules may survive in the subsurface, where chemical processes are driven by penetrating galactic cosmic rays such as MeV protons. Models of the radiation dose as a function of depth on Mars have shown that the contribution of galactic cosmic rays dominates from about one centimeter to a few meters [1]. Theoretical models have also been published to aid in understanding molecular destruction at these depths, but these usually are based on room-temperature laboratory data, studies of single-component samples, and ex-situ methods of chemical analysis. Recent studies of amino-acid survivability include those involving UV photolysis [2, 3] and gamma radiolysis [4], but nearly all chemical and kinetic analyses from such experiments involved room-temperature measurements on samples irradiated and then removed from sealed containers. We report new laboratory studies of the radiation-induced destruction of glycine-containing ices. In-situ infrared spectroscopy was used to study decay rates as a function of temperature and initial glycine concentrations. Our results indicate that glycine's destruction rate depends on temperature, the presence of H2O-ice, and the initial relative abundance of glycine. These trends are not obvious in previous work, suggesting that room-temperature measurements on pure glycine's radiation stability are not directly applicable to Mars and other environments. This work has been supported by the Goddard Center for Astrobiology. [1] Dartnell, L. R., et al., 2007. Geophys. Res. Letters 34:L02207. [2] ten Kate, I. L., et al., 2006. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 296-302. [3] Orzechowska, G. E., et al., 2007. Icarus 187, 584-591. [4] Kminek, G., Bada, J. L., 2006. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 245, 1-5.

  9. In-situ Measurements of the Radiolytic Destruction of Glycine in Ices: Applications to the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids and other organic molecules are thought to be easily destroyed on the surface of Mars by the high flux of incident ultraviolet rays or by chemical interactions with oxidizing substances in the soil. However, organic molecules may survive in the subsurface, where chemical processes are driven by penetrating galactic cosmic rays such as MeV protons. Models of the radiation dose as a function of depth on Mars have shown that the contribution of galactic cosmic rays dominates from about one centimeter to a few meters [1 J. Theoretical models have also been published to aid in understanding molecular destruction at these depths, but these usually are based on room-temperature laboratory data, studies of single-component samples, and ex-situ methods of chemical analysis. Recent studies of amino-acid survivability include those involving UV photolysis [2, 3J and gamma radiolysis [4], but nearly all chemical and kinetic analyses from such experiments involved room-temperature measurements on samples irradiated and then removed from sealed containers. We report new laboratory studies of the radiation-induced destruction of glycine-containing ices. In-situ infrared spectroscopy was used to study decay rates as a function of temperature and initial glycine concentrations. Our results indicate that glycine's destruction rate depends on temperature, the presence of H20-ice, and the initial relative abundance of glycine. These trends are not obvious in previous work, suggesting that room-temperature measurements on pure glycine's radiation stability are not directly applicable to Mars and other environments.

  10. The effects of glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine supplementation to a 9% casein diet on the conversions of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide and to serotonin in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Imai, Shoko; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide and serotonin are synthesized from L-tryptophan in mammals. It is important to know the nutritional factors affecting the synthesis of nicotinamide and serotonin. We investigated the effects of amino acid composition. Young adult rats were fed ad libitum for 21 d a low-protein (9% casein) diet([1] control), or one of the low protein diets supplemented with following amino acids: [2] glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine, [3] L-threonine and L-cystine, [4] glycine and L-cystine, and [5] glycine and L-threonine. The amounts of glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine supplementations were 2%, 0.078%, and 0.2%, respectively, and the amino acid contents of all diet were adjusted with supplementation of L-glutamic acid. The body weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and the amino acid nutrition biomarker, which is the urinary excretion ratio of (N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide+N(1)-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide)/N(1)-methylnicotinamide, improved by adding the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet. The conversion percentage of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide decreased with the addition of the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet, while the concentrations of serotonin in the brain, stomach and small intestine were not affected at all. The effects of each amino acid on body weight gain and the conversion ratios were also investigated. Glycine did not affect these variables. L-Cystine improved the body weight gain, the food efficiency ratio and the urine ratio, and decreased the conversion percentage. L-Threonine did not affect body weight gain or food efficiency ratio; however, it improved the urine ratio and decreased the conversion percentage.

  11. Growth of gamma glycine crystal and its characterisation.

    PubMed

    Peter, M Esthaku; Ramasamy, P

    2010-05-01

    Single crystal of gamma-glycine, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been grown by solvent evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solutions of glycine and potassium nitrate, lithium nitrate at room temperature. Gamma glycine crystals have been grown up to the dimension of 20mmx15mmx12mm. Powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystal was recorded and indexed. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and the unit cell parameters were compared with the literature values. The gamma-phase of glycine is confirmed by single crystal XRD and FTIR spectral analysis. The crystals were characterised by UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum in the range 200-1100nm. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of gamma-glycine crystal was twice the efficiency of KDP crystal. Thermal characteristics of gamma-glycine crystals were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis, which shows the thermal stability of the grown crystals. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. The microhardness of the grown crystals has been studied using Vicker's microhardness tester.

  12. Glycine betaine uptake after hyperosmotic shift in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Farwick, M; Siewe, R M; Krämer, R

    1995-01-01

    Osmoregulatory uptake of glycine betaine in whole cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 (wild type) was studied. The cells actively take up glycine betaine when they are osmotically shocked. The total accumulation and uptake rate were dependent on the osmotic strength of the medium. Kinetic analysis revealed a high-affinity transport system (Km, 8.6 +/- 0.4 microM) with high maximum velocity (110 nmol.min-1.mg [dry weight]-1). Glycine betaine functioned as a compatible solute when added to the medium and allowed growth at an otherwise inhibitory osmotic strength of 1.5 M NaCl. Proline and ectoine could also be used as osmoprotectants. Glycine betaine is neither synthesized nor metabolized by C. glutamicum. The glycine betaine transport system is constitutively expressed at a basal level of activity. It can be induced up to eightfold by osmotic stress and is strongly regulated at the level of activity. The transport system is highly specific and has its pH optimum in the slightly alkaline range at about pH 8. The uptake of the zwitterionic glycine betaine is mediated by a secondary symport system coupled to cotransport of at least two Na+ ions. It is thus driven both by the membrane potential and the Na+ gradient. An extremely high accumulation (internal/external) ratio of up to 4 x 10(6) was measured, which represents the highest accumulation ratio observed for any transport system. PMID:7642496

  13. Effect of temperature and pressure on the protonation of glycine

    PubMed Central

    Izatt, R. M.; Oscarson, J. L.; Gillespie, S. E.; Grimsrud, H.; Renuncio, J. A. R.; Pando, C.

    1992-01-01

    Flow calorimetry has been used to study the interaction of glycine with protons in water at temperatures of 298.15, 323.15, and 348.15 K and pressures up to 12.50 MPa. By combining the measured heat for glycine solutions titrated with NaOH with the heat of ionization for water, the enthalpy of protonation of glycine is obtained. The reaction is exothermic at all temperatures and pressures studied. The effect of pressure on the enthalpy of reaction is very small. The experimental heat data are analyzed to yield equilibrium constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) values for the protonation reaction as a function of temperature. These values are compared with those reported previously at 298.15 K. The ΔH and ΔS values increase (become more positive), whereas log K values decrease, as temperature increases. The trends for ΔH and ΔS with temperature are opposite to those reported previously for the protonation of several alkanolamines. However, log K values for proton interaction with both glycine and the alkanolamines decrease with increasing temperature. The effect of the nitrogen atom substituent on log K for protonation of glycine and alkanolamines is discussed in terms of changes in long-range and short-range solvent effects. These effects are used to explain the difference in ΔH and ΔS trends between glycine protonation and those found earlier for alkanolamine protonation. PMID:19431832

  14. Efficacy and safety of ferrous asparto glycinate in the management of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kamdi, S P; Palkar, P J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ferrous asparto glycinate and ferrous ascorbate in pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). We performed a double blind, prospective, randomised, multicentre, parallel group comparative clinical study at three different centres in India. A total of 73 pregnant women at 12-26 weeks' gestation were divided into two arms. While one group received ferrous ascorbate, another group was treated with ferrous asparto glycinate for a period of 28 days. The mean rise in haemoglobin and ferritin levels on day 14 and 28 was evaluated. At both time points, significantly higher levels of haemoglobin and ferritin were noticed with ferrous asparto glycinate treatment as compared with ferrous ascorbate. Our results showed that ferrous asparto glycinate is an effective iron-amino acid chelate in the management of IDA in pregnant women as compared with ferrous ascorbate. Nevertheless, additional large scale prospective, randomised trials are warranted to confirm the findings of the present efficacy trial, and also to find out the anaemia eradication rate.

  15. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  16. Dopamine receptor antagonist blocks the release of glycine, GABA, and taurine produced by amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Porras, A; Mora, F

    1993-01-01

    The effects of systemic injections of amphetamine sulfate on the extracellular levels of glycine, GABA, and taurine in the neostriatum of awake rats were studied using a push-pull perfusion system. Amphetamine produced a dose-related increase in glycine levels. Amphetamine also produced an enhancement on GABA and taurine levels, although these increases did not follow a dose-related curve. The percentage increase of amino acids produced by the highest dose of amphetamine (5 mg/kg) at the peak effect was: GLY 235.9%; GABA 218%, and TAU 177%. All these effects were blocked by the D1-D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. It is suggested that dopamine, released by amphetamine, induces the release of inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters in the neostriatum. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of dopamine playing a role of an amplifier of the activity of different neurochemical circuits. The results are also in accord with the idea that dopamine could mediate the neurotoxic effects produced by amphetamines through an interplay between excitatory and inhibitory amino acids.

  17. Inoculation Method for Studying Early Responses of Glycine max to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, R.; Knap, H. T.; Lewis, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    An inoculation technique was developed for studying molecular responses of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Effect of inoculum age (0-7 days after eggs were released from cysts) and inoculation site (meristem, elongation, or differentiation zone) on infection were tested on four soybean genotypes. Two genotypes (PI 437654 and cv. Peking) were resistant and two (cv. Essex and cv. Hutcheson) were susceptible to race 3 of H. glycines. Inoculum consisting of second-stage juveniles (J2) was prepared by gently agitating nematode eggs at 75 revolutions per minute at 28 °C for various intervals. Infection rates were monitored cytologically. The most consistent infection rate was obtained with 48-hour-old inoculum containing more than 80% J2. More than 100 juveniles/root were observed after inoculation with the 48-hour-old inoculum placed at the root elongation zone, in both resistant and susceptible soybeans. Horizontal orientation of roots during inoculation, the use of concentrated J2 inoculurn (500 J2 in 125 μl/root), and restriction of inoculum to the root elongation zone facilitated synchronous root infection. PMID:19274216

  18. [Relationship between chloride tolerance and polyamine accumulation in Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid seedlings].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan-Qin; Yu, Bing-Jun; Liu, You-Liang

    2007-02-01

    The seedlings of the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' selected for salt tolerance generation by generation, their parents Glycine max cv. Jackson and Glycine soja population 'BB52' were treated with different NaCl concentrations and iso-osmotic (-0.53 MPa) PEG-6000, NaCl, Na+ (without Cl-) and Cl- (without Na+) solutions for 6 d. The results showed that: (1) The relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of the above three soybean seedlings showed an increase trend when the NaCl concentration was elevated, but chlorophyll contents decreased except the significant increase in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under NaCl 50 mmol/L stress. The change in 'JB185' was between its parents. (2) Under different iso-osmotic stresses, the relative electrolyte leakage and MDA contents in leaves of three soybean seedlings also increased mostly, the changes in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under Na+ (without Cl-) stress were more than those under Cl- (without Na+) stress. The free and bound Put, Spd and Spm contents in leaves all increased when compared with the control, the ratios of free (Spd+Spm)/Put and total bound polyamines in 'BB52' and 'JB185' seedlings under Na+ (without Cl-) treatment were the lowest one among three iso-osmotic salt stresses. The results indicate that the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' is more sensitive to Na+ than Cl- as its wild parent 'BB52' population.

  19. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-α-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1-2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1-2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not α-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1-2 in defense, its overexpression results in ∼52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1-2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24-10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1-2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified.

  20. Synthesis of new kojic acid based unnatural α-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, C; Payili, Nagaraju; Yennam, Satyanarayana; Devi, P Uma; Behera, Manoranjan

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method for the preparation of kojic acid based α-amino acid derivatives by alkylation of glycinate schiff base with bromokojic acids have been described. Using this method, mono as well as di alkylated kojic acid-amino acid conjugates have been prepared. This is the first synthesis of C-linked kojic acid-amino acid conjugate where kojic acid is directly linked to amino acid through a C-C bond.

  1. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  2. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-01-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system. Images PMID:1429431

  3. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-11-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system.

  4. Microbial production of amino acids in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, H

    2000-01-01

    The microbial biotechnology of amino acids production which was developed and industrialized in Japan have been summarized. The amino acids include L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-p-hydroxyphenyl-glycine, and hydroxy-L-proline.

  5. Nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester and ethyl diazoacetate to give the alkylating agent and mutagen ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Haorah, James; Chen, Sheng C; Wang, Xiaojie; Kolar, Carol; Lawson, Terence A; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2004-03-01

    Whereas nitrosation of secondary amines produces nitrosamines, amino acids with primary amino groups and glycine ethyl ester were reported to react with nitrite to give unidentified agents that alkylated 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine to produce purple dyes and be direct mutagens in the Ames test. We report here that treatment of glycine ethyl ester at 37 degrees C with excess nitrite acidified with HCl, followed by ether extraction, gave 30-40% yields of a product identified as ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate [ClC(=NOH)COOEt, ECHA] and a 9% yield of ethyl chloroacetate. The ECHA was identical to that synthesized by a known method from ethyl acetoacetate, strongly alkylated nitrobenzylpyridine, and may have arisen by N-nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester to give ethyl diazoacetate, which was C-nitrosated and reacted with chloride to give ECHA. Nitrosation of ethyl diazoacetate also yielded ECHA. Ethyl nitroacetate was not an intermediate as its nitrosation did not produce ECHA. ECHA reacted with aniline to give ethyl (hydroxamino)(phenylimino)acetate [PhN=C(NHOH)CO2Et]. This product was different from ethyl [(phenylamino)carbonyl]carbamate [PhNHC(=O)NHCO2Et], which was synthesized by reacting ethyl isocyanatoformate (OCN.CO2Et) with aniline. ECHA reacted with guanosine to give a derivative, which may have been a guanine-C(=NOH)CO2Et derivative. ECHA showed moderate toxicity and weak but significant mutagenicity without activation in Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 (mean, 1.31 x control value for 12-18 microg/plats) and for V79 mammalian cells (1.5-1.7 x control value for 60-100 microM). In conclusion, gastric nitrosation of glycine derivatives such as peptides with a N-terminal glycine might produce ECHA analogues that alkylate bases of gastric mucosal DNA and thereby initiate gastric cancer.

  6. Taurine activates strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in neurons freshly isolated from nucleus accumbens of young rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenglin; Krnjević, Kresimir; Wang, Fushun; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2004-01-01

    Although functional glycine receptors (GlyRs) are present in the mature nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important area of the mesolimbic dopamine system involved in drug addiction, their role has been unclear because the NAcc contains little glycine. However, taurine, an agonist of GlyRs, is abundant throughout the brain, especially during early development. In the present study on freshly dissociated NAcc neurons from young Sprague-Dawley rats (12- to 21-day old), we found that both glycine and taurine can strongly depolarize NAcc neurons and modulate their excitability. In voltage-clamped NAcc neurons, glycine and taurine elicited chloride currents (IGly and ITau) with an EC50 of 0.12 and 1.25 mM, respectively. The reversal potential of IGly or ITau was 0 mV in conventional whole cell mode and -30 mV in gramicidin-perforated mode. At concentrations <1 mM, both glycine and taurine were very effectively antagonized by strychnine and by picrotoxin (with an IC50 of 60 nM and 36.5 microM for IGly, and 40 nM and 42.2 microM for ITau) but were insensitive to 10 microM bicuculline. The currents elicited by taurine (< or =1 mM) showed complete cross-desensitization with IGly, but none with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced currents (IGABA). However, ITau elicited by very concentrated taurine (10 mM) showed partial cross-desensitization with IGABA, and it was substantially antagonized by 10 microM bicuculline. These results indicate that taurine binds mainly to GlyRs in NAcc, but it could be a partial agonist of GABAA receptors. By activating GlyRs, taurine may play an important physiological role in the control of NAcc function, especially during development.

  7. Charge and geometry of residues in the loop 2 β hairpin differentially affect agonist and ethanol sensitivity in glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Daya I; Trudell, James R; Asatryan, Liana; Davies, Daryl L; Alkana, Ronald L

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies highlighted the importance of loop 2 of α1 glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the propagation of ligand-binding energy to the channel gate. Mutations that changed polarity at position 52 in the β hairpin of loop 2 significantly affected sensitivity to ethanol. The present study extends the investigation to charged residues. We found that substituting alanine with the negative glutamate at position 52 (A52E) significantly left-shifted the glycine concentration response curve and increased sensitivity to ethanol, whereas the negative aspartate substitution (A52D) significantly right-shifted the glycine EC₅₀ but did not affect ethanol sensitivity. It is noteworthy that the uncharged glutamine at position 52 (A52Q) caused only a small right shift of the glycine EC₅₀ while increasing ethanol sensitivity as much as A52E. In contrast, the shorter uncharged asparagine (A52N) caused the greatest right shift of glycine EC₅₀ and reduced ethanol sensitivity to half of wild type. Collectively, these findings suggest that charge interactions determined by the specific geometry of the amino acid at position 52 (e.g., the 1-Å chain length difference between aspartate and glutamate) play differential roles in receptor sensitivity to agonist and ethanol. We interpret these results in terms of a new homology model of GlyR based on a prokaryotic ion channel and propose that these mutations form salt bridges to residues across the β hairpin (A52E-R59 and A52N-D57). We hypothesize that these electrostatic interactions distort loop 2, thereby changing agonist activation and ethanol modulation. This knowledge will help to define the key physical-chemical parameters that cause the actions of ethanol in GlyRs.

  8. The temperature effect on the glycine decomposition induced by 2 keV electron bombardment in space analog conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, Sergio; Nair, Binu G.; Escobar, Antonio; Fraser, Helen; Mason, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Glycine is the simplest proteinaceous amino acid that has been extensively detected in carbonaceous meteorites and was recently observed in the cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. In space, such species is exposed to several radiation fields at different temperatures. In aqueous solutions, this species appears mainly as zwitterionic glycine (+NH3CH2COO-) however, in solid phase, it may be found in amorphous or crystalline forms. Here, we present an experimental study on the destruction of two zwitterionic glycine crystals ( α- and β-form) at two different temperatures (300 K and 14 K) by 2 keV electrons in an attempt to test the behavior and stability of this molecular species in different space environments. The samples were analyzed in situ by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at electron fluences. The experiments were carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions at the Molecular Physics Laboratory at the Open University at Milton Keynes, UK. The dissociation cross section of glycine is approximately 5 times higher for the 14 K samples when compared to the 300 K samples. In contrast, no significant differences emerged between the dissociation cross sections of α- and β-forms of glycine for fixed temperature experiments. We therefore conclude that the destruction cross section is more heavily dependent on temperature than the phase of the condensed glycine material. This may be associated with the opening of additional reaction routes in the frozen samples involving the trapped daughter species (e.g. CO2 and CO). The half-life of studied samples extrapolated to space conditions shows that glycine molecules on the surface of interstellar grains has less survivability and they are highly sensitive to ambient radiations, however, they can survive extended period of time in the solar system like environments. Survivability increases by a factor of 5 if the samples are at 300 K when compared to low temperature experiments at 14

  9. A Role for Accumbal Glycine Receptors in Modulation of Dopamine Release by the Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibitor Org25935

    PubMed Central

    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Ericson, Mia; Marston, Hugh; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Accumbal glycine modulates basal and ethanol-induced dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption. Also, systemic administration of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 elevates dopamine levels in nAc, prevents a further ethanol-induced dopamine elevation and robustly and dose-dependently decreases ethanol consumption in rats. Here we investigated whether Org25935 applied locally in nAc modulates dopamine release, and whether accumbal glycine receptors or NMDA receptors are involved in this tentative effect. We also addressed whether Org25935 and ethanol applied locally in nAc interact with dopamine levels, as seen after systemic administration. We used in vivo microdialysis coupled to HPLC-ED in freely moving male Wistar rats to monitor dopamine output in nAc after local perfusion of Org25935 alone, with ethanol, or Org25935-perfusion after pre-treatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine or the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist L-701.324. Local Org25935 increased extracellular dopamine levels in a subpopulation of rats. Local strychnine, but not systemic L-701.324, antagonized the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. Ethanol failed to induce a dopamine overflow in the subpopulation responding to Org25935 with a dopamine elevation. The study supports a role for accumbal glycine receptors rather than NMDA receptor signaling in the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. The results further indicate that the previously reported systemic Org25935–ethanol interaction with regard to accumbal dopamine is localized to the nAc. This adds to the growing evidence for the glycine receptor as an important player in the dopamine reward circuitry and in ethanol's effects within this system. PMID:21556278

  10. Disruption of a putative intersubunit electrostatic bond enhances agonist efficacy at the human α1 glycine receptor.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Brian T; Todorovic, Jelena; Kirson, Dean; Allen, Hunter M; Bayly, Michelle D; Mihic, S John

    2017-02-15

    Partial agonists have lower efficacies than compounds considered 'full agonists', eliciting submaximal responses even at saturating concentrations. Taurine is a partial agonist at the glycine receptor (GlyR), a member of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The molecular mechanisms responsible for agonism are not fully understood but evidence suggests that efficacy at these receptors is determined by conformational changes that occur early in the process of receptor activation. We previously identified a residue located near the human α1 glycine binding site (aspartate-97; D97) that, when mutated to arginine (D97R), results in GlyR channels opening spontaneously with a high open probability, mimicking the effects of saturating glycine concentrations on wildtype GlyR. This D97 residue is hypothesized to form an electrostatic interaction with arginine-119 on an adjacent subunit, stabilizing the channel in a shut state. Here we demonstrate that the disruption of this putative bond increases the efficacy of partial agonists including taurine, as well as two other β-amino acid partial agonists, β-aminobutyric acid (β-ABA) and β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIBA). Even the subtle charge-conserving mutation of D97 to glutamate (D97E) markedly affects partial agonist efficacy. Mutation to the neutral alanine residue in the D97A mutant mimics the effects seen with D97R, indicating that charge repulsion does not significantly affect these findings. Our findings suggest that the determination of efficacy following ligand binding to the glycine receptor may involve the disruption of an intersubunit electrostatic interaction occurring near the agonist binding site.

  11. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination. PMID:27929436

  12. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-12-06

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination.

  13. Accumulation of 52 kDa glycine rich protein in auxin-deprived strawberry fruits and its role in fruit growth. [Fragaria ananassa

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-04-01

    Growth of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) receptacles can be stopped at any stage by deachening the fruits and can be resumed by exogenous application of auxin. In their earlier studies they demonstrated auxin regulated polypeptide changes at different stages of strawberry fruit development. Removal of achenes from fruits to deprive auxin resulted in the accumulation of 52 KDa polypeptide. This polypeptide is associated with cell wall and its concentration is increased in a time-dependent manner in auxin deprived receptacles. Incorporation studies with (/sup 35/S) methionine showed the promotion of labelling of 52 kDa polypeptide in the auxin-deprived receptacles within 12 h after removal of the achenes. Amino acid analysis revealed that the 52 KDa polypeptide is rich in glycine. Their studies, with normal and mutant strawberry receptacles, indicate that the synthesis and accumulation of this glycine rich protein correlates with cessation of receptacle growth. These results suggest a role for the glycine rich protein in growth.

  14. Overexpression of ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 Genes Provides Insight into Their Role in Glycine Betaine Synthesis and Affects Primary Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Missihoun, Tagnon D; Willée, Eva; Guegan, Jean-Paul; Berardocco, Solenne; Shafiq, Muhammad R; Bouchereau, Alain; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-09-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases oxidize betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine in species that accumulate glycine betaine as a compatible solute under stress conditions. In contrast, the physiological function of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is at present unclear in species that do not accumulate glycine betaine, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To address this question, we overexpressed the Arabidopsis ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 genes, which were identified to code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases, in wild-type A. thaliana. We analysed changes in metabolite contents of transgenic plants in comparison with the wild type. Using exogenous or endogenous choline, our results indicated that ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 are involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine in Arabidopsis. Choline availability seems to be a factor limiting glycine betaine synthesis. Moreover, the contents of diverse metabolites including sugars (glucose and fructose) and amino acids were altered in fully developed transgenic plants compared with the wild type. The plant metabolic response to salt and the salt stress tolerance were impaired only in young transgenic plants, which exhibited a delayed growth of the seedlings early after germination. Our results suggest that a balanced expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is important for early growth of A. thaliana seedlings and for salt stress mitigation in young seedlings.

  15. Glycine transporter inhibitors as therapeutic agents for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a dysfunction in the glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contributes to the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The potentiation of NMDA receptor function may be a useful approach for the treatment of diseases associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction. One possible strategy is to increase synaptic levels of glycine by blocking the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) in glia cells, since glycine acts as a co-agonist site on the NMDA receptor. In this article, the author reviews the recent important patents on GlyT-1 inhibitors for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases associated with the NMDA receptor hypofunction.

  16. Gas-phase interactions of organotin compounds with glycine.

    PubMed

    Latrous, Latifa; Tortajada, Jeanine; Haldys, Violette; Léon, Emmanuelle; Correia, Catarina; Salpin, Jean-Yves

    2013-07-01

    Gas-phase interactions of organotins with glycine have been studied by combining mass spectrometry experiments and quantum calculations. Positive-ion electrospray spectra show that the interaction of di- and tri-organotins with glycine results in the formation of [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) and [(R)3Sn(Gly)](+) ions, respectively. Di-organotin complexes appear much more reactive than those involving tri-organotins. (MS/MS) spectra of the [(R)3Sn(Gly)](+) ions are indeed simple and only show elimination of intact glycine, generating the [(R)3Sn](+) carbocation. On the other hand, MS/MS spectra of [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) complexes are characterized by numerous fragmentation processes. Six of them, associated with elimination of H2O, CO, H2O + CO and formation of [(R)2SnOH](+) (-57 u),[(R)2SnNH2](+) (-58 u) and [(R)2SnH](+) (-73 u), are systematically observed. Use of labeled glycines notably concludes that the hydrogen atoms eliminated in water and H2O + CO are labile hydrogens. A similar conclusion can be made for hydrogens of [(R2)SnOH](+) and [(R2)SnNH2](+) ions. Interestingly, formation [(R)2SnH](+) ions is characterized by a migration of one the α hydrogen of glycine onto the metallic center. Finally, several dissociation routes are observed and are characteristic of a given organic substituent. Calculations indicated that the interaction between organotins and glycine is mostly electrostatic. For [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) complexes, a preferable bidentate interaction of the type η(2)-O,NH2 is observed, similar to that encountered for other metal ions. [(R)3Sn](+) ions strongly stabilize the zwitterionic form of glycine, which is practically degenerate with respect to neutral glycine. In addition, the interconversion between both forms is almost barrierless. Suitable mechanisms are proposed in order to account for the most relevant fragmentation processes.

  17. Reduced glycine transporter type 1 expression leads to major changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission of CA1 hippocampal neurones in mice

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Turcotte, Marie-Eve B; Halman, Samantha; Tsai, Guochuan; Tiberi, Mario; Coyle, Joseph T; Bergeron, Richard

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of persistent elevation of synaptic glycine at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses of the hippocampus, we studied the glutamatergic synaptic transmission in acute brain slices from mice with reduced expression of glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1+/−) as compared to wild type (WT) littermates using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of CA1 pyramidal cells. We observed faster decay kinetics, reduced ifenprodil sensitivity and increased zinc-induced antagonism in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents of GlyT1+/− mice. Moreover, the ratio α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)/NMDAR was decreased in mutants compared to WT. Surprisingly, this change was associated with a reduction in the number of AMPARs expressed at the CA1 synapses in the mutants compared to WT. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of GlyT1 in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:15661817

  18. Glycine transporters type 1 inhibitor promotes brain preconditioning against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Lima, Isabel Vieira de Assis; da Costa, Flávia Lage Pessoa; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Mendes-Goulart, Vânia Aparecida; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Renato Santiago

    2015-02-01

    Brain preconditioning is a protective mechanism, which can be activated by sub-lethal stimulation of the NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and be used to achieve neuroprotection against stroke and neurodegenerative diseases models. Inhibitors of glycine transporters type 1 modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission through NMDAR, suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy of brain preconditioning. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of brain preconditioning induced by NFPS, a GlyT1 inhibitor, against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in mice hippocampus, as well as to study its neurochemical mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice (male, 10-weeks-old) were preconditioned by intraperitoneal injection of NFPS at doses of 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg, 24 h before intrahippocampal injection of NMDA. Neuronal death was evaluated by fluoro jade C staining and neurochemical parameters were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, scintillation spectrometry and western blot. We observed that NFPS preconditioning reduced neuronal death in CA1 region of hippocampus submitted to NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The amino acids (glycine and glutamate) uptake and content were increased in hippocampus of animals treated with NFPS 5.0 mg/kg, which were associated to an increased expression of type-2 glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3). The expression of GlyT1 was reduced in animals treated with NFPS. Interestingly, the preconditioning reduced expression of GluN2B subunits of NMDAR, whereas did not change the expression of GluN1 or GluN2A in all tested doses. Our study suggests that NFPS preconditioning induces resistance against excitotoxicity, which is associated with neurochemical changes and reduction of GluN2B-containing NMDAR expression.

  19. [Analysis and identification of Semen Glycines Nigrae and Semen Pharbitidis by infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Peng, Xi-Yuan; Ma, Fang; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Qun; Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-09-01

    Semen Glycines Nigrae and Semen Pharbitidis containing a large amount of fats and proteins are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. Tri-step infrared spectroscopy was applied to fast analyze and identify the two samples. In the conventional infrared spectroscopy, the samples both have obvious characteristic absorption peaks at 1,745 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching mode of C==O in esters. Furthermore, the two kinds of herbs have the peaks at 1,656 and 1,547 cm(-1) assigned to the amide I and II bands of protein. Obviously, the infrared spectra of herbs demonstrate that protein and fat is the major component in two kinds of herbs, and the relative intensity of the peaks assigned to fat and protein indicate their relative content is different. And the result is consistent with the reported. In the second derivative spectra, Semen Pharbitidis has a peak at 1,712 cm(-1) assigned to the organic acid, however, Semen Glycines Nigrae has not this absorption peak. In addition, in the second derivative spectra, appeared more differences between the two samples in shape and intensity of the peaks. In two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra, the two samples were visually distinguished due to their significant differences in auto-peak position and intensity. In the region of 1,500-1,700 cm(-1), Semen Glycines Nigrae has two autopeaks and Semen Pharbitidis has three autopeaks. In the region of 2,800-3,000 cm(-1), the samples both have two autopeaks, but the position of the strongest autopeak is different. It was demonstrated that the Tri-step infrared spectroscopy were successfully applied to fast analyze and identify the two kinds of samples containing the same major component, and made sure the foundation for future researches.

  20. Calculating chemical equilibria in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.; Ryasensky, S. S.; Baranova, N. V.

    2013-08-01

    Results from investigating interactions in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system are presented. The stoichiometry of cobalt complexes with heparin and glycine compositions CoOHHtpGly4- and CoHepGly3- is established.

  1. Glycine and Diglycine as Possible Catalytic Factors in the Prebiotic Evolution of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plankensteiner, Kristof; Righi, Alessandro; Rode, Bernd M.

    2002-06-01

    Mutual catalytic effects within the Salt-Induced Peptide Formation (SIPF) Reaction might be one little puzzle piece in the complicated process of the formation of complex peptidic systems and their chemical evolution on the prebiotic earth. The catalytic effects of glycine and diglycine on the formation of dipeptides from mixed amino acid systems in the SIPF Reaction was investigated for systems with leucine, proline, valine and aspartic acid and showed to result in a significant increase of the yield of the majority of the produced dipeptides. The results of the experiments strongly confirm previous theories on the catalytic mechanism and show the ability of the SIPF Reaction to produce a very diverse set of peptide products with relevance to the formation of a biosphere.

  2. Identification and Quantitative Analysis of Indole-3-Acetyl-l-Aspartate from Seeds of Glycine max L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.

    1982-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-l-aspartate (IAAsp) was isolated from seeds of Glycine max L. cv. Hark and its identity established by its chromatographic performance and its mass spectral fragmentation. Following acid hydrolysis, the aspartate moiety was shown to be the l-enantiomer by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic retention time of the bisethyl ester derivatized with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glycopyranosyl isothiocyanate. Isotope dilution analysis using [14C]IAAsp as internal standard showed that soybean seed contained 10 μmol/kg IAAsp and this accounted for one-half of the total indoleacetic acid of the seed. PMID:16662569

  3. Infrared laser induced conformational and structural changes of glycine and glycine·water complex in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussan, Stéphane; Tarczay, György

    2016-01-01

    Conformational and structural changes of matrix-isolated glycine and glycine·water complexes induced by the selective MIR excitation of the fundamental OH and NH stretching vibrational modes were studied. The observed spectral changes are consistent with the former assignments based on matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. Since fewer conformational barriers can be reached by MIR than by NIR excitations, fewer processes are promoted effectively by MIR radiation. The comparison of spectral changes induced by selective MIR and NIR excitations can facilitate the conformational analysis of complex molecular systems and it can also yield information on the barrier heights.

  4. Dynamics of Forward and Reverse Transport by the Glial Glycine Transporter, Glyt1b

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Clements, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Glycine is a coagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Changes in extracellular glycine concentration may modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and excitatory synaptic transmission. The GLYT1 glycine transporter is present in glia surrounding excitatory synapses, and plays a key role in regulating extracellular glycine concentration. We investigated the kinetic and other biophysical properties of GLYT1b, stably expressed in CHO cells, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Application of glycine produced an inward current, which decayed within a few seconds to a steady-state level. When glycine was removed, a transient outward current was observed, consistent with reverse transport of accumulated glycine. The outward current was enhanced by elevating intracellular or lowering extracellular [Na+], and was modulated by changes in extracellular [glycine] and time of glycine application. We developed a model of GLYT1b function, which accurately describes the time course of the transporter current under a range of experimental conditions. The model predicts that glial uptake of glycine will decay toward zero during a sustained period of elevated glycine concentration. This property of GLYT1b may permit spillover from glycinergic terminals to nearby excitatory terminals during a prolonged burst of inhibitory activity, and reverse transport may extend the period of elevated glycine concentration beyond the end of the inhibitory burst. PMID:15951392

  5. Glycine transport inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-05-27

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.

  6. Glycine Transport Inhibitors for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential. PMID:21253021

  7. Glomus fasciculatum, a Weak Pathogen of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Francl, L. J.; Dropkin, V. H.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence ofchlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatum (Gf) within cysts of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and the effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on nematode population dynamics and soybean (Glycine max) plant growth were investigated. Chlamydospores occupied 1-24% of cysts recovered from field soil samples. Hyphae of Missouri isolate Gfl penetrated the female nematode cuticle shortly after she ruptured the root epidermis. Convoluted hyphae filled infected eggs, and sporogenesis occurred within infected eggs. G. microcarpum, G. mosseae, and two isolates of Gf were inoculated with H. glycines on plants of 'Essex' soybeans. Each of the two Gf isolates infected about 1% of the nematode eggs in experimental pot cuhures. The Gfl isolate decreased the number of first-generation adult females 26%, compared with the nonmycorrhizal control. The total numbers of first-generation plus second-generation adult females were similar for both Gf isolates and 29-41% greater than the nonmycorrhizal control. Soybean plants with Gf and H. glycines produced more biomass than did nonmycorrhizal plants with nematodes, but only Gfl delayed leaf senescence. PMID:19294126

  8. Multicellular Secretory Trichome Development on Soybean and Related Glycine Gynoecia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multicellular glandular trichomes form on gynoecia of wild Glycine annual species, annual soybean cultivars, and wild perennial species. These trichomes occur on gynoecia of annual taxa from ovary base to style base, and along style of perennial species. Trichomes form at least two days prior to ant...

  9. Evaluation of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] F1 Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is an important factor in development of hybrid cultivars. Few heterosis studies have been done in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This is because manual cross-pollination is difficult and time consuming, and not conducive as an economical way to produce large quantities of hybrid seed...

  10. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Dextrose/glycine... therapy. Oral therapy in these cases is too slow. Animals which cannot drink after initial...

  11. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  12. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  13. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  14. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  15. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  16. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  17. Crystalline order of a water/glycine film coadsorbed on the (104) calcite surface.

    PubMed

    Magdans, Uta; Torrelles, Xavier; Angermund, Klaus; Gies, Hermann; Rius, Jordi

    2007-04-24

    For biomineralization processes, the interaction of the surface of calcite crystals with organic molecules is of particular importance. Especially, biologically controlled biomineralization as in exoskeletons of mollusks and echinoderms, e.g., sea urchin with single-crystal-like spines and shells,1-3 requires molecular control of seed formation and growth process. So far, experiments showing the obvious influence of organic molecules on the morphology and habit of calcite crystals have demonstrated the molecular dimension of the interaction.4-7 Details of the kinetics of growth and dissolution of mineral surfaces influenced by additives are available,8,9 but other experimental data about the structure of the organic/inorganic interface on the atomic scale are rare. On the other hand, complicated organic macromolecules which are involved in biomineralization are numerous, with only a small fraction solved in structure and function so far.10-13 Therefore, model systems have to be designed to provide a basic understanding for the interaction process.14 Using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction combined with molecular modeling techniques, we show that glycine molecules order periodically on the calcite (104) face in competition with the solvent water when exposed to an aqueous solution of the most simple amino acid. In contrast to the general concept of the charge-matching fit of organic molecules on mineral surfaces,4,14 glycine is not attached to the calcite surface directly but substitutes for water molecules in the second hydration layer.

  18. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of Glycyl-Glycine Adsorbed on Cu(110) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyer, V.; Plekan, O.; Lyamayev, V.; Skala, T.; Prince, K. C.; Chab, V.; Tsud, N.; Matolin, V.; Carravetta, V.

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the interaction between organic compounds and surfaces are motivated by their application as bio sensors, and their relevance to biocompatibility of implants and the origin of life. In the present work interaction of the simplest peptide, glycyl-glycine, with the Cu surface has been studied. Multilayer, monolayer and sub-monolayer films of this dipeptide on the clean and oxygen modified Cu(110) surface were prepared by thermal evaporation in high vacuum. The techniques used were soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. By comparing the experimental and theoretical spectra, detailed models of the electronic structure and adsorption geometry for each coverage have been proposed, which are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The carboxylic acid group of glycyl-glycine loses hydrogen and the molecule is coordinated via the carboxylate oxygen atoms to the surface. At low coverage the amino group bonds to the surface via a hydrogen atom, while at higher coverage the bonding is via the nitrogen lone pair. The peptide group is not involved in the bonding to the surface.

  19. Shifts in Buchnera aphidicola density in soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) feeding on virus-infected soybean.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Bryan J; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Dorrance, Anne E; Michel, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts are common in arthropods. Aphids undergo an obligate symbiosis with Buchnera aphidicola, which provides essential amino acids to its host and contributes directly to nymph growth and reproduction. We previously found that newly adult Aphis glycines feeding on soybean infected with the beetle-transmitted Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) had significantly reduced fecundity. We hypothesized that the reduced fecundity was attributable to detrimental impacts of the virus on the aphid microbiome, namely Buchnera. To test this, mRNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR were used to assay Buchnera transcript abundance and titre in A. glycines feeding on Soybean mosaic virus-infected, BPMV-infected, and healthy soybean for up to 14 days. Our results indicated that Buchnera density was lower and ultimately suppressed in aphids feeding on virus-infected soybean. While the decreased Buchnera titre may be associated with reduced aphid fecundity, additional mechanisms are probably involved. The present report begins to describe how interactions among insects, plants, and plant pathogens influence endosymbiont population dynamics.

  20. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  5. PKCβ–dependent phosphorylation of the glycine transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Castrejon-Tellez, Vicente; Fernando, Plenge; Ramirez, Ivan; Miranda, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance rate for glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the years, it has been shown that PKC tightly regulates the activity of several neurotransmitter transporters. In the present work, by stably expressing three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms in porcine aortic endothelial cells and assaying for [32P]-orthophosphate metabolic labeling, we demonstrated that the isoforms GlyT1a, GlyT1b, and GlyT1c were constitutively phosphorylated, and that phosphorylation was dramatically enhanced, in a time dependent fashion, after PKC activation by phorbol ester. The phosphorylation was PKC-dependent, since pre-incubation of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation. Blotting with specific anti-phospho-tyrosine antibodies did not yield any signal that could correspond to GlyT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that the phosphorylation occurs at serine and/or threonine residues. In addition, a 23-40% -inhibition on Vmax was obtained by incubation with phorbol ester without a significant change on the apparent Km value. Furthermore, pre-incubation of the cells with the selective PKCα/β inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the downregulation effect of phorbol ester on uptake and phosphorylation, whereas the selective PKCβ inhibitors (PKCβ inhibitor or LY333531) prevented the phosphorylation without affecting glycine uptake, defining a specific role of classical PKC on GlyT1 uptake and phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that phosphorylation that conventional PKCα/β regulates the uptake of glycine, whereas PKCβ is responsible for GlyT1 phosphorylation. PMID:21864610

  6. P2Y Purinergic Regulation of the Glycine Neurotransmitter Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esperanza; Zafra, Francisco; Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Delicado, Esmerilda G.; Miras-Portugal, Maria Teresa; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization. PMID:21245148

  7. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate is a glycine receptor antagonist in striatum.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A; Chepkova, Aisa N; Haas, Helmut L

    2002-11-01

    1. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES) is an analogue of taurine and an inhibitor of taurine transport. Interactions of GES with GABA(A) and glycine receptors are studied by whole cell recording and fast drug application in isolated striatal neurons of the mouse. 2. We confirm that GES is a weak agonist at GABA(A) receptors, and is able to antagonize GABA-evoked responses. GES did not gate GlyR. 3. GES antagonized glycine responses in a concentration-dependent and surmountable manner. Glycine dose-response curves were shifted to the right by GES (0.5 mM), yielding EC(50)s and Hill coefficients of 62 micro M and 2.5 in control, 154 micro M and 1.3 in the presence of GES. 4. GlyR-mediated taurine responses were competitively antagonized by GES. Taurine dose-response curves, in contrast to the glycine dose-response curves were shifted by GES to the right in a parallel manner. 5. The GlyR-block by GES was not voltage-dependent. 6. In contrast to our findings in the mouse, in rat striatal neurons which lack expression of the alpha3 GlyR subunit, GES shifted the glycine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel way without affecting the maximal response. Subtype-specificity of the GES action at GlyR must await further investigation in artificial expression systems. 7. We conclude that GES is a competitive antagonist at GlyR. The antagonistic action of GES at inhibitory ionotropic receptors can explain its epileptogenic action. Care must be taken with the interpretation of data on GES evoked taurine release.

  8. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Straw Applications Affect Uptake of 13C,15N-Glycine by Soil Microorganisms in Wheat Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijie; Zhang, Lili; Yu, Chunxiao; Li, Dongpo; Gong, Ping; Xue, Yan; Song, Yuchao; Cui, Yalan; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Zhijie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and straw on intact amino acid N uptake by soil microorganisms and the relationship between amino acid turnover and soil properties during the wheat growing season. A wheat pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: control (CK), N fertilizer (NF) and N fertilizer plus rice straw (NS). We used stable isotope compound-specific analysis to determine the uptake of 13C,15N-glycine by soil microorganisms. In the NF treatment, microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake was lower compared with CK, suggesting that inorganic N was the preferred N source for soil microorganisms. However, The application of straw with N fertilizer (in NS treatment) increased microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake even with the same amount of N fertilizer application. In this treatment, enzyme activities, soil microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N increased simultaneously because more C was available. Soil mineral N and plant N contents all decreased substantially. The increased uptake of intact 13C,15N-glycine in the NS treatment can be attributed to direct assimilation by soil microorganisms to satisfy the demand for N when inorganic N was consumed.

  9. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Straw Applications Affect Uptake of 13C,15N-Glycine by Soil Microorganisms in Wheat Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao; Li, Dongpo; Gong, Ping; Xue, Yan; Song, Yuchao; Cui, Yalan; Doane, Timothy A.; Wu, Zhijie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and straw on intact amino acid N uptake by soil microorganisms and the relationship between amino acid turnover and soil properties during the wheat growing season. A wheat pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: control (CK), N fertilizer (NF) and N fertilizer plus rice straw (NS). We used stable isotope compound-specific analysis to determine the uptake of 13C,15N-glycine by soil microorganisms. In the NF treatment, microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake was lower compared with CK, suggesting that inorganic N was the preferred N source for soil microorganisms. However, The application of straw with N fertilizer (in NS treatment) increased microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake even with the same amount of N fertilizer application. In this treatment, enzyme activities, soil microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N increased simultaneously because more C was available. Soil mineral N and plant N contents all decreased substantially. The increased uptake of intact 13C,15N-glycine in the NS treatment can be attributed to direct assimilation by soil microorganisms to satisfy the demand for N when inorganic N was consumed. PMID:28045989

  10. Glycine and a glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) SNP as citalopram/escitalopram response biomarkers in depression: pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Hebbring, S; Zhu, H; Jenkins, G D; Biernacka, J; Snyder, K; Drews, M; Fiehn, O; Zeng, Z; Schaid, D; Mrazek, D A; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Weinshilboum, R M

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an important class of drugs used in the treatment of MDD. However, many patients do not respond adequately to SSRI therapy. We used a pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomic research strategy to identify citalopram/escitalopram treatment outcome biomarkers. Metabolomic assay of plasma samples from 20 escitalopram remitters and 20 nonremitters showed that glycine was negatively associated with treatment outcome (P = 0.0054). This observation was pursued by genotyping tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genes encoding glycine synthesis and degradation enzymes, using 529 DNA samples from SSRI-treated MDD patients. The rs10975641 SNP in the glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) gene was associated with treatment outcome phenotypes. Genotyping for rs10975641 was carried out in 1,245 MDD patients in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, and its presence was significant (P = 0.02) in DNA taken from these patients. These results highlight a possible role for glycine in SSRI response and illustrate the use of pharmacometabolomics to "inform" pharmacogenomics.

  11. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

  12. Syncytium gene expression in Glycine max [PI88788} roots undergoing a resistant reaction of the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate Heterodera glycines feeding sites (syncytia) from the (G. max) genotype PI 88788. Syncytia at various stages of the resistant response were isolated from roots 3, 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi). At 3 dpi, the analyses revealed highly induced...

  13. Glycine Betaine, Carnitine, and Choline Enhance Salinity Tolerance and Prevent the Accumulation of Sodium to a Level Inhibiting Growth of Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Hervé; Le Marrec, Claire; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to probe the intracellular organic solute content of the moderately halophilic bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila. When grown in complex growth media supplemented or not with NaCl, T. halophila accumulates glycine betaine and carnitine. Unlike other moderate halophiles, T. halophila was not able to produce potent osmoprotectants (such as ectoines and glycine betaine) through de novo synthesis when cultured in defined medium under hyperosmotic constraint. Addition of 2 mM carnitine, glycine betaine, or choline to defined medium improved growth parameters, not only at high salinity (up to 2.5 M NaCl) but also in media lacking NaCl. These compounds were taken up when available in the surrounding medium. The transport activity occurred at low and high salinities and seems to be constitutive. Glycine betaine and carnitine were accumulated by T. halophila in an unmodified form, while exogenously provided choline led to an intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine. This is the first evidence of the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in a lactic acid bacterium. An assay showed that the compatible solutes strikingly repressed the accumulation of glutamate and slightly increased the intracellular potassium level only at high salinity. Interestingly, osmoprotectant-treated cells were able to maintain the intracellular sodium concentration at a relatively constant level (200 to 300 nmol/mg [dry weight]), independent of the NaCl concentration of the medium. In contrast, in the absence of osmoprotectant, the intracellular sodium content increased sharply from 200 to 2,060 nmol/mg (dry weight) when the salinity of the medium was raised from 1 to 2 M. Indeed, the imported compatible solutes play an actual role in regulating the intracellular Na+ content and confer a much higher salt tolerance to T. halophila. PMID:10653711

  14. The mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix pyriformis contains the complete glycine cleavage system.

    PubMed

    Zubáčová, Zuzana; Novák, Lukáš; Bublíková, Jitka; Vacek, Vojtěch; Fousek, Jan; Rídl, Jakub; Tachezy, Jan; Doležal, Pavel; Vlček, Cestmír; Hampl, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms contain mitochondria or organelles that evolved from the same endosymbiotic event like classical mitochondria. Organisms inhabiting low oxygen environments often contain mitochondrial derivates known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes or neutrally as mitochondrion-like organelles. The detailed investigation has shown unexpected evolutionary plasticity in the biochemistry and protein composition of these organelles in various protists. We investigated the mitochondrion-like organelle in Trimastix pyriformis, a free-living member of one of the three lineages of anaerobic group Metamonada. Using 454 sequencing we have obtained 7 037 contigs from its transcriptome and on the basis of sequence homology and presence of N-terminal extensions we have selected contigs coding for proteins that putatively function in the organelle. Together with the results of a previous transcriptome survey, the list now consists of 23 proteins - mostly enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, transporters and maturases of proteins and transporters of metabolites. We have no evidence of the production of ATP in the mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix but we have obtained experimental evidence for the presence of enzymes of the glycine cleavage system (GCS), which is part of amino acid metabolism. Using homologous antibody we have shown that H-protein of GCS localizes into vesicles in the cell of Trimastix. When overexpressed in yeast, H- and P-protein of GCS and cpn60 were transported into mitochondrion. In case of H-protein we have demonstrated that the first 16 amino acids are necessary for this transport. Glycine cleavage system is at the moment the only experimentally localized pathway in the mitochondrial derivate of Trimastix pyriformis.

  15. Channel gating of the glycine receptor changes accessibility to residues implicated in receptor potentiation by alcohols and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Ingrid A; Mascia, Maria Paola; Trudell, James R; Harris, R Adron

    2004-08-06

    The glycine receptor is a target for both alcohols and anesthetics, and certain amino acids in the alpha1 subunit transmembrane segments (TM) are critical for drug effects. Introducing larger amino acids at these positions increases the potency of glycine, suggesting that introducing larger residues, or drug molecules, into the drug-binding cavity facilitates channel opening. A possible mechanism for these actions is that the volume of the cavity expands and contracts during channel opening and closing. To investigate this hypothesis, mutations for amino acids in TM1 (I229C) and TM2 (G256C, T259C, V260C, M263C, T264C, S267C, S270C) and TM3 (A288C) were individually expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The ability of sulfhydryl-specific alkyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS) compounds of different lengths to covalently react with introduced cysteines in both the closed and open states of the receptor was determined. S267C was accessible to short chain (C3-C8) MTS in both open and closed states, but was only accessible to longer chain (C10-C16) MTS compounds in the open state. Reaction with S267C was faster in the open state. I229C and A288C showed state-dependent reaction with MTS only in the presence of agonist. M263C and S270C were also accessible to MTS labeling. Mutated residues more intracellular than M263C did not react, indicating a floor of the cavity. These data demonstrate that the conformational changes accompanying channel gating increase accessibility to amino acids critical for drug action in TM1, TM2, and TM3, which may provide a mechanism by which alcohols and anesthetics can act on glycine (and likely other) receptors.

  16. Oligomerization of glycine and alanine on metal(II) octacynaomolybdate(IV): role of double metal cyanides in prebiotic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Kamaluddin

    2012-12-01

    Condensation reactions of amino acid (glycine and alanine) on the surface of metal(II) octacyanomolybdate(IV) (MOCMo) complexes are investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electron spray ionizations-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The series of MOCMo have been synthesized and the effect of outer sphere metal ions present in the MOCMo on the oligomerization of glycine and alanine at different temperature and time found out. Formation of peptides was observed to start after 7 days at 60 °C. Maximum yield of peptides was found after 35 days at 90 °C. It has been found that zinc(II) octacyanomolybdate(IV) and cobalt(II) were the most effective metal cations present in outer sphere of the MOCMo for the production of high yield of oligomerized products. Surface area of MOCMo seems to play dominating parameter for the oligomerization of alanine and glycine. The results of the present study reveal the role of MOCMo in chemical evolution for the oligomerization of biomolecules.

  17. Effect of polynucleotides on the dimerization of glycine. [abiological protein synthesis in primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results from experiments to determine the effect of polynucleotides on abiological formation of peptide bonds are reported. The reaction between glycine molecules in an aqueous phase in the presence of a condensing agent was chosen as a model, with polyphosphates being selected as the condensing agent for biologically relevant peptide formation. Four types of polynucleotides were used: polygluanic acid (G), polyuridic acid (U), polyadenylic acid (A), and polycytidylic acid (C); the effects of small anions, acetate, chloride, and phosphate, were also studied. Procedures are given, including concentrations, pH, and incubation time, and the type of amino acid analyzer. The diglycine yields were, in order of most to least: G, C, A, U, and are diagrammed as a function of time; rate of formation followed the same order of magnitude as the final yields. Anion presence displayed no discernible effect. The results are taken to indicate that polynucleotides do have an effect on the formation of peptide bonds, an effect significant in the understanding of chemical evolution.

  18. Quantitative Method to Investigate the Balance between Metabolism and Proteome Biomass: Starting from Glycine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haiwei; Carroll, Patrick A; Du, Jianhai; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Neto, Fausto Carnevale; Eisenman, Robert N; Raftery, Daniel

    2016-12-12

    The balance between metabolism and biomass is very important in biological systems; however, to date there has been no quantitative method to characterize the balance. In this methodological study, we propose to use the distribution of amino acids in different domains to investigate this balance. It is well known that endogenous or exogenous amino acids in a biological system are either metabolized or incorporated into free amino acids (FAAs) or proteome amino acids (PAAs). Using glycine (Gly) as an example, we demonstrate a novel method to accurately determine the amounts of amino acids in various domains using serum, urine, and cell samples. As expected, serum and urine had very different distributions of FAA- and PAA-Gly. Using Tet21N human neuroblastoma cells, we also found that Myc(oncogene)-induced metabolic reprogramming included a higher rate of metabolizing Gly, which provides additional evidence that the metabolism of proliferating cells is adapted to facilitate producing new cells. It is therefore anticipated that our method will be very valuable for further studies of the metabolism and biomass balance that will lead to a better understanding of human cancers.

  19. Enhanced thermostability of methyl parathion hydrolase from Ochrobactrum sp. M231 by rational engineering of a glycine to proline mutation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Wang, Ping; Gao, Shan; Chu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2010-12-01

    Protein thermostability can be increased by some glycine to proline mutations in a target protein. However, not all glycine to proline mutations can improve protein thermostability, and this method is suitable only at carefully selected mutation sites that can accommodate structural stabilization. In this study, homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations were used to select appropriate glycine to proline mutations to improve protein thermostability, and the effect of the selected mutations was proved by the experiments. The structure of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) from Ochrobactrum sp. M231 (Ochr-MPH) was constructed by homology modeling, and molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the modeled structure. A profile of the root mean square fluctuations of Ochr-MPH was calculated at the nanosecond timescale, and an eight-amino acid loop region (residues 186-193) was identified as having high conformational fluctuation. The two glycines nearest to this region were selected as mutation targets that might affect protein flexibility in the vicinity. The structures and conformational fluctuations of two single mutants (G194P and G198P) and one double mutant (G194P/G198P) were modeled and analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The results predicted that the mutant G194P had the decreased conformational fluctuation in the loop region and might increase the thermostability of Ochr-MPH. The thermostability and kinetic behavior of the wild-type and three mutant enzymes were measured. The results were consistent with the computational predictions, and the mutant G194P was found to have higher thermostability than the wild-type enzyme.

  20. Glutamate, GABA, glycine and taurine modulate serotonin synthesis and release in rostral and caudal rhombencephalic raphe cells in primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Becquet, D; Hery, M; Francois-Bellan, A M; Giraud, P; Deprez, P; Faudon, M; Fache, M P; Hery, F

    1993-09-01

    Control of serotonin release and synthesis by amino acid neurotransmitters was investigated in rat rostral and caudal rhombencephalic raphe cells in primary cultures respectively. Endogenous amounts of taurine, glycine, GABA and glutamate were measured in both types of cultures. These amino acids were spontaneously released to the incubating medium. Exogenous taurine (10(-4) M) inhibited release and synthesis of newly formed [3H]serotonin [3H]5-HT from [3H]-tryptophan only in rostral raphe cells. Glycine (10(-3) M) decreased [3H]5-HT release in both types of cells, synthesis being diminished only in rostral raphe cells. Glycine inhibitory effect was totally blocked by strychnine (5 x 10(-5) M). GABA (10(-4) M) reduced [3H]5-HT metabolism in rostral as well as caudal raphe cells. This effect was totally antagonized in caudal and partially in rostral raphe cells by bicuculline (5 x 10(-5) M) a GABAA receptor antagonist. Baclofen (5 x 10(-5) M), a GABAB receptor agonist, induced a decrease of 5-HT release in rostral raphe cells. These observations suggest that monoamine release was entirely mediated by GABAA receptors in caudal raphe cells although GABAA and GABAB receptors were involved in control of 5-HT metabolism in rostral raphe cells. L-glutamate (10(-4) M) stimulated 5-HT metabolism in both types of cells, effect totally blocked by PK26124 (10(-6) M). N-methyl-D-aspartate (10(-4) M) enhanced 5-HT metabolism and the induced-effect was antagonized by the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D,L-2 amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. Quisqualate (10(-5) M) stimulated [3H]5-HT release only in caudal raphe cells. This effect was mimicked by (RS)-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, a quisqualate "ionotropic" receptor agonist, this increase being blocked by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline 2,3-dione. These observations suggest that the glutamate stimulating-induced effect on serotonin metabolism is entirely mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

  1. The dimerization motif of the glycophorin A transmembrane segment in membranes: importance of glycine residues.

    PubMed

    Brosig, B; Langosch, D

    1998-04-01

    The glycophorin A transmembrane segment homo-dimerizes to a right-handed pair of alpha-helices. Here, we identified the amino acid motif mediating this interaction within a natural membrane environment. Critical residues were grafted onto two different hydrophobic host sequences in a stepwise manner and self-assembly of the hybrid sequences was determined with the ToxR transcription activator system. Our results show that the motif LIxxGxxxGxxxT elicits a level of self-association equivalent to that of the original glycophorin A transmembrane segment. This motif is very similar to the one previously established in detergent solution. Interestingly, the central GxxxG motif by itself already induced strong self-assembly of host sequences and the three-residue spacing between both glycines proved to be optimal for the interaction. The GxxxG element thus appears to be the most crucial part of the interaction motif.

  2. The dimerization motif of the glycophorin A transmembrane segment in membranes: importance of glycine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Brosig, B.; Langosch, D.

    1998-01-01

    The glycophorin A transmembrane segment homo-dimerizes to a right-handed pair of alpha-helices. Here, we identified the amino acid motif mediating this interaction within a natural membrane environment. Critical residues were grafted onto two different hydrophobic host sequences in a stepwise manner and self-assembly of the hybrid sequences was determined with the ToxR transcription activator system. Our results show that the motif LIxxGxxxGxxxT elicits a level of self-association equivalent to that of the original glycophorin A transmembrane segment. This motif is very similar to the one previously established in detergent solution. Interestingly, the central GxxxG motif by itself already induced strong self-assembly of host sequences and the three-residue spacing between both glycines proved to be optimal for the interaction. The GxxxG element thus appears to be the most crucial part of the interaction motif. PMID:9568912

  3. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops.

  4. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  5. Quantitative determination of glycine in aqueous solution using glutamate dehydrogenase-immobilized glyoxal agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Semra Yilmazer; Keskin, Can Serkan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic procedure for the determination of glycine (Gly) was developed by using a column containing immobilized glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) on glyoxal agarose beads. Ammonia is produced from the enzymatic reactions between Gly and GDH with NAD(+) in phosphate buffer medium. The indophenol blue method was used for ammonia detection based on the spectrophotometric measurements of blue-colored product absorbing at 640 nm. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 0.1-10 mM of Gly concentrations. The effect of pH, temperature, and time interval was studied to find column stability, and also the interference effects of other amino acids was investigated. The interaction between GDH and glyoxal agarose beads was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the immobilized and non-immobilized agarose beads were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  6. Molecular analysis and physicochemical properties of electrophoretic variants of wild soybean Glycine soja storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takako; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Kanazawa, Akira; Abe, Jun; Shimamoto, Yoshiya; Hiemori, Miki; Tsuji, Hideaki; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2005-05-04

    Cultivated soybeans (Glycine max) are derived from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) and can be crossed with them to produce fertile offspring. The latter exhibit greater genetic variation than the former, suggesting a possibility that wild soybeans contain storage proteins with properties different from and better than those of cultivated soybeans. To identify a wild soybean suitable for breeding a new soybean cultivar, we analyzed seed proteins from 390 lines of wild soybeans by electrophoresis. We found some lines containing electrophoretic variants of glycinin and beta-conglycinin subunits: one line containing a small alpha' subunit of beta-conglycinin and two and five lines containing small A3 and large A4 polypeptides of glycinin, respectively. Beta-Conglycinin and glycinin containing such variant subunits exhibited solubility and emulsifying ability similar to those of the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans. Glycinins containing small A3 and large A4 gave a shoulder derived from the start of denaturation at a temperature 4 degrees C lower than that of glycinin from the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans, although their thermal denaturation midpoint temperatures were very similar to each other. Cloning and sequencing of the predominant and variant subunit cDNAs revealed that the small alpha' and the small A3 lacked 24 amino acid residues in the extension region and four amino acid residues in the hypervariable region, respectively, and that the large A4 did not have an insert corresponding to the difference in the electrophoretic mobility but Arg279 and Gln305 were replaced by glutamine and histidine, respectively, in the hypervariable region. These suggest that small differences even in the hypervariable region can affect the thermal stability, as well as the electrophoretic mobilities, of the proteins.

  7. Positive regulation of the Escherichia coli glycine cleavage enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R L; Steiert, P S; Stauffer, G V

    1993-01-01

    A new mutation in Escherichia coli, designated gcvA1, that results in noninducible expression of both gcv and a gcvT-lacZ gene fusion was isolated. A plasmid carrying the wild-type gcvA gene complemented the mutation and restored glycine-inducible gcv and gcvT-lacZ gene expression. These results suggest that gcvA encodes a positive-acting regulatory protein that acts in trans to increase expression of gcv. PMID:8423160

  8. Ferroelectric films of deuterated glycine phosphite: Structure and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Lemanov, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Polycrystalline textured films of deuterated glycine phosphite consisting of single-crystal blocks with lateral dimensions ˜(50-100) μm and a thickness d ˜ (1-5) μm have been grown by evaporation on NdGaO3(100) and α-Al2O3 substrates with preliminarily deposited interdigitated electrodes, as well as on Al substrates. The c* ( Z) crystallographic axis in the blocks is normal to the film plane, and the a ( X) axis and the polar axis b ( Y) are oriented in the film plane. The temperature dependences of the capacitance of the structures measured with the interdigitated electrode system reveal a strong dielectric anomaly at the film transition to the ferroelectric state. The phase transition temperature T c depends on the degree of deuteration D of the glycine phosphite. The maximum value T c = 275 K obtained in the structures studied corresponds to a degree of deuteration of the glycine phosphite D ˜ 50%. The frequency behavior of the dielectric hysteresis loops in glycine phosphite films differs radically from that of the previously studied films of deuterated betaine phosphite, which evidences that polarization switching in these structures proceeds by different mechanisms. It has been that application of a dc bias to the electrodes changes the shape of the dielectric hysteresis loops and shifts them along the electric field axis. The shift of the loops depends on the sign, magnitude, and time of application of the bias. Possible mechanisms underlying the induced unipolarity are discussed.

  9. Heterodera glycines cysts contain an extensive array of endoproteases as well as inhibitors of proteases in H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juvenile stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines cysts contain proteases, and inhibitors of protease activities in various nematode species. In this investigation, proteases in H. glycines cysts were identified using a commercially available FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide pools qualified to detect up to 4 endoprot...

  10. Glycine transporter-1: a new potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The hypofunction hypothesis of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggests that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. The glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex is the one of the most attractive therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory site on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methylglycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Currently, a number of pharmaceutical companies have been developing novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. A recent double blind phase II study demonstrated that the novel GlyT-1 inhibitor RG1678 has a robust and clinically meaningful effect in patients with schizophrenia. In this article, the author reviews the recent findings on the GlyT-1 as a potential therapeutic target of schizophrenia.

  11. Interaction between ATP, metal ions, glycine, and several minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishpon, J.; Ohara, P. J.; Lawless, J. G.; Lahav, N.

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between ATP, glycine and montmorillonite and kaolinite clay minerals in the presence of various metal cations are investigated. The adsorption of adenine nucleotides on clays and Al(OH)3 was measured as a function of pH, and glycine condensation was followed in the presence of ATP, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and either kaolinite or montmorillonite. The amounts of ATP and ADP adsorbed are found to decrease with increasing Ph, and to be considerably enhanced in experiments with Mg(2+)- and Zn(2+)-montmorillonite with respect to Na(+)-montmorillonite. The effects of divalent cations are less marked in kaolinite. Results for Al(OH)3 show the importance of adsorption at clay platelet edges at high pH. The decomposition of ATP during drying at high temperature is observed to be inhibited by small amounts of clay, vacuum, or Mg(2+) or Zn(2+) ions, and to be accompanied by peptide formation in the presence of glycine. Results suggest the importance of Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) in chemical evolution.

  12. Flow Cytometric Analysis and Sorting of Heterodera glycines Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Tylka, G. L.; Niblack, T. L.; Walk, T. C.; Harkins, K. R.; Barnett, L.; Baker, N. K.

    1993-01-01

    A nondestructive technique was developed to characterize and separate eggs of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, by developmental stage using flow cytometry. Eggs from cysts cultured on susceptible soybean roots were suspended in 0.1% xanthan gum or 59% sucrose and loaded into either a Coulter EPICS 752 or EPICS 753 flow cytometer. Eggs were analyzed and sorted according to forward angle and 90° light scatter, flow cytometric parameters that are relative measures of object size and granularity, respectively. Mature eggs containing vermiform juveniles were less granular and slightly larger than eggs in earlier stages of embryogeny, allowing for separation of mature eggs from immature eggs. The effectiveness of flow cytometric sorting was evaluated by comparing the developmental stages of subpopulations of unsorted and sorted eggs. Of a subpopulation of unsorted eggs, 62% contained vermiform juveniles, whereas 85 to 95% of sorted subpopulations of larger, less granular eggs contained vermiform juveniles. Suspending H. glycines eggs in 0.1% xanthan gum or 59% sucrose for flow cytometric analysis had no effect on subsequent egg hatch in vitro. This technique is an efficient and effective means to collect large, relatively homogeneous quantities of H. glycines eggs in early or late embryogeny, and would likely be useful for analyzing and sorting eggs of other nematode species for use in developmental, genetic, or physiological research, or for identification and collection of parasitized eggs. PMID:19279815

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ≥ 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate.

  14. FMRFamide-like Immunoactivity in Heterodera glycines (Nemata: Tylenchida)

    PubMed Central

    Masler, E. P.; Kovaleva, E. S.; Sardanelli, S.

    1999-01-01

    Material antigenically related to the neuromodulatory peptide FMRFamide was detected and examined in preparations of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus. FMRFamide-related peptides were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specific activities were remarkably similar among all of the vermiform members of the three species. FMRFamide-related peptide immunoactivity was present in both sexes and all stages of H. glycines examined. The highest specific activity was present in second-stage juveniles and in males, and the lowest in white and yellow females. Total FMRFamide-related peptide level per individual was highest in brown females, with 90% of the activity associated with the eggs. Peptide levels in these eggs and in second-stage juveniles were comparable and increased in adults, especially in females. Chromatographic analysis of FMRFamide-related peptide preparations from H. glycines juveniles, C. elegans, and P. redivivus revealed distinct qualitative differences between the infective plant parasite and the free-living nematodes. PMID:19270893

  15. Glycine transporter type 1 blockade changes NMDA receptor-mediated responses and LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells by altering extracellular glycine levels

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Gorfinkel, Yelena; Halman, Samantha; Lowe, John A; Periyalwar, Pranav; Schmidt, Christopher J; Bergeron, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region requires the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). NMDAR activation in turn requires membrane depolarization as well as the binding of glutamate and its coagonist glycine. Previous pharmacological studies suggest that the glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1) maintains subsaturating concentrations of glycine at synaptic NMDARs. Antagonists of GlyT1 increase levels of glycine in the synaptic cleft and, like direct glycine site agonists, can augment NMDAR currents and NMDAR-mediated functions such as LTP. In addition, stimulation of the glycine site initiates signalling through the NMDAR complex, priming the receptors for clathrin-dependent endocytosis. We have used a new potent GlyT1 antagonist, CP-802,079, with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acute rat hippocampal slices to determine the effect of GlyT1 blockade on LTP. Reverse microdialysis experiments in the hippocampus of awake, freely moving rats, showed that this drug elevated only the extracellular concentration of glycine. We found that CP-802,079, sarcosine and glycine significantly increased the amplitude of the NMDAR currents and LTP. In contrast, application of higher concentrations of CP-802,079 and glycine slightly reduced NMDAR currents and did not increase LTP. Overall, these data suggest that the level of glycine present in the synaptic cleft tightly regulates the NMDAR activity. This level is kept below the ‘set point’ of the NMDAR internalization priming mechanism by the presence of GlyT1-dependent uptake. PMID:15064326

  16. Expression and characterization of a glycine-binding fragment of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, J; Nakanishi, S; Jingami, H

    1999-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels are composed of an NR1 subunit and at least one of the NR2 subunits (NR2A-D). Activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor requires the co-agonists glycine and glutamate. It has been proposed that the NR1 subunit possesses a glycine-binding site. We have expressed a soluble form of the NR1 subunit, which was produced by connecting the N-terminal extracellular region with the extracellular loop between the third and fourth membrane segments, by a baculovirus system along with full-length and truncated membrane-bound forms. The soluble NR1 receptor was efficiently secreted into the culture medium and showed a high affinity for ligands. The Kd of a glycine-site antagonist, [3H]MDL 105,519 [(E)-3-(2-phenyl-2-carboxyethenyl)-4, 6-dichloro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid], for the soluble receptor was 3.89+/-0.97 nM, which was comparable to the Kd of 4.47+/-1.39 nM for the membrane-bound full-length form. These values were close to the values reported previously with the use of rat brain membranes and Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the full-length form of the NR1 subunit. The Ki values of other glycine-site antagonists, L-689,560 (trans-2-carboxy-5,7-dichloro - 4 - phenylaminocarbonylamino - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydroquinoline), 5, 7-dichlorokynurenate and 5,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, for the soluble receptor were also similar to those for the full-length form of NR1. [3H]MDL 105,519 binding was also inhibited by the agonists glycine and d-serine. Thus the affinity and selectivity of ligand-binding characteristics of the NR1 subunit is conferred on the soluble form of the NR1 subunit. This soluble receptor provides a good experimental tool for initiating a biophysical analysis of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channel protein. PMID:10359652

  17. Glycine's radiolytic destruction in ices: first in situ laboratory measurements for Mars.

    PubMed

    Gerakines, Perry A; Hudson, Reggie L

    2013-07-01

    We report new laboratory studies of the radiation-induced destruction of glycine-containing ices for a range of temperatures and compositions that allow extrapolation to martian conditions. In situ infrared spectroscopy was used to study glycine decay rates as a function of temperature (from 15 to 280 K) and initial glycine concentrations in six mixtures whose compositions ranged from dry glycine to H2O+glycine (300:1). Results are presented in several systems of units, with cautions concerning their use. The half-life of glycine under the surface of Mars is estimated as an extrapolation of this data set to martian conditions, and trends in decay rates are described as are applications to Mars' near-surface chemistry.

  18. The Formation of Racemic Amino Acids by UV Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Cooper, George; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Small biologically relevant organic molecules including the amino acids glycine, alanine, and marine were formed in the laboratory by the UV (Ultraviolet) photolysis of realistic interstellar ice analogs, composed primarily of H2O, and including CH3OH, NH3, and HCN, under interstellar conditions. N-formyl glycine, cycloserine (4-amino-3-isoxazolidinone), and glycerol were detected before hydrolysis, and glycine, racemic alanine, racemic marine, glycerol, ethanolamine, and glyceric acid were found after hydrolysis. This suggests that some meteoritic amino acids (and other molecules) may be the direct result of interstellar ice photochemistry, expanding the current paradigm that they formed by reactions in liquid water on meteorite parent bodies.

  19. Allosteric modulation of [3H]-CGP39653 binding through the glycine site of the NMDA receptor: further studies in rat and human brain

    PubMed Central

    Mugnaini, Manolo; Meoni, Paolo; Bunnemann, Bernd; Corsi, Mauro; Bowery, Norman G

    2001-01-01

    Binding of D,L-(E)-2-amino-4-[3H]-propyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid ([3H]-CGP39653), a selective antagonist at the glutamate site of the NMDA receptor, is modulated by glycine in rat brain tissue. We have further investigated this phenomenon in rodent and human brain by means of receptor binding and quantitative autoradiography techniques.In rat cerebral cortical membranes the glycine antagonist 3-[2-(Phenylaminocarbonyl)ethenyl]-4,6-dichloro-indole-2-carboxylic acid sodium salt (GV150526A) did not change basal [3H]-CGP39653 binding, but competitively reversed the high affinity component of [3H]-CGP39653 binding inhibition by glycine, with a pKB value of 8.38, in line with its affinity for the glycine site (pKi=8.49 vs [3H]-glycine). Glycine (10 μM) significantly decreased [3H]-CGP39653 affinity for the NMDA receptor (with no change in the Bmax), whereas enhanced L-glutamate affinity (P<0.05, paired-samples Student's t-test).In rat brain sections the addition of GV150526A (30 μM) to the incubation medium increased [3H]-CGP39653 binding to 208% of control (average between areas), indicating the presence of endogenous glycine. The enhancement presented significant regional differences (P<0.05, two-way ANOVA), with striatum higher than cerebral cortex (282 and 187% of control, respectively; P<0.05, Fisher's LSD). On the contrary, there was not any significant variation in affinity values of [3H]-CGP39653, L-glutamate, glycine and GV150526A in striatal and cortical membranes. These results confirmed the existence of regionally distinct NMDA receptors subtypes with different glycine/glutamate allosteric modulation.Whole brain autoradiography revealed an uneven distribution of [3H]-CGP39653 binding sites in human brain. High levels of binding were determined in hippocampus and in cingulate, frontoparietal and insular cortex. Intermediate to low levels of binding were found in diencephalic nuclei and basal ganglia. [3H]-CGP39653 binding was increased to 216% of

  20. Effect of Glycine on Adipocyte Hypertrophy in a Metabolic Syndrome Rat Model.

    PubMed

    López, Yazmín Reyes; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Lans, Verónica Guarner; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Castro, Elizabeth Soria; Espejel, Rodrigo Velázquez

    2016-01-01

    Glycine (Gly) lowers hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension but its role in preventing adipocyte hypertrophy and modulating enzymatic activity of adipocytes has not been studied. Here we evaluate the effect of 1% Gly in the diet on adipocyte hypertrophy and the modulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in a metabolic syndrome (MS) rat model with intra-abdominal obesity. 32 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control (C), MS, MS plus Gly (MS+Gly), and MS+Gly plus strychnine (MS+Gly+S). MS was induced by administering 30% sucrose in the drinking water for 16 weeks. In the MS+Gly and MS+Gly+S groups, the sucrose solution plus 1% Gly and 1 % Gly plus strychnine 10 μM were given during the last 4 weeks of the sucrose treatment. After 16 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed and the adipose tissue dissected. Gly in MS rats decreased body weight, intra-abdominal adipose tissue, adipocyte hypertrophy, blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR index, leptin, total fatty acids, non-esterified fatty acids and LPL activity. It increased fatty acids of the phospholipids, perilipin A expression and it decreased HSL expression, without changing LPL expression. The Gly receptor subunit-β was identified in adipocytes. In conclusion, Gly treatment regulates the activity of enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism of the adipocytes through the Gly receptor and it decreases the effects of the high sucrose diet.

  1. Oligomerization of Glycine and Alanine Catalyzed by Iron Oxides: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Uma; Bhushan, Brij; Bhattacharjee, G.; Kamaluddin

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide minerals are probable constituents of the sediments present in geothermal regions of the primitive earth. They might have adsorbed different organic monomers (amino acids, nucleotides etc.) and catalyzed polymerization processes leading to the formation of the first living cell. In the present work we tested the catalytic activity of three forms of iron oxides (Goethite, Akaganeite and Hematite) in the intermolecular condensation of each of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine. The effect of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide on the oligomerization has also been studied. Oligomerization studies were performed for 35 days at three different temperatures 50, 90 and 120°C without applying drying/wetting cycling. The products formed were characterized by HPLC and ESI-MS techniques. All three forms of iron oxides catalyzed peptide bond formation (23.2% of gly2 and 10.65% of ala2). The reaction was monitored every 7 days. Formation of peptides was observed to start after 7 days at 50°C. Maximum yield of peptides was found after 35 days at 90°C. Reaction at 120°C favors formation of diketopiperazine derivatives. It is also important to note that after 35 days of reaction, goethite produced dimer and trimer with the highest yield among the oxides tested. We suggest that the activity of goethite could probably be due to its high surface area and surface acidity.

  2. Converting enzyme inhibition and the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Slomowitz, L A; Peterson, O W; Thomson, S C

    1999-07-01

    GFR normally increases during glycine infusion. This response is absent in humans and rats with established diabetes mellitus. In diabetic patients, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) restores the effect of glycine on GFR. To ascertain the glomerular hemodynamic basis for this effect of ACEI, micropuncture studies were performed in male Wistar-Froemter rats after 5 to 6 wk of insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetes. The determinants of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) were assessed in each rat before and during glycine infusion. Studies were performed in diabetics, diabetics after 5 d of ACEI (enalapril in the drinking water), and weight-matched controls. Diabetic rats manifest renal hypertrophy and glomerular hyperfiltration but not glomerular capillary hypertension. ACEI reduced glomerular capillary pressure, increased glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, and did not mitigate hyperfiltration. In controls, glycine increased SNGFR by 30% due to increased nephron plasma flow. In diabetics, glycine had no effect on any determinant of SNGFR. In ACEI-treated diabetics, the SNGFR response to glycine was indistinguishable from nondiabetics, but the effect of glycine was mediated by greater ultrafiltration pressure rather than by greater plasma flow. These findings demonstrate that: (1) The absent response to glycine in established diabetes does not indicate that renal functional reserve is exhausted by hyperfiltration; and (2) ACEI restores the GFR response to glycine in established diabetes, but this response is mediated by increased ultrafiltration pressure rather than by increased nephron plasma flow.

  3. Synaptic inhibition by glycine acting at a metabotropic receptor in tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mingli; Duan, Lei; Slaughter, Malcolm M

    2008-06-15

    Glycine is the lone fast neurotransmitter for which a metabotropic pathway has not been identified. In retina, we found a strychnine-insensitive glycine response in bipolar and ganglion cells. This glycine response reduced high voltage-activated calcium current. It was G-protein mediated and protein kinase A dependent. The EC(50) of the metabotropic glycine response is 3 mum, an order of magnitude lower than the ionotropic glycine receptor in the same retina. The bipolar cell glutamatergic input to ganglion cells was suppressed by metabotropic glycine action. The synaptic output of about two-thirds of bipolar cells and calcium current in two-thirds of ganglion cells are sensitive to the action of glycine at metabotropic receptors, suggesting this signal regulates specific synaptic pathways in proximal retina. This study resolves the curious absence of a metabotropic glycine pathway in the nervous system and reveals that the major fast inhibitory neurotransmitters, GABA and glycine, both activate G-protein-coupled pathways as well.

  4. On the stability of glycine-water clusters with excess electron: Implications for photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Doo-Sik; Kang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo; Kyu Kim, Sang; Neuhauser, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    Calculations are presented for the glycine-(H2O)n- (n=0-2) anionic clusters with excess electron, with the glycine core in the canonical or zwitterion form. A variety of conformers are predicted, and their relative energy is examined to estimate thermodynamic stability. The dynamic (proton transfer) pathways between the anionic clusters with the canonical and the zwitterion glycine core are examined. Small barrier heights for isomerization from the zwitterion glycine-(H2O)2- anion to those with canonical glycine core suggest that the former conformers may be kinetically unstable and unfavorable for detection of neutral glycine zwitterion-(H2O)n (n=1,2) clusters by photodetachment, in accordance with the photoelectron spectroscopic experiments by Bowen and co-workers [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10696 (2003)]. The calculated stability of the glycine-(H2O)n- anion clusters with canonical glycine core relative to those with zwitterion core indicates that the observation of the anionic conformers with the canonical glycine core would be much more feasible, as revealed by Johnson and co-workers [Diken et al. J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9902 (2004)].

  5. Changes in plasma D-serine, L-serine, and glycine levels in treatment-resistant schizophrenia before and after clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Yamamori, Hidenaga; Hashimoto, Ryota; Fujita, Yuko; Numata, Shusuke; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Ohi, Kazutaka; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Ito, Akira; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2014-10-17

    Hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Many studies have investigated peripheral NMDA receptor-related glutamatergic amino acid levels because of their potential as biological markers. Peripheral d-serine levels and the ratio of d-serine to total serine have been reported to be significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. Peripheral d-serine levels and the d-/l-serine ratio have also been reported to significantly increase in patients with schizophrenia as their clinical symptoms improve from the time of admission to the time of discharge. In this study, we examined whether peripheral NMDA receptor-related glutamatergic amino acids levels were altered in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia compared to controls and whether these peripheral amino acids levels were altered by clozapine treatment. Twenty-two patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma levels of d-serine, l-serine, glycine, glutamate, and glutamine were measured before and after clozapine treatment. We found that the plasma levels of d-serine and the d-/l-serine ratio were significantly lower in the patients before clozapine treatment than in the controls. The d-/l-serine ratio was significantly increased by clozapine treatment in patients, and no significant difference was observed in the plasma levels of d-serine and the d-/l-serine ratio between the patients after clozapine treatment and the controls. We also found that plasma glycine levels and the glycine/l-serine ratio were significantly increased following clozapine treatment in the patients, and the glycine/l-serine ratio was significantly higher in the patients after clozapine treatment than in the controls. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of glutamate and glutamine both between the controls and patients and

  6. Differential agonist sensitivity of glycine receptor alpha2 subunit splice variants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul S; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2004-09-01

    1. The glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha2A and alpha2B splice variants differ by a dual, adjacent amino acid substitution from alpha2A(V58,T59) to alpha2B(I58,A59) in the N-terminal extracellular domain. 2. Comparing the effects of the GlyR agonists, glycine, beta-alanine and taurine, on the GlyR alpha2 isoforms, revealed a significant increase in potency for all three agonists at the alpha2B variant. 3. The sensitivities of the splice variants to the competitive antagonist, strychnine, and to the biphasic modulator Zn(2+), were comparable. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor picrotoxin was more potent on GlyR alpha2A compared to GlyR alpha2B receptors. 4. Coexpression of alpha2A or alpha2B subunits with the GlyR beta subunit revealed that the higher agonist potencies observed with the alpha2B homomer were retained for the alpha2Bbeta heteromer. 5. The identical sensitivity to strychnine combined with a reduction in the maximum current induced by the partial agonist taurine at the GlyR alpha2A homomer, suggested that the changed sensitivity to agonists is in accordance with a modulation of agonist efficacy rather than agonist affinity. 6. An effect on agonist efficacy was also supported by using a structural model of the GlyR, localising the region of splice variation to the proposed docking region between GlyR loop 2 and the TM2-3 loop, an area associated with channel activation. 7. The existence of a spasmodic mouse phenotype linked to a GlyR alpha1(A52S) mutation, the equivalent position to the source of the alpha2 splice variation, raises the possibility that the GlyR alpha2 splice variants may be responsible for distinct roles in neuronal function.

  7. Disturbances of Ligand Potency and Enhanced Degradation of the Human Glycine Receptor at Affected Positions G160 and T162 Originally Identified in Patients Suffering from Hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Atak, Sinem; Langlhofer, Georg; Schaefer, Natascha; Kessler, Denise; Meiselbach, Heike; Delto, Carolyn; Schindelin, Hermann; Villmann, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-binding of Cys-loop receptors is determined by N-terminal extracellular loop structures from the plus as well as from the minus side of two adjacent subunits in the pentameric receptor complex. An aromatic residue in loop B of the glycine receptor (GlyR) undergoes direct interaction with the incoming ligand via a cation-π interaction. Recently, we showed that mutated residues in loop B identified from human patients suffering from hyperekplexia disturb ligand-binding. Here, we exchanged the affected human residues by amino acids found in related members of the Cys-loop receptor family to determine the effects of side chain volume for ion channel properties. GlyR variants were characterized in vitro following transfection into cell lines in order to analyze protein expression, trafficking, degradation and ion channel function. GlyR α1 G160 mutations significantly decrease glycine potency arguing for a positional effect on neighboring aromatic residues and consequently glycine-binding within the ligand-binding pocket. Disturbed glycinergic inhibition due to T162 α1 mutations is an additive effect of affected biogenesis and structural changes within the ligand-binding site. Protein trafficking from the ER toward the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, the secretory Golgi pathways and finally the cell surface is largely diminished, but still sufficient to deliver ion channels that are functional at least at high glycine concentrations. The majority of T162 mutant protein accumulates in the ER and is delivered to ER-associated proteasomal degradation. Hence, G160 is an important determinant during glycine binding. In contrast, T162 affects primarily receptor biogenesis whereas exchanges in functionality are secondary effects thereof. PMID:26733802

  8. The reaction between NH3+ and CH3COOH: a possible process for the formation of glycine precursors in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo, L.; Redondo, P.; Rayón, V. M.; Largo, A.; Barrientos, C.

    2010-06-01

    Context. The formation of glycine is strongly relevant to our understanding of the interstellar medium and is most accuretely studied computationally. Aims: We carry out a theoretical study of the reactions between the radical cation of ammonia and CH3COOH/CH2COOH as possible processes leading to glycine derivatives. Methods: The gas-phase reactions were theoretically studied using ab initio methods. We employed the second-order Moller-Plesset level in conjunction with the cc-pVTZ basis set. In addition, the electronic energies were refined by means of single-point calculations at the CCSD(T) level on the MP2/cc-pVTZ geometries with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Results: We report accurate potential energy surfaces for the reactions considered in this work. The different intermediate species as well as the most relevant transition states for these reactions are characterized. Conclusions: Formation of protonated glycine from the reaction of NH3+ with acetic acid is an exothermic (-9.15 kcal/mol at CCSD(T) level) barrier free process. However, the results obtained indicate that the hydrogen-transfer process forming NH4+ and CH2COOH is clearly the dominating path, in agreement with the experimental evidence. The formation of ionized glycine from the reaction of product CH2COOH with NH3+ is a quasi-isoenergetic (2.03 kcal/mol at CCSD(T) level) barrier free process that leads to a highly stable intermediate: protonated glycine.

  9. Purification and Properties of Arginase from Soybean, Glycine max, Axes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hoon; Cho, Young Dong

    1990-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) was purified to homogeneity from cytosol of soybean, Glycine max, axes by chromatographic separations on Sephadex G-200, DEAE-sephacel, hydroxyapatite, and arginine-affinity columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by pore gradient gel electrophoresis was 240,000, while sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave a single band at the molecular weight of 60,000. The optimal pH for activity was 9.5 and the Km value was 83 millimolar. The enzyme was stimulated by polyamines such as putrescine. Images Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:16667583

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus.

  11. Water oxidation by a nickel-glycine catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Ghirlanda, Giovanna; Allen, James P

    2014-07-23

    The utilization of solar energy requires an efficient means for its storage as chemical energy. In bioinspired artificial photosynthesis, light energy can be used to drive water oxidation, but catalysts that produce molecular oxygen from water are needed to avoid excessive driving potentials. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of a novel complex utilizing earth-abundant Ni in combination with glycine as an efficient catalyst with a modest overpotential of 0.475 ± 0.005 V at a current density of 1 mA/cm(2) at pH 11. Catalysis requires the presence of the amine moiety with the glycine most likely coordinating the Ni in a 4:1 molar ratio. The production of molecular oxygen at a high potential is verified by measurement of the change in oxygen concentration, yielding a Faradaic efficiency of 60 ± 5%. The catalytic species is most likely a heterogeneous Ni-hydroxide formed by electrochemical oxidation. This Ni species can achieve a current density of 4 mA/cm(2) that persists for at least 10 h. Based upon the observed pH dependence of the current amplitude and oxidation/reduction peaks, the catalytic mechanism is an electron-proton coupled process.

  12. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  13. Chemical speciation of adsorbed glycine on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; James, Joanna N.; Sholl, David S.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental studies have reported that glycine is adsorbed on the Cu(110) and Cu(100) surfaces in its deprotonated form at room temperature, but in its zwitterionic form on Pd(111) and Pt(111). In contrast, recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that the deprotonated molecules are thermodynamically favored on Cu(110), Cu(100), and Pd(111). To explore the source of this disagreement, we have tested three possible hypotheses. Using DFT calculations, we first show that the kinetic barrier for the deprotonation reaction of glycine on Pd(111) is larger than on Cu(110) or Cu(100). We then report that the presence of excess hydrogen would have little influence on the experimentally observed results, especially for Pd(111). Lastly, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that the aggregates of zwitterionic species on Pt(111) are energetically preferred to those of neutral species. Our results strongly suggest that the formation of aggregates with relatively large numbers of adsorbed molecules is favored under experimentally relevant conditions and that the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in these aggregates stabilize the zwitterionic species.

  14. Role of glial and neuronal glycine transporters in the control of glycinergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in lamina X of the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Bradaïa, Amyaouch; Schlichter, Rémy; Trouslard, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    Using whole cell voltage clamp recordings from lamina X neurones in rat spinal cord slices, we investigated the effect of glycine transporter (GlyT) antagonists on both glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSCs) and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSCs). We used ORG 24598 and ORG 25543, selective antagonists of the glial GlyT (GlyT1) and neuronal GlyT (GlyT2), respectively. In rats (P12–P16) and in the presence of kynurenic acid, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and bicuculline, ORG 24598 and ORG 25543 applied individually at a concentration of 10 μm induced a mean inward current of −10/−50 pA at −60 mV and increased significantly the decay time constants of miniature (mIPSCs), spontaneous (sIPSCs) and electrically evoked glycinergic (eIPSCs) inhibitory postsynaptic currents. ORG 25543, but not ORG 24598, decreased the frequency of mIPSCs and sIPSCs. Replacing extracellular sodium with N-methyl-d-glucamine or superfusing the slice with micromolar concentrations of glycine also increased the decay time constant of glycinergic IPSCs. By contrast, the decay time constant, amplitude and frequency of miniature GABAergic IPSCs recorded in the presence of strychnine were not affected by ORG 24598 and ORG 25543. In the presence of strychnine, bicuculline and CNQX, we recorded electrically evoked NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs (eEPSCs). eEPSCs were suppressed by 30 μmd-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, and by 30 μm dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), an antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. Glycine (1–5 μm) and d-serine (10 μm) increased the amplitude of eEPSCs whereas l-serine had no effect. ORG 24598 and ORG 25543 increased significantly the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated eEPSCs without affecting the amplitude of non-NMDA receptor-mediated eEPSCs. We conclude that blocking glial and/or neuronal glycine transporters increased the level of glycine in spinal cord slices

  15. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  17. Behavioral differences of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to root extracts in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vitro behaviors of infective juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were compared in the presence and absence of plant root extracts. In an agar plate attraction-retention assay, H. glycines was 15-fold more responsive to a chemical attractant (CaCl2; P < 0.05) than w...

  18. Transcriptional responses of tolerant and susceptible soybeans to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was introduced in 2000 to North America and has become one of the most significant pests to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, production. Possible solutions to this problem are the use of resistant plants and the understanding of the genes involved in pl...

  19. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-17

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower (15)N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher (15)N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most (15)N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  20. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus penetrans, Heterodera glycines, and Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Melakeberhan, Haddish

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus penetrans on H. glycines-resistant 'Bryan,' tolerant-susceptible 'G88-20092,' and intolerant-susceptible 'Tracy M' soybean cultivars was tested using plants grown in 800 cm³ of soil in 15-cm-diam. clay pots in three greenhouse experiments. Plants were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 9,000 H. glycines race 3 or M. incognita eggs, or vermiform stages of P. penetrans/pot. Forty days after inoculation, nmnbers of all three nematodes, except H. glycines on Bryan, generally increased with increasing inoculum levels in Experiment I. Heterodera glycines and M. incognita significantly decreased growth only of Tracy M. At 45 and 57 days after inoculation with 6,000 individuals/pot in experiments II and III, respectively, significantly more P. penetrans and M. incognita than H. glycines were found on Bryan. However, H. glycines and M. incognita population densities were greater than P. penetrans on G88-20092 and Tracy M. Growth of Tracy M infected by H. glycines and M. incognita and growth of G88-20092 infected by M. incognita decreased in Experiment III. Pratylenchus penetrans did not affect plant growth. Reduction in plant growth differed according to the particular nematode species and cultivar, indicating that nematodes other than the species for which resistance is targeted can have different effects on cultivars of the same crop species. PMID:19274203

  1. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  2. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m‑2 s‑1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  6. Impact of Herbicides on Heterodera glycines Susceptible and Resistant Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, C. A.; Noel, G. R.; Grau, C. R.; Gaska, J. M.; Kurtzweil, N. C.; MacGuidwin, A. E.; Wax, L. M.; Hartman, G. L.; Pedersen, W. L.

    2003-01-01

    Several abiotic and biotic stresses can affect soybean in a growing season. Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, reduces yield of soybean more than any other pathogen in the United States. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine whether preemergence and postemergence herbicides modified the reproduction of H. glycines, and to determine the effects of possible interactive stresses caused by herbicides and H. glycines on soybean growth and yield. Heterodera glycines reproduction factor (Rf) generally was less on resistant than susceptible cultivars, resulting in a yield advantage for resistant cultivars. The yield advantage of resistant cultivars was due to more pods per plant on resistant than susceptible cultivars. Pendimethalin reduced H. glycines Rf on the susceptible cultivars in 1998 at Champaign, Illinois, and in greenhouse studies reduced dry root weight of H. glycines-resistant and susceptible cultivars, therefore reducing Rf on the susceptible cultivars. The interactive stresses from acifluorfen or imazethapyr and H. glycines reduced the dry shoot weight of the resistant cultivar Jack in a greenhouse study. Herbicides did not affect resistant cultivars' ability to suppress H. glycines Rf; therefore, growers planting resistant cultivars should make herbicide decisions based on weeds present and cultivar tolerance to the herbicide. PMID:19265980

  7. Benzo(A)pyrene induced glycine N-methyltransferase messenger rna expression in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a mediator in the methionine and folate cycles, and is responsible for the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to glycine forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sarcosine. All the known DNA methyltransferases use SAM as a methyl donor th...

  8. Increased production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the presence of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Tsukagoshi, N.; Miyashiro, S.; Udaka, S.

    1983-07-01

    The production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens increased by a factor of 300 when glycine was added to a chemically defined simple medium at the early-logarithmic phase of growth. Glycine was not metabolized to a significant extent under the conditions used, but it considerably prevented the lowering of the pH of the culture. (Refs. 10).

  9. Dynamic proteome analysis of roots of soybean compatible and incompatible to Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain new insights into the mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) interaction with the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), we compared protein expression profiles of soybean roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode. Proteins were extracted from roots of 3 and 8 days post-inoculation (dpi)...

  10. Molecular hydrogen messengers can lead to structural infidelity: A cautionary tale of protonated glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Antoine; Williams, Evan R.; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2015-09-01

    The effects of tagging protonated glycine with either He or between 1 and 14 H2 molecules on the infrared photodissociation spectra and the ion structure were investigated. Differences in the IR spectra with either a single He atom or H2 molecule attached indicate that even a single H2 molecule can affect the frequencies of some vibrational bands of this simple ion. The protonation site is the preferred location of the tag with He and with up to two H2 molecules, but evidence for H2 attachment to the hydrogen atom of the uncharged carboxylic acid is observed for ions tagged with three or more H2 molecules. This results in a 55 cm-1 red shift in the carboxylic acid OH stretch, and evidence for some structural isomers where the hydrogen bond between the protonated nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen is partially broken; as a result H2 molecules attached to this site are observed. These results are supported by theory, which indicates that H2 molecules can effectively break this weak hydrogen bond with three or more H2 molecules. These results indicate that large spectral shifts as a result of H2 molecules attaching to sites remote from the charge can occur and affect stretching frequencies as a result of charge transfer, and that tagging with multiple H2 molecules can change the structure of the ion itself.

  11. Cell signalling and the hormonal stimulation of the hepatic glycine cleavage enzyme system by glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, G M; Jois, M; Brosnan, J T

    1998-01-01

    The glycine cleavage enzyme system (GCS) is found in mitochondria. In liver it is activated by glucagon and other hormones but it is not known how the hormonal signal is transmitted to the mitochondria. We found that the cell-permeant protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid stimulated flux through GCS and could induce a significant increase in the sensitivity of GCS and of glycogenolysis to glucagon. Half-maximal stimulation of GCS by glucagon occurred at 3.2+/-0.6 nM, whereas it was fully activated at 0.3 nM in the presence of 1 microM okadaic acid. The protein kinase A agonist adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp isomer (10 microM) stimulated the GCS flux by approx. 100%. This stimulation was inhibited by the protein kinase A antagonist 8-bromoadenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS). Although Rp-8-Br-cAMPS significantly inhibited glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis it had no effect on the glucagon-stimulated GCS flux. These results indicate that a cytoplasmic phosphorylated protein is involved in transmitting glucagon's effect to the mitochondria. However, protein kinase A does not have a necessary role in transmitting glucagon's signal. We also examined the role of protein kinase C because angiotensin II also stimulated flux through GCS. However, the phorbol ester PMA had no effect on either GCS or on glycogenolysis. PMID:9480887

  12. Developmental expression and biochemical properties of a beta-1,4-endoglucanase family in the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bingli; Allen, R; Davis, E L; Baum, T J; Hussey, R S

    2004-03-01

    SUMMARY The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, produces beta-1,4-endoglucanases (cellulases) that are secreted during infection of soybean. The gene structures of three, hg-eng-4, hg-eng-5 and hg-eng-6, of the six beta-1,4-endoglucanase genes, all family 5 glycosyl hydrolases previously identified from H. glycines, are presented here. Furthermore, we present the detailed expression analyses of beta-1,4-endoglucanase genes as well as the biochemical properties of four H. glycines endoglucanase enzymes. Two of the endoglucanases, HG-ENG-5 and HG-ENG-6, differed significantly in their amino acid sequence of the catalytic domains and their gene structure from that of the other four beta-1,4-endoglucanases. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed distinct developmental expression differences among the hg-eng family members during the early stages of parasitism and relatively low expression levels in late parasitic stages, with the exception of the adult male stage for some eng genes. Recombinant HG-ENGs degraded carboxymethylcellulose and optimum enzyme activity ranged from pH 5.5 for HG-ENG-5 to pH 8 for HG-ENG-6. EDTA, Ca(2+), Co(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) did not affect enzyme activity of any ENG protein, whereas Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) inhibited enzyme activity from 23% to 73% in some cases. In tests with 12 different polysaccharide substrates, enzyme activity was restricted to beta-1,4 linkages with all ENG proteins tested. Only HG-ENG-5 and HG-ENG-6 had relatively high activity on xylan and slightly degraded microcrystalline cellulose. Together, these data reveal distinct differences in expression and biochemistry of cyst nematode parasitism genes and proteins, respectively, and cast light on the intricate interactions between a parasitic animal and its plant host.

  13. Taurine activates excitatory non-synaptic glycine receptors on dopamine neurones in ventral tegmental area of young rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fushun; Xiao, Cheng; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2005-06-01

    The physiological and pharmacological properties of taurine-induced responses were investigated in dopaminergic (DA) neurones from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of young rats aged 1-13 postnatal days, either in acute brain slices or acutely dissociated neurones. When whole-cell responses were recorded from current-clamped neurones using the gramicidin-perforated technique, the application of taurine (0.01-30 mm) accelerated firings and induced membrane depolarization. In voltage-clamped neurones, taurine induced a current which was antagonized by strychnine and by picrotoxin, but not by bicuculline. In addition, taurine-induced current showed complete cross-desensitization with glycine-activated currents but not with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated currents. Thus, taurine is a full agonist of the glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the VTA. Further studies found that taurine acted mainly on non-synaptic GlyRs. The application of 20 microm bicuculline abolished the spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in 40/45 neurones, and 93% of the evoked IPSCs. The addition of 1 microm strychnine completely eliminated the remaining IPSCs. These results suggest that GABAergic IPSCs predominate, and that functional glycinergic synapses are present in a subset of the VTA neurones. The application of 1 mum strychnine alone induced an outward current, suggesting that these neurones were exposed to tonically released taurine/glycine. In conclusion, by activating non-synaptic GlyRs, taurine may act as an excitatory extra-synaptic neurotransmitter in the VTA during early development.

  14. Overexpression of AtGRDP2, a novel glycine-rich domain protein, accelerates plant growth and improves stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Amaro, María A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Hernández-Lucero, Eloísa; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Ibáñez-Salazar, Alejandro; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins with glycine-rich signatures have been reported in a wide variety of organisms including plants, mammalians, fungi, and bacteria. Plant glycine-rich protein genes exhibit developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns. Herein, we present the characterization of the AtGRDP2 gene using Arabidopsis null and knockdown mutants and, Arabidopsis and lettuce over-expression lines. AtGRDP2 encodes a short glycine-rich domain protein, containing a DUF1399 domain and a putative RNA recognition motif (RRM). AtGRDP2 transcript is mainly expressed in Arabidopsis floral organs, and its deregulation in Arabidopsis Atgrdp2 mutants and 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines produces alterations in development. The 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines grow faster than the WT, while the Atgrdp2 mutants have a delay in growth and development. The over-expression lines accumulate higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid and, have alterations in the expression pattern of ARF6, ARF8, and miR167 regulators of floral development and auxin signaling. Under salt stress conditions, 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines displayed higher tolerance and increased expression of stress marker genes. Likewise, transgenic lettuce plants over-expressing the AtGRDP2 gene manifest increased growth rate and early flowering time. Our data reveal an important role for AtGRDP2 in Arabidopsis development and stress response, and suggest a connection between AtGRDP2 and auxin signaling. PMID:25653657

  15. Crystallization of jarosite in the presence of amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, Harrison; Fernandez, Natalya; Jones, Franca

    2015-04-01

    Jarosite was formed in the presence of five amino acids at two pHs, namely 1.75 and 2.9, to determine what impact amino acids have on its formation. It was found that at the lower pH glycine was the most potent in terms of morphological and yield impacts. XRD analysis showed that incorporation of the amino acid occurs at this low pH for glycine and proline. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that glycine impacts significantly on the jarosite nucleation rate while proline and alanine do not. At the higher pH all of the amino acids had much less impact on morphology or yield. At pH 3 the solids were found to be a 3-phase system consisting of goethite, schwertmannite and jarosite. In this case, alanine appeared to stabilise the presence of schwertmannite more than the other amino acids.

  16. l-Serine and glycine serve as major astroglia-derived trophic factors for cerebellar Purkinje neurons

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Shigeki; Tabata, Toshihide; Mitoma, Junya; Yamada, Keiko; Yamasaki, Miwako; Makino, Asami; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kano, Masanobu; Hirabayashi, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    Glial cells support the survival and development of central neurons through the supply of trophic factors. Here we demonstrate that l-serine (l-Ser) and glycine (Gly) also are glia-derived trophic factors. These amino acids are released by astroglial cells and promote the survival, dendritogenesis, and electrophysiological development of cultured cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Although l-Ser and Gly are generally classified as nonessential amino acids, 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3PGDH), a key enzyme for their biosynthesis, is not expressed in Purkinje neurons. By contrast, the Bergman glia, a native astroglia in the cerebellar cortex, highly expresses 3PGDH. These data suggest that l-Ser and Gly mediate the trophic actions of glial cells on Purkinje neurons. PMID:11016963

  17. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of two novel soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y

    2009-09-01

    The complete mRNA sequences of two soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase, were amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that soybean vestitone reductase gene encodes a protein of 327 amino acids which has high homology with the vestitone reductase of Medicago sativa (77%). The soybean chalcone reductase gene encodes a protein of 314 amino acids that has high homology with the chalcone reductase of kudzu vine (88%) and medicago sativa (83%). The expression profiles of the soybean vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase genes were studied and the results indicated that these two soybean genes were differentially expressed in detected soybean tissues including leaves, stems, roots, inflorescences, embryos and endosperm. Our experiment established the foundation for further research on these two soybean genes.

  18. Host Suitability of Diverse Lines of Phaseolus vulgaris to Multiple Populations of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James R.; Young, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines. PMID:19265970

  19. Silyl imine electrophiles in enantioselective catalysis: a Rosetta Stone for peptide homologation, enabling diverse N-protected aryl glycines from aldehydes in three steps.

    PubMed

    Makley, Dawn M; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2014-06-06

    We report that N-(trimethylsilyl)imines serve in the Bis(AMidine)-catalyzed addition of bromonitromethane with a high degree of enantioselection. This allows for the production of a range of protected α-bromo nitroalkane donors (including Fmoc) for use in Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Hence, peptide homologation with nonnatural aryl glycine amino acids is achieved in three steps from aromatic aldehydes, which are plentiful and inexpensive. Epimerization during the homologation step is circumvented by avoiding an α-amino acid intermediate.

  20. Silyl Imine Electrophiles in Enantioselective Catalysis: A Rosetta Stone for Peptide Homologation, Enabling Diverse N-Protected Aryl Glycines from Aldehydes in Three Steps

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report that N-(trimethylsilyl)imines serve in the Bis(AMidine)-catalyzed addition of bromonitromethane with a high degree of enantioselection. This allows for the production of a range of protected α-bromo nitroalkane donors (including Fmoc) for use in Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Hence, peptide homologation with nonnatural aryl glycine amino acids is achieved in three steps from aromatic aldehydes, which are plentiful and inexpensive. Epimerization during the homologation step is circumvented by avoiding an α-amino acid intermediate. PMID:24828455

  1. GABA, β-alanine and glycine in the digestive juice of privet-specialist insects: convergent adaptive traits against plant iridoids.

    PubMed

    Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Yasui, Hiroe; Okada, Sachiko; Sugimura, Masahiro; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Shinbo, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2010-09-01

    The privet tree, Ligustrum obtusifolium (Oleaceae), defends its leaves against insects with a strong lysine-decreasing activity that make proteins non-nutritive. This is caused by oleuropein, an iridoid glycoside. We previously found that some privet-specialist caterpillars adapt by secreting glycine in the digestive juice as a neutralizer that prevents the loss of lysine. Here, we extended the survey into 42 lepidopteran and hymenopteran species. The average concentration of glycine in digestive juice for 11 privet-feeding species (40.396 mM) was higher than that for 32 non-privet-feeding species (2.198 mM). The glycine concentrations exceeded 10 mM in 7 out of 11 privet-feeding species. In Macrophya timida (Hymenoptera), it reached 164.8 mM. Three out of the four remaining privet-feeding species had other amino acids instead. Larvae of a privet-specialist butterfly, Artopoetes pryeri (Lycaenidae), had a high concentration (60.812 mM) of GABA. In two other specialists, β-alanine was found. GABA, β-alanine, and glycine as well as alanine, amines, and ammonium ion inhibited the lysine decrease, indicating that amino residues are responsible for the inhibition. However, the three amino acids found in the specialists were far more effective (20 mM showed 80% inhibition) than the rest (>140 mM was required for 80% inhibition). Our results show a clear and rare case of the apparent convergent evolution of herbivores' molecular adaptations of feeding on a plant with a chemical defense in a manner that minimizes the cost of adaptation. The novel role of GABA in plant-herbivore interactions shown here is probably the first reported non-neuronal role of animal-derived GABA.

  2. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Hatcher, Catherine N; Wuddineh, Wegi A; Rudis, Mary; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Hewezi, Tarek; Chen, Feng; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2016-11-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyses the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe. In this study, we produced transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 and characterized their response to various SCN races. Transgenic plants conferred a significant reduction in the development of SCN HG type 1.2.5.7 (race 2), HG type 0 (race 3) and HG type 2.5.7 (race 5). Among transgenic lines, GmSAMT1 expression in roots was positively associated with SCN resistance. In some transgenic lines, there was a significant decrease in salicylic acid titer relative to control plants. No significant seed yield differences were observed between transgenics and control soybean plants grown in one greenhouse with 22 °C day/night temperature, whereas transgenic soybean had higher yield than controls grown a warmer greenhouse (27 °C day/23 °C night) temperature. In a 1-year field experiment in Knoxville, TN, there was no significant difference in seed yield between the transgenic and nontransgenic soybean under conditions with negligible SCN infection. We hypothesize that GmSAMT1 expression affects salicylic acid biosynthesis, which, in turn, attenuates SCN development, without negative consequences to soybean yield or other morphological traits. Thus, we conclude that GmSAMT1 overexpression confers broad resistance to multiple SCN races, which would be potentially applicable to commercial production.

  3. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; ...

    2016-05-23

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyses the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe. In this study, we produced transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 and characterized their response to various SCN races. Transgenic plants conferred a significant reduction in the development of SCN HG type 1.2.5.7 (race 2), HG type 0 (race 3) and HG type 2.5.7 (race 5). Among transgenic lines, GmSAMT1 expression in roots was positively associated with SCN resistance.more » In some transgenic lines, there was a significant decrease in salicylic acid titer relative to control plants. No significant seed yield differences were observed between transgenics and control soybean plants grown in one greenhouse with 22 °C day/night temperature, whereas transgenic soybean had higher yield than controls grown a warmer greenhouse (27 °C day/23 °C night) temperature. In a 1-year field experiment in Knoxville, TN, there was no significant difference in seed yield between the transgenic and nontransgenic soybean under conditions with negligible SCN infection. We hypothesize that GmSAMT1 expression affects salicylic acid biosynthesis, which, in turn, attenuates SCN development, without negative consequences to soybean yield or other morphological traits. Furthermore, we conclude that GmSAMT1 overexpression confers broad resistance to multiple SCN races, which would be potentially applicable to commercial production.« less

  4. Channel Gating Dependence on Pore Lining Helix Glycine Residues in Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Mowrey, David D; Mendez Giraldez, Raul; Wang, Ying; Pasek, Daniel A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    Type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction. The role of RyR1-G4934 and -G4941 in the pore-lining helix in channel gating and ion permeation was probed by replacing them with amino acid residues of increasing side chain volume. RyR1-G4934A, -G4941A, and -G4941V mutant channels exhibited a caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release response in HEK293 cells and bound the RyR-specific ligand [(3)H]ryanodine. In single channel recordings, significant differences in the number of channel events and mean open and close times were observed between WT and RyR1-G4934A and -G4941A. RyR1-G4934A had reduced K(+) conductance and ion selectivity compared with WT. Mutations further increasing the side chain volume at these positions (G4934V and G4941I) resulted in reduced caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells, low [(3)H]ryanodine binding levels, and channels that were not regulated by Ca(2+) and did not conduct Ca(2+) in single channel measurements. Computational predictions of the thermodynamic impact of mutations on protein stability indicated that although the G4934A mutation was tolerated, the G4934V mutation decreased protein stability by introducing clashes with neighboring amino acid residues. In similar fashion, the G4941A mutation did not introduce clashes, whereas the G4941I mutation resulted in intersubunit clashes among the mutated isoleucines. Co-expression of RyR1-WT with RyR1-G4934V or -G4941I partially restored the WT phenotype, which suggested lessening of amino acid clashes in heterotetrameric channel complexes. The results indicate that both glycines are important for RyR1 channel function by providing flexibility and minimizing amino acid clashes.

  5. Glycine prevents metabolic steatohepatitis in diabetic KK-Ay mice through modulation of hepatic innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shiori; Ikejima, Kenichi; Arai, Kumiko; Yokokawa, Junko; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Yamashina, Shunhei; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-12-01

    Strategies for prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remain to be established. We evaluated the effect of glycine on metabolic steatohepatitis in genetically obese, diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Male KK-A(y) mice were fed a diet containing 5% glycine for 4 wk, and liver pathology was evaluated. Hepatic mRNA levels for lipid-regulating molecules, cytokines/chemokines, and macrophage M1/M2 markers were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Hepatic expression of natural killer (NK) T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Body weight gain was significantly blunted and development of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration were remarkably prevented in mice fed the glycine-containing diet compared with controls. Indeed, hepatic induction levels of molecules related to lipogenesis were largely blunted in the glycine diet-fed mice. Elevations of hepatic mRNA levels for TNFα and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were also remarkably blunted in the glycine diet-fed mice. Furthermore, suppression of hepatic NK T cells was reversed in glycine diet-fed KK-A(y) mice, and basal hepatic expression levels of NK T cell-derived cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, were increased. Moreover, hepatic mRNA levels of arginase-1, a marker of macrophage M2 transformation, were significantly increased in glycine diet-fed mice. In addition, dietary glycine improved glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia in KK-A(y) mice. These observations clearly indicate that glycine prevents maturity-onset obesity and metabolic steatohepatitis in genetically diabetic KK-A(y) mice. The underlying mechanisms most likely include normalization of hepatic innate immune responses involving NK T cells and M2 transformation of Kupffer cells. It is proposed that glycine is a promising immunonutrient for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome-related nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  6. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA)...

  7. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA)...

  8. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% fr...

  9. The first proton sponge-based amino acids: synthesis, acid-base properties and some reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Gorbacheva, Anastasia Yu; Pozharskii, Alexander F; Vlasenko, Marina P; Tereznikov, Alexander Yu; Chernov'yants, Margarita S

    2015-08-21

    The first hybrid base constructed from 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (proton sponge or DMAN) and glycine, N-methyl-N-(8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl)aminoacetic acid, was synthesised in high yield and its hydrobromide was structurally characterised and used to determine the acid-base properties via potentiometric titration. It was found that the basic strength of the DMAN-glycine base (pKa = 11.57, H2O) is on the level of amidine amino acids like arginine and creatine and its structure, zwitterionic vs. neutral, based on the spectroscopic (IR, NMR, mass) and theoretical (DFT) approaches has a strong preference to the zwitterionic form. Unlike glycine, the DMAN-glycine zwitterion is N-chiral and is hydrolytically cleaved with the loss of glycolic acid on heating in DMSO. This reaction together with the mild decarboxylative conversion of proton sponge-based amino acids into 2,3-dihydroperimidinium salts under air-oxygen was monitored with the help of the DMAN-alanine amino acid. The newly devised amino acids are unique as they combine fluorescence, strongly basic and redox-active properties.

  10. Secondary fragmentation routes of glycine in ice under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, A.; Pilme, J.; Ellinger, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The question of the relative stability of the complex organic molecules (COM) under the interstellar radiation field is a crucial question, especially in the context of the panspermia hypothesis for which their survival during the transfer from space to the Earth is a necessary condition for the appearance of life (Ehrenfreund et al 2001, 2002). Assuming that these species are originally embedded in interstellar grains, their resistance to the solar UV radiation in ice is a key issue. The case of glycine, H2NCH2COOH, has been considered recently in irradiation experiments carried out at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. It appeared that glycine is partially protected by ice but also suffers some fragmentation leading in the end to CO2 and to CN containing species. Quantum chemical simulations have been performed in parallel for all the possible fragmentations of neutral, ionized, doubly ionized, protonated and zwitterionic glycine (Lattelais et al. 2010). This study has shown that the primary decomposition routes leading to fragments CH2COOH, H2NCH2, H2NCH2+, CH2COOH+, H2NCH3, and CO2 are energetically valid. The experiments have also shown that the role of water is mainly to increase the production of the end products in the photoreactions, most probably due to the reactions with the OH radicals formed during the irradiation of the ice. We present a theoretical study of the secondary fragmentation channels initiated by the OH radical by means of quantum chemical calculations using DFT and ab initio correlated methods (MP2,CCSD(T)). We have examined all the possible secondary fragmentations starting from the primary fragments mentioned above. We considered all species embedded in the dielectric continuum simulating an icy environment (comparison with the gas phase situation serves as reference). Thermodynamic stabilities as well as activation barriers have been determined. This study shows that the formation of the HCN molecule as end product is energetically

  11. Final report of CCQM-K130 nitrogen mass fraction measurements in glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedevskikh, Maria; Krasheninina, Maria; do Rego, Eliane C. P.; Wollinger, Wagner; Monteiro, Tânia M.; de Carvalho, Lucas J.; Acco Garcia, Steve Ali; Haraldsson, Conny; Rodriguez, M. Alejandra; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Salvo, Karino; Gavrilkin, Vladimir; Kulyk, Sergij; Samuel, Laly

    2017-01-01

    CCQM key comparison K-130 in the field of nitrogen mass fracton has been performed by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM). The aim of this key comparison CCQM-K130 is to support National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes (DIs) to demonstrate the validity of the procedures the employed for determination of nitrogen mass fraction in glycine. Mass fraction of nitrogen is very important pointer because the results of these measurements are often used for determination of protein mass fraction that is an important indicator of the quality of the vast majority of food products and raw materials, in particular dry milk powder. Proteins-enzymes catalyze chemical reactions, protein along with fats and carbohydrates is one of the indicators characterizing the energy value of food, so its definition is mandatory for all food products. The study material for this key comparison has been selected to be representative as one of the aminoacid - the simplest part of the protein. Glycine is an amino acid, single acid that does not have any isomers (melting point -290 °C specific heat of evaporation - 528,6 J/kg; specific melting heat - 981,1 J/kg; pKa - 2, 34, molar mass - 75,07 g/mol, density - 1,607 g/cm3). Ural Scientific Research Institute for Metrology (UNIIM) acted as the coordinating laboratory of this comparison. Nine NMIs participated in this key comparison and one NMI participated in Pilot study that was condacted in parallel. Report A contains the results of key comparison and pilot study. The results of Pilot study were excluded from the Report B Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM

  12. Exogenous amino acids as fuel in shock.

    PubMed

    Daniel, A M; Kapadia, B; MacLean, L D

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that in shock branched-chain amino acids are preferentially oxidized resulting in continued proteolysis and stimulated gluconeogenesis. To determine if exogenous amino acids could be used as fuel in shock, dogs rendered hypotensive by controlled cardiac tamponade and normotensive controls were infused with amino acid mixtures and individual amino acids. When Nephramine, a mixture rich in branched-chain amino acids, was infused, plasma alpha-amino nitrogen levels rose but urea output did not increase in either the control state or in shock, suggesting that these amino acids were not rapidly deaminated to serve as fuels. Travasol, which in addition contained large amounts of alanine and glycine, tripled urea output in the controls and doubled it in shock. The limit of urea production was reached in both groups at 35 mumoles urea/minute/kg. In the Travasol-infused animals plasma alpha-amino nitrogen levels were maintained in normotension but rose sharply in shock. When glycine alone was infused into five dogs in shock urea production rate was 30.6 + 2.1 mumoles/minute/kg; with alanine the same value was 22.5 + 2.2 mumoles/minute/kg. In both cases plasma alpha-amino nitrogen levels were high, suggesting that transport of these amino acids into the cell was slow in shock. In four dogs in shock glycine-14C was added to the glycine infusate as a tracer. At radioactive equilibrium 28% of the label infused appeared in CO2; another 22% appeared in glucose. It is concluded that of all the amino acids tested only glycine and alanine are deaminated rapidly enough to serve as exogenous fuels in shock.

  13. Stability of organic acids on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Zan; Hudson, R.; Moore, M.

    2009-09-01

    Mars receives an influx of carbonaceous material by fine-grained meteoritic impact of 2.4×105 kg carbon per year. Carbonaceous meteorites are known to contain amino acids, up to 249 ppm in primitive CR type meteorites, with glycine abundances as high as 58 ppm. These meteorite-bound amino acids arrive on Mars and may be distributed over the planet aeolian processes. Once on the surface, amino acids can be degraded rapidly by ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and reactions with oxidizing species such as H, OH, HO2, and H2O2. To test the influence of a water matrix on the stability of glycine on Mars, we have photolysed pure glycine and glycine-water ice mixtures (1:4) with a high-pressure xenon arc lamp that produces a spectrum similar to the solar spectrum on Mars. The ices were photolysed at temperatures relevant to Mars, especially at higher latitudes (100-150 K). For comparison, we repeated these experiments with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and formic acid (HCOOH). In addition, we also photolysed solid carbonic acid (H2CO3), which may be formed on Mars in mixed water and CO2 ices when initiated by solar wind particles. Our results show that carbonic acid is an order of magnitude more stable than formic and acetic acid. The glycine-water mixture did not show any degradation over the course of the photolysis experiment. This work is supported by NASA grant NNG05GL46G and the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  14. Determination of benzoic acid in serum or plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jeff M; Scott, David K; Smith, Laurie D; Garg, Uttam

    2010-01-01

    Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), a metabolic disorder due to defects in the glycine cleavage system, leads to the accumulation of toxic levels of glycine. Glycine levels in these patients may be lowered by sodium benzoate treatment. Benzoic acid binds to glycine to form hippurate, which is subsequently eliminated through the kidneys. At high concentrations, hippuric acid can crystallize in the kidneys and cause renal failure. Therefore, it is desirable to have benzoic acids concentrations within a therapeutic range. In the gas chromatography method described, the drug from the acidified serum or plasma sample is extracted using ethyl acetate. The organic phase containing drug is separated and dried under a stream of nitrogen. After trimethylsilyl derivatization, benzoic acid analysis is done on a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Quantitation of the drug in a sample is achieved by comparing responses of the unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. Benzoic acid D(5) is used as an internal standard.

  15. Growth, structural, optical and electrical behavior of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN) crystal with non-linear optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, M. M.; Pati, S. P.

    2011-02-01

    New trapezoidal, non-linear optical crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN) have been grown by slow cooling from solutions with an initial pH of 4.3. Chemical composition, phase formation and functional groups have been verified by CHN, EDAX, XRF, NMR, XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. UV studies show a much lower cut off wavelength (195 nm) compared to the much investigated glycine sodium nitrate (GSN). The powder SHG efficiency of GPN is found to be 0.6 times compared to that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Cut and polished crystals exposed to light indicate positive photoconductivity. Electrical conductivity studies show an activation energy of 0.16 eV and the dielectric loss is found to decay drastically at higher frequencies (1 MHz) which is desirable in electronic applications. Vickers microhardness studies indicate a Mayer's index value of 2.78. Well resolved, elongated and oriented etch pits have been observed on the side habit face (220) treated in glacial acetic acid for 5 s. Typical circular features resisting the formation of etch pits representing impurity elements have been observed on the cleavage faces. Moisture has been traced on the surface of the crystals subjected to heat treatment.

  16. A temperature-responsive gene in sorghum encodes a glycine-rich protein that interacts with calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Supreet; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Jaswal, Rajdeep; Chawla, Mrinalini; Kapoor, Sanjay; Mohapatra, Samar B; Manoj, Narayanan; Pareek, Ashwani; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Prabhjeet

    2017-03-18

    Imposition of different biotic and abiotic stress conditions results in an increase in intracellular levels of Ca(2+) which is sensed by various sensor proteins. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the best studied transducers of Ca(2+) signals. CaM undergoes conformational changes upon binding to Ca(2+) and interacts with different types of proteins, thereby, regulating their activities. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of a sorghum cDNA encoding a protein (SbGRBP) that shows homology to glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins. The expression of SbGRBP in the sorghum seedlings is modulated by heat stress. The SbGRBP protein is localized in the nucleus as well as in cytosol, and shows interaction with CaM that requires the presence of Ca(2+). SbGRBP depicts binding to single and also double stranded DNA. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses suggest that interaction of SbGRBP with nucleic acids may be modulated after binding with CaM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for interaction of a stress regulated glycine-rich RNA-binding protein with CaM.

  17. Study of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Glycine, Diglycine, and Triglycine in Aqueous Tartrazine at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anwar; Patel, Rajan; Khan, Shahjahan; Bhushan, Vidiksha

    2009-11-01

    The densities (ρ), viscosities (η), and refractive indices (nD) of (0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 m) amino acid, glycine, and peptides, diglycine and triglycine in 0.01 m aqueous tartrazine solution were determined at 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K. The density data were utilized to evaluate apparent molar volumes (φv) which, in turn, were used to determine partial molar volumes (φv ◦) using Masson's equation. The transfer volumes were also calculated. The viscosity data were analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation to determine the viscosity coefficients and the activation parameters. The activation parameters of viscous flow were obtained to throw light on the mechanism of viscous flow. The molar refraction was calculated using the refractive index data. The results were interpreted in the light of ion-ion, ion-nonpolar, and nonpolar-nonpolar interactions and the effect of increasing hydrophobicity as we move from glycine to triglycine on these interactions in presence of the dye tartrazine was also investigated.

  18. Increased glutamate and decreased glycine release in the RVM during induction of a pre-clinical model of chronic widespread muscle pain

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Two injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle produce long-lasting hyperalgesia that is initiated and maintained by changes in the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM). Potential underlying mechanisms could be increased release of excitatory neurotransmitters and/or reduced release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, in the RVM. We tested this hypothesis by measuring concentrations of aspartate, glutamate and glycine in response to the first and second injection of acidic saline and compared to intramuscular injections of normal saline using microdialysis with HPLC analysis. We show a significant increase in aspartate and glutamate during the second acid-saline injection compared to normal-saline injections or the first injection of acid-saline. There were also long-lasting decreases in glycine concentrations in the RVM in response to both the first and second injection of acidic saline. It is possible that disinhibition after the first injection leads to long-lasting neuronal changes that allow a greater release of excitatory neurotransmitters after the second injection. We hypothesize that increased release of excitatory neurotransmitters in the RVM drives the release of excitatory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord, central sensitization and the consequent hyperalgesia. PMID:19429181

  19. Fast and reversible trapping of surface glycine receptors by gephyrin.

    PubMed

    Meier, J; Vannier, C; Sergé, A; Triller, A; Choquet, D

    2001-03-01

    Variations in receptor number at a given synapse are known to contribute to synaptic plasticity, but methods used to establish this idea usually do not allow for the determination of the dynamics of these phenomena. We used single-particle tracking to follow in real time, on the cell surface, movements of the glycine receptor (GlyR) with or without the GlyR stabilizing protein gephyrin. GlyR alternated within seconds between diffusive and confined states. In the absence of gephyrin, GlyR were mostly freely diffusing. Gephyrin induced long confinement periods spatially associated with submembranous clusters of gephyrin. However, even when most receptors were stabilized, they still frequently made transitions through the diffusive state. These data show that receptor number in a cluster results from a dynamic equilibrium between the pools of stabilized and freely mobile receptors. Modification of this equilibrium could be involved in regulation of the number of receptors at synapses.

  20. Biofortification of soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with strontium ions.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Strzemski, Maciej; Dresler, Sławomir; Szwerc, Wojciech; Blicharski, Tomasz; Szymczak, Grażyna; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2014-06-11

    Soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an annual plant cultivated worldwide mostly for food. Moreover, due to its pharmacological properties it is widely used in pharmacy for alleviating the symptoms of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biofortification of soy treated with various concentrations of strontium. Soy was found to have a strong capacity to absorb Sr(2+) (bioconcentration factor higher than 1). A positive linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) between the amount of strontium in the growth medium and its content in the plant was also observed. Moreover, at a concentration of 1.5 mM, strontium appeared to be nontoxic and even stimulated plant growth by approximately 19.4% and 22.6% of fresh weight for shoots and roots, respectively. Our research may be useful to obtain vegetable products or herbal preparations containing both phytoestrogens and strontium to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. Dislocations, microhardness and optical studies on glycine potassium nitrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Nagaraju, D.; Shekar, P. V. Raja; Rao, T. Tirumal; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN), a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, of dimensions 15×12×4 mm3 were grown in a period of 10 days. The defect content present in the crystals was estimated by chemical etching technique. The results indicate that the average dislocation density is about 4.1×103/cm2. The UV-Vis. studies indicate that the crystal has a wide transmission range. The Kurtz powder test indicates that the second harmonic generation efficiency of GPN is 2.5 times that of KDP. The load-hardness curves for GPN were studied over the load range 10-100 g. The anisotropy in hardness was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  2. Formation and transformation of amino acids and amino acid precursors by high-velocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamori, A.

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been found in extraterrestrial bodies such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites. It is plausible that these extraterrestrial bodies carried organic compounds such as amino acids or their precursors to the early Earth. It is claimed, however, that these extraterrestrial organics were destroyed during impacts to the Earth. We therefore examined possible transformation of amino acids and their precursors during high-velocity impacts by using a rail gun "HYPAC" in ISAS. Starting materials used in the impact experiments were (i) aqueous solution of glycine (10 mM or 1.0 M), and (ii) a mixture of ammonia, methanol and water. The target materials were sealed in stainless steel capsules, and shocked by impact with a polycarbonate projectile accelerated with "HYPAC" to the velocities of 2.5 - 7.0 km/s. A part of the products was acid-hydrolyzed. Both hydrolyzed an unhydrolyzed products were analyzed by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. When an aqueous solution containing ammonia, methanol and water was shocked by impact at the velocity of 6.4 km/s, a number of amino acids (e.g., serine and glycine) were detected after hydrolysis. The present results suggest that amino acid precursors could be formed during cometary impacts. When glycine solution was used as a starting material, about 40 % of glycine was recovered even after 6 km/s impact. Methylamine and ammonia, which are known as pyrolytic products of glycine, were detected, besides them, diketopiperazine and an unidentified product whose molecular weight was 134, were detected, while no glycine peptides were identified in them. It was shown that the impact processes resulted in the formation of amino acid condensates. Thermal stability of glycine precursor is comparable with glycine. The present results suggest that organic material could survive and/or formed during an impact process. Most of organic

  3. Correlating Structural and Energetic Changes in Glycine Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Suzanne; Lynch, Joseph W.; Keramidas, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemoelectrical transduction in the nervous system. The mechanism by which the energy of ligand binding leads to current-conducting receptors is poorly understood and may vary among family members. We addressed these questions by correlating the structural and energetic mechanisms by which a naturally occurring M1 domain mutation (α1Q−26′E) enhances receptor activation in homo- and heteromeric glycine receptors. We systematically altered the charge of spatially clustered residues at positions 19′ and 24′, in the M2 and M2-M3 linker domains, respectively, which are known to be critical to efficient receptor activation, on a background of α1Q−26′E. Changes in the durations of single receptor activations (clusters) and conductance were used to determine interaction coupling energies, which we correlated with conformational displacements as measured in pLGIC crystal structures. Presence of the α1Q−26′E enhanced cluster durations and reduced channel conductance in homo- and heteromeric receptors. Strong coupling between α1−26′ and α119′ across the subunit interface suggests an important role in receptor activation. A lack of coupling between α1−26′ and α124′ implies that 24′ mutations disrupt activation via other interactions. A similar lack of energetic coupling between α1−26′ and reciprocal mutations in the β subunit suggests that this subunit remains relatively static during receptor activation. However, the channel effects of α1Q−26′E on α1β receptors suggests at least one α1-α1 interface per pentamer. The coupling-energy change between α1−26′ and α119′ correlates with a local structural rearrangement essential for pLGIC activation, implying it comprises a key energetic pathway in activating glycine receptors and other pLGICs. PMID:25572390

  4. [Theory study on glycine linear oligopeptide vibrational spectrum frequency shift].

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xin; Yang, Meng-Shi; Chen, Liang; Xu, Can; Chu, Xiu-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    By using the density functional theory, glycine linear oligopeptide of different lengths was geometrically optimized on the 6-31G (d) basis set level, their growth processes were simulated, and the average binding energy and vibration frequency were calculated with geometry. The results showed that the average binding energies tend to change in a regular pattern and stabilize with the number of residues increasing; With the oligopeptide chain bond length analysis it was found that the chain to the radial direction there is a opposite trend for chain and radial direction, which is anisotropic. It was found by the IR spectrum analysis that red shifts and blue shifts occur respectively when the same group of peptide bond vibrate, which is anisotropic; These phenomena originate from that quasi one-dimensional nanostructures lead to the anisotropy of the bond length; the induced effects, coupling effects and hydrogen bonding etc. between the same groups lead to the vibration frequency red shifts and blue shifts. The authors conclude that the growth of glycine linear oligopeptide is conducive to stability of the structure, and the authors infer that the oligopeptide has the tendency of self-assembled growth; Through the conformation and spectrum, the authors infer that there is a size effect in physical and chemical properties. The physical and chemical properties of peptide chain end group are extremely stable and unaffected by the impact of the oligopeptide chain length The results are significant to measuring the length and the number of residue of peptide, and to manufacturing the special features oligopeptide chain.

  5. Bacteria and fungi respond differently to multifactorial climate change in a temperate heathland, traced with 13C-glycine and FACE CO2.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Louise C; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Bol, Roland; Selsted, Merete B; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    It is vital to understand responses of soil microorganisms to predicted climate changes, as these directly control soil carbon (C) dynamics. The rate of turnover of soil organic carbon is mediated by soil microorganisms whose activity may be affected by climate change. After one year of multifactorial climate change treatments, at an undisturbed temperate heathland, soil microbial community dynamics were investigated by injection of a very small concentration (5.12 µg C g(-1) soil) of (13)C-labeled glycine ((13)C2, 99 atom %) to soils in situ. Plots were treated with elevated temperature (+1°C, T), summer drought (D) and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (510 ppm [CO2]), as well as combined treatments (TD, TCO2, DCO2 and TDCO2). The (13)C enrichment of respired CO2 and of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was determined after 24 h. (13)C-glycine incorporation into the biomarker PLFAs for specific microbial groups (Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, actinobacteria and fungi) was quantified using gas chromatography-combustion-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Gram positive bacteria opportunistically utilized the freshly added glycine substrate, i.e. incorporated (13)C in all treatments, whereas fungi had minor or no glycine derived (13)C-enrichment, hence slowly reacting to a new substrate. The effects of elevated CO2 did suggest increased direct incorporation of glycine in microbial biomass, in particular in G(+) bacteria, in an ecosystem subjected to elevated CO2. Warming decreased the concentration of PLFAs in general. The FACE CO2 was (13)C-depleted (δ(13)C = 12.2‰) compared to ambient (δ(13)C = ∼-8‰), and this enabled observation of the integrated longer term responses of soil microorganisms to the FACE over one year. All together, the bacterial (and not fungal) utilization of glycine indicates substrate preference and resource partitioning in the microbial community, and therefore suggests a diversified response pattern

  6. Glycine cleavage enzyme complex: molecular cloning and expression of the H-protein cDNA from cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zay, Agnes; Choy, Francis Y M; Patrick, Chelsea; Sinclair, Graham

    2011-06-01

    The human H-protein is one of four essential components (H-, L-, P-, and T-proteins) of the mammalian glycine cleavage enzyme complex and its function is involved in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of glycine encephalopathy. A transcript corresponding to the glycine cleavage H-protein functional gene was isolated from cultured human skin fibroblasts along with a transcript for a putative processed pseudogene on chromosome 2q33.3. Sequence analysis of the fibroblast H-protein functional gene transcript showed complete identity to that reported from human liver. The H-protein cDNA was subsequently cloned with a hexahistidine affinity tag in the Pichia pastoris plasmid vector pPICZαA and recombined into the yeast genome downstream of the alcohol oxidase promoter for methanol-induced expression. The recombinant H-protein was secreted into the culture medium and purified to homogeneity using a one-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid resin column. Approximately 4 mg of homogeneous H-protein was obtained from 1 L of culture medium. Since the attachment of a lipoic acid prosthetic group is required for H-protein function, we have expressed and purified E. coli lipoate protein ligase and succeeded in lipoylating H-protein, converting the apo-H-protein to the functional holo-H-protein. A lipoamide dehydrogenase assay was performed to confirm that the apo-H-protein was inactive, whereas the holo-H-protein was approximately 2.3-fold more active than free lipoic acid as a hydrogen donor in driving the reaction. The availability of copious amounts of human recombinant H-protein by using Pichia pastoris expression and affinity purification will facilitate the elucidation of the structure and function of the H-protein and its relationship to the P-, T-, and L-proteins in the glycine cleavage enzyme complex. In view of the fact that there is no detectable glycine cleavage enzyme activity in human skin fibroblasts, we speculate that a plausible function of the H-protein is to

  7. A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of glycine betaine in cell suspension and other systems.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Bustos, Ma Guadalupe; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo Armando; Tiessen-Favier, Axel; Robledo-Paz, Alejandrina; Muñoz-Orozco, Abel; Rascón-Cruz, Quintin; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio

    2016-04-01

    Glycine betaine is a quaternary ammonium compound that accumulates in a large variety of species in response to different types of stress. Glycine betaine counteracts adverse effects caused by abiotic factors, preventing the denaturation and inactivation of proteins. Thus, its determination is important, particularly for scientists focused on relating structural, biochemical, physiological, and/or molecular responses to plant water status. In the current work, we optimized the periodide technique for the determination of glycine betaine levels. This modification permitted large numbers of samples taken from a chlorophyllic cell line of the grass Bouteloua gracilis to be analyzed. Growth kinetics were assessed using the chlorophyllic suspension to determine glycine betaine levels in control (no stress) cells and cells osmotically stressed with 14 or 21% polyethylene glycol 8000. After glycine extraction, different wavelengths and reading times were evaluated in a spectrophotometer to determine the optimal quantification conditions for this osmolyte. Optimal results were obtained when readings were taken at a wavelength of 290 nm at 48 h after dissolving glycine betaine crystals in dichloroethane. We expect this modification to provide a simple, rapid, reliable, and cheap method for glycine betaine determination in plant samples and cell suspension cultures.

  8. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Claire N. J.; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. PMID:27003418

  9. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Claire N J; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses.