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Sample records for acid glycine nh2ch2cooh

  1. Cometary Glycine Detected in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2006, NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth. The Stardust cometary collector consisted of aerogel cells lined with aluminum foils designed to capture impacting particles and facilitate removal of the aerogel. Preliminary examinations of these comet-exposed materials revealed a suite of organic compounds, including several amines and amino acids which were later examined in more detail. Methylamine (NH2CH3) and ethylamine (NH2C2H5) were detected in the exposed aerogel at concentrations greatly exceeding those found in control samples, while the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) was detected in several foil samples as well as in the comet-exposed aerogel. None of these three compounds had been previously detected in comets, although methylamine had been observed in the interstellar medium. Although comparison with control samples suggested that the detected glycine was cometary. the previous work was not able to conclusively identify its origin. Here, we present the results of compound-specific carbon isotopic analysis of glycine in Stardust cometary collector foils. Several foils from the interstellar side of the Stardust collector were also analyzed for amino acid abundance, but concentrations were too low to perform isotopic ana!ysis.

  2. Glycine adsorption and photo-reaction over ZnO(000ī) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. K.; Traeger, F.; Wöll, C.; Idriss, H.

    2014-06-01

    The adsorption and reaction of the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) are studied experimentally on the polar single crystal surface of zinc oxide, ZnO(000ī), by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under UV light in presence and absence of molecular O2. Deposition at 350 K mainly resulted in a largely deprotonated monolayer (NH2CH2COO-(a) + OH(s); where O is surface oxygen, (a) is for adsorbed and (s) is for surface species) identified by its XPS C1s binding energy at 289.3 eV (COO), 286.7 eV (CH2) and XPS O1s at 531.8 eV (COO). A decrease in the signals of all functional groups of the adsorbed glycine (monitored by their C1s, O1s, and N1s lines) is seen upon UV excitation in the absence and presence of O2 pressures up to 5 × 10- 6 mbar. The photoreaction cross sections extracted from the decrease in the C1s peaks were found to be = 2.6 × 10- 18 (COO(a)) and 1.4 × 10- 18(CH2) cm2. The photoactivity of the ZnO(000ī) surface under UHV-conditions is found to be comparable to that seen in direct photolysis of amino acids in solution.

  3. A Three-phase Chemical Model of Hot Cores: The Formation of Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures ~40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 × 10-11-8 × 10-9, occurring at ~200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH2, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  4. A Sensitive VLA Search for Small-Scale Glycine Emission Toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Snyder, L. E.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Palmer, Patrick; Liu, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a deep Q-band (lambda-7 mm) search with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward OMC-1 for the lowest energy conformation (conformer I) of glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in four rotational transitions: the 6(sub 15)- 5(sub 14), 6(sub 24)-5(sub 23), 7(sub 17- 6(sub 16), and 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06). Our VLA observations sample the smallest-scale structures to date in the search for glycine toward OMC-1. No glycine emission features were detected. Thus if glycine exists in OMC-1, either it is below our detection limit, or it is more spatially extended than other large molecules in this source, or it is primarily in its high energy form (conformer II). Our VLA glycine fractional abundance limits in OMC-1 are comparable to those determined from previous IRAM 30m measurements -- somewhat better or worse depending on the specific source model -- and the entire approximately 1 foot primary beam of the VLA was searched while sensitive to an areal spatial scale approximately 150 times smaller than the 24 inch beam of the IRAM single-element telescope. In the course of this work, we detected and imaged the 4(sub 14)-3(sub 13) A and E transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and also the 2(sub 02) - 1(sub 01) transition of formic acid (HCOOH). Since formic acid is a possible precursor to glycine, our glycine limits and formic acid results provide a constraint on this potential formation chemistry route for glycine in OMC-1.

  5. Methylammonium methylcarbamate thermal formation in interstellar ice analogs: a glycine salt precursor in protostellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossa, J.-B.; Duvernay, F.; Theulé, P.; Borget, F.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Chiavassa, T.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Analyses of dust cometary grains collected by the Stardust spacecraft have shown the presence of amines and amino acids molecules, and among them glycine (NH{2}CH{2}COOH). We show how the glycine molecule could be produced in the protostellar environments before its introduction into comets. Aims: We study the evolution of the interstellar ice analogues affected by both thermal heating and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons, in addition to the nature of the formed molecules and the confrontation of our experimental results with astronomical observations. Methods: Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are used to monitor the evolution of the H{2}O:CO{2}:CH{3}NH{2} and CO{2}:CH{3}NH{2} ice mixtures during both warming processes and VUV photolysis. Results: We first show how carbon dioxide (CO{2}) and methylamine (CH{3}NH{2}) thermally react in water-dominated ice to form methylammonium methylcarbamate [ CH{3}NH{3}+] [ CH{3}NHCOO-] noted C. We then determine the reaction rate and activation energy. We show that C thermal formation can occurs in the 50-70 K temperature range of a protostellar environment. Secondly, we report that a VUV photolysis of a pure C sample produces a glycine salt, methylammonium glycinate [ CH{3}NH{3}+] [ NH{2}CH{2}COO-] noted G. We propose a scenario explaining how C and subsequently G can be synthesized in interstellar ices and precometary grains. Conclusions: [ CH{3}NH{3}+] [ CH{3}NHCOO-] could be readily formed and would act as a glycine salt precursor in protostellar environments dominated by thermal and UV processing. We propose a new pathway leading to a glycine salt, which is consistent with the detection of glycine and methylamine within the returned samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 from the Stardust mission.

  6. Ir-Spectroscopy of Glycine and its Complexes with Water in Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letzner, M.; Grün, S. A.; Schwaab, G.; Havenith, M.

    2011-06-01

    Glycine is the smallest amino acid, and therefore it is of special interest as a model and starting point for theoretical and experimental studies. Whereas the crystalline form of glycine consists of zwitterions NH_3+-CH_2-COO-, gas phase glycine is known to exist in the nonionized form NH_2-CH_2-COOH. The interaction between glycine and water has been widely studied using a large variety of theoretical methods. Depending on the theoretical level used, a stabilisation of the zwitterionic form is predicted for complexes containing from 2 to 7 water molecules. In low-temperature Ar matrices a set of characteristic IR absorption bands for the zwitterionic form has been observed. The higher stoichiometry complexes (glycine)\\cdots(H_2O)_n with n larger than 3 are demonstrated to be zwitterionic H-bonded complexes. The multitude of conformations expected for these glycine-water complexes makes a combination of low temperature and high resolution spectroscopy essential. We want to use the advantages of our experiment to investigate glycine and its complexes with water in helium-nanodroplets at ultracold temperatures in the range from 3000-3800 Cm-1. Our measurements were carried out using a high power IR-OPO (cw: 2.7 W) as radiation source and a helium nanodroplet spectrometer. Helium-nanodroplets are formed by expansion of helium at 55 bar through a 5 μm nozzle which is kept at a temperature of 16 K. The status of the project is presented. P.-G. Jönsson et al., Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem. 28, 1827 (1972) G. Junk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 839 (1963) R. Ramaekers et al., J. Chem. Phys., 120 (2004)

  7. The Formation of Glycine in Hot Cores: New Gas-grain Chemical Simulations of Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin

    2012-07-01

    Organic molecules of increasing complexity have been detected in the warm envelopes of star-forming cores, commonly referred to as "hot cores". Spectroscopic searches at mm/sub-mm wavelengths have uncovered both amines and carboxylic acids in these regions, as well as a range of other compounds including alcohols, ethers, esters, and nitriles. However, the simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has not yet been reliably detected in the ISM. There has been much interest in this molecule, due to its importance to the formation of proteins, and to life, while the positive identification of interstellar molecules of similar or greater complexity suggests that its existence in star-forming regions is plausible. I will present the results of recent models of hot-core chemistry that simulate the formation of both simple and complex molecules on the surfaces or within the ice mantles of dust grains. I will also present results from the first gas-grain astrochemical model to approach the question of amino-acid formation in hot cores. The formation of glycine in moderate abundance is found to be as efficient as that for similarly complex species, while its sublimation from the grains occurs at somewhat higher temperatures. However, simulated emission spectra based on the model results show that the degree of compactness of high-abundance regions, and the density and temperature profiles of the cores may be the key variables affecting the future detection of glycine, as well as other amino acids, and may explain its non-detection to date.

  8. Preferential Pathway for Glycine Formation in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Baptista, L.; Santos A. C., F.

    Interstellar clouds, similar to that from which the solar system was formed, contain many organic molecules including aldehydes, acids, ketones, and sugars Ehrenfreund & Charnley (2000). Those organic compounds have important functions in terrestrial biochemistry and could also have been important in prebiotic synthesis. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), was recently detected in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2 Kuan et al. (2003). The formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid(CH3COOH) have also been detected in those regions Liu et al. (2002), Remijan et al. (2004). The goal of this work is to study experimentally photoionization and photodissociation processes of glycine precursor molecules, acetic acid and formic acid to elucidate a possible preferentially in the glycine synthesis between ice and gas phase. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). The experimental set up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for both molecules were also determined Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos (2005). Due to the high photodissociation cross section of formic acid it is possible that in PDRs regions, just after molecules evaporation from the grains surface, it is almost destructed by soft X-rays, justifying the observed low abundance of HCOOH in gaseous phase Ehrenfreund et al. (2001). Acetic acid have shown to be more stable to the ionizing field, and its main outcomes from dissociation process were the reactive ionic fragments COOH+ and CH3CO+. To

  9. Interstellar Grains as Amino Acid Factories and the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrell, Wilfred H.

    1997-09-01

    Some two decades ago, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe (1976) proposed that the physical conditions inside dense molecular clouds favour the formation of amino acids and complex organic polymers. There now exists both astronomical and laboratory evidence supporting this idea. Recent millimeter array observations have discovered the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in the gas phase of the dense star-forming cloud Sagittarius B2. These observations would pose serious problems for present-day theories of molecule formation in space because it is unlikely that glycline can form by the gas-phase reaction schemes normally considered for dense cloud chemistry. Several laboratory experiments suggest a new paradigm in which amino acids and other large organic molecules are chemically manufactured inside the bulk interior of icy grain mantles photoprocessed by direct and scattered ultraviolet starlight. Frequent chemical explosions of the processed mantles would eject large fragments of organic dust into the ambient cloud. Large dust fragments break up into smaller ones by sputtering and ultimately by photodissociation of individual molecules. Hence, a sizeable column density (N≈ 1010-1015 cm-2) of amino acids would be present in the gaseous medium as a consequence of balancing the rate of supply from exploding mantles with the rate of molecule destruction. Exploding mantles can therefore solve the longstanding molecule desorption problem for interstellar dense cloud chemistry. A sizeable fraction of the organic dust population can survive destruction and seed primitive planetary systems throughout our galaxy with prebiological organic molecules needed for proteins and nucleic acids in living organisms. This possibility provides fresh grounds for a new version of the old panspermia hypothesis first introduced by Anaxagoras. It is shown that panspermia is more important than asteroid and cometary organic depositions onto primitive Earth. Furthermore, no appeal to Miller

  10. The formation of glycine and other complex organic molecules in exploding ice mantles.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, J M C; Williams, D A; Viti, S; Cecchi-Pestellini, C; Duley, W W

    2014-01-01

    Complex Organic Molecules (COMs), such as propylene (CH3CHCH2) and the isomers of C2H4O2 are detected in cold molecular clouds (such as TMC-1) with high fractional abundances (Marcelino et al., Astrophys. J., 2007, 665, L127). The formation mechanism for these species is the subject of intense speculation, as is the possibility of the formation of simple amino acids such as glycine (NH2CH2COOH). At typical dark cloud densities, normal interstellar gas-phase chemistries are inefficient, whilst surface chemistry is at best ill defined and does not easily reproduce the abundance ratios observed in the gas phase. Whatever mechanism(s) is/are operating, it/they must be both efficient at converting a significant fraction of the available carbon budget into COMs, and capable of efficiently returning the COMs to the gas phase. In our previous studies we proposed a complementary, alternative mechanism, in which medium- and large-sized molecules are formed by three-body gas kinetic reactions in the warm high density gas phase. This environment exists, for a very short period of time, after the total sublimation of grain ice mantles in transient co-desorption events. In order to drive the process, rapid and efficient mantle sublimation is required and we have proposed that ice mantle 'explosions' can be driven by the catastrophic recombination of trapped hydrogen atoms, and other radicals, in the ice. Repeated cycles of freeze-out and explosion can thus lead to a cumulative molecular enrichment of the interstellar medium. Using existing studies we based our chemical network on simple radical addition, subject to enthalpy and valency restrictions. In this work we have extended the chemistry to include the formation pathways of glycine and other large molecular species that are detected in molecular clouds. We find that the mechanism is capable of explaining the observed molecular abundances and complexity in these sources. We find that the proposed mechanism is easily capable

  11. A Rigorous Attempt to Verify Interstellar Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Hollis, J. M.; Friedel, D. N.; Jewell, P. R.; Remijan, A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Kuan, Charnley, and co-workers reported the detection of interstellar glycine (NH2CH2COOH) based on observations of 27 lines in 19 different spectral bands in one or more of the sources Sgr BP(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2. They supported their detection report with rotational temperature diagrams for all three sources. In this paper, we present essential criteria which can be used in a straightforward analysis technique to confirm the identity of an interstellar asymmetric rotor such as glycine. We use new laboratory measurements of glycine as a basis for applying this analysis technique, both to our previously unpublished 12 m telescope data and to the previously published SEST data of Nummelin and colleagues. We conclude that key lines necessary for an interstellar glycine identification have not yet been found. We identify several common molecular candidates that should be examined further as more likely carriers of the lines reported as glycine. Finally, we illustrate that rotational temperature diagrams used without the support of correct spectroscopic assignments are not a reliable tool for the identification of interstellar molecules. Subject headings: ISM: abundances - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual (Sagittarius B2[N-

  12. Review on hydroxylamine, a precursor to amino-acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Jean Louis

    2015-08-01

    Does life on earth come from interstellar space (IS)?It has been recently demonstrated that part of the terrestrial water is of IS origin [Cleeves et al. Science 2014]. This raises the question whether materials like amino-acids or their pre-biotic molecular precursors could have been formed and brought to earth in the same way than water. Another question is whether these molecules were formed in the gas phase or through reactions on the surface/volume of ice-covered grains. This may then have occurred in the vicinity of proto-stellar cores or deep into a pristine dense molecular clouds at very low temperatures.As far as bio-related molecules are concerned, chemistry with nitrogen-bearing molecules (like NH3 and NO) is involved. I review recent experimental work showing that hydroxylamine (NH2OH) could be formed either by surface or by volume reactions in conditions close to those prevailing in dense media. They use either electron-UV irradiation of water-ammonia ices [Zheng & Kaiser JCPA 2010] or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide[Congiu, Fedoseev & al. ApJL.2012] or the simple oxidation of ammonia [He, Vidali, Lemaire & Garrod, ApJ, 2015] or the reaction of ammonia with hydroxyl radicals in a rare gas matrix [Zins & Krim, 2014, 69th ISMS]. A step further, the synthesis of the simplest amino-acids, glycine (NH2CH2COOH) and L- or D-alanine (NH2CH3CHCOOH) has already been obtained via reactions in the gas phase involving NH2OH+ [Blagojevic & al. MNRAS 2003].In addition to several earlier models demonstrating that the formation of all these molecules is possible in the gas phase, a new recent three-phase gas-grain chemical kinetics model of hot cores [Garrod ApJ 2013] shows that the results of ammonia oxidation we obtain are plausible by surface/volume reactions.Although none of the aforementioned molecules (except glycine in a sample of cometary origin) has been yet detected in the IS, they all are considered by many observers and modelers as likely

  13. Selective potentiation of alpha 1 glycine receptors by ginkgolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Maleeva, Galyna; Buldakova, Svetlana; Bregestovski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) belong to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptor-operated channels and are involved in numerous physiological functions, including movement, vision, and pain. In search for compounds performing subunit-specific modulation of GlyRs we studied action of ginkgolic acid, an abundant Ginkgo biloba product. Using patch-clamp recordings, we analyzed the effects of ginkgolic acid in concentrations from 30 nM to 25 μM on α1–α3 and α1/β, α2/β configurations of GlyR and on GABAARs expressed in cultured CHO-K1 cells and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Ginkgolic acid caused an increase in the amplitude of currents mediated by homomeric α1 and heteromeric α1/β GlyRs and provoked a left-shift of the concentration-dependent curves for glycine. Even at high concentrations (10–25 μM) ginkgolic acid was not able to augment ionic currents mediated by α2, α2/β, and α3 GlyRs, or by GABAAR consisting of α1/β2/γ2 subunits. Mutation of three residues (T59A/A261G/A303S) in the α2 GlyR subunit to the corresponding ones from the α1 converted the action of ginkgolic acid to potentiation with a distinct decrease in EC50 for glycine, suggesting an important role for these residues in modulation by ginkgolic acid. Our results suggest that ginkgolic acid is a novel selective enhancer of α1 GlyRs. PMID:26578878

  14. Nitrate and amino acid availability affects glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine in response to changes of salinity in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Fukaya, Minoru; Rai, Vandna; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-12-01

    A halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica thrives in extreme salinity with accumulation of a potent osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Recently, this cyanobacterium was shown to accumulate sunscreen molecule mycosporine-2-glycine significantly at high salinity. In this study, we investigated effects of nitrate and amino acid provision on the accumulation of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine. With elevated nitrate concentrations at high salinity, intracellular levels of both metabolites were enhanced. Six-fold high nitrate concentration increased the relative amounts of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine to be 1.5 and 2.0 folds compared with control condition : Increased levels were time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous supply of glycine/serine at high salinity resulted in the similar trends as observed in excess nitrate experiment. Intracellular level of glycine betaine increased ∼1.6 folds with glycine/serine supplementation. These supplementations also caused the increased level of mycosporine-2-glycine, namely 1.4 and 2 folds by glycine and serine, respectively. The transcription of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine biosynthetic genes was strongly induced under high-nitrate-salt condition. These results suggest the dependence of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine productions on substrate availability, and the effect of nitrate was possibly associated with stimulation of osmoprotectant increment in this extremophile. PMID:26474598

  15. Kinematics of the SgrB2(N-LMH) Molecular Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Boboltz, D. A.; Liu, S.-Y.; Snyder, L. E.; Palmer, Patrick; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) emission and absorption have been imaged with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward SgrB2(N-LMH) by means of the 5(sub 15)-4(sub 14) rotational transition at 43.5 GHz (lambda approx. 7 mm). The 1.5" x 1.4" VLA beam shows two principal sources of ethyl cyanide emission: an unresolved source approx. 5" north of the LMH that is kinematically consistent with simple expansion, contraction, or small-scale turbulence, and the resolved LMH core source itself that shows kinematics indicating an edge-on rotating disk that extends 23" (approx. 0.1 pc) in the approximate east-west direction. A search for the 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06) rotational transition of the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) at 43.7 GHz toward SgrB2(N-LMH) gave negative results.

  16. Search of Amino Group in the Universe: 2-Aminopyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Chandra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the Search for life in the Universe, scientists are interested in identification of molecules, having amino (-NH{_2}) group in the interstellar space. The aminoacetonitrile (NH{_2}CH{_2}CN), which is precursor of the simplest amino acid glycine (NH{_2}CH{_2}COOH), is identified near the galactic center. The 2-Aminopyridine (H{_2}NC{_5}H{_4}N) is of interest for scientists as it has close association with life on the earth. Based on spectroscopic studies, we have calculated the intensities of 2-Aminopyridine lines due to transitions between the rotational levels up to 47 cm{^{-1}} and have found a number of lines which may help in its identification in the interstellar medium. Frequencies of some of these transitions are found close to those detected in the envelope of IRC+10216 that are not assigned to any of the known species.

  17. Glycine as a d-amino acid surrogate in the K+-selectivity filter

    PubMed Central

    Valiyaveetil, Francis I.; Sekedat, Matthew; MacKinnon, Roderick; Muir, Tom W.

    2004-01-01

    The K+ channel-selectivity filter consists of two absolutely conserved glycine residues. Crystal structures show that the first glycine in the selectivity filter, Gly-77 in KcsA, is in a left-handed helical conformation. Although the left-handed helical conformation is not favorable for the naturally occurring l-amino acids, it is favorable for the chirally opposite d-amino acids. Here, we demonstrate that Gly-77 can be replaced by d-Ala with almost complete retention of function. In contrast, substitution with an l-amino acid results in a nonfunctional channel. This finding suggests that glycine is used as a surrogate d-amino acid in the selectivity filter. The absolute conservation of glycine in the K+-selectivity filter can be explained as a result of glycine being the only natural amino acid that can play this role. PMID:15563591

  18. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  19. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 170.50 Glycine...

  20. Structural, functional and optical studies on the amino acid doped glycine crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, M. R.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of pure and amino acid (L-arginine) doped γ-glycine single crystals have been grown from aqueous solution by employing slow evaporation method. Morphological changes in different crystallographic planes were observed in the L-arginine doped γ-glycine crystals. Incorporation of L-arginine was confirmed qualitatively by FTIR spectroscopy. Powder X-ray diffraction was carried out to confirm γ-glycine and assess the single phase nature of the crystals. The lower cutoff wavelength was decreased by the influence of L-arginine in γ-glycine and this leads to an increase in the band gap. Nonlinear optical study revealed that L-arginine doping increases the SHG efficiency of the glycine crystal.

  1. Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2009-04-01

    The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

  2. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. (a) Heretofore, the Food and Drug Administration...

  3. The Infrared Spectrum of Matrix Isolated Aminoacetonitrile: A Precursor to the Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral data from matrix isolation experiments and density functional theory calculations on the pre-biologically interesting molecule aminoacetonitrile, a precursor to glycine. We find that this nitrile has an unusually weak nitrile (C=N) stretch in the infrared, in contrast to expectations based on measurements and models of other nitriles under astrophysical conditions. The absence of an observable nitrile absorption feature in the infrared will make the IR search for this molecule considerably more difficult, and will raise estimates of upper limits on nitriles in interstellar and outer Solar System ices. This is also of relevance to assessing the formation routes of the amino acid glycine, since aminoacetonitrile is the putative precursor to glycine via the Strecker synthesis, the mechanism postulated to have produced the amino acids in meteorites.

  4. Origin of Glycine from Acid Hydrolysis of the β-Lactam Antibiotic A16886B

    PubMed Central

    Brannon, D. R.; Mabe, J. A.; Ellis, R.; Whitney, J. G.; Nagarajan, R.

    1972-01-01

    Structural analysis of two new β-lactam antibiotics, A16884A and A16886B, indicated that they, like cephalosporin C, were composed of modified valine and cysteine residues, and α-aminoadipic acid. However, acid hydrolysis of A16886B and A16884A produced three times as much glycine as did hydrolysis of cephalosporin C under the same conditions. Samples of A16886B-14C-6 and A16886B-14C-8 were prepared by the addition of cysteine-14C-3 and cystine-14C-1 to fermentations of Streptomyces clavuligerus. The specific activity of glycine obtained from hydrolysis of A16886B-14C-6 was considerably higher than that from hydrolysis of A16886B-14C-8. An explanation for the difference in amounts of glycine obtained from hydrolysis of these antibiotics is discussed. PMID:5045470

  5. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative...

  6. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative...

  7. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative...

  8. Tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in ferroelectric amino acid glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Seyedhosseini, E. Ivanov, M.; Bdikin, I.; Vasileva, D.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-08-21

    Bioorganic ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics are becoming increasingly important in view of their intrinsic compatibility with biological environment and biofunctionality combined with strong piezoelectric effect and a switchable polarization at room temperature. Here, we study tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in the smallest amino acid β-glycine, representing a broad class of non-centrosymmetric amino acids. We show that β-glycine is indeed a room-temperature ferroelectric and polarization can be switched by applying a bias to non-polar cuts via a conducting tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). Dynamics of these in-plane domains is studied as a function of an applied voltage and pulse duration. The domain shape is dictated by polarization screening at the domain boundaries and mediated by growth defects. Thermodynamic theory is applied to explain the domain propagation induced by the AFM tip. Our findings suggest that the properties of β-glycine are controlled by the charged domain walls which in turn can be manipulated by an external bias.

  9. Tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in ferroelectric amino acid glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedhosseini, E.; Bdikin, I.; Ivanov, M.; Vasileva, D.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-08-01

    Bioorganic ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics are becoming increasingly important in view of their intrinsic compatibility with biological environment and biofunctionality combined with strong piezoelectric effect and a switchable polarization at room temperature. Here, we study tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in the smallest amino acid β-glycine, representing a broad class of non-centrosymmetric amino acids. We show that β-glycine is indeed a room-temperature ferroelectric and polarization can be switched by applying a bias to non-polar cuts via a conducting tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). Dynamics of these in-plane domains is studied as a function of an applied voltage and pulse duration. The domain shape is dictated by polarization screening at the domain boundaries and mediated by growth defects. Thermodynamic theory is applied to explain the domain propagation induced by the AFM tip. Our findings suggest that the properties of β-glycine are controlled by the charged domain walls which in turn can be manipulated by an external bias.

  10. First report for voltammetric determination of methyldopa in the presence of folic acid and glycine.

    PubMed

    Molaakbari, Elahe; Mostafavi, Ali; Beitollahi, Hadi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a carbon paste electrode modified with TiO2 nanoparticles and ferrocene monocarboxylic acid (FM) was used to prepare a novel electrochemical sensor. The objective of this novel electrode modification was to seek new electrochemical performances for the detection of methyldopa in the presence of folic acid and glycine. The peak potentials recorded in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH7.0 were 325, 750 and 880 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl (3.0M) for methyldopa, folic acid and glycine, respectively. Under the optimum pH of 7.0, the oxidation of methyldopa occurred at a potential about 160 mV less positive than that of the unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPE). The response of catalytic current with methyldopa concentration showed a linear relation in the range from 2.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-4)M with a detection limit of 8.0 (± 0.2)×10(-8)M. PMID:24433900

  11. Genetics Home Reference: glycine encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a molecule called glycine. This molecule is an amino acid , which is a building block of proteins. Glycine ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health ...

  12. The Use of p-Aminobenzoic Acid as a Probe Substance for the Targeted Profiling of Glycine Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Nortje, Carla; van der Sluis, Rencia; van Dijk, Alberdina Aike; Erasmus, Elardus

    2016-03-01

    Glycine conjugation facilitates the metabolism of toxic aromatic acids, capable of disrupting mitochondrial integrity. Owing to the high exposure to toxic substrates, characterization of individual glycine conjugation capacity, and its regulatory factors has become increasingly important. Aspirin and benzoate have been employed for this purpose; however, adverse reactions, aspirin intolerance, and Reye's syndrome in children are substantial drawbacks. The goal of this study was to investigate p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as an alternative glycine conjugation probe. Ten human volunteers participated in a PABA challenge test, and p-aminohippuric acid (PAHA), p-acetamidobenzoic acid, and p-acetamidohippuric acid were quantified in urine. The glycine N-acyltransferase gene of the volunteers was also screened for two polymorphisms associated with normal and increased enzyme activity. All of the individuals were homozygous for increased enzyme activity, but excretion of PAHA varied significantly (16-56%, hippurate ratio). The intricacies of PABA metabolism revealed possible limiting factors and the potential of PABA as an indicator of Phase 0 biotransformation. PMID:26484797

  13. Pharmacological PPARα Activation Markedly Alters Plasma Turnover of the Amino Acids Glycine, Serine and Arginine in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Anette; Turner, Nigel; Hansson, Göran I.; Wallenius, Kristina; Oakes, Nicholas D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study extends previously reported PPARα agonist WY 14,643 (30 µmol/kg/day for 4 weeks) effects on circulating amino acid concentrations in rats fed a 48% saturated fat diet. Steady-state tracer experiments were used to examine in vivo kinetic mechanisms underlying altered plasma serine, glycine and arginine levels. Urinary urea and creatinine excretion were measured to assess whole-body amino acid catabolism. WY 14,643 treated animals demonstrated reduced efficiency to convert food consumed to body weight gain while liver weight was increased compared to controls. WY 14,643 raised total amino acid concentration (38%), largely explained by glycine, serine and threonine increases. 3H-glycine, 14C-serine and 14C-arginine tracer studies revealed elevated rates of appearance (Ra) for glycine (45.5±5.8 versus 17.4±2.7 µmol/kg/min) and serine (21.0±1.4 versus 12.0±1.0) in WY 14,643 versus control. Arginine was substantially decreased (−62%) in plasma with estimated Ra reduced from 3.1±0.3 to 1.2±0.2 µmol/kg/min in control versus WY 14,643. Nitrogen excretion over 24 hours was unaltered. Hepatic arginase activity was substantially decreased by WY 14,643 treatment. In conclusion, PPARα agonism potently alters metabolism of several specific amino acids in the rat. The changes in circulating levels of serine, glycine and arginine reflected altered fluxes into the plasma rather than changes in clearance or catabolism. This suggests that PPARα has an important role in modulating serine, glycine and arginine de novo synthesis. PMID:25486018

  14. Toxicity and intracellular accumulation of bile acids in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes: role of glycine conjugates.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sagnik; Bijsmans, Ingrid T G W; van Mil, Saskia W C; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2014-03-01

    Excessive intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids (BAs) is a key mechanism underlying cholestasis. The aim of this study was to quantitatively explore the relationship between cytotoxicity of BAs and their intracellular accumulation in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRH). Following exposure of SCRH (on day-1 after seeding) to various BAs for 24h, glycine-conjugated BAs were most potent in exerting toxicity. Moreover, unconjugated BAs showed significantly higher toxicity in day-1 compared to day-3 SCRH. When day-1/-3 SCRH were exposed (0.5-4h) to 5-100μM (C)DCA, intracellular levels of unconjugated (C)DCA were similar, while intracellular levels of glycine conjugates were up to 4-fold lower in day-3 compared to day-1 SCRH. Sinusoidal efflux was by far the predominant efflux pathway of conjugated BAs both in day-1 and day-3 SCRH, while canalicular BA efflux showed substantial interbatch variability. After 4h exposure to (C)DCA, intracellular glycine conjugate levels were at least 10-fold higher than taurine conjugate levels. Taken together, reduced BA conjugate formation in day-3 SCRH results in lower intracellular glycine conjugate concentrations, explaining decreased toxicity of (C)DCA in day-3 versus day-1 SCRH. Our data provide for the first time a direct link between BA toxicity and glycine conjugate exposure in SCRH. PMID:24211540

  15. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  16. DL-β-Aminobutyric Acid-Induced Resistance in Soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yunpeng; Wang, Biao; Yan, Junhui; Cheng, Linjing; Yao, Luming; Xiao, Liang; Wu, Tianlong

    2014-01-01

    Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA) was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), chitinase (CHI), and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU) in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA. PMID:24454805

  17. Extracellular matrix-like surfactant polymers containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric H; Ruegsegger, Mark A; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E

    2004-08-01

    We report on a novel series of biomimetic polymers exhibiting interfacial properties similar to the extracellular matrix. A series of well-defined surfactant polymers were synthesized by simultaneously incorporating arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, dextran oligosaccharide, and hexyl ligands with controlled feed ratios onto a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone. The peptide sequence was H-GSSSGRGDSPA-NH(2) (Pep) having a hydrophilic extender at the amino terminus and capped carboxy terminus. The peptide-to-dextran (Pep:Dex) ratios were varied to create surfactants having 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mol-% peptide relative to dextran. The surfactants were characterized by IR, NMR and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for composition and surface active properties. AFM confirmed full surface coverage of PVAm(Pep)(100%) on graphite, and supported the mechanism of interdigitation of hexyl ligands between surfactant molecules within a specified range of hexyl chain densities. the attachment and growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells on the PVAm(Pep)(100%) surface was identical to the fibronectin positive control. Cell adhesion decreased dramatically with decreasing peptide density on the surfactant polymers. Molecular model of a peptide surfactant polymer, consisting of poly(vinyl amine) backbone with peptide, dextran oligosaccharide and hexyl branches coupled to the polymer chain. PMID:15468270

  18. Variable clinical manifestations of a glycine to glutamic acid substitution of the COL3A1 gene at residue 736

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, F.M.; Narcisi, P.; Richards, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Glycine substitutions at the 3{prime} end of the COL3A1 gene generally produce a characteristic clinical phenotype including acrogeria and severe vascular fragility. Here we report a three generation British family in which the propositus presented with aneurysms of the groins. He, his mother, sister and elder daughter all had the external clinical phenotype of vascular EDS IV whilst another daughter and nephew were clinically normal. Cultured skin fibroblasts from the propositus and his clinically affected relatives poorly secreted normal and overmodified collagen III species. Normal components of secreted proteins predominated whilst overmodified molecules were prominent in intracellular material. Surprisingly the normal children also secreted less collagen type III than expected (though more than their clinically abnormal relatives). cDNA from bases 2671 to 3714 were amplified as four overlapping PCR fragments and analysed by DGGE. The region between 2671 and 3015 was heterozygous. Sequencing showed a mutation of glycine to glutamic acid at residue 736. This mutation created an extra Apa 1 restriction site which was suitable for family studies. These showed inheritance of the mutant gene by both vascular and non-vascular clinical phenotypes. This family therefore illustrates that replacement of glycine to glutamic acid at position 736 produces variable clinical and biochemical phenotypes ranging from easily recognizable vascular EDS IV with very poor collagen secretion to an EDS III-like picture and with less severe protein disturbance. The reasons for these differences are at present unexplained.

  19. (3H) 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid, a high affinity ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine regulatory site

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, S.D.; Baron, B.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors is allosterically linked to a strychnine-insensitive glycine regulatory site. Kynurenic acid and its halogenated derivatives are non-competitive NMDA antagonists acting at the glycine site. The authors have prepared (3H) 5,7-dichlorokyrurenic acid (DCKA) as an antagonist radioligand and have characterized its binding. 3-Bromo-5,7-DCKA was catalytically dehalogenated in the presence of tritium gas and HPLC purified to yield (3H) 5,7-DCKA with a specific activity of 17.6 Ci/mmol. (3H) 5,7-DCKA bound to rat brain synaptosomes with a Kd of 69 {plus minus} 23 nM and Bmax = 14.5 {plus minus} 3.2 pmoles/mg protein. Binding was 65-70% specific at 10 nM (3H) 5,7-DCKA. This ligand is thus more selective and has higher affinity than (3H) glycine, in addition to being an antagonist.

  20. Is the reaction between formic acid and protonated aminomethanol a possible source of glycine precursors in the interstellar medium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Barrientos, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Context. One of the most interesting questions in interstellar chemistry concerns whether we can detect the basic building blocks of proteins in astronomical sources. In ascertaining whether amino acids could be possible interstellar molecules, a crucial point is how they could be synthesized in the interstellar medium. Aims: We do a theoretical study of the ion-molecule reaction involving protonated aminomethanol and formic acid to establish its viability in space. This ion-molecule reaction has been proposed by other authors as a possible way to produce glycine in the interstellar medium. Methods: The relevant stationary points on the potential energy surface of the reaction between protonated aminomethanol and formic acid have been theoretically studied by using ab initio methods. The second-order Moller-Plesset level was employed, in conjunction with the correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta (cc-pVTZ) basis set. In addition, the electronic energies were refined by means of single-point calculations at the CCSD(T) level (coupled cluster single and double excitation model augmented with a non-iterative treatment of triple excitations) on the MP2/cc-pVTZ geometries with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Results: Formation of protonated glycine is an exothermic process; however, the process presents a net activation barrier that makes this reaction unfeasible under interstellar conditions. Conclusions: The reaction of protonated aminomethanol with formic acid does not seem to be a plausible source of interstellar glycine. This particular case is a clear example that a detailed study of the potential energy surface is needed to establish the relevance of a process in the interstellar medium.

  1. Experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Fang; He, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ming; Tao, Guo-Hong

    2012-01-12

    The experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of several structural-similar glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids including glycine sulfate (Gly(2)SO(4), 1), glycine bisulfate (GlyHSO(4), 2), N,N-dimethylglycine sulfate ([DMGly](2)SO(4), 3), N,N-dimethylglycine bisulfate ([DMGly]HSO(4), 4), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([DMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 5), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([DMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 6), N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([TMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 7), and N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([TMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 8) were studied. Their experimental enthalpies of formation were obtained from the corresponding energies of combustion determined by the bomb calorimetry method. The enthalpies of formation of these amino acid ionic liquids are in the range from -1406 kJ mol(-1) to -1128 kJ mol(-1). Systematic theoretical study on these amino acid ionic liquids were performed by quantum chemistry calculation using the Gaussian03 suite of programs. The geometric optimization and the frequency analyses are carried out using the B3LYP method with the 6-31+G** basis set. Their calculated enthalpies of formation were derived from the single point energies carried out with the HF/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-311++G**, and MP2/6-311++G** level of theory, respectively. The relevance of experimental and calculated enthalpies of formation was studied. The calculated enthalpies of formation are in good agreement with their experimental data in less than 3% error. PMID:22148242

  2. Effects of inhibitory amino acids on expression of GABAA Rα and glycine Rα1 in hypoxic rat cortical neurons during development

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H; Feng, Y; He, XZ; Yang, YL; Sung, JH; Xia, Y

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that GABA and glycine are protective to mature but toxic to immature cortical neurons during prolonged hypoxia. Since the action of these inhibitory amino acids is mediated by GABA and glycine receptors, the expression of these receptors is a critical factor in determining neuronal response to GABAA and glycine in hypoxia. Therefore, we asked whether in rat cortical neurons, 1) hypoxia alters the expression of the GABA and glycine receptors; 2) inhibitory amino acids change the course of GABA and glycine receptor expression; and 3) there are any differences between the immature and mature neurons. In cultured rat cortical neurons from day 4 (4 Days in Vitro or DIV 4) to day 20 (DIV 20), we observed that 1) GABAARα and GlyRα1 underwent differential changes in expression during the development in-vitro; 2) hypoxia for 3 days decreased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in the neurons in-between DIV 4 and DIV 20, but did not induce a major change in immature (DIV 4) and mature (DIV 20) neurons; 3) during normoxia GABA, glycine and taurine decreased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in the immature neurons, but had a tendency to increase the density in the mature neurons, except for taurine; 4) under hypoxia, all these amino acids decreased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in most groups of the immature neurons with a slight effect on the mature neurons; and 5) δ-opioid receptor activation with DADLE increased GABAARα and GlyRα1 density in both the immature and mature neurons under normoxia and in the mature neurons under hypoxic condition. These data suggest that inhibitory amino acids differentially regulate the expression of GABAA and glycine receptors in rat cortical neurons in normoxic and hypoxic conditions with major differences between the immature and mature neurons. PMID:22018691

  3. The importance of glutamate, glycine, and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transport and regulation in manganese, mercury and lead neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fitsanakis, Vanessa A.; Aschner, Michael . E-mail: michael.aschner@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-05-01

    Historically, amino acids were studied in the context of their importance in protein synthesis. In the 1950s, the focus of research shifted as amino acids were recognized as putative neurotransmitters. Today, many amino acids are considered important neurochemicals. Although many amino acids play a role in neurotransmission, glutamate (Glu), glycine (Gly), and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are among the more prevalent and better understood. Glu, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, and Gly and GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitters, in the central nervous system, are known to be tightly regulated. Prolonged exposure to environmental toxicants, such as manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb), however, can lead to dysregulation of these neurochemicals and subsequent neurotoxicity. While the ability of these metals to disrupt the regulation of Glu, Gly and GABA have been studied, few articles have examined the collective role of these amino acids in the respective metal's mechanism of toxicity. For each of the neurotransmitters above, we will provide a brief synopsis of their regulatory function, including the importance of transport and re-uptake in maintaining their optimal function. Additionally, the review will address the hypothesis that aberrant homeostasis of any of these amino acids, or a combination of the three, plays a role in the neurotoxicity of Mn, Hg, or Pb.

  4. Conformational characterization of peptides rich in the cycloaliphatic C alpha,alpha-disubstituted glycine 1-aminocyclononane-1-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Gatos, M; Formaggio, F; Crisma, M; Valle, G; Toniolo, C; Bonora, G M; Saviano, M; Iacovino, R; Menchise, V; Galdiero, S; Pedone, C; Benedetti, E

    1997-01-01

    A series of N- and C-protected, monodispersed homo-oligopeptides (to the pentamer level) from the cycloaliphatic C alpha,alpha-dialkylated glycine 1-aminocyclononane-1-carboxylic acid (Ac9c) and two Ala/Ac9c tripeptides have been synthesized by solution methods and fully characterized. The conformational preferences of all the model peptides were determined in deuterochloroform solution by FT-IR absorption and 1H-NMR. The molecular structures of the amino acid derivatives mCIAc-Ac9c-OH and Z-Ac9c-OtBu, the dipeptide pBrBz-(Ac9c)2-OtBu, the tetrapeptide Z-(Ac9c)4-OtBu, and the pentapeptide Z-(Ac9c)5-OtBu were determined in the crystal state by X-ray diffraction. Based on this information, the average geometry and the preferred conformation for the cyclononyl moiety of the Ac9c residue have been assessed. The backbone conformational data are strongly in favour of the conclusion that the Ac9c residue is a strong beta-turn and helix former. A comparison with the structural propensity of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, the prototype of C alpha,alpha-dialkylated glycines, and the other extensively investigated members of the family of 1-aminocycloalkane-1-carboxylic acids (Acnc, with n = 3-8) is made and the implications for the use of the Ac9c residue in conformationally constrained analogues of bioactive peptides are briefly examined. PMID:9391912

  5. Effect of acidity on the glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline alumina powder

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Tianyou . E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn; Liu Xun; Dai Ke; Xiao Jiangrong; Song Haibo

    2006-09-14

    Nanocrystalline alumina powders were prepared by combustion synthesis using glycine as fuel and nitrate as an oxidizer. The effect of the pH values in the precursor solutions on crystallite sizes, surface areas and morphologies of the synthesized alumina powder has been investigated by X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and transmission electron microscopy. With decreasing the pH values in the precursor solutions, the obtained materials could be modified from segregated nanoparticles (pH 10.5) to aggregates of nanoparticles (pH 6.0), and finally to a flaky morphology (pH 2.5). The rates of decomposition, the interaction of coordination as well as the hydrogen bonding of the glycine and the Al-hydroxides species at different pH values were found to be responsible for the generation of flake and/or segregated nanoparticles during auto-ignition reactions. The as-prepared combustion ashes were converted into pure nanocrystalline alumina after calcination at elevated temperatures. The specific surface areas of the products calcined at 800 deg. C ranged from 96 to 39 m{sup 2}/g with the pH decreased from 10.5 to 2.5.

  6. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures. PMID:27159329

  7. Growth, Optical, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Non-Linear Optical Single Crystal: Glycine-Phthalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Sagadevan

    2016-07-01

    Single crystals of glycine-phthalic acid (GPA) were grown by slow evaporation process using aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine its cell structure and it was found that the GPA crystal corresponded to the orthorhombic system. To identify absorption range and cut-off wavelength for the GPA crystal, UV-visible spectrum was recorded. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient, electrical susceptibility, and optical conductivity. As a function of different frequencies and temperatures, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were examined. The electrical properties like plasma energy, Penn gap, Fermi energy, and polarizability were determined for the analysis of the second harmonic generation (SHG). Using the Kurtz powder technique, the SHG of the GPA crystal was studied. Investigations relating to hysteresis were carried out to ascertain the ferroelectric nature of the material.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new set of pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines as glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Varano, Flavia; Catarzi, Daniela; Colotta, Vittoria; Poli, Daniela; Filacchioni, Guido; Galli, Alessandro; Costagli, Chiara

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that 8-chloro-5,6-dihydro-5-oxo-pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-2-carboxylates (PQZ series) represent a family of glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and/or (R,S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) and/or kainic acid (KA) receptor antagonists. Moreover, some groups have been identified that introduced in suitable positions of the PQZ 2-carboxylate framework shift affinity and selectivity toward glycine/NMDA receptor. These substituents are a carboxylate function at position-1 and/or a chlorine atom at position-9. In this paper we report a study on some new 5,6-dihydro-5-oxo-pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-1-carboxylates bearing at position-2 a lipophilic amide group or lacking substituent at this same position. All the newly synthesised compounds were evaluated for their binding at glycine/NMDA, AMPA and KA receptors. These studies led to the identification of some new PQZ derivatives endowed with good glycine/NMDA receptor affinity and selectivity and to better definition of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this class of compounds. PMID:19652407

  9. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  10. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. PMID:23993531

  11. Water deficit-induced changes in abscisic acid, growth polysomes, and translatable RNA in soybean hypocotyls. [Glycine max L

    SciTech Connect

    Bensen, R.J.; Boyer, J.S.; Mullet, J.E. )

    1988-01-01

    Soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) were germinated and dark-grown in water-saturated vermiculite for 48 hours, then transferred either to water-saturated vermiculite or to low water potential vermiculite. A decrease in growth rate was detectable within 0.8 hour post-transfer to low water potential vermiculite. A fourfold increase in the abscisic acid content of the elongating region was observed within 0.5 hour. At 24 hours post-transfer, hypocotyl elongation was severely arrested and abscisic acid reached its highest measured level. A comparison of the polyA{sup +} RNA populations isolated at 24 hours post-transfer from the elongating region of water-saturated and low water potential vermiculite-grown seedlings was made by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis of in vitro translation products. It revealed both increases and decreases in the relative amounts of a number of translation products. Rewatering seedlings grown in low water potential vermiculite at 24 hours post-transfer led to a total recovery in growth rate within 0.5 hour, while abscisic acid in the elongating hypocotyl region required 1 to 2 hours to return to uninduced levels. Application of 1.0 millimolar {+-} abscisic acid to well-watered seedlings resulted in a 48% reduction in hypocotyl growth rate during the first 2 hours after treatment. Plants treated with abscisic acid for 24 hours had a lower polysome content than control plants. However, hypocotyl growth inhibition in abscisic acid-treated seedlings preceded the decline in polysome content.

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops. PMID:27148336

  13. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops. PMID:27148336

  14. The glycine deportation system and its pharmacological consequences.

    PubMed

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    The glycine deportation system is an essential component of glycine catabolism in man whereby 400 to 800mg glycine per day are deported into urine as hippuric acid. The molecular escort for this deportation is benzoic acid, which derives from the diet and from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary precursors. Three components of this system, involving hepatic and renal metabolism, and renal active tubular secretion help regulate systemic and central nervous system levels of glycine. When glycine levels are pathologically high, as in congenital nonketotic hyperglycinemia, the glycine deportation system can be upregulated with pharmacological doses of benzoic acid to assist in normalization of glycine homeostasis. In congenital urea cycle enzymopathies, similar activation of the glycine deportation system with benzoic acid is useful for the excretion of excess nitrogen in the form of glycine. Drugs which can substitute for benzoic acid as substrates for the glycine deportation system have adverse reactions that may involve perturbations of glycine homeostasis. The cancer chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide has an unacceptably high incidence of encephalopathy. This would appear to arise as a result of the production of toxic aldehyde metabolites which deplete ATP production and sequester NADH in the mitochondrial matrix, thereby inhibiting the glycine deportation system and causing de novo glycine synthesis by the glycine cleavage system. We hypothesize that this would result in hyperglycinemia and encephalopathy. This understanding may lead to novel prophylactic strategies for ifosfamide encephalopathy. Thus, the glycine deportation system plays multiple key roles in physiological and neurotoxicological processes involving glycine. PMID:22584143

  15. The glycine deportation system and its pharmacological consequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The glycine deportation system is an essential component of glycine catabolism in man whereby 400 to 800 mg glycine per day are deported into urine as hippuric acid. The molecular escort for this deportation is benzoic acid, which derives from the diet and from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary precursors. Three components of this system, involving hepatic and renal metabolism, and renal active tubular secretion help regulate systemic and central nervous system levels of glycine. When glycine levels are pathologically high, as in congenital nonketotic hyperglycinemia, the glycine deportation system can be upregulated with pharmacological doses of benzoic acid to assist in normalization of glycine homeostasis. In congenital urea cycle enzymopathies, similar activation of the glycine deportation system with benzoic acid is useful for the excretion of excess nitrogen in the form of glycine. Drugs which can substitute for benzoic acid as substrates for the glycine deportation system have adverse reactions that may involve perturbations of glycine homeostasis. The cancer chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide has an unacceptably high incidence of encephalopathy. This would appear to arise as a result of the production of toxic aldehyde metabolites which deplete ATP production and sequester NADH in the mitochondrial matrix, thereby inhibiting the glycine deportation system and causing de novo glycine synthesis by the glycine cleavage system. We hypothesize that this would result in hyperglycinemia and encephalopathy. This understanding may lead to novel prophylactic strategies for ifosfamide encephalopathy. Thus, the glycine deportation system plays multiple key roles in physiological and neurotoxicological processes involving glycine. PMID:22584143

  16. Comparison of oleic acid metabolism in the soybean (Glycine max (L. ) Merr. ) genotypes Williams and A5, a mutant with decreased linoleic acid in the seed

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.A.; Rinne, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    The metabolism of oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) was examined in developing seed from two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes: Williams, a standard cultivar and A5, a mutant containing nearly twice the oleic acid (18:1) content of Williams. The in vitro rates of esterification of oleoyl-CoA to lysophosphatides by acyl-CoA: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase was similar in both genotypes and lysophosphatidyl-ethanolamine was a poor substrate. Crude extracts desaturated exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine at 14% of the rate achieved with (1-/sup 14/C)oleoyl-CoA, and 50 micromolar lysophosphaatidylcholine. The desaturase enzyme also required NADH for full activity. Extracts from Williams contained 1.5-fold more oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase activity, on a fresh weight basis, than did A5 and appeared to have a similar affinity for oleoyl-CoA. There was 1.2- to 1.9-fold more linoleic acid (18:2) in phosphatidylcholine from Williams than from A5, measured at two stages of development, but both genotypes had a similar distribution of fatty acids in the one and two positions. Phosphatidylethanolamine in A5 contained relatively more linoleic acid (18:2) in the one position than did Williams. The increased oleic acid (18:1) content in A5 appeared to be a result of decreased rates of 18:1 desaturation of oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine in this genotype.

  17. Propofol differentially inhibits the release of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine in the spinal dorsal horn of rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Yong, Zheng; Mi, Weidong; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is an intravenous anesthetic that is commonly used for the general anesthesia. It is well known that the spinal cord is one of the working targets of general anesthesia including propofol. However, there is a lack of investigation of the effects of propofol on spinal dorsal horn which is important for the sensory transmission of nociceptive signals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dosage of propofol on the release of glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (Gly) in the spinal dorsal horn. Materials and Methods: The efflux of Glu, GABA or Gly in the spinal dorsal horn of rats was detected using transverse spinal microdialysis under an awake condition and various depths of propofol anesthesia. The infusion rates of propofol were, in order, 400 µg/(kg·min), 600 µg/(kg·min) and 800 µg/(kg·min), with a 20 min infusion period being maintained at each infusion rate. Results: Propofol decreased the glutamate efflux within spinal dorsal horn in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximum decrease was 56.8 ± 6.0% at high-dose propofol infusion producing immobility. The inhibitory GABA and Gly efflux was also decreased about 15–20% at low-dose propofol infusion only producing sedation, but did not continue to drop with higher doses of propofol. Conclusion: Propofol decreased both excitatory and inhibitory amino acids efflux in spinal dorsal horn, and the preferential suppression of the excitatory amino acid might be associated with the analgesic effect of propofol. PMID:26557972

  18. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-conjugated dendrimer-modified quantum dots for targeting and imaging melanoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiming; Huang, Peng; Lin, Jing; He, Rong; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yang, Sen; Xi, Peng; Zhang, Xuejun; Ren, Qiushi; Cui, Daxiang

    2010-08-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the development of malignant tumors and provides important targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Quantum dots have been broadly investigated for their potential application in cancer molecular imaging. In present work, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized, polyamidoamine dendrimers were used to modify surface of quantum dots and improve their solubility in water solution. Then, dendrimer-modified CdSe quantum dots were conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides. These prepared nanoprobes were injected into nude mice loaded with melanoma (A375) tumor xenografts via tail vessels, IVIS imaging system was used to image the targeting and bio-distribution of as-prepared nanoprobes. The dendrimer-modified quantum dots exhibit water-soluble, high quantum yield, and good biocompatibility. RGD-conjugated quantum dots can specifically target human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and A375 melanoma cells, as well as nude mice loaded with A735 melanoma cells. High-performance RGD-conjugated dendrimers modified quantum dot-based nanoprobes have great potential in application such as tumor diagnosis and therapy. PMID:21125820

  19. Characterization of an acidic chitinase from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr Tainan No. 3).

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Min; Chen, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Chui-Liang; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3) as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain length from 3 to 5 (GlcNAcn, n = 3-5), and pNp-GlcNAc4 was the most degradable substrate. Using pNp-GlcNAc4 as a substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.0; kinetic parameters Km and kcat were 245 µM and 10.31 min-1, respectively. This enzyme also showed activity toward CM-chitin-RBV, a polymer form of chitin, and N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides, an oligomer form of chitin. The smallest oligomer substrate was an N-acetylglucosamine tetramer. These results suggested that this enzyme was an endo-splitting chitinase with short substrate cleavage activity and useful for biotechnological applications, in particular for the production of N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides. PMID:25437446

  20. Covariation Analysis of Serumal and Urinary Metabolites Suggests Aberrant Glycine and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Kong, Xiangliang; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yongyu; Hu, Yiyang; Tang, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis b (CHB) is one of the most serious viral diseases threatening human health by putting patients at lifelong risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although some proofs of altered metabolites in CHB were accumulated, its metabolic mechanism remains poorly understood. Analyzing covariations between metabolites may provide new hints toward underlying metabolic pathogenesis in CHB patients. Methods The present study collected paired urine and serum samples from the same subjects including 145 CHB and 23 healthy controls. A large-scale analysis of metabolites’ covariation within and across biofluids was systematically done to explore the underlying biological evidences for reprogrammed metabolism in CHB. Randomization and relative ranking difference were introduced to reduce bias caused by different sample size. More importantly, functional indication was interpreted by mapping differentially changed covariations to known metabolic pathways. Results Our results suggested reprogrammed pathways related to glycine metabolism, fatty acids metabolism and TCA cycle in CHB patients. With further improvement, the covariation analysis combined with network association study would pave new alternative way to interpret functional clues in clinical multi-omics data. PMID:27228119

  1. Incorporation of glycine-2-C-14 in acid-insoluble proteins of rat bones and teeth during hypokinesia and administration of thyrocalcitonine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stekolnikov, L. I.; Uglova, N. N.; Potkin, V. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A forced limitation of the motor activity in rats (from 5 to 60 days) results in reduced incorporation of glycine 2-C14 in the total acid insoluble proteins of limb bones and its increase in the teeth and mandibular-maxillary bones. Daily administration of five micrograms of thyrocalcitonine together with polyvinylpyrrolidone normalizes the protein metabolism in the bone tissues during the 40 days of experimentation.

  2. Combination of cathodic reduction with adsorption for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) through reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes modified with sulfuric acid-glycine co-doped polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xi; Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Song, Pei-pei; Wang, Li-ke

    2015-04-01

    Improving the reduction kinetics is crucial in the electroreduction process of Cr(VI). In this study, we developed a novel adsorption-electroreduction system for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) by employing reticulated vitreous carbon electrode modified with sulfuric acid-glycine co-doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA-GLY). Firstly, response surface methodology confirmed the optimum polymerization condition of co-doped polyaniline for modifying electrodes (Aniline, sulfuric acid and glycine, respectively, of 0.2 mol/L, 0.85 mol/L, 0.93 mol/L) when untraditional dopant glycine was added. Subsequently, RVC/PANI-SA-GLY showed higher Cr(VI) removal percentages in electroreduction experiments over RVC electrode modified with sulfuric acid doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA) and bare RVC electrode. In contrast to RVC/PANI-SA, the improvement by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was more significant and especially obvious at more negative potential, lower initial Cr(VI) concentration, relatively less acidic solution and higher current densities, best achieving 7.84% higher removal efficiency with entire Cr(VI) eliminated after 900 s. Current efficiencies were likewise enhanced by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY under quite negative potentials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis revealed a possible adsorption-reduction mechanism of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY, which greatly contributed to the faster reduction kinetics and was probably relative to the absorption between protonated amine groups of glycine and HCrO4(-). Eventually, the stability of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was proven relatively satisfactory. PMID:25603298

  3. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis. PMID:26955743

  4. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiao; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:10:1.5, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 2 ml/min and 25 °C, respectively. In a single operation, 33 mg of GCDCA, 38 mg of GHDCA and 23 mg of GHCA were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract with the purity of 95.65%, 96.72% and 96.63%, respectively, in one step separation. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three glycine-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. PMID:23008527

  5. Mechanism of anion permeation through channels gated by glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in mouse cultured spinal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, J; Hamill, O P; Sakmann, B

    1987-01-01

    1. The ion-selective and ion transport properties of glycine receptor (GlyR) and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) channels in the soma membrane of mouse spinal cord neurones were investigated using the whole-cell, cell-attached and outside-out patch versions of the patch-clamp technique. 2. Current-voltage (I-V) relations of transmitter-activated currents obtained from whole-cell measurements with 145 mM-Cl- intracellularly and extracellularly, showed outward rectification. In voltage-jump experiments, the instantaneous I-V relations were linear, and the steady-state I-V relations were rectifying outwardly indicating that the gating of GlyR and GABAR channels is voltage sensitive. 3. The reversal potential of whole-cell currents shifted 56 mV per tenfold change in internal Cl- activity indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. The permeability ratio of K+ to Cl- (PK/PCl) was smaller than 0.05 for both channels. 4. The permeability sequence for large polyatomic anions was formate greater than bicarbonate greater than acetate greater than phosphate greater than propionate for GABAR channels; phosphate and propionate were not measurably permeant in GlyR channels. This indicates that open GlyR and GABAR channels have effective pore diameters of 5.2 and 5.6 A, respectively. The sequence of relative permeabilities for small anions was SCN- greater than I- greater than Br- greater than Cl- greater than F- for both channels. 5. GlyR and GABAR channels are multi-conductance-state channels. In cell-attached patches the single-channel slope conductances close to 0 mV membrane potential were 29, 18 and 10 pS for glycine, and 28, 17 and 10 pS for GABA-activated channels. The most frequently observed (main) conductance states were 29 and 17 pS for the GlyR and GABAR channel, respectively. 6. In outside-out patches with equal extracellular and intracellular concentrations of 145 mM-Cl-, the conductance states were 46, 30, 20 and 12 pS for GlyR channels and 44, 30

  6. Study of Glycine and Folic Acid Supplementation to Ameliorate Transfusion Dependence in Congenital SLC25A38 Mutated Sideroblastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Marissa A; Bettle, Amanda; Berman, Jason N; Price, Victoria E; Pambrun, Chantale; Yu, Zhijie; Tiller, Marilyn; McMaster, Christopher R; Fernandez, Conrad V

    2016-07-01

    Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hematological disorder characterized by the presence of ringed sideroblasts in bone marrow erythroid precursors. Mutations in the erythroid-specific glycine mitochondrial transporter gene SLC25A38 have been found in a subset of patients with transfusion-dependent congenital CSA. Further studies in a zebrafish model identified a promising ameliorative strategy with combined supplementation with glycine and folate. We tested this combination in three individuals with SLC25A38 CSA, with a primary objective to decrease red blood cell transfusion requirements. No significant impact was observed on transfusion requirements or any hematologic parameters. PMID:27038157

  7. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Piner, Lucy W.; Huffman, Kim M.; Slentz, Cris A.; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Stevens, Robert D.; Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Methods Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). Results IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. Conclusions/interpretation A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941 PMID:26254576

  8. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PMID:27242811

  9. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PMID:27242811

  10. Cyanobacteria Produce N-(2-Aminoethyl)Glycine, a Backbone for Peptide Nucleic Acids Which May Have Been the First Genetic Molecules for Life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Metcalf, James S.; Jiang, Liying; Craighead, Derek; Ilag, Leopold L.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the evolution of DNA-based organisms on earth over 3.5 billion years ago it is hypothesized that RNA was the primary genetic molecule. Before RNA-based organisms arose, peptide nucleic acids may have been used to transmit genetic information by the earliest forms of life on earth. We discovered that cyanobacteria produce N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG), a backbone for peptide nucleic acids. We detected AEG in axenic strains of cyanobacteria with an average concentration of 1 µg/g. We also detected AEG in environmental samples of cyanobacteria as both a free or weakly bound molecule and a tightly bound form released by acid hydrolysis, at concentrations ranging from not detected to 34 µg/g. The production of AEG by diverse taxa of cyanobacteria suggests that AEG may be a primitive feature which arose early in the evolution of life on earth. PMID:23145061

  11. Radiolysis of amino acids by heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues in simulated space environments: α-glycine zwitterion form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, Williamary; Pilling, Sergio; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Andrade, Diana P. P.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we studied the stability of the glycine molecule in the crystalline zwitterion form, known as α-glycine (+NH3CH2COO-), under the action of heavy cosmic ray analogues. The experiments were conducted in a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), in Caen, France. The samples were bombarded at two temperatures (14 and 300 K) by 58Ni11+ ions of 46 MeV, up to a final fluence of 1013 ion cm-2. The chemical evolution of the sample was evaluated in situ using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). The bombardment at 14 K produced several daughter species, such as OCN-, CO, CO2 and CN-. The results also suggest the appearance of peptide bonds during irradiation, but this must be confirmed by further experiments. The half-life of glycine in the interstellar medium was estimated to be 7.8 × 103 yr (300 K) and 2.8 × 103 yr (14 K). In the Solar system, the values were 8.4 × 102 yr (300 K) and 3.6 × 103 yr (14 K). It is believed that glycine could be present in space environments that suffered aqueous changes, such as the interiors of comets, meteorites and planetesimals. This molecule is present in the proteins of all living beings. Therefore, studying its stability in these environments will provide further understanding of the role of this species in prebiotic chemistry on Earth.

  12. Serine and glycine metabolism in cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Amelio, Ivano; Cutruzzolá, Francesca; Antonov, Alexey; Agostini, Massimiliano; Melino, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    Serine and glycine are biosynthetically linked, and together provide the essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that are crucial to cancer cell growth. Moreover, serine/glycine biosynthesis also affects cellular antioxidative capacity, thus supporting tumour homeostasis. A crucial contribution of serine/glycine to cellular metabolism is through the glycine cleavage system, which refuels one-carbon metabolism; a complex cyclic metabolic network based on chemical reactions of folate compounds. The importance of serine/glycine metabolism is further highlighted by genetic and functional evidence indicating that hyperactivation of the serine/glycine biosynthetic pathway drives oncogenesis. Recent developments in our understanding of these pathways provide novel translational opportunities for drug development, dietary intervention, and biomarker identification of human cancers. PMID:24657017

  13. Conformational Structure of Tyrosine, Tyrosyl-Glycine, and Tyrosyl-Glycyl-Glycine by Double Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abo-Riziq, Ali; Grace, Louis; Crews, Bridgit; Callahan, Michael P,; van Mourik, Tanja; de Vries, Mattanjah S,

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the variation in conformation for the amino acid tyrosine (Y), alone and in the small peptides tyrosine-glycine (YC) and tyrosine-glycine-glycine (YGG), in the gas phase by using UV-UV and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. For tyrosine we found seven different conformations, for YG we found four different conformations, and for YGG we found three different conformations. As the peptides get larger, we observe fewer stable conformers, despite the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom. We find structural trends similar to those in phenylalanine-glycine glycine (FGG) and tryptophan-glycine-glycine (WGG)j however) the effect of dispersive forces in FGG for stabilizing a folded structure is replaced by that of hydrogen bonding in YGG.

  14. Isovaleric, methylmalonic, and propionic acid decrease anesthetic EC50 in tadpoles, modulate glycine receptor function, and interact with the lipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yun; Hsu, Tienyi Theresa; Zhao, Jing; Nishimura, Stefanie; Fuller, Gerald G.; Sonner, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Elevated concentrations of isovaleric, methylmalonic, and propionic acid are associated with impaired consciousness in genetic diseases (organic acidemias). We conjectured that part of the central nervous system depression observed in these disorders was due to anesthetic effects of these metabolites. We tested three hypotheses. First, that these metabolites would have anesthetic-sparing effects, possibly being anesthetics by themselves. Second, that these compounds would modulate glycine and GABAA receptor function, increasing chloride currents through these channels as potent clinical inhaled anesthetics do. Third, that these compounds would affect physical properties of lipids. Methods Anesthetic EC50’s were measured in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Glycine and GABAA receptors were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied using two-electrode voltage clamping. Pressure-area isotherms of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) monolayers were measured with and without added organic acids. Results Isovaleric acid was an anesthetic in tadpoles, while methylmalonic and propionic acid decreased isoflurane’s EC50 by half. All three organic acids concentration-dependently increased current through α1 glycine receptors. There were minimal effects on α1β2γ2s GABAA receptors. The organic acids increased total lateral pressure (surface pressure) of DPPC monolayers, including at mean molecular areas typical of bilayers. Conclusion Isovaleric, methylmalonic, and propionic acid have anesthetic affects in tadpoles, positively modulate glycine receptor fuction, and affect physical properties of DPPC monolayers. PMID:19372333

  15. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  16. High-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method for the determination of ursodeoxycholic acid and its glycine and taurine conjugates in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Tessier, E; Neirinck, L; Zhu, Z

    2003-12-25

    A novel sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its glycine and taurine conjugates, glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). The procedure involved a solid phase extraction of UDCA, GDCA, TDCA and the internal standard, 23-nordeoxycholic acid from human plasma on a C18 Bond Elut cartridge. Chromatography was performed by isocratic reverse phase separation with methanol/25 mM ammonium acetate (40/60, v/v) containing 0.05% acetic acid on a C18 column with embedded polar functional group. Detection was achieved using an LC-MS/MS system. The standard curve was linear over a working range of 10-3000 ng/ml for all analytes and gave an average correlation coefficient of 0.9992 or better during validation. The absolute recovery for UDCA, GDCA, TDCA and the internal standard was 87.3, 83.7, 79.5 and 95.8%, respectively. This method is simple, sensitive and suitable for pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence or clinical studies. PMID:14643509

  17. GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

  18. Host-pathogen interactions. XXIX. Oligogalacturonides released from sodium polypectate by endopolygalacturonic acid lyase are elicitors of phytoalexins in soybean. [Glycine max L

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.R.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.; Dell, A.

    1986-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that an apparently homogeneous preparation of an ..cap alpha..-1,4-D-endopolygalacturonic acid lyase (EC 4.2,2.2) isolated from the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora induced phytoalexin accumulation in cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Wayne) and that this pectin-degrading enzyme released heat-stable elicitors of phytoalexins from soybean cell walls, citrus pectin, and sodium polypectate. The present paper reports the purification, by anion-exchange chromatography on QAE-Sephadex columns followed by gel-permeation chromatography on a Bio-Gel P-6 column, of the two fractions with highest specific elicitor activity present in a crude elicitor-preparation obtained by lyase treatment of sodium polypectate. Structural analysis of the fraction with highest specific elicitor activity indicated that the major, if not only, component was a decasaccharide of ..cap alpha..-1,4-D-galactosyluronic acid that contained the expected product of lyase cleavage, 4-deoxy-..beta..-L-5-threo-hexopyranos-4-enyluronic acid (4,5-unsaturated galactosyluronic acid), at the nonreducing terminus. This modified decagalacturonide fraction exhibited half-maximum and maximum elicitor activity at 1 microgram/cotyledon (6 micromolar) and 5 micrograms/cotyledon (32 micromolar) galactosyluronic acid equivalents, respectively. Reducing 90 to 95% of the carboxyl groups of the galactosyluronic acid residues abolished the elicitor activity of the decagalacturonide fraction. The second most elicitor-active fraction contained mostly undeca-..cap alpha..-1,4-D-galactosyluronic acid that contained 4,5-unsaturated galactosyluronic acid at the nonreducing termini. This fraction exhibited half-maximum and maximum elicitor activity at approximately 3 micrograms/cotyledon (17 micromolar) and 6 micrograms/cotyledon (34 micromolar) galactosyluronic acid equivalents, respectively.

  19. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-polyethylene glycol-polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugate improves liver-cell aggregation and function in 3-D spheroid culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanfei; Lian, Fen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yanling; Tang, Nanhong

    2016-01-01

    The polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a type of macromolecule material, has been used in spheroidal cell culture and drug delivery in recent years. However, PAMAM is not involved in the study of hepatic cell-spheroid culture or its biological activity, particularly in detoxification function. Here, we constructed a PAMAM-dendrimer conjugate decorated by an integrin ligand: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Our studies demonstrate that RGD-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PAMAM conjugates can promote singly floating hepatic cells to aggregate together in a sphere-like growth with a weak reactive oxygen species. Moreover, RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates can activate the AKT-MAPK pathway in hepatic cells to promote cell proliferation and improve basic function and ammonia metabolism. Together, our data support the hepatocyte sphere treated by RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates as a potential source of hepatic cells for a biological artificial liver system. PMID:27621619

  20. Protective effect of Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B upon oxidative stress caused by ozone and acid rain in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba".

    PubMed

    Esposito, Jéssica Bordotti Nobre; Esposito, Breno Pannia; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Cruz, Luciano Soares; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Mn complex (Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B (MnDFB)) on oxidative stress in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba" following exposure to ozone and acid rain. We determined the suitable dose of MnDFB to apply to G. max seedlings using a dose-response curve. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Mn content in leaves were found upon the application of 8 μM MnDFB. Thus, G. max seedlings pretreated with 8 μM MnDFB were individually exposed to ozone and acid rain simulated. Pretreatment with MnDFB reduced lipid peroxidation upon ozone exposure and increased SOD activity in leaves; it did not alter the metal content in any part of the plant. Conversely, following acid rain exposure, neither the metal content in leaves nor SOD enzyme activity were directly affected by MnDFB, unlike pH. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous MnDFB application before ozone exposure may modulate the MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, and FeSOD activities to combat the ROS excess in the cell. Here, we demonstrated that the applied dose of MnDFB enhances antioxidative defenses in soybean following exposure to acid rain and especially to ozone. PMID:25510614

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity studies of ternary metal complexes containing glycine amino acid and the anti-inflammatory drug lornoxicam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.

    2015-02-01

    Mixed ligand complexes were synthesized using lornoxicam (LOR) as the primary ligand and glycine amino acid (HGly) as the secondary ligand. They were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral studies, TG-DTG, X-ray powder diffraction and physical analytical studies. From the molar conductance, magnetic moment and electronic spectral data of the synthesized complexes, general formulae of [M(LOR)2(Gly)]·Xn·yH2O where M = Cr(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 3), Mn(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 1), Co(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 0), Cu(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and Zn(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and (M = Fe(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 1) and Fe(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 1) with an octahedral structure were proposed. Thermal analyses show that the complexes lose water molecules of hydration initially and subsequently expel anionic parts and organic ligands in continuous steps. The kinetic parameters namely E, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ illustrate the spontaneous association of the metal and ligands in the formation of the complexes. The antimicrobial efficiency of the LOR and HGly ligands and the ternary complexes were examined by in vitro method against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes were found to possess efficient antimicrobial properties compared to lornoxicam and most of these complexes could turn out to be excellent models for the design of effective antibiotic drug substances. Also, the two ligands, in comparison to ternary metal complexes are screened for their anticancer activity against breastic cancer cell line. The results showed that the metal complexes be more active than the parent LOR and glycine free ligands except Cr(III) ternary complex which was found to be inactive.

  2. Spectroscopic investigations of humic-like acids formed via polycondensation reactions between glycine, catechol and glucose in the presence of natural zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Shigeki; Miura, Akitaka; Okabe, Ryo; Fukushima, Masami; Sasaki, Masahide; Sato, Tsutomu

    2010-10-01

    Polycondensation reactions between low-molecular-weight compounds, such as amino acids, sugars and phenols, are crucially important processes in the formation of humic substances, and clay minerals have the ability to catalyze these reactions. In the present study, catechol (CT), glycine (Gly) and glucose (Gl) were used as representative phenols, amino acids and sugars, respectively, and the effects of the catalytic activities of natural zeolites on polycondensation reactions between these compounds were investigated. The extent of polycondensation was evaluated by measuring the specific absorbance at 600 nm ( E600) as an index of the degree of darkening. After a 3-week incubation period, the E600 values for solutions that contained zeolite samples were 4-10 times greater than those measured in the absence of zeolite, suggesting that the zeolite had, in fact, catalyzed the polycondensation reaction. The humic-like acids (HLAs) produced in the reactions were isolated, and their elemental composition and molecular weights determined. When formed in the presence of a zeolite, the nitrogen contents and molecular weights for the HLAs were significantly higher, compared to the HLA sample formed in the absence of zeolite. In addition, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR spectra and carboxylic group analyses of the HLA samples indicated that the concentration of carbonyl carbon species for quinones and ketones produced in the presence of zeolite were higher than the corresponding values for samples produced in the absence of a zeolite. Carbonyl carbons in quinones and ketones indicate the nucleophilic characteristics of the samples. Therefore, a nitrogen atom in Gly, which serves as nucleophile, is incorporated into quinones and ketones in CT and Gl. The differences in the catalytic activities of the zeolite samples can be attributed to differences in their transition metal content (Fe, Mn and Ti), which function as Lewis acids.

  3. Enantiomer-selective ultraviolet photolysis of temperature-controlled protonated tryptophan on a chiral crown ether in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Sato, Takashi; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2014-08-01

    Enantiomer-selective ultraviolet photolysis of temperature-controlled protonated tryptophan (TrpH+) on the chiral crown ether, (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid (18C6TA), was examined using a tandem mass spectrometer containing a temperature-variable 22-pole ion trap. The spectra of D-TrpH+-(+)-18C6TA at 9-320 K showed that the loss of NH2CH2COOH due to Cαsbnd Cβ bond cleavage decreased gradually with increasing temperature. The spectrum at room temperature was similar to that of L-TrpH+-(+)-18C6TA, which showed no temperature dependence on photolysis. The chiral-specific photolysis of cold D-TrpH+-(+)-18C6TA was attributed to the structures involving the chiral-dependent interactions of the Cαsbnd H group of TrpH+ with the oxygen atoms of (+)-18C6TA.

  4. Effect of Cooking on Isoflavones, Phenolic Acids, and Antioxidant Activity in Sprouts of Prosoy Soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Shweta; Chang, Sam K C

    2016-07-01

    Soy sprouts possess health benefits and is required to be cooked before consumption. The effects of cooking on the phenolic components and antioxidant properties of soy sprouts with different germination days were investigated. A food-grade cultivar Prosoy with a high protein content was germinated for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d and cooked till palatable for 20, 20, 5, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), condensed tannins content (CTC), individual phenolic acids, isoflavones, DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of raw and cooked sprouts were measured. Cooking caused significant losses in phenolic content and antioxidant activities, and maximum loss was on day 3 > 5 > 7, including TPC (32%, 23%, and 15%), TFC (50%, 44%, and 20%), CTC (73%, 47%, and 12%), DPPH (31%, 15%, and 5%), FRAP (34%, 25%, and 1%), and ORAC (34%, 22%, 32%), respectively. Cooking caused significant losses in most individual phenolic acid, benzoic group, cinnamic group, total phenolic composition, individual isoflavones, and total isoflavones. The losses of phenolic acids such as gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, chlorogenic, or sinapic acids during cooking were not compensated by the increases in trihydroxybenzoic, vanillic or coumaric acids on certain days of germination. Cooking caused minimal changes in phenolic acid composition of day 1 and 2 sprouts compared to 3, 5, and 7 d sprouts. PMID:27258930

  5. Organic Reference Materials for Hydrogen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Stable Isotope-Ratio Measurements: Caffeines, n-Alkanes, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, Glycines, L-Valines, Polyethylenes, and Oils.

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Brand, Willi A; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A J; Sauer, Peter E; Sessions, Alex L; Werner, Roland A

    2016-04-19

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope-δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (caffeine). These new RMs enable users to normalize measurements of samples to isotope-δ scales. The RMs span a range of δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) values from -210.8 to +397.0 mUr or ‰, for δ(13)C(VPDB-LSVEC) from -40.81 to +0.49 mUr and for δ(15)N(Air) from -5.21 to +61.53 mUr. Many of the new RMs are amenable to gas and liquid chromatography. The RMs include triads of isotopically contrasting caffeines, C16 n-alkanes, n-C20-fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), glycines, and l-valines, together with polyethylene powder and string, one n-C17-FAME, a vacuum oil (NBS 22a) to replace NBS 22 oil, and a (2)H-enriched vacuum oil. A total of 11 laboratories from 7 countries used multiple analytical approaches and instrumentation for 2-point isotopic normalization against international primary measurement standards. The use of reference waters in silver tubes allowed direct normalization of δ(2)H values of organic materials against isotopic reference waters following the principle of identical treatment. Bayesian statistical analysis yielded the mean values reported here. New RMs are numbered from USGS61 through USGS78, in addition to NBS 22a. Because of exchangeable hydrogen, amino acid RMs currently are recommended only for carbon- and nitrogen-isotope measurements. Some amino acids contain (13)C and carbon-bound organic (2)H-enrichments at different molecular sites to provide RMs for potential site-specific isotopic analysis in future studies. PMID:26974360

  6. Characterization of mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester, a major mycosporine-like amino acid from dinoflagellates: a mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Mario O; Carreto, José I

    2013-08-01

    Several unknown mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) have been previously isolated from some cultured species of toxic dinoflagellates of the Alexandrium genus (Dinophyceae). One of them, originally called M-333, was tentatively identified as a shinorine methyl ester, but the precise nature of this compound is still unknown. Using a high-resolution reversed-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses (HPLC/MS), we found that natural populations of the red tide dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg showed a net dominance of M-333 together with lesser amounts of other MAAs. We also documented the isolation and characterization of this MAA from natural dinoflagellate populations and from Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech cultures. Using a comparative fragmentation study in electrospray mass spectrometry between deuterated and non-deuterated M-333 compounds and synthesized mono and dimethyl esters of shinorine, this novel compound was characterized as mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester, a structure confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. These isobaric compounds can be differentiated by their fragmentation patterns in MS(3) experiments because the extension and the specific site of the methylation changed the fragmentation pathway. PMID:27007200

  7. Facilitation of cell adhesion by immobilized dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1): arginine-glycine-aspartic acid structural mimicry within the dengue viral NS1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Hou; Shyu, Huey-Fen; Wang, Yo-Ming; Sun, Der-Shan; Shyu, Rong-Hwa; Tang, Shiao-Shek; Huang, Yao-Shine

    2002-09-15

    Dengue virus infection causes life-threatening hemorrhagic fever. Increasing evidence implies that dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) exhibits a tendency to elicit potentially hazardous autoantibodies, which show a wide spectrum of specificity against extracellular matrix and platelet antigens. How NS1 elicits autoantibodies remains unclear. To address the hypothesis that NS1 and matrix proteins may have structural and functional similarity, cell-matrix and cell-NS1 interactions were evaluated using a cell-adhesion assay. The present study showed that dengue NS1 immobilized on coverslips resulted in more cell adhesion than did the control proteins. This cell adhesion was inhibited by peptides containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), a motif important for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. In addition, anti-NS1 antibodies blocked RGD-mediated cell adhesion. Although there is no RGD motif in the NS1 protein sequence, these data indicate that RGD structural mimicry exists within the NS1 antigen. PMID:12198607

  8. Glycine max cultivar Dare chloroplast fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) gene, complete cds; nuclear gene for chloroplast product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomic sequence of soybean GmFAD7 (2455 nucleotides) was determined and reported to GenBank and assigned the accession number HM769340. The structure and deduced amino acid sequence of soybean FAD7 is similar to other higher plant plastidal omega-3 desaturases: 8 exons and 7 introns, predicted...

  9. Glycine max cultivar Dare chloroplast fatty acid desaturase 8 (FAD8) gene, complete cds; nuclear gene for chloroplast product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomic sequence of soybean GmFAD8 (2480 nucleotides) was determined and reported to GenBank and assigned the accession number HM769341. The structure and deduced amino acid sequence of soybean FAD8 is similar to other higher plant plastidal omega-3 desaturases: 8 exons and 7 introns, predicted...

  10. Advanced asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid by alkylation/cyclization of newly designed axially chiral Ni(II) complex of glycine Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Aki; Shu, Shuangjie; Takeda, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Akie; Sato, Tatsunori; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Wang, Jiang; Izawa, Kunisuke; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is in extremely high demand due to the pharmaceutical importance of this tailor-made, sterically constrained α-amino acid. Here we report the development of an advanced procedure for preparation of the target amino acid via two-step SN2 and SN2' alkylation of novel axially chiral nucleophilic glycine equivalent. Excellent yields and diastereoselectivity coupled with reliable and easy scalability render this method of immediate use for practical synthesis of (1R,2S)-vinyl-ACCA. PMID:26661034

  11. Glycine production in severe childhood undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Although nutritionally dispensable amino acids are not essential in the diet, from a biochemical standpoint, dispensable amino acids such as glycine are essential for life. This is especially true under unique circumstances, such as when the availability of labile nitrogen for dispensabl...

  12. Influence of amino acid specificities on the molecular and supramolecular organization of glycine-rich elastin-like polypeptides in water.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Anna M; Moscarelli, Pasquale; Satriano, Giuseppina; Bochicchio, Brigida; Castle, James E

    2011-10-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides adopt complex supramolecular structures, showing either a hydrophobic or a hydrophilic surface, depending on their surrounding environment and the supporting substrate. The preferred organization is important in many situations ranging from biocompatibility to bio-function. Here we compare the n-repeat pentamer LeuGlyGlyValGly (n = 7) with the analogue ValGlyGlyValGly (n = 5), as water suspensions and as deposits on silicon substrates. These sequences contain the repeat XxxGlyGlyZzzGly (Xxx, Zzz = Val, Leu) motif belonging to the hydrophobic glycine-rich domain of elastin and represent a simplified model from which to obtain information on molecular interactions functional to elastin itself. The compounds studied differ only by the presence of the -CH(2)- spacer in the Leu moiety and thus the work was aimed at revealing the influence of this spacer element on self assembly. Both polypeptides were studied under identical conditions, using combined techniques, to identify differences in their conformational states both at molecular (CD, FTIR) and supramolecular (XPS, AFM) levels. By these means, together with a Congo Red spectroscopic assay of β-sheet formation in water, a clear correlation between amino acid sequences (sequence specificity) and their kinetics and ordering of aggregation has emerged. The novel outcomes of this work are from the supplementary measurements, made to augment the AFM and XPS studies, showing that the significant step in the self assembly of both polypeptides takes place in the liquid phase and from the finding that the substitution of Val by Leu in the first position of the pentapeptide effectively inhibits the formation of amyloidal fibers. PMID:21509743

  13. Optical imaging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in vivo using arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide conjugated near-infrared quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Bai, Yun-Long; Yang, Kai; Tang, Hong; Wang, You-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging plays a key role in personalized medicine and tumor diagnosis. Quantum dots with near-infrared emission spectra demonstrate excellent tissue penetration and photostability, and have recently emerged as important tools for in vivo tumor imaging. Integrin αvβ3 has been shown to be highly and specifically expressed in endothelial cells of tumor angiogenic vessels in almost all types of tumors, and specifically binds to the peptide containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD). In this study, we conjugated RGD with quantum dots with emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) to generate QD800-RGD, and used it via intravenous injection as a probe to image tumors in nude mice bearing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Twelve hours after the injection, the mice were still alive and were sacrificed to isolate tumors and ten major organs for ex vivo analysis to localize the probe in these tissues. The results showed that QD800-RGD was specifically targeted to integrin αvβ3 in vitro and in vivo, producing clear tumor fluorescence images after the intravenous injection. The tumor-to-background ratio and size of tumor image were highest within 6 hours of the injection and declined significantly at 9 hours after the injection, but there was still a clearly visible tumor image at 12 hours. The greatest amount of QD800-RGD was found in liver and spleen, followed by tumor and lung, and a weak fluorescence signal was seen in tibia. No detectable signal of QD800-RGD was found in brain, heart, kidney, testis, stomach, or intestine. Our study demonstrated that using integrin αvβ3 as target, it is possible to use intravenously injected QD800-RGD to generate high quality images of HNSCC, and the technique offers great potential in the diagnosis and personalized therapy for HNSCC. PMID:24324343

  14. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  15. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  16. Spectroscopic studies on covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with glycine.

    PubMed

    Deborah, M; Jawahar, A; Mathavan, T; Kumara Dhas, M; Benial, A Milton Franklin

    2014-10-22

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have a great potential in a wide range of applications, but faces limitation in terms of dispersion feasibility. The functionalization process of SWCNTs with the amino acid, glycine involves oxidation reaction using a mild aqueous acid mixture of HNO3 and H2SO4 (1:3), via ultrasonication technique and the resulted oxidized SWCNTs were again treated with the amino acid glycine suspension. The resulted glycine functionalized carbon nanotubes have been characterized by XRD, UV-Vis, FTIR, EPR, SEM, and EDX, spectroscopic techniques. The enhanced XRD peak (002) intensity was observed for glycine functionalized SWCNTs compared with oxidized SWCNTs, which is likely due to sample purification by acid washing. The red shift was observed in the UV-Vis spectra of glycine functionalized SWCNTs, which reveals that the covalent bond formation between glycine molecule and SWCNTs. The functional groups of oxidized SWCNTs and glycine functionalized SWCNTs were identified and assigned. EPR results indicate that the unpaired electron undergoes reduction process in glycine functionalized SWCNTs. SEM images show that the increase in the diameter of the SWCNTs was observed for glycine functionalized SWCNTs, which indicates that the adsorption of glycine molecule on the sidewalls of oxidized SWCNTs. EDX elemental micro analysis confirms that the nitrogen element exists in glycine functionalized SWCNTs. The functionalization has been chosen due to CONH bioactive sites in glycine functionalized SWCNTs for future applications. PMID:25448929

  17. Un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine, alanine, serine, threonine, and aspartic acid in gas phase: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Snehasis; Singh, Ajeet; Ojha, Animesh K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present report, un-catalyzed peptide bond formation between two monomers of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and aspartic acid (Asp) has been investigated in gas phase via two steps reaction mechanism and concerted mechanism at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. The peptide bond is formed through a nucleophilic reaction via transition states, TS1 and TS2 in stepwise mechanism. The TS1 reveals formation of a new C-N bond while TS2 illustrate the formation of C=O bond. In case of concerted mechanism, C-N bond is formed by a single four-centre transition state (TS3). The energy barrier is used to explain the involvement of energy at each step of the reaction. The energy barrier (20-48 kcal/mol) is required for the transformation of reactant state R1 to TS1 state and intermediate state I1 to TS2 state. The large value of energy barrier is explained in terms of distortion and interaction energies for stepwise mechanism. The energy barrier of TS3 in concerted mechanism is very close to the energy barrier of the first transition state (TS1) of the stepwise mechanism for the formation of Gly-Gly and Ala-Ala di- peptide. However, in case of Ser-Ser, Thr-Thr and Asp-Asp di-peptide, the energy barrier of TS3 is relatively high than that of the energy barrier of TS1 calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theories. In both the mechanisms, the value of energy barrier calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory is greater than that of the value calculated at M062X/6-31G(d,p) level of theory.

  18. Identification and characterization of heptapeptide modulators of the glycine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Garrett L; Pflanz, Natasha C; Tipps, Megan E; Mihic, S John

    2016-06-01

    The glycine receptor is a member of the Cys-loop receptor superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels and is implicated as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as alcoholism and inflammatory pain. In humans, four glycine receptor subtypes (α1, α2, α3, and β) co-assemble to form pentameric channel proteins as either α homomers or αβ heteromers. To date, few agents have been identified that can selectively modulate the glycine receptor, especially those possessing subtype specificity. We used a cell-based method of phage display panning, coupled with two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes, to identify novel heptapeptide modulators of the α1β glycine receptor. This involved a panning procedure in which the phage library initially underwent subtractive panning against Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing alternative glycine receptor subtypes before panning the remaining library over HEK 293 cells expressing the target, the α1β glycine receptor. Peptides were identified that act with selectivity on α1β and α3β, compared to α2β, glycine receptors. In addition, peptide activity at the glycine receptor decreased when zinc was chelated by tricine, similar to previous observations of a decrease in ethanol's enhancing actions at the receptor in the absence of zinc. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of heptapeptides capable of potentiating glycine receptor function revealed several consensus sequences that may be predictive of a peptide's enhancing ability. PMID:27038522

  19. Zinc Modulation of Glycine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Trombley, Paul Q.; Blakemore, Laura J.; Hill, Brook J.

    2011-01-01

    Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 μM), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 μM zinc, prior to glycine (300 μM) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission. PMID:21530619

  20. Synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides and their evaluation as ligands for NMDA receptor glycine binding site.

    PubMed

    Bluke, Zanda; Paass, Einars; Sladek, Meik; Abel, Ulrich; Kauss, Valerjans

    2016-08-01

    A series of 2-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides were synthesized and evaluated for their affinity to the glycine binding site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The binding affinity was determined by the displacement of radioligand [(3)H]MDL-105,519 from rat cortical membrane preparations. The most attractive structures in the search for prospective NMDA receptor ligands were identified to be 2-arylcarbonylmethyl substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid 1,1-dioxides. It has been demonstrated for the first time that the replacement of NH group in the ligand by sp(3) CH2 is tolerated. This finding may pave the way for previously unexplored approaches for designing new ligands of the NMDA receptor. PMID:26114309

  1. Aza-Glycine Induces Collagen Hyperstability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yitao; Malamakal, Roy M; Chenoweth, David M

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen bonding is fundamental to life on our planet, and nature utilizes H-bonding in nearly all biomolecular interactions. Often, H-bonding is already maximized in natural biopolymer systems such as nucleic acids, where Watson-Crick H-bonds are fully paired in double-helical structures. Synthetic chemistry allows molecular editing of biopolymers beyond nature's capability. Here we demonstrate that substitution of glycine (Gly) with aza-glycine in collagen may increase the number of interfacial cross-strand H-bonds, leading to hyperstability in the triple-helical form. Gly is the only amino acid that has remained intolerant to substitution in collagen. Our results highlight the vital importance of maximizing H-bonding in higher order biopolymer systems using minimally perturbing alternatives to nature's building blocks. PMID:26368649

  2. Glycine enhanced separation of Co(II) and Ni(II) with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) by liquid-liquid extraction and supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Reichley-Yinger, L.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The extraction behavior of Co and Ni ions from aqueous nitrate solution containing glycine, and their separation by liquid-liquid extraction and supported liquid membranes (SLMs) has been studied. The separation factor between the two metals is greatly enhanced by the presence of glycine. The enhancement is due to the preferential complexation of the Ni ions by glycine. The conditional equilibrium constants of the extraction reactions and the SLM permeability coefficients have been measured. The results indicate that metal glycinate complexes are not extracted and that in presence of glycine very clean Co-Ni separation can be obtained in a single SLM pass.

  3. Identification of combined conjugation of nabumetone phase I metabolites with glucuronic acid and glycine in minipig biotransformation using coupling high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Česlová, Lenka; Holčapek, Michal; Nobilis, Milan

    2014-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was applied for the analysis of nabumetone metabolites during the biotransformation in minipigs. In addition to known phase I metabolites, the identification of phase II metabolites was achieved on the basis of their full-scan mass spectra and subsequent MS(n) analysis using both positive-ion and negative-ion ESI mode. Some phase I metabolites are conjugated with both glucuronide acid and glycine, which is quite unusual type of phase II metabolite not presented so far for nabumetone. These metabolites were found in small intestine content, but they were absent in minipigs urine. PMID:24083957

  4. Cometary Glycine Detected in Samples Returned by Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous analysis of cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft showed several amines and amino acids, but the or igin of these compounds could not be firmly established. Here, we pre sent the stable carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA), the two most abundant amino acids identified in Stardu st-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrom etry coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The Delta C-13 value for glycine of +29 +/- ? 6%: strongly suggests an extraterrestrial origin For glycine, while the Delta C-13 value for EACA of -25 +/-2 % indicates terrestrial contamination by Nylon-6 during curation. This represents the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  5. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Dufay, J Noelia; Steele, Shelby L; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Coombs, Andrew J; Liwski, Robert S; Fernandez, Conrad V; Berman, Jason N; McMaster, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia. PMID:26821380

  6. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Dufay, J. Noelia; Steele, Shelby L.; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Coombs, Andrew J.; Liwski, Robert S.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Berman, Jason N.; McMaster, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia. PMID:26821380

  7. DETECTABILITY OF GLYCINE IN SOLAR-TYPE SYSTEM PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Testi, Leonardo; Caselli, Paola; Viti, Serena E-mail: ltesti@eso.org E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the simplest amino acid relevant to life. Its detection in the interstellar medium is key to understanding the formation mechanisms of pre-biotic molecules and their subsequent delivery onto planetary systems. Glycine has been extensively searched for toward hot molecular cores, although these studies did not yield any firm detection. In contrast to hot cores, low-mass star forming regions, in particular their earliest stages represented by cold pre-stellar cores, may be better suited for the detection of glycine as well as more relevant to the study of pre-biotic chemistry in young solar system analogs. We present one-dimensional spherically symmetric radiative transfer calculations of the glycine emission expected to arise from the low-mass pre-stellar core L1544. Water vapor has recently been reported toward this core, indicating that a small fraction of the grain mantles in L1544 (∼0.5%) has been injected into the gas phase. Assuming that glycine is photo-desorbed together with water in L1544, and considering a solid abundance of glycine on ices of ∼10{sup –4} with respect to water, our calculations reveal that several glycine lines between 67 GHz and 80 GHz have peak intensities larger than 10 mK. These results show for the first time that glycine could reach detectable levels in cold objects such as L1544. This opens up the possibility of detecting glycine, and other pre-biotic species, at the coldest and earliest stages in the formation of solar-type systems with near-future instrumentation such as the Band 2 receivers of ALMA.

  8. Compositions containing poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1992-02-18

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and the apparatus used in effecting the removal are described. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 figs.

  9. Compositions containing poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  10. Baicalin Activates Glycine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Receptors on Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subsnucleus Caudalis in Juvenile Mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua; Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Oh, Sun Mi; Park, Soo Joung; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) receives nociceptive afferent inputs from thin-myelinated A[Formula: see text] fibers and unmyelinated C fibers and has been shown to be involved in the processing of orofacial nociceptive information. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-Qin, SbG), one of the 50 fundamental herbs of Chinese herbology, has been used historically as anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic medicine. Baicalin, one of the major compounds of SbG, has been reported to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, the receptor type activated by baicalin and its precise action mechanism on the SG neurons of Vc have not yet been studied. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the ion channels activated by baicalin on the SG neurons of Vc. In high Cl[Formula: see text] pipette solution, the baicalin (300[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) induced repeatable inward currents ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]pA, [Formula: see text]) without desensitization on all the SG neurons tested. Further, the inward currents showed a concentration (0.1-3[Formula: see text]mM) dependent pattern. The inward current was sustained in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a voltage sensitive Na[Formula: see text] channel blocker. In addition, baicalin-induced inward currents were reduced in the presence of picrotoxin (50[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a GABAA receptor antagonist, flumazenil (100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptor antagonist, and strychnine (2[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a glycine receptor antagonist, respectively. These results indicate that baicalin has inhibitory effects on the SG neurons of the Vc, which are due to the activation of GABAA and/or the glycine receptor. Our results suggest that baicalin may be a potential target for orofacial pain modulation

  11. Some Operational Characteristics of Glycine Release in Rat Retina: The Role of Reverse Mode Operation of Glycine Transporter Type-1 (GlyT-1) in Ischemic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanuska, Adrienn; Szénási, Gábor; Albert, Mihaly; Koles, Laszlo; Varga, Agoston; Szabo, Andras; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2016-02-01

    Rat posterior eyecups containing the retina were prepared, loaded with [(3)H]glycine and superfused in order to determine its release originated from glycinergic amacrine cells and/or glial cells. Deprivation of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs-bicarbonate buffer used for superfusion evoked a marked increase of [(3)H]glycine release, an effect that was found to be external Ca(2+)-independent. Whereas oxygen and glucose deprivation increased [(3)H]glycine release, its uptake was reduced suggesting that energy deficiency shifts glycine transporter type-1 operation from normal to reverse mode. The increased release of [(3)H]glycine evoked by oxygen and glucose deprivation was suspended by addition of the non-competitive glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor NFPS and the competitive inhibitor ACPPB further suggesting the involvement of this transporter in the mediation of [(3)H]glycine release. Oxygen and glucose deprivation also evoked [(3)H]glutamate release from rat retina and the concomitantly occurring release of the NMDA receptor agonist glutamate and the coagonist glycine makes NMDA receptor pathological overstimulation possible in hypoxic conditions. [(3)H]Glutamate release was suspended by addition of the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA. Sarcosine, a substrate inhibitor of glycine transporter type-1, also increased [(3)H]glycine release probably by heteroexchange shifting transporter operation into reverse mode. This effect of sarcosine was also external Ca(2+)-independent and could be suspended by NFPS. Energy deficiency in retina induced by ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-dependent ATPase, and by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor added with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose, led to increase of retinal [(3)H]glycine efflux. These effects of ouabain and rotenone/2-deoxy-D-glucose could also be blocked by NFPS pointed to the preferential reverse mode operation of glycine transporter type-1 as a consequence of

  12. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  13. Ionization constants of aqueous amino acids at temperatures up to 250°C using hydrothermal pH indicators and UV-visible spectroscopy: Glycine, α-alanine, and proline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Rodney G. F.; Collins, Christopher M.; Roberts, Jenene C.; Trevani, Liliana N.; Bartholomew, Richard J.; Tremaine, Peter R.

    2005-06-01

    Ionization constants for several simple amino acids have been measured for the first time under hydrothermal conditions, using visible spectroscopy with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow cell and thermally stable colorimetric pH indicators. This method minimizes amino acid decomposition at high temperatures because the data can be collected rapidly with short equilibration times. The first ionization constant for proline and α-alanine, K a,COOH, and the first and second ionization constants for glycine, K a,COOH and K a,NH4+, have been determined at temperatures as high as 250°C. Values for the standard partial molar heat capacity of ionization, Δ rC po, COOH and Δ rC po, NH4+, have been determined from the temperature dependence of ln (K a,COOH) and ln (K a,NH4+). The methodology has been validated by measuring the ionization constant of acetic acid up to 250°C, with results that agree with literature values obtained by potentiometric measurements to within the combined experimental uncertainty. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Dr. Donald Irish (1932-2002) of the University of Waterloo—friend and former supervisor of two of the authors (R.J.B. and P.R.T.).

  14. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients: Sodium chloride 8.82 grams, potassium phosphate 4.20 grams, citric acid anhydrous 0.5 gram, potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  15. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients: Sodium chloride 8.82 grams, potassium phosphate 4.20 grams, citric acid anhydrous 0.5 gram, potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  16. Estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the placenta mesotherapy has been widely used to treat menopause. Placenta contains amino acids, peptides, minerals, and estrogen. Here, we investigated the estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine (a main ingredient of placenta) in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause. We assessed the effect of glycine on MG-63 osteoblast cell line, MCF-7 estrogen-dependent cell line, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Glycine significantly increased the MG-63 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase were increased by glycine in MG-63 cells. Glycine also increased the BrdU-incorporation and Ki-67 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Glycine induced the up-regulation of estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression and estrogen-response element-luciferase activity in MG-63 and MCF-7 cells. In OVX mice, glycine was administered orally at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks. Glycine resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. Meanwhile, vaginal weight reduced by ovariectomy was increased by glycine. Glycine significantly increased the ALP activity in OVX mice. MicroCT-analysis showed that glycine significantly enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density in OVX mice. Moreover, glycine significantly increased the serum 17β-estradiol levels reduced by ovariectomy. Glycine has an estrogen-like osteoprotective effect in menopause models. Therefore, we suggest that glycine may be useful for the treatment of menopause. PMID:26563333

  17. Combustion synthesis of Ni Zn ferrite powder—influence of oxygen balance value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chyi-Ching; Tsai, Jih-Sheng; Huang, Ting-Han; Peng, Cheng-Hsiung; Chen, San-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 powder was synthesized via an exothermic reaction between nitrates [Ni(NO 3) 2·6H 2O, Zn(NO 3) 2·6H 2O, Fe(NO 3) 3·9H 2O, and NH 4NO 3] and glycine [NH 2CH 2COOH]. By adjusting the glycine-to-nitrates ratio, the oxygen balance (OB) values of the reactant mixtures can be varied in which the combustion phenomena is altered and thereby the as-synthesized products with different characteristics are obtained. An interpretation based on the measurement of maximum combustion temperature ( Tc) and the amounts of gas evolved during reaction for various OB values has been proposed regarding the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as-synthesized products. After instrumental analyses, it is shown that the as-synthesized powders are nanoscale crystallites with a large specific surface area and they inherit a superparamagnetic behavior.

  18. Time-Domain TeraHertz Spectroscopy and Observational Probes of Prebiotic Interstellar Gas and Ice Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Brett Andrew

    Understanding the origin of life on Earth has long fascinated the minds of the global community, and has been a driving factor in interdisciplinary research for centuries. Beyond the pioneering work of Darwin, perhaps the most widely known study in the last century is that of Miller & Urey, who examined the possibility of the formation of prebiotic chemical precursors on the primordial Earth. More recent studies have shown that amino acids, the chemical building blocks of the biopolymers that comprise life as we know it on Earth, are present in meteoritic samples, and that the molecules extracted from the meteorites display isotopic signatures indicative of an extraterrestrial origin. The most recent major discovery in this area has been the detection of glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, in pristine cometary samples returned by the NASA STARDUST mission. Indeed, the open questions left by these discoveries, both in the public and scientific communities, hold such fascination that NASA has designated the understanding of our "Cosmic Origins" as a key mission priority. Despite these exciting discoveries, our understanding of the chemical and physical pathways to the formation of prebiotic molecules is woefully incomplete. This is largely because we do not yet fully understand how the interplay between grain-surface and sub-surface ice reactions and the gasphase affects astrophysical chemical evolution, and our knowledge of chemical inventories in these regions is incomplete. The research presented here aims to directly address both these issues, so that future work to understand the formation of prebiotic molecules has a solid foundation from which to work. From an observational standpoint, a dedicated campaign to identify hydroxylamine (NH2OH), potentially a direct precursor to glycine, in the gas-phase was undertaken. No trace of NH2OH was found. These observations motivated a refinement of the chemical models of glycine formation, and have largely

  19. Alpha-amylase from germinating soybean (Glycine max) seeds--purification, characterization and sequential similarity of conserved and catalytic amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Arpana; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Fitter, Jörg; Polen, Tino; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Starch hydrolyzing amylase from germinated soybeans seeds (Glycine max) has been purified 400-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity with a final specific activity of 384 units/mg. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein band of 100 kDa, whereas molecular mass was determined to be 84 kDa by MALDI-TOF and gel filtration on Superdex-200 (FPLC). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.5 and a pI value of 4.85. The energy of activation was determined to be 6.09 kcal/mol in the temperature range 25-85 degrees C. Apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)((app))) for starch was 0.71 mg/mL and turnover number (k(cat)) was 280 s(-1) in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. Thermal inactivation studies at 85 degrees C showed first-order kinetics with rate constant (k) equal to 0.0063 min(-1). Soybean alpha-amylase showed high specificity for its primary substrate starch. High similarity of soybean alpha-amylase with known amylases suggests that this alpha-amylase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 13. Cereal alpha-amylases have gained importance due to their compatibility for biotechnological applications. Wide availability and easy purification protocol make soybean as an attractive alternative for plant alpha-amylase. Soybean can be used as commercially viable source of alpha-amylase for various industrial applications. PMID:20655076

  20. Determination of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine, and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid in Food Products Containing Cyanobacteria by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Glover, W Broc; Baker, Teesha C; Murch, Susan J; Brown, Paula N

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was completed for the determination of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG), and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) in bulk natural health product supplements purchased from a health food store in Canada. BMAA and its isomers were extracted with acid hydrolysis to free analytes from protein association. Acid was removed with the residue evaporated to dryness and reconstituted with derivatization using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AccQ-Fluor). Chromatographic separation and detection were achieved using RP ultra-performance LC coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Data from biological samples were evaluated for precision and accuracy across different days to ensure repeatability. Accuracy was assessed by spike recovery of biological samples using varying amino acid concentrations, with an average recovery across all samples of 108.6%. The analytical range was found to be 764-0.746 ng/mL prior to derivatization, thereby providing a linear range compatible with potentially widely varying analyte concentrations in commercial health food products. Both the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U. S. Pharmacopeia definitions were evaluated for determining method limits, with the FDA approach found to be most suitable having an LOD of 0.187 ng/mL and LLOQ of 0.746 ng/mL. BMAA in the collected specimens was detected at concentrations lower than 1 μg/g, while AEG and DAB were found at concentrations as high as 100 μg/g. Finding these analytes, even at low concentrations, has potential public health significance and suggests a need to screen such products prior to distribution. The method described provides a rapid, accurate, and precise method to facilitate that screening process. PMID:26651568

  1. Mode of Action of Glycine on the Biosynthesis of Peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, W.; Schleifer, K. H.; Kandler, O.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism of glycine action in growth inhibition was studied on eight different species of bacteria of various genera representing the four most common peptidoglycan types. To inhibit the growth of the different organisms to 80%, glycine concentrations from 0.05 to 1.33 M had to be applied. The inhibited cells showed morphological aberrations. It has been demonstrated that glycine is incorporated into the nucleotide-activated peptidoglycan precursors. The amount of incorporated glycine was equivalent to the decrease in the amount of alanine. With one exception glycine is also incorporated into the peptidoglycan. Studies on the primary structure of both the peptidoglycan precursors and the corresponding peptidoglycan have revealed that glycine can replace l-alanine in position 1 and d-alanine residues in positions 4 and 5 of the peptide subunit. Replacement of l-alanine in position 1 of the peptide subunit together with an accumulation of uridine diphosphate-muramic acid (UDP-MurNAc), indicating an inhibition of the UDP-MurNAc:l-Ala ligase, has been found in three bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum). However, discrimination against precursors with glycine in position 1 in peptidoglycan synthesis has been observed only in S. aureus. Replacement of d-alanine residues was most common. It occurred in the peptidoglycan with one exception in all strains studied. In Corynebacterium sp., C. callunae, L. plantarum, and L. cellobiosus most of the d-alanine replacing glycine occurs C-terminal in position 4, and in C. insidiosum and S. aureus glycine is found C-terminal in position 5. It is suggested that the modified peptidoglycan precursors are accumulated by being poor substrates for some of the enzymes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. Two mechanisms leading to a more loosely cross-linked peptidoglycan and to morphological changes of the cells are considered. First, the accumulation of glycine-containing precursors may lead to

  2. Glycine metabolism in rat kidney cortex slices.

    PubMed

    Rowsell, E V; Al-Naama, M M; Rowsell, K V

    1982-04-15

    When rat kidney cortex slices were incubated with glycine or [1-14C]glycine, after correcting for metabolite changes with control slices, product formation and glycine utilization fitted the requirements of the equation: 2 Glycine leads to ammonia + CO2 + serine. Evidence is presented that degradation via glyoxylate, by oxidation or transamination, is unlikely to have any significant role in kidney glycine catabolism. It is concluded that glycine metabolism in rat kidney is largely via glycine cleavage closely coupled with serine formation. 1-C decarboxylation and urea formation with glycine in rat hepatocyte suspensions were somewhat greater than decarboxylation or ammonia formation in kidney slices, showing that in the rat, potentially, the liver is quantitatively the more important organ in glycine catabolism. There was no evidence of ammonia formation from glycine with rat brain cortex, heart, spleen or diaphragm and 1-C decarboxylation was very weak. PMID:6810880

  3. Analytical continuation in coupling constant method; application to the calculation of resonance energies and widths for organic molecules: Glycine, alanine and valine and dimer of formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, P.; Matejčík, Š.; Mach, P.; Urban, J.; Paidarová, I.; Horáček, J.

    2013-06-01

    The method of analytic continuation in the coupling constant (ACCC) in combination with use of the statistical Padé approximation is applied to the determination of resonance energy and width of some amino acids and formic acid dimer. Standard quantum chemistry codes provide accurate data which can be used for analytic continuation in the coupling constant to obtain the resonance energy and width of organic molecules with a good accuracy. The obtained results are compared with the existing experimental ones.

  4. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  5. Assessment of Fatty Acid Profile and Seed Mineral Nutrients of Two Soybean (Glycine max L.) Cultivars Under Elevated Ultraviolet-B: Role of ROS, Pigments and Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Krishna Kumar; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Current scenarios under global climate change envisage a considerable increase in ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation in near future which may affect the productivity and yield quality of major agricultural crops. Present investigation was conducted to examine various defense strategies adopted against elevated UV-B (ambient + 7.2 kJ m-(2) day-(1) ) and their impact on seed nutrients, content and quality of oil including fatty acid profile of two soybean cultivars (JS-335 and PS-1042). Elevated UV-B (eUV-B) exposure leads toward higher unsaturation of fatty acids and changes in other oil quality parameters (acid, iodine and saponification value) indicated that eUV-B favored the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids with fewer carboxylic acid groups, making the oil rancid, with undesirable flavor and low nutritional value. The effect was more severe in JS-335 as compared to PS-1042. Negative effects were also seen on nutrients of soybean seeds. Adverse effects resulted due to insufficient quenching of ROS (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) by the defense system and thus unable to overcome the imposed oxidative stress. Credit of better performance by PS-1042 against eUV-B may be given to the adoption of efficient defense strategies like higher wax deposition, increase in lignin and flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) contents. PMID:26489397

  6. Integrin αvβ3 as a Promising Target to Image Neoangiogenesis Using In-House Generator-Produced Positron Emitter (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA-Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD) Ligand.

    PubMed

    Vatsa, Rakhee; Bhusari, Priya; Kumar, Sunil; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh; Singh, Gurpreet; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Shukla, Jaya; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-06-01

    For the growth and spread of a tumor beyond 2 mm, angiogenesis plays a crucial role, and association of various integrins with angiogenesis is evidential. The aim of the study was radiolabeling of DOTA-chelated RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptide with (68)Ga for PET imaging in locally advanced breast carcinoma. DOTA-RGD was incubated with (68)GaCl3, eluted in 0.05 m HCl. Elution volume, peptide amount, and reaction pH were studied. Radio-ITLC, gas chromatography, endotoxin, and sterility testing were performed. Serial (n=3) and whole-body (n=2) PET/CT imaging was done on patients post i.v. injection of 111-185 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD. Maximum radiolabeling yield was achieved with 3 mL elution volume of 15-20 μg peptide at pH 3.5-4.0 with 10 minutes of incubation at 95°C. Product samples were sterile having 99.5% radiochemical purity with residual ethanol content and endotoxins in injectable limits. Intense radiotracer uptake was noticed in the tumor with SUVmax 15.3 at 45 minutes in serial images. Physiological radiotracer uptake was seen in the liver, spleen, ventricles, and thyroid with excretion through the kidneys. The authors concluded that (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD has the potential for imaging α,vβ3 integrin-expressing tumors. PMID:26083951

  7. Growth enhancing effect of exogenous glycine and characterization of its uptake in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Bualuang, Aporn; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-02-01

    Alkaliphilic halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica showed optimal growth in the medium containing 0.5 M NaCl. The increase of exogenously added glycine to the medium up to 10 mM significantly promoted cell growth under both normal (0.5 M NaCl) and salt stress (2.0 M NaCl) conditions. Salt stress imposed by either 2.0 or 3.0 M NaCl retarded cell growth; however, exogenously added glycine at 10 mM concentration to salt-stress medium resulted in the reduction of growth inhibition particularly under 3.0 M NaCl condition. The uptake of glycine by intact A. halophytica was shown to exhibit saturation kinetics with an apparent K s of 160 μM and V max of 3.9 nmol/min/mg protein. The optimal pH for glycine uptake was at pH 8.0. The uptake activity was decreased in the presence of high concentration of NaCl. Both metabolic inhibitors and ionophores decreased glycine uptake in A. halophytica suggesting an energy-dependent glycine uptake. Several neutral amino acids showed considerable inhibition of glycine uptake with higher than 50 % inhibition observed with serine, cysteine and alanine whereas acidic, basic and aromatic amino acids showed only slight inhibition of glycine uptake. PMID:25536900

  8. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  9. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  10. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-05-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the catabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formation from (1-/sup 14/C)- and (2-/sup 14/C)glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate.

  11. Felbamate increases [3H]glycine binding in rat brain and sections of human postmortem brain.

    PubMed

    McCabe, R T; Sofia, R D; Layer, R T; Leiner, K A; Faull, R L; Narang, N; Wamsley, J K

    1998-08-01

    The anticonvulsant compound felbamate (2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; FBM) appears to inhibit the function of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex through an interaction with the strychnine-insensitive glycine recognition site. Since we have demonstrated previously that FBM inhibits the binding of [3H]5, 7-dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), a competitive antagonist at the glycine site, we assessed the ability of FBM to modulate the binding of an agonist, [3H]glycine, to rat forebrain membranes and human brain sections. In contrast to its ability to inhibit [3H]5,7-DCKA binding, FBM increased [3H]glycine binding (20 nM; EC50 = 485 microM; Emax = 211% of control; nH = 1.8). FBM, but not carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid or phenobarbital, also increased [3H]glycine binding (50 nM; EC50 = 142 microM; Emax = 157% of control; nH = 1.6) in human cortex sections. Autoradiographic analysis of human brain slices demonstrated that FBM produced the largest increases in [3H]glycine binding in the cortex, hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Because various ions can influence the binding of glycine-site ligands, we assessed their effects on FBM-modulation of [3H]glycine binding. FBM-enhanced [3H]glycine binding was attenuated by Zn++ and not inhibited by Mg++ in human brain. These results suggest that FBM increases [3H]glycine binding in a manner sensitive to ions which modulate the NMDA receptor. These data support the hypothesis that FBM produces anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting NMDA receptor function, likely through an allosteric modulation of the glycine site. PMID:9694960

  12. Quest for Cells Responsible for Age-related Increase of Salivary Glycine and Proline.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Horie, Norio; Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shoji; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that salivary glycine and proline levels are increased to nearly butanoate level in elderly people. In order to identify the source of glycine and proline, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of amino acid production to a total of seven oral cells before and after stimulation with inflammation inducers. We found that production of amino acids (per a given number of cells) by normal oral mesenchymal cells (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell, periodontal ligament fibroblast) was approximately three-fold that of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22), and that production of glycine and especially proline by all these seven cells was much lower than that of glutamine and glutamic acid. Treatment of three oral mesenchymal cells with interleukin (IL)-1β or lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) reproducibly increased the production of glutamic acid and glutamine, but not that of glycine and proline. Glycine and proline only marginally stimulated the IL-8 production by IL-1β-stimulated gingival fibroblast, whereas glycine dose-dependently inhibited the nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. These data demonstrated that normal oral mesenchymal cells are not the major source of glycine and proline that accumulates in the saliva of aged people, suggesting the involvement of the deregulation of collagen metabolism during aging. PMID:26912818

  13. Association study of polymorphisms in the neutral amino acid transporter genes SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and the glycine transporter genes SLC6A5, SLC6A9 with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiangdong; Sagata, Noriaki; Takeuchi, Naoko; Tanaka, Masami; Ninomiya, Hideaki; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Shibata, Hiroki; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on the glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis for schizophrenia pathogenesis, we have been performing systematic association studies of schizophrenia with the genes involved in glutametergic transmission. We report here association studies of schizophrenia with SLC1A4, SLC1A5 encoding neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1, ASCT2, and SLC6A5, SLC6A9 encoding glycine transporters GLYT2, GLYT1, respectively. Methods We initially tested the association of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed in the four gene regions with schizophrenia using 100 Japanese cases-control pairs and examined allele, genotype and haplotype association with schizophrenia. The observed nominal significance were examined in the full-size samples (400 cases and 420 controls). Results We observed nominally significant single-marker associations with schizophrenia in SNP2 (P = 0.021) and SNP3 (P = 0.029) of SLC1A4, SNP1 (P = 0.009) and SNP2 (P = 0.022) of SLC6A5. We also observed nominally significant haplotype associations with schizophrenia in the combinations of SNP2-SNP7 (P = 0.037) of SLC1A4 and SNP1-SNP4 (P = 0.043) of SLC6A5. We examined all of the nominal significance in the Full-size Sample Set, except one haplotype with insufficient LD. The significant association of SNP1 of SLC6A5 with schizophrenia was confirmed in the Full-size Sample Set (P = 0.018). Conclusion We concluded that at least one susceptibility locus for schizophrenia may be located within or nearby SLC6A5, whereas SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and SLC6A9 are unlikely to be major susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in the Japanese population. PMID:18638388

  14. Glycine modulates membrane potential, cell volume, and phagocytosis in murine microglia.

    PubMed

    Komm, Barbara; Beyreis, Marlena; Kittl, Michael; Jakab, Martin; Ritter, Markus; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-01

    Phagocytes form engulfment pseudopodia at the contact area with their target particle by a process resembling cell volume (CV) regulatory mechanisms. We evaluated whether the osmoregulatory active neutral amino acid glycine, which contributes to CV regulation via activation of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) improves phagocytosis in isotonic and hypertonic conditions in the murine microglial cell line BV-2 and primary microglial cells (pMG). In BV-2 cells and pMG, RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of SNATs (Slc38a1, Slc38a2), but not of GlyRs (Glra1-4). In BV-2 cells, glycine (5 mM) led to a rapid Na(+)-dependent depolarization of membrane potential (V mem). Furthermore, glycine increased CV by about 9%. Visualizing of phagocytosis of polystyrene microspheres by scanning electron microscopy revealed that glycine (1 mM) increased the number of BV-2 cells containing at least one microsphere by about 13%. Glycine-dependent increase in phagocytosis was suppressed by the SNAT inhibitor α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB), by replacing extracellular Na(+) with choline, and under hypertonic conditions, but not by the GlyR antagonist strychnine or the GlyR agonist taurine. Interestingly, hypertonicity-induced suppression of phagocytosis was rescued by glycine. These findings demonstrate that glycine increases phagocytosis in iso- and hypertonic conditions by activation of SNATs. PMID:24760586

  15. A THREE-PHASE CHEMICAL MODEL OF HOT CORES: THE FORMATION OF GLYCINE

    SciTech Connect

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures {approx}40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, occurring at {approx}200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH{sub 2}, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  16. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-05-01

    Two different mutations were found in two unrelated probands with lethal chondrodysplasias, one with achondrogenesis type II and the other with the less severe phenotype of hypochondrogenesis. The mutations in the COL2A1 gene were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA followed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing and restriction site analysis. The proband with achondrogenesis type II had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted aspartate for glycine at position 310 of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II procollagen. The proband with hypochondrogenesis had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted serine for glycine at position 805. Type II collagen extracted from cartilage from the probands demonstrated the presence of type I collagen and a delayed electrophoretic mobility, indicating post-translational overmodifications. Analysis of CNBr peptides showed that, in proband 1, the entire peptides were overmodified. Examination of chondrocytes cultured in agarose or alginate indicated that there was a delayed secretion of type II procollagen. In addition, type II collagen synthesized by cartilage fragments from the probands demonstrated a decreased thermal stability. The melting temperature of the type II collagen containing the aspartate-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 4 degrees C, and that of the collagen containing the serine-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 2 degrees C. Electron microscopy of the extracellular matrix from the chondrocyte cultures showed a decreased density of matrix and the presence of unusually short and thin fibrils. Our results indicate that glycine substitutions in the N-terminal region of the type II collagen molecule can produce more severe phenotypes than mutations in the C-terminal region. The aspartate-for-glycine substitution at position 310, which was associated with defective secretion and a probable increased degradation of collagen, is the most destabilizing

  17. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-01-01

    Two different mutations were found in two unrelated probands with lethal chondrodysplasias, one with achondrogenesis type II and the other with the less severe phenotype of hypochondrogenesis. The mutations in the COL2A1 gene were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA followed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing and restriction site analysis. The proband with achondrogenesis type II had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted aspartate for glycine at position 310 of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II procollagen. The proband with hypochondrogenesis had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted serine for glycine at position 805. Type II collagen extracted from cartilage from the probands demonstrated the presence of type I collagen and a delayed electrophoretic mobility, indicating post-translational overmodifications. Analysis of CNBr peptides showed that, in proband 1, the entire peptides were overmodified. Examination of chondrocytes cultured in agarose or alginate indicated that there was a delayed secretion of type II procollagen. In addition, type II collagen synthesized by cartilage fragments from the probands demonstrated a decreased thermal stability. The melting temperature of the type II collagen containing the aspartate-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 4 degrees C, and that of the collagen containing the serine-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 2 degrees C. Electron microscopy of the extracellular matrix from the chondrocyte cultures showed a decreased density of matrix and the presence of unusually short and thin fibrils. Our results indicate that glycine substitutions in the N-terminal region of the type II collagen molecule can produce more severe phenotypes than mutations in the C-terminal region. The aspartate-for-glycine substitution at position 310, which was associated with defective secretion and a probable increased degradation of collagen, is the most destabilizing

  18. Modulation of inhibitory glycine receptors in cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons by zinc, thiol containing redox agents and carnosine.

    PubMed

    Thio, L L; Zhang, H X

    2006-01-01

    Modulation of inhibitory glycine receptors by zinc (Zn(2+)) and endogenous redox agents such as glutathione may alter inhibition in the mammalian brain. Despite the abundance of Zn(2+) in the hippocampus and its ability to modulate glycine receptors, few studies have examined Zn(2+) modulation of hippocampal glycine receptors. Whether redox agents modulate hippocampal glycine receptors also remains unknown. This study examined Zn(2+) and redox modulation of glycine receptor-mediated currents in cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons using whole-cell recordings. Zn(2+) concentrations below 10 microM potentiated currents elicited by low glycine, beta-alanine, and taurine concentrations by 300-400%. Zn(2+) concentrations above 300 microM produced nearly complete inhibition. Potentiating Zn(2+) concentrations shifted the dose-response curves for the three agonists to the left and decreased the Hill coefficient for glycine and beta-alanine but not taurine. Inhibiting Zn(2+) concentrations shifted the dose-response curves for glycine and beta-alanine to the right but reduced the maximum taurine response. Histidine residues may participate in potentiation because diethyl pyrocarbonate and pH 5.4 diminished Zn(2+) enhancement of glycine currents. pH 5.4 diminished Zn(2+) block of glycine currents, but diethyl pyrocarbonate did not. These findings indicate that separate sites mediate Zn(2+) potentiation and inhibition. The redox agents glutathione, dithiothreitol, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) did not alter glycine currents by a redox mechanism. However, glutathione and dithiothreitol interfered with the effects of Zn(2+) on glycine currents by chelating it. Carnosine had similar effects. Thus, Zn(2+) and thiol containing redox agents that chelate Zn(2+) modulate hippocampal glycine receptors with the mechanism of Zn(2+) modulation being agonist dependent. PMID:16515845

  19. Electrophysiological Signature of Homomeric and Heteromeric Glycine Receptor Channels.

    PubMed

    Raltschev, Constanze; Hetsch, Florian; Winkelmann, Aline; Meier, Jochen C; Semtner, Marcus

    2016-08-19

    Glycine receptors are chloride-permeable, ligand-gated ion channels and contribute to the inhibition of neuronal firing in the central nervous system or to facilitation of neurotransmitter release if expressed at presynaptic sites. Recent structure-function studies have provided detailed insights into the mechanisms of channel gating, desensitization, and ion permeation. However, most of the work has focused only on comparing a few isoforms, and among studies, different cellular expression systems were used. Here, we performed a series of experiments using recombinantly expressed homomeric and heteromeric glycine receptor channels, including their splice variants, in the same cellular expression system to investigate and compare their electrophysiological properties. Our data show that the current-voltage relationships of homomeric channels formed by the α2 or α3 subunits change upon receptor desensitization from a linear to an inwardly rectifying shape, in contrast to their heteromeric counterparts. The results demonstrate that inward rectification depends on a single amino acid (Ala(254)) at the inner pore mouth of the channels and is closely linked to chloride permeation. We also show that the current-voltage relationships of glycine-evoked currents in primary hippocampal neurons are inwardly rectifying upon desensitization. Thus, the alanine residue Ala(254) determines voltage-dependent rectification upon receptor desensitization and reveals a physio-molecular signature of homomeric glycine receptor channels, which provides unprecedented opportunities for the identification of these channels at the single cell level. PMID:27382060

  20. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C–C{sub α} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  1. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH_2^+ fragment.

  2. About the detectability of glycine in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattelais, M.; Pauzat, F.; Pilmé, J.; Ellinger, Y.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Glycine, the simplest of aminoacids, has been found in several carbonaceous meteorites. It remains unclear, however, wether glycine is formed in the interstellar medium (ISM) and therefore available everywhere in the Universe. For this reason, radioastronomers have searched for many years unsuccessfully to detect glycine in the ISM. Aims: We provide possible guidelines to optimize the return of these searches. Since, for most of the species observed so far in the ISM, the most abundant isomer of a given generic chemical formula is the most stable one (minimum energy principle (MEP)), we assess whether neutral glycine is the best molecule to search for or whether one of its isomers/conformers or ionic, protonated, or zwitterionic derivatives would have a higher probability of being detected. Methods: The question of the relative stability of these different species is addressed by means of quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations within the hybrid B3LYP formalism. Each fully optimized structure is verified as a stationary point by means of a vibrational analysis. A comprehensive screening of 32 isomers/conformers of the C2H5O2N chemical formula (neutral, negative, and positive ions together with the corresponding protonated species and the possible zwitterionic structures) is carried out. In the sensitive case of the neutral compounds, more accurate relative energies were obtained by means of high level post Hartree-Fock coupled cluster calculations with large basis sets (CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ). Results: We find that neutral glycine is not the most stable isomer and, therefore, probably not the most abundant one, which might explain why it has escaped detection so far. We find instead that N-methyl carbamic acid and methyl carbamate are the two most stable isomers and, therefore, probably the two most abundant ones. Among the non-neutral forms, we found that glycine is the most stable isomer only if protonated or zwitterionic if present in interstellar

  3. Activation-induced structural change in the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; Takahashi, Hirohide; Srivats, Shyam; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the response of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor to activation. • GluN1 and GluN3A subunits interacted within transfected cells. • The GluN1/GluN3A receptor was functionally active. • Glycine or D-serine caused a ∼1 nm height reduction in bilayer-integrated receptors. • This height reduction was abolished by the glycine antagonist DCKA. - Abstract: Unlike GluN2-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which require both glycine and glutamate for activation, receptors composed of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits are activated by glycine alone. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to examine the response to activation of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor. GluN1 and GluN3A subunits were shown to interact intimately within transfected tsA 201 cells. Isolated GluN1/GluN3A receptors integrated into lipid bilayers responded to addition of either glycine or D-serine, but not glutamate, with a ∼1 nm reduction in height of the extracellular domain. The height reduction in response to glycine was abolished by the glycine antagonist 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid. Our results represent the first demonstration of the effect of activation on the conformation of this receptor.

  4. Determination of glycine in biofluid by hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and its application to the quantification of glycine released by embryonal carcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya-Bin; Teng, Lin; Sun, Fan; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Peng, Liang; Cui, Yong-Yao; Hu, Jin-Jia; Luan, Xin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2012-09-15

    Because glycine plays a prominent role in living creatures, an accurate and precise quantitative analysis method for the compound is needed. Herein, a new approach to analyze glycine by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. This method avoids the use of derivatization and/or ion-pairing reagents. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is used as the internal standard (IS). The mobile phase for the isocratic elution consisted of 10 mM ammonium formate in acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v, adjusted to pH 2.8 with formic acid), and a flow rate of 250 μL/min was used. Two microliters of sample was injected for analysis. The signal was monitored in the positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The total run time was 5 min. The dynamic range was 40-2000 ng/mL for glycine in the biological matrix. The LLOQ (lower limit of quantification) of this method was 40 ng/mL (80 pg on column). The validated method was applied to determine the dynamic release of glycine from P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells (ECSCs). Glycine spontaneously released from the ECSCs into the intercellular space gradually increased from 331.02±60.36 ng/mL at 2 min in the beginning to 963.52±283.80 ng/mL at 60 min and 948.27±235.09 ng/mL at 120 min, finally reaching a plateau, indicating that ECSCs consecutively release glycine until achieving equilibration between the release and the reuptake of the compound; on the contrary, the negative control NIH/3T3 embryonic fibroblast cells did not release glycine. This finding will help to improve our understanding of the novel effects of neurotransmitters, including glycine, on non-neural systems. PMID:22906796

  5. Ionic conductivity, sintering and thermal expansion behaviors of mixed ion conductor BaZr 0.1Ce 0.7Y 0.1Yb 0.1O 3- δ prepared by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid assisted glycine nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoliang; Liu, Limin; Zhen, Jiangman; Zhu, Shengcai; Li, Baowen; Sun, Kening; Wang, Peng

    BaZr 0.1Ce 0.7Y 0.1Yb 0.1O 3- δ as a candidate electrolyte material is prepared by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid assisted glycine-nitrate process. After calcining at 900 °C, the single-phase perovskite is obtained due to the better distribution of starting materials and the more feasible reaction kinetic conditions than solid state reaction method. The relative densities reach 96.8 and 98.4% respectively after sintering the pressed pellets at 1280 and 1400 °C for 10 h. In humidified oxygen the ionic conductivities are 0.015, 0.045, 0.101 and 0.207 S cm -1 at 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C, respectively. In air and humidified oxygen the activation energies for ionic conductivity are 66.1 and 68.9 kJ mol -1. In humidified hydrogen, however, different activation energies occur in low and high temperature ranges. The thermal expansion curve inflections at 500-800 °C with respect to possible phase changes are found. Zirconia aggregation possibly results in the higher activation energy and peculiar thermal expansion behavior. The results indicate the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid assisted glycine-nitrate process is a very promising preparation method for solid oxide fuel cell practical application.

  6. Glycine transporter 1 is a target for the treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Ying; van Vliet, Erwin A; Bright, Kerry-Ann; Hanthorn, Marissa; Lytle, Nikki K; Gorter, Jan; Aronica, Eleonora; Boison, Detlev

    2015-12-01

    Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brainstem and spinal cord, whereas in hippocampus glycine exerts dual modulatory roles on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and on the strychnine-insensitive glycineB site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). In hippocampus, the synaptic availability of glycine is largely under control of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). Since epilepsy is a disorder of disrupted network homeostasis affecting the equilibrium of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, we hypothesized that changes in hippocampal GlyT1 expression and resulting disruption of glycine homeostasis might be implicated in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Using two different rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)--the intrahippocampal kainic acid model of TLE in mice, and the rat model of tetanic stimulation-induced TLE--we first demonstrated robust overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation, suggesting dysfunctional glycine signaling in epilepsy. Overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation was corroborated in human TLE samples by quantitative real time PCR. In support of a role of dysfunctional glycine signaling in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, both the genetic deletion of GlyT1 in hippocampus and the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109 increased seizure thresholds in mice. Importantly, chronic seizures in the mouse model of TLE were robustly suppressed by systemic administration of the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109. We conclude that GlyT1 overexpression in the epileptic brain constitutes a new target for therapeutic intervention, and that GlyT1 inhibitors constitute a new class of antiictogenic drugs. These findings are of translational value since GlyT1 inhibitors are already in clinical development to treat cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26302655

  7. Theoretical model of the interaction of glycine with hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC).

    PubMed

    Timón, Vicente; Gálvez, Óscar; Maté, Belén; Tanarro, Isabel; Herrero, Víctor J; Escribano, Rafael

    2015-11-21

    A theoretical model of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) is developed and applied to study the interaction of glycine with HAC surfaces at astronomical temperatures. Two models with different H content are tried for the HAC surface. The theory is applied at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level, including a semiempirical dispersion correlation potential, d-DFT or Grimme DFT-D2. The level of theory is tested on glycine adsorption on a Si(001) surface. Crystalline glycine is also studied in its two stable phases, α and β, and the metastable γ phase. For the adsorption on Si or HAC surfaces, molecular glycine is introduced in the neutral and zwitterionic forms, and the most stable configurations are searched. All theoretical predictions are checked against experimental observations. HAC films are prepared by plasma enhanced vapor deposition at room temperature. Glycine is deposited at 20 K into a high vacuum, cold temperature chamber, to simulate astronomical conditions. Adsorption takes place through the acidic group COO(-) and when several glycine molecules are present, they form H-bond chains among them. Comparison between experiments and predictions suggests that a possible way to improve the theoretical model would require the introduction of aliphatic chains or a polycyclic aromatic core. The lack of previous models to study the interaction of amino-acids with HAC surfaces provides a motivation for this work. PMID:26456640

  8. 75 FR 62141 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... glycine from China (60 FR 16116). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... from China (65 FR 45752). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective... glycine from China (70 FR 69316). The Commission is now conducting a third review to determine...

  9. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycine. 172.812 Section 172.812 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The...

  10. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glycine. 172.812 Section 172.812 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The...

  11. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycine. 172.812 Section 172.812 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The...

  12. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycine. 172.812 Section 172.812 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The...

  13. Dissociation of gaseous zwitterion glycine-betaine by slow electrons.

    PubMed

    Kopyra, J; Abdoul-Carime, H

    2010-05-28

    In this work, we investigate dissociation processes induced by low-energy electrons to gas phase N,N,N-trimethylglycine [glycine-betaine, (CH(3))(3)N(+)CH(2)COO(-)] molecules. Glycine-betaine represents a model system for zwitterions. All negative fragments are observed to be produced only at subelectronic excitation energies (<4 eV). With the exception of the loss of a neutral H atom that could arise from any C[Single Bond]H bond breaking, we tentatively suggest that the zwitterion dissociates exclusively from the fragmentation of the cation site of the molecule, subsequent to the attachment of the excess electron. Within the context of radiation induced damage to biological systems, the present findings contribute to a more complete description of the fragmentation mechanism occurring to amino acids, peptides, and proteins since they adopt usually a zwitterion structure. PMID:20515090

  14. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  15. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  16. The pathways for the removal of acrylamide in model systems using glycine based on the identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Fang; Man, Yong; Dong, Jing; Hu, Xiaosong

    2011-09-15

    The reaction between acrylamide and glycine was studied in the aqueous model system heated at 150°C. The main reaction products were identified as C5H10N2O3, C8H15N3O4, C7H12N2O5 and C10H17N3O6 using HPLC-MS/MS, IT-TOF and NMR. Both of the critical intermediates were identified as glyoxylic acid and iminodiacetic acid. The pathways for the removal of acrylamide by glycine were proposed as the Michael addition between acrylamide and glycine with or without the initial oxidation of glycine. The changes in the contents of reactants and products provided quantitative evidence for the above pathways. The addition products between acrylamide and other 14 amino acids were identified by HPLC-MS/MS also. PMID:25212154

  17. Effects of pH and surface pressure on morphology of glycine crystals formed beneath the phospholipid Langmuir monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Ying-Di; Xiao, Fei; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Li, Hong-Ying; Huang, Wei; Feng, Xu-Sheng; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2005-11-01

    Ordered molecular monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were used as templates to induce the nucleation and growth of glycine crystals. It was found that α-glycine crystals were formed under the DPPC monolayers regardless of pH values of the aqueous supersaturated glycine solutions. The morphologies and orientations of the glycine crystals varied with pH of the solutions and surface pressures of the monolayers. When acidic and neutral aqueous supersaturated glycine solutions were used as subphases, the glycine crystals are plate-like habit with an elongated (0 1 0) crystal face preferentially oriented parallel to the plane of the monolayers; when basic solutions were used, the crystals are pyramidal habit. At surface pressures below 25 mN/m at the beginning of crystallization, plate-like α-glycine crystals were formed from the neutral solution; while at higher surface pressures, such as 35 and 40 mN/m, prismatic crystals were formed. The morphology of the glycine crystals can be tuned by changing the experimental conditions.

  18. Microbial Community Responses to Glycine Addition in Kansas Prairie Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottos, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; White, R. A., III; Brislawn, C.; Fansler, S.; Kim, Y. M.; Metz, T. O.; McCue, L. A.; Jansson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding our abilities to unravel aspects of microbial community structure and function in complex systems like soil; however, characterizing the highly diverse communities is problematic, due primarily to challenges in data analysis. To tackle this problem, we aimed to constrain the microbial diversity in a soil by enriching for particular functional groups within a community through addition of "trigger substrates". Such trigger substrates, characterized by low molecular weight, readily soluble and diffusible in soil solution, representative of soil organic matter derivatives, would also be rapidly degradable. A relatively small energy investment to maintain the cell in a state of metabolic alertness for such substrates would be a better evolutionary strategy and presumably select for a cohort of microorganisms with the energetics and cellular machinery for utilization and growth. We chose glycine, a free amino acid (AA) known to have short turnover times (in the range of hours) in soil. As such, AAs are a good source of nitrogen and easily degradable, and can serve as building blocks for microbial proteins and other biomass components. We hypothesized that the addition of glycine as a trigger substrate will decrease microbial diversity and evenness, as taxa capable of metabolizing it are enriched in relation to those that are not. We tested this hypothesis by incubating three Kansas native prairie soils with glycine for 24 hours at 21 degree Celsius, and measured community level responses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Preliminary evaluation of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed minor changes in bacterial community composition in response to glycine addition. We will also present data on functional gene abundance and expression. The results of these analyses will be useful in designing sequencing strategies aimed at dissecting and deciphering complex microbial communities.

  19. Glycine improves biochemical and biomechanical properties following inflammation of the achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cristiano Pedrozo; De Oliveira, Letícia Prado; Da Ré Guerra, Flávia; Dos Santos De Almeida, Marcos; Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes; Pimentel, Edson Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon is a clinical problem that motivates the scientific community to search for treatments that assist in restoring its functional properties. Glycine has broad biological effects, acting as a modulator of the inflammatory cascade, and is the predominant amino acid in collagen. A 5% glycine diet provided beneficial effects against toxicity and inflammation since glycine may restructure the collagen molecules faster due to its broad anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose was analyze the effects of a 5% glycine diet in rats as a treatment for the inflammatory process. The experimental groups were as follows: C (control group), G1 and G3 (inflammatory group), and G2 and G4 (glycine+inflammatory group). G1 and G2 were euthanized 8 days following injury, and G3 and G4 were euthanized 22 days following injury. The concentrations of hydroxyproline, non-collagenous proteins, and glycosaminoglycans, as well as the activity of MMP-2 and -9 were analyzed. Biomechanical and morphological tests were employed. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycans were found in G4 and an increased activity of MMP-2 was found in G2. Higher birefringence was noted in group G2. The biomechanical results indicated that the tendon was more resistant to loading to rupture upon treatment with a glycine diet in group G4. Glycine induced the synthesis of important components of the tendon. A rapid remodeling was noted when compared with the inflamed-only groups. These data suggest that glycine may be a beneficial supplement for individuals with inflammation of the Achilles tendon. PMID:25156668

  20. GABA and glycine in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    GABA and glycine are major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS and act on receptors coupled to chloride channels. During early developmental periods, both GABA and glycine depolarize membrane potentials due to the relatively high intracellular Cl(-) concentration. Therefore, they can act as excitatory neurotransmitters. GABA and glycine are involved in spontaneous neural network activities in the immature CNS such as giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in neonatal hippocampal neurons, which are generated by the synchronous activity of GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic principal neurons. GDPs and GDP-like activities in the developing brains are thought to be important for the activity-dependent functiogenesis through Ca(2+) influx and/or other intracellular signaling pathways activated by depolarization or stimulation of metabotropic receptors. However, if GABA and glycine do not shift from excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmitters at the birth and in maturation, it may result in neural disorders including autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26951057

  1. A Didactic Experience of Statistical Analysis for the Determination of Glycine in a Nonaqueous Medium Using ANOVA and a Computer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Delgado, M. J.; Larrea-Tarruella, L.

    2004-01-01

    The back-titration methods are compared statistically to establish glycine in a nonaqueous medium of acetic acid. Important variations in the mean values of glycine are observed due to the interaction effects between the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique and a statistical study through a computer software.

  2. Standard thermodynamic functions of complex formation between Cu2+ and glycine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Heat effects of the interaction of copper(II) solutions with aminoacetic acid (glycine) are measured by the direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 against a background of potassium nitrate. Standard enthalpy values for reactions of the formation of aminoacetic acid copper complexes in aqueous solutions are obtained using an equation with a single individual parameter by extrapolating it to zero ionic strength. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of complex formation in the Cu2+-glycine system are calculated. It is shown that glycine-like coordination is most likely in Cu(II) complexes with L-asparagine, L-glutamine, and L-valine.

  3. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series. PMID:4009614

  4. Survivability and reactivity of glycine and alanine in early oceans: effects of meteorite impacts.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Yuhei; Fukunaga, Nao; Sekine, Toshimori; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Nakazawa, Hiromoto

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotic oceans might have contained abundant amino acids, and were subjected to meteorite impacts, especially during the late heavy bombardment. It is so far unknown how meteorite impacts affected amino acids in the early oceans. Impact experiments were performed under the conditions where glycine was synthesized from carbon, ammonia, and water, using aqueous solutions containing (13)C-labeled glycine and alanine. Selected amino acids and amines in samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In particular, the (13)C-labeled reaction products were analyzed to distinguish between run products and contaminants. The results revealed that both amino acids survived partially in the early ocean through meteorite impacts, that part of glycine changed into alanine, and that large amounts of methylamine and ethylamine were formed. Fast decarboxylation was confirmed to occur during such impact processes. Furthermore, the formation of n-butylamine, detected only in the samples recovered from the solutions with additional nitrogen and carbon sources of ammonia and benzene, suggests that chemical reactions to form new biomolecules can proceed through marine impacts. Methylamine and ethylamine from glycine and alanine increased considerably in the presence of hematite rather than olivine under similar impact conditions. These results also suggest that amino acids present in early oceans can contribute further to impact-induced reactions, implying that impact energy plays a potential role in the prebiotic formation of various biomolecules, although the reactions are complicated and depend upon the chemical environments as well. PMID:26369758

  5. Utilization of glycine and serine as nitrogen sources in the roots of Zea mays and Chamaegigas intrepidus.

    PubMed

    Hartung, W; Ratcliffe, R G

    2002-12-01

    Glycine and serine are potential sources of nitrogen for the aquatic resurrection plant Chamaegigas intrepidus Dinter in the rock pools that provide its natural habitat. The pathways by which these amino acids might be utilized were investigated by incubating C. intrepidus roots and maize (Zea mays) root tips with [(15)N]glycine, [(15)N]serine and [2-(13)C]glycine. The metabolic fate of the label was followed using in vivo NMR spectroscopy, and the results were consistent with the involvement of the glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) in the utilization of glycine. In contrast, the labelling patterns provided no evidence for the involvement of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in the metabolism of glycine by the root tissues. The key observations were: (i) the release of [(15)N]ammonium during [(15)N]-labelling experiments; and (ii) the detection of a characteristic set of serine isotopomers in the [2-(13)C]glycine experiments. The effects of aminoacetonitrile, amino-oxyacetate, and isonicotinic acid hydrazide, all of which inhibit GDC and SHMT to some extent, and of methionine sulphoximine, which inhibited the reassimilation of the ammonium, supported the conclusion that GDC and SHMT were essential for the metabolism of glycine. C. intrepidus was observed to metabolize serine more readily than the maize root tips and this may be an adaptation to its nitrogen-deficient habitat. Overall, the results support the emerging view that GDC is an essential component of glycine catabolism in non-photosynthetic tissues. PMID:12432023

  6. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  7. Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P.; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H.-M.; Vandenberghe, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs available for detailed study. Four patients also had high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (>1000 U/ml), and one had high voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody (2442 pM). Seven patients with very low titres (<1:50) and unknown or alternative diagnoses were excluded from further study. Three of the remaining 45 patients had newly-identified thymomas and one had a lymphoma. Thirty-three patients were classified as progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus, and two as stiff person syndrome; five had a limbic encephalitis or epileptic encephalopathy, two had brainstem features mainly, two had demyelinating optic neuropathies and one had an unclear diagnosis. Four patients (9%) died during the acute disease, but most showed marked improvement with immunotherapies. At most recent follow-up, (2–7 years, median 3 years, since first antibody detection), the median modified Rankin scale scores (excluding the four deaths) decreased from 5 at maximal severity to 1 (P < 0.0001), but relapses have occurred in five patients and a proportion are on reducing steroids or other maintenance immunotherapies as well as symptomatic treatments. The glycine receptor antibodies activated complement on glycine receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells at room temperature, and caused internalization and lysosomal degradation of the glycine receptors at 37°C. Immunoglobulin G antibodies bound to rodent spinal cord and brainstem co-localizing with

  8. Kinetic determinants of agonist action at the recombinant human glycine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Trevor M; Schofield, Peter R; McClellan, Annette M L

    2003-01-01

    The amino acids glycine, β-alanine and taurine are all endogenous agonists of the glycine receptor. In this study, a combination of rapid agonist application onto macropatches and steady-state single-channel recordings was used to compare the actions of glycine, β-alanine and taurine upon homomeric α1 human glycine receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. The 10–90 % rise times determined from rapid application of 100 μm of each agonist were indistinguishable, indicating each agonist has a similar association rate. At saturating concentrations (30 mm) the rise time for glycine (0.26 ms) was 1.8-fold faster than that for β-alanine (0.47 ms) and 3.9-fold faster than that for taurine (1.01 ms), indicating clear differences in the maximum opening rate between agonists. The relaxation following rapid removal of agonist was fitted with a single exponential for β-alanine (3.0 ms) and taurine (2.2 ms), and two exponential components for glycine with a weighted mean time constant of 27.1 ms. This was consistent with differences in dissociation rates estimated from analysis of bursts, with taurine > β-alanine > glycine. Exponential fits to the open period distributions gave time constants that did not differ between agonists and the geometric distribution for the number of openings per burst indicated that all three agonists had a significant component of single-opening bursts. Based upon these data, we propose a kinetic scheme with three independent open states, where the opening rates are dependent upon the activating agonist, while the closing rates are an intrinsic characteristic of the receptor. PMID:12679369

  9. Kinetic study of carbon dioxide absorption into glycine promoted diethanolamine (DEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Lily; Susianto, Altway, Ali; IC, Maria Hestia; Arsi, Kartika

    2015-12-01

    In industry, especially petrochemical, oil and natural gas industry, required separation process of CO2 gas which is a corrosive gas (acid gas). This characteristic can damage the plant utility and piping systems as well as reducing the caloric value of natural gas. Corrosive characteristic of CO2 will appear in areas where there is a decrease in temperature and pressure, such as at the elbow pipe, tubing, cooler and injector turbine. From disadvantages as described above, then it is important to do separation process in the CO2 gas stream, one of the method for remove CO2 from the gas stream is reactive absorption using alkanolamine based solution with promotor. Therefore, this study is done to determine the kinetics constant of CO2 absorption in diethanolamine (DEA) solution using a glycine promoter. Glycine is chosen as a promoter because glycine is a primary amine compound which is reactive, moreover, glycine has resistance to high temperatures so it will not easy to degradable and suitable for application in industry. The method used in this study is absorption using laboratory scale wetted wall column equipment at atmospheric of pressure. This study will to provide the reaction kinetics data information in order to optimize the separation process of CO2 in the industrialized world. The experimental results show that rising temperatures from 303,15 - 328,15 K and the increase of concentration of glycine from 1% - 3% weight will increase the absorption rate of carbon dioxide in DEA promoted with glycine by 24,2% and 59,764% respectively, also the reaction kinetic constant is 1.419 × 1012 exp (-3634/T) (m3/kmol.s). This result show that the addition of glycine as a promoter can increase absorption rate of carbon dioxide in diethanolamine solution and cover the weaknesses of diethanolamine solution.

  10. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current. PMID:26730381

  11. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current. PMID:26730381

  12. Chemical basis of glycine riboswitch cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Miyun; Strobel, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The glycine binding riboswitch forms a unique tandem aptamer structure that binds glycine cooperatively. We employed nucleotide analog interference mapping (NAIM) and mutagenesis to explore the chemical basis of glycine riboswitch cooperativity. Based on the interference pattern, at least two sites appear to facilitate cooperative tertiary interactions, namely, the minor groove of the P1 helix from aptamer 1 and the major groove of the P3a helix from both aptamers. Mutation of these residues altered both the cooperativity and binding affinity of the riboswitch. The data support a model in which the P1 helix of the first aptamer participates in a tertiary interaction important for cooperativity, while nucleotides in the P1 helix of the second aptamer interface with the expression platform. These data have direct analogy to well-characterized mutations in hemoglobin, which provides a framework for considering cooperativity in this RNA-based system. PMID:18042658

  13. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Mouse Glycine N-acyltransferase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Daniel R.; Bond, Jason D.; Carpenter, Anne-Marie; Ospina, Santiago Rodriguez; Merkler, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT) is a phase II metabolic detoxification enzyme for exogenous (xenobiotic) and endogenous carboxylic acids; consisting of fatty acids, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid. GLYAT catalyzes the formation of hippurate (N-benzoylglycine) from the corresponding glycine and benzoyl-CoA. Herein, we report the successful expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant mouse GLYAT (mGLYAT). A 34 kDa mGLYAT protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity chromatography to a final yield of 2.5 mg/L culture. Characterization for both amino donors and amino acceptors were completed, with glycine serving as the best amino donor substrate, (kcat/Km)app = (5.2 ± 0.20) × 102M−1s−1, and benzoyl-CoA serving as the best the amino acceptor substrate, (kcat/Km)app = (4.5 ± 0.27) × 105M−1s−1. Our data demonstrate that mGLYAT will catalyzed the chain length specific (C2-C6) formation of N-acylglycines. The steady-state kinetic constants determined for recombinant mGLYAT for the substrates benzoyl-CoA and glycine, were shown to be consistent with other reported species (rat, human, bovine, ovine, and rhesus monkey). The successful recombinant expression and purification of mGLYAT can lead to solve unanswered questions associated with this enzyme, consisting of what is the chemical mechanism and what catalytic residues are essential for the how this phase II metabolic detoxification enzyme conjugates glycine to xenobiotic and endogenous carboxylic acids. PMID:24576660

  14. Expression of heteromeric glycine receptor-channels in rat spinal cultures and inhibition by neuroactive steroids.

    PubMed

    Fodor, László; Boros, András; Dezso, Péter; Maksay, Gábor

    2006-11-01

    Ionotropic glycine receptors were studied in cultured spinal cord neurons prepared from 17-day-old rat embryos, using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Glycine receptors of 3-17 days in vitro were characterized via subtype-specific channel blockade by micromolar picrotoxin and cyanotriphenylborate, as well as nanomolar strychnine. Potentiation by nanomolar tropisetron indicated coexpression of beta with alpha subunits. The neuroactive steroids pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, as well as alphaxalone and its 3beta epimer betaxalone inhibited the chloride current with IC(50) values of 19, 46, 16 and 208 microM, respectively, with no potentiation. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry demonstrated mRNAs and proteins of alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 and beta subunits in rat spinal cord cultures. In conclusion, neuroactive steroids, both positive and negative modulators of gamma-aminobutyric-acid(A) receptors, inhibited heteromeric glycine receptors at micromolar concentrations. PMID:16784797

  15. Glycine as a regulator of tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Barchmann, Thorsten; Hort, Wiebke; Krämer, Hans-Joachim; Mayser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the addition of different amino nitrogens on growth, morphology and secondary metabolism of Malassezia furfur were investigated. After primary culture on Dixon agar, M. furfur CBS 1878 was transferred into a fluid medium together with the nitrogen sources, glycine (Gly) or tryptophan (Trp), or a combination of both. Growth was measured by means of a direct cell counting method and pigment synthesis was photometrically assessed. Addition of glycine resulted in an exponential increase in biomass, but not in pigment production. Tryptophan as the sole nitrogen source caused distinct brown staining of the medium, without increasing biomass. Simultaneous equimolar addition of both amino acids resulted in an initial increase in biomass as a sign of preferential metabolism of glycine, followed by a growth plateau and pigment production which, caused by higher biomass, occurred more rapidly than after addition of tryptophan alone. The yeast-cell morphology changed from round to oval. Addition of glycine to the tryptophan-containing liquid culture stopped pigment formation with simultaneous growth induction. These in vitro on-off phenomena depending on the nitrogen source might be significant in the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor: hyperhidrosis followed by preferential consumption of individual nitrogen sources such as glycine with exponential growth and thereafter transamination of tryptophan and TRP-dependent pigment synthesis. PMID:19702622

  16. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-01

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:18930730

  17. Synchrotron x-ray photoemission study of soft x-ray processed ultrathin glycine-water ice films

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetkov, George; Netzer, Falko P.

    2011-05-28

    Ultrathin glycine-water ice films have been prepared in ultrahigh vacuum by condensation of H{sub 2}O and glycine at 90 K on single crystalline alumina surfaces and processed by soft x-ray (610 eV) exposure for up to 60 min. The physicochemical changes in the films were monitored using synchrotron x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Two films with different amounts of H{sub 2}O have been considered in order to evaluate the influence of the water ice content on the radiation-induced effects. The analysis of C1s, N1s, and O1s spectral regions together with the changes in the valence band spectra indicates that amino acid degradation occurs fast mainly via decarboxylation and deamination of pristine molecules. Enrichment of the x-ray exposed surfaces with fragments with carbon atoms without strong electronegative substituents (C-C and C-H) is documented as well. In the thinner glycine-water ice film (six layers of glycine + six layers of water) the 3D ice suffers strongly from the x-rays and is largely removed from the sample. The rate of photodecomposition of glycine in this film is about 30% higher than for glycine in the thicker film (6 layers of glycine + 60 layers of water). The photoemission results suggest that the destruction of amino acid molecules is caused by the direct interaction with the radiation and that no chemical attack of glycine by the species released by water radiolysis is detected.

  18. Glycine restores the anabolic response to leucine in a mouse model of acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ham, Daniel J; Caldow, Marissa K; Chhen, Victoria; Chee, Annabel; Wang, Xuemin; Proud, Christopher G; Lynch, Gordon S; Koopman, René

    2016-06-01

    Amino acids, especially leucine, potently stimulate protein synthesis and reduce protein breakdown in healthy skeletal muscle and as a result have received considerable attention as potential treatments for muscle wasting. However, the normal anabolic response to amino acids is impaired during muscle-wasting conditions. Although the exact mechanisms of this anabolic resistance are unclear, inflammation and ROS are believed to play a central role. The nonessential amino acid glycine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and preserves muscle mass in calorie-restricted and tumor-bearing mice. We hypothesized that glycine would restore the normal muscle anabolic response to amino acids under inflammatory conditions. Relative rates of basal and leucine-stimulated protein synthesis were measured using SUnSET methodology 4 h after an injection of 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas leucine failed to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in LPS-treated mice pretreated with l-alanine (isonitrogenous control), leucine robustly stimulated protein synthesis (+51%) in mice pretreated with 1 g/kg glycine. The improvement in leucine-stimulated protein synthesis was accompanied by a higher phosphorylation status of mTOR, S6, and 4E-BP1 compared with l-alanine-treated controls. Despite its known anti-inflammatory action in inflammatory cells, glycine did not alter the skeletal muscle inflammatory response to LPS in vivo or in vitro but markedly reduced DHE staining intensity, a marker of oxidative stress, in muscle cross-sections and attenuated LPS-induced wasting in C2C12 myotubes. Our observations in male C57BL/6 mice suggest that glycine may represent a promising nutritional intervention for the attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting. PMID:27094036

  19. Effects of glycine and proline on the calcium activation properties of skinned muscle fibre segments from crayfish and rat.

    PubMed

    Powney, E L; West, J M; Stephenson, D G; Dooley, P C

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the polar amino acid glycine (20 mmol l(-1)) and the non-polar amino acid proline (20 mmol l(-1)) on Ca(2+)-activated contraction have been examined in four types of striated muscle fibres. Single fibres dissected from the claw muscle of a crustacean (long- and short-sarcomere) and the hindlimb muscles of the rat (slow-twitch from soleus and fast-twitch from extensor digitorum longus) were activated in matched solutions that either contained the amino acid ('test') or not ('control'). The steady-state force produced in these solutions was used to determine the relation between force production and pCa (-log10[Ca2+]). The results show that in the concentrations used, glycine and proline had only small effects on the maximum Ca(2+)-activated force, pCa corresponding to 10, 50 and 90% maximum force (pCa10, pCa50, pCa90, respectively) or on the slope of the force-pCa curves in the four different fibre types. The relative lack of effects of glycine and proline on contractile activation would confer a distinct physiological advantage to force production of muscle of Cherax, where the concentrations of glycine and proline vary considerably. Finally, the results show that glycine and proline may be useful to balance control solutions when the effects of other amino acids or zwitterions on contractile activation are examined. PMID:14677649

  20. GcsR, a TyrR-Like Enhancer-Binding Protein, Regulates Expression of the Glycine Cleavage System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Zaara; Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Grassa, Michael T.; Wang, Michael X.; Gribble, Megan; Moffat, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycine serves as a major source of single carbon units for biochemical reactions within bacterial cells. Utilization of glycine is tightly regulated and revolves around a key group of proteins known as the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Our lab previously identified the transcriptional regulator GcsR (PA2449) as being required for catabolism of glycine in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In an effort to clarify and have an overall better understanding of the role of GcsR in glycine metabolism, a combination of transcriptome sequencing and electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to identify target genes of this transcriptional regulator. It was found that GcsR binds to an 18-bp consensus sequence (TGTAACG-N4-CGTTCCG) upstream of the gcs2 operon, consisting of the gcvH2, gcvP2, glyA2, sdaA, and gcvT2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes, namely, the GCS (GcvH2-GcvP2-GcvT2), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA2), and serine dehydratase (SdaA), form a metabolic pathway for the conversion of glycine into pyruvate, which can enter the central metabolism. GcsR activates transcription of the gcs2 operon in response to glycine. Interestingly, GcsR belongs to a family of transcriptional regulators known as TyrR-like enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs). Until this study, TyrR-like EBPs were only known to function in regulating aromatic amino acid metabolism. GcsR is the founding member of a new class of TyrR-like EBPs that function in the regulation of glycine metabolism. Indeed, homologs of GcsR and its target genes are present in almost all sequenced genomes of the Pseudomonadales order, suggesting that this genetic regulatory mechanism is a common theme for pseudomonads. IMPORTANCE Glycine is required for various cellular functions, including cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. Regulating levels of glycine metabolism allows P. aeruginosa to maintain the metabolic flux

  1. A rare case of glycine encephalopathy unveiled by valproate therapy.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Velusamy; Kadiyala, Pramila; Hariharan, Praveen; Neeraj, E

    2015-01-01

    Glycine encephalopathy (GE) or nonketotic hyperglycinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a primary defect in glycine cleavage enzyme system. It is characterized by elevated levels of glycine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid usually presenting with seizures, hypotonia, and developmental delay. In our case, paradoxical increase in seizure frequency on starting sodium valproate led us to diagnose GE. PMID:26167219

  2. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  3. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES... food additive glycine may be safely used for technological purposes in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex,...

  4. Engineering and characterization of fluorogenic glycine riboswitches

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Simon; Gladis, Lukas; Kozica, Adnan; Meier, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A set of 12 fluorogenic glycine riboswitches with different thermodynamic and kinetic response properties was engineered. For the design of functional riboswitches, a three-part RNA approach was applied based on the idea of linking a RNA sensor, transmitter and actuator part together. For the RNA sensor and actuator part, we used the tandem glycine aptamer structure from Bacillus subtillis, and fluorogenic aptamer Spinach, respectively. To achieve optimal signal transduction from the sensor to the actuator, a riboswitch library with variable transmitter was screened with a microfluidic large-scale integration chip. This allowed us to establish the complete thermodynamic binding profiles of the riboswitch library. Glycine dissociation constants of the 12 strong fluorescence response riboswitches varied between 99.7 and 570 μM. Furthermore, the kinetic glycine binding (kon), and dissociation (koff) rates, and corresponding energy barriers of the 10 strongest fluorescence response riboswitches were determined with the same chip platform. kon and koff were in the order of 10−3s−1 and 10−2s−1, respectively. Conclusively, we demonstrate that systematic screening of synthetic and natural linked RNA parts with microfluidic chip technology is an effective approach to rapidly generate fluorogenic metabolite riboswitches with a broad range of biophysical response properties. PMID:27220466

  5. Engineering and characterization of fluorogenic glycine riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Ketterer, Simon; Gladis, Lukas; Kozica, Adnan; Meier, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    A set of 12 fluorogenic glycine riboswitches with different thermodynamic and kinetic response properties was engineered. For the design of functional riboswitches, a three-part RNA approach was applied based on the idea of linking a RNA sensor, transmitter and actuator part together. For the RNA sensor and actuator part, we used the tandem glycine aptamer structure from Bacillus subtillis, and fluorogenic aptamer Spinach, respectively. To achieve optimal signal transduction from the sensor to the actuator, a riboswitch library with variable transmitter was screened with a microfluidic large-scale integration chip. This allowed us to establish the complete thermodynamic binding profiles of the riboswitch library. Glycine dissociation constants of the 12 strong fluorescence response riboswitches varied between 99.7 and 570 μM. Furthermore, the kinetic glycine binding (k(on)), and dissociation (k(off)) rates, and corresponding energy barriers of the 10 strongest fluorescence response riboswitches were determined with the same chip platform. k(on) and k(off) were in the order of 10(-3)s(-1) and 10(-2)s(-1), respectively. Conclusively, we demonstrate that systematic screening of synthetic and natural linked RNA parts with microfluidic chip technology is an effective approach to rapidly generate fluorogenic metabolite riboswitches with a broad range of biophysical response properties. PMID:27220466

  6. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  7. Glycine Betaine Biosynthesized from Glycine Provides an Osmolyte for Cell Growth and Spore Germination during Osmotic Stress in Myxococcus xanthus▿

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Kawasaki, Shinji; Yoshimoto, Hinae; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Glycine sarcosine methyltransferase (Gsm) and sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase (Sdm) catalyze glycine betaine synthesis from glycine. Disruption of the M. xanthus gsmA (MXAN 7068) or sdmA (MXAN 3190) gene, encoding Gsm or Sdm homologue proteins, respectively, generated mutants that exhibited a longer lag period of growth and delayed spore germination under osmostress. PMID:20023011

  8. Sorption of Cu(II) complexes with ligands tartrate, glycine and quadrol by chitosan.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, Ona; Binkiene, Rima; Butkiene, Rita

    2009-11-15

    The sorption by chitosan in Cu(II) solutions containing tartrate, glycine (amino acetic acid) and quadrol (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) as ligands has been investigated. The degree of sorbate removal strongly depends on pH. In solutions containing tartrate almost complete sorption of both Cu(II) and tartrate proceeds in mildly acidic and neutral solutions. The sorption of Cu(II) is also complete in alkaline solutions containing glycine; meanwhile a substantial sorption of glycine proceeds at pH approximately 6. The Cu(II) sorption in solutions containing quadrol is insignificant. Any sorption of quadrol does not proceed in the whole range of pH investigated. The investigations under equilibrium conditions showed that the Cu(II) sorption from tartrate containing solutions obeys Freundlich equation and in solutions containing glycine and quadrol it fits Langmuir equation. Supposedly, Cu(II) sorption onto chitosan proceeds with formation of amino complexes onto the surface of chitosan; the sorption of tartrate proceeds as electrostatic as well as with formation of amide bonds. Applying of electrolysis enables a complete removal of sorbed Cu(II) and ligands without changes in physical and chemical properties of chitosan. This is confirmed by sorption ability of regenerated chitosan, measurements of its molecular weight, the deacetylation degree and FT-IR spectra. PMID:19540041

  9. Bioinformatics analysis of the serine and glycine pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Maria; Minieri, Marilena; Melino, Gerry; Amelio, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    Serine and glycine are amino acids that provide the essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Employing 3 subsequent enzymes, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH), phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), 3-phosphoglycerate from glycolysis can be converted in serine, which in turn can by converted in glycine by serine methyl transferase (SHMT). Besides proving precursors for macromolecules, serine/glycine biosynthesis is also required for the maintenance of cellular redox state. Therefore, this metabolic pathway has a pivotal role in proliferating cells, including cancer cells. In the last few years an emerging literature provides genetic and functional evidences that hyperactivation of serine/glycine biosynthetic pathway drives tumorigenesis. Here, we extend these observations performing a bioinformatics analysis using public cancer datasets. Our analysis highlighted the relevance of PHGDH and SHMT2 expression as prognostic factor for breast cancer, revealing a substantial ability of these enzymes to predict patient survival outcome. However analyzing patient datasets of lung cancer our analysis reveled that some other enzymes of the pathways, rather than PHGDH, might be associated to prognosis. Although these observations require further investigations they might suggest a selective requirement of some enzymes in specific cancer types, recommending more cautions in the development of novel translational opportunities and biomarker identification of human cancers. PMID:25436979

  10. Thermal formation of methylammonium methylcarbamate in interstellar ice analogs: a glycine salt precursor under VUV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvernay, Fabrice; Borget, Fabien; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Theule, Patrice; Dhendecourt, Louis; Chiavassa, Thierry

    Dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM) play an important role in dense molecular clouds chemistry of providing a surface (catalyst) upon which atoms and molecules can freeze out, forming icy mantles. Dense molecular clouds are characterized by low temperature (10 -50 K) and represent the birth sites of stars. After a gravitationnal breakdown, a part of the dense molecular cloud collapses toward the formation of star and subsequently a protoplanetary disk from which planets, asteroids and comets will appear. During this evolution, interstellar or-ganic material inside ices undergoes different range of chemical alterations (thermal cycling process, ultraviolet photons, electron scattering and cosmic rays irradiation) hence increasing the molecular complexity before their incorporation inside precometary ices. To date, it is supposed that comets could have delivered to the early Earth the organic materials essential to a prebiotic chemistry, one of the prerequisites toward the origin of living systems. The for-mation of prebiotical molecules such as the simplest amino acids (glycine) is proposed in this current study mainly based on laboratory experiments simulating the chemistry occuring on ices within protostellar environments. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy are used to monitor the thermal formation of glycine isomer form: the methylammonium methylcarbamate [CH3NH3+][CH3NHCOO-] in interstellar ice analogs made up of two astrophysical relevant molecules: carbon dioxide (CO2) and methylamine (CH3NH2). Using infrared spectroscopy, we study the photochemical behaviour of a pure sample of methylammonium methylcarbamate under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) field. We show that a glycine isomer salt could readily enter into the composition of ices in colder region of protostellar environments. Upon ultraviolet irra-diation, this latter can undergo an isomerization process induced by photons yielding a glycine salt: the methylammonium glycinate [CH3NH3+][NH2CH2

  11. Activation of glycine receptor phase-shifts the circadian rhythm in neuronal activity in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mordel, Jérôme; Karnas, Diana; Inyushkin, Alexey; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Meissl, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In mammals, the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is composed of numerous synchronized oscillating cells that drive daily behavioural and physiological processes. Several entrainment pathways, afferent inputs to the SCN with their neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, can reset the circadian system regularly and also modulate neuronal activity within the SCN. In the present study, we investigated the function of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine on neuronal activity in the mouse SCN and on resetting of the circadian clock. The effects of glycine on the electrical activity of SCN cells from C57Bl/6 mice were studied either by patch-clamp recordings from acute brain slices or by long-term recordings from organotypic brain slices using multi-microelectrode arrays (MEA). Voltage-clamp recordings confirmed the existence of glycine-induced, chloride-selective currents in SCN neurons. These currents were reversibly suppressed by strychnine, phenylbenzene ω-phosphono-α-amino acid (PMBA) or ginkgolide B, selective blockers of glycine receptors (GlyRs). Long-term recordings of the spontaneous activity of SCN neurons revealed that glycine application induces a phase advance during the subjective day and a phase delay during the early subjective night. Both effects were suppressed by strychnine or by PMBA. These results suggest that glycine is able to modulate circadian activity by acting directly on its specific receptors in SCN neurons. PMID:21486797

  12. Activation of glycine receptor phase-shifts the circadian rhythm in neuronal activity in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Mordel, Jérôme; Karnas, Diana; Inyushkin, Alexey; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Meissl, Hilmar

    2011-05-01

    In mammals, the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is composed of numerous synchronized oscillating cells that drive daily behavioural and physiological processes. Several entrainment pathways, afferent inputs to the SCN with their neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, can reset the circadian system regularly and also modulate neuronal activity within the SCN. In the present study, we investigated the function of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine on neuronal activity in the mouse SCN and on resetting of the circadian clock. The effects of glycine on the electrical activity of SCN cells from C57Bl/6 mice were studied either by patch-clamp recordings from acute brain slices or by long-term recordings from organotypic brain slices using multi-microelectrode arrays(MEA). Voltage-clamp recordings confirmed the existence of glycine-induced, chloride-selective currents in SCN neurons. These currents were reversibly suppressed by strychnine, phenylbenzeneω-phosphono-α-amino acid (PMBA) or ginkgolide B, selective blockers of glycine receptors(GlyRs). Long-term recordings of the spontaneous activity of SCN neurons revealed that glycine application induces a phase advance during the subjective day and a phase delay during the early subjective night. Both effects were suppressed by strychnine or by PMBA. These results suggest that glycine is able to modulate circadian activity by acting directly on its specific receptors in SCN neurons. PMID:21486797

  13. STRUCTURES AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STARCH FROM IMMATURE SEEDS OF SOYBEAN VARIETIES (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.) EXHIBITING NORMAL, LOW-LINOLENIC OR LOW-SATURATED FATTY ACID OIL PROFILES AT MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean variety exhibiting at maturity, normal (NM), low-linolenic (LL) or low-saturate (LS) fatty acid seed oil composition had starch structure and functional properties studied from seeds collected 20 days prior to harvest. Soybean starch had small granules (0.4-4.5 micrometers diameter), and CB...

  14. THE AMPHOTERIC PROPERTIES OF SOME AMINO-ACIDS AND PEPTIDES.

    PubMed

    Eckweiler, H; Noyes, H M; Falk, K G

    1921-01-20

    The titration curves of solutions of glycine, alanine, alpha-ammo-butyric acid, leucine, glycyl-glycine, alanyl-glycine, alanyl-alanine, acetone, acetamide, urea, acetic acid, and aceturic acid were determined and some of the relations as dependent upon the chemical structures discussed. The isoelectric points of some of the amphoteric electrolytes were found experimentally. The definition of isoelectric point, its theoretical significance, and method of calculation were considered in some detail. PMID:19871865

  15. Structure and reaction mechanism of L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase.

    PubMed

    Humm, A; Fritsche, E; Steinbacher, S

    1997-01-01

    L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AT) catalyzes the committed step in creatine biosynthesis by formation of guanidinoacetic acid, the direct precursor of creatine. The X-ray structure of the human enzyme shows a novel fold with fivefold pseudosymmetry of beta beta alphabeta-modules. These modules enclose the active site compartment of the basket-like structure. The active site of AT lies at the bottom of a very narrow channel and contains a catalytic triad with the residues Cys-His-Asp. The transamidination reaction follows a ping-pong mechanism and is accompanied by large conformational changes. During catalysis the amidino group is covalently attached to the active site cysteine to give an amidino-cysteine intermediate. PMID:9165070

  16. Degradation of Glycine and Alanine on Irradiated Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlikowski, Maciej; Benko, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz P.

    2013-04-01

    Recent researches suggest participation of minerals in the formation of life under primordial conditions. Among all of the minerals, quartz seems to be one of the most probable to take part in such processes. However, an external source of energy is needed, e.g. electric discharge. A device simulating the proposed conditions was designed and was used to simulate prebiotic conditions. Investigation of processes occurring during the stimulation of quartz with electric discharge was studied by means of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, in order to monitor the generation kinetics of free radicals. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy was applied to identify chemical reaction products created in a solution of alanine or glycine, in the presence of quartz treated with electric discharge. Formation of increased amounts of free radicals, compared to experiments performed without quartz and/or amino acid, is reported, along with identification of possible degradation products of alanine. No synthetic reactions were observed.

  17. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  18. Further Characterization of Glycine-Containing Microcystins from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Puddick, Jonathan; Prinsep, Michèle R.; Wood, Susanna A.; Cary, Stephen Craig; Hamilton, David P.; Holland, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins are hepatotoxic cyclic peptides produced by several cyanobacterial genera worldwide. In 2008, our research group identified eight new glycine-containing microcystin congeners in two hydro-terrestrial mat samples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. During the present study, high-resolution mass spectrometry, amino acid analysis and micro-scale thiol derivatization were used to further elucidate their structures. The Antarctic microcystin congeners contained the rare substitution of the position-1 d-alanine for glycine, as well as the acetyl desmethyl modification of the position-5 Adda moiety (3S-amino-9S-methoxy-2S,6,8S-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4E,6E-dienoic acid). Amino acid analysis was used to determine the stereochemistry of several of the amino acids and conclusively demonstrated the presence of glycine in the microcystins. A recently developed thiol derivatization technique showed that each microcystin contained dehydrobutyrine in position-7 instead of the commonly observed N-methyl dehydroalanine. PMID:25675414

  19. Iminoglycinuria and hyperglycinuria are discrete human phenotypes resulting from complex mutations in proline and glycine transporters

    PubMed Central

    Bröer, Stefan; Bailey, Charles G.; Kowalczuk, Sonja; Ng, Cynthia; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M.; Rodgers, Helen; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Cavanaugh, Juleen A.; Bröer, Angelika; Rasko, John E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Iminoglycinuria (IG) is an autosomal recessive abnormality of renal transport of glycine and the imino acids proline and hydroxyproline, but the specific genetic defect(s) have not been determined. Similarly, although the related disorder hyperglycinuria (HG) without iminoaciduria has been attributed to heterozygosity of a putative defective glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline transporter, confirming the underlying genetic defect(s) has been difficult. Here we applied a candidate gene sequencing approach in 7 families first identified through newborn IG screening programs. Both inheritance and functional studies identified the gene encoding the proton amino acid transporter SLC36A2 (PAT2) as the major gene responsible for IG in these families, and its inheritance was consistent with a classical semidominant pattern in which 2 inherited nonfunctional alleles conferred the IG phenotype, while 1 nonfunctional allele was sufficient to confer the HG phenotype. Mutations in SLC36A2 that retained residual transport activity resulted in the IG phenotype when combined with mutations in the gene encoding the imino acid transporter SLC6A20 (IMINO). Additional mutations were identified in the genes encoding the putative glycine transporter SLC6A18 (XT2) and the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (B0AT1) in families with either IG or HG, suggesting that mutations in the genes encoding these transporters may also contribute to these phenotypes. In summary, although recognized as apparently simple Mendelian disorders, IG and HG exhibit complex molecular explanations depending on a major gene and accompanying modifier genes. PMID:19033659

  20. Dicationic Surfactants with Glycine Counter Ions for Oligonucleotide Transportation.

    PubMed

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    Gemini surfactants are good candidates to bind, protect, and deliver nucleic acids. Herein, the concept of amino acids (namely glycine) as counter ions of gemini surfactants for gene therapy application was explored. This study was conducted on DNA and RNA oligomers and two quaternary bis-imidazolium salts, having 2,5-dioxahexane and 2,8-dioxanonane spacer groups. The toxicity level of surfactants was assessed by an MTT assay, and their ability to bind nucleic acids was tested through electrophoresis. The nucleic acid conformation was established based on circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The structures of the formed complexes were characterized by small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation. Both studied surfactants appear to be suitable for gene therapy; however, although they vary by only three methylene groups in the spacer, they differ in binding ability and toxicity. The tested oligonucleotides maintained their native conformations upon surfactant addition and the studied lipoplexes formed a variety of structures. In systems based on a 2,5-dioxahexane spacer, a hexagonal phase was observed for DNA-surfactant complexes and a micellar phase was dominant with RNA. For the surfactant with a 2,8-dioxanonane spacer group, the primitive cubic phase prevailed. PMID:27214208

  1. The influence of crystallinity degree on the glycine decomposition induced by 1 MeV proton bombardment in space analog conditions.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Sergio; Mendes, Luiz A V; Bordalo, Vinicius; Guaman, Christian F M; Ponciano, Cássia R; da Silveira, Enio F

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is the simplest proteinaceous amino acid and is present in all life-forms on Earth. In aqueous solutions, it appears mainly as zwitterion glycine (+NH3CH2COO-); however, in solid phase, it may be found in amorphous or crystalline (α, β, and γ) forms. The crystalline forms differ from each other by the packing of zwitterions in the unitary cells and by the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This molecular species has been extensively detected in carbonaceous meteorites and was recently observed in the cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. In space, glycine is exposed to several radiation fields at different temperatures. We present an experimental study on the destruction of zwitterionic glycine crystals at room temperature by 1 MeV protons, in which the dependence of the destruction rates of the α-glycine and β-glycine crystals on bombardment fluence is investigated. The samples were analyzed in situ by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at different proton fluences. The experiments occurred under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at the Van de Graaff accelerator lab at the Pontifical Catholic University at Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Brazil. For low fluences, the dissociation cross section of α-glycine was observed to be 2.5×10(-14) cm2, a value roughly 5 times higher than the dissociation cross section found for β-glycine. The estimated half-lives of α-glycine and β-glycine zwitterionic forms extrapolated to the Earth orbit environment are 9×10(5) and 4×10(6) years, respectively. In the diffuse interstellar medium the estimated values are 1 order of magnitude lower. These results suggest that pristine interstellar β-glycine is the one most likely to survive the hostile environments of space radiation. A small feature around 1650-1700 cm(-1), tentatively attributed to an amide functional group, was observed in the IR spectra of irradiated samples, suggesting that cosmic rays may induce peptide bond synthesis in

  2. Polyamine synthesis in plants. Purification and properties of amidinotransferase from soybean (Glycine max) axes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geun Taek; Kim, Woo Jeung; Cho, Young Dong

    2002-12-01

    Three-day-old soybean (Glycine max) seedlings were exposed to 0.4 M sorbitol solution for 4 h to induce amidinotransferase activity, with the corresponding enzyme being purified to homogeneity by chromatographic separation on DEAE-Sephacel, Sephacryl S-300 and L-arginine Sepharose 4B. The purified enzyme used L-arginine and L-glycine as the major donor/acceptor of the amidino group, respectively, with formation of guanidinoacetic acid and ornithine products being confirmed by ESI-MS. The enzyme is a tetrameric protein having a molecular mass of 240,000 Da, whose thiol group is needed for enzymatic activity. The K(M)s for arginine and glycine were 3.8 and 0.89 mM, respectively, with optimal temperature and pH being 37 degrees C and 9.5, respectively. The soybean amidinotransferase could be indirectly involved in nitrogen metabolism, as suggested by the observation that arginine:glycine amidinotransferase in soybean axes is indirectly involved in putrescine biosynthesis and displays feedback control at high levels of an endogenous regulator, putrescine. PMID:12453570

  3. Effect of Liquid Swine Manure on Hatch and Viability of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianli; Chen, Senyu; Zhu, Jun; Ruan, Weibin

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to determine the effect of raw and anaerobically digested liquid swine manures on the hatch and viability of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode. Anaerobic digestion was performed for 15 and 35 days to enrich volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonium (NH4 +), respectively. All filtrates of the raw, VFA-enriched, and NH4 +-enriched manures at 10−1 to 250−1 dilutions inhibited H. glycines hatch, and the reduction of hatch was increased with increasing concentration of the manure. Cumulative hatch at day 21 was only 2.1% to 3.7% in the 10−1 dilution manures, while the hatch in water was 21% to 27.3%. The high concentrations appeared to be lethal to some eggs. Most second-stage juveniles (J2) of H. glycines were killed when incubated for 8 hours in the manure filtrate at the original concentration (>90% mortality) or for 48 hours at the 64−1 dilution (> 82% mortality). When J2 were treated with the manures at 10−1 to 250−1 dilutions for 4 hours, only the 10−1 dilution of VFA-enriched and raw manures resulted in a lower number of J2 that penetrated soybean roots as compared with lower concentrations. The VFA-enriched manure was the best, raw manure intermediate, and NH4 +-enriched manure the least effective in inhibiting H. glycines hatch and killing eggs and J2. PMID:19259532

  4. Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia coli Viability Loss

    PubMed Central

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  5. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    PubMed

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  6. Glycine: an alternative transmitter candidate of the pallidosubthalamic projection neurons in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, M.; Hattori, T.

    1987-08-22

    Autoradiographic retrograde tracing techniques with radioactive transmitters were used to analyse the identity of a putative transmitter in the rat pallidosubthalamic (GP-STN) pathway. One to 2 hours after the stereotaxic injection of /sup 3/H-glycine restricted to the STN, a large number of neuronal somata were radiolabeled in the GP. No comparable labeling was observed following the injection of /sup 3/H-gamma-aminobutyric acid (/sup 3/H-GABA) into the same nucleus even with survival times as long as 6 hours. Specifically, no significant somatic labeling was detected either in the GP or in the caudoputamen (CPU). Only when /sup 3/H-GABA was injected into the substantia nigra did CPU and GP neurons become labeled. On the contrary, STN neuronal somata were invariably labeled 6 hours after the intrapallidal injection of /sup 3/H-GABA, whereas no perikaryal labeling was observed in the STN after /sup 3/H-glycine injection into the GP. The perikaryal labeling was prevented in all cases by intraventricular administration of colchicine 1 day before the isotope injections. The observations suggest that /sup 3/H-glycine was preferentially transported retrogradely through the GP-STN pathway, and /sup 3/H-GABA through the STN-GP projection. In view of the recent controversy on the role of GABA as a putative transmitter of the GP-STN projection, we now propose glycine as an alternative transmitter candidate of these critically situated neurons in the basal ganglia.

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron(III)-Glycine Formation Constant in Aqueous Medium Using Competitive Ligand Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Rajendra; Prasad, Surendra

    2009-01-01

    The formation constant of iron(III) complex with glycine (Gly) ligand in aqueous acidic medium (0.2 M HNO[subscript 3], I = 0.2 M at 28 plus or minus 1 degree C) was determined spectrophotometrically in which a competing color reaction between Fe(III) and SCN[superscript -] was used as an indicator reaction. Under the specified conditions Fe(III)…

  8. Evaluation of mechanical properties of some glycine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, D.; Raja Shekar, P. V.; Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Rao, K. Kishan; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2014-04-01

    The variation of Vickers hardness with load for (101) glycine zinc chloride (GZC), (001) glycine lithium sulphate (GLS), (001) triglycine sulphate (TGS) and (010) glycine phosphite (GPI) crystals was studied. From the cracks initiated along the corners of the indentation impression, crack lengths were measured and the fracture toughness value and brittle index number were determined. The hardness related parameters viz. yield strength and Young's modulus were also estimated. The anisotropic nature of the crystals was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  9. Evaluation of mechanical properties of some glycine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju, D.; Raja Shekar, P. V.; Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Rao, K. Kishan; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2014-04-24

    The variation of Vickers hardness with load for (101) glycine zinc chloride (GZC), (001) glycine lithium sulphate (GLS), (001) triglycine sulphate (TGS) and (010) glycine phosphite (GPI) crystals was studied. From the cracks initiated along the corners of the indentation impression, crack lengths were measured and the fracture toughness value and brittle index number were determined. The hardness related parameters viz. yield strength and Young’s modulus were also estimated. The anisotropic nature of the crystals was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  10. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  11. Glyphosate resistant and susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine 1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and –susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, 2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism ...

  12. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan; Cui, Jiangkuan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Kong, Lingan; Liu, Shiming; He, Wenting; Hu, Xianqi; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases). In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7). A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7) were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2) and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi). Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi, which suggests

  13. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan; Cui, Jiangkuan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Kong, Lingan; Liu, Shiming; He, Wenting; Hu, Xianqi; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases). In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7). A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7) were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2) and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi). Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi, which suggests

  14. Linear free energy relationship rate constants and basicities of N-substituted phenyl glycines in positronium-glycine complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongti; Liang, Jiachang; Du, Youming; Cao, Chun; Yin, Dinzhen; Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Tianbao

    1987-06-01

    Complex formation between positronium and glycine derivatives in solution is discussed and the complex reaction rate constants obtained by means of a positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer with BaF 2 detectors. Rate constants mainly depend on the conjugation effect at the benzene ring and the induction effect of the substituents at the phenyl. There is a linear free energy relationship between rate constants and basicities of N-substituted phenyl glycines in orthopositronium-glycine complex formation.

  15. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid- and fibrinogen gamma-chain carboxyterminal peptides inhibit platelet adherence to arterial subendothelium at high wall shear rates. An effect dissociable from interference with adhesive protein binding.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J B; Kramer, W S; McKeown, L P; Williams, S B; Gralnick, H R

    1990-01-01

    Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)- and fibrinogen gamma-chain carboxyterminal (GQQHHLGGAKQAGDV) peptides inhibit fibrinogen, fibronectin (Fn), vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding to the platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (GP IIb-IIIa). GP IIb-IIIa, vWF, and Fn are essential for normal platelet adherence to subendothelium. We added peptides to normal citrated whole blood before perfusion over human umbilical artery subendothelium and evaluated platelet adherence morphometrically at high (2,600 s-1) and low (800 s-1) wall shear rates. We also examined the effects of the peptides on platelet adhesion to collagen in a static system. At the high wall shear rate, RGDS and GQQHHLGGAKQAGDV caused dose-dependent reduction in the surface coverage with spread and adherent platelets. Amino acid transposition and conservative substitutions of RGD peptides and the AGDV peptide significantly inhibited platelet adherence at 2,600 s-1. By contrast, the modified RGD peptides and AGDV do not affect adhesive protein binding to platelets. None of the native or modified RGD- or fibrinogen gamma-chain peptides significantly inhibited either platelet adherence to subendothelium at 800 s-1 or platelet adhesion to collagen. Our findings demonstrate that peptides that interfere with adhesive protein binding to GP IIb-IIIa inhibit platelet adherence to vascular subendothelium with flowing blood only at high wall shear rates. Platelet adherence to subendothelium at high wall shear rates appears to be mediated by different recognition specificities from those required for fluid-phase adhesive protein binding or static platelet adhesion. PMID:2243140

  16. Effect of bromide ion on the reaction pathway between hydroxyl radical and glycine.

    PubMed

    Ying, Liwen; Dong, Wenbo; Yuan, Haixia; Liu, Yan; Ma, Luming

    2015-06-01

    Br(-) and nitrogen-containing organic pollutants, such as amino acids, protein, etc., were often detected in water and wastewater treatment plants using advanced oxidation technologies. All these technologies have one common characteristic, that is, the removal processes involve ·OH. Therefore, it is necessary to study the different reaction pathways among ·OH, Br(-), and amino acids. In this research, glycine was chosen as the representative of amino acids and H2O2 was selected as ·OH precursor. Results showed that Br(-) had a shielding effect on [Formula: see text] of α-carbon in glycine, when it was abstracted by ·OH. The main reaction pathway in the system containing Br(-) was the abstraction of H from amino group in glycine by ·OH, contributing 85 % of total abstracted H. This system had a prominent phenomenon of decarboxylation and performed as alkali production dominating. However, in the system not containing Br(-), the main reaction pathway was the abstraction of H from α-carbon in glycine by ·OH, contributing 97 % of total abstracted H. This system performed as acid production dominating. By laser flash photolysis, the second-order rate constants of abstraction of H from both α-carbon and amino group in glycine by ·OH were obtained as (3.3 ± 0.5) × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1) and (8.2 ± 0.8) × 10(8) M(-1)·s(-1), respectively. The second-order rate constants of the reaction between [Formula: see text], HṄCH2COO(-) and H2O2 were (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1) and (4.4 ± 0.3) × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1), respectively. In addition, Br(-) was found to play a catalytic role in the decomposition of H2O2 under UV radiation. The results mentioned above were significant for the application of advanced oxidation technologies for water containing both amino acids and Br(-) in water and wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25548016

  17. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  18. Inhibition of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and endothelial cell damage by l-serine and glycine.

    PubMed

    Sim, Woo-Cheol; Han, Inhoi; Lee, Wonseok; Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Kim, Dong Gwang; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Oh, Seon-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases. The use of vitamins to modulate homocysteine metabolism substantially lowers the risk by reducing plasma homocysteine levels. In this study, we evaluated the effects of l-serine and related amino acids on homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and endothelial cell damage using EA.hy926 human endothelial cells. Homocysteine treatment decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis, which were reversed by cotreatment with l-serine. l-Serine inhibited homocysteine-induced ER stress as verified by decreased glucose-regulated protein 78kDa (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression as well as X-box binding protein 1 (xbp1) mRNA splicing. The effects of l-serine on homocysteine-induced ER stress are not attributed to intracellular homocysteine metabolism, but instead to decreased homocysteine uptake. Glycine exerted effects on homocysteine-induced ER stress, apoptosis, and cell viability that were comparable to those of l-serine. Although glycine did not affect homocysteine uptake or export, coincubation of homocysteine with glycine for 24h reduced the intracellular concentration of homocysteine. Taken together, l-serine and glycine cause homocysteine-induced endothelial cell damage by reducing the level of intracellular homocysteine. l-Serine acts by competitively inhibiting homocysteine uptake in the cells. However, the mechanism(s) by which glycine lowers homocysteine levels are unclear. PMID:27064126

  19. COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE FORMATION OCCURRING AT RADICAL SURFACES OF WATER-ICE DUST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2012-07-20

    Glycine is the simplest amino acid, and due to the significant astrobiological implications that suppose its detection, the search for it in the interstellar medium (ISM), meteorites, and comets is intensively investigated. In the present work, quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory have been used to model the glycine formation on water-ice clusters present in the ISM. The removal of either one H atom or one electron from the water-ice cluster has been considered to simulate the effect of photolytic radiation and of ionizing particles, respectively, which lead to the formation of OH{sup .} radical and H{sub 3}O{sup +} surface defects. The coupling of incoming CO molecules with the surface OH{sup .} radicals on the ice clusters yields the formation of the COOH{sup .} radicals via ZPE-corrected energy barriers and reaction energies of about 4-5 kcal mol{sup -1} and -22 kcal mol{sup -1}, respectively. The COOH{sup .} radicals couple with incoming NH=CH{sub 2} molecules (experimentally detected in the ISM) to form the NHCH{sub 2}COOH{sup .} radical glycine through energy barriers of 12 kcal mol{sup -1}, exceedingly high at ISM cryogenic temperatures. Nonetheless, when H{sub 3}O{sup +} is present, one proton may be barrierless transferred to NH=CH{sub 2} to give NH{sub 2}=CH{sub 2}{sup +}. This latter may react with the COOH{sup .} radical to give the NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH{sup +.} glycine radical cation which can then be transformed into the NH{sub 2}CHC(OH){sub 2}{sup +.} species (the most stable form of glycine in its radical cation state) or into the NH{sub 2}CHCOOH{sup .} neutral radical glycine. Estimated rate constants of these events suggest that they are kinetically feasible at temperatures of 100-200 K, which indicate that their occurrence may take place in hot molecular cores or in comets exposed to warmer regions of solar systems. Present results provide quantum chemical evidence that defects formed on water ices due to the harsh

  20. Regulation of Glucagon Secretion in Normal and Diabetic Human Islets by γ-Hydroxybutyrate and Glycine*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changhong; Liu, Chengyang; Nissim, Itzhak; Chen, Jie; Chen, Pan; Doliba, Nicolai; Zhang, Tingting; Nissim, Ilana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Stokes, David; Yudkoff, Marc; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Naji, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Paracrine signaling between pancreatic islet β-cells and α-cells has been proposed to play a role in regulating glucagon responses to elevated glucose and hypoglycemia. To examine this possibility in human islets, we used a metabolomic approach to trace the responses of amino acids and other potential neurotransmitters to stimulation with [U-13C]glucose in both normal individuals and type 2 diabetics. Islets from type 2 diabetics uniformly showed decreased glucose stimulation of insulin secretion and respiratory rate but demonstrated two different patterns of glucagon responses to glucose: one group responded normally to suppression of glucagon by glucose, but the second group was non-responsive. The non-responsive group showed evidence of suppressed islet GABA levels and of GABA shunt activity. In further studies with normal human islets, we found that γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is generated in β-cells by an extension of the GABA shunt during glucose stimulation and interacts with α-cell GHB receptors, thus mediating the suppressive effect of glucose on glucagon release. We also identified glycine, acting via α-cell glycine receptors, as the predominant amino acid stimulator of glucagon release. The results suggest that glycine and GHB provide a counterbalancing receptor-based mechanism for controlling α-cell secretory responses to metabolic fuels. PMID:23266825

  1. Regulation of glucagon secretion in normal and diabetic human islets by γ-hydroxybutyrate and glycine.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhong; Liu, Chengyang; Nissim, Itzhak; Chen, Jie; Chen, Pan; Doliba, Nicolai; Zhang, Tingting; Nissim, Ilana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Stokes, David; Yudkoff, Marc; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A; Matschinsky, Franz M; Naji, Ali

    2013-02-01

    Paracrine signaling between pancreatic islet β-cells and α-cells has been proposed to play a role in regulating glucagon responses to elevated glucose and hypoglycemia. To examine this possibility in human islets, we used a metabolomic approach to trace the responses of amino acids and other potential neurotransmitters to stimulation with [U-(13)C]glucose in both normal individuals and type 2 diabetics. Islets from type 2 diabetics uniformly showed decreased glucose stimulation of insulin secretion and respiratory rate but demonstrated two different patterns of glucagon responses to glucose: one group responded normally to suppression of glucagon by glucose, but the second group was non-responsive. The non-responsive group showed evidence of suppressed islet GABA levels and of GABA shunt activity. In further studies with normal human islets, we found that γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter, is generated in β-cells by an extension of the GABA shunt during glucose stimulation and interacts with α-cell GHB receptors, thus mediating the suppressive effect of glucose on glucagon release. We also identified glycine, acting via α-cell glycine receptors, as the predominant amino acid stimulator of glucagon release. The results suggest that glycine and GHB provide a counterbalancing receptor-based mechanism for controlling α-cell secretory responses to metabolic fuels. PMID:23266825

  2. Protein synthesis in cancer patients with inflammatory response: investigations with [15N]glycine.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Preston, T; Fearon, K C; Burns, H J; Slater, C; Shenkin, A

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that the increase in amino acid flux and derived protein synthesis rates observed in weight-losing cancer patients may contribute to an ongoing negative energy balance. The mediators and tissues responsible for such apparent increased protein synthesis have not been clearly identified. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between protein synthetic rates in whole-body, skeletal muscle, and circulating cortisol concentrations in healthy subjects (n = 6) and cancer patients with evidence of an inflammatory response (n = 6). Protein synthetic rates were measured with a primed continuous 20-h infusion of [15N]glycine. Skeletal muscle was biopsied at laparotomy. Serum cortisol, resting energy expenditure, plasma proteins, nitrogen metabolites in urine, and skeletal muscle free amino acids were also measured. Derived whole-body and skeletal muscle protein synthetic rates in the cancer group were increased significantly (by 70 and 93%, respectively, p < 0.05). Circulating concentrations of cortisol, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein were also significantly increased in the cancer group and indicated the presence of an inflammatory response. However, there was no significant increase in resting energy expenditure. Mechanisms by which apparent increases in whole-body and skeletal protein synthesis do not result in an increase in resting energy expenditure are discussed. We conclude that glycine utilization is increased in cancer patients but that rates of protein synthesis derived from [15N]glycine kinetics may not be valid in such patients. PMID:7919675

  3. The effect of hyperphenylalaninaemia on glycine metabolism in developing rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, C E; Greengard, O

    1980-01-01

    The brains of 3--16-day-old rats that were rendered hyperphenylalaninaemic by daily injections of alpha-methylphenylalanine plus phenylalanine were subjected to biochemical analysis. Fluctuations throughout the treatment period in the concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, methionine and serotonin were in agreement with the known interference of excess plasma phenylalanine with transport. The glycine content, however, became abnormal only by day 5, remained so through the treatment, and the elevation was equally apparent at 4, 8 or 24 h after the last daily injections. On the last day of treatment there were small increases in the taurine, glutamate, aspartate and 4-aminobutyrate concentrations, attributable mainly to the diencephalon or brain stem. After day 3 of treatment there were persistent elevations in the specific activity of phosphoserine phosphatase and glycine synthase (but not serine hydroxymethyltransferase) of the brain in each of the regions analysed. The observations indicate that chronic hyperphenylalaninaemia interferes with the normal regulation of intracerebral glycine metabolism during a critical period of early postnatal development, and suggest that the resulting excess in this amino acid (particularly marked in the cortex) contributes to the behavioural abnormalities that these animals exhibit in later life. PMID:6112983

  4. Functional characterization of a member of alanine or glycine: cation symporter family in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Bualuang, Aporn; Kageyama, Hakuto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins of amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes. The alanine or glycine: cation symporter (AGCS) family belongs to APC superfamily and is found in prokaryotes, but its substrate specificity remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that a halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica has two putative ApagcS genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of genes, ApagcS1, exhibited high homology to Pseudomonas AgcS. The ApagcS1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli JW4166 which is deficient in glycine uptake. Kinetics studies in JW4166 revealed that ApAgcS1 is a sodium-dependent glycine transporter. Competition experiments showed the significant inhibition by glutamine, asparagine, and glycine. The level of mRNA for ApagcS1 was induced by NaCl and nitrogen-deficient stresses. Uptake of glutamine by ApAgcS1 was also observed. Based on these data, the physiological role of ApAgcS1 was discussed. PMID:25421789

  5. Activation of presynaptic glycine receptors facilitates glycine release from presynaptic terminals synapsing onto rat spinal sacral dorsal commissural nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Il-Sung; Moorhouse, Andrew J; Akaike, Norio

    2003-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Here we report the novel finding that presynaptic glycine autoreceptors modulate release from terminals synapsing onto rat spinal sacral dorsal commissural nucleus (SDCN) neurons. In mechanically dissociated SDCN neurons, in which functional presynaptic nerve terminals remain adherent to the isolated neurons, exogenously applied glycine (3 μM) increased the frequency of glycinergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) without affecting their amplitudes or decay times. This suggests that glycine acts presynaptically to increase glycine release probability. Picrotoxin, at a concentration that had little direct effect on sIPSC frequency and amplitude (30 μM), significantly attenuated glycine-induced presynaptic sIPSC facilitation. The glycine-induced sIPSC frequency facilitation was completely abolished either in a Ca2+-free external solution or in the presence of 100 μM Cd2+, suggesting the involvement of extracellular Ca2+ influx into the nerve terminals. The glycine action was also completely occluded in the presence of 300 nM tetrodotoxin. In recordings from SDCN neurons in spinal cord slices, glycine (10 μM) increased evoked IPSC (eIPSC) amplitude and decreased the extent of paired-pulse facilitation. In response to brief high frequency stimulus trains the eIPSCs displayed a profound frequency-dependent facilitation that was greatly reduced by picrotoxin (30 μM). These results indicate that glycine acts at presynaptic autoreceptors, causing depolarization of the glycinergic nerve terminals, the subsequent activation of voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels, and facilitation of glycine release. Furthermore, this presynaptic facilitation was observed under more physiological conditions, suggesting that these glycinergic autoreceptors may contribute to the integration of local inhibitory inputs to SDCN neurons. PMID:12754315

  6. New soybean accessions identified with resistance to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious root-parasite of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in USA are estimated to be nearly $1 billion. These losses have remained stable at current levels with the use of resistant cultivars bu...

  7. New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in the USA are estimated to be over $1 billion. These losses have remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over time nematode...

  8. Glycine betaine as a direct substrate for methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.).

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew J; Roussel, Erwan G; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners. PMID:24162571

  9. Glycine receptor mechanism elucidated by electron cryo-microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Lü, Wei; Wu, Shenping; Cheng, Yifan; Gouaux, Eric

    2015-10-01

    The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and brainstem and is linked to neurological disorders, including autism and hyperekplexia. Understanding of molecular mechanisms and pharmacology of glycine receptors has been hindered by a lack of high-resolution structures. Here we report electron cryo-microscopy structures of the zebrafish α1 GlyR with strychnine, glycine, or glycine and ivermectin (glycine/ivermectin). Strychnine arrests the receptor in an antagonist-bound closed ion channel state, glycine stabilizes the receptor in an agonist-bound open channel state, and the glycine/ivermectin complex adopts a potentially desensitized or partially open state. Relative to the glycine-bound state, strychnine expands the agonist-binding pocket via outward movement of the C loop, promotes rearrangement of the extracellular and transmembrane domain 'wrist' interface, and leads to rotation of the transmembrane domain towards the pore axis, occluding the ion conduction pathway. These structures illuminate the GlyR mechanism and define a rubric to interpret structures of Cys-loop receptors. PMID:26344198

  10. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520.550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. (a) Specifications. The product...

  11. Glycine transporter2 inhibitors: Getting the balance right.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Robert J; Mostyn, Shannon N; Carland, Jane E; Ryan, Renae M

    2016-09-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters are targets for a wide range of therapeutically useful drugs. This is because they have the capacity to selectively manipulate the dynamics of neurotransmitter concentrations and thereby enhance or diminish signalling through particular brain pathways. High affinity glycine transporters (GlyTs) regulate extracellular concentrations of glycine and provide novel therapeutic targets for neurological disorders. PMID:26723543

  12. NECTAR COMPOSITION OF WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE (SOYBEAN) SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual, G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing rates in the cultivated s...

  13. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.)] in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the U.S. and Canada, suggesting large scale dispersals and rapid adaptations to new environment...

  14. Glycine Betaine as a Direct Substrate for Methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Andrew J.; Roussel, Erwan G.; Parkes, R. John

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners. PMID:24162571

  15. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  16. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cysts nematode heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  17. Positive Modulation of the Glycine Receptor by Means of Glycine Receptor–Binding Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Aneiros, Eduardo; Blank, Michael; Mueller, Johan; Nyman, Eva; Blind, Michael; Dabrowski, Michael A.; Andersson, Christin V.; Sandberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    According to the gate control theory of pain, the glycine receptors (GlyRs) are putative targets for development of therapeutic analgesics. A possible approach for novel analgesics is to develop a positive modulator of the glycine-activated Cl− channels. Unfortunately, there has been limited success in developing drug-like small molecules to study the impact of agonists or positive modulators on GlyRs. Eight RNA aptamers with low nanomolar affinity to GlyRα1 were generated, and their pharmacological properties analyzed. Cytochemistry using fluorescein-labeled aptamers demonstrated GlyRα1-dependent binding to the plasma membrane but also intracellular binding. Using a fluorescent membrane potential assay, we could identify five aptamers to be positive modulators. The positive modulation of one of the aptamers was confirmed by patch-clamp electrophysiology on L(tk) cells expressing GlyRα1 and/or GlyRα1β. This aptamer potentiated whole-cell Cl− currents in the presence of low concentrations of glycine. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration ever of RNA aptamers acting as positive modulators for an ion channel. We believe that these aptamers are unique and valuable tools for further studies of GlyR biology and possibly also as tools for assay development in identifying small-molecule agonists and positive modulators. PMID:26071243

  18. Extrinsic factors regulate partial agonist efficacy of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Farroni, Jeffrey S; McCool, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    Background Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in many adult forebrain regions consist of alpha2 + beta heteromeric channels. This subunit composition is distinct from the alpha1 + beta channels found throughout the adult spinal cord. Unfortunately, the pharmacology of forebrain alpha2beta receptors are poorly defined compared to 'neonatal' alpha2 homomeric channels or 'spinal' alpha1beta heteromers. In addition, the pharmacologic properties of native alpha2beta glycine receptors have been generally distinct from receptors produced by heterologous expression. To identify subtype-specific pharmacologic tools for the forebrain alpha2beta receptors, it is important to identify a heterologous expression system that closely resembles these native glycine-gated chloride channels. Results While exploring pharmacological properties of alpha2beta glycine receptors compared to alpha2-homomers, we found that distinct heterologous expression systems appeared to differentially influence partial agonist pharmacology. The β-amino acid taurine possessed 30–50% efficacy for alpha2-containing receptor isoforms when expressed in HEK 293 cells. However, taurine efficacy was dramatically reduced in L-cell fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained for β-alanine. The efficacy of these partial agonists was also strongly reduced by the beta subunit. There were no significant differences in apparent strychnine affinity values calculated from concentration-response data between expression systems or subunit combinations. Nor did relative levels of expression correlate with partial agonist efficacy when compared within or between several different expression systems. Finally, disruption of the tubulin cytoskeleton reduced the efficacy of partial agonists in a subunit-dependent, but system-independent, fashion. Conclusions Our results suggest that different heterologous expression systems can dramatically influence the agonist pharmacology of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. In

  19. Glycine uptake in heath plants and soil microbes responds to elevated temperature, CO 2 and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Louise C.; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven; Beier, Claus; Ambus, Per

    2009-11-01

    Temperate terrestrial ecosystems are currently exposed to climatic and air quality changes with increased atmospheric CO 2, increased temperature and prolonged droughts. The responses of natural ecosystems to these changes are focus for research, due to the potential feedbacks to the climate. We here present results from a field experiment in which the effects of these three climate change factors are investigated solely and in all combinations at a temperate heath dominated by heather ( Calluna vulgaris) and wavy hair-grass ( Deschampsia flexuosa). Climate induced increases in plant production may increase plant root exudation of dissolved organic compounds such as amino acids, and the release of amino acids during decomposition of organic matter. Such free amino acids in soil serve as substrates for soil microorganisms and are also acquired as nutrients directly by plants. We investigated the magnitude of the response to the potential climate change treatments on uptake of organic nitrogen in an in situ pulse labelling experiment with 15N 13C 2-labelled glycine (amino acid) injected into the soil. In situ root nitrogen acquisition by grasses responded significantly to the climate change treatments, with larger 15N uptake in response to warming and elevated CO 2 but not additively when the treatments were combined. Also, a larger grass leaf biomass in the combined T and CO 2 treatment than in individual treatments suggest that responses to combined climate change factors cannot be predicted from the responses to single factors treatments. The soil microbes were superior to plants in the short-term competition for the added glycine, as indicated by an 18 times larger 15N recovery in the microbial biomass compared to the plant biomass. The soil microbes acquired glycine largely as an intact compound (87%), with no effects of the multi factorial climate change treatment through one year.

  20. Evolution of threonine aldolases, a diverse family involved in the second pathway of glycine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangxiu; Zhang, Manxiao; Chen, Ximing; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Threonine aldolases (TAs) catalyze the interconversion of threonine and glycine plus acetaldehyde in a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent manner. This class of enzymes complements the primary glycine biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and was shown to be necessary for yeast glycine auxotrophy. Because the reverse reaction of TA involves carbon-carbon bond formation, resulting in a β-hydroxyl-α-amino acid with two adjacent chiral centers, TAs are of high interests in synthetic chemistry and bioengineering studies. Here, we report systematic phylogenetic analysis of TAs. Our results demonstrated that L-TAs and D-TAs that are specific for L- and D-threonine, respectively, are two phylogenetically unique families, and both enzymes are different from their closely related enzymes SHMTs and bacterial alanine racemases (ARs). Interestingly, L-TAs can be further grouped into two evolutionarily distinct families, which share low sequence similarity with each other but likely possess the same structural fold, suggesting a convergent evolution of these enzymes. The first L-TA family contains enzymes of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins, and is related to fungal ARs, whereas the second contains only prokaryotic L-TAs. Furthermore, we show that horizontal gene transfer may occur frequently during the evolution of both L-TA families. Our results indicate the complex, dynamic, and convergent evolution process of TAs and suggest an updated classification scheme for L-TAs. PMID:25644973

  1. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycine: its role in cadmium resistance in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Doolen, J.A.; Watt, K.; Robinson, N.J.

    1987-10-01

    Angiosperms can be selected for the ability to grow in the presence of normally toxic concentrations of certain trace metal ions. Addition of Cd and Cu to Cd-resistant Datura innoxia cell cultures results in the rapid synthesis and accumulation of sulfur-rich, metal-binding polypeptides. The structure of these compounds was determined using amino acid analysis, /sup 13/C NMR, and site-specific enzymic digestion. These compounds are poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines. Greater than 80% of the cellular Cd is bound to the bis and tris forms in Cd-resistant cells. There is a direct correlation between the maximum accumulation of the metal-binding polypeptides and the concentration of toxic ions to which the cells are resistant. In the presence of metal ions, the polypeptides form multimeric aggregates that can be resolved by gel chromatography. Cd binds to both the high and low molecular weight aggregates, whereas Cu preferentially binds to the higher molecular weight forms. The presence of gamma-carboxamide linkages between glutamyl and adjacent cysteinyl residues indicates that these polypeptides are products of biosynthetic pathways. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines bind metals and, in this respect, appear to be functional analogs of the protein metallothionein. However, in the absence of supraoptimal concentrations of trace metal ions, the functions of metallothionein in animals and microorganisms and poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines in plants may differ.

  2. Surface modification of ultrafiltration membranes by grafting glycine-functionalized PVA based on polydopamine coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Ye, Jianfeng; Yang, Linming; Deng, Chunhua; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Due to the ease of processing and stability during filtration, polydopamine (PD) coatings with grafted hydrophilic polymers have recently received significant attention. In this study, glycine-functionalized PVA was synthesized and grafted to a PD-coated ultrafiltration (UF) membrane to improve its performance during wastewater filtration. The membranes were modified by grafting PD with glycine-functionalized PVA (PD-g-PVA), and the resultant materials were characterized using surface morphology analyses, contact angle measurements, flux, oil/water emulsion separation tests, and grafted layer stability tests. The performance of the PD-g-PVA membrane was compared to that of the membrane modified with PD-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG). After grafting the PD-g-PVA, the surface roughness of the membranes decreased significantly. The grafted PVA layer, which was stable under acidic and alkaline conditions, protected the PD layer. The filtration experiments with an oil/water emulsion indicated that modifying the glycine-functionalized PVA by grafting can significantly improve the antifouling ability of membranes.

  3. Oligo(N-aryl glycines): a new twist on structured peptoids.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neel H; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Nguyen, Khanh; Yoo, Barney; Bonneau, Richard; Rabenstein, Dallas L; Kirshenbaum, Kent

    2008-12-10

    We explore strategies to enhance conformational ordering of N-substituted glycine peptoid oligomers. Peptoids bearing bulky N-alkyl side chains have previously been studied as important examples of biomimetic "foldamer" compounds, as they exhibit a capacity to populate helical structures featuring repeating cis-amide bonds. Substantial cis/trans amide bond isomerization, however, gives rise to conformational heterogeneity. Here, we report the use of N-aryl side chains as a tool to enforce the presence of trans-amide bonds, thereby engendering structural stability. Aniline derivatives and bromoacetic acid are used in the facile solid-phase synthesis of a diverse family of sequence-specific N-aryl glycine oligomers. Quantum mechanics calculations yield a detailed energy profile of the folding landscape and substantiate the hypothesis that the presence of anilide groups establishes a strong energetic preference for trans-amide bonds. X-ray crystallographic analysis and solution NMR studies verify this preference. Molecular modeling indicates that the linear oligomers can adopt helical structures resembling a polyproline type II helix. High resolution structures of macrocyclic oligomers incorporating both N-alkyl and N-aryl glycine units confirm the ability to direct the presence of trans-amide bonds specifically at N-aryl positions. These results are an important step in developing strategies for the rational de novo design of new structural motifs in biomimetic oligopeptoid systems. PMID:19049458

  4. Asparagine and glycine metabolism in rat liver mitochondria and in mouse L5178Y lymphoma cells resistant or sensitive to the anticancer drug L-asparaginase

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, J.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Rat liver mitochondrial asparagine was found to be degraded via an aminotransferase and omega-amidase. Evidence includes oxaloacetate production from asparagine only when glyoxylate was added and production of radiolabeled ..cap alpha..-ketosuccinamate via metabolism of (U-/sup 14/C)asparagine. In the cytosol, asparagine is degraded primarily via asparaginase and subsequent transamination. A new HPLC technique for separation of citric acid cycle intermediates was developed using: ion pairing with 20 mM each to tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/; pH 7.0; isocratic elution; and detection at 210 nm. Amino acid content of mouse lymphoma cells either sensitive (L5178Y) or resistant (L5178Y/L-ASE) to the anticancer drug L-asparaginase was studied. The concentration of asparagine was 1.5 times higher and the concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, methionine, valine and phenylalanine were two times higher in asparaginase-resistant than sensitive cells. In vivo but not in vitro studies indicated that glucine decreases in sensitive but not resistant cells upon asparaginase treatment. Asparagine and glycine metabolism was further studied using /sup 14/C radiolabel conversion of asparagine, glyoxylate, glycine and serine. Glycine metabolism is especially important in lymphomas and leukemias because these cells contain higher concentrations of glycine that other cancer and normal cells. Therefore, glycine levels were studied and were found to decrease in sensitive but not resistant cells upon asparaginase administration.

  5. Identification and disruption of BetL, a secondary glycine betaine transport system linked to the salt tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes LO28.

    PubMed

    Sleator, R D; Gahan, C G; Abee, T; Hill, C

    1999-05-01

    The trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine (N,N, N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, conferring enhanced osmo- and cryotolerance upon Listeria monocytogenes. We report the identification of betL, a gene encoding a glycine betaine uptake system in L. monocytogenes, isolated by functional complementation of the betaine uptake mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. The betL gene is preceded by a consensus sigmaB-dependent promoter and is predicted to encode a 55-kDa protein (507 amino acid residues) with 12 transmembrane regions. BetL exhibits significant sequence homologies to other glycine betaine transporters, including OpuD from Bacillus subtilis (57% identity) and BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum (41% identity). These high-affinity secondary transporters form a subset of the trimethylammonium transporter family specific for glycine betaine, whose substrates possess a fully methylated quaternary ammonium group. The observed Km value of 7.9 microM for glycine betaine uptake after heterologous expression of betL in E. coli MKH13 is consistent with values obtained for L. monocytogenes in other studies. In addition, a betL knockout mutant which is significantly affected in its ability to accumulate glycine betaine in the presence or absence of NaCl has been constructed in L. monocytogenes. This mutant is also unable to withstand concentrations of salt as high as can the BetL+ parent, signifying the role of the transporter in Listeria osmotolerance. PMID:10224004

  6. Effect of glutamine or glycine containing oral electrolyte solutions on mucosal morphology, clinical and biochemical findings, in calves with viral induced diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, J M; Leibel, T; Middleton, D M

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-one diarrheic calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 oral electrolyte treatments. The treatments were either a conventional oral electrolyte containing glycine (40 mmol/L) as the amino acid, an oral electrolyte in which glutamine (40 mmol/L) replaced glycine or an electrolyte in which high concentrations of glutamine (400 mmol/L) replaced glycine. The calves were monitored while on trial and at the end of the treatment they were euthanized and a necropsy was immediately performed. Calves fed the high glutamine electrolyte had more treatment failures (2/7 versus 0/7 for each of the other 2 treatments). There was a significant effect of type of electrolyte on fecal consistency. Calves fed the glycine containing electrolyte had the most solid feces. Duodenal villus height was significantly affected by the type of electrolyte: values (mean +/- 1 SEM) were 0.61 +/- 0.09, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.59 +/- 0.07 mm for high glutamine, low glutamine and glycine electrolytes respectively. There was no significant difference in small intestinal surface area between groups. High glutamine treated calves had the greatest capacity to absorb xylose from the small intestine but this difference was not statistically significant. Overall, this trial does not suggest that substituting glutamine for glycine in oral electrolyte solutions improves treatment of diarrheic calves or speeds mucosal healing. PMID:9008800

  7. Comparative study of glycine, alanine or casein as inert nitrogen sources in endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Chambon-Savanovitch, C; Felgines, C; Farges, M C; Raul, F; Cézard, J P; Davot, P; Vasson, M P; Cynober, L A

    1999-10-01

    Pharmacological effects of dietary amino acids (AA) and peptides must be compared to an isonitrogenous control that is as inert as possible. To establish a rationale for the choice of such a control, potential metabolic and nutritional effects of three currently used nitrogenous controls (glycine, alanine, and casein) were evaluated in an endotoxemic rat model that has well-defined alterations in AA and protein metabolism. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (113 +/- 1 g) were randomly assigned to four groups and received at d 0 an intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (3 mg/kg). After withdrawal of food for 24 h, the rats were enterally refed for 48 h with a liquid diet (Osmolite((R))) supplemented with 0.19 g N. kg(-1). d(-1) in the form of glycine [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-GLY group], alanine (LPS-ALA group) or casein (LPS-CAS group). One group (LPS group) received only Osmolite((R)). Plasma, two skeletal muscles, the liver and the intestine were then removed. Body and tissue weights and tissue protein contents did not differ among the four groups. Intestine histomorphometry showed no significant difference among groups. Jejunal hydrolase activities were significantly affected by the nitrogenous supplementations, but no effect was observed in the ileum. Only limited significant effects were observed on plasma and tissue-free AA concentrations, except for an accumulation of glycine in the plasma and tissues from the LPS-GLY group, compared to other groups. Overall, whereas glycine as a nitrogenous control should be used with care, either alanine or casein may be used as the "placebo," with the choice depending on the study to be performed. PMID:10498760

  8. Improvement of glycine oxidase by DNA shuffling, and site-saturation mutagenesis of F247 residue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei; Lin, Yongjun; Wu, Gaobing; Lu, Yulin; Zhan, Tao; Kumar, Ashok; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-08-01

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide widely used throughout the world, and it could be degraded by glycine oxidase (GO) through CN bond cleavage. For a better understanding of the structure-function relationship and improving the activity of B3S1 (GO from Bacillus cereus), DNA shuffling was performed. A mutant B4S7 (The Km, Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km values on glyphosate were 0.1 mM, 0.002401 mM min(-1), 3.62 min(-1) and 36.2 mM(-1) min(-1), respectively. The four parameters on glycine were 50.34 mM, 0.001983 mM min(-1), 2.18 min(-1) and 0.04 mM(-1) min(-1), respectively) was obtained from 10,000 clones, which presented a 3.9-fold increase of the specificity constant (the kcat/Km ratio between glyphosate and glycine) compared with B3S1. Especially, the Km value of B4S7 to glyphosate was much less than those of the reported GO. Structure modeling and molecular docking indicated that the novel mutation point F247S was close to the active site of the enzyme. To identify the role of the site, the remaining 19 amino acids were introduced into the site by site-saturation mutagenesis. The result showed that compared with B3S1, the specificity constant of mutant F247S and F247R increased 0.64-fold and 1.04-fold, respectively. While the specificity constant of mutant F247E decreased 2.01-fold. Therefore, the site 247 plays a crucial role in regulating the substrate specificity. This study provides new information on the structure-function relationship of glycine oxidase and the development of glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:26025077

  9. Benzyl isothiocyanate affects development, hatching and reproduction of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) applied at micromolar doses decreased Heterodera glycines J2 movement, H. glycines hatching, and reproduction of H. glycines on soybean, Glycine max. Direct exposure of J2 to 30 microM BITC caused an immediate decrease (17%; P < 0.05) in J2 movement relative to 1% methan...

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Glutamate, Glycine, and Alanine in Human Plasma Using Precolumn Derivatization with 6-Aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl Carbamate and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qing Xian; Li, Shu Cui; Yang, Mei Zi; Rao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been validated for determining concentrations of glutamate, glycine, and alanine in human plasma. Proteins in plasma were precipitated with perchloric acid, followed by derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC). Simultaneous analysis of glutamate, glycine, and alanine is achieved using reversed-phase HPLC conditions and ultraviolet detection. Excellent linearity was observed for these three amino acids over their concentration ranges with correlation coefficients (r)>0.999. The intra- and inter-day precision were below 10%. This method utilizes quality control samples and demonstrates excellent plasma recovery and accuracy. The developed method has been successfully applied to measure plasma glutamate, glycine, and alanine in twenty volunteers. PMID:23118561

  11. In-situ Measurements Of The Radiolytic Destruction Of Glycine In Ices: Applications To The Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, R. L.

    2012-10-01

    Amino acids and other organic molecules are thought to be easily destroyed on the surface of Mars by the high flux of incident ultraviolet rays or by chemical interactions with oxidizing substances in the soil. However, organic molecules may survive in the subsurface, where chemical processes are driven by penetrating galactic cosmic rays such as MeV protons. Models of the radiation dose as a function of depth on Mars have shown that the contribution of galactic cosmic rays dominates from about one centimeter to a few meters [1]. Theoretical models have also been published to aid in understanding molecular destruction at these depths, but these usually are based on room-temperature laboratory data, studies of single-component samples, and ex-situ methods of chemical analysis. Recent studies of amino-acid survivability include those involving UV photolysis [2, 3] and gamma radiolysis [4], but nearly all chemical and kinetic analyses from such experiments involved room-temperature measurements on samples irradiated and then removed from sealed containers. We report new laboratory studies of the radiation-induced destruction of glycine-containing ices. In-situ infrared spectroscopy was used to study decay rates as a function of temperature and initial glycine concentrations. Our results indicate that glycine's destruction rate depends on temperature, the presence of H2O-ice, and the initial relative abundance of glycine. These trends are not obvious in previous work, suggesting that room-temperature measurements on pure glycine's radiation stability are not directly applicable to Mars and other environments. This work has been supported by the Goddard Center for Astrobiology. [1] Dartnell, L. R., et al., 2007. Geophys. Res. Letters 34:L02207. [2] ten Kate, I. L., et al., 2006. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 296-302. [3] Orzechowska, G. E., et al., 2007. Icarus 187, 584-591. [4] Kminek, G., Bada, J. L., 2006. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 245, 1-5.

  12. Spectral Luminescent Properties of the Glycine Molecule in a Gas Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    General, A. A.; Migovich, M. I.; Kelman, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Zvenigorodsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the luminescence spectra of glycine powder in the plasma of a repetitively pulsed longitudinal discharge in argon-glycine and helium-glycine mixtures. We have identified the main fragments of the glycine molecule emitting in the 200-1000 nm region. The emitting molecules due to fragmentation of glycine and dissociation of the carboxyl (-COOH) and amino (-NH2) groups are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and cyanogen molecules.

  13. Glycine receptor mechanism illuminated by electron cryo-microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Lü, Wei; Wu, Shenping; Cheng, Yifan; Gouaux, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Summary The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and brainstem and is linked to neurological disorders including autism and hyperekplexia. Understanding of molecular mechanisms and pharmacology of GlyRs has been hindered by a dearth of high-resolution structures. Here we report electron cryo-microscopy structures of the α1 GlyR with strychnine, glycine, or glycine/ivermectin. Strychnine arrests the receptor in an antagonist-bound, closed ion channel state, glycine stabilizes the receptor in an agonist-bound open channel state, and the glycine/ivermectin complex adopts a potentially desensitized or partially open state. Relative to the glycine-bound state, strychnine expands the agonist-binding pocket via outward movement of the C loop, promotes rearrangement of the extracellular and transmembrane domain ‘wrist’ interface, and leads to rotation of the transmembrane domain toward the pore axis, occluding the ion conduction pathway. These structures illuminate GlyR mechanism and define a rubric to interpret structures of Cys-loop receptors. PMID:26344198

  14. Effect of temperature and pressure on the protonation of glycine

    PubMed Central

    Izatt, R. M.; Oscarson, J. L.; Gillespie, S. E.; Grimsrud, H.; Renuncio, J. A. R.; Pando, C.

    1992-01-01

    Flow calorimetry has been used to study the interaction of glycine with protons in water at temperatures of 298.15, 323.15, and 348.15 K and pressures up to 12.50 MPa. By combining the measured heat for glycine solutions titrated with NaOH with the heat of ionization for water, the enthalpy of protonation of glycine is obtained. The reaction is exothermic at all temperatures and pressures studied. The effect of pressure on the enthalpy of reaction is very small. The experimental heat data are analyzed to yield equilibrium constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) values for the protonation reaction as a function of temperature. These values are compared with those reported previously at 298.15 K. The ΔH and ΔS values increase (become more positive), whereas log K values decrease, as temperature increases. The trends for ΔH and ΔS with temperature are opposite to those reported previously for the protonation of several alkanolamines. However, log K values for proton interaction with both glycine and the alkanolamines decrease with increasing temperature. The effect of the nitrogen atom substituent on log K for protonation of glycine and alkanolamines is discussed in terms of changes in long-range and short-range solvent effects. These effects are used to explain the difference in ΔH and ΔS trends between glycine protonation and those found earlier for alkanolamine protonation. PMID:19431832

  15. Regulation of Serine, Glycine, and One-Carbon Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, George V

    2004-12-01

    The biosynthesis of serine, glycine, and one-carbon (C1) units constitutes a major metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. C1 units derived from serine and glycine are used in the synthesis of purines, histidine, thymine, pantothenate, and methionine and in the formylation of the aminoacylated initiator fMet-TRNAfMet used to start translation in E. coli and serovar Typhimurium. The need for serine, glycine, and C1 units in many cellular functions makes it necessary for the genes encoding enzymes for their synthesis to be carefully regulated to meet the changing demands of the cell for these intermediates. This review discusses the regulation of the following genes: serA, serB, and serC; gly gene; gcvTHP operon; lpdA; gcvA and gcvR; and gcvB genes. Threonine utilization (the Tut cycle) constitutes a secondary pathway for serine and glycine biosynthesis. L-Serine inhibits the growth of E. coli cells in GM medium, and isoleucine releases this growth inhibition. The E. coli glycine transport system (Cyc) has been shown to transport glycine, D-alanine, D-serine, and the antibiotic D-cycloserine. Transport systems often play roles in the regulation of gene expression, by transporting effector molecules into the cell, where they are sensed by soluble or membrane-bound regulatory proteins. PMID:26443363

  16. Glycine crystallization during spray drying: the pH effect on salt and polymorphic forms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lian; Ng, Kingman

    2002-11-01

    Spray drying of aqueous solutions of glycine revealed a strong pH effect on the salt and polymorphic forms of the resulting powders. Adjusting pH by aqueous HCl or NaOH between 1.7 and 10.0 caused the glycine solutions to crystallize as two polymorphs (alpha and gamma) of the neutral glycine ((+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2) (-)) and as three salts (diglycine HCl, (+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2) (-). (+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2)H. C1(-); glycine HCl, (+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2)H. C1(-); and sodium glycinate, H(2)NCH(2)CO(2) (-). Na(+)). Although alpha-glycine crystallized from solutions without pH adjustment (pH 6.2), changing the pH to 4.0 and 8.0 caused gamma-glycine to crystallize as the preferred polymorph. This phenomenon is attributed to the pH effect on the dimeric growth unit of alpha-glycine. The formation of alpha-glycine by spray drying solutions of neutral glycine contrasts the outcome of freeze drying, which yields beta-glycine. Because gamma-glycine is thermodynamically more stable than alpha-glycine, the crystallization of gamma-glycine by pH adjustment provides a way to improve the physical stability of glycine-containing formulations. Spray drying at low pH yielded various mixtures of neutral glycine and its HCl salts: pH 3.0, gamma-glycine and diglycine HCl; pH 2.0, diglycine HCl; and pH 1.7 (the natural pH of glycine HCl), diglycine HCl (major component) and glycine HCl (minor component). Spray drying glycine HCl solutions (pH 1.7) yielded the same diglycine HCl/glycine HCl mixture as did spray drying neutral glycine solutions acidified to pH 1.7. Obtaining diglycine HCl by spray drying glycine HCl solutions indicates a 50% loss of HCl during processing. The extent of HCl loss could be altered by changing the inlet temperature of the spray drier. Spray drying glycine solutions at pH 9.0 and 10.0 gave predominantly gamma-glycine and an additional crystalline product, possibly sodium glycinate. The glycine powders spray dried at different pH had different particle morphologies and sizes, which

  17. Serine, glycine and the one-carbon cycle: cancer metabolism in full circle

    PubMed Central

    Locasale, Jason W

    2013-01-01

    One carbon metabolism involving the folate and methionine cycle integrates carbon units from amino acids, including serine and glycine, and generates diverse outputs, such as the biosynthesis of lipids, nucleotides and proteins, the maintenance of redox status, and the substrates for methylation reactions. Long considered a ‘housekeeping’ process, this pathway has been recently shown to have additional complexity. Recent genetic and functional evidence also suggests that hyperactivation of this pathway is a possible driver of oncogenesis and establishes links to cellular epigenetic status. Given the wealth of clinically available agents that target one carbon metabolism, these new findings could present opportunities for translation into precision cancer medicine. PMID:23822983

  18. Identification and upregulation of biosynthetic genes required for accumulation of Mycosporine-2-glycine under salt stress conditions in the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Sopun, Warangkana; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2014-03-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are valuable molecules that are the basis for important photoprotective constituents. Here we report molecular analysis of mycosporine-like amino acid biosynthetic genes from the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica, which can survive at high salinity and alkaline pH. This extremophile was found to have a unique MAA core (4-deoxygadusol)-synthesizing gene separated from three other genes. In vivo analysis showed accumulation of the mycosporine-2-glycine but not shinorine or mycosporine-glycine. Mycosporine-2-glycine accumulation was stimulated more under the stress condition of high salinity than UV-B radiation. The Aphanothece MAA biosynthetic genes also manifested a strong transcript level response to salt stress. Furthermore, the transformed Escherichia coli and Synechococcus strains expressing four putative Aphanothece MAA genes under the control of a native promoter were found to be capable of synthesizing mycosporine-2-glycine. The accumulation level of mycosporine-2-glycine was again higher under the high-salinity condition. In the transformed E. coli cells, its level was approximately 85.2 ± 0.7 μmol/g (dry weight). Successful production of a large amount of mycosporine in these cells provides a new opportunity in the search for an alternative natural sunscreen compound source. PMID:24375141

  19. Blockade of glycine transporter 1 by SSR-504734 promotes cognitive flexibility in glycine/NMDA receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Rafa, Dominik; Behl, Berthold; Bespalov, Anton; Popik, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive processes may be regulated by glycine concentration in the local environment of glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The concentration of glycine is controlled, among other factors, by the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). While GlyT1 inhibitors are developed for a number of indications including cognitive improvement, little is known about their effects in tasks depending on prefrontal cortical function. We examined the effect of GlyT1 inhibitor SSR-504734 on cognitive flexibility assessed in the attentional set-shifting task in rats (ASST). The second goal was to elucidate whether SSR-504734 effect has been due to the compound's action at glycine/NMDAR site. Rats treated with SSR-504734 (3 and 10 mg/kg, IP) required significantly less trials to criteria during extra-dimensional shift (EDs) phase of the ASST. The effect of SSR-504734 (3 mg/kg) was completely prevented by the glycine/NMDAR site antagonist, L-687,414 (30 mg/kg, IP) that by itself exerted no effect on cognitive flexibility. Present study demonstrates that the elevation of glycine concentration through the blockade of its reuptake facilitates cognitive flexibility. As this effect was fully blocked by glycine/NMDAR antagonist, SSR-504734-induced cognitive improvement is likely mediated through glycine action at NMDAR. It is suggested that GlyT1 inhibitors like SSR-504734 may represent a useful pharmacological approach for cognitive enhancement, especially in domains critically affected in schizophrenia. PMID:21530555

  20. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production. PMID

  1. Electronic structure analysis of glycine oligopeptides and glycine-tryptophan oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Shuai; Yang, Mengshi; Xu, Can; Wang, Yu; Chen, Liang

    2014-03-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT), we have studied the energy gap, charge distribution, density of states and chemical activity of glycine (Gn) oligopeptides and glycine-tryptophan (GWn) oligopeptides. The results show that: (1) with the increasing of Gn residues, the chemical activity of Gn oligopeptides focuses on the terminal amino and carboxyl groups, which may be the main cause of self-assembly behaviors in Gn oligopeptide chains; (2) the chemical reaction activity has size effect. The size effect disappears when the residue number exceeds 7. The Gn oligopeptides with 7 residues is the shortest chain which has the same reaction activity as that of longer size peptide; (3) the activity of GWn oligopeptides presents size effect and odd-even effect. However, the size effect and odd-even effect both vanish when the chain of GWn oligopeptides is longer than 12 residues. (4) It is difficult in self-assembly for GWn oligopeptide chains, because its activity mainly focuses on the indole ring and the Gn residues at the end of oligopeptides. (5) The big side groups result in the very near energy level of LUMO and LUMO+1 of GWn oligopeptide chains. It shows that the electron-accepting ability of oligopeptide chainsis composed of two orbitals addition. The results in the paper may help us understand the changes of physical and chemical properties of peptide synthesis process.

  2. Copper-Catalyzed Aerobic Enantioselective Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling of N-Aryl Glycine Esters with Terminal Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiyu; Liu, Xigong; Liu, Lei

    2016-06-17

    A copper-catalyzed enantioselective cross-coupling of a Csp3-H moiety (N-aryl glycine ester) with a Csp-H component (terminal alkyne) using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant is described for the first time. The sustainable method provides an efficient and environmentally friendly approach to rapidly prepare a diverse array of optically active non-natural α-amino acids. PMID:27269737

  3. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-α-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1-2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1-2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not α-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1-2 in defense, its overexpression results in ∼52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1-2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24-10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1-2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified. PMID:25530246

  4. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-α-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1–2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1–2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not α-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1–2 in defense, its overexpression results in ∼52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1–2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24–10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1–2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified. PMID:25530246

  5. Peptide purification using the chemoselective reaction between N-(methoxy)glycine and isothiocyanato-functionalized resin.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toshiaki; Tainosyo, Akira; Kawakami, Toru; Aimoto, Saburo; Murata, Michio

    2016-06-01

    An efficient peptide purification strategy is established, comprising the selective reaction of an N-terminal N-(methoxy)glycine residue of the peptide and isothiocyanato-functionalized resins, and subsequent Edman degradation. These reactions take place in acidic media; in particular, the Edman degradation proceeds smoothly in media containing more than 50% trifluoroacetic acid (v/v). These acidic conditions offer increased solubility, making them advantageous for the purification of hydrophobic and aggregation-prone peptides. The effectiveness of this method, together with scope and limitations, is demonstrated using model peptides and the practical purification of the loop region of the human dopamine D2 receptor long isoform (residues 240-272). Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282134

  6. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  7. Ensifer glycinis sp. nov., a rhizobial species associated with species of the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Yan, Jun; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rhizobial strains from root nodules of Astragalus mongholicus and soybean (Glycine max) were characterized phylogenetically as members of the genus Ensifer (formerly named Sinorhizobium), based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Results based upon concatenated sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII, ≤ 93.8 % similarities to known species) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of whole genome sequence comparisons (ranging from 89.6 % to 83.4 % to Ensifer fredii and Ensifer saheli, respectively) indicated the distinct positions of these novel strains within the genus Ensifer. Phylogeny of symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) of three novel strains clustered them with rhizobial species Ensifer fredii and Ensifer sojae, both isolated from nodules of Glycine max. Cross-nodulation tests showed that the representative strain CCBAU 23380T could form root nodules with nitrogen fixation capability on Glycine soja, Albizia julibrissin, Vigna unguiculata and Cajanus cajan, but failed to nodulate Astragalus mongholicus, its original host legume. Strain CCBAU 23380T formed inefficient nodules on G. max, and it did not contain 18 : 0, 18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl or summed feature 1 fatty acids, which differed from other related strains. Failure to utilize malonic acid as a carbon source distinguished strain CCBAU 23380T from the type strains of related species. The genome size of CCBAU 23380T was 6.0 Mbp, comprising 5624 predicted genes with DNA G+C content of 62.4 mol%. Based on the results above, a novel species, Ensifer glycinis sp. nov., is proposed, with CCBAU 23380T (=LMG 29231T =HAMBI 3645T) as the type strain. PMID:27125987

  8. Regulation of scallop myosin by the regulatory light chain depends on a single glycine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Jancso, A; Szent-Györgyi, A G

    1994-01-01

    Specific Ca2+ binding and Ca2+ activation of ATPase activity in scallop myosin require a regulatory light chain (RLC) from regulated (molluscan or vertebrate smooth) myosin; hybrids containing vertebrate skeletal RLCs do not bind Ca2+ and their ATPase activity is inhibited. Chimeras between scallop and chicken skeletal RLCs restore Ca2+ sensitivity to RLC-free myosin provided that residues 81-117 are derived from scallop. Six mutants (R90M, A94K, D98P, N105K, M116Q, and G117C) were generated by replacing amino acids of the scallop RLC with the corresponding skeletal RLC residues in positions conserved in either regulated or nonregulated myosins. Ca2+ binding was abolished by a G117C and a G117A mutation; however, these mutants have a decreased affinity for the heavy chain. None of the other mutations affected RLC function. Replacement of the respective cysteine with glycine in the skeletal RLC has markedly changed the regulatory properties of the molecule. The single cysteine to glycine mutation conferred to this light chain the ability to restore Ca2+ binding and regulated ATPase activity, although Ca2+ activation of the actin-activated ATPase was lower than with scallop RLC. The presence of amino acids other than glycine at this position in vertebrate skeletal myosin RLCs may explain why these are not fully functional in the scallop system. The results are in agreement with x-ray crystallography data showing the central role of G117 in stabilizing the Ca(2+)-binding site of scallop myosin. Images PMID:8090720

  9. A Role for Accumbal Glycine Receptors in Modulation of Dopamine Release by the Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibitor Org25935

    PubMed Central

    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Ericson, Mia; Marston, Hugh; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Accumbal glycine modulates basal and ethanol-induced dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption. Also, systemic administration of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 elevates dopamine levels in nAc, prevents a further ethanol-induced dopamine elevation and robustly and dose-dependently decreases ethanol consumption in rats. Here we investigated whether Org25935 applied locally in nAc modulates dopamine release, and whether accumbal glycine receptors or NMDA receptors are involved in this tentative effect. We also addressed whether Org25935 and ethanol applied locally in nAc interact with dopamine levels, as seen after systemic administration. We used in vivo microdialysis coupled to HPLC-ED in freely moving male Wistar rats to monitor dopamine output in nAc after local perfusion of Org25935 alone, with ethanol, or Org25935-perfusion after pre-treatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine or the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist L-701.324. Local Org25935 increased extracellular dopamine levels in a subpopulation of rats. Local strychnine, but not systemic L-701.324, antagonized the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. Ethanol failed to induce a dopamine overflow in the subpopulation responding to Org25935 with a dopamine elevation. The study supports a role for accumbal glycine receptors rather than NMDA receptor signaling in the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. The results further indicate that the previously reported systemic Org25935–ethanol interaction with regard to accumbal dopamine is localized to the nAc. This adds to the growing evidence for the glycine receptor as an important player in the dopamine reward circuitry and in ethanol's effects within this system. PMID:21556278

  10. The temperature effect on the glycine decomposition induced by 2 keV electron bombardment in space analog conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, Sergio; Nair, Binu G.; Escobar, Antonio; Fraser, Helen; Mason, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Glycine is the simplest proteinaceous amino acid that has been extensively detected in carbonaceous meteorites and was recently observed in the cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. In space, such species is exposed to several radiation fields at different temperatures. In aqueous solutions, this species appears mainly as zwitterionic glycine (+NH3CH2COO-) however, in solid phase, it may be found in amorphous or crystalline forms. Here, we present an experimental study on the destruction of two zwitterionic glycine crystals ( α- and β-form) at two different temperatures (300 K and 14 K) by 2 keV electrons in an attempt to test the behavior and stability of this molecular species in different space environments. The samples were analyzed in situ by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at electron fluences. The experiments were carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions at the Molecular Physics Laboratory at the Open University at Milton Keynes, UK. The dissociation cross section of glycine is approximately 5 times higher for the 14 K samples when compared to the 300 K samples. In contrast, no significant differences emerged between the dissociation cross sections of α- and β-forms of glycine for fixed temperature experiments. We therefore conclude that the destruction cross section is more heavily dependent on temperature than the phase of the condensed glycine material. This may be associated with the opening of additional reaction routes in the frozen samples involving the trapped daughter species (e.g. CO2 and CO). The half-life of studied samples extrapolated to space conditions shows that glycine molecules on the surface of interstellar grains has less survivability and they are highly sensitive to ambient radiations, however, they can survive extended period of time in the solar system like environments. Survivability increases by a factor of 5 if the samples are at 300 K when compared to low temperature experiments at 14

  11. Positron Binding Properties of Glycine and Its Aqueous Complexes.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Mikko; Raebiger, Hannes; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2016-06-16

    We investigate positron binding to glycine and its aqueous complexes by first-principles calculation. We show that while glycine in its ground state (Gly) does not bind positrons, several of its strongly polar conformers do, and in particular, its zwitterion form (GlyZI) binds positrons strongly. Aqueous complexes Gly·nH2O and GlyZI·nH2O also bind positrons, if their dipole moment μ > μcr. However, μ is not a sufficient quantity to describe positron binding to these complexes. We show that in addition to μ, positron binding strongly depends on the intramolecular bonding of glycine. In Gly·nH2O, positrons are weakly bound to the nitrogen in Gly, whereas in GlyZI·nH2O, the ionic oxygen in GlyZI is a strong "positron attractor". PMID:27232201

  12. Accumulation of 52 kDa glycine rich protein in auxin-deprived strawberry fruits and its role in fruit growth. [Fragaria ananassa

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-04-01

    Growth of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) receptacles can be stopped at any stage by deachening the fruits and can be resumed by exogenous application of auxin. In their earlier studies they demonstrated auxin regulated polypeptide changes at different stages of strawberry fruit development. Removal of achenes from fruits to deprive auxin resulted in the accumulation of 52 KDa polypeptide. This polypeptide is associated with cell wall and its concentration is increased in a time-dependent manner in auxin deprived receptacles. Incorporation studies with (/sup 35/S) methionine showed the promotion of labelling of 52 kDa polypeptide in the auxin-deprived receptacles within 12 h after removal of the achenes. Amino acid analysis revealed that the 52 KDa polypeptide is rich in glycine. Their studies, with normal and mutant strawberry receptacles, indicate that the synthesis and accumulation of this glycine rich protein correlates with cessation of receptacle growth. These results suggest a role for the glycine rich protein in growth.

  13. Propofol restores the function of "hyperekplexic" mutant glycine receptors in Xenopus oocytes and mice.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Sean Michael; Becker, Lore; Weiher, Hans; Betz, Heinrich; Laube, Bodo

    2004-03-01

    Human hereditary hyperekplexia ("startle disease") is a neurological disorder characterized by exaggerated, convulsive movements in response to unexpected stimuli. Molecular genetic studies have shown that this disease is often caused by amino acid substitutions at arginine 271 to glutamine or leucine of the alpha1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). When exogenously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, agonist responses of mutant alpha1(R271Q) and alpha1(R271L) GlyRs show higher EC50 values and lower maximal inducible responses (relative efficacies) compared with oocytes expressing wild-type alpha1 GlyR subunits. Here, we report that the maximal glycine-induced currents (I(max)) of mutant alpha1(R271Q) and alpha1(R271L) GlyRs were dramatically potentiated in the presence of the anesthetic propofol (PRO), whereas the I(max) of wild-type alpha(1) receptors was not affected. Quantitative analysis of the agonist responses of the isofunctionally substituted alpha1(R271K) mutant GlyR revealed that saturating concentrations of PRO decreased the EC50 values of both glycine and the partial agonist beta-alanine by >10-fold, with relative efficacies increasing by 4- and 16-fold, respectively. Transgenic (tg) mice carrying the alpha1(R271Q) mutation (tg271Q-300) have both spontaneous and induced tremor episodes that closely resemble the movements of startled hyperekplexic patients. After treatment with subanesthetic doses of PRO, the tg271Q-300 mutant mice showed temporary reflexive and locomotor improvements that made them indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Together, these results demonstrate that the functional and behavioral effects of hyperekplexia mutations can be effectively reversed by drugs that potentiate GlyR responses. PMID:14999083

  14. Reduced glycine transporter type 1 expression leads to major changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission of CA1 hippocampal neurones in mice

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Turcotte, Marie-Eve B; Halman, Samantha; Tsai, Guochuan; Tiberi, Mario; Coyle, Joseph T; Bergeron, Richard

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of persistent elevation of synaptic glycine at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses of the hippocampus, we studied the glutamatergic synaptic transmission in acute brain slices from mice with reduced expression of glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1+/−) as compared to wild type (WT) littermates using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of CA1 pyramidal cells. We observed faster decay kinetics, reduced ifenprodil sensitivity and increased zinc-induced antagonism in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents of GlyT1+/− mice. Moreover, the ratio α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)/NMDAR was decreased in mutants compared to WT. Surprisingly, this change was associated with a reduction in the number of AMPARs expressed at the CA1 synapses in the mutants compared to WT. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of GlyT1 in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:15661817

  15. Synthesis of Glycine and Other Prebiotic Compounds in the Interstellar Medium - An Example of Radiation Chemistry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, N. J.; Sivaraman, B.; Jeetha, S.; Dawes, A.; Hunniford, A.; McCullough, R. W.

    2007-08-01

    To understand how life can begin on a habitable planet such as the Earth, it is essential to know what organic compounds were likely to have been available, and how they interacted with the planetary environment. Therefore an understanding of the mechanisms by which organic chemical compounds are formed (so called /prebiotic chemistry/) is essential. Recent data from space based telescopes are revealing the interstellar medium as a rich 'chemical factory' in which many hydrocarbon speices are present (e.g. formic and acetic acid, alcohols and esters). Whether larger more complex species such as amino acids can form remains unknown since they can not, at present, be detected. However laboratory experiments that recreate the conditions of the ISM and the conditions under which stars and planets evolve have recently shown that such 'prebiotic compounds' may be formed through radiation induced chemistry. Details of these experiments will be discussed with the example of glycine formation used as an exemplar for such molecular synthesis.

  16. Free amino acid composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp and peel) and jam.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Casal, Susana; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2004-03-10

    Twenty-one free amino acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by GC/FID. The analyses showed some differences between quince pulps and peels. Generally, the highest content in total free amino acids and in glycine was found in peels. As a general rule, the three major free amino acids detected in pulps were aspartic acid, asparagine, and hydroxyproline. For quince peels, usually, the three most abundant amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid, and asparagine. Similarly, for quince jams the most important free amino acids were aspartic acid, asparagine, and glycine or hydroxyproline. This study suggests that the free amino acid analysis can be useful for the evaluation of quince jam authenticity. It seems that glycine percentage can be used for the detection of quince peel addition while high alanine content can be related to pear addition. PMID:14995121

  17. Calculating chemical equilibria in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.; Ryasensky, S. S.; Baranova, N. V.

    2013-08-01

    Results from investigating interactions in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system are presented. The stoichiometry of cobalt complexes with heparin and glycine compositions CoOHHtpGly4- and CoHepGly3- is established.

  18. Infrared laser induced conformational and structural changes of glycine and glycine·water complex in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussan, Stéphane; Tarczay, György

    2016-01-01

    Conformational and structural changes of matrix-isolated glycine and glycine·water complexes induced by the selective MIR excitation of the fundamental OH and NH stretching vibrational modes were studied. The observed spectral changes are consistent with the former assignments based on matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. Since fewer conformational barriers can be reached by MIR than by NIR excitations, fewer processes are promoted effectively by MIR radiation. The comparison of spectral changes induced by selective MIR and NIR excitations can facilitate the conformational analysis of complex molecular systems and it can also yield information on the barrier heights.

  19. Glycine max (soybean) roots and syncytia isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM) exhibit differential gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is an obligate parasite of soybean (Glycine max). It is the most destructive pathogen of G. max, accounting for approximately 0.46-0.82 billion dollars in crop losses, annually, in the U.S. Part of the infection process involves H. glycines establishin...

  20. 77 FR 21532 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Partial Affirmative Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... find that Paras is not circumventing the Order because it is producing glycine from raw materials of... find that there is no record evidence that AICO self produces glycine from Indian raw materials... exported to the United States glycine that it produced only from Indian raw materials. For a...

  1. Heterodera glycines Population Development on Soybean Treated with Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is a major yield limiting pest in all major soybean producing countries. In the last decade genetically modified soybean tolerant to glyphosate has become widely planted and postemergence application of glyphosate has increased exponentially. Genetically m...

  2. Pathway of Glycine Betaine Biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Lambou, Karine; Pennati, Andrea; Valsecchi, Isabel; Tada, Rui; Sherman, Stephen; Sato, Hajime; Beau, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The choline oxidase (CHOA) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) genes identified in Aspergillus fumigatus are present as a cluster specific for fungal genomes. Biochemical and molecular analyses of this cluster showed that it has very specific biochemical and functional features that make it unique and different from its plant and bacterial homologs. A. fumigatus ChoAp catalyzed the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with betaine aldehyde as an intermediate and reduced molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide using FAD as a cofactor. A. fumigatus Badhp oxidized betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine with reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Analysis of the AfchoAΔ::HPH and AfbadAΔ::HPH single mutants and the AfchoAΔAfbadAΔ::HPH double mutant showed that AfChoAp is essential for the use of choline as the sole nitrogen, carbon, or carbon and nitrogen source during the germination process. AfChoAp and AfBadAp were localized in the cytosol of germinating conidia and mycelia but were absent from resting conidia. Characterization of the mutant phenotypes showed that glycine betaine in A. fumigatus functions exclusively as a metabolic intermediate in the catabolism of choline and not as a stress protectant. This study in A. fumigatus is the first molecular, cellular, and biochemical characterization of the glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway in the fungal kingdom. PMID:23563483

  3. Variable temperature NMR characterization of α-glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Dybowski, C.

    2008-10-01

    Proton NMR spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory frame ( T1) and in the rotating frame ( T1ρ) were measured as a function of temperature for a static sample of α-glycine. Both T1 and T1ρ data can be fit quantitatively by a single thermally-activated motion (the modulation of the dipolar coupling by random hopping about the threefold axis of the -NH 3 group), with no addition of other mechanisms at any temperature between 173 and 415 K. An activation energy of 21.7 ± 1 kJ/mol was extracted and is compared with previously reported values for both α- and γ-glycine. Such comparisons allow the correction of glycine polymorphs misidentified in the literature. The minimum in T1 at 325 K corresponds to a correlation time of 0.53 ns. Chemical shifts as a function of temperature were measured by 1H CRAMPS and by 13C and 15N CP/MAS experiments. These results are discussed relative to a previous report of anomalous electrical behavior in α-glycine within this temperature range.

  4. Evaluation of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] F1 Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is an important factor in development of hybrid cultivars. Few heterosis studies have been done in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This is because manual cross-pollination is difficult and time consuming, and not conducive as an economical way to produce large quantities of hybrid seed...

  5. Phenotypic characterization of roots responding to Heterodera glycines CLE peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitism genes coding for secreted CLAVATA3/ESR(CLE)-like peptides are expressed in the dorsal gland cell of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, during syncytium induction and maintenance. Recent data indicate that there are two predominant forms of SCN CLEs, HgCLEA and HgCLEB, ...

  6. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  7. Dietary glycine and threonine interactive effects in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information regarding the interaction of dietary threonine and glycine on potential metabolic sparing effects, live production, or breast meat yield of broilers. To test these potential interactions, 432 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were fed a common diet up to 21 days of age a...

  8. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  9. SSR diversity of vegetable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a type of soybean selected for fresh or frozen vegetable use at an immature stage. Since edamame has a similar protein content, milder flavor, nuttier texture, and is easier to cook when compared to grain soybean, it is being promoted as a new vegetable for global...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5049 - Aminoacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminoacetic acid. 582.5049 Section 582.5049 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5049 Aminoacetic acid. (a) Product. Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (b) (c)...

  15. Identification in Marinomonas mediterranea of a novel quinoprotein with glycine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Campillo-Brocal, Jonatan Cristian; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A novel enzyme with lysine-epsilon oxidase activity was previously described in the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This enzyme differs from other l-amino acid oxidases in not being a flavoprotein but containing a quinone cofactor. It is encoded by an operon with two genes lodA and lodB. The first one codes for the oxidase, while the second one encodes a protein required for the expression of the former. Genome sequencing of M. mediterranea has revealed that it contains two additional operons encoding proteins with sequence similarity to LodA. In this study, it is shown that the product of one of such genes, Marme_1655, encodes a protein with glycine oxidase activity. This activity shows important differences in terms of substrate range and sensitivity to inhibitors to other glycine oxidases previously described which are flavoproteins synthesized by Bacillus. The results presented in this study indicate that the products of the genes with different degrees of similarity to lodA detected in bacterial genomes could constitute a reservoir of different oxidases. PMID:23873697

  16. Shifts in Buchnera aphidicola density in soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) feeding on virus-infected soybean.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Bryan J; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Dorrance, Anne E; Michel, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts are common in arthropods. Aphids undergo an obligate symbiosis with Buchnera aphidicola, which provides essential amino acids to its host and contributes directly to nymph growth and reproduction. We previously found that newly adult Aphis glycines feeding on soybean infected with the beetle-transmitted Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) had significantly reduced fecundity. We hypothesized that the reduced fecundity was attributable to detrimental impacts of the virus on the aphid microbiome, namely Buchnera. To test this, mRNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR were used to assay Buchnera transcript abundance and titre in A. glycines feeding on Soybean mosaic virus-infected, BPMV-infected, and healthy soybean for up to 14 days. Our results indicated that Buchnera density was lower and ultimately suppressed in aphids feeding on virus-infected soybean. While the decreased Buchnera titre may be associated with reduced aphid fecundity, additional mechanisms are probably involved. The present report begins to describe how interactions among insects, plants, and plant pathogens influence endosymbiont population dynamics. PMID:25845267

  17. Syncytium gene expression in Glycine max [PI88788} roots undergoing a resistant reaction of the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate Heterodera glycines feeding sites (syncytia) from the (G. max) genotype PI 88788. Syncytia at various stages of the resistant response were isolated from roots 3, 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi). At 3 dpi, the analyses revealed highly induced...

  18. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

  19. Osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion via activation of neurohypophysial nerve terminals glycine receptors by glial taurine.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Brès, V; Rochette, M; Duvoid, A; Alonso, G; Dayanithi, G; Moos, F C

    2001-09-15

    Osmotic regulation of supraoptic nucleus (SON) neuron activity depends in part on activation of neuronal glycine receptors (GlyRs), most probably by taurine released from adjacent astrocytes. In the neurohypophysis in which the axons of SON neurons terminate, taurine is also concentrated in and osmo-dependently released by pituicytes, the specialized glial cells ensheathing nerve terminals. We now show that taurine release from isolated neurohypophyses is enhanced by hypo-osmotic and decreased by hyper-osmotic stimulation. The high osmosensitivity is shown by the significant increase on only 3.3% reduction in osmolarity. Inhibition of taurine release by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid, niflumic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid suggests the involvement of volume-sensitive anion channels. On purified neurohypophysial nerve endings, activation of strychnine-sensitive GlyRs by taurine or glycine primarily inhibits the high K(+)-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and subsequent release of vasopressin. Expression of GlyRs in vasopressin and oxytocin terminals is confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Their implication in the osmoregulation of neurohormone secretion was assessed on isolated whole neurohypophyses. A 6.6% hypo-osmotic stimulus reduces by half the depolarization-evoked vasopressin secretion, an inhibition totally prevented by strychnine. Most importantly, depletion of taurine by a taurine transport inhibitor also abolishes the osmo-dependent inhibition of vasopressin release. Therefore, in the neurohypophysis, an osmoregulatory system involving pituicytes, taurine, and GlyRs is operating to control Ca(2+) influx in and neurohormone release from nerve terminals. This elucidates the functional role of glial taurine in the neurohypophysis, reveals the expression of GlyRs on axon terminals, and further defines the role of glial cells in the regulation of neuroendocrine function. PMID:11549721

  20. Glycine Betaine, Carnitine, and Choline Enhance Salinity Tolerance and Prevent the Accumulation of Sodium to a Level Inhibiting Growth of Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Hervé; Le Marrec, Claire; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to probe the intracellular organic solute content of the moderately halophilic bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila. When grown in complex growth media supplemented or not with NaCl, T. halophila accumulates glycine betaine and carnitine. Unlike other moderate halophiles, T. halophila was not able to produce potent osmoprotectants (such as ectoines and glycine betaine) through de novo synthesis when cultured in defined medium under hyperosmotic constraint. Addition of 2 mM carnitine, glycine betaine, or choline to defined medium improved growth parameters, not only at high salinity (up to 2.5 M NaCl) but also in media lacking NaCl. These compounds were taken up when available in the surrounding medium. The transport activity occurred at low and high salinities and seems to be constitutive. Glycine betaine and carnitine were accumulated by T. halophila in an unmodified form, while exogenously provided choline led to an intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine. This is the first evidence of the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in a lactic acid bacterium. An assay showed that the compatible solutes strikingly repressed the accumulation of glutamate and slightly increased the intracellular potassium level only at high salinity. Interestingly, osmoprotectant-treated cells were able to maintain the intracellular sodium concentration at a relatively constant level (200 to 300 nmol/mg [dry weight]), independent of the NaCl concentration of the medium. In contrast, in the absence of osmoprotectant, the intracellular sodium content increased sharply from 200 to 2,060 nmol/mg (dry weight) when the salinity of the medium was raised from 1 to 2 M. Indeed, the imported compatible solutes play an actual role in regulating the intracellular Na+ content and confer a much higher salt tolerance to T. halophila. PMID:10653711

  1. Effect of polynucleotides on the dimerization of glycine. [abiological protein synthesis in primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results from experiments to determine the effect of polynucleotides on abiological formation of peptide bonds are reported. The reaction between glycine molecules in an aqueous phase in the presence of a condensing agent was chosen as a model, with polyphosphates being selected as the condensing agent for biologically relevant peptide formation. Four types of polynucleotides were used: polygluanic acid (G), polyuridic acid (U), polyadenylic acid (A), and polycytidylic acid (C); the effects of small anions, acetate, chloride, and phosphate, were also studied. Procedures are given, including concentrations, pH, and incubation time, and the type of amino acid analyzer. The diglycine yields were, in order of most to least: G, C, A, U, and are diagrammed as a function of time; rate of formation followed the same order of magnitude as the final yields. Anion presence displayed no discernible effect. The results are taken to indicate that polynucleotides do have an effect on the formation of peptide bonds, an effect significant in the understanding of chemical evolution.

  2. Glycine, a new regulator of glutamine metabolism in isolated rat-liver cells.

    PubMed

    Vincent, N; Martin, G; Baverel, G

    1992-12-15

    Glycine (0.1-10 mM) caused a dose-dependent increase in the removal of 5 mM [1-14C]glutamine by isolated rat-liver cells; at low concentrations of glycine, an increase in the formation of 14CO2, urea and glucose from glutamine occurred. At 2-10 mM, glycine also caused an accumulation of ammonia, a well-established activator of glutaminase (E.C. 3.5.1.2) and, at concentrations found in the presence of glutamine plus glycine, ammonia stimulated glutamine removal. The inhibition of urea synthesis from glutamine observed with 10 mM glycine was relieved by the addition of ornithine, suggesting that this inhibition occurred by reducing the availability of ornithine for the ornithine transcarbamoylase reaction. The metabolism of glycine as sole substrate led to a small increase in the accumulation of ammonia. Glycine did not alter hepatic glutaminase activity but swelling of rat hepatocytes, a factor considered to stimulate glutamine metabolism, was observed in the presence of glycine (1 mM). It is concluded that stimulation by glycine of hepatic utilization of glutamine is mediated by the accumulation of ammonia arising from both glycine and glutamine metabolism and by hepatocyte osmotic swelling secondary to glycine transport. PMID:1482692

  3. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  4. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops. PMID:23813339

  5. Sodium tris(glycinium) bis(hexafluorosilicate) glycine trisolvate.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Moolya B; Rai, Chitharanjan; Dharmaprakash, S M; Harrison, William T A

    2007-07-01

    The title compound, Na(+) x 3C(2)H(6)NO(2)(+) x 2SiF(6)(2-) x 3C(2)H(5)NO(2), arose from an unexpected reaction of glycine and HF with the glass container. It is an unusual hybrid organic-inorganic network built up from chains of vertex-sharing NaF(4)O(2) and SiF(6) octahedra. A pair of glycinium/glycine molecules bridges the chains into a sheet via a centrosymmetric O...H...O link. The other organic species interact with the network by an extensive N-H...F hydrogen-bond network, including bifurcated and trifurcated bonds. Finally, an extremely short C-H...O interaction (H...O = 2.25 Angstrom) is seen in the crystal structure. The Na atom has site symmetry overline1. PMID:17609553

  6. [Molecular physiology of glycine receptors in nervous system of vertebrates].

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Glycine receptor is the anion-selective channel, providing fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Together with the nicotinic acetylcholine, GABA and serotonin (5-HT3R) receptors, it belongs to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptors. It has been cloned one beta and four alpha subunits of glycine receptor, which are specifically distributed in different areas of the nervous system. Due to their specific molecular properties and distribution, different subunits ensure important physiological functions: from control of motor activity and regulation of neuronal differentiation to sensory information processing and modulation of pain sensitivity. In this review we briefly describe main functions of these transmembrane proteins, their distribution and molecular architecture. Special attention is paid to recent studies on the molecular physiology of these receptors, as well as on presenting of molecular domains responsible for their modulation and dysfunction. PMID:25508361

  7. [Molecular physiology of glycine receptors in nervous system of vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Maleeva, G V; Brezhestovskiĭ, P D

    2014-03-01

    Glycine receptor is the anion-selective channel, providing fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Together with the nicotinic acetylcholine, GABA and serotonin (5-HT3R) receptors, it belongs to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptors. It has been cloned one beta and four alpha subunits of glycine receptor, which are specifically distributed in different areas of the nervous system. Due to their specific molecular properties and distribution, different subunits ensure important physiological functions: from control of motor activity and regulation of neuronal differentiation to sensory information processing and modulation of pain sensitivity. In this review we briefly describe main functions of these transmembrane proteins, their distribution and molecular architecture. Special attention is paid to recent studies on the molecular physiology of these receptors, as well as on presenting of molecular domains responsible for their modulation and dysfunction. PMID:25464730

  8. Restricticin, a novel glycine-containing antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R E; Dufresne, C; Flor, J E; Kempf, A J; Wilson, K E; Lam, T; Onishi, J; Milligan, J; Fromtling, R A; Abruzzo, G K

    1991-05-01

    Restricticin (1) is a naturally-occurring antifungal agent which contains triene, pyran and glycine ester functionalities and is unrelated to any previously known family of natural products. This unstable compound, as well as its corresponding N,N-dimethyl derivative (2), have been produced and isolated from both solid and liquid fermentations of Penicillium restrictum. The desglycyl hydrolysis product, restrictinol (3), was produced via the hydrolysis of pure restricticin and as an artifact of the isolation of restricticin. PMID:2061189

  9. Endogenously synthesized (-)-proto-quercitol and glycine betaine are principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new isolates of phylogenetically related thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Anita N; Aasen, Inga M; Strøm, Arne R

    2007-09-01

    We report that endogenously synthesized (-)-proto-quercitol (1D-1,3,4/2,5-cyclohexanepentol) and glycine betaine were the principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new osmotolerant isolates of thraustochytrids (strains T65, T66, and T67). The compatible solutes were identified and quantified by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy and measurement of the specific optical rotation. The cellular content of compatible solutes increased with increasing NaCl concentration of a defined medium. (-)-proto-Quercitol was the dominating solute at all NaCl concentrations tested (0.25 to 1.0 M), e.g., cells of S8 and T66 stressed with 1.0 M NaCl accumulated about 500 micromol (-)-proto-quercitol and 100 micromol glycine betaine per g dry weight. To our knowledge, (-)-proto-quercitol has previously been found only in eucalyptus. The 18S rRNA gene sequences of the four (-)-proto-quercitol-producing strains showed 99% identity, and they displayed the same fatty acid profile. The only polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated were docosahexaenoic acid (78%) and docosapentaenoic acid (22%). A less osmotolerant isolate (strain T29), which was closely phylogenetically related to Thraustochytrium aureum (ATCC 34304), did not contain (-)-proto-quercitol or glycine betaine. Thus, the level of osmotolerance and the osmolyte systems vary among thraustochytrids. PMID:17660311

  10. The mitochondrial genome of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ≥ 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate. PMID:21745140

  11. Coating Soybean Seed with Oxamyl for Control of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Townshend, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Oxamyl coated on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Elgin) seeds in solutions of 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/ml had no serious deleterious effects on seedling emergence and growth when planted in sterile soil. Seedling emergence on day 3 was less than that of the uncoated control, but by day 7 emergence was equal to, or greater than, the control. Shoot and root growth from seed coated with oxamyl in 40 and 80 mg/ml solutions was greater than that of the control. In soil infested with soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, shoot weight of soybean plants from seeds coated with oxamyl in 80 mg/ml solution was 11 and 9% greater at weeks 3 and 7, respectively, than from uncoated seeds. Numbers of juveniles (J3 and J4) and adults of H. glycines observed on the roots of plants from oxamyl-coated seeds were 83, 42, and 49% less at weeks 3, 5, and 7, respectively, than numbers on the roots of the untreated control. Numbers of J2 extracted from the roots of plants from oxamyl-coated seeds were 75% less at weeks 5 and 7 than those extracted from roots of uncoated seeds. The numbers of J2 extracted from the soil planted to oxamyl-coated seeds were 51 and 33% less at weeks 5 and 7, respectively, than from soil planted to uncoated seed. PMID:19287713

  12. Glycine induced culture-harvesting strategy for Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhu, Wenzhe; Chen, Chaozhou; Nie, Yilei

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of culture conditions, including carbon sources and concentration, culture period, and precondition time, on the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and its influence on microalgal flocculation. EPS are natural high molecule polymer, excreted by microalgae themselves. EPS can accelerate the formation of microbial aggregates through binding cells closely. Organic carbon sources, such as glucose, glycerol, acetate and glycine were compared to select the optimal source to stimulate EPS accumulation. Subsequently, the effect of culture period, glycine dose and precondition time on EPS production and its influence on biomass growth and flocculation efficiency were investigated. As the main parts of EPS, tightly bound EPS were found positively related to suspended solids concentration. However, the loosely bound EPS may weaken the floc structure, leading to poor water-cells separation. Under the optimal condition with culture period of 16 days, glycine dose of 0.5 g l(-1) and precondition time of 5 days, the biomass concentration increased from 1.49 to 2 g l(-1), and the maximum suspended solids concentration of 7.06% with biomass recovery rate of 70.6% was achieved. PMID:26553477

  13. Interaction between ATP, metal ions, glycine, and several minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishpon, J.; Ohara, P. J.; Lawless, J. G.; Lahav, N.

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between ATP, glycine and montmorillonite and kaolinite clay minerals in the presence of various metal cations are investigated. The adsorption of adenine nucleotides on clays and Al(OH)3 was measured as a function of pH, and glycine condensation was followed in the presence of ATP, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and either kaolinite or montmorillonite. The amounts of ATP and ADP adsorbed are found to decrease with increasing Ph, and to be considerably enhanced in experiments with Mg(2+)- and Zn(2+)-montmorillonite with respect to Na(+)-montmorillonite. The effects of divalent cations are less marked in kaolinite. Results for Al(OH)3 show the importance of adsorption at clay platelet edges at high pH. The decomposition of ATP during drying at high temperature is observed to be inhibited by small amounts of clay, vacuum, or Mg(2+) or Zn(2+) ions, and to be accompanied by peptide formation in the presence of glycine. Results suggest the importance of Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) in chemical evolution.

  14. Heterodera glycines cysts contain an extensive array of endoproteases as well as inhibitors of proteases in H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juvenile stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines cysts contain proteases, and inhibitors of protease activities in various nematode species. In this investigation, proteases in H. glycines cysts were identified using a commercially available FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide pools qualified to detect up to 4 endoprot...

  15. Dog bites man or man bites dog? The enigma of the amino acid conjugations

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Smith, Robert L.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The proposition posed is that the value of amino acid conjugation to the organism is not, as in the traditional view, to use amino acids for the detoxication of aromatic acids. Rather, the converse is more likely, to use aromatic acids that originate from the diet and gut microbiota to assist in the regulation of body stores of amino acids, such as glycine, glutamate, and, in certain invertebrates, arginine, that are key neurotransmitters in the CNS. As such, the amino acid conjugations are not so much detoxication reactions, rather they are homeostatic and neuroregulatory processes. Experimental data have been culled in support of this hypothesis from a broad range of scientific and clinical literature. Such data include the low detoxication value of amino acid conjugations and the Janus nature of certain amino acids that are both neurotransmitters and apparent conjugating agents. Amino acid scavenging mechanisms in blood deplete brain amino acids. Amino acids glutamate and glycine when trafficked from brain are metabolized to conjugates of aromatic acids in hepatic mitochondria and then irreversibly excreted into urine. This process is used clinically to deplete excess nitrogen in cases of urea cycle enzymopathies through excretion of glycine or glutamine as their aromatic acid conjugates. Untoward effects of high-dose phenylacetic acid surround CNS toxicity. There appears to be a relationship between extent of glycine scavenging by benzoic acid and psychomotor function. Glycine and glutamine scavenging by conjugation with aromatic acids may have important psychosomatic consequences that link diet to health, wellbeing, and disease. PMID:22227274

  16. Effect of cholestyramine on bile acid metabolism in normal man

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, J. T.; Kenney, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of cholestyramine administration on the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids was studied in eight normal volunteers. In six subjects the metabolism of sodium taurocholate-14C was determined after its intravenous injection before and during the 6th wk of cholestyramine administration, 16 g/day. In two subjects, the metabolism of cholic acid-14C was observed before and during the 2nd wk of cholestyramine, 16 g/day. Bile acid sequestration resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the injected primary bile acid and its metabolic products. The composition of fasting bile acids was promptly altered by cholestyramine to predominantly glycine-conjugated trihydroxy bile acid. In four subjects, unconjugated bile acid-14C was administered during cholestyramine administration; the relative proportion of glycine-conjugated bile acid-14C before enterohepatic circulation was similar to the relative proportion of unlabeled glycine-conjugated bile acid present in duodenal contents after an overnight fast, indicating that a hepatic mechanism was responsible for the elevated ratios of glycine- to taurine-conjugated bile acid (G: T ratios) observed. The relative proportions of both dihydroxy bile acids, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic, were significantly reduced. Steatorrhea did not occur, and the total bile acid pool size determined after an overnight fast was unaltered by cholestyramine. These findings suggest that in normal man bile acid sequestered from the enterohepatic circulation by cholestyramine is replaced by an increase in hepatic synthesis primarily via the pathway leading to production of glycocholic acid. PMID:5080408

  17. Glycine's radiolytic destruction in ices: first in situ laboratory measurements for Mars.

    PubMed

    Gerakines, Perry A; Hudson, Reggie L

    2013-07-01

    We report new laboratory studies of the radiation-induced destruction of glycine-containing ices for a range of temperatures and compositions that allow extrapolation to martian conditions. In situ infrared spectroscopy was used to study glycine decay rates as a function of temperature (from 15 to 280 K) and initial glycine concentrations in six mixtures whose compositions ranged from dry glycine to H2O+glycine (300:1). Results are presented in several systems of units, with cautions concerning their use. The half-life of glycine under the surface of Mars is estimated as an extrapolation of this data set to martian conditions, and trends in decay rates are described as are applications to Mars' near-surface chemistry. PMID:23848469

  18. The hyperpolarizing impact of glycine on endothelial cells may be anti-atherogenic.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    Studies to date indicate that endothelial cells express glycine-activated chloride channels, which promote hyperpolarization of the endothelial plasma membrane. If such channels are expressed by endothelial cells lining conduit arteries, glycine is likely to have anti-atherogenic activity. This reflects the fact that endothelial hyperpolarization promotes calcium influx, activating the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase, while also down-regulating the activity of the membrane-bound NADPH oxidase, chief endothelial source of superoxide. Since macrophages express glycine-activated chloride channels that suppress production of oxidants and cytokines, glycine may also oppose atherogenesis by influencing intimal macrophage function. In rats, supplemental glycine exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects attributed to chloride channel activation. Administration of large daily doses of glycine would appear to be practical and safe, and has already been shown to inhibit protein glycation in human diabetics. PMID:19232835

  19. Branch-point stoichiometry can generate weak links in metabolism: the case of glycine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Melendez-Hevia, Enrique; Paz-Lugo, Patricia De

    2008-12-01

    Although the metabolic network permits conversion between almost any pair of metabolites,this versatility fails at certain sites because of chemical constraints (kinetic,thermodynamic and stoichiometric) that seriously restrict particular conversions. We call these sites weak links in metabolism,as they can interfere harmfully with management of matter and energy if the network as a whole does not include adequate safeguards. A critical weak link is created in glycine biosynthesis by the stoichiometry of the reaction catalyzed by glycine hydroxymethyltransferase (EC 2.1.2.1), which converts serine into glycine plus one C1 unit: this produces an absolute dependence of the glycine production flux on the utilization of C1 units for other metabolic pathways that do not work coordinately with glycine use. It may not be possible,therefore,to ensure that glycine is always synthesized in sufficient quantities to meet optimal metabolic requirements. PMID:19179765

  20. Derivation of glycine from threonine in Escherichia coli K-12 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, J; Newman, E B

    1975-01-01

    Escherichia coli AT2046 has been shown previously to lack the enzyme serine transhydroxymethylase and to require exogenous glycine for growth as a consequence. Strains JEV73 and JEV73R, mutants derived from strain AT2046, are shown here to be serine transhydroxymethylase deficient, but able to derive their glycine from endogenously synthesized threonine. Leucine is shown to be closely involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of glycine, to spare glycine in strain AT2046T, to replace glycine in strain JEV73, and to increase threonine conversion to glycine in a representative prototroph of E. coli. An interpretation of strains JEV73 and JEV73R as regulatory mutants of strain AT2046 is given. A hypothesis as to the role of leucine as a signal for nitrogen scavenging is suggested. PMID:1097400

  1. The Formation of Racemic Amino Acids by UV Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Cooper, George; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Small biologically relevant organic molecules including the amino acids glycine, alanine, and marine were formed in the laboratory by the UV (Ultraviolet) photolysis of realistic interstellar ice analogs, composed primarily of H2O, and including CH3OH, NH3, and HCN, under interstellar conditions. N-formyl glycine, cycloserine (4-amino-3-isoxazolidinone), and glycerol were detected before hydrolysis, and glycine, racemic alanine, racemic marine, glycerol, ethanolamine, and glyceric acid were found after hydrolysis. This suggests that some meteoritic amino acids (and other molecules) may be the direct result of interstellar ice photochemistry, expanding the current paradigm that they formed by reactions in liquid water on meteorite parent bodies.

  2. Resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E: a nutraceutical approach to sleep disturbance and irritability in peri- and post-menopause.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, F

    2015-02-01

    The climacteric syndrome is characterized by several symptoms: hot flashes are the most common and reported by about 70% of peri- post-menopausal women. Sleep disorders, particularly decreased sleep quality, and irritability are also commonly reported. There is a clinical and epidemiological relationship between these symptoms. Common biological mechanisms may explain in part the relationship between hot flushes, sleep disorders and irritability. For example, withdrawal of hormones causes change in the serotonin levels. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. it is the precursor for the serotonin synthesis and is naturally found in food such as turkey, cheese, and nuts. The serotonergic system is implicated in sleep, mood, and hot flashes. Glycine is an amino acid found mainly in protein-rich food such as meat, fish, dairy products, cheese and vegetables. It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Studies have shown that glycine can promote a deeper level of sleep. Resveratrol has a similar chemical structure to the diethylstilbestrol and 17-beta estradiol and acts as a phytoestrogen. Resveratrol at doses of 3-10 micromoles inhibited the estradiol-estrogen receptor binding and showed an estrogen-like activity. Vitamin E is found naturally in some food and available as a dietary supplement. It has an antioxidant activity. It has been suggested that the oxidative stress may also play a role in sleep disorders. Some studies have shown protective effect of vitamins E on sleep quality. In conclusion, hot flashes, sleep disturbances and mood disorders may represent a continuum in the climacteric syndrome, which recognize in the hormonal changes and the neurotrasmettitors level alteration a potential common pathway. The nutraceutical approach may be useful in a preventive perspective. Among the large choice of functional food available, the combination of resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E may represent an interesting opportunity in

  3. Principal role of NR3 subunits in NR1/NR3 excitatory glycine receptor function.

    PubMed

    Madry, Christian; Mesic, Ivana; Bartholomäus, Ingo; Nicke, Annette; Betz, Heinrich; Laube, Bodo

    2007-03-01

    Calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are tetrameric cation channels composed of glycine-binding NR1 and glutamate-binding NR2 subunits, which require binding of both glutamate and glycine for efficient channel gating. In contrast, receptors assembled from NR1 and NR3 subunits function as calcium-impermeable excitatory glycine receptors that respond to agonist application only with low efficacy. Here, we show that antagonists of and substitutions within the glycine-binding site of NR1 potentiate NR1/NR3 receptor function up to 25-fold, but inhibition or mutation of the NR3 glycine binding site reduces or abolishes receptor activation. Thus, glycine bound to the NR1 subunit causes auto-inhibition of NR1/NR3 receptors whereas glycine binding to the NR3 subunits is required for opening of the ion channel. Our results establish differential roles of the high-affinity NR3 and low-affinity NR1 glycine-binding sites in excitatory glycine receptor function. PMID:17214961

  4. Converting enzyme inhibition and the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Slomowitz, L A; Peterson, O W; Thomson, S C

    1999-07-01

    GFR normally increases during glycine infusion. This response is absent in humans and rats with established diabetes mellitus. In diabetic patients, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) restores the effect of glycine on GFR. To ascertain the glomerular hemodynamic basis for this effect of ACEI, micropuncture studies were performed in male Wistar-Froemter rats after 5 to 6 wk of insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetes. The determinants of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) were assessed in each rat before and during glycine infusion. Studies were performed in diabetics, diabetics after 5 d of ACEI (enalapril in the drinking water), and weight-matched controls. Diabetic rats manifest renal hypertrophy and glomerular hyperfiltration but not glomerular capillary hypertension. ACEI reduced glomerular capillary pressure, increased glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, and did not mitigate hyperfiltration. In controls, glycine increased SNGFR by 30% due to increased nephron plasma flow. In diabetics, glycine had no effect on any determinant of SNGFR. In ACEI-treated diabetics, the SNGFR response to glycine was indistinguishable from nondiabetics, but the effect of glycine was mediated by greater ultrafiltration pressure rather than by greater plasma flow. These findings demonstrate that: (1) The absent response to glycine in established diabetes does not indicate that renal functional reserve is exhausted by hyperfiltration; and (2) ACEI restores the GFR response to glycine in established diabetes, but this response is mediated by increased ultrafiltration pressure rather than by increased nephron plasma flow. PMID:10405200

  5. Structure analysis of an amyloid-forming model peptide by a systematic glycine and proline scan.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Ulla I M; Brandenburg, Enrico; von Berlepsch, Hans; Pagel, Kevin; Koksch, Beate

    2011-08-01

    The ability to adopt at least two different stable conformations is a common feature of proteins involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. The involved molecules undergo a conformational transition from native, mainly helical states to insoluble amyloid structures that have high β-sheet content. A detailed characterization of the molecular architecture of highly ordered amyloid structures, however, is still challenging. Their intrinsically low solubility and high tendency to aggregate often considerably limits the application of established high-resolution techniques such as NMR and X-ray crystallography. An alternative approach to elucidating the tertiary and quaternary organization within an amyloid fibril is the systematic replacement of residues with amino acids that exhibit special conformational characteristics, such as glycine and proline. Substitutions within the β-sheet-prone sequences of the molecules usually severely affect their ability to form fibrils, whereas incorporation at external loop- and bend-like positions often has only marginal effects. Here we present the characterization of the internal architecture of a de novo designed coiled-coil-based amyloid-forming model peptide by means of a series of systematic single glycine and proline replacements in combination with a set of simple low-resolution methods. The folding and assembly behavior of the substituted peptides was monitored simultaneously using circular dichroism spectroscopy, Thioflavin T fluorescence staining, and transmission electron microscopy. On the basis of the obtained data, we successfully identify characteristic bend and core positions within the peptide sequence and propose a detailed structural model of the internal fibrillar arrangement. PMID:21726080

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis in Aphis glycines Mutsumura under lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide stress.

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui; Pan, Yiou; Shang, Qingli; Peng, Tianfei; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Shang; Xin, Xuecheng; Liu, Yan; Xi, Jinghui

    2016-09-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin is now widely used in China to control the soybean aphid Aphis glycines. To dissect the resistance mechanism, a laboratory-selected resistant soybean aphid strain (CRR) was established with a 43.42-fold resistance ratio to λ-cyhalothrin than the susceptible strain (CSS) in adult aphids. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis between the CRR and CSS strains revealed important differences between the susceptible and resistant strains of soybean aphids for λ-cyhalothrin. Approximately 493 protein spots were detected in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Thirty-six protein spots displayed differential expression of >2-fold in the CRR strain compared to the CSS strain. Out of these 36 protein spots, 21 had elevated and 15 had decreased expression. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF MS/MS and categorized into the functional groups cytoskeleton-related protein, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein folding, antioxidant system, and nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Function analysis showed that cytoskeleton-related proteins and energy metabolism proteins have been associated with the λ-cyhalothrin resistance of A. glycines. The differential expression of λ-cyhalothrin responsive proteins reflected the overall change in cellular structure and metabolism after insecticide treatment in aphids. In summary, our studies improve understanding of the molecular mechanism resistance of soybean aphid to lambda-cyhalothrin, which will facilitate the development of rational approaches to improve the management of this pest and to improve the yield of soybean. PMID:27395796

  7. Combined stimulation of the glycine and polyamine sites of the NMDA receptor attenuates NMDA blockade-induced learning deficits of rats in a 14-unit T-maze.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R C; Knox, J; Purwin, D A; Spangler, E L; Ingram, D K

    1998-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of multi-site activation of the glycine and polyamine sites of the NMDA receptor on memory formation in rats learning a 14-unit T-maze task. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 9 mg/kg), was used to impair learning. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to investigate the effects of independent stimulation of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site or the polyamine site; (2) to investigate the effects of simultaneous activation of these two sites. Male, Fischer-344 rats were pretrained to a criterion of 13 out of 15 shock avoidances in a straight runway, and 24 h later were trained in a 14-unit T-maze that also required shock avoidance. Prior to maze training, rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline, saline plus CPP, CPP plus the glycine agonist, D-cycloserine (DCS, 30 or 40 mg/kg), CPP plus the polyamine agonist, spermine (SPM, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg), or CPP plus a combination of DCS (7.5 mg/kg) and SPM (0.625 mg/kg). Individual administration of either DCS or SPM attenuated the CPP-induced maze learning impairment in a dose-dependent manner. However, the combined treatment with both DCS and SPM completely reversed the learning deficit at doses five-fold less than either drug given alone. These findings provide additional evidence that the glycine and polyamine modulatory sites of the NMDA receptor are involved in memory formation. Furthermore, the potent synergistic effect resulting from combined activation of the glycine and polyamine sites would suggest a stronger interaction between these two sites than previously considered, and might provide new therapeutic approaches for enhancing glutamatergic function. PMID:9498733

  8. Disturbances of Ligand Potency and Enhanced Degradation of the Human Glycine Receptor at Affected Positions G160 and T162 Originally Identified in Patients Suffering from Hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Atak, Sinem; Langlhofer, Georg; Schaefer, Natascha; Kessler, Denise; Meiselbach, Heike; Delto, Carolyn; Schindelin, Hermann; Villmann, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-binding of Cys-loop receptors is determined by N-terminal extracellular loop structures from the plus as well as from the minus side of two adjacent subunits in the pentameric receptor complex. An aromatic residue in loop B of the glycine receptor (GlyR) undergoes direct interaction with the incoming ligand via a cation-π interaction. Recently, we showed that mutated residues in loop B identified from human patients suffering from hyperekplexia disturb ligand-binding. Here, we exchanged the affected human residues by amino acids found in related members of the Cys-loop receptor family to determine the effects of side chain volume for ion channel properties. GlyR variants were characterized in vitro following transfection into cell lines in order to analyze protein expression, trafficking, degradation and ion channel function. GlyR α1 G160 mutations significantly decrease glycine potency arguing for a positional effect on neighboring aromatic residues and consequently glycine-binding within the ligand-binding pocket. Disturbed glycinergic inhibition due to T162 α1 mutations is an additive effect of affected biogenesis and structural changes within the ligand-binding site. Protein trafficking from the ER toward the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, the secretory Golgi pathways and finally the cell surface is largely diminished, but still sufficient to deliver ion channels that are functional at least at high glycine concentrations. The majority of T162 mutant protein accumulates in the ER and is delivered to ER-associated proteasomal degradation. Hence, G160 is an important determinant during glycine binding. In contrast, T162 affects primarily receptor biogenesis whereas exchanges in functionality are secondary effects thereof. PMID:26733802

  9. Gas-phase lithium cation affinity of glycine.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, Sophie; Chiaa, Ru Xuan; Mimbong, Rosa Ngo Biboum; Bouchoux, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase lithium cation binding thermochemistry of glycine has been determined theoretically by quantum chemical calculations at the G4 level and experimentally by the extended kinetic method using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The lithium cation affinity of glycine, ∆(Li)H°(298)(GLY), i.e. the∆(Li)H°(298) of the reaction GlyLi(+)→ Gly + Li(+)) given by the G4 method is equal to 241.4 kJ.mol(-1) if only the most stable conformer of glycine is considered or to 242.3 kJ.mol(-1) if the 298K equilibrium mixture of neutral conformers is included in the calculation. The ∆(Li)H°(298)(GLY) deduced from the extended kinetic method is obviously dependent on the choice of the Li(+) affinity scale, thus∆(Li)H°(298)(GLY) is equal to 228.7±0.9(2.0) kJ.mol(- 1) if anchored to the recently re-evaluated lithium cation affinity scale but shifted to 235.4±1.0 kJ.mol(-1) if G4 computed lithium cation affinities of the reference molecules is used. This difference of 6.3 kJ.mol(-1) may originate from a compression of the experimental lithium affinity scale in the high ∆(Li)H°(298) region. The entropy change associated with the reaction GlyLi(+)→Gly + Li(+) reveals a gain of approximately 15 J.mol(-) 1.K(-1) with respect to monodentate Li(+) acceptors. The origin of this excess entropy is attributed to the bidentate interaction between the Li(+) cation and both the carbonyl oxygen and the nitrogen atoms of glycine. The computed G4 Gibbs free energy,∆(Li)G°(298)(GLY) is equal to 205.3 kJ.mol(-1), a similar result, 201.0±3.4 kJ.mol(-1), is obtained from the experiment if the∆(Li)G°(298) of the reference molecules is anchored on the G4 results. PMID:26307695

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus. PMID:25174962

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus. PMID:25174962

  12. Biosynthesis of amino acids in Clostridium pasteurianum

    PubMed Central

    Dainty, R. H.; Peel, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Clostridium pasteurianum was grown on a synthetic medium with the following carbon sources: (a) 14C-labelled glucose, alone or with unlabelled aspartate or glutamate, or (b) unlabelled glucose plus 14C-labelled aspartate, glutamate, threonine, serine or glycine. The incorporation of 14C into the amino acids of the cell protein was examined. 2. In both series of experiments carbon from exogenous glutamate was incorporated into proline and arginine; carbon from aspartate was incorporated into glutamate, proline, arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, glycine and serine. Incorporations from the other exogenous amino acids indicated the metabolic sequence: aspartate → threonine → glycine ⇌ serine. 3. The following activities were demonstrated in cell-free extracts of the organism: (a) the formation of aspartate by carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate or pyruvate, followed by transamination; (b) the individual reactions of the tricarboxylic acid route to 2-oxoglutarate from oxaloacetate; glutamate dehydrogenase was not detected; (c) the conversion of aspartate into threonine via homoserine; (d) the conversion of threonine into glycine by a constitutive threonine aldolase; (e) serine transaminase, phosphoserine transaminase, glycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. This last activity was abnormally high. 4. The combined evidence indicates that in C. pasteurianum the biosynthetic role of aspartate and glutamate is generally similar to that in aerobic and facultatively aerobic organisms, but that glycine is synthesized from glucose via aspartate and threonine. PMID:5419750

  13. Structure and Pharmacologic Modulation of Inhibitory Glycine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Carlos F; Yévenes, Gonzalo E; Aguayo, Luis G

    2016-09-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyR) are inhibitory Cys-loop ion channels that contribute to the control of excitability along the central nervous system (CNS). GlyR are found in the spinal cord and brain stem, and more recently they were reported in higher regions of the CNS such as the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. GlyR are involved in motor coordination, respiratory rhythms, pain transmission, and sensory processing, and they are targets for relevant physiologic and pharmacologic modulators. Several studies with protein crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy have shed light on the residues and mechanisms associated with the activation, blockade, and regulation of pentameric Cys-loop ion channels at the atomic level. Initial studies conducted on the extracellular domain of acetylcholine receptors, ion channels from prokaryote homologs-Erwinia chrysanthemi ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC), Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC)-and crystallized eukaryotic receptors made it possible to define the overall structure and topology of the Cys-loop receptors. For example, the determination of pentameric GlyR structures bound to glycine and strychnine have contributed to visualizing the structural changes implicated in the transition between the open and closed states of the Cys-loop receptors. In this review, we summarize how the new information obtained in functional, mutagenesis, and structural studies have contributed to a better understanding of the function and regulation of GlyR. PMID:27401877

  14. Double proton transfer and one-electron oxidation behavior in double H-bonded glycinamide-glycine complex in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Bu, Yuxiang

    2005-04-30

    The behaviors of double proton transfer (DPT) occurring in a representative glycinamide-glycine complex have been investigated employing the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Thermodynamic and especially kinetic parameters, such as tautomerization energy, equilibrium constant, and barrier heights have been discussed, respectively. The relevant quantities involved in the DPT process including geometrical changes, interaction energies, and deformation energies have also been studied. Analogous to that of tautomeric process assisted with a formic acid molecule, the participation of a glycine molecule favors the proceeding of the proton transfer (PT) for glycinamide compared with that without mediator-assisted case. The DPT process proceeds with a concerted mechanism rather than a stepwise one because no zwitterionic complexes have been located during the DPT process. The barrier heights are 12.14 and 0.83 kcal/mol for the forward and reverse directions, respectively. However, both of them have been reduced by 3.10 and 2.66 kcal/mol to 9.04 and -1.83 kcal/mol with further inclusion of zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) corrections, where the disappearance of the reverse barrier height implies that the reverse reaction should proceed with barrierless spontaneously, analogous to those of DPTs occurring between glycinamide and formic acid (or formamide). Additionally, the oxidation process for the double H-bonded glycinamide-glycine complex has also been investigated. The oxidated product is characterized by a distonic radical cation due to the fact that one-electron oxidation takes place on glycine fragment and a proton has been transferred from glycine to glycinamide fragment spontaneously. As a result, the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials for the neutral complex have been determined to be about 8.71 and 7.85 eV, respectively, where both of them have been reduced by about 0.54 (1.11) and 0.75 (1.13) eV relative to those of isolated glycinamide (glycine

  15. Hypocotyl-based Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of soybean (Glycine max) and application for RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Geliang; Xu, Yinong

    2008-07-01

    An efficient system of gene transformation is necessary for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] functional genomics and gene modification by using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. To establish such system, we improved the conditions of tissue culture and transformation for increasing the frequency of adventitious shoots and decreasing the browning and necrosis of hypocotyls. Adding N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and silver nitrate in culture medium enhanced the shoot formation on hypocotyls. BAP increased the frequency of the hypocotyls containing adventitious shoots, while silver nitrate increased the number of shoots on the hypocotyls. As a result, the number of adventitious shoots on hypocotyls cultured in medium containing both BAP and silver nitrate was 5-fold higher than the controls. Adding antioxidants in co-cultivation medium resulted in a significant decrease in occurrence of browning and necrosis of hypocotyls and increase in levels of beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression. Histochemical assays showed that the apical meristem of hypocotyls was the "target tissue" for Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of soybean. Gene silencing of functional gene by using RNAi technology was carried out under above conditions. A silencing construct containing an inverted-repeat fragment of the GmFAD2 gene was introduced into soybean by using the A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Several lines with high oleic acid were obtained, in which mean oleic acid content ranged from 71.5 to 81.9%. Our study demonstrates that this transgenic approach could be efficiently used to improve soybean quality and productivity through functional genomics. PMID:18347801

  16. Molecular hydrogen messengers can lead to structural infidelity: A cautionary tale of protonated glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Antoine; Williams, Evan R.; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2015-09-01

    The effects of tagging protonated glycine with either He or between 1 and 14 H2 molecules on the infrared photodissociation spectra and the ion structure were investigated. Differences in the IR spectra with either a single He atom or H2 molecule attached indicate that even a single H2 molecule can affect the frequencies of some vibrational bands of this simple ion. The protonation site is the preferred location of the tag with He and with up to two H2 molecules, but evidence for H2 attachment to the hydrogen atom of the uncharged carboxylic acid is observed for ions tagged with three or more H2 molecules. This results in a 55 cm-1 red shift in the carboxylic acid OH stretch, and evidence for some structural isomers where the hydrogen bond between the protonated nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen is partially broken; as a result H2 molecules attached to this site are observed. These results are supported by theory, which indicates that H2 molecules can effectively break this weak hydrogen bond with three or more H2 molecules. These results indicate that large spectral shifts as a result of H2 molecules attaching to sites remote from the charge can occur and affect stretching frequencies as a result of charge transfer, and that tagging with multiple H2 molecules can change the structure of the ion itself.

  17. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  19. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  20. RESPONSES OF HETERODERA GLYCINES AND MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA TO EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED NEUROMODULATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine and serotonin each have significant but differing effects on behavior in juveniles of the plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita. Body movement frequency was increased 2-fold in H. glycines by 5mM dopamine (P = 0.00013), while...

  1. Heterodera glycines hatching behavior in field collections, laboratory culture and exposure to low temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines collected from fields in Maryland exhibited very low hatch and reproduction rates in the laboratory. When such eggs were used to establish a laboratory culture on Glycine max, low reproductive rates continued for 2 generations. However, after 2 generations, the field egg derived ...

  2. Increased production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the presence of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Tsukagoshi, N.; Miyashiro, S.; Udaka, S.

    1983-07-01

    The production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens increased by a factor of 300 when glycine was added to a chemically defined simple medium at the early-logarithmic phase of growth. Glycine was not metabolized to a significant extent under the conditions used, but it considerably prevented the lowering of the pH of the culture. (Refs. 10).

  3. 76 FR 57951 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Glycine From the People's Republic of China, 60 FR 16116 (March 29, 1995). On October... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 60731 (October 1, 2010). As a result of this sunset review... Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order: Glycine From the People's Republic of China, 76...

  4. Cloning and characterization of mariner-like elements in the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is currently the most important insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States and it causes significant economic damage worldwide. The adaptation to host plant resistance can lead to the evolution of soybean aphid ...

  5. 77 FR 73426 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Final Partial Affirmative Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... raw materials of Indian origin and exporting such merchandise to the United States. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Glycine From the People's Republic of China, 60 FR 16116 (March 29, 1995) (Order... Department found that Paras was not circumventing the Order because it produced glycine from raw materials...

  6. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m−2 s−1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  7. Life history and morphological plasticity of three biotypes of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), from eastern Asia that was first reported in North America in 2000. The influence of temperature on plasticity of life history and morphological traits of the soybean aphid ha...

  8. Benzo(A)pyrene induced glycine N-methyltransferase messenger rna expression in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a mediator in the methionine and folate cycles, and is responsible for the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to glycine forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sarcosine. All the known DNA methyltransferases use SAM as a methyl donor th...

  9. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  10. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  13. Transcriptional responses of tolerant and susceptible soybeans to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was introduced in 2000 to North America and has become one of the most significant pests to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, production. Possible solutions to this problem are the use of resistant plants and the understanding of the genes involved in pl...

  14. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower (15)N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher (15)N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most (15)N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  15. Overexpression of AtGRDP2, a novel glycine-rich domain protein, accelerates plant growth and improves stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Amaro, María A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Hernández-Lucero, Eloísa; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Ibáñez-Salazar, Alejandro; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins with glycine-rich signatures have been reported in a wide variety of organisms including plants, mammalians, fungi, and bacteria. Plant glycine-rich protein genes exhibit developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns. Herein, we present the characterization of the AtGRDP2 gene using Arabidopsis null and knockdown mutants and, Arabidopsis and lettuce over-expression lines. AtGRDP2 encodes a short glycine-rich domain protein, containing a DUF1399 domain and a putative RNA recognition motif (RRM). AtGRDP2 transcript is mainly expressed in Arabidopsis floral organs, and its deregulation in Arabidopsis Atgrdp2 mutants and 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines produces alterations in development. The 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines grow faster than the WT, while the Atgrdp2 mutants have a delay in growth and development. The over-expression lines accumulate higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid and, have alterations in the expression pattern of ARF6, ARF8, and miR167 regulators of floral development and auxin signaling. Under salt stress conditions, 35S::AtGRDP2 over-expression lines displayed higher tolerance and increased expression of stress marker genes. Likewise, transgenic lettuce plants over-expressing the AtGRDP2 gene manifest increased growth rate and early flowering time. Our data reveal an important role for AtGRDP2 in Arabidopsis development and stress response, and suggest a connection between AtGRDP2 and auxin signaling. PMID:25653657

  16. Taurine activates excitatory non-synaptic glycine receptors on dopamine neurones in ventral tegmental area of young rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fushun; Xiao, Cheng; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2005-01-01

    The physiological and pharmacological properties of taurine-induced responses were investigated in dopaminergic (DA) neurones from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of young rats aged 1–13 postnatal days, either in acute brain slices or acutely dissociated neurones. When whole-cell responses were recorded from current-clamped neurones using the gramicidin-perforated technique, the application of taurine (0.01–30 mm) accelerated firings and induced membrane depolarization. In voltage-clamped neurones, taurine induced a current which was antagonized by strychnine and by picrotoxin, but not by bicuculline. In addition, taurine-induced current showed complete cross-desensitization with glycine-activated currents but not with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated currents. Thus, taurine is a full agonist of the glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the VTA. Further studies found that taurine acted mainly on non-synaptic GlyRs. The application of 20 μm bicuculline abolished the spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in 40/45 neurones, and 93% of the evoked IPSCs. The addition of 1 μm strychnine completely eliminated the remaining IPSCs. These results suggest that GABAergic IPSCs predominate, and that functional glycinergic synapses are present in a subset of the VTA neurones. The application of 1 μm strychnine alone induced an outward current, suggesting that these neurones were exposed to tonically released taurine/glycine. In conclusion, by activating non-synaptic GlyRs, taurine may act as an excitatory extra-synaptic neurotransmitter in the VTA during early development. PMID:15817633

  17. Electrochemical behaviour and surface characterisation of Zr exposed to an SBF solution containing glycine, in view of dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Carlino, Paolo; Mele, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Zr and Ti alloys are extensively used in the biomedical field owing to their optimal mechanical properties and excellent corrosion resistance. Fully ceramic implants based on zirconia are appealing with respect to the traditional Ti-based metallic ones for several reasons, such as: (i) improved aesthetic impact, (ii) better biocompatibility and (iii) better osteointegration. Nevertheless, fully ceramic implants exhibit serious mechanical and clinical drawbacks, chiefly brittleness and impossibility of post-implant position adjustments. In this paper we propose the novel approach of using a metal-based system, consisting of metallic Zr, for the bulk of the implant and an electrochemically grown zirconia coating, ensuring contact of the ceramic with the biological environment and isolation from the underlying metal. This solution combines the outstanding mechanical properties of the metal in the bulk with the optimal biochemical properties exclusively where they are needed: at the surface. The present paper-focussed on the electrochemical behaviour of the proposed system at the implant-wound and implant-growing bone interface-reports a time-dependent electrochemical corrosion study of zirconia-coated zirconium, performed in the following ways: (i) exposure and measurements in SBF (simulating the inorganic part of human plasma, relevant to wound chemistry), (ii) exposure and measurements in SBF with added glycine (the simplest, ubiquitous amino acid found in proteins), (iii) exposure in SBF with added glycine and measurements in SBF. Electrochemical impedance spectra were measured and interpreted with the equivalent-circuit approach, yielding estimates of the time-variation of the oxide film thickness and resistance were estimated. FT-IR, Surface Raman and VIS reflectance spectroscopies were used to characterise the surface before and after the exposure to SBF solutions. Spectroelectrochemical measurements revealed an higher corrosion resistance of the oxide films

  18. Preparation, molecular weight determination and structural studies of (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-oximate silico-benzoyl glycine copolymer with IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Man; Chauhan, Sushila

    2007-05-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-oximate silico-benzoyl glycine (POSBG), a glycine copolymer, has been prepared with PVP-oxime and benzoyl glycine in 1 : 1 ratio, w/w, in ethanol medium.The ethanolic solution with silicic acid [Si(OH)4] as binder in same ratio was refluxed for 2-3 h resulting in a colloidal solution, which was further refluxed for 2 h and cooled to 37 degrees C for 15 min. After this a whitish solid material settled, which was separated by vacuum filtration followed by washing several times with aqueous ethanol at ordinary conditions. The average viscosity molecular weights Mv of PVP-oxime and the copolymer were determined with their respective dilute aqueous solutions. Primarily the calibration curves between the intrinsic viscosity (eta) data and their respective molecular weights of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) (marker)have been obtained to determine the Mv of oxime. Similarly the Mv of the copolymer was determined with the (eta) data of lysozyme (molecular weight=24,000 g mol(-1)), egg albumin(40,000 g mol (-1)) and BSA (65,000 g mol (-1)). The IR spectra of the PVP-oxime and copolymer were recorded in Nujol, which do not depict band frequency of -OH group of the binder. The 1602, 1688, 1182 and 1127 cm-1 stretching vibration frequencies noted in the spectra infer the presence of -C=N, -C=O, -Si-O-Si- and -Si-O-C- functional groups, respectively, in the copolymer. PMID:17487614

  19. AB INITIO Simulations of Desorption and Reactivity of Glycine at a Water-Pyrite Interface at ``Iron-Sulfur World'' Prebiotic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollet, Rodolphe; Boehme, Christian; Marx, Dominik

    2006-08-01

    Glycine at the interface of a pyrite surface (001) FeS2, and bulk water at high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the “iron-sulfur world” scenario of the origin of life is investigated by theoretical means. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics is used in order to study the desorption process of the zwitterionic form of this amino acid using two different adsorption modes, where either only one or both oxygens of the carboxylate group are anchored to surface iron atoms. It is found that the formation of stabilizing hydrogen bonds plays a key role in the detachment process, leading to longer retention times for the bidentate adsorption mode. In addition, the chemical reactivity of this heterogeneous system is probed by calculating the Fukui functions as site-specific reactivity indices. The most prominent targets for both nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions to occur are surface atoms, whereas the reactivity of glycine is only slightly affected upon anchoring.

  20. Comparative study of the use of sarcosine, proline and glycine as acrylamide inhibitors in ripe olive processing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; López-López, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect on acrylamide (AA) formation and the impact on sensory characteristics in ripe olives of three selected amino acids (sarcosine, proline and glycine), which previously showed high AA inhibition rates in an olive model system. Each amino acid was separately added to packing solutions to give 100 or 200 mM at equilibrium, prior to a sterilisation treatment at 121°C. The results showed that sarcosine at 100 mM may be a good candidate for reducing the AA content in ripe olives with a limited effect on sensory characteristics. Studies with a model solution of AA and sarcosine heated at 121°C for 30 min suggested that the main mechanism for the inhibitory effect of sarcosine on AA formation was the Michael reaction. PMID:24294998

  1. Theoretical Investigation on Alcohol Sensing of Glycine-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Kussow, Gary; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2007-03-01

    It has been observed that single walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWNT-FET) coated with glycine can be used as alcohol sensors. The original semiconducting glycine-coated SWNT-FET have been changed to be metalic in the presence of alcohol. Using ab initio density functional theory, we compute the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes coated with glycine in the absence or in the presence of alcohol (Isopropanol) to investigate alcohol sensing mechanism. To demonstrate specificity of such glycine-coated SWNT-FETs on alcohol, we also study those properties in the presence of other molecules, such as acetone and water. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of an external fields on glycine-coated SWNT with IPA, and indentify the gate-electric-field screening in SWNT-FET to be a major role for alcohol sensing.

  2. Velvetbean in Rotation with Soybean for Management of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of previous crops - soybean (Glycine max) or velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) - and aldicarb on yield and nematode numbers for selected soybean cultivars was studied in a field infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne arenaria and Heterodera glycines. Soybean following velvetbean yielded 959 kg/ha more than soybean following soybean. Nematicide treatment resulted in increased yield, and there was no interaction between nematicide treatment and previous crop. Cultivars interacted significantly with nematicide treatment but not with previous crop for yield. Velvetbean reduced numbers of H. glycines but not M. arenaria. Cultivars interacted with previous crop, and the previous crop × nematicide x cultivar interaction was significant for both M. arenaria and H. glycines. We concluded that velvetbean is effective in reducing yield losses caused by mixed populations of M. arenaria and H. glycines, regardless of genetic resistance of soybean cultivar. PMID:19279845

  3. Glycine Cleavage Powers Photoheterotrophic Growth of Chloroflexus aurantiacus in the Absence of H2

    PubMed Central

    He, Lian; Wang, Yaya; You, Le; Khin, Yadana; Tang, Joseph K.-H.; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chloroflexus aurantiacus is an anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium. Its unique CO2 fixation pathway and primitive light-harvesting antenna complexes have attracted extensive research attentions. In this work, we investigated the photoheterotrophic growth of C. aurantiacus J-10-fl using acetate [at 55°C and without H2(g)]. The results indicate that glycine can promote anaerobic biomass production in a minimal medium by threefold to fivefold. Via 13C-metabolite analysis, we observed that glycine was involved in serine synthesis. Instead of being used as a major carbon source, glycine was degraded to produce C1 units and NAD(P)H. Tracer experiments also suggest that photoheterotrophic cultures growing with a exogenous glycine source exhibited capabilities of assimilating CO2 via multiple routes (including the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway). Finally, glycylglycine, a commonly used culture buffer, also significantly enhanced photoheterotrophic growth of C. aurantiacus, probably due to its thermal or enzymatic breakdown to glycine. PMID:26732979

  4. Host Suitability of Diverse Lines of Phaseolus vulgaris to Multiple Populations of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James R.; Young, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines. PMID:19265970

  5. Population-specific gene expression in the pathogenic nematode Hederodera glycines exists prior to infection and during the onset of a resistant or susceptible reaction in the roots of Glycine max.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on gene expression experiments, a single Glycine max (soybean) genotype (Peking) reacts differently to two different populations of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) within the first twelve hours of infection. This suggested that H. glycines has population-specific gene expression si...

  6. Channel Gating Dependence on Pore Lining Helix Glycine Residues in Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Mowrey, David D; Mendez Giraldez, Raul; Wang, Ying; Pasek, Daniel A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    Type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction. The role of RyR1-G4934 and -G4941 in the pore-lining helix in channel gating and ion permeation was probed by replacing them with amino acid residues of increasing side chain volume. RyR1-G4934A, -G4941A, and -G4941V mutant channels exhibited a caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release response in HEK293 cells and bound the RyR-specific ligand [(3)H]ryanodine. In single channel recordings, significant differences in the number of channel events and mean open and close times were observed between WT and RyR1-G4934A and -G4941A. RyR1-G4934A had reduced K(+) conductance and ion selectivity compared with WT. Mutations further increasing the side chain volume at these positions (G4934V and G4941I) resulted in reduced caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells, low [(3)H]ryanodine binding levels, and channels that were not regulated by Ca(2+) and did not conduct Ca(2+) in single channel measurements. Computational predictions of the thermodynamic impact of mutations on protein stability indicated that although the G4934A mutation was tolerated, the G4934V mutation decreased protein stability by introducing clashes with neighboring amino acid residues. In similar fashion, the G4941A mutation did not introduce clashes, whereas the G4941I mutation resulted in intersubunit clashes among the mutated isoleucines. Co-expression of RyR1-WT with RyR1-G4934V or -G4941I partially restored the WT phenotype, which suggested lessening of amino acid clashes in heterotetrameric channel complexes. The results indicate that both glycines are important for RyR1 channel function by providing flexibility and minimizing amino acid clashes. PMID:25998124

  7. Hydration-dehydration interactions between glycine and anhydrous salts: Implications for a chemical evolution of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Nakashima, Satoru

    2011-11-01

    Polymerizations of organic monomers including amino acids, nucleotides and monosaccharides are essential processes for chemical evolution of life. Since these reactions proceed with "dehydration" reactions, they are possibly promoted if combined with thermodynamically favorable "hydration" reactions of minerals and salts. To test the possibility, we conducted heating experiments of the simplest amino acid "glycine (Gly)" mixed with four simple anhydrous salts (MgSO 4, SrCl 2, BaCl 2 and Li 2SO 4) at 140 °C up to 20 days. Gly polymerization was strongly promoted by mixing with the salts in the order of MgSO 4 > SrCl 2 > BaCl 2 > Li 2SO 4. Up to 6-mer of Gly polymers were synthesized in the Gly-MgSO 4 mixture, and a total yield of Gly polymers attained about 7% of the initial amount of Gly by the 20 days heating. The total yield was about 200 times larger than that from the heating of Gly alone. XRD measurements of the Gly-MgSO 4 mixture revealed the generation of MgSO 4 monohydrate during Gly polymerization. These observations indicate that Gly polymerization was promoted by the salt hydrations through the hydration-dehydration interactions. Based on the observations, we tried to find a relationship between thermodynamic characteristics of the interactions and the promotion effects of each salt on Gly polymerization. It was found that the salts having lower hydration Δ rG0 (easier to hydrate) promote Gly polymerization more strongly. The relationship was used to estimate promotion effects of simple oxide minerals on Gly polymerization. The estimations were consistent with previous observations about the effects of these minerals on Gly polymerization. The fact suggests that the hydration-dehydration interactions between amino acids and minerals are an important mechanism for amino acids' polymerizations on minerals.

  8. An extra tRNAGly(U*CU) found in ascidian mitochondria responsible for decoding non-universal codons AGA/AGG as glycine.

    PubMed

    Kondow, A; Suzuki, T; Yokobori, S; Ueda, T; Watanabe, K

    1999-06-15

    Amino acid assignments of metazoan mitochondrial codons AGA/AGG are known to vary among animal species; arginine in Cnidaria, serine in invertebrates and stop in vertebrates. We recently found that in the mitochondria of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi these codons are exceptionally used for glycine, and postulated that they are probably decoded by a tRNA(UCU). In order to verify this notion unambig-uously, we determined the complete RNA sequence of the mitochondrial tRNA(UCU) presumed to decode codons AGA/AGG in the ascidian mitochondria, and found it to have an unidentified U derivative at the anticodon first position. We then identified the amino acids attached to the tRNA(U*CU), as well as to the conventional tRNAGly(UCC) with an unmodified U34, in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that glycine was attached to both tRNAs. Since no other tRNA capable of decoding codons AGA/AGG has been found in the mitochondrial genome, it is most probable that this tRNA(U*CU) does actually translate codons AGA/AGG as glycine in vivo. Sequencing of tRNASer(GCU), which is thought to recognize only codons AGU/AGC, revealed that it has an unmodified guanosine at position 34, as is the case with vertebrate mitochondrial tRNASer(GCU) for codons AGA/AGG. It was thus concluded that in the ascidian, codons AGU/AGC are read as serine by tRNASer(GCU), whereas AGA/AGG are read as glycine by an extra tRNAGly(U*CU). The possible origin of this unorthodox genetic code is discussed. PMID:10352185

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee, Rungaroon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Aoki, Kenji; Hibino, Takashi; Jikuya, Hiroshi; Takano, Jun; Takabe, Tetsuko; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2003-02-14

    Glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is an important osmoprotectant and is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses. Although almost all known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are two-step oxidation of choline, here we isolated two N-methyltransferase genes from a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica. One of gene products (ORF1) catalyzed the methylation reactions of glycine and sarcosine with S-adenosylmethionine acting as the methyl donor. The other one (ORF2) specifically catalyzed the methylation of dimethylglycine to betaine. Both enzymes are active as monomers. Betaine, a final product, did not show the feed back inhibition for the methyltransferases even in the presence of 2 m. A reaction product, S-adenosyl homocysteine, inhibited the methylation reactions with relatively low affinities. The co-expressing of two enzymes in Escherichia coli increased the betaine level and enhanced the growth rates. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the accumulation levels of both enzymes in A. halophytica cells increased with increasing the salinity. These results indicate that A. halophytica cells synthesize betaine from glycine by a three-step methylation. The changes of amino acids Arg-169 to Lys or Glu in ORF1 and Pro-171 to Gln and/or Met-172 to Arg in ORF2 significantly decreased V(max) and increased K(m) for methyl acceptors (glycine, sarcosine, and dimethylglycine) but modestly affected K(m) for S-adenosylmethionine, indicating the importance of these amino acids for the binding of methyl acceptors. Physiological and functional properties of methyltransferases were discussed. PMID:12466265

  10. The first proton sponge-based amino acids: synthesis, acid-base properties and some reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Gorbacheva, Anastasia Yu; Pozharskii, Alexander F; Vlasenko, Marina P; Tereznikov, Alexander Yu; Chernov'yants, Margarita S

    2015-08-21

    The first hybrid base constructed from 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (proton sponge or DMAN) and glycine, N-methyl-N-(8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl)aminoacetic acid, was synthesised in high yield and its hydrobromide was structurally characterised and used to determine the acid-base properties via potentiometric titration. It was found that the basic strength of the DMAN-glycine base (pKa = 11.57, H2O) is on the level of amidine amino acids like arginine and creatine and its structure, zwitterionic vs. neutral, based on the spectroscopic (IR, NMR, mass) and theoretical (DFT) approaches has a strong preference to the zwitterionic form. Unlike glycine, the DMAN-glycine zwitterion is N-chiral and is hydrolytically cleaved with the loss of glycolic acid on heating in DMSO. This reaction together with the mild decarboxylative conversion of proton sponge-based amino acids into 2,3-dihydroperimidinium salts under air-oxygen was monitored with the help of the DMAN-alanine amino acid. The newly devised amino acids are unique as they combine fluorescence, strongly basic and redox-active properties. PMID:26159785

  11. Exogenous amino acids as fuel in shock.

    PubMed

    Daniel, A M; Kapadia, B; MacLean, L D

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that in shock branched-chain amino acids are preferentially oxidized resulting in continued proteolysis and stimulated gluconeogenesis. To determine if exogenous amino acids could be used as fuel in shock, dogs rendered hypotensive by controlled cardiac tamponade and normotensive controls were infused with amino acid mixtures and individual amino acids. When Nephramine, a mixture rich in branched-chain amino acids, was infused, plasma alpha-amino nitrogen levels rose but urea output did not increase in either the control state or in shock, suggesting that these amino acids were not rapidly deaminated to serve as fuels. Travasol, which in addition contained large amounts of alanine and glycine, tripled urea output in the controls and doubled it in shock. The limit of urea production was reached in both groups at 35 mumoles urea/minute/kg. In the Travasol-infused animals plasma alpha-amino nitrogen levels were maintained in normotension but rose sharply in shock. When glycine alone was infused into five dogs in shock urea production rate was 30.6 + 2.1 mumoles/minute/kg; with alanine the same value was 22.5 + 2.2 mumoles/minute/kg. In both cases plasma alpha-amino nitrogen levels were high, suggesting that transport of these amino acids into the cell was slow in shock. In four dogs in shock glycine-14C was added to the glycine infusate as a tracer. At radioactive equilibrium 28% of the label infused appeared in CO2; another 22% appeared in glucose. It is concluded that of all the amino acids tested only glycine and alanine are deaminated rapidly enough to serve as exogenous fuels in shock. PMID:6814205

  12. Secondary fragmentation routes of glycine in ice under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, A.; Pilme, J.; Ellinger, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The question of the relative stability of the complex organic molecules (COM) under the interstellar radiation field is a crucial question, especially in the context of the panspermia hypothesis for which their survival during the transfer from space to the Earth is a necessary condition for the appearance of life (Ehrenfreund et al 2001, 2002). Assuming that these species are originally embedded in interstellar grains, their resistance to the solar UV radiation in ice is a key issue. The case of glycine, H2NCH2COOH, has been considered recently in irradiation experiments carried out at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. It appeared that glycine is partially protected by ice but also suffers some fragmentation leading in the end to CO2 and to CN containing species. Quantum chemical simulations have been performed in parallel for all the possible fragmentations of neutral, ionized, doubly ionized, protonated and zwitterionic glycine (Lattelais et al. 2010). This study has shown that the primary decomposition routes leading to fragments CH2COOH, H2NCH2, H2NCH2+, CH2COOH+, H2NCH3, and CO2 are energetically valid. The experiments have also shown that the role of water is mainly to increase the production of the end products in the photoreactions, most probably due to the reactions with the OH radicals formed during the irradiation of the ice. We present a theoretical study of the secondary fragmentation channels initiated by the OH radical by means of quantum chemical calculations using DFT and ab initio correlated methods (MP2,CCSD(T)). We have examined all the possible secondary fragmentations starting from the primary fragments mentioned above. We considered all species embedded in the dielectric continuum simulating an icy environment (comparison with the gas phase situation serves as reference). Thermodynamic stabilities as well as activation barriers have been determined. This study shows that the formation of the HCN molecule as end product is energetically

  13. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA)...

  14. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA)...

  15. Interactions Between the Soybean Cyst Nematode and Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Based on Greenhouse Factorial Experiments.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Jackson, T A; Hartman, G L; Niblack, T L

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and the fungus that causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, frequently co-infest soybean (Glycine max) fields. The interactions between H. glycines and F. solani f. sp. glycines were investigated in factorial greenhouse experiments with different inoculum levels of both organisms on a soybean cultivar susceptible to both pathogens. Measured responses included root and shoot dry weights, H. glycines reproduction, area under the SDS disease progress curve, and fungal colonization of roots. Both H. glycines and F. solani f. sp. glycines reduced the growth of soybeans. Reproduction of H. glycines was suppressed by high inoculum levels but not by low levels of F. solani f. sp. glycines. The infection of soybean roots by H. glycines did not affect root colonization by the fungus, as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Although both pathogens reduced the growth of soybeans, H. glycines did not increase SDS foliar symptoms, and statistical interactions between the two pathogens were seldom significant. PMID:18943675

  16. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% fr...

  17. Abiotic peptide synthesis of glycine adsorbed on saponite at various pH and dry-thermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Fuchida, S.; Masuda, H.

    2012-12-01

    Amino acids are the most fundamental substances of life, and the stability of amino acids and the polymerization process on the primitive earth are important to the origin of life. The heat of submarine hydrothermal systems would be the driving force of amino acids polymerization, and the clay minerals in the system may be a field of polymerization. The polymerization of amino acids must be promoted under dry condition, since it is dehydration reaction, which is promoted at high pressure and temperature condition appearing in deep sediments. Adsorption behavior of amino acids on clay minerals depends on pH. In hydrothermal, there are various pH conditions and it would be effective in amino acids behavior. To observe the role of clay minerals and effect of pH on peptide formation under dehydration environments, glycine (Gly) was heated with saponite at 150 degree C, and observed the peptization reaction. Gly was adsorbed on saponite in Gly solutions (100mM), of which the pH was controlled at 3, 8, 12 by HCl and NaOH. After drying in a vacuum oven, the saponite was heated at 150 degree C for 72 hrs. The concentrations of DKP, GlyGly and GlyGlyGly remaining in the saponite controlled at pH3 were 193.39μmol/g, 28.32μmol/g and 22.13μmol/g respectively. Those controlled at pH8 and 12 were 141.22μmol/g, 25.00μmol/g and 18.82μmol/g, and the concentrations of DKP, GlyGly in the saponite controlled at pH12 were 2.47μmol/g, 43.07μmol/g and GlyGlyGly was not detected. The observation indicated that the DKP formation is promoted under acidic condition rather than neutral. GlyGly is abundantly formed under basic condition, although the following peptization to form the trimer does not occur. Polymerization of tri and/or the heavier glycine would be passed through the formation of cyclic peptides. Thus, the condensation of DKP must be important for the polymerization of amino acids as the precursor of life. Also, the pH, acidic to neutral condition, must be important to

  18. Glutathione Synthesis Is Diminished in Patients With Uncontrolled Diabetes and Restored by Dietary Supplementation With Cysteine and Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Rajagopal V.; McKay, Siripoom V.; Patel, Sanjeet G.; Guthikonda, Anuradha P.; Reddy, Vasumathi T.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Jahoor, Farook

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with low cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which leads to tissue damage attributed to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that diminished GSH in adult patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is attributed to decreased synthesis and measured the effect of dietary supplementation with its precursors cysteine and glycine on GSH synthesis rate and oxidative stress. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We infused 12 diabetic patients and 12 nondiabetic control subjects with [2H2]-glycine to measure GSH synthesis. We also measured intracellular GSH concentrations, reactive oxygen metabolites, and lipid peroxides. Diabetic patients were restudied after 2 weeks of dietary supplementation with the GSH precursors cysteine and glycine. RESULTS Compared with control subjects, diabetic subjects had significantly higher fasting glucose (5.0 ± 0.1 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mmol/l; P < 0.001), lower erythrocyte concentrations of glycine (514.7 ± 33.1 vs. 403.2 ± 18.2 μmol/l; P < 0.01), and cysteine (25.2 ± 1.5 vs. 17.8 ± 1.5 μmol/l; P < 0.01); lower concentrations of GSH (6.75 ± 0.47 vs. 1.65 ± 0.16 μmol/g Hb; P < 0.001); diminished fractional (79.21 ± 5.75 vs. 44.86 ± 2.87%/day; P < 0.001) and absolute (5.26 ± 0.61 vs. 0.74 ± 0.10 μmol/g Hb/day; P < 0.001) GSH synthesis rates; and higher reactive oxygen metabolites (286 ± 10 vs. 403 ± 11 Carratelli units [UCarr]; P < 0.001) and lipid peroxides (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 1.2 pg/ml; P < 0.001). Following dietary supplementation in diabetic subjects, GSH synthesis and concentrations increased significantly and plasma oxidative stress and lipid peroxides decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS Patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes have severely deficient synthesis of glutathione attributed to limited precursor availability. Dietary supplementation with GSH precursor amino acids can restore GSH synthesis and lower oxidative stress and oxidant damage in the face

  19. Effect of plasma protein binding on in vivo activity and brain penetration of glycine/NMDA receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rowley, M; Kulagowski, J J; Watt, A P; Rathbone, D; Stevenson, G I; Carling, R W; Baker, R; Marshall, G R; Kemp, J A; Foster, A C; Grimwood, S; Hargreaves, R; Hurley, C; Saywell, K L; Tricklebank, M D; Leeson, P D

    1997-12-01

    increases with lipophilicity of the 3-substituent up to a maximum at a log P around 3, then does not improve further. When combined with increasing protein binding, this gives a parabolic relationship between predicted in vivo activity and log P, with a maximum log P value of 2.39. Finally, the plasma protein binding studies have been extended to other series of glycine site antagonists, and its is shown that for a given log P these have similar protein binding to the 4-hydroxyquinolones, except for compounds that are not acidic. The results have implications for the design of novel glycine site antagonists, and it is suggested that it is necessary to either keep log P low or pKa high to obtain good central nervous system activity. PMID:9406596

  20. Biofortification of soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with strontium ions.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Strzemski, Maciej; Dresler, Sławomir; Szwerc, Wojciech; Blicharski, Tomasz; Szymczak, Grażyna; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2014-06-11

    Soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an annual plant cultivated worldwide mostly for food. Moreover, due to its pharmacological properties it is widely used in pharmacy for alleviating the symptoms of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biofortification of soy treated with various concentrations of strontium. Soy was found to have a strong capacity to absorb Sr(2+) (bioconcentration factor higher than 1). A positive linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) between the amount of strontium in the growth medium and its content in the plant was also observed. Moreover, at a concentration of 1.5 mM, strontium appeared to be nontoxic and even stimulated plant growth by approximately 19.4% and 22.6% of fresh weight for shoots and roots, respectively. Our research may be useful to obtain vegetable products or herbal preparations containing both phytoestrogens and strontium to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:24835388

  1. Synthesis of Diopside by Solution Combustion Process Using Glycine Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherikar, Baburao N.; Umarji, A. M.

    Nano ceramic Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) powders are synthesized by Solution Combustion Process(SCS) using Calcium nitrate, Magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and glycine as fuel, fumed silica as silica source. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as extra oxidizer. Effect of AN on Diopside phase formation is investigated. The adiabatic flame temperatures are calculated theoretically for varying amount of AN according to thermodynamic concept and correlated with the observed flame temperatures. A “Multi channel thermocouple setup connected to computer interfaced Keithley multi voltmeter 2700” is used to monitor the thermal events during the process. An interpretation based on maximum combustion temperature and the amount of gases produced during reaction for various AN compositions has been proposed for the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as synthesized powder. These powders are characterized by XRD, SEM showing that the powders are composed of polycrystalline oxides with crystallite size of 58nm to 74nm.

  2. Dislocations, microhardness and optical studies on glycine potassium nitrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Nagaraju, D.; Shekar, P. V. Raja; Rao, T. Tirumal; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN), a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, of dimensions 15×12×4 mm3 were grown in a period of 10 days. The defect content present in the crystals was estimated by chemical etching technique. The results indicate that the average dislocation density is about 4.1×103/cm2. The UV-Vis. studies indicate that the crystal has a wide transmission range. The Kurtz powder test indicates that the second harmonic generation efficiency of GPN is 2.5 times that of KDP. The load-hardness curves for GPN were studied over the load range 10-100 g. The anisotropy in hardness was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  3. Formation and transformation of amino acids and amino acid precursors by high-velocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamori, A.

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been found in extraterrestrial bodies such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites. It is plausible that these extraterrestrial bodies carried organic compounds such as amino acids or their precursors to the early Earth. It is claimed, however, that these extraterrestrial organics were destroyed during impacts to the Earth. We therefore examined possible transformation of amino acids and their precursors during high-velocity impacts by using a rail gun "HYPAC" in ISAS. Starting materials used in the impact experiments were (i) aqueous solution of glycine (10 mM or 1.0 M), and (ii) a mixture of ammonia, methanol and water. The target materials were sealed in stainless steel capsules, and shocked by impact with a polycarbonate projectile accelerated with "HYPAC" to the velocities of 2.5 - 7.0 km/s. A part of the products was acid-hydrolyzed. Both hydrolyzed an unhydrolyzed products were analyzed by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. When an aqueous solution containing ammonia, methanol and water was shocked by impact at the velocity of 6.4 km/s, a number of amino acids (e.g., serine and glycine) were detected after hydrolysis. The present results suggest that amino acid precursors could be formed during cometary impacts. When glycine solution was used as a starting material, about 40 % of glycine was recovered even after 6 km/s impact. Methylamine and ammonia, which are known as pyrolytic products of glycine, were detected, besides them, diketopiperazine and an unidentified product whose molecular weight was 134, were detected, while no glycine peptides were identified in them. It was shown that the impact processes resulted in the formation of amino acid condensates. Thermal stability of glycine precursor is comparable with glycine. The present results suggest that organic material could survive and/or formed during an impact process. Most of organic

  4. Chemiluminescence Detection of Serine, Proline, Glycine, Asparagine, Leucine, and Histidine by Using Corresponding Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases as Recognition Elements.

    PubMed

    Kugimiya, Akimitsu; Fukada, Rie

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of the concentration of free amino acids in biological samples is useful in clinical diagnostics. However, currently available methods are time consuming, potentially delaying diagnosis. Therefore, the development of more rapid analytical tools is needed. In this study, a chemiluminescence detection method for amino acids was developed, and the conditions for the enzyme reaction and assay were examined. For the recognition of each amino acid (here, serine, proline, glycine, asparagine, leucine, and histidine), the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) was employed, and multiple enzymatic reactions were combined with a luminol chemiluminescence reaction. This method provided selective quantification from 1 to 20 μM for serine, proline, glycine, and leucine; 1 to 60 μM for asparagine; and 1 to 150 μM for histidine. This assay, which utilized aaRSs for the detection of amino acids, could be useful for simple and rapid analysis of amino acids in clinical diagnostics. PMID:25935222

  5. O-xylosylation in a recombinant protein is directed at a common motif on glycine-serine linkers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, David; Novarra, Shabazz; Zhu, Liang; Mugabe, Sheila; Thisted, Thomas; Baca, Manuel; Depaz, Roberto; Barton, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Glycine-serine (GS) linkers are commonly used in recombinant proteins to connect domains. Here, we report the posttranslational O-glycosylation of a GS linker in a novel fusion protein. The structure of the O-glycan moiety is a xylose-based core substituted with hexose and sulfated hexauronic acid residues. The total level of O-xylosylation was approximately 30% in the material expressed in HEK-293 cell lines. There was an approximate 10-fold reduction in O-xylosylation levels when the material was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Similar O-glycan structures have been reported for human urinary thrombomodulin and represent the initial building block for proteoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate and heparin. The sites of attachment, determined by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry, were localized to serine in the linker regions of the recombinant fusion protein. This attachment could be attributed, in part, to the inherent xylosyltransferase motif present in GS linkers. Elimination of the O-glycan moiety was achieved with modified linkers containing only glycine residues. The aggregation and fragmentation behavior of the GGG construct were comparable to the GSG-linked material during thermal stress. The O-xylosylation reported has implications for the manufacturing consistency of recombinant proteins containing GS linkers. PMID:24105735

  6. Combined effect of glycine and sea salt on aerosol cloud droplet activation predicted by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Hede, Thomas; Tu, Yaoquan; Leck, Caroline; Agren, Hans

    2013-10-17

    The present study illustrates the combined effect of organic and inorganic compounds on cloud droplet nucleation and activation processes representative for the marine environment. Amino acids and sea salt are common marine cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which act as a prerequisite for growth of cloud droplets. The chemical and physical properties of these CCN play a key role for interfacial properties such as surface tension, which is important for the optical properties of clouds and for heterogeneous reactions. However, there is a lack of detailed information and in situ measurements of surface tension of such nanosized droplets. Here we present a study of the combined effect of zwitterionic glycine (ZGLY) and sea salt in nanosized water droplets using molecular dynamics simulations, where particular emphasis is placed on the surface tension for the nanosized droplets. The critical supersaturation is estimated by the Köhler equation. It is found that dissolved sea salt interacts with ZGLY through a water bridge and weakens the hydrogen bonds among ZGLYs, which has a significant effect on both surface tension and water vapor supersaturation. Clusters of glycine mixed with sea salt deliquesce more efficiently and have higher growth factors. PMID:24063576

  7. Bacteria and Fungi Respond Differently to Multifactorial Climate Change in a Temperate Heathland, Traced with 13C-Glycine and FACE CO2

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Louise C.; Dungait, Jennifer A. J.; Bol, Roland; Selsted, Merete B.; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    It is vital to understand responses of soil microorganisms to predicted climate changes, as these directly control soil carbon (C) dynamics. The rate of turnover of soil organic carbon is mediated by soil microorganisms whose activity may be affected by climate change. After one year of multifactorial climate change treatments, at an undisturbed temperate heathland, soil microbial community dynamics were investigated by injection of a very small concentration (5.12 µg C g−1 soil) of 13C-labeled glycine (13C2, 99 atom %) to soils in situ. Plots were treated with elevated temperature (+1°C, T), summer drought (D) and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (510 ppm [CO2]), as well as combined treatments (TD, TCO2, DCO2 and TDCO2). The 13C enrichment of respired CO2 and of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was determined after 24 h. 13C-glycine incorporation into the biomarker PLFAs for specific microbial groups (Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, actinobacteria and fungi) was quantified using gas chromatography-combustion-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Gram positive bacteria opportunistically utilized the freshly added glycine substrate, i.e. incorporated 13C in all treatments, whereas fungi had minor or no glycine derived 13C-enrichment, hence slowly reacting to a new substrate. The effects of elevated CO2 did suggest increased direct incorporation of glycine in microbial biomass, in particular in G+ bacteria, in an ecosystem subjected to elevated CO2. Warming decreased the concentration of PLFAs in general. The FACE CO2 was 13C-depleted (δ13C = 12.2‰) compared to ambient (δ13C = ∼−8‰), and this enabled observation of the integrated longer term responses of soil microorganisms to the FACE over one year. All together, the bacterial (and not fungal) utilization of glycine indicates substrate preference and resource partitioning in the microbial community, and therefore suggests a diversified response pattern to future

  8. Soil moisture variations affect short-term plant-microbial competition for ammonium, glycine, and glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Katarina F; Olsson, Magnus O; Falkengren-Grerup, Ursula; Bengtsson, Göran

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether the presence of plant roots would impair the uptake of ammonium (), glycine, and glutamate by microorganisms in a deciduous forest soil exposed to constant or variable moisture in a short-term (24-h) experiment. The uptake of 15NH4 and dual labeled amino acids by the grass Festuca gigantea L. and soil microorganisms was determined in planted and unplanted soils maintained at 60% WHC (water holding capacity) or subject to drying and rewetting. The experiment used a design by which competition was tested in soils that were primed by plant roots to the same extent in the planted and unplanted treatments. Festuca gigantea had no effect on microbial N uptake in the constant moist soil, but its presence doubled the microbial uptake in the dried and rewetted soil compared with the constant moist. The drying and rewetting reduced by half or more the uptake by F. gigantea, despite more than 60% increase in the soil concentration of . At the same time, the amino acid and -N became equally valued in the plant uptake, suggesting that plants used amino acids to compensate for the lower acquisition. Our results demonstrate the flexibility in plant-microbial use of different N sources in response to soil moisture fluctuations and emphasize the importance of including transient soil conditions in experiments on resource competition between plants and soil microorganisms. Competition between plants and microorganisms for N is demonstrated by a combination of removal of one of the potential competitors, the plant, and subsequent observations of the uptake of N in the organisms in soils that differ only in the physical presence and absence of the plant during a short assay. Those conditions are necessary to unequivocally test for competition. PMID:24772283

  9. Contaminating levels of zinc found in commonly-used labware and buffers affect glycine receptor currents

    PubMed Central

    Cornelison, Garrett L.; Mihic, S. John

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an allosteric modulator of glycine receptor function, enhancing the effects of glycine at nM to low μM concentrations, and inhibiting its effects at higher concentrations. Because of zinc’s high potency at the glycine receptor, there exists a possibility that effects attributed solely to exogenously-applied glycine in fact contain an undetected contribution of zinc acting as an allosteric modulator. We found that glycine solutions made up in standard buffers and using deionized distilled water produced effects that could be decreased by the zinc chelator tricine. This phenomenon was observed in three different vials tested and persisted even if vials were extensively washed, suggesting the zinc was probably present in the buffer constituents. In addition, polystyrene, but not glass, pipets bore a contaminant that enhanced glycine receptor function and that could also be antagonized by tricine. Our findings suggest that without checking for this effect using a chelator such as tricine, one cannot assume that responses elicited by glycine applied alone are not necessarily also partially due to some level of allosteric modulation by zinc. PMID:24177173

  10. Contaminating levels of zinc found in commonly-used labware and buffers affect glycine receptor currents.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Garrett L; Mihic, S John

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an allosteric modulator of glycine receptor function, enhancing the effects of glycine at nM to low μM concentrations, and inhibiting its effects at higher concentrations. Because of zinc's high potency at the glycine receptor, there exists a possibility that effects attributed solely to exogenously-applied glycine in fact contain an undetected contribution of zinc acting as an allosteric modulator. We found that glycine solutions made up in standard buffers and using deionized distilled water produced effects that could be decreased by the zinc chelator tricine. This phenomenon was observed in three different vials tested and persisted even if vials were extensively washed, suggesting the zinc was probably present in the buffer constituents. In addition, polystyrene, but not glass, pipets bore a contaminant that enhanced glycine receptor function and that could also be antagonized by tricine. Our findings suggest that without checking for this effect using a chelator such as tricine, one cannot assume that responses elicited by glycine applied alone are not necessarily also partially due to some level of allosteric modulation by zinc. PMID:24177173

  11. In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Studies of Glycine and Glutathione Metabolism in a Rat Mammary Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Thelwall, Peter E.; Simpson, Nicholas E.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Clark, M. Daniel; Pourdeyhimi, Roxana; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Blackband, Stephen J.; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of glycine into glutathione was monitored noninvasively in vivo in intact R3230Ac rat tumors by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Metabolism was tracked by following the isotope label from intravenously infused [2-13C]-glycine into the glycinyl residue of glutathione. Signals from [2-13C]-glycine and γ-glutamylcysteinyl-[2-13C]-glycine (13C-glutathione) were detected by nonlocalized 13C spectroscopy as these resonances are distinct from background signals. In addition, using spectroscopic imaging methods, heterogeneity in the in vivo tumor distribution of glutathione was observed. In vivo spectroscopy also detected isotope incorporation from [2-13C]-glycine into both the 2- and 3-carbons of serine. Analyses of tumor tissue extracts show single and multiple label incorporation from [2-13C]-glycine into serine from metabolism through the serine hydroxymethyltransferase and glycine cleavage system pathways. Mass spectrometric analysis of extracts also shows that isotope-labeled serine is further metabolized via the transsulfuration pathway as the 13C-isotope labels appear in both the glycinyl- and the cysteinyl-residue of glutathione. Our studies demonstrate the use of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy for monitoring tumor metabolic processes central to oxidative stress defense. PMID:21751272

  12. A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of glycine betaine in cell suspension and other systems.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Bustos, Ma Guadalupe; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo Armando; Tiessen-Favier, Axel; Robledo-Paz, Alejandrina; Muñoz-Orozco, Abel; Rascón-Cruz, Quintin; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio

    2016-04-01

    Glycine betaine is a quaternary ammonium compound that accumulates in a large variety of species in response to different types of stress. Glycine betaine counteracts adverse effects caused by abiotic factors, preventing the denaturation and inactivation of proteins. Thus, its determination is important, particularly for scientists focused on relating structural, biochemical, physiological, and/or molecular responses to plant water status. In the current work, we optimized the periodide technique for the determination of glycine betaine levels. This modification permitted large numbers of samples taken from a chlorophyllic cell line of the grass Bouteloua gracilis to be analyzed. Growth kinetics were assessed using the chlorophyllic suspension to determine glycine betaine levels in control (no stress) cells and cells osmotically stressed with 14 or 21% polyethylene glycol 8000. After glycine extraction, different wavelengths and reading times were evaluated in a spectrophotometer to determine the optimal quantification conditions for this osmolyte. Optimal results were obtained when readings were taken at a wavelength of 290 nm at 48 h after dissolving glycine betaine crystals in dichloroethane. We expect this modification to provide a simple, rapid, reliable, and cheap method for glycine betaine determination in plant samples and cell suspension cultures. PMID:26774956

  13. Conformation and hydrogen-bond-assisted polymerization in glycine lithium sulfate at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Murli, Chitra; Verma, Ashok K; Song, Yang; Kumar, M R Suresh; Sharma, Surinder M

    2013-07-18

    The conformation of glycine has been a subject of extensive research for the past several years. As glycine exists in zwitterionic form in liquids and solids, the experimental observations of its neutral conformation are very limited. The complexes of glycine are simple prototypes to study the conformational properties of glycine. We have investigated the high-pressure behavior of glycine lithium sulfate (GLS), a semiorganic complex of glycine using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations. Our Raman studies and DFT calculations suggest formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond at higher pressures. Subsequent to a structural transformation to a new high-pressure phase at ∼9 GPa, the observed spectral changes in the Raman spectra above 14 GPa indicate possible conformational change of glycine from zwitterionic to neutral form. At pressures above 18 GPa, the characteristic features in the Raman spectra and the X-ray diffraction patterns suggest transformation to a hydrogen-bond-assisted polymeric phase with intermediate range order. PMID:23822139

  14. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Claire N. J.; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. PMID:27003418

  15. Purification and characterization of the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.; Pfeiffer, F.; Simler, R.; Betz, H.

    1985-02-12

    A large-scale purification procedure was developed to isolate the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord by affinity chromatography on aminostrychnine agarose. After an overall purification of about 10,000-fold, the glycine receptor preparations contained three major polypeptides of Mr 48,000, 58,000, and 93,000. Photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)strychnine showed that the (/sup 3/H)strychnine binding site is associated with the Mr 48,000 and, to a much lesser extent, the Mr 58,000 polypeptides. (/sup 3/H)Strychnine binding to the purified receptor exhibited a dissociation constant K /sub D/ of 13.8 nM and was inhibited by the agonists glycine, taurine, and beta-alanine. Gel filtration and sucrose gradient centrifugation gave a Stokes radius of 7.1 nm and an apparent sedimentation coefficient of 9.6 S. Peptide mapping of the (/sup 3/H)strychnine-labeled Mr 48,000 polypeptides of purified pig and rat glycine receptor preparations showed that the strychnine binding region of this receptor subunit is highly conserved between these species. Also, three out of six monoclonal antibodies against the glycine receptor of rat spinal cord significantly cross-reacted with their corresponding polypeptides of the pig glycine receptor. These results show that the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord is very similar to the well-characterized rat receptor protein and can be purified in quantities sufficient for protein chemical analysis.

  16. The pH at the First Equivalence Point in the Titration of a Diprotic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Addison

    2003-12-01

    Some readers will note a similarity between this approach and the one I took in a paper entitled “Do pH in Your Head” (2). In an example in that article the isoelectric pH of glycine (the pH at which the average charge of a glycine molecule is zero), has the value of 6.0, which is exactly half-way between 2.4, the pKa of the carboxyl group of glycine, and 9.6, the pKa of the ammonium group of glycine. This is what one would expect when realizing that a solution of neutral glycine right out of the bottle is equivalent to glycine obtained by titration of the conjugate acid of glycine to the first equivalence point. Those who are interested might want to consider why the isoelectric pH of an “acidic” amino acid, such as alanine, is exactly half-way between the pKa values of the two carboxyl groups, and why the isoelectric pH of a “basic” amino acid such as lysine is exactly half-way between the pKa values of the two ammonium groups.

  17. Effects of ammonium application rate on uptake of soil adsorbed amino acids by rice*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-chuang; Ma, Qing-xu; Wu, Liang-huan; Zhu, Lian-feng; Jin, Qian-yu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, excessive use of chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizers has resulted in the accumulation of excess ammonium (NH4 +) in many agricultural soils. Though rice is known as an NH4 +-tolerant species and can directly absorb soil intact amino acids, we still know considerably less about the role of high exogenous NH4 + content on rice uptake of soil amino acids. This experiment examined the effects of the exogenous NH4 + concentration on rice uptake of soil adsorbed glycine in two different soils under sterile culture. Our data showed that the sorption capacity of glycine was closely related to soils’ physical and chemical properties, such as organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Rice biomass was significantly inhibited by the exogenous NH4 + content at different glycine adsorption concentrations. A three-way analysis of variance demonstrated that rice glycine uptake and glycine nutritional contribution were not related to its sorption capacity, but significantly related to its glycine:NH4 + concentration ratio. After 21-d sterile cultivation, the rice uptake of adsorbed glycine accounted for 8.8%‒22.6% of rice total N uptake, which indicates that soil adsorbed amino acids theoretically can serve as an important N source for plant growth in spite of a high NH4 + application rate. However, further studies are needed to investigate the extent to which this bioavailability is realized in the field using the 13C, 15N double labeling technology.

  18. Enzymatic properties of the glycine D-alanine [corrected] aminopeptidase of Aspergillus oryzae and its activity profiles in liquid-cultured mycelia and solid-state rice culture (rice koji).

    PubMed

    Marui, Junichiro; Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    The gdaA gene encoding S12 family glycine-D-alanine aminopeptidase (GdaA) was found in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae. GdaA shares 43% amino acid sequence identity with the D-aminopeptidase of the Gram-negative bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi. GdaA purified from an A. oryzae gdaA-overexpressing strain exhibited high D-stereospecificity and efficiently released N-terminal glycine and D-alanine of substrates in a highly specific manner. The optimum pH and temperature were 8 to 9 and 40°C, respectively. This enzyme was stable under alkaline conditions at pH 8 to 11 and relatively resistant to acidic conditions until pH 5.0. The chelating reagent EDTA, serine protease inhibitors such as AEBSF, benzamidine, TPCK, and TLCK, and the thiol enzyme inhibitor PCMB inhibited the enzyme. The aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin did not affect the activity. GdaA was largely responsible for intracellular glycine and D-alanine aminopeptidase activities in A. oryzae during stationary-phase growth in liquid media. In addition, the activity increased in response to the depletion of nitrogen or carbon sources in the growth media, although the GdaA-independent glycine aminopeptidase activity highly increased simultaneously. Aminopeptidases of A. oryzae attract attention because the enzymatic release of a variety of amino acids and peptides is important for the enhancement of the palatability of fermented foods. GdaA activity was found in extracts of a solid-state rice culture of A. oryzae (rice koji), which is widely used as a starter culture for Japanese traditional fermented foods, and was largely responsible for the glycine and D-alanine aminopeptidase activity detected at a pH range of 6 to 9. PMID:22005737

  19. Structural difference between heteromeric somatic and homomeric axonal glycine receptors in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

    PubMed

    Deleuze, C; Runquist, M; Orcel, H; Rabié, A; Dayanithi, G; Alonso, G; Hussy, N

    2005-01-01

    Glycine receptors are ionotropic receptors formed by either the homomeric assembly of ligand-binding alpha subunits or the heteromeric combination of an alpha subunit and the auxiliary beta subunit. Glycine receptors in the brain are found at either pre- or post-synaptic sites. Rat supraoptic nucleus neurons express glycine receptors on the membrane of both their soma and dendrites within the supraoptic nucleus, and their axon terminals in the neurohypophysis. Taking advantage of the well-separated cellular compartments of this system, we correlated the structural properties of the receptors to their subcellular localization. Immunohistochemical study using the generic mAb4a antibody revealed that somatodendritic receptors were clustered, whereas axonal glycine receptors showed a more diffuse distribution. This was paralleled by the presence of clusters of the glycine receptor aggregating protein gephyrin in the supraoptic nucleus and its complete absence in the neurohypophysis. Moreover, another antibody recognizing the alpha1/alpha2 subunits similarly labeled the axonal glycine receptors, but did not recognize the somatodendritic receptor clusters of supraoptic nucleus neurons, indicative of structural differences between somatic and axonal glycine receptors. Furthermore, the subunits composing the somatic and axonal receptors have different molecular weight. Functional study further differentiated the two types of glycine receptors on the basis of their sensitivity to picrotoxin, identifying somatic receptors as alpha/beta heteromers, and axonal receptors as alpha homomers. These results indicate that targeting of glycine receptors to axonal or somatodendritic compartment is directly related to their subunit composition, and set the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of targeting of proteins to various neuronal cellular compartments. PMID:16125853

  20. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μm taurine or 10 μm glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μm 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μm strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μm), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥1 mm) or glycine (100 μm) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μm) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  1. A search for the lowest-energy conformer of interstellar glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Suenram, R. D.; Lovas, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The first search for the lowest-energy conformation of interstellar glycine has been carried out. An emission line has been detected in Sgr B2 which is coincident in frequency with the J(K-K+) = 14(1, 14)-13(1, 13) transition of conformer I glycine; while the carrier of the observed line is uncertain, no other frequency-coincident species are known, and hence glycine cannot be ruled out. Several previously unidentified lines have been identified as methyl formate. Evidence for the existence of the elusive interstellar ethylene oxide, the only reported interstellar ring-structure molecule, is discussed.

  2. GENETICS OF SOMATIC MAMMALIAN CELLS, X. COMPLEMENTATION ANALYSIS OF GLYCINE-REQUIRING MUTANTS*

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Fa-Ten; Chasin, Lawrence; Puck, Theodore T.

    1969-01-01

    Complementation analysis at the single gene level has been carried out on 13 different, recessive, glycine-requiring mutants produced by action of mutagenic agents on the CHO-K1 Chinese hamster cell. The mutants form four different complementation classes indicating that at least four separate genes can produce a growth requirement for glycine. The four classes of mutants can be distinguished biochemically as well as genetically. Existence of these four mutant classes appears to explain the preponderance of the glycine-requiring forms in the auxotrophs produced by treatment of the parental cell with mutagenic agents. PMID:5271752

  3. Statistical characterization of the GxxxG glycine repeats in the flagellar biosynthesis protein FliH and its Type III secretion homologue YscL

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background FliH is a protein involved in the export of components of the bacterial flagellum and we herein describe the presence of glycine-rich repeats in FliH of the form AxxxG(xxxG)mxxxA, where the value of m varies considerably in FliH proteins from different bacteria. While GxxxG and AxxxA patterns have previously been described, the long glycine repeat segments in FliH proteins have yet to be characterized. The Type III secretion system homologue to FliH (YscL, AscL, PscL, etc.) also contains a similar GxxxG repeat, and hence the presence of the repeat is evolutionarily conserved in these proteins, suggesting an important structural role or biological function. Results A set of FliH and YscL protein sequences was downloaded from GenBank, and then filtered to reduce redundancy, to ensure the soundness of the sequences, and to eliminate, as much as possible, confounding phylogenetic signal between individual sequences by implementing a pairwise 25% sequence identity cut-off. The general features of the glycine-rich repeats in these proteins were examined, and it was found that the length of these repeat segments varied substantially among FliH proteins but was fairly consistent for the Type III (YscL) homologue sequences, with values of m ranging from 0 to 12 for FliH and 0 to 2 for YscL. The amino acid sequence distribution of each of the three positions in the GxxxG repeats was found to differ significantly from the overall amino acid composition of the FliH/YscL proteins. The high frequency of Glu, Gln, Lys and Ala residues in the repeat positions, which is not likely indicative of any contaminating phylogenetic signal, suggests an α-helical structure for this motif. In addition, we sought to determine whether certain pairs of amino acids, in certain pairs of positions, were found together significantly more often than would be predicted by chance. Several statistically significant correlations were uncovered, which may be important for maintaining helical

  4. Taurine release by astrocytes modulates osmosensitive glycine receptor tone and excitability in the adult supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Katrina Y; Olson, James E; Bourque, Charles W

    2012-09-01

    Cells can release the free amino acid taurine through volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), and it has been hypothesized that taurine released from glial cells is capable of inhibiting action potential (AP) firing by activating neuronal glycine receptors (GlyRs) (Hussy et al., 1997). Although an inhibitory GlyR tone is widely observed in the brain, it remains unknown whether this specifically reflects gliotransmission because most neurons also express VRACs and other endogenous molecules can activate GlyRs. We found that VRACs are absent in neurons of the rat supraoptic nucleus (SON), suggesting that glial cells are the exclusive source of taurine in this nucleus. Application of strychnine to rat hypothalamic explants caused a depolarization of SON neurons associated with a decrease of chloride conductance and could excite these cells in the absence of fast synaptic transmission. This inhibitory GlyR tone was eliminated by pharmacological blockade of VRACs, by cellular taurine depletion, by metabolic inactivation of glia with fluorocitrate, and after retraction of astrocytic processes that intercalate neuronal somata and dendrites. Finally, GlyR tone varied inversely with extracellular fluid tonicity to mediate the osmotic control of AP firing by SON neurons. These findings establish taurine as a physiological gliotransmitter and show that gliotransmission is a spatially constrained process that can be modulated by the morphological rearrangement of astrocytes. PMID:22956842

  5. Functional characterization of a Glycine soja Ca(2+)ATPase in salt-alkaline stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Cui, Na; Wen, Yidong; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Qingyue; Xiao, Jialei; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanming

    2016-03-01

    It is widely accepted that Ca(2+)ATPase family proteins play important roles in plant environmental stress responses. However, up to now, most researches are limited in the reference plants Arabidopsis and rice. The function of Ca(2+)ATPases from non-reference plants was rarely reported, especially its regulatory role in carbonate alkaline stress responses. Hence, in this study, we identified the P-type II Ca(2+)ATPase family genes in soybean genome, determined their chromosomal location and gene architecture, and analyzed their amino acid sequence and evolutionary relationship. Based on above results, we pointed out the existence of gene duplication for soybean Ca(2+)ATPases. Then, we investigated the expression profiles of the ACA subfamily genes in wild soybean (Glycine soja) under carbonate alkaline stress, and functionally characterized one representative gene GsACA1 by using transgenic alfalfa. Our results suggested that GsACA1 overexpression in alfalfa obviously increased plant tolerance to both carbonate alkaline and neutral salt stresses, as evidenced by lower levels of membrane permeability and MDA content, but higher levels of SOD activity, proline concentration and chlorophyll content under stress conditions. Taken together, for the first time, we reported a P-type II Ca(2+)ATPase from wild soybean, GsACA1, which could positively regulate plant tolerance to both carbonate alkaline and neutral salt stresses. PMID:26801329

  6. Differential accumulation of two glycine-rich proteins during cold-acclimation alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Ferullo, J M; Vézina, L P; Rail, J; Laberge, S; Nadeau, P; Castonguay, Y

    1997-03-01

    Two mRNAs, MsaCiA and MsaCiB, encoding for proteins harboring glycine-rich motifs, accumulate in alfalfa during cold acclimation. Fusion polypeptides containing the amino acid sequences deduced from these mRNAs were produced in Escherichia coli and used to raise antibodies. Each antibody cross-reacted specifically with soluble polypeptides, MSACIA-32 and MSACIB, respectively. These polypeptides were detectable only in crowns of cold-acclimated plants, even though MsaCiA mRNA accumulated in both crows and leaves during cold acclimation. The analysis of parietal proteins showed that several MSACIA-related proteins, with a molecular mass of 32, 41 and 68 kDa, did accumulate in leaf cell walls and one of 59 kDa crown cell walls. This diversity is most probably due to a tissue-specific maturation of MSACIA. A discrepancy was found between the time-course of accumulation of MSACIB and the one of the corresponding transcript. These results indicate that timing and localization of MSACIA and MSACIB expression are different, and suggest that this differential expression involves both transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. Comparisons made among six cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance suggest that low tolerance could be explained by failure to accumulate proteins like MSACIA and MSACIB at a sufficient level. PMID:9132054

  7. Expression of the soybean (Glycine max) glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase gene in symbiotic root nodules.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, I; O'Brian, M R

    1993-07-01

    Extracts of soybean (Glycine max) root nodules and greening etiolated leaves catalyzed radiolabeled delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) formation from 3,4-[3H]glutamate but not from 1-[14C]glutamate. Nevertheless, those tissue extracts expressed the activity of glutamate 1-semialdehyde (GSA) aminotransferase, the C5 pathway enzyme that catalyzes ALA synthesis from GSA for tetrapyrrole formation. A soybean nodule cDNA clone that conferred ALA prototrophy, GSA aminotransferase activity, and glutamate-dependent ALA formation activity on an Escherichia coli GSA aminotransferase mutant was isolated. The deduced product of the nodule cDNA shared 79% identity with the GSA aminotransferase expressed in barley leaves, providing, along with the complementation data, strong evidence that the cDNA encodes GSA aminotransferase. GSA aminotransferase mRNA and enzyme activity were expressed in nodules but not in uninfected roots, indicating that the Gsa gene is induced in the symbiotic tissue. The Gsa gene was strongly expressed in leaves of etiolated plantlets independently of light treatment and, to a much lesser extent, in leaves of mature plants. We conclude that GSA aminotransferase, and possibly the C5 pathway, is expressed in a nonphotosynthetic plant organ for nodule heme synthesis and that Gsa is a regulated gene in soybean. PMID:8278535

  8. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical studies on glycine single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Premkumar, S.; Premkumar, R.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption characteristics of glycine (Gly) on silver surface were investigated based on density functional theory calculations and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. The single crystals of Gly were grown by slow evaporation method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method using Gly as fuel. The Ag NPs were characterized by XRD, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. The calculated structural parameters of Gly molecule were compared with the experimental observed single crystal XRD data. The structural parameters of Gly after adsorption on silver surface show the slight deviation, which indicates the interaction between the Gly and Ag3 cluster. Raman and SERS spectra for Gly single crystal were studied experimentally. Raman frequencies were calculated for Gly and Gly adsorbed on a silver surface. Raman and SERS frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation and compared with the experimental values. Frontier molecular orbital analysis was carried out for Gly and Gly adsorbed on a silver surface. The band gap value was significantly reduced for Gly after adsorption on the silver surface. The reduction in band gap indicates the delocalization of electrons, which leads to the higher bioactivity of the title molecule. SERS spectral analysis reveals that the Gly adsorbed as a stand-on orientation on the silver surface. Hence, the present investigation has been developed as a model system to understand the interaction of Ag NPs with amino acids.

  9. Multifunctional basic motif in the glycine receptor intracellular domain induces subunit-specific sorting.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Nima; Villmann, Carmen; Becker, Kristina; Harvey, Kirsten; Harvey, Robert J; Vogel, Nico; Kluck, Christoph J; Kneussel, Matthias; Becker, Cord-Michael

    2010-02-01

    The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) is a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates fast synaptic inhibition in the vertebrate central nervous system. As a member of the family of Cys-loop receptors, it assembles from five homologous subunits (GlyRalpha1-4 and -beta). Each subunit contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, four transmembrane domains (TM), and an intracellular domain, formed by the loop connecting TM3 and TM4 (TM3-4 loop). The TM3-4 loops of the subunits GlyRalpha1 and -alpha3 harbor a conserved basic motif, which is part of a potential nuclear localization signal. When tested for functionality by live cell imaging of green fluorescent protein and beta-galactosidase-tagged domain constructs, the TM3-4 loops of GlyRalpha1 and -alpha3, but not of GlyRalpha2 and -beta, exhibited nuclear sorting activity. Subunit specificity may be attributed to slight amino acid alterations in the basic motif. In yeast two-hybrid screening and GST pulldown assays, karyopherin alpha3 and alpha4 were found to interact with the TM3-4 loop, providing a molecular mechanism for the observed intracellular trafficking. These results indicate that the multifunctional basic motif of the TM3-4 loop is capable of mediating a karyopherin-dependent intracellular sorting of full-length GlyRs. PMID:19959465

  10. Arginine-Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency and Functional Characterization of Missense Variants in GATM.

    PubMed

    DesRoches, Caro-Lyne; Bruun, Theodora; Wang, Peixiang; Marshall, Christian R; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2016-09-01

    Arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variants in GATM. Clinical features include intellectual disability, hypotonia, and myopathy. Due to normal neurodevelopment in asymptomatic individuals on creatine monotherapy, GATM deficiency is a good candidate for newborn screening. To determine the carrier frequency of GATM deficiency, we performed functional characterization of rare missense variants in GATM reported as heterozygous in the Exome Variant Server database. To assess phenotype and genotype correlation, we developed a clinical severity scoring system. Two patients with mild phenotype had a nonsense missense variant. Severe phenotype was present in patients with missense as well as truncating variants. There seems to be no phenotype and genotype correlation. We cloned a novel GATM transcript. We found seven missense variants retaining 0% of wild-type GATM activity indicating putative pathogenicity. Based on our study results, high Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling conservation score, conserved amino acid substitution in species, and low allele frequency in exome databases would be the most sensitive in silico analysis tools to predict pathogenicity of missense variants. We present first study of the functional characterization of missense variants in GATM as well as clinical severity score of patients with GATM deficiency. PMID:27233232

  11. Glycine and GABAA Ultra-Sensitive Ethanol Receptors as Novel Tools for Alcohol and Brain Research

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Anna; Muchhala, Karan H.; Asatryan, Liana; Trudell, James R.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Perkins, Daya I.; Alkana, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    A critical obstacle to developing effective medications to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is the lack of specific knowledge regarding the plethora of molecular targets and mechanisms underlying alcohol (ethanol) action in the brain. To identify the role of individual receptor subunits in ethanol-induced behaviors, we developed a novel class of ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors (USERs) that allow activation of a single receptor subunit population sensitized to extremely low ethanol concentrations. USERs were created by mutating as few as four residues in the extracellular loop 2 region of glycine receptors (GlyRs) or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), which are implicated in causing many behavioral effects linked to ethanol abuse. USERs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested using two-electrode voltage clamp, demonstrated an increase in ethanol sensitivity of 100-fold over wild-type receptors by significantly decreasing the threshold and increasing the magnitude of ethanol response, without altering general receptor properties including sensitivity to the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone. These profound changes in ethanol sensitivity were observed across multiple subunits of GlyRs and GABAARs. Collectively, our studies set the stage for using USER technology in genetically engineered animals as a unique tool to increase understanding of the neurobiological basis of the behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:25245406

  12. Differentiated Human Midbrain-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells Express Excitatory Strychnine-Sensitive Glycine Receptors Containing α2β Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Florian; Kraft, Robert; Busse, Kathy; Härtig, Wolfgang; Ahrens, Jörg; Leffler, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Schwarz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background Human fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may deliver a tissue source for drug screening and regenerative cell therapy to treat Parkinson’s disease. While glutamate and GABAA receptors play an important role in neurogenesis, the involvement of glycine receptors during human neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation as well as their molecular and functional characteristics in NPCs are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we investigated NPCs in respect to their glycine receptor function and subunit expression using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Whole-cell recordings demonstrate the ability of NPCs to express functional strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors after differentiation for 3 weeks in vitro. Pharmacological and molecular analyses indicate a predominance of glycine receptor heteromers containing α2β subunits. Intracellular calcium measurements of differentiated NPCs suggest that glycine evokes depolarisations mediated by strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and not by D-serine-sensitive excitatory glycine receptors. Culturing NPCs with additional glycine, the glycine-receptor antagonist strychnine, or the Na+-K+-Cl− co-transporter 1 (NKCC1)-inhibitor bumetanide did not significantly influence cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that NPCs derived from human fetal midbrain tissue acquire essential glycine receptor properties during neuronal maturation. However, glycine receptors seem to have a limited functional impact on neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation of NPCs in vitro. PMID:22606311

  13. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth. PMID:26785702

  14. Thermodynamic study of Cu2+ binding to the DAHK and GHK peptides by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with the weaker competitor glycine.

    PubMed

    Trapaidze, Ana; Hureau, Christelle; Bal, Wojciech; Winterhalter, Mathias; Faller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The peptides Asp-Ala-His-Lys (DAHK) and Gly-His-Lys (GHK) are naturally occurring Cu(II)-chelating motifs in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Here, the sensitive thermodynamic technique isothermal titration calorimetry was used to study the energetics of Cu(II) binding to DAHK and GHK peptides in the presence of the weaker ligand glycine as a competitor. DAHK and GHK bind Cu(II) predominantly in a 1:1 stoichiometry with conditional dissociation constants [i.e., at pH 7.4, in the absence of the competing chelators glycine and 2-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethanesulfonic acid buffer] of 2.6 ± 0.4 × 10(-14) M and 7.0 ± 1.0 × 10(-14) M, respectively. Furthermore, the apparent ΔH values were measured and the number of protons released upon Cu(II) binding was determined by performing experiments in different buffers. This allowed us to determine the conditional ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS, i.e., corrected for the contributions of the weaker ligand glycine and the buffer at pH 7.4. We found that the entropic and enthalpic contributions to the Cu(II) binding to GHK and DAHK are distinct, with a enthalpic contribution for GHK. The thermodynamic parameters obtained correspond well to those in the literature obtained by other techniques, suggesting that the use of the weaker ligand glycine as a competitor in isothermal titration calorimetry provides accurate data for Cu(II) binding to high-affinity peptides, which cannot be accurately determined without the use of a competitor ligand. PMID:21898044

  15. Kinetics of amino acids equilibration in the dialysate during CAPD.

    PubMed

    De Santo, N G; Capodicasa, G; Di Leo, V A; Di Serafino, A; Cirillo, D; Esposito, R; Fiore, R; Cucciniello, E; Damiano, M; Buonadonna, L; Di Iorio, R; Capasso, G; Giordano, C

    1981-01-01

    The equilibrium between plasma and peritoneal dialysis fluid has been studies for 23 amino acids during peritoneal exchanges at dwell times up to 8 hours in patients on CAPD. It is demonstrated that equilibration is a particular process typical for each amino acid which after 8 hour is nearly complete only for Glycine, Alanine and Asparagine. PMID:7216530

  16. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of transition metal complexes with Schiff bases derived from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde with glycine and methionine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bibhesh K.; Rajour, Hemant K.; Prakash, Anant

    Schiff bases derived from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde with amino acids (glycine, methionine) and their Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. From spectral studies, it has been concluded that the ligands acts as bidentate molecule, coordinates metal through azomethine nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen. Mass spectrum explains the successive degradation of the molecular species in solution and justifies ML2 complexes. X-ray powder diffraction helps to determine the cell parameters of the complexes. Molecular structure of the complexes has been optimized by MM2 calculations and suggests a square planar geometry. The ligands and their metal complexes have been tested in vitro against Streptococcus, Staph, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherchia coli bacteria in order to assess their antibacterial potential. The results indicate that the biological activity increases on complexation.

  17. Glycine-mediated syntheses of Pt concave nanocubes with high-index {hk0} facets and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Hui, Jun-feng; Liu, Zhi-Chang; Zhang, Xin; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2012-10-23

    Metal nanocrystals with high-index facets (HIFs) have drawn significant attention for their superior catalysis activity compared to that of low-index faces. However, because of the high surface energy of HIFs, it is still challenging to preserve HIFs during the growth of nanocrystals. In this study, highly selective Pt concave nanocubes (CNCs) with high-index {hk0} facets have been successfully prepared in a simple aqueous solution. The vital role of glycine as the surface controller in the formation of CNCs was demonstrated. These Pt CNCs exhibited enhanced specific activities toward the electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid in comparison to commercial Pt black and Pt/C catalysts. PMID:23046108

  18. Growth of Escherichia coli in human urine: role of salt tolerance and accumulation of glycine betaine.

    PubMed

    Kunin, C M; Hua, T H; Van Arsdale White, L; Villarejo, M

    1992-12-01

    Glycine betaine is a powerful osmoprotectant molecule present in the inner medulla of the kidney and excreted into urine. It may be responsible for the ability of Escherichia coli to grow in hypertonic urine. Also, strains of E. coli that cause urinary tract infections may be more salt-tolerant than strains from other sites. To explore these questions, 301 isolates from blood, urine, or stool and 12 representative enteric strains were examined. Tolerance varied from 0.1 to 0.7 M NaCl (median, 0.5) in minimal medium. There were no significant differences in salt tolerance by site of isolation. A salt-sensitive enteric strain that responded poorly to glycine betaine and mutant strains lacking the ability to synthesize or transport glycine betaine did not grow well in hypertonic urine. Accumulation of glycine betaine appears to be a mechanism by which E. coli can adapt to external osmotic forces and grow in hypertonic urine. PMID:1431248

  19. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  20. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Deleuze, C; Pantaloni, A; Desarménien, M G; Moos, F

    1997-08-01

    1. To evaluate the implication of taurine in the physiology of supraoptic neurones, we (i) investigated the agonist properties of taurine on glycine and GABAA receptors of supraoptic magnocellular neurones acutely dissociated from adult rats, using whole-cell voltage clamp, (ii) studied the effects of taurine and strychnine in vivo by extracellular recordings of supraoptic vasopressin neurones in anaesthetized rats, and (iii) measured the osmolarity-dependent release of endogenous taurine from isolated supraoptic nuclei by HPLC. 2. GABA, glycine and taurine evoked rapidly activating currents that all reversed close to the equilibrium potential for Cl-, indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. Glycine-activated currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine (IC50 of 35 nM with 100 microM glycine), but were unaffected by the GABAA antagonist gabazine (1-3 microM). GABA-activated currents were reversibly antagonized by 3 microM gabazine, but not by strychnine (up to 1 microM). 3. Responses to 1 mM taurine were blocked by strychnine but not by gabazine and showed no additivity with glycine-induced currents, indicating selective activation of glycine receptors. Responses to 10 mM taurine were partially antagonized by gabazine, the residual current being blocked by strychnine. Thus, taurine is also a weak agonist of GABAA receptors. 4. In the presence of gabazine, taurine activated glycine receptors with an EC50 of 406 microM. Taurine activated at most 70% of maximal glycine currents, suggesting that it is a partial agonist of glycine receptors. 5. In vivo, locally applied strychnine (300 nM) increased and taurine (1 mM) decreased the basal electrical activity of vasopressin neurones in normally hydrated rats. The effect of strychnine was markedly more pronounced in water-loaded rats. 6. Taurine, which is concentrated in supraoptic glial cells, could be released from isolated supraoptic nuclei upon hyposmotic stimulation. Decreases in osmolarity of 15 and 30

  1. Molecular hydrogen messengers can lead to structural infidelity: A cautionary tale of protonated glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, Antoine Rizzo, Thomas R. E-mail: thomas.rizzo@epfl.ch; Williams, Evan R. E-mail: thomas.rizzo@epfl.ch

    2015-09-14

    The effects of tagging protonated glycine with either He or between 1 and 14 H{sub 2} molecules on the infrared photodissociation spectra and the ion structure were investigated. Differences in the IR spectra with either a single He atom or H{sub 2} molecule attached indicate that even a single H{sub 2} molecule can affect the frequencies of some vibrational bands of this simple ion. The protonation site is the preferred location of the tag with He and with up to two H{sub 2} molecules, but evidence for H{sub 2} attachment to the hydrogen atom of the uncharged carboxylic acid is observed for ions tagged with three or more H{sub 2} molecules. This results in a 55 cm{sup −1} red shift in the carboxylic acid OH stretch, and evidence for some structural isomers where the hydrogen bond between the protonated nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen is partially broken; as a result H{sub 2} molecules attached to this site are observed. These results are supported by theory, which indicates that H{sub 2} molecules can effectively break this weak hydrogen bond with three or more H{sub 2} molecules. These results indicate that large spectral shifts as a result of H{sub 2} molecules attaching to sites remote from the charge can occur and affect stretching frequencies as a result of charge transfer, and that tagging with multiple H{sub 2} molecules can change the structure of the ion itself.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Glycine Receptor β Subunit (GlyRβ)-interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    del Pino, Isabel; Koch, Dennis; Schemm, Rudolf; Qualmann, Britta; Betz, Heinrich; Paarmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in spinal cord and brainstem. They are clustered at inhibitory postsynapses via a tight interaction of their β subunits (GlyRβ) with the scaffolding protein gephyrin. In an attempt to isolate additional proteins interacting with GlyRβ, we performed pulldown experiments with rat brain extracts using a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein encompassing amino acids 378–455 of the large intracellular loop of GlyRβ as bait. This identified syndapin I (SdpI) as a novel interaction partner of GlyRβ that coimmunoprecipitates with native GlyRs from brainstem extracts. Both SdpI and SdpII bound efficiently to the intracellular loop of GlyRβ in vitro and colocalized with GlyRβ upon coexpression in COS-7 cells. The SdpI-binding site was mapped to a proline-rich sequence of 22 amino acids within the intracellular loop of GlyRβ. Deletion and point mutation analysis disclosed that SdpI binding to GlyRβ is Src homology 3 domain-dependent. In cultured rat spinal cord neurons, SdpI immunoreactivity was found to partially colocalize with marker proteins of inhibitory and excitatory synapses. When SdpI was acutely knocked down in cultured spinal cord neurons by viral miRNA expression, postsynaptic GlyR clusters were significantly reduced in both size and number. Similar changes in GlyR cluster properties were found in spinal cultures from SdpI-deficient mice. Our results are consistent with a role of SdpI in the trafficking and/or cytoskeletal anchoring of synaptic GlyRs. PMID:24509844

  3. Plantactinosporasoyae sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from soybean root [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaowei; Guan, Xuejiao; Liu, Chongxi; Jia, Feiyu; Li, Jiansong; Li, Jinmeng; Jin, Pinjiao; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-gxj3T, was isolated from soybean root [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-gxj3T showed highest similarity to those of Micromonospora equina Y22T (98.2 %) and Plantactinospora endophytica YIM 68255T (98.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that the isolate clustered with the members of the genus Plantactinospora. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-gxj3Twere also consistent with those of members of the genus Plantactinospora. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and whole-cell sugars were xylose, glucose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6), MK-9(H8), MK-10(H2) and MK-10(H4). The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 0. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization result and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-gxj3Tcould be differentiated clearly from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Plantactinospora, for which the name Plantactinospora soyae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-gxj3T (=CGMCC 4.7221T=DSM 46832T). PMID:27089547

  4. Anti-Glycine Receptor Antibody Mediated Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus Associated with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Blauwe, Sofie N.; Santens, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 66-year-old woman who presented with a dramatic course of PERM. Anti-glycine receptor antibodies were found. She stabilized after plasma-exchange and partly recovered. Eighteen months later, a diagnosis of smouldering breast cancer with bone marrow metastasis was made. There are indications that this tumor was already present at first presentation. An overview of PERM and anti-glycine receptor antibodies is given. PMID:23936697

  5. Gbu Glycine Betaine Porter and Carnitine Uptake in Osmotically Stressed Listeria monocytogenes Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mendum, Mary Lou; Smith, Linda Tombras

    2002-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes grows actively under high-salt conditions by accumulating compatible solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine from the medium. We report here that the dominant transport system for glycine betaine uptake, the Gbu porter, may act as a secondary uptake system for carnitine, with a Km of 4 mM for carnitine uptake and measurable uptake at carnitine concentrations as low as 10 μM. This porter has a Km for glycine betaine uptake of about 6 μM. The dedicated carnitine porter, OpuC, has a Km for carnitine uptake of 1 to 3 μM and a Vmax of approximately 15 nmol/min/mg of protein. Mutants lacking either opuC or gbu were used to study the effects of four carnitine analogs on growth and uptake of osmolytes. In strain DP-L1044, which had OpuC and the two glycine betaine porters Gbu and BetL, triethylglycine was most effective in inhibiting growth in the presence of glycine betaine, but trigonelline was best at inhibiting growth in the presence of carnitine. Carnitine uptake through OpuC was inhibited by γ-butyrobetaine. Dimethylglycine inhibited both glycine betaine and carnitine uptake through the Gbu porter. Carnitine uptake through the Gbu porter was inhibited by triethylglycine. Glycine betaine uptake through the BetL porter was strongly inhibited by trigonelline and triethylglycine. These results suggest that it is possible to reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes under osmotically stressful conditions by inhibiting glycine betaine and carnitine uptake but that to do so, multiple uptake systems must be affected. PMID:12406761

  6. IR spectroscopic signatures of solid glycine and alanine in astrophysical ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Maté, B.; Tanarro, I.; Herrero, V.; Escribano, R.

    2012-09-01

    The conversion from solid neutral to zwitterionic glycine (or alanine) is studied using infrared spectroscopy from the point of view of the interactions of this molecule with polar (water) and non-polar (CO2, CH4) surroundings. Such environments could be found on astrophysical matter. Different spectral features are suggested as suitable probes for the presence of glycine (or alanine) in astrophysical media, depending on their form (normal or zwitterionic), temperature, and composition.

  7. Endogenously Synthesized (−)-proto-Quercitol and Glycine Betaine Are Principal Compatible Solutes of Schizochytrium sp. Strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and Three New Isolates of Phylogenetically Related Thraustochytrids▿

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Anita N.; Aasen, Inga M.; Strøm, Arne R.

    2007-01-01

    We report that endogenously synthesized (−)-proto-quercitol (1d-1,3,4/2,5-cyclohexanepentol) and glycine betaine were the principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new osmotolerant isolates of thraustochytrids (strains T65, T66, and T67). The compatible solutes were identified and quantified by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy and measurement of the specific optical rotation. The cellular content of compatible solutes increased with increasing NaCl concentration of a defined medium. (−)-proto-Quercitol was the dominating solute at all NaCl concentrations tested (0.25 to 1.0 M), e.g., cells of S8 and T66 stressed with 1.0 M NaCl accumulated about 500 μmol (−)-proto-quercitol and 100 μmol glycine betaine per g dry weight. To our knowledge, (−)-proto-quercitol has previously been found only in eucalyptus. The 18S rRNA gene sequences of the four (−)-proto-quercitol-producing strains showed 99% identity, and they displayed the same fatty acid profile. The only polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated were docosahexaenoic acid (78%) and docosapentaenoic acid (22%). A less osmotolerant isolate (strain T29), which was closely phylogenetically related to Thraustochytrium aureum (ATCC 34304), did not contain (−)-proto-quercitol or glycine betaine. Thus, the level of osmotolerance and the osmolyte systems vary among thraustochytrids. PMID:17660311

  8. Transformation from γ to α modification in glycine crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylczyński, Zbigniew; Busz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    In glycine crystal the transformation from γ to α modification has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy methods on powder and monocrystalline samples. In monocrystalline samples the transition begins at 457.5 K. The first step is connected with cracking of the sample and growing of the ac conductivity which reaches maximum at 458.5 K. Next, ac conductivity achieves a huge maximum at the transition point 462.8 K. Additional small anomaly in the complex dielectric constant was revealed at 335 K. In powder samples this transformation measured by the DSC method goes uniformly. For these samples the ac conductivity begins to grow rapidly from 455 K and grows 2.5 times in the range of 383-387 K. In powder samples the ac conductivity at the transition point is seven times greater than in the monocrystalline samples. Conductivity anomalies are accompanied by changes in the real part of the dielectric constant.

  9. MOLECULAR TARGETS AND MECHANISMS FOR ETHANOL ACTION IN GLYCINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Daya I.; Trudell, James R.; Crawford, Daniel K.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are recognized as the primary mediators of neuronal inhibition in the spinal cord, brain stem and higher brain regions known to be sensitive to ethanol. Building evidence supports the notion that ethanol acting on GlyRs causes at least a subset of its behavioral effects and may be involved in modulating ethanol intake. For over two decades, GlyRs have been studied at the molecular level as targets for ethanol action. Despite the advances in understanding the effects of ethanol in vivo and in vitro, the precise molecular sites and mechanisms of action for ethanol in ligand-gated ion channels in general, and in GlyRs specifically, are just now starting to become understood. The present review focuses on advances in our knowledge produced by using molecular biology, pressure antagonism, electrophysiology and molecular modeling strategies over the last two decades to probe, identify and model the initial molecular sites and mechanisms of ethanol action in GlyRs. The molecular targets on the GlyR are covered on a global perspective, which includes the intracellular, transmembrane and extracellular domains. The latter has received increasing attention in recent years. Recent molecular models of the sites of ethanol action in GlyRs and their implications to our understanding of possible mechanism of ethanol action and novel targets for drug development in GlyRs are discussed. PMID:20399807

  10. Translocation of Sulfate in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) 1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ivan K.; Lang, A. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Sulfate translocation in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) was investigated. More than 90% of the sulfate entering the shoot system was recoverable in one or two developing trifoliate leaves. In young plants, the first trifoliate leaf contained between 10 to 20 times as much sulfate as the primary leaves, even though both types of leaf had similar rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. We conclude that most of the sulfate entering mature leaves is rapidly loaded into the phloem and translocated to sinks elsewhere in the plant. This loading was inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and selenate. At sulfate concentrations below 0.1 millimolar, more than 95% of the sulfate entering primary leaves was exported. At higher concentrations the rate of export increased but so did the amount of sulfate remaining in the leaves. Removal of the first trifoliate leaf increased two-fold the transport of sulfate to the apex, indicating that these are competing sinks for sulfate translocated from the primary leaves. The small amount of sulfate transported into the mesophyll cells of primary leaves is a result of feedback regulation by the intracellular sulfate pool, not a consequence of their metabolic inactivity. For example, treatment of plants with 2 millimolar aminotriazole caused a 700 nanomoles per gram fresh weight increase in the glutathione content of primary leaves, but had no effect on sulfate aquisition. PMID:16665991

  11. Structural basis of dynamic glycine receptor clustering by gephyrin

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Maria; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Timmins, Joanna; Franz, Thomas; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Schoehn, Guy; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Paarmann, Ingo; Saiyed, Taslimarif; O'Sullivan, Gregory A; Schmitt, Bertram; Betz, Heinrich; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2004-01-01

    Gephyrin is a bi-functional modular protein involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and in postsynaptic clustering of inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs). Here, we show that full-length gephyrin is a trimer and that its proteolysis in vitro causes the spontaneous dimerization of its C-terminal region (gephyrin-E), which binds a GlyR β-subunit-derived peptide with high and low affinity. The crystal structure of the tetra-domain gephyrin-E in complex with the β-peptide bound to domain IV indicates how membrane-embedded GlyRs may interact with subsynaptic gephyrin. In vitro, trimeric full-length gephyrin forms a network upon lowering the pH, and this process can be reversed to produce stable full-length dimeric gephyrin. Our data suggest a mechanism by which induced conformational transitions of trimeric gephyrin may generate a reversible postsynaptic scaffold for GlyR recruitment, which allows for dynamic receptor movement in and out of postsynaptic GlyR clusters, and thus for synaptic plasticity. PMID:15201864

  12. Ni(+) reactions with aminoacetonitrile, a potential prebiological precursor of glycine.

    PubMed

    Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Haldys, Violette; Tortajada, Jeanine; Salpin, Jean-Yves

    2008-03-01

    The gas-phase reactions between Ni(+) ((2)D(5/2)) and aminoacetonitrile, a molecule of prebiological interest as possible precursor of glycine, have been investigated by means of mass spectrometry techniques. The mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrum reveals that the adduct ions [NC--CH(2)--NH(2), Ni(+)] spontaneously decompose by loosing HCN, H(2), and H(2)CNH, the loss of hydrogen cyanide being clearly dominant. The structures and bonding characteristics of the aminoacetonitrile-Ni(+) complexes as well as the different stationary points of the corresponding potential energy surface (PES) have been theoretically studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out at B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. A cyclic intermediate, in which Ni(+) is bisligated to the cyano and the amino group, plays an important role in the unimolecular reactivity of these ions, because it is the precursor for the observed losses of HCN and H(2)CNH. In all mechanisms associated with the loss of H(2), the metal acts as hydrogen carrier favoring the formation of the H(2) molecule. The estimated bond dissociation energy of aminoacetonitrile-Ni(+) complexes (291 kJ mol(-1)) is larger than those measured for other nitrogen bases such as pyridine or pyrimidine and only slightly smaller than that of adenine. PMID:18064577

  13. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Collakova, Eva; Aghamirzaie, Delasa; Fang, Yihui; Klumas, Curtis; Tabataba, Farzaneh; Kakumanu, Akshay; Myers, Elijah; Heath, Lenwood S.; Grene, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants. PMID:24957996

  14. Orientation of glycine on silver nanoparticles: SERS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were prepared and characterized. The molecular structure of the Gly and Gly adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The calculated and observed vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The perpendicular orientation of Gly on the silver surface was predicted from the enhanced Raman signal correspond to the C=O and C-H stretching vibrational modes. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis and molecular electrostatic potential calculation were carried out. The reduced band gap value was obtained for Gly adsorbed on silver nanoparticles, which paves the way for designing the bio molecular devices. The first order hyperpolarizability value for Ag-Gly is 461 times greater than the urea. Thus, Ag-Gly is a promising candidate for NLO materials.

  15. Ethylene directly inhibits foliar gas exchange in Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Gas exchange of individual attached leaves of soybean, Glycine max (L,) Merr cv Davis, was monitored during exposure to exogenous ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) to test the hypothesis that the effects of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) and stomatal conductance to H{sub 2}O{sub 4} vapor (g{sub s}) are direct and not mediated by changes in leaf orientation to light. Leaflets were held perpendicular to incident light in a temperature-controlled cuvette throughout a 5.5 hour exposure to 10 microliters per liter C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Declines in both P{sub N} and g{sub s} were evident within 2 hours and became more pronounced throughout the exposure period. In C{sub 2}H{sub 4} treated plants, P{sub N} and g{sub s} decreased to 80 and 62%, respectively, of the rates in control plants. Because epinastic movement of the leaflets was prohibited by the cuvette, the observed declines in P{sub N} and g{sub s} were a direct effect of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} rather than the result of reduced light interception caused by changing leaf angle.

  16. Assessment of microcirculatory effects of glycine by intravital microscopy in rats.

    PubMed

    Podoprigora, Guennady I; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Angoué, Orland; Boulahdour, Hatem; Nartsissov, Yaroslav R

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies using laboratory animal models have shown a potential vasoactive effect of natural metabolites such as glycine. The present study used intravital microscopy in laboratory rat models to study the microcirculation in the brain pial and mesentery vessels. To investigate the pial microvasculature, a stereotaxis-like animal fixing device was used. The intravital microscopy unit consisted of a binocular microscope equipped with a digital photo-video camera, processor, monitor and printer. Using reflected light, a special contact lens with an amplified focus depth provided high-resolution images of nontransparent tissue objects that typically have insufficient light exposure. Glycine had a vasodilatory effect on microvessels in the rat brain and mesenterium. The diameter of pial arterioles increased after glycine application especially markedly (up to 250% of initial size). These changes were not observed when physiological saline was used. Even a very small amount of glycine (a drop on the needle) was sufficient to stop the early stages of histamine-induced blood stasis development in 3-5 s in mesenterial microvessels. The vasodilatory effect of glycine on the pial microcirculation correlates with its reported positive therapeutic effect in cerebral ischemic stroke. The ability of glycine to avoid or prevent histamine-induced microcirculatory alterations in mesenterial microvessels may have potential clinical applications. PMID:23366470

  17. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.T.; Pocard, J.A.; Bernard, T.; Le Rudulier, D.

    1988-07-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, the authors used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, /sup 14/C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared.

  18. Stereospecific assignments of glycine in proteins by stereospecific deuteration and {sup 15}N labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.P.; Curley, R.W. Jr.; Panigot, M.J.; Fesik, S.W.

    1994-12-01

    Stereospecific assignments are important for accurately determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins through the use of multidimensional NMR techniques. It is especially important to stereospecifically assign the glycine {alpha}-protons in proteins because of the potential for different backbone conformations of this residue. These stereospecific assignments are critical for interpreting the {sup 3}J{sub NH,{alpha}H} coupling constants and NOEs involving the glycine {alpha}-protons that determine the conformation of this part of the protein. However, it is often difficult to unambiguously obtain the stereospecific assignments for glycine residues by using only NOE data. In this poster, we present a method for unambiguous, stereospecific assignment of the {alpha}-protons of glycine residues. This method involves synthesis of stereo-specifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gly using a slightly modified procedure originally described by Woodard and coworkers for the stereoselective deuteration of glycine. The stereospecifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gy has been incorporated into recombinant proteins expressed in both bacterial systems (FKBP) and mammalian cells (u-PA). Two- and three-dimensional isotope-filtered and isotope-edited NMR experiments were used to obtain the stereospecific assignments of the glycine {alpha}-protons for these proteins.

  19. Glycine decarboxylase deficiency causes neural tube defects and features of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yun Jin; Leung, Kit-Yi; Savery, Dawn; Hutchin, Tim; Prunty, Helen; Heales, Simon; Brosnan, Margaret E.; Brosnan, John T.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) acts in the glycine cleavage system to decarboxylate glycine and transfer a one-carbon unit into folate one-carbon metabolism. GLDC mutations cause a rare recessive disease non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Mutations have also been identified in patients with neural tube defects (NTDs); however, the relationship between NKH and NTDs is unclear. We show that reduced expression of Gldc in mice suppresses glycine cleavage system activity and causes two distinct disease phenotypes. Mutant embryos develop partially penetrant NTDs while surviving mice exhibit post-natal features of NKH including glycine accumulation, early lethality and hydrocephalus. In addition to elevated glycine, Gldc disruption also results in abnormal tissue folate profiles, with depletion of one-carbon-carrying folates, as well as growth retardation and reduced cellular proliferation. Formate treatment normalizes the folate profile, restores embryonic growth and prevents NTDs, suggesting that Gldc deficiency causes NTDs through limiting supply of one-carbon units from mitochondrial folate metabolism. PMID:25736695

  20. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L T; Pocard, J A; Bernard, T; Le Rudulier, D

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, we used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, 14C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared. PMID:3290197

  1. Glycine betaine, an osmotic effector in Klebsiella pneumoniae and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Le Rudulier, D; Bouillard, L

    1983-01-01

    Osmoregulation was examined in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Exogenous glycine betaine at a concentration as low as 1 mM was found to stimulate the growth rate of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in media of inhibitory osmotic strength. The stimulation was shown to be independent of any specific solutes, electrolytes, or nonelectrolytes. Therefore, the stimulatory effect of glycine betaine was a consequence of high osmotic potential. This effect was found to be far greater than the proline effect previously observed in S. typhimurium. Whereas nitrogen fixation by K. pneumoniae is completely inhibited under conditions of osmotic stress, nitrogenase activity could be partially restored by the addition of exogenous glycine betaine to the culture medium. Furthermore, glycine betaine in combination with proline, especially proline produced internally at a high level because of regulatory mutations affecting proline biosynthesis, strongly stimulated nitrogen fixation activity during osmotic stress. Glycine betaine was accumulated by the cells, and the amount taken up was correlated with the osmolarity of the medium. These findings are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms by which glycine betaine might cause enhanced osmotolerance. PMID:6351742

  2. Identification and characterization of barley mutants lacking glycine decarboxylase and carboxyl esterase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lewis, K.; Lea, P. )

    1990-05-01

    A barley mutant has been isolated, from a selection of fifty air-sensitive seed-lines, using a standard gel stain technique which lacks carboxyl esterase activity, but has normal levels of carbonic anhydrase. In addition, two barley mutants lacking the ability to convert glycine to serine in the mitochondria, have been characterized. Both plants accumulate glycine in air and are unable to metabolize ({sup 14}C)glycine in the short-term. When ({sup 14}C)glycine was supplied over 2h LaPr 85/55 metabolized 90%, whereas the second mutant (LaPr 87/30) metabolized 10%. Results indicate that the mutation in LaPr 85/55 is almost certainly in the glycine transporter into the mitochondrion. The mutation in LaPr 87/30 has been shown, using western blotting, to be in both the P and H proteins, two of four proteins which comprise glycine decarboxylase (P, H, T and L).

  3. A graphene nanoribbon neuro-sensor for glycine detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Al-Dirini, Feras; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-06-01

    Glycine acts as a neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and plays a vital role in processing of motor and sensory information that control movement, vision, and audition. Glycine detection and imaging can lead to a greater understanding of how this information is processed in the CNS. Here, we present a neuro-sensor for the detection and imaging of Glycine molecules, based on a zigzag Graphene Nanoribbon device structure. An energetically stable Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) center is introduced in the device to enable its use in neuronal imaging applications. We demonstrate, by using the Density Functional Theory and Nonequilibrium Green's Function method, that the device detects the attachment of a single Glycine molecule to its edges by significant changes in its conductance. The attachment of Glycine induces current channels around the NV center increasing the current flow through the device. In absence of Glycine, the presence of the NV center suppresses current flow through the device, significantly reducing its power consumption, and allowing for its use in proximity of living neuron cells.

  4. Ab initio investigation of the first hydration shell of protonated glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhichao; Chen, Dong E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn; Zhao, Huiling; Li, Yinli; Zhu, Jichun; Liu, Bo E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn

    2014-02-28

    The first hydration shell of the protonated glycine is built up using Monte Carlo multiple minimum conformational search analysis with the MMFFs force field. The potential energy surfaces of the protonated glycine and its hydration complexes with up to eight water molecules have been scanned and the energy-minimized structures are predicted using the ab initio calculations. First, three favorable structures of protonated glycine were determined, and the micro-hydration processes showed that water can significantly stabilize the unstable conformers, and then their first hydration shells were established. Finally, we found that seven water molecules are required to fully hydrate the first hydration shell for the most stable conformer of protonated glycine. In order to analyse the hydration process, the dominant hydration sites located around the ammonium and carboxyl groups are studied carefully and systemically. The results indicate that, water molecules hydrate the protonated glycine in an alternative dynamic hydration process which is driven by the competition between different hydration sites. The first three water molecules are strongly attached by the ammonium group, while only the fourth water molecule is attached by the carboxyl group in the ultimate first hydration shell of the protonated glycine. In addition, the first hydration shell model has predicted most identical structures and a reasonable accord in hydration energy and vibrational frequencies of the most stable conformer with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model.

  5. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  6. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration.

    PubMed

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-12-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  7. Effect of diflubenzuron and its major degradation products on the growth of Euglena gracilis Z. and incorporation of glycine-U-/sub 14/C in protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gattavecchia, E.; Di Pietra, A.M.; Tonelli, D.; Borgatti, A.

    1981-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (I) and its major degradation products 4-chlorophenyl urea (II), 2,6-difluorobenzoic acid (III) and 4-chloroaniline (IV) were tested for their activity on Euglena gracilis Z. The inhibition on the growth and on the incorporation of glycine-U-/sub 14/C in the protein of Euglena was measured in the presence of I-IV ranging 10 to 200 ppm. 4-chloroaniline caused a considerable inhibition at every tested level whereas I-III slightly affected only the incorporation. Therefore, it must be inferred that diflubenzuron shows no effect on growth and protein biosynthesis for this nontarget organism.

  8. Bile acids conjugation in human bile is not random: new insights from (1)H-NMR spectroscopy at 800 MHz.

    PubMed

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Cooper, Amanda; Maluccio, Mary; Raftery, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Bile acids constitute a group of structurally closely related molecules and represent the most abundant constituents of human bile. Investigations of bile acids have garnered increased interest owing to their recently discovered additional biological functions including their role as signaling molecules that govern glucose, fat and energy metabolism. Recent NMR methodological developments have enabled single-step analysis of several highly abundant and common glycine- and taurine- conjugated bile acids, such as glycocholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. Investigation of these conjugated bile acids in human bile employing high field (800 MHz) (1)H-NMR spectroscopy reveals that the ratios between two glycine-conjugated bile acids and their taurine counterparts correlate positively (R2 = 0.83-0.97; p = 0.001 x 10(-2)-0.006 x 10(-7)) as do the ratios between a glycine-conjugated bile acid and its taurine counterpart (R2 = 0.92-0.95; p = 0.004 x 10(-3)-0.002 x 10(-10)). Using such correlations, concentration of individual bile acids in each sample could be predicted in good agreement with the experimentally determined values. These insights into the pattern of bile acid conjugation in human bile between glycine and taurine promise useful clues to the mechanism of bile acids' biosynthesis, conjugation and enterohepatic circulation, and may improve our understanding of the role of individual conjugated bile acids in health and disease. PMID:19373503

  9. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew

    2002-03-03

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method.

  10. Cerebral level of vGlut1 is increased and level of glycine is decreased in TgSwDI mice.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Nienke M; Metaxas, Athanasios; van der Stelt, Inge; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; van Berckel, Bart N; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, one of the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been linked to glutamatergic dysfunction, i.e., increased stimulation of synaptic glutamate receptors that may ultimately result in neuronal loss. It was our aim to study the effect of Aβ on multiple components of the glutamatergic system, and therefore we assessed the expression of several glutamate-related proteins and amino acids in the TgSwDI mouse model for Aβ pathology. We determined that in TgSwDI mice, levels of several amino acids are altered, in particular that of glycine. Protein changes were only found in 9-month-old TgSwDI mice with extensive Aβ deposits, with the most prominent change an increased expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1). Autoradiography experiments demonstrated that, while the number of activated N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors was unchanged in TgSwDI mice, binding of the NMDA receptor radioligand [3H]MDL-105,519 to the glycine-binding site of these receptors was increased. Although there are some discrepancies between our results and those found in AD patients, our results suggest that several components of the glutamatergic system might serve as meaningful markers to monitor the progression of AD. PMID:24145381

  11. Leptoglycin: a new Glycine/Leucine-rich antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin secretion of the South American frog Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Juliana C; Berto, Raquel F; Gois, Elicélia A; Fontenele-Cardi, Nauíla C; Honório, José E R; Konno, Katsuhiro; Richardson, Michael; Rocha, Marcos F G; Camargo, Antônio A C M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Cardi, Bruno A; Carvalho, Krishnamurti M

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are components of innate immunity that is the first-line defense against invading pathogens for a wide range of organisms. Here, we describe the isolation, biological characterization and amino acid sequencing of a novel neutral Glycine/Leucine-rich antimicrobial peptide from skin secretion of Leptodactylus pentadactylus named leptoglycin. The amino acid sequence of the peptide purified by RP-HPLC (C(18) column) was deduced by mass spectrometric de novo sequencing and confirmed by Edman degradation: GLLGGLLGPLLGGGGGGGGGLL. Leptoglycin was able to inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8 microM, 50 microM, and 75 microM respectively, but it did not show antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis), yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis) and dermatophytes fungi (Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum). No hemolytic activity was observed at the 2-200 microM range concentration. The amino acid sequence of leptoglycin with high level of glycine (59.1%) and leucine (36.4%) containing an unusual central proline suggests the existence of a new class of Gly/Leu-rich antimicrobial peptides. Taken together, these results suggest that this natural antimicrobial peptide could be a tool to develop new antibiotics. PMID:19298834

  12. Enhancement of homomeric glycine receptor function by long-chain alcohols and anaesthetics.

    PubMed Central

    Mascia, M. P.; Machu, T. K.; Harris, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of n-alcohols (ethanol to dodecanol) and anaesthetics on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors were studied in Xenopus oocytes expressing homomeric alpha 1 or alpha 2 glycine receptor subunits, with the two electrode voltage-clamp recording technique. 2. The glycine-induced chloride conductance of homomeric alpha glycine receptors was potentiated by all the alcohols tested when an EC2 concentration of glycine was used. Homomeric alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors were potentiated similarly by the n-alcohols, except that low concentrations of ethanol produced greater potentiation with alpha 1, as previously reported. 3. Increasing the n-alcohol carbon number has been shown to increase the potency of the alcohols up to decanol at concentrations corresponding to EC50s for producing loss of righting reflex in tadpoles. However, dodecanol was no more potent than decanol, and only modest potentiation (30-60%) was obtained with dodecanol, in contrast to marked (150-200%) potentiation with the other alcohols. Thus, a "cut-off' occurred at about dodecanol. 4. Propofol, alphaxalone, pentobarbitone, halothane and enflurane, reversibly potentiated the function of homomeric alpha 1 glycine receptors at concentrations which represent approximately twice the EC50 for production of anaesthesia in mammals, but ketamine and etomidate were ineffective. 5. Two novel cyclobutane compounds were tested; the anaesthetic compound (1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluorocyclobutane) from 0.5 to 5 mM potentiated the action of glycine in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the non-anaesthetic analogue (1,2-dichloro-hexfluorocyclobutane) had no effect on glycine receptor function at concentrations (25 to 80 microM) predicted to be anaesthetic, based on the lipid solubility of this compound. 6. These results suggest that the alpha subunits of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors contain sites of action for n-alcohols, propofol, alphaxalone, pentobarbitone and volatile anaesthetics, but not

  13. Genetics and Breeding for Modified Fatty Acid Profile in Soybean Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil is versatile and used in many products. Modifying the fatty acid profile would make soy oil more functional in food and other products. The ideal oil with the most end uses would have saturates (palmitic + stearic acids) reduced from 15 to < 7%, oleic acid increa...

  14. Prebiotic Synthesis of Hydrophobic and Protein Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ring, David; Wolman, Yecheskel; Friedmann, Nadav; Miller, Stanley L.

    1972-01-01

    The formation of amino acids by the action of electric discharges on a mixture of methane, nitrogen, and water with traces of ammonia was studied in detail. The presence of glycine, alanine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, α-aminoisobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, isovaline, leucine, isoleucine, alloisoleucine, norleucine, proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, allothreonine, α-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid, and α,γ-diaminobutyric acid was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All of the primary α-amino acids found in the Murchison Meteorite have been synthesized by this electric discharge experiment. PMID:4501592

  15. A time-course comparative microarray analysis of an incompatible and compatible response by Glycine max (soybean) to Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of infection in soybean cv. Peking roots by compatible or incompatible races of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode [SCN]) was assayed by microarray analyses. Using three time-points, one as nematodes penetrate the root prior to feeding site selection; a second as the nematode...

  16. Zinc glycine chelate absorption characteristics in Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Yue, M; Fang, S L; Zhuo, Z; Li, D D; Feng, J

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate absorption characteristics of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) by evaluating tissues zinc status and the expression of zinc transporters in rats. A total of 24 male rats were randomly allocated to three treatments and administered either saline or 35 mg Zn/kg body weight from zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 ) or Zn-Gly by feeding tube separately. Four rats per group were slaughtered and tissues were collected at 2 and 6 h after gavage respectively. Our data showed that Zn-Gly did more effectively in increasing (p < 0.05) serum zinc levels, and the activities of serum and liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) at 2 and 6 h. By 2 h after the zinc load, the mRNA and protein abundance of intestinal metallothionein1 (MT1) and zinc transporter SLC30A1 (ZnT1) were higher (p < 0.05), and zinc transporter SLC39A4 (Zip4) lower (p < 0.05) in ZnSO4 compared to other groups. Zinc transporter SLC39A5 (Zip5) mRNA expression was not zinc responsive, but Zip5 protein abundance was remarkably (p < 0.05) increased in ZnSO4 2 h later. Overall, our results indicated that in short-term periods, Zn-Gly was more effective in improving body zinc status than ZnSO4 , and ZnSO4 did more efficiently on the regulation of zinc transporters in small intestine. PMID:25266789

  17. Thermodynamics and Mechanisms of Protonated Asparaginyl-Glycine Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Boles, Georgia C; Wu, R R; Rodgers, M T; Armentrout, P B

    2016-07-14

    Deamidation at asparagine residues, a spontaneous post-translational modification in proteins, plays a significant role in various biological processes and degenerative diseases. In the current work, we present a full description of the deamidation process as well as other key fragmentations (dehydration, peptide bond cleavage, and loss of 2 NH3) from protonated asparaginyl-glycine, H(+)(AsnGly), by studying its kinetic energy dependent collision-induced dissociation (CID) with Xe using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. These results are compared with those for sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI)-CID of H(+)(AsnGly) with Ar in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Computationally, simulating annealing methodology and a series of relaxed potential energy scans at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level were performed to identify all intermediate and transition state (TS) structures for each key reaction. All species were further optimized at the B3LYP and B3LYP-GD3BJ/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Single point energies of all major reaction species were calculated at the B3LYP, B3P86, MP2(full), and B3LYP-GD3BJ levels of theory and using M06-2X for rate-limiting species. Relative energies of intermediates, TSs, and products allow characterization of the elementary and rate limiting steps in H(+)(AsnGly) decomposition. By combining experimental and computational results, the complete mechanistic nature of H(+)(AsnGly) deamidation and other fragmentations is explored and compared to the previously studied H(+)(Asn) complex. The influence of water solvation on key TSs is also explored. On a fundamental level, this analysis will aid in understanding the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the key intramolecular interactions involved in deamidation, dehydration, and other important fragmentations of peptides. PMID:27322599

  18. Interactions between glycine and amorphous solid water nanoscale films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzvetkov, George; Koller, Georg; Netzer, Falko P.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions of glycine (Gly) with amorphous solid water (ASW) nanolayers (≤ 100 ML), vapor-deposited on single crystalline AlOx surfaces at 100 K, have been investigated by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) at the oxygen K-edge, temperature-programmed thermal desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-dependent work function measurements. Gly-on-ASW, ASW-on-Gly, and Gly on top of ASW-on-Gly ultrathin films have been fabricated. In contrast to the uniform ASW films grown directly on the hydrophilic AlOx, water molecules adsorb on the hydrophobic Gly films in the form of 3D ASW clusters. This leads to significant differences in the NEXAFS and work function data obtained from ASW-on-AlOx and ASW-on-Gly films, respectively. Furthermore, these structural differences influence the chemical state of Gly molecules (neutral vs. zwitterionic) adsorbed on top of ASW films. N1s XPS measurements revealed an increased amount of neutral Gly molecules in the film top-deposited on the ASW-on-Gly structure in comparison to the neutral Gly in the films directly condensed on AlOx or grown on the ASW substrate. H2O TPD spectra demonstrate that the crystallization and desorption processes of ASW are affected in a different way by the Gly layers, top-deposited on to ASW-on-AlOx and ASW-on-Gly films. At the same time, Gly adlayers sink into the ASW film during crystallization/desorption of the latter and land softly on the alumina surface in the form of zwitterionic clusters.

  19. A known and a novel mutation in the glycine decarboxylase gene in a newborn with classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

    PubMed

    Beijer, P; Lichtenbelt, K D; Hofstede, F C; Nikkels, P G J; Lemmers, P; de Vries, L S

    2012-06-01

    A term neonate displayed typical features of nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Conventional magnetic resonance imaging showed corpus callosum hypoplasia and increased signal intensity of the white matter. Magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy revealed high cerebral glycine levels. The liquor/plasma glycine ratio was increased. Genetic testing detected a known and a novel mutation in the glycine decarboxylase gene, leading to the classic form of glycine encephalopathy. Prenatal genetic testing in the subsequent pregnancy showed that this fetus was not affected. As features of neonatal NKH may not be very specific, recognition of the disease may be difficult. An overview of clinical, electroencephalography, and neuroimaging findings is given in this article. PMID:22610665

  20. Characteristics of glycine receptors expressed by embryonic rat brain mRNAs.

    PubMed

    García-Alcocer, G; García-Colunga, J; Martínez-Torres, A; Miledi, R

    2001-02-27

    A study was made of glycine (Gly) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat mRNAs isolated from the encephalon, midbrain, and brainstem of 18-day-old rat embryos. In oocytes injected with encephalon, midbrain, or brainstem mRNAs, the Gly-current amplitudes (membrane current elicited by Gly; 1 mM Gly) were respectively 115 +/- 35, 346 +/- 28, and 389 +/- 22 nA, whereas the GABA-currents (1 mM GABA) were all < or =40 nA. Moreover, the Gly-currents desensitized faster in oocytes injected with encephalon or brainstem mRNAs. The EC(50) for Gly was 611 +/- 77 microM for encephalon, 661 +/- 28 microM for midbrain, and 506 +/- 18 microM for brainstem mRNA-injected oocytes, and the corresponding Hill coefficients were all approximately 2. Strychnine inhibited all of the Gly-currents, with an IC(50) of 56 +/- 3 nM for encephalon, 97 +/- 4 nM for midbrain, and 72 +/- 4 nM for brainstem mRNAs. During repetitive Gly applications, the Gly-currents were potentiated by 1.6-fold for encephalon, 2.1-fold for midbrain, and 1.3-fold for brainstem RNA-injected oocytes. Raising the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration significantly increased the Gly-currents in oocytes injected with midbrain and brainstem mRNAs. Reverse transcription-PCR studies showed differences in the Gly receptor (GlyR) alpha-subunits expressed, whereas the beta-subunit was present in all three types of mRNA. These results indicate differential expression of GlyR mRNAs in the brain areas examined, and these mRNAs lead to the expression of GlyRs that have different properties. The modulation of GlyRs by Ca(2+) could play important functions during brain development. PMID:11226317

  1. Characteristics of Modified Leghemoglobins Isolated from Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) Root Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Jun, H. K.; Sarath, G.; Moran, J. F.; Becana, M.; Klucas, R. V.; Wagner, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    Hemoprotein derivatives of an abundant soybean (Glycine max Merr.) root nodule leghemoglobin, Lba, were studied for their modified spectral characteristics and physical properties. Three modified hemoprotein derivatives of Lba (Lbam1, Lbam2, and Lbam3) were purified by preparative isoelectric focusing. The ferric forms of these pigments were green and exhibited anomalous spectra in the visible region as compared to the Lba3+ forms. These modified pigments showed a hypochromic shift of 10 nm for the charge transfer absorption maximum; however, differences were not apparent in the Soret region. Upon binding with nicotinate, the [alpha] and [beta] bands were shifted significantly into the red region as compared to the Lba3+ nicotinate complex. The three Lbam fractions were reduced by dithionite or by NADH in the presence of riboflavin. Lbam2+ also bound nicotinate and displayed absorption spectra indistinguishable from those of Lba2+ nicotinate. In contrast to Lba2+, Lbam2+ displayed aberrant spectra when bound with either O2 or CO. These complexes exhibited a prominent charge transfer band at approximately 620 nm and failed to exhibit spectra characteristic of Lba2+O2 and Lba2+CO. The protein moiety of these modified pigments was intact because their tyrosine/tryptophan ratios and their amino acid compositions were identical with those of Lba, nor were differences observed in the peptide profiles resulting from trypsin digests of purified Lba and Lbams. Automated Edman degradation of selected peaks further confirmed the intactness of the protein backbone including the absence of deamination. Pyridine hemochromogen for heme from Lbams could be formed, and the spectra displayed distinct differences compared to those of Lba. A new peak at 580 nm and a loss of a peak at 480 nm were observed for all three Lbams. PMID:12232161

  2. X-ray emission spectroscopy applied to glycine adsorbed on Cu(110): An atom and symmetry projected view

    SciTech Connect

    Hasselstroem, J.; Karis, O.; Weinelt, M.

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule is adsorbed on a metal surface by chemical bonding new electronic states are formed. For noble and transition metals these adsorption-induced states overlap with the much more intense metal d-valence band, making them difficult to probe by for instance direct photoemission. However, it has recently been shown that X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) can be applied to adsorbate systems. Since the intermediate state involves a core hole, this technique has the power to project out the partial density of states around each atomic site. Both the excitation and deexcitation processes are in general governed by the dipole selection rules. For oriented system, it is hence possible to obtain a complete separation into 2p{sub x}, 2p{sub y} and 2p{sub z} contributions using angular resolved measurements. The authors have applied XES together with other core level spectroscopies to glycine adsorption on Cu(110). Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the smallest amino acid and very suitable to study by core level spectroscopy since it has several functional groups, all well separated in energy by chemical shifts. Its properties are futhermore of biological interest. In summary, the authors have shown that it is possible to apply XES to more complicated molecular adsorbates. The assignment of different electronic states is however not as straight forward as for simple diatomic molecules. For a complete understanding of the redistribution and formation of new electronic states associated with the surface chemical bond, experimental data must be compared to theoretical calculations.

  3. Mutations M287L and Q266I in the Glycine Receptor α1 Subunit Change Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics in Oocytes and Neurons, but Not the Minimal Alveolar Concentration in Knockin Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, Cecilia M.; Xiong, Wei; Oh, S. Irene; Ho, Angel; Mihic, S. John; Zhang, Li; Lovinger, David M.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Eger, Edmond I; Harris, R. Adron

    2012-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics (VAs) alter the function of key central nervous system proteins but it is not clear which, if any, of these targets mediates the immobility produced by VAs in the face of noxious stimulation. A leading candidate is the glycine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel important for spinal physiology. VAs variously enhance such function, and blockade of spinal GlyRs with strychnine affects the minimal alveolar concentration (an anesthetic EC50) in proportion to the degree of enhancement. Methods We produced single amino acid mutations into the glycine receptorα1 subunit that increased (M287L, third transmembrane region) or decreased (Q266I, second transmembrane region) sensitivity to isoflurane in recombinant receptors, and introduced such receptors into mice. The resulting knockin mice presented impaired glycinergic transmission, but heterozygous animals survived to adulthood, and we determined the effect of isoflurane on glycine-evoked responses of brain stem neurons from the knockin mice, and the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and other VAs in the immature and mature knockin mice. Results Studies of glycine-evoked currents in brain stem neurons from knock-in mice confirmed the changes seen with recombinant receptors. No increases in the minimal alveolar concentration were found in knockin mice, but the minimal alveolar concentration for isoflurane and enflurane (but not halothane) decreased in 2-week-old Q266I mice. This change is opposite to the one expected for a mutation that decreases the sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that glycine receptors containing the α1 subunit are not likely to be crucial for the action of isoflurane and other VAs. PMID:22885675

  4. Soybean Photosynthesis and Yield as Influenced by Heterodera glycines, Soil Type and Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Koenning, S R; Barker, K R

    1995-03-01

    The effects of soil types and soil water matric pressure on the Heterodera glycines-Glycine max interaction were examined in microplots in 1988 and 1989. Reproduction of H. glycines was restricted in fine-textured soils as compared with coarse-textured ones. Final population densities of this pathogen in both years of the study were greater in nonirrigated soils than in irrigated soils. The net photosynthetic rate of soybean (per unit area of leaf) was suppressed only slightly or not at all in response to infection by H. glycines and other stresses. Relative soybean-yield suppression in response to H. glycines was not affected by water content in fine-textured soils, but slopes of the damage functions were steepest in sand, sandy loam, and muck soils at high water content (irrigated plots). Yield restriction of soybean in response to this pathogen under irrigation was equal to or greater than the yield suppression under dry conditions. Although yield potential may be elevated by irrigation when soil-water content is inadequate, supplemental irrigation cannot be used to circumvent nematode damage to soybean. PMID:19277261

  5. TM9 family proteins control surface targeting of glycine-rich transmembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Jackie; Le Coadic, Marion; Vernay, Alexandre; Dias, Marco; Gopaldass, Navin; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Cosson, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    TM9 family proteins (also named Phg1 proteins) have been previously shown to control cell adhesion by determining the cell surface localization of adhesion proteins such as the Dictyostelium SibA protein. Here, we show that the glycine-rich transmembrane domain (TMD) of SibA is sufficient to confer Phg1A-dependent surface targeting to a reporter protein. Accordingly, in Dictyostelium phg1A-knockout (KO) cells, proteins with glycine-rich TMDs were less efficiently transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to the cell surface. Phg1A, as well as its human ortholog TM9SF4 specifically associated with glycine-rich TMDs. In human cells, genetic inactivation of TM9SF4 resulted in an increased retention of glycine-rich TMDs in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas TM9SF4 overexpression enhanced their surface localization. The bulk of the TM9SF4 protein was localized in the Golgi complex and a proximity-ligation assay suggested that it might interact with glycine-rich TMDs. Taken together, these results suggest that one of the main roles of TM9 proteins is to serve as intramembrane cargo receptors controlling exocytosis and surface localization of a subset of membrane proteins. PMID:25999474

  6. TM9 family proteins control surface targeting of glycine-rich transmembrane domains

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Jackie; Le Coadic, Marion; Vernay, Alexandre; Dias, Marco; Gopaldass, Navin; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Cosson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT TM9 family proteins (also named Phg1 proteins) have been previously shown to control cell adhesion by determining the cell surface localization of adhesion proteins such as the Dictyostelium SibA protein. Here, we show that the glycine-rich transmembrane domain (TMD) of SibA is sufficient to confer Phg1A-dependent surface targeting to a reporter protein. Accordingly, in Dictyostelium phg1A-knockout (KO) cells, proteins with glycine-rich TMDs were less efficiently transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to the cell surface. Phg1A, as well as its human ortholog TM9SF4 specifically associated with glycine-rich TMDs. In human cells, genetic inactivation of TM9SF4 resulted in an increased retention of glycine-rich TMDs in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas TM9SF4 overexpression enhanced their surface localization. The bulk of the TM9SF4 protein was localized in the Golgi complex and a proximity-ligation assay suggested that it might interact with glycine-rich TMDs. Taken together, these results suggest that one of the main roles of TM9 proteins is to serve as intramembrane cargo receptors controlling exocytosis and surface localization of a subset of membrane proteins. PMID:25999474

  7. Comparison of Crop Rotation and Fallow for Management of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne spp. in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of cropping systems (fallow, rotation with sorghum-sudangrass hybrid [Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense], and continuous soybean [Glycine max]), nematicide (aldicarb) treatment, and soybean cultivar on yield and nematode population densities were studied in a field infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines. Soybean following sorghum-sudangrass yielded 111 kg/ha more than soybean following fallow and 600 kg/ha more than continuous soybean. Aldicarb treatment increased yield by 428 kg/ha, regardless of previous crop. Cultivars interacted significantly with nematicide treatment and previous crop with respect to yield. Sorghum-sudangrass reduced numbers of Meloidogyne spp. compared with fallow and continuous soybean, but cropping system did not affect H. glycines numbers. The cultivar × previous crop and cultivar × nematicide interactions were significant for numbers of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. We concluded that sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and fallow are effective in reducing yield losses caused by mixed populations of Meloidogyne and H. glycines. Highest yields were obtained using crop rotation and cultivars with the highest levels of resistance to both nematodes. PMID:19277326

  8. Localization of glycine, GABA and neuropeptide containing neurons in tiger salamander retina

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Putative glycinergic and GABAergic neurons in the salamander retina were localized by a parallel analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and glycine-like immunoreactivity (Gly-IR) and a comparative analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA, like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR), and glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD-IR) at the light microscopic level. Good correspondence of labeling of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR as well as that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake and GABA-IR were observed. In addition, GAD immunoreactive neurons contained GABA-IR as well. Extensive colocalization of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR and that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA-IR and perhaps GAD-IR were indicated by the similarities in the distribution, morphology and labeling frequency of neurons and lamination in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). However, the Gly-IR and the GABA-IR probes appeared to be more sensitive and can thus be a reliable marker for glycine and GABA containing neurons respectively.

  9. Hydrogen-bonded glycine-HCN complexes in gas phase: structure, energetics, electric properties and cooperativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado da Silva, Arnaldo; Chakrabarty, Sumana; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab

    2015-03-01

    Twelve hydrogen-bonded complexes of glycine and hydrogen cyanide have been studied using high-level quantum-chemical calculations in gas phase. In particular, six 1:1 glycine-HCN dimers and six 1:2 glycine-HCN trimers have been considered. Besides the characteristics of the hydrogen bonds and their effect on molecular structure and energetics, several molecular electric properties have been calculated utilising two different models: MP2/6-31++G(d,p) and DFT-B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p). Although the structural parameters calculated by the two models are similar, equilibrium electronic energies of the clusters show model dependence. The lowest energy dimer is same in both the models which is ca. 3.0 kcal/mol more stable than the highest energy dimer. However, the lowest energy trimer is different in two methods. The energetic difference of stability between the highest and lowest trimer is 4.2 kcal/mol (4.4 kcal/mol) at an MP2 (B3LYP) level of calculation. The bond angles of glycine, in particular, are quite sensitive to the hydrogen-bond formation. Four out of six trimers are found to be strongly cooperative in both the models. Significant changes of dipole moments and polarisabilities of isolated glycine and hydrogen cyanide are observed due to the formation of hydrogen bonding. The Rayleigh scattering intensities of all clusters are much larger than those of their constituent monomers.

  10. Possible interstellar formation of glycine through a concerted mechanism: a computational study on the reaction of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]NH, CO2 and H2.

    PubMed

    Nhlabatsi, Zanele P; Bhasi, Priya; Sitha, Sanyasi

    2016-07-27

    Glycine being the simplest amino acid and also having significant astrobiological implications, has meant that intensive investigations have been carried out in the past, starting from its detection in the interstellar medium (ISM) to analysis of meteorites and cometary samples and laboratory synthesis, as well as computational studies on the possible reaction paths. In this present work quantum chemical calculations have been performed to investigate the possible interstellar formation of glycine via two different paths; (1) in a two-step process via a dihydroxy carbene intermediate and (2) through a one-step concerted mechanism, starting from reactants like CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]NH, CO, CO2, H2O and H2. For the two reactions representing the carbene route, it was observed that the formation of dihydroxy carbene from either CO + H2O or CO2 + H2 is highly endothermic with large barrier heights, whereas the subsequent step of interaction of this carbene with CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]NH to give glycine is exothermic and the barrier is below the reactants. Based on this observation it is suggested that the formation of glycine via the carbene route is a least favourable or even unfavourable path. On the other hand, the two reactions CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]NH + CO + H2O and CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]NH + CO2 + H2 representing the concerted paths were found to be favourable in leading to the formation of glycine. After an extensive study on the first concerted reaction in our previous work (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 375-381), in this work a detailed investigation has been carried out for the second concerted reaction, CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]NH + CO2 + H2, which can possibly lead to the interstellar formation of glycine. It was observed that this reaction proceeds through a large barrier and at the same time the transition state shows prominent hydrogen dynamics, indicating a tunnelling possibility for this

  11. Rich spectroscopic and molecular dynamic studies on the interaction of cytotoxic Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes of glycine derivatives with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Eslami Moghadam, Mahboube; Saidifar, Maryam; Divsalar, Adeleh; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Farhangian, Hossein; Ghadamgahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Some amino acid derivatives, such as R-glycine, have been synthesized together with their full spectroscopic characterization. The sodium salts of these bidentate amino acid ligands have been interacted with [M(bpy)(H2O)2](NO3)2 giving the corresponding some new complexes with formula [M(bpy)(R-gly)]NO3 (where M is Pt(II) or Pd(II), bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and R-gly is butyl-, hexyl- and octyl-glycine). Due to less solubility of octyl derivatives, the biological activities of butyl and hexyl derivatives have been tested against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562. The interaction of these complexes with highly polymerized calf thymus DNA has been extensively studied by means of electronic absorption, fluorescence and other measurements. The experimental results suggest that these complexes positive cooperatively bind to DNA presumably via groove binding. Molecular dynamic results show that the DNA structure is largely maintained its native structure in hexylglycine derivative-water mixtures and at lower temperatures. The simulation data indicates that the more destabilizing effect of butylglycine is induced by preferential accumulation of these molecules around the DNA and due to their more negative free energy of binding via groove binding. PMID:25734364

  12. Pigmented Soybean (Glycine max) Seed Coats Accumulate Proanthocyanidins during Development.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, J. J.; Vodkin, L. O.

    1993-01-01

    The dominant I gene inhibits accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in the epidermal layer of soybean (Glycine max) seed coats. Seed-coat color is also influenced by the R locus and by the pubescence color alleles (T, tawny; t, gray). Protein and RNA from cultivars with black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats are difficult to extract. To determine the nature of the interfering plant products, we examined seed-coat extracts from Clark isogenic lines for flavonoids, anthocyanins, and possible proanthocyanidins by thin-layer chromatography. We show that yellow seed-coat varieties (I) do not accumulate anthocyanins (anthocyanidin glycosides) or proanthocyanidins (polymeric anthocyanidins). Mature, black (i,R,T) and imperfect-black (i,R,t) seed coats contained anthocyanins, whereas mature, brown (i,r,T) and buff (i,r,t) seed coats did not contain anthocyanins. In contrast, all colored (i) genotypes tested positive for the presence of proanthocyanidins by butanol/ HCl and 0.5% vanillin assays. Immature, black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats contained significant amounts of procyanidin, a 3[prime],4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Immature, black (i,R,T) or brown (i,r,T) seed-coat extracts also tested positive for the ability to precipitate proteins in a radial diffusion assay and to bind RNA in vitro. Imperfect-black (i,R,t) or buff (i,r,t) seed coats contained lesser amounts of propelargonidin, a 4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Seed-coat extracts from these genotypes did not have the ability to precipitate protein or bind to RNA. In summary, the dominant I gene controls inhibition of not only anthocyanins but also proanthocyanidins in soybean seed coats. In homozygous recessive i genotypes, the T-t gene pair determines the types of proanthocyanidins present, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the T locus encodes a microsomal 3[prime]-flavonoid hydroxylase. PMID:12231856

  13. Effects of divalent amino acids on iron absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J.M.; Ghannam, M.; Ayres, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Solutions of each of 10 amino acids or ascorbic acid were mixed with iron and orally administered to rats. Iron was absorbed to a statistically significantly greater extent when mixed with asparagine, glycine, serine, or ascorbic acid as compared with a control solution of iron. The largest effects were for asparagine and glycine, which also increased iron absorption to a significantly greater extent than did serine or ascorbic acid. No statistically significant increase in iron absorption occurred when any of the other amino acids was mixed with iron. The extent of iron absorption from each test solution, as measured by area under the concentration of iron-59 in the blood-time curve (r2 . 0.0002), and the initial rate of iron absorption for each test solution (r2 . 0.01) showed no correlation with the stability constant of the amino acid-iron complex.

  14. Zwitterionic versus canonical amino acids over the various defects in zeolites: a two-layer ONIOM calculation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Zhou, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Defects are often considered as the active sites for chemical reactions. Here a variety of defects in zeolites are used to stabilize zwitterionic glycine that is not self-stable in gas phase; in addition, effects of acidic strengths and zeolite channels on zwitterionic stabilization are demonstrated. Glycine zwitterions can be stabilized by all these defects and energetically prefer to canonical structures over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites rather than Ti Lewis acidic site, silanol and titanol hydroxyls. For titanol (Ti-OH), glycine interacts with framework Ti and hydroxyl sites competitively, and the former with Lewis acidity predominates. The transformations from canonical to zwitterionic glycine are obviously more facile over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites than over Ti Lewis acidic site, titanol and silanol hydroxyls. Charge transfers that generally increase with adsorption energies are found to largely decide the zwitterionic stabilization effects. Zeolite channels play a significant role during the stabilization process. In absence of zeolite channels, canonical structures predominate for all defects; glycine zwitterions remain stable over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites and only with synergy of H-bonding interactions can exist over Ti Lewis acidic site, while automatically transform to canonical structures over silanol and titanol hydroxyls. PMID:25307449

  15. Genetics Home Reference: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... links) Encyclopedia: Febrile Seizures Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: Genetic ... amidinotransferase deficiency: the third inborn error of creatine metabolism in humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Nov; ...

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and theoretical study of water interactions with glycine and its N-methylated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Panuszko, Aneta; Śmiechowski, Maciej; Stangret, Janusz

    2011-03-21

    In this study we attempt to explain the molecular aspects of amino acids' hydration. Glycine and its N-methylated derivatives: N-methylglycine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and N,N,N-trimethylglycine were used as model solutes in aqueous solution, applying FT-IR spectroscopy as the experimental method. The quantitative version of the difference spectra method enabled us to obtain the solute-affected HDO spectra as probes of influenced water. The spectral results were confronted with density functional theory calculated structures of small hydration complexes of the solutes using the polarizable continuum model. It appears that the hydration of amino acids in the zwitterionic form can be understood allowing a synchronized fluctuation of hydrogen bonding between the solute and the water molecules. This effect is caused by a noncooperative interaction of water molecules with electrophilic groups of amino acid and by intramolecular hydrogen bond, allowing proton transfer from the carboxylic to the amine group, accomplishing by the chain of two to four water molecules. As a result, an instantaneous water-induced asymmetry of the carboxylate and the amino group of amino acid molecule is observed and recorded as HDO band splitting. Water molecules interacting with the carboxylate group give component bands at 2543 ± 11 and 2467 ± 15 cm(-1), whereas water molecules interacting with protons of the amine group give rise to the bands at 2611 ± 15 and 2413 ± 12 cm(-1). These hydration effects have not been recognized before and there are reasons to expect their validity for other amino acids. PMID:21428668

  17. A Peroxisomal Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase from Glycine max Involved in Lipid Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bingjun; Sun, Xuegang; Gu, Shoulai; Han, Tianfu; Hou, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Seed storage oil, in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG), is degraded to provide carbon and energy during germination and early seedling growth by the fatty acid β-oxidation in the peroxisome. Although the pathways for lipid degradation have been uncovered, understanding of the exact involved enzymes in soybean is still limited. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) is a critical enzyme that activates free fatty acid released from TAG to form the fatty acyl-CoA. Recent studies have shown the importance of ACSL in lipid degradation and synthesis, but few studies were focused on soybean. In this work, we cloned a ACSL gene from soybean and designated it as GmACSL2. Sequence analysis revealed that GmACSL2 encodes a protein of 733 amino acid residues, which is highly homologous to the ones in other higher plants. Complementation test showed that GmACSL2 could restore the growth of an ACS-deficient yeast strain (YB525). Co-expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated that GmACSL2 is located at peroxisome. Expression pattern analysis showed that GmACSL2 is highly expressed in germinating seedling and strongly induced 1 day after imbibition, which indicate that GmACSL2 may take part in the seed germination. GmACSL2 overexpression in yeast and soybean hairy root severely reduces the contents of the lipids and fatty acids, compared with controls in both cells, and enhances the β-oxidation efficiency in yeast. All these results suggest that GmACSL2 may take part in fatty acid and lipid degradation. In conclusion, peroxisomal GmACSL2 from Glycine max probably be involved in the lipid degradation during seed germination. PMID:24992019

  18. Ethanol directly depresses AMPA and NMDA glutamate currents in spinal cord motor neurons independent of actions on GABAA or glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, M Y; Rampil, I J; Kendig, J J

    1999-07-01

    Ethanol is a general anesthetic agent as defined by abolition of movement in response to noxious stimulation. This anesthetic endpoint is due to spinal anesthetic actions. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts directly on motor neurons to inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission at glutamate receptors. Whole cell recordings were made in visually identified motor neurons in spinal cord slices from 14- to 23-day-old rats. Currents were evoked by stimulating a dorsal root fragment or by brief pulses of glutamate. Ethanol at general anesthetic concentrations (50-200 mM) depressed both responses. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked responses in the presence of tetrodotoxin (300 nM), showing that its actions are postsynaptic. Block of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine receptors by bicuculline (50 microM) and strychnine (5 microM), respectively, did not significantly reduce the effects of ethanol on glutamate currents. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked currents when the inhibitory receptors were blocked and either D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (40 microM) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium (10 microM) were applied to block N-methyl-D-aspartate or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate receptors, respectively. The results show that ethanol exerts direct depressant effects on both alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate currents in motor neurons. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine inhibition is not required for this effect. Direct depression of glutamatergic excitatory transmission by a postsynaptic action on motor neurons thus may contribute to general anesthesia as defined by immobility in response to a noxious stimulus. PMID:10381800

  19. An Alternative Field Method for Screening Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, N. E.; Mauro, A. O.; Tihohood, D.

    1998-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) has become an increasingly severe problem in soybean production areas in Brazil. The development and use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient method of minimizing losses due to this pathogen. Our objective was to test the efficiency of an alternative method for screening soybean genotypes for resistance to H. glycines in field plots. The alternative method was compared to the standard method of sowing the test genotypes in fields found to be infested during the previous crop season. In the alternative method, the test genotypes are sown in the furrow following the uprooting of 45-day-old infected plants. The alternative method resulted in twice the cyst population and fewer escapes, and more consistent results than the standard method. The major advantage of the alternative method is that it permits screening in a more homogeneous distribution of H. glycines in the soil. PMID:19274244

  20. Low frequency collective vibrational spectra of zwitterionic glycine studied by DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shi Hua; Chen, Hua; Cui, Yi Ping

    2012-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and THz-TDS were used to obtain the experimental spectrum of glycine below 600 cm-1, and theoretical results of one or more zwitterionic glycine were calculated by DFT at the basis set of b31yp 6- 31+g(d,p) level based on Gaussian 03 software package in FIR region. There is more reasonable qualitative agreement between the calculated data of crystalline and observed line positions. Detailed assignments of the observed vibrational frequencies are discussed and the origins of some frequencies are analyzed by contrast. The low frequency collective mode of zwitterionic glycine is affected greatly by the intermolecular interaction and hydrogen-bonding effects and their vibrational modes are collective motion.

  1. Formation of homochiral glycine/Cu(111) quantum corral array realized using alanine nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Miki; Huang, Hui; Kanazawa, Ken; Taninaka, Atsushi; Yoshida, Shoji; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2015-08-01

    Glycine has enantiomeric isomers on a Cu(111) surface through the dissociation of hydrogen from the carboxyl group and forms an array of quantum corrals of ∼1.3 nm diameter. Stable homo-chiral glycinate trimers are formed in the first step, which subsequently form a network with a hexagonal arrangement. However, domains with R- or S-chirality coexist with the same probability. On the other hand, α-alanine has D- and L-chirality in nature and forms a similar quantum corral array on Cu(111) with R- and S-chirality, respectively. Here, by using α-alanine molecules as nuclei, the chirality of glycine molecules was controlled and a homochiral quantum corral array was successfully formed, which indicates the possibility that the optical isomers can be separated through a method such as preferential crystallization.

  2. Standard thermodynamic functions of Co2+ complexation with glycine and L-histidine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The enthalpies of the reactions between solutions of Co(NO3)2 and solutions of glycine (Gly) and L-histidine (His) are determined via direct calorimetry at different pH values and metal: ligand ratios using KNO3 as a background electrolyte ( T = 298.15 K, I = 0.2-1.0). The enthalpy changes upon the formation of cobalt glycinate complexes and Co2+ mixed-ligand complex, viz., glycine-L-histidine, were calculated. The standard thermodynamic parameters (Δr H°, Δr G°, Δr S°) of complexation are determined. The CoGlyHis complex is shown to be stable toward decomposition into homogeneous complexes.

  3. Interactions between glycine derivatives and mineral surfaces: Implications for the origins of life on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall-Bowman, K. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Various mechanisms could have delivered amino acids to the prebiotic Earth (Miller and Orgel 1974). The polymerization of amino acids may have been important for the origin of life, as peptides may have been components for the first self-replicating systems (Kauffman 1971; Yao et al 1998). Though amino acid concentrations in the primitive oceans were likely too dilute for significant oligomerization to occur (Cleaves et al 2009), mineral surface adsorption may have concentrated these biomolecules (Bernal 1951; Lambert 2008). Few studies have examined the catalytic effects of mineral surfaces on aqueous peptide oligomerization or degradation. As unactivated amino acid polymerization is thermodynamically unfavorable and kinetically slow in aqueous solution, we studied the reverse reaction of polymer degradation to measure potential mineral catalysis. Glycine (G) derivatives glycylglycine (GG), diketopiperazine (DKP), and glycylglycylglycine (GGG) were reacted with different minerals (calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, rutile, amorphous silica, and pyrite) in the presence of 0.05 M pH 8.1 KHCO3 buffer and 0.1 M NaCl as background electrolyte. Experiments were performed by reacting the aqueous amino acid derivative-mineral mixtures in a thermostatted oven (modified to accommodate a mechanical rotator) at 25°, 50° or 70°C. Samples were removed after 30, 60, 90, and 140 hours. Samples were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to quantify the products. Besides mineral catalysis, it was determined that degradation of GGG proceeds principally via a GGG → DKP + G mechanism, rather than via GGG → GG + G. Below 70°C kinetics were generally too sluggish to detect catalytic activity over reasonable laboratory time-scales at this pH. At 70°C, pyrite was the only mineral with detectible catalytic effects on the degradation of GGG. GGG degraded ~ 1.5 - 4 x faster in the presence of pyrite than in control reactions, depending on the ratio of solution

  4. Microarray detection calls as a means to compare transcripts within syncytial cells isolated from incompatible and compatible soybean (Glycine max) roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate pericycle and syncytial cells in soybean (Glycine max cultivar [cv.] Peking) roots infected by incompatible or compatible populations of soybean cyst nematode (SCN [Heterodera glycines]). Gene transcript detection calls were assayed using the A...

  5. Glycine regulates inflammatory markers modifying the energetic balance through PPAR and UCP-2.

    PubMed

    Almanza-Perez, J C; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Blancas-Flores, G; Campos-Sepulveda, A E; Roman-Ramos, R; Garcia-Macedo, R; Cruz, M

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as cause of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. It is provoked by imbalance between the spending and consumption of energy associated with a chronic inflammatory condition due to excessive storage of fat tissue. Obese patients have an impaired inflammatory profile that contributes to the development of vascular complications, with fat tissue being partially responsible for controlling both processes: energy balance (through PPAR) and inflammatory condition (through inflammatory markers). White adipose tissue produces cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, resistin, adiponectin, etc.) and participates in a broad spectrum of processes. Recently, glycine has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties which reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels and increase adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in fat tissue of obese mice. In this study, the possible regulatory role of glycine on some factors involved in storage and energy burning (PPAR-γ, PPAR-α, PPAR-δ and UCP-2) was analyzed in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Glycine clearly increased fat tissue PPAR-γ expression in lean but not in MSG/Ob mice. The PPAR-γ and PPAR-α liver expression was repressed in both groups of mice, while the expression of PPAR-δ decreased only in lean mice. Interestingly, glycine treatment also suppressed the expression of UCP-2, TNF-α and IL-6 in lean mice, and increased adiponectin and insulin serum levels. In conclusion, glycine regulates the production of inflammatory cytokines through PPAR-γ. These results provide clues on glycine signaling mechanisms as an anti-inflammatory agent that might be useful for treatment of metabolic and vascular complications associated to inflammation in obesity. PMID:19864106

  6. Osmotic and Chill Activation of Glycine Betaine Porter II in Listeria monocytogenes Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Paul N. M.; Tombras Smith, Linda; Smith, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen known for its tolerance to conditions of osmotic and chill stress. Accumulation of glycine betaine has been found to be important in the organism's tolerance to both of these stresses. A procedure was developed for the purification of membranes from L. monocytogenes cells in which the putative ATP-driven glycine betaine permease glycine betaine porter II (Gbu) is functional. As is the case for the L. monocytogenes sodium-driven glycine betaine uptake system (glycine betaine porter I), uptake in this vesicle system was dependent on energization by ascorbate-phenazine methosulfate. Vesicles lacking the gbu gene product had no uptake activity. Transport by this porter did not require sodium ion and could be driven only weakly by artificial gradients. Uptake rates could be manipulated under conditions not affecting secondary transport but known to affect ATPase activity. The system was shown to be both osmotically activated and cryoactivated. Under conditions of osmotic activation, the system exhibited Arrhenius-type behavior although the uptake rates were profoundly affected by the physical state of the membrane, with breaks in Arrhenius curves at approximately 10 and 18°C. In the absence of osmotic activation, the permease could be activated by decreasing temperature within the range of 15 to 4°C. Kinetic analyses of the permease at 30°C revealed Km values for glycine betaine of 1.2 and 2.9 μM with Vmax values of 2,200 and 3,700 pmol/min · mg of protein under conditions of optimal osmotic activation as mediated by KCl and sucrose, respectively. PMID:10762257

  7. Hyperammonemia alters glycinergic neurotransmission and modulation of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway by extracellular glycine in cerebellum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    The glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway modulates some forms of learning. How glycine modulates this pathway is unclear. Glycine could modulate the pathway biphasically, enhancing its function through NMDA receptor activation or reducing it through glycine receptor activation. Chronic hyperammonemia impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in the cerebellum and induces cognitive impairment. The possible alterations in hyperammonemia of glycinergic neurotransmission and of glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway modulation by glycine remain unknown. The aims were to assess, by in vivo microdialysis in cerebellum: (i) the effects of different glycine concentrations, administered through the microdialysis probe, on the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function; (ii) the effects of tonic glycine receptors activation on the pathway function, by blocking them with strychnine; (iii) whether hyperammonemia alters the pathway modulation by glycine; (iv) and whether hyperammonemia alters extracellular glycine concentration and/or glycine receptor membrane expression. In control rats, low glycine levels reduce the pathway function, likely by activating glycine receptors, while 20 μM glycine enhances the pathway function, likely by enhancing NMDA receptor activation. In hyperammonemic rats, glycine did not reduce the pathway function, but enhanced it when administered at 1-20 μM. Hyperammonemia reduces extracellular glycine concentration by approximately 50% and glycine receptor membrane expression. However, tonic glycine receptor activation seems to be enhanced in hyperammonemic rats, as indicated by the larger increase in extracellular cGMP induced by strychnine. These data show that glycine modulates the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway biphasically and that hyperammonemia strongly alters glycinergic neurotransmission and modulation by glycine of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway. These alterations may contribute to the cerebellar aspects of cognitive alterations in hyperammonemia. The findings

  8. Inter- and Intra-Subunit Butanol/Isoflurane Sites of Action in the Human Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Mandy L.; Gorini, Giorgio; McCracken, Lindsay M.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron; Trudell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission and are targets for alcohols and anesthetics in brain. GlyR transmembrane (TM) domains contain critical residues for alcohol/anesthetic action: amino acid A288 in TM3 forms crosslinks with TM1 (I229) in the adjacent subunit as well as TM2 (S267) and TM4 (Y406, W407, I409, Y410) in the same subunit. We hypothesized that these residues may participate in intra-subunit and inter-subunit sites of alcohol/anesthetic action. The following double and triple mutants of GLRA1 cDNA (encoding human glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit) were injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes: I229C/A288C, I229C/A288C/C290S, A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, and A288C/Y410C along with the corresponding single mutants and wild-type GLRA1. Butanol (22 mM) or isoflurane (0.6 mM) potentiation of GlyR-mediated currents before and after application of the cysteine crosslinking agent HgCl2 (10 μM) was measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Crosslinking nearly abolished butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the I229C/A288C and I229C/A288C/C290S mutants but had no effect in single mutants or wild-type. Crosslinking also inhibited butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the TM3-4 mutants (A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, A288C/Y410C) with no effect in single mutants or wild-type. We extracted proteins from oocytes expressing I229C/288C, A288C/Y410C, or wild-type GlyRs, used mass spectrometry to verify their expression and possible inter-subunit dimerization, plus immunoblotting to investigate the biochemical features of proposed crosslinks. Wild-type GlyR subunits measured about 50 kDa; after crosslinking, the dimeric/monomeric 100:50 kDa band ratio was significantly increased in I229C/288C but not A288C/Y410C mutants or wild-type, providing support for TM1-3 inter-subunit and TM3-4 intra-subunit crosslinking. A GlyR homology model based on the GluCl template provides further evidence for a multi-site model

  9. Inter- and Intra-Subunit Butanol/Isoflurane Sites of Action in the Human Glycine Receptor.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Mandy L; Gorini, Giorgio; McCracken, Lindsay M; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron; Trudell, James R

    2016-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission and are targets for alcohols and anesthetics in brain. GlyR transmembrane (TM) domains contain critical residues for alcohol/anesthetic action: amino acid A288 in TM3 forms crosslinks with TM1 (I229) in the adjacent subunit as well as TM2 (S267) and TM4 (Y406, W407, I409, Y410) in the same subunit. We hypothesized that these residues may participate in intra-subunit and inter-subunit sites of alcohol/anesthetic action. The following double and triple mutants of GLRA1 cDNA (encoding human glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit) were injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes: I229C/A288C, I229C/A288C/C290S, A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, and A288C/Y410C along with the corresponding single mutants and wild-type GLRA1. Butanol (22 mM) or isoflurane (0.6 mM) potentiation of GlyR-mediated currents before and after application of the cysteine crosslinking agent HgCl2 (10 μM) was measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Crosslinking nearly abolished butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the I229C/A288C and I229C/A288C/C290S mutants but had no effect in single mutants or wild-type. Crosslinking also inhibited butanol and isoflurane potentiation in the TM3-4 mutants (A288C/Y406C, A288C/W407C, A288C/I409C, A288C/Y410C) with no effect in single mutants or wild-type. We extracted proteins from oocytes expressing I229C/288C, A288C/Y410C, or wild-type GlyRs, used mass spectrometry to verify their expression and possible inter-subunit dimerization, plus immunoblotting to investigate the biochemical features of proposed crosslinks. Wild-type GlyR subunits measured about 50 kDa; after crosslinking, the dimeric/monomeric 100:50 kDa band ratio was significantly increased in I229C/288C but not A288C/Y410C mutants or wild-type, providing support for TM1-3 inter-subunit and TM3-4 intra-subunit crosslinking. A GlyR homology model based on the GluCl template provides further evidence for a multi-site model

  10. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid functional branched semi-interpenetrating hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Plenderleith, Richard A; Pateman, Christopher J; Rodenburg, Cornelia; Haycock, John W; Claeyssens, Frederik; Sammon, Chris; Rimmer, Stephen

    2015-10-14

    For the first time a series of functional hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating networks with both branched and crosslinked polymer components have been prepared and we show the successful use of these materials as substrates for cell culture. The materials consist of highly branched poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)s with peptide functionalised end groups in a continuous phase of crosslinked poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). Functionalisation of the end groups of the branched polymer component with the GRGDS peptide produces a hydrogel that supports cell adhesion and proliferation. The materials provide a new synthetic functional biomaterial that has many of the features of extracellular matrix, and as such can be used to support tissue regeneration and cell culture. This class of high water content hydrogel material has important advantages over other functional hydrogels in its synthesis and does not require post-processing modifications nor are functional-monomers, which change the polymerisation process, required. Thus, the systems are amenable to large scale and bespoke manufacturing using conventional moulding or additive manufacturing techniques. Processing using additive manufacturing is exemplified by producing tubes using microstereolithography. PMID:26280624

  11. Growth and characterization of pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, M.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2012-06-01

    The pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The concentration of dopant in the mother solution was 1 mol%. There is a change in unit cell. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study confirms the incorporation of glycine into CTS crystal. The doped crystals are optically better and more transparent than the pure ones. The dopant increases the hardness value of the material. The grown crystals were also subjected to thermal and NLO studies.

  12. Histidyl-histidine catalysis of glycine condensation in fluctuating clay environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Histidyl-histidine is a remarkably effective catalyst of peptide bond formation in the reaction of glycine in a fluctuating (hot-dry, cold-wet) clay environment. It has shown turnover numbers (molecules of glycine incorporated in oligoglycines per molecule of catalyst) as high as 18 in a single cycle and as high as 52 overall. A number of other dipeptides were tested, as well as monomeric histidine, N-acetyl histidine, and imidazole, none of which showed turnover numbers greater than one. Histidyl-histidine is a model for a prebiotic protoenzyme, and implications for the development of a simple translation mechanism are discussed.

  13. Synthesis of alumina powders by the glycine-nitrate combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Toniolo, J.C. . E-mail: jtoniolo@zipmail.com.br; Lima, M.D.; Takimi, A.S.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2005-03-08

    The combustion synthesis technique using glycine as fuel and aluminum nitrate as an oxidizer is able to produce alumina powders. Thermodynamic modeling of the combustion reaction shows that as the fuel-to-oxidant ratio increases, the amount of gases produced and adiabatic flame temperatures also increases. X-ray diffractions showed the amorphous structure for as-synthesized powder and presence of well-crystallized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} after calcination at 1100 deg. C during soaking time of 1 h. Alumina's largest measured specific surface area was 15 m{sup 2}/g with BET method and 0.51 glycine-to-nitrate ratio.

  14. Crystal Structure Prediction from First Principles: The Crystal Structures of Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Albert M.; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Orendt, Anita M.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the results of our unbiased searches of glycine polymorphs obtained using the Genetic Algorithms search implemented in Modified Genetic Algorithm for Crystals coupled with the local optimization and energy evaluation provided by Quantum Espresso. We demonstrate that it is possible to predict the crystal structures of a biomedical molecule using solely first principles calculations. We were able to find all the ambient pressure stable glycine polymorphs, which are found in the same energetic ordering as observed experimentally and the agreement between the experimental and predicted structures is of such accuracy that the two are visually almost indistinguishable. PMID:25843964

  15. Thermal gravity analysis for the study of stability of graphene oxide-glycine nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, F.; Rajabi, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we synthesized graphene oxide-glycine (GO-G) nanocomposite. To produce this nanocomposite with GO surface, glycine with known concentration was added to GO suspension in ethanol solvent. Nanocomposites provided were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal stability of these nanocomposites. Results of characterization by SEM and FT-IR showed that nanocomposite was created by the reaction between GO and G. Study of thermal stability by TGA showed that thermal stability of GO was more than that of the GO-G nanocomposite.

  16. Mechanism of glycine oxidation catalyzed by pyrroloquinoline quinone in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Waka; Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Ikemoto, Kazuto; Nakano, Masahiko; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of glycine oxidation reaction by PQQ in aqueous solution was investigated. A new crystal structure of PQQ under alkaline conditions was referred to calculate on a quantum chemical basis. Two mechanisms are investigated by this calculation: a 'stepwise' mechanism, namely, a nucleophilic attack on C5 or C4 by the nitrogen atom of glycine, and proton and electron transfer to PQQ. The second mechanism is a 'concerted' mechanism, namely, simultaneous reaction, which does not include the nucleophilic attack and include proton and electron transfer to PQQ.

  17. Crystal structure prediction from first principles: The crystal structures of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Albert M.; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Orendt, Anita M.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present the results of our unbiased searches of glycine polymorphs obtained using the genetic algorithms search implemented in MGAC, modified genetic algorithm for crystals, coupled with the local optimization and energy evaluation provided by Quantum Espresso. We demonstrate that it is possible to predict the crystal structures of a biomedical molecule using solely first principles calculations. We were able to find all the ambient pressure stable glycine polymorphs, which are found in the same energetic ordering as observed experimentally and the agreement between the experimental and predicted structures is of such accuracy that the two are visually almost indistinguishable.

  18. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Studies of Dibutyltin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Har Lal; Singh, Jangbhadur

    2014-01-01

    New series of organotin(IV) complexes and Schiff bases derived from amino acids have been designed and synthesized from condensation of 1H-indole-2,3-dione, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione, and α-amino acids (phenylalanine, isoleucine, and glycine). All compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR) spectral studies. The results suggest that Schiff bases behave as monobasic bidentate ligands and coordinate with dibutyltin(IV) in octahedral geometry according to the general formula [Bu2Sn(L)2]. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their dibutyltin(IV) complexes agree with their proposed distorted octahedral structures. Few representative compounds are tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. cereus, Staphylococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.) bacteria. The results show that the dibutyltin complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base ligands. PMID:25525422

  19. Critical micelle concentration and self-aggregation of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in aqueous glycine and glycylglycine solutions at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anwar; Tasneem, Shadma; Bidhuri, Priyanka; Bhushan, Vidiksha; Malik, Nisar Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    Conductivities, densities and ultrasonic speeds measurements of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) in aqueous solutions of glycine (Gly) and glycylglycine (Gly-Gly) have been made at various temperatures. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), the degree of ionization (β) of the micelles, standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the micellization process (Δ G {m/°}, Δ H {m/°}, and Δ S {m/°}) for the present systems were estimated at different temperatures. The CMC values of HTAB in aqueous Gly and Gly-Gly were also evaluated by density and ultrasonic speed measurements. Apparent molar volumes, ( V ϕ), apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, ( V {ϕ/°}), apparent molar compressibilities, ( K ϕ), of HTAB in the pre- and post-micellar regions, and volume change on micellization (Δ V {ϕ/ m }) were also estimated. Large positive values of TΔ S {m/°} and small negative values of Δ H {m/°} suggest that micellization process is driven primarily by entropy increase. The increase in Δ V {ϕ/ m } and K ϕ with rise in temperature is indicative of less compact micellar structure of HTAB in presence of amino acid additives. These data suggest that amino acids are solubilised probably in the palisade layer of the micelle.

  20. Molecular cloning and activity analysis of a seed-specific FAD2-1B gene promoter from Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Sha, W; Wang, Q Y; Zhai, Y; Zhao, Y; Shao, S L

    2015-01-01

    Microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2-1B) is an enzyme that regulates the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, the FAD2-1B gene was determined to be highly expressed in soybean seeds using quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). To investigate the expression pattern and activity of the FAD2-1B promoter, a 1929 bp 5'-upstream genomic DNA fragment, named PF, was isolated according to the soybean genomic sequence. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of many motifs related to seed-specific promoters in the PF fragment, such as E-box, SEF4, Skn-1 motif, AACACA, AATAAA and so on. Tobacco transgenics carrying the gus reporter gene driven by the PF and/or 35S promoters were confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR. qRT-PCR and histochemical GUS assays showed that the PF promoter could regulate gus gene accumulation in seeds and the expression level was higher than in other organs. In the meantime, it exhibited similar activity to the 35S promoter in seeds, which could be associated with seed-related cis-elements found in the 1-248 bp, 451-932 bp, and 1627-1803 bp regions of the promoter. PMID:26386665