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Sample records for acid glycoprotein agp

  1. Identification of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a potential marker of impaired growth in the newborn piglet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between the circulating levels of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin (HP) and alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and growth potential in neonatal pigs. In runts, the circulating level of AGP, but not HP in serum of newborn piglets was higher...

  2. Rapid Enantiomeric Separation and Quantitation of Levetiracetam on α-Acid Glycoprotein (AGP) Chiral Stationary Phase by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and rapid chiral HPLC method was developed for enantioselective analysis of levetiracetam and its enantiomer [(R)-α-ethyl-2- oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide] in a pharmaceutical formulation and bulk material. Enantiomeric separation was achieved on a chiral-α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column (150×4.0 mm, 5 μm) using an isocratic mobile phase of phosphate buffer (pH=7) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The UV detector was set at 210 nm. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-100 μg/mL and 0.4-20 μg/mL for levetiracetam and the (R)-enantiomer, respectively. LOD and LOQ for the (R)-enantiomer were 0.1 and 0.4 μg/mL, respectively. The run time of analysis was less than 5.0 min. PMID:26651564

  3. Hyposialylated α1-acid glycoprotein inhibits phagocytosis of feline neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Capitani, L; Ceciliani, F; Restelli, L; Paltrinieri, S

    2013-10-01

    Feline α1-acid glycoprotein (fAGP) modifies both its serum concentration and its glycan moiety during diseases. fAGP is hyposialylated in cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), but not in clinically healthy cats or in cats with other diseases. This study was aimed to determine whether hyposialylated fAGP influences phagocytosis. A flow cytometric method based on ingestion of fluoresceinated bacteria and adapted to feline blood was used to assess phagocytosis of leukocytes incubated with 'non-pathological' fAGP (purified from sera with normal concentrations of AGP) and 'pathological' fAGP (purified from sera with >1.5mg/mL hyposialylated AGP). The flow cytometric method provided repeatable results for neutrophils (coefficients of variations, CVs <15%) but not for monocytes (CVs>20%) which had also a high individual variability. Compared with saline solution and with non-pathological fAGP, pathological fAGP significantly decreased phagocytosis in neutrophils and monocytes. This study demonstrated that hyposialylated fAGP down-regulates the phagocytic activity of feline neutrophils. PMID:23726663

  4. Regulation of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein synthesis by porcine hepatocytes in monolayer culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, ORM-1) is a highly glycosylated mammalian acute phase protein, which is synthesized primarily in the liver and represents the major serum protein in newborn pigs. Recent data have suggested that the pig is unique in that AGP is a negative acute phase protein in this ...

  5. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein has immunomodulatory effects in neonatal swine adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is the most abundant protein in serum of neonatal swine. This protein functions as an immunomodulator in the pig. Recent work has demonstrated that adipose tissue can express AGP mRNA, as well as numerous cytokine mRNA. The present study was designed to determine i...

  6. The immune system modulator a1-acid glycoprotein inhibits insulin and IGF1 induced protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) has previously been demonstrated by our laboratory to be negatively correlated with growth rate in newborn piglets. However, a mechanism of action for AGP in growth has not been identified. Previous research has demonstrated that AGP can modify adipose tissue metabo...

  7. Glucocorticoid-mediated induction of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for hormone-regulated RNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Vannice, J L; Taylor, J M; Ringold, G M

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the glucocorticoid-mediated accumulation of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in mRNA in HTC rat hepatoma cells. In contrast to the well-characterized primary response of mouse mammary tumor virus, in vitro transcription assays in isolated nuclei show that the rate of transcription of the AGP gene is high even in the absence of hormone. Despite the constitutive transcription of the AGP gene, no detectable AGP RNA can be found in either the cytoplasm or the nuclei of untreated cells. Previous experiments have shown that the glucocorticoid induction of AGP RNA requires ongoing protein synthesis. In conjunction with the present study, our data suggest that glucocorticoids stimulate accumulation of AGP RNA by inducing an RNA processing factor that allows production of stable transcripts. Images PMID:6205392

  8. O-Glycosylation of α-1-Acid Glycoprotein of Human Milk Is Lactation Stage Related

    PubMed Central

    Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Hirnle, Lidia; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Human milk provides a multitude of glycoproteins, including highly glycosylated α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), which elicits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The milk AGP glycoforms may provide the breastfed infant with a wide range of biological benefits. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of O-linked sugar-specific lectins with human milk AGP over the process of lactation and compared the results with those of the lactating mother's plasma. Materials and Methods: Relative amounts of human skim milk AGP O-glycans were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sialyl T (sialyl-α2,3/α2,6 Galβ1,3GalNAc-), asialyl T (Galβ1,3GalNAc-), and Tn (GalNAc-) antigen-specific biotinylated Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Vicia villosa (VVA) lectins, respectively. Results: Milk AGP elicited high expression of Jacalin- and PNA-reactive glycotopes and low expression of VVA-reactive glycotopes, which were absent on plasma AGP of lactating mothers and healthy individuals. The expression of sialyl, asialyl T, and Tn glycotopes of human milk AGP was lactation stage related. The relative amount of Jacalin-reactive AGP glycotope was highest in the colostrum samples and then decreased starting from Day 8 of lactation. In contrast, an increase of the relative amount of PNA-reactive glycotope with milk maturation was observed. The relative amount of VVA-reactive glycotope remained almost constant over the development of lactation. Conclusions: Milk AGP differs from mother's plasma AGP by the presence of O-linked sialylated and asialylated T as well as Tn antigens. The variation of the expression of sialylated and asialylated T and Tn antigens on AGP is associated with milk maturation. PMID:26057552

  9. α 1-acid glycoprotein inhibits lipogenesis in neonatal swine adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, T G; Blomberg, L; Caperna, T J

    2016-05-01

    Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is elevated during late gestation and at birth in the pig and rapidly declines postnatally. In contrast, the pig is born with minimal lipid stores in the adipose tissue, but rapidly accumulates lipid during the first week. The present study examined if AGP can affect adipose tissue metabolism in the neonatal pig. Isolated cell cultures or tissue explants were prepared from dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue of preweaning piglets. Porcine AGP was used at concentrations of 0, 100, 1000 and 5000 ng/ml medium in 24 h incubations. AGP reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the lipogenic enzymes, malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthase and acetyl coA carboxylase by at least 40% (P<0.001). The activity of ME and citrate lyase were also reduced by AGP (P<0.05). Glucose oxidation was reduced by treatment with 5000 ng AGP/ml medium (P<0.05). The 14C-glucose incorporation into fatty acids was reduced by ~25% by AGP treatment for 24 h with 1000 ng AGP/ml medium (P<0.05). The decrease in glucose metabolism by AGP appears to function through an inhibition in insulin-mediated glucose oxidation and incorporation into fatty acids. This was supported by the analysis of the mRNA abundance for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), carbohydrate regulatory element-binding protein (ChREBP) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which all demonstrated reductions of at least 23% in response to AGP treatment (P<0.05). These data demonstrate an overall suppression of lipogenesis due to AGP inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in vitro, which the metabolic data and SREBP, ChREBP and IRS1 gene expression analysis suggest is through an inhibition in insulin-mediated events. Second, these data suggest that AGP may contribute to limiting lipogenesis within adipose tissue during the perinatal period, as AGP levels are highest for any serum protein at birth. PMID:26608612

  10. Induction of liver alpha-1 acid glycoprotein gene expression involves both positive and negative transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y M; Tsai, W H; Lai, M Y; Chen, D S; Lee, S C

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) gene is liver specific and acute phase responsive. Within the 180-bp region of the AGP promoter, at least five cis elements have been found to interact with trans-acting factors. Four of these elements (A, C, D, and E) interacted with AGP/EBP, a liver-enriched transcription factor, as shown by footprinting analysis and by an anti-AGP/EBP antibody-induced supershift in a gel retardation assay. Modification of these sites by site-directed mutagenesis coupled with transfection analysis indicated that AGP/EBP binding to all of these sites resulted in positive regulation of the promoter. Dose-response data suggest that AGP/EBP binding to these sites results in the cooperative activation of the promoter. In contrast, functional assays showed that element B is a negative regulatory element; this element is recognized by heat-stable DNA-binding factors which are found in many cells and tissues. The regulation of these binding proteins was studied in rat liver treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induced an acute-phase reaction. We found that LPS treatment resulted in a two- to threefold increase in AGP/EBP activity and a severalfold decrease in the activity of factors that bind to element B in the liver. These results indicate that expression of the AGP gene can be regulated by both positive and negative factors and that the modulation of these factors can account for the LPS induction of the AGP gene. Images PMID:8417341

  11. Interaction of daunomycin antibiotic with human α 1-acid glycoprotein: Spectroscopy and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai; Hu, Xing; Zhang, Yuying; Zou, Guolin

    2006-05-01

    Daunomycin (DM) is a clinically used antitumor anthracycline antibiotic. Understanding the interaction of DM with plasma proteins such as human α 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is essential to understanding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The interaction between DM and AGP was investigated using fluorescence quenching technique, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. The binding constants of DM with AGP were determined at different temperatures based on the fluorescence quenching results. In addition, the thermodynamic functions standard enthalpy (Δ H) and standard entropy (Δ S) for the binding reaction were calculated to be -14.23 kJ mol -1 and 37.80 J mol -1 K -1, according to the van't Hoff equation, which indicated that hydrophobic, hydrogen bond, electrostatic interactions are important driving forces for protein-DM association. Furthermore, the spectra data suggested that the association between DM and AGP did not change molecular conformation of AGP and a docking model of DM and AGP around Trp160 provided further details of the binding site topology.

  12. Lactation Stage-Related Expression of Sialylated and Fucosylated Glycotopes of Human Milk α-1-Acid Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hirnle, Lidia; Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Because terminal sugars of α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) are reported to be involved in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes, their expressions might have an influence on the proper function of immune system of newborns. Here, relative amounts of sialylated and fucosylated glycotopes on human milk AGP over normal lactation were investigated. Materials and Methods: AGP concentration and relative amounts of its sialylated and fucosylated glycovariants were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using α2,3- and α2,6-sialic acid and α1,2-, α1,3-, and α1,6-fucose specific biotinylated Maackia amurensis, Sambucus nigra, Ulex europaeus, Tetragonolobus purpureus, and Lens culinaris lectins, respectively. Results: AGP concentration in human milk was about 30 times lower than in plasma of lactating mothers and decreased gradually over lactation. Milk AGP showed significantly higher expression of sialylated and fucosylated glycotopes in comparison with those of plasma AGP. Milk AGP glycovariants containing α2,6-sialylated and α1,6- and α1,2-fucosylated glycotopes showed the highest relative amounts in early colostrums. With progression of lactation, the expressions of glycotopes α1,2-fucosylated decreased starting from Day 4 and those of α2,6-sialylated and α1,6-fucosylated from Day 8 of lactation, whereas the level of α2,3-sialyl-glycotope was almost constant over 45 days of lactation. In contrast, the expression of α1,3-linked fucose on AGP was low in colostrums and significantly higher in transitional and mature milk. Conclusions: The relative amounts of sialylated and fucosylated glycovariants of human hindmilk AGP significantly varied between Days 2 and 45 of normal lactation. PMID:24892765

  13. Bovine α₁-acid glycoprotein, a thermostable version of its human counterpart: insights from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and in silico modelling.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Galeazzi, Roberta; Maggiore, Beatrice; Tanfani, Fabio; Scirè, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a plasma protein and a member of the acute phase response. AGP is known to bind and carry several biologically active compounds, as well as to down-modulate the immune system activities. In this work, the structure of bovine AGP has been investigated by Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy. A model structure has been obtained on the basis of human AGP and refined by molecular dynamics. In spite of the similar structure, bovine AGP shows an unexpectedly higher (∼20 °C) thermostability than its human counterpart. Inspection of the model structure has pointed out the presence of 12 ionic bridges and 2 sulphur-aromatic interactions, whereas only 6 ionic bridges were detected in human AGP. The high number (9) of glutamic acid residues involved in the ionic interactions might explain the significantly decreased thermostability measured at pH 5.5 (Tm ∼ 71 °C) with respect to pH 7.4 (Tm ∼ 81 °C), whereas thermostability of human AGP was only slightly affected by lowering the pH. As in human AGP and several other lipocalins, a temperature-induced molten globule state has been observed in the denaturation pathway of bovine AGP. PMID:24530968

  14. Pig α1-Acid Glycoprotein: Characterization and First Description in Any Species as a Negative Acute Phase Protein

    PubMed Central

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Miller, Ingrid; Sorensen, Nanna Skall; Soerensen, Karen Elisabeth; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    The serum protein α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), also known as orosomucoid, is generally described as an archetypical positive acute phase protein. Here, porcine AGP was identified, purified and characterized from pooled pig serum. It was found to circulate as a single chain glycoprotein having an apparent molecular weight of 43 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, of which approximately 17 kDa were accounted for by N-bound oligosaccharides. Those data correspond well with the properties of the protein predicted from the single porcine AGP gene (ORM1, Q29014 (UniProt)), containing 5 putative glycosylation sites. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was produced and shown to quantitatively and specifically react with all microheterogenous forms of pig AGP as analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis. This MAb was used to develop an immunoassay (ELISA) for quantification of AGP in pig serum samples. The adult serum concentrations of pig AGP were in the range of 1–3 mg/ml in a number of conventional pig breeds while it was lower in Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs (in the 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml range) and higher in young (2–5 days old) conventional pigs (mean: 6.6 mg/ml). Surprisingly, pig AGP was found to behave as a negative acute phase protein during a range of experimental infections and aseptic inflammation with significant decreases in serum concentration and in hepatic ORM1 expression during the acute phase response. To our knowledge this is the first description in any species of AGP being a negative acute phase protein. PMID:23844161

  15. Separation of enantiomers on chiral stationary phase based on chicken α₁-acid glycoprotein: effect of silica particle diameters on column performance.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2014-10-10

    The effects of silica particle diameters on performances of chicken α₁-acid glycoprotein (c-AGP)-immobilized silica particle columns were investigated. c-AGP was immobilized onto aminopropyl silica particles, whose nominal particle diameters were 5, 3 and 2.1 μm, activated with N,N'-disuccinimidyl carbonate. The retention factor (k), enantioseparation factor (α), resolution (Rs) and height equivalent to a theoretical plate (H) of solutes on three c-AGP columns were evaluated using a mixture of phosphate buffer and organic modifier as a mobile phase in LC. There were not so much differences in their k and α values among three c-AGP columns, while their Rs values were in the order of 2.1 μm>3 μm>5 μm silica particles and their H values were in the reversed order. Since three c-AGP columns gave almost the same enantioseparation factors for solutes, their highest Rs and lowest H values on a c-AGP-immobilized column prepared with 2.1-μm silica particles came from its highest column efficiency among there c-AGP columns. These results suggest that 2.1-μm silica particles could be useful for the preparation of c-AGP- or protein-based CSPs. PMID:25042436

  16. Drug-binding energetics of human α-1-acid glycoprotein assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking simulations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Johnny X.; Cooper, Matthew A.; Baker, Mark A.; Azad, Mohammad A.K.; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes sensitive, modern isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) methods to characterize the microscopic thermodynamic parameters that drive the binding of basic drugs to α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and thereby rationalize the thermodynamic data in relation to docking models and crystallographic structures of the drug-AGP complexes. The binding of basic compounds from the tricyclic antidepressant series, together with miaserine, chlorpromazine, disopyramide and cimetidine all displayed an exothermically driven binding interaction with AGP. The impact of protonation/deprotonation events, ionic strength, temperature and the individual selectivity of the A and F1*S AGP variants on drug-binding thermodynamics were characterized. A correlation plot of the thermodynamic parameters for all of the test compounds revealed enthalpy-entropy compensation is in effect. The exothermic binding energetics of the test compounds were driven by a combination of favorable (negative) enthalpic (ΔH°) and favorable (positive) entropic (ΔS°) contributions to the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°). Collectively, the data imply that the free energies that drive drug binding to AGP and its relationship to drug-serum residency evolve from the complex interplay of enthalpic and entropic forces from interactions with explicit combinations of hydrophobic and polar side-chain sub-domains within the multi-lobed AGP ligand binding cavity. PMID:23192962

  17. Influence of ligand binding on structure and thermostability of human α1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kopecký, Vladimír; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Pazderka, Tomáš; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Řeha, David; Baumruk, Vladimír

    2016-02-01

    Ligand binding of neutral progesterone, basic propranolol, and acidic warfarin to human α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The binding itself is characterized by a uniform conformational shift in which a tryptophan residue is involved. Slight differences corresponding to different contacts of the individual ligands inside the β-barrel are described. Results are compared with in silico ligand docking into the available crystal structure of deglycosylated AGP using quantum/molecular mechanics. Calculated binding energies are -18.2, -14.5, and -11.5 kcal/mol for warfarin, propranolol, and progesterone, respectively. These calculations are consistent with Raman difference spectroscopy; nevertheless, minor discrepancies in the precise positions of the ligands point to structural differences between deglycosylated and native AGP. Thermal dynamics of AGP with/without bounded warfarin was followed by Raman spectroscopy in a temperature range of 10-95 °C and analyzed by principal component analysis. With increasing temperature, a slight decrease of α-helical content is observed that coincides with an increase in β-sheet content. Above 45 °C, also β-strands tend to unfold, and the observed decrease in β-sheet coincides with an increase of β-turns accompanied by a conformational shift of the nearby disulfide bridge from high-energy trans-gauche-trans to more relaxed gauche-gauche-trans. This major rearrangement in the vicinity of the bridge is not only characterized by unfolding of the β-sheet but also by subsequent ligand release. Hereby, ligand binding alters the protein dynamics, and the more rigid protein-ligand complex shows an improved thermal stability, a finding that contributes to the reported chaperone-like function of AGP. PMID:26400697

  18. Analysis of free drug fractions in serum by ultrafast affinity extraction and two-dimensional affinity chromatography using α1-acid glycoprotein microcolumns.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Hage, David S

    2016-02-01

    In the circulatory system, many drugs are reversibly bound to serum proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), resulting in both free and protein-bound fractions for these drugs. This report examined the use of microcolumns containing immobilized AGP for the measurement of free drug fractions by ultrafast affinity extraction and a two-dimensional affinity system. Several drugs known to bind AGP were used as models to develop and evaluate this approach. Factors considered during the creation of this method included the retention of the drugs on the microcolumns, the injection flow rate, the microcolumn size, and the times at which a second AGP column was placed on-line with the microcolumn. The final system had residence times of only 110-830ms during sample passage through the AGP microcolumns and allowed free drug fractions to be determined within 10-20min when using only 3-10μL of sample per injection. This method was used to measure the free fractions of the model drugs at typical therapeutic levels in serum, giving good agreement with the results obtained by ultrafiltration. This approach was also used to estimate the binding constants for each drug with AGP in serum, even for drugs that had significant interactions with both AGP and HSA in such samples. These results indicated that AGP microcolumns could be used with ultrafast affinity extraction to measure free drug fractions in a label-free manner and to study the binding of drugs with AGP in complex samples such as serum. PMID:26797422

  19. Constitutive Tor2 Activity Promotes Retention of the Amino Acid Transporter Agp3 at Trans-Golgi/Endosomes in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingbin; Ma, Yan; Zhou, Xin; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters are located at specific subcellular compartments, and their localizations are regulated by the extracellular availability of amino acids. In yeast, target of rapamycin (TOR) activation induces the internalization of amino acid transporters located at the plasma membrane. However, whether and how TOR signaling regulates other amino acid transporters located at intracellular compartments remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in the fission yeast, the TOR inhibitor Torin–1 induces the transfer of several yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fused intracellular amino acid transporters, including Agp3, Isp5, Aat1, and Put4, from trans-Golgi/endosomes into the vacuoles. By contrast, the localizations of YFP-fused Can1, Fnx1, and Fnx2 transporter proteins were unaffected upon Torin–1 treatment. There are two TOR isoforms in fission yeast, Tor1 and Tor2. Whereas tor1 deletion did not affect the Torin-1-induced transfer of Agp3-YFP, Tor2 inhibition using a temperature-sensitive mutant induced the transfer of Agp3-YFP to the vacuolar lumen, similar to the effects of Torin–1 treatment. Tor2 inhibition also induced the transfer of the YFP-fused Isp5, Aat1, and Put4 transporter proteins to the vacuoles, although only partial transfer of the latter two transporters was observed. Under nitrogen depletion accompanied by reduced Tor2 activity, Agp3-YFP was transferred from the trans-Golgi/endosomes to the plasma membrane and then to the vacuoles, where it was degraded by the vacuolar proteases Isp6 and Psp3. Mutants with constitutively active Tor2 showed delayed transfer of Agp3-YFP to the plasma membrane upon nitrogen depletion. Cells lacking Tsc2, a negative regulator of Tor2, also showed a delay in this process in a Tor2-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that constitutive Tor2 activity is critical for the retention of amino acid transporters at trans-Golgi/endosomes. Moreover, nitrogen depletion suppresses Tor2 activity

  20. Entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein in high-performance affinity columns for drug-protein binding studies.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cong; Jackson, Abby; Vargas-Badilla, John; Li, Rong; Rada, Giana; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Hage, David S

    2016-05-15

    A slurry-based method was developed for the entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for use in high-performance affinity chromatography to study drug interactions with this serum protein. Entrapment was achieved based on the physical containment of AGP in hydrazide-activated porous silica supports and by using mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. The conditions needed for this process were examined and optimized. When this type of AGP column was used in binding studies, the association equilibrium constant (Ka) measured by frontal analysis at pH 7.4 and 37°C for carbamazepine with AGP was found to be 1.0 (±0.5)×10(5)M(-1), which agreed with a previously reported value of 1.0 (±0.1)×10(5)M(-1). Binding studies based on zonal elution were conducted for several other drugs with such columns, giving equilibrium constants that were consistent with literature values. An entrapped AGP column was also used in combination with a column containing entrapped HSA in a screening assay format to compare the binding of various drugs to AGP and HSA. These results also agreed with previous data that have been reported in literature for both of these proteins. The same entrapment method could be extended to other proteins and to the investigation of additional types of drug-protein interactions. Potential applications include the rapid quantitative analysis of biological interactions and the high-throughput screening of drug candidates for their binding to a given protein. PMID:26627938

  1. cap alpha. -D-Mannopyranosylmethyl-P-nitrophenyltriazene effects on the degradation and biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharide chains on. cap alpha. /sub 1/-acid glycoprotein by liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Docherty, P.A.; Aronson, N.N. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of ..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene (..cap alpha..-ManMNT) on the degradation and processing of oligosaccharide chains on ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were studied. Addition of the triazene to a perfused liver blocked the complete degradation of endocytosed N-acetyl (/sup 14/C)glucosamine-labeled asialo-AGP and caused the accumulation of Man/sub 2/GlcNAc/sub 1/ fragments in the lysosome-enriched fraction of the liver homogenate. This compound also reduced the reincorporation of lysosomally-derived (/sup 14/C)GlcNAc into newly secreted glycoproteins. Cultured hepatocytes treated with the inhibitor synthesized and secreted fully-glycosylated AGP. However, the N-linked oligosaccharide chains on AGP secreted by the ..cap alpha..-ManMNT-treated hepatocytes remained sensitive to digestion with endoglycosidase H, were resistant to neuraminidase, and consisted of Man/sub 9-7/GlcNAc/sub 2/ structures as analyzed by high resolution Bio-Gel P-4 chromatography. As measured by their resistance to cleavage by endoglycosidase H, the normal processing of all six carbohydrate chains on AGP to the complex form did not completely resume until nearly 24 h after triazene treatment. Since ManMNT is likely to irreversibly inactivate ..cap alpha..-D-mannosidases, the return of AGP to secretory forms with complex chains after 24 h probably resulted from synthesis of new processing enzymes.

  2. Serum albumin and α-1 acid glycoprotein impede the killing of Schistosoma mansoni by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Svenja; Long, Thavy; Scheld, Christina; Geyer, Rudolf; Caffrey, Conor R; Grevelding, Christoph G

    2014-12-01

    In the search for new drugs and drug targets to treat the flatworm disease schistosomiasis, protein kinases (PKs) have come under particular scrutiny because of their essential roles in developmental and physiological processes in schistosome parasites. In this context the application of the anti-cancer Abl tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor Imatinib (Gleevec/Glivec; STI-571) to adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro has indicated negative effects on diverse physiological processes including survival. Motivated by these in vitro findings, we performed in vivo experiments in rodent models of S. mansoni infection. Unexpectedly, Imatinib had no effect on worm burden or egg-production. We found that the blood components serum albumin (SA) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP or orosomucoid) negated Imatinib's deleterious effects on adult S. mansoni and schistosomula (post-infective larvae) in vitro. This negative effect was partially reversed by erythromycin. AGP synthesis can increase as a consequence of inflammatory processes or infection; in addition upon infection AGP levels are 6-8 times higher in mice compared to humans. Therefore, mice and probably other rodents are poor infection models for measuring the effects of Imatinib in vivo. Accordingly, we suggest the routine evaluation of the ability of AGP and SA to block in vitro anti-schistosomal effects of small molecules like Imatinib prior to laborious and expensive animal experiments. PMID:25516839

  3. Serum albumin and α-1 acid glycoprotein impede the killing of Schistosoma mansoni by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Svenja; Long, Thavy; Scheld, Christina; Geyer, Rudolf; Caffrey, Conor R.; Grevelding, Christoph G.

    2014-01-01

    In the search for new drugs and drug targets to treat the flatworm disease schistosomiasis, protein kinases (PKs) have come under particular scrutiny because of their essential roles in developmental and physiological processes in schistosome parasites. In this context the application of the anti-cancer Abl tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor Imatinib (Gleevec/Glivec; STI-571) to adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro has indicated negative effects on diverse physiological processes including survival. Motivated by these in vitro findings, we performed in vivo experiments in rodent models of S. mansoni infection. Unexpectedly, Imatinib had no effect on worm burden or egg-production. We found that the blood components serum albumin (SA) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP or orosomucoid) negated Imatinib’s deleterious effects on adult S. mansoni and schistosomula (post-infective larvae) in vitro. This negative effect was partially reversed by erythromycin. AGP synthesis can increase as a consequence of inflammatory processes or infection; in addition upon infection AGP levels are 6–8 times higher in mice compared to humans. Therefore, mice and probably other rodents are poor infection models for measuring the effects of Imatinib in vivo. Accordingly, we suggest the routine evaluation of the ability of AGP and SA to block in vitro anti-schistosomal effects of small molecules like Imatinib prior to laborious and expensive animal experiments. PMID:25516839

  4. Fucosylated Glycans in α1-Acid Glycoprotein for Monitoring Treatment Outcomes and Prognosis of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shin; Takahashi, Ryo; Yokobori, Takehiko; Sano, Rie; Mogi, Akira; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Asao, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    One standard treatment option for advanced-stage cancer is surgical resection of malignant tumors following by adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Additionally, neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be applied if required. During the time course of treatments, patients are generally followed by computed tomography (CT) surveillance, and by tumor marker diagnosis. However, currently, early evidence of recurrence and/or metastasis of tumors with a clinically relevant biomarker remains a major therapeutic challenge. In particular, there has been no validated biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes in therapeutic settings. Recently, we have looked at glycoforms of serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) by using a crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis with two lectins and an anti-AGP antibody. The primary glycan structures of AGP were also analyzed by a mass spectrometer and a novel software in a large number of patients with various cancers. Accordingly, the relative abundance of α1,3fucosylated glycans in AGP (FUCAGP) was found to be significantly high in cancer patients as compared with the healthy controls. Further, strikingly elevated levels of FUCAGP were found in patients with poor prognosis but not in patients with good prognosis. In the current study, levels of FUCAGP in serum samples from various cancer patients were analyzed and 17 patients including 13 who had undergone chemotherapy were followed for several years post operation. FUCAGP level determined diligently by using a mass spectrometer was found to change along with disease prognosis as well as with responses to treatments, in particular, to various chemotherapies. Therefore, FUCAGP levels measured during following-up of the patients after operation appeared to be clinically relevant biomarker of treatment intervention. PMID:27295180

  5. On-column entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein for studies of drug-protein binding by high-performance affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Bi, Cong; Koke, Michelle; Jackson, Abby; Hage, David S

    2016-08-01

    An on-column approach for protein entrapment was developed to immobilize alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for drug-protein binding studies based on high-performance affinity chromatography. Soluble AGP was physically entrapped by using microcolumns that contained hydrazide-activated porous silica and by employing mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. Three on-column entrapment methods were evaluated and compared to a previous slurry-based entrapment method. The final selected method was used to prepare 1.0 cm × 2.1 mm I.D. affinity microcolumns that contained up to 21 (±4) μg AGP and that could be used over the course of more than 150 sample applications. Frontal analysis and zonal elution studies were performed on these affinity microcolumns to examine the binding of various drugs with the entrapped AGP. Site-selective competition studies were also conducted for these drugs. The results showed good agreement with previous observations for these drug-protein systems and with binding constants that have been reported in the literature. The entrapment method developed in this study should be useful for future work in the area of personalized medicine and in the high-throughput screening of drug interactions with AGP or other proteins. Graphical abstract On-column protein entrapment using a hydrazide-activated support and oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. PMID:27289464

  6. An Easy and Useful Noninvasive Score Based on α-1-acid Glycoprotein and C-Reactive Protein for Diagnosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Omran, Mohamed M; Emran, Tarek M; Farid, Khaled; Eltaweel, Fathy M; Omar, Mona A; Bazeed, Fagr B

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and develop a predictive score to improve the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AGP and CRP were measured in serum of 53 HCC patients and 20 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, in addition to 15 healthy individuals. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs) was used to create a predictive score comprising AGP, CRP, alpha fetoprotein, and albumin. The diagnostic performances of score was determined and compared with AFP alone for the diagnosis of HCC. The combination of AGP, albumin, CRP, and AFP had AUC 0.92 and sensitivity 85% which was higher than AFP alone. The odds ratio of having HCC was 8.4 for AGP, 5.8 for CRP, 12.5 for AFP and 6.5 for albumin. Our score predicted HCC with an OR of 50.6 for HCC. The AUC of score in HCC with single tumor, absent vascular invasion and CLIP score (0-1) were 0.9, 0.9, 0.82, respectively, compared with 0.71, 0.71, 0.68, respectively, for AFP. In conclusion, a non-invasive and simple score based on AGP, CRP, AFP, and albumin could improve the accuracy of HCC diagnosis. PMID:26685049

  7. Quantitative structure-retention relationship of selected imidazoline derivatives on α1-acid glycoprotein column.

    PubMed

    Filipic, Slavica; Ruzic, Dusan; Vucicevic, Jelica; Nikolic, Katarina; Agbaba, Danica

    2016-08-01

    The retention behaviour of 22 selected imidazoline drugs and derivatives was investigated on α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column using Sørensen phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and 2-propanol as organic modifier. Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) models were built using extrapolated logkw values as well as isocratic retention factors (logk5, logk8, logk10, logk12, logk15 obtained for 5%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 15%, of 2-propanol in mobile phase, respectively) as dependant variables and calculated physicochemical parameters as independant variables. The established QSRR models were built by stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of the stepwise and PLS models was tested by cross-validation and the external test set prediction. The validated QSRR models were compared and the optimal PLS-QSRR model for logkw and each isocratic retention factors (PLS-QSRR(logk5), PLS-QSRR(logk8), PLS-QSRR(logk10), MLR-QSRR(logk12), MLR-QSRR(logk15)) were selected. The QSRR results were further confirmed by Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER). LSER analysis indicated on hydrogen bond basicity, McGowan volume and excess molar refraction as the most significant parameters for all AGP chromatographic retention factors and logkw values of 22 selected imidazoline drugs and derivatives. PMID:26968888

  8. Effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination on serum α1-acid glycoprotein concentrations in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D

    2014-06-01

    Increases in circulating acute phase protein (APP) levels occur in reaction to systemic infections in animals. However, no previous research has been conducted to monitor possible changes in APP levels of birds in response to prelay vaccinations of various live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in conjunction with their subsequent use as an overlay vaccine during the production period. Serum concentrations of the APP, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), were determined on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after subjecting commercial laying hens to one of the following treatments at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccination); 2) ts-11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccination; 3) M. gallisepticum-bacterin (MGBac) vaccination; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG & MGBac) vaccination. Furthermore, at 45 woa, the birds in half of the units assigned to each treatment group were vaccinated with high-passage F-strain M. gallisepticum (HpFMG). Birds in treatment 1 that were (single control) and were not (double control) vaccinated with HpFMG, and birds in treatments 2, 3, and 4 that were vaccinated with HpFMG were further tested during lay on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after vaccination. On d 7, 14, and 28 postvaccination at 10 woa, the ts11MG & MGBac, ts11MG, and MGBac group AGP concentrations were not different from one another, but all were higher than those in the control group. Similarly, on d 3, 7, and 14 postvaccination, the single control, and the MGBac ts11MG, and ts11MG & MGBac treatment groups that were later vaccinated with HpFMG at 45 woa, were not different, but all were higher than that in the double control group. In conclusion, elevated circulation AGP concentrations may be used to detect and confirm subclinical infections in pullets up to 28 d after having been vaccinated with ts11MG, MGBac, or their combination. Furthermore, in association with depressed performance, elevated serum AGP concentrations in layers may be used to confirm Hp

  9. AtAGP18 is localized at the plasma membrane and functions in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yizhu; Yang, Jie; Showalter, Allan M

    2011-04-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a family of highly glycosylated hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). AtAGP17, 18 and 19 comprise the lysine-rich classical AGP subfamily in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of GFP-AtAGP17/18/19 fusion proteins in Arabidopsis revealed localization of the fusion proteins on the plant cell surface of different organs. Subcellular localization of the fusion proteins at the plasma membrane was further determined by plasmolysis of leaf trichome cells. To elucidate AtAGP17/18/19 function(s), these AGPs were expressed without the green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag under the control of 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. In contrast to AtAGP17/AtAGP19 overexpressors which showed phenotypes identical to wild-type plants, AtAGP18 overexpressors displayed several phenotypes distinct from wild-type plants. Specifically, these overexpressors had smaller rosettes and shorter stems and roots, produced more branches and had less viable seeds. Moreover, these AtAGP18 overexpressors exhibited similar phenotypes to tomato LeAGP-1 overexpressors, suggesting these two AGP genes may have similar function(s) in Arabidopsis and tomato. PMID:21165646

  10. Increase of α1-acid glycoprotein after treatment with amitriptyline

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P.; Tinguely, D.; Schöpf, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen primary depressive patients were treated for 3 weeks with amitriptyline 150 mg daily. In thirteen patients the plasma level of α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) significantly increased after the treatment but the albumin levels did not change. PMID:7104160

  11. A nuclear factor for interleukin-6 expression (NF-IL6) and the glucocorticoid receptor synergistically activate transcription of the rat alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gene via direct protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Y; Isshiki, H; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1993-01-01

    The acute-phase reaction is accompanied by an increase in a variety of serum proteins, named acute-phase proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is synergistically controlled by glucocorticoids and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Recently, we have cloned nuclear factor-IL-6 (NF-IL6), a transcription factor that activates the IL-6 gene, and have demonstrated its involvement in the expression of acute-phase-protein genes. We report here an analysis of the molecular mechanisms by which inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoid act synergistically to activate expression of the rat alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) gene. We found that NF-IL6 and ligand-activated rat glucocorticoid receptor acted synergistically to transactivate the AGP gene and that maximal transcriptional activation of the AGP gene required expression of both intact NF-IL6 and rat glucocorticoid receptor. Surprisingly, however, transcriptional synergism was still observed even when one of the two factors lacked either its DNA-binding or transcriptional-activation function. We present evidence for a direct protein-protein interaction between these two distinct transcription factors and propose that this may be responsible for the synergistic activation of the rat AGP gene. Images PMID:8441418

  12. CsAGP1, a Gibberellin-Responsive Gene from Cucumber Hypocotyls, Encodes a Classical Arabinogalactan Protein and Is Involved in Stem Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Me Hea; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Chono, Makiko; Knox, J. Paul; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence differential display was used to isolate the gibberellin (GA)-responsive gene, CsAGP1, from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls. A sequence analysis of CsAGP1 indicated that the gene putatively encodes a “classical” arabinogalactan protein (AGP) in cucumber. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CsAGP1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter produced a Y(βGlc)3-reactive proteoglycan in addition to AGPs present in wild-type tobacco plants. Immuno-dot blotting of the product, using anti-AGP antibodies, showed that the CsAGP1 protein had the AGP epitopes common to AGP families. The transcription level of CsAGP1 in cucumber hypocotyls increased in response not only to GA but also to indole-3-acetic acid. Although CsAGP1 is expressed in most vegetative tissues of cucumber, including the shoot apices and roots, the GA treatment resulted in an increase in the mRNA level of CsAGP1 only in the upper part of the hypocotyls. Y(βGlc)3, which selectively binds AGPs, inhibited the hormone-promoted elongation of cucumber seedling hypocotyls. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing CsAGP1 showed a taller stature and earlier flowering than the wild-type plants. These observations suggest that CsAGP1 is involved in stem elongation. PMID:12644694

  13. Structural insights into differences in drug-binding selectivity between two forms of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein genetic variants, the A and F1*S forms.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Koji; Ono, Tomomi; Nakamura, Teruya; Fukunaga, Naoko; Izumi, Miyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Ayaka; Maruyama, Toru; Yamagata, Yuriko; Curry, Stephen; Otagiri, Masaki

    2011-04-22

    Human α(1)-acid glycoprotein (hAGP) in serum functions as a carrier of basic drugs. In most individuals, hAGP exists as a mixture of two genetic variants, the F1*S and A variants, which bind drugs with different selectivities. We prepared a mutant of the A variant, C149R, and showed that its drug-binding properties were indistinguishable from those of the wild type. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of this mutant hAGP alone and complexed with disopyramide (DSP), amitriptyline (AMT), and the nonspecific drug chlorpromazine (CPZ). The crystal structures revealed that the drug-binding pocket on the A variant is located within an eight-stranded β-barrel, similar to that found in the F1*S variant and other lipocalin family proteins. However, the binding region of the A variant is narrower than that of the F1*S variant. In the crystal structures of complexes with DSP and AMT, the two aromatic rings of each drug interact with Phe-49 and Phe-112 at the bottom of the binding pocket. Although the structure of CPZ is similar to those of DSP and AMT, its fused aromatic ring system, which is extended in length by the addition of a chlorine atom, appears to dictate an alternative mode of binding, which explains its nonselective binding to the F1*S and A variant hAGPs. Modeling experiments based on the co-crystal structures suggest that, in complexes of DSP, AMT, or CPZ with the F1*S variant, Phe-114 sterically hinders interactions with DSP and AMT, but not CPZ. PMID:21349832

  14. Ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin based biosensor for glycoproteins containing sialic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bertok, Tomas; Gemeiner, Pavol; Mikula, Milan; Gemeiner, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We report on an ultrasensitive label-free lectin-based impedimetric biosensor for the determination of the sialylated glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin. A sialic acid binding agglutinin from Sambucus nigra I was covalently immobilised on a mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 6-mercaptohexanol. Poly(vinyl alcohol) was used as a blocking agent. The sensor layer was characterised by atomic force microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biosensor exhibits a linear range that spans 7 orders of magnitude for both glycoproteins, with a detection limit as low as 0.33 fM for fetuin and 0.54 fM for asialofetuin. We also show, by making control experiments with oxidised asialofetuin, that the biosensor is capable of quantitatively detecting changes in the fraction of sialic acid on glycoproteins. We conclude that this work lays a solid foundation for future applications of such a biosensor in terms of the diagnosis of diseases such as chronic inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis, genetic disorders and cancer, all of which are associated with aberrant glycosylation of protein biomarkers. PMID:27231402

  15. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  16. Distribution of primaquine in human blood: Drug-binding to alpha 1-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.; Frischer, H. )

    1990-12-01

    To clarify the distribution of the antimalarial primaquine in human blood, we measured the drug separately in the liquid, cellular, and ultrafiltrate phases. Washed red cells resuspended at a hematocrit of 0.4 were exposed to a submaximal therapeutic level of 250 ng/ml of carbon 14-labeled primaquine. The tracer was recovered quantitatively in separated plasma and red cells. Over 75% of the total labeled drug was found in red cells suspended in saline solution, but only 10% to 30% in red cells suspended in plasma. The plasma effect was not mediated by albumin. Studies with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, an agent that displaces AGP-bound drugs, and cord blood known to have decreased AGP established that primaquine binds to physiologic amounts of the glycoprotein in plasma. Red cell primaquine concentration increased linearly as AGP level fell and as the free drug fraction rose. We suggest that clinical blood levels of primaquine include the red cell fraction or whole blood level because (1) erythrocytic primaquine is a sizable and highly variable component of the total drug in blood; (2) this component reflects directly the free drug in plasma, and inversely the extent of binding to AGP; (3) the amount of free primaquine may influence drug transport into specific tissues in vivo; and (4) fluctuations of AGP, an acute-phase reactant that increases greatly in patients with malaria and other infections, markedly affect the partition of primaquine in blood. Because AGP binds many basic drugs, unrecognized primaquine-drug interactions may exist.

  17. Discovery of Inhibitors for the Ether Lipid-Generating Enzyme AGPS as Anti-Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Valentina; Benjamin, Daniel I; Valente, Sergio; Nenci, Simone; Mai, Antonello; Aliverti, Alessandro; Nomura, Daniel K; Mattevi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated ether lipid metabolism is an important hallmark of cancer cells. Previous studies have reported that lowering ether lipid levels by genetic ablation of the ether lipid-generating enzyme alkyl-glycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) lowers key structural and oncogenic ether lipid levels and alters fatty acid, glycerophospholipid, and eicosanoid metabolism to impair cancer pathogenicity, indicating that AGPS may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, we have performed a small-molecule screen to identify candidate AGPS inhibitors. We have identified several lead AGPS inhibitors and have structurally characterized their interactions with the enzyme and show that these inhibitors bind to distinct portions of the active site. We further show that the lead AGPS inhibitor 1a selectively lowers ether lipid levels in several types of human cancer cells and impairs their cellular survival and migration. We provide here the first report of in situ-effective pharmacological tools for inhibiting AGPS, which may provide chemical scaffolds for future AGPS inhibitor development for cancer therapy. PMID:26322624

  18. Temperature Effects on Agrobacterium Phytochrome Agp1

    PubMed Central

    Njimona, Ibrahim; Lamparter, Tilman

    2011-01-01

    Phytochromes are widely distributed biliprotein photoreceptors with a conserved N-terminal chromophore-binding domain. Most phytochromes bear a light-regulated C-terminal His kinase or His kinase-like region. We investigated the effects of light and temperature on the His kinase activity of the phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As in earlier studies, the phosphorylation activity of the holoprotein after far-red irradiation (where the red-light absorbing Pr form dominates) was stronger than that of the holoprotein after red irradiation (where the far red-absorbing Pfr form dominates). Phosphorylation activities of the apoprotein, far red-irradiated holoprotein, and red-irradiated holoprotein decreased when the temperature increased from 25°C to 35°C; at 40°C, almost no kinase activity was detected. The activity of a holoprotein sample incubated at 40°C was nearly completely restored when the temperature returned to 25°C. UV/visible spectroscopy indicated that the protein was not denatured up to 45°C. At 50°C, however, Pfr denatured faster than the dark-adapted sample containing the Pr form of Agp1. The Pr visible spectrum was unaffected by temperatures of 20–45°C, whereas irradiated samples exhibited a clear temperature effect in the 30–40°C range in which prolonged irradiation resulted in the photoconversion of Pfr into a new spectral species termed Prx. Pfr to Prx photoconversion was dependent on the His-kinase module of Agp1; normal photoconversion occurred at 40°C in the mutant Agp1-M15, which lacks the C-terminal His-kinase module, and in a domain-swap mutant in which the His-kinase module of Agp1 is replaced by the His-kinase/response regulator module of the other A. tumefaciens phytochrome, Agp2. The temperature-dependent kinase activity and spectral properties in the physiological temperature range suggest that Agp1 serves as an integrated light and temperature sensor in A. tumefaciens. PMID:22043299

  19. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by duodenal mucosa in response to luminal arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, M; Carter, S R; Konturek, S J; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1986-12-10

    The effect of luminal application of arachidonic acid on the alkaline secretion, prostaglandin generation, and mucus glycoprotein output and composition was studied in proximal and distal duodenum of conscious dogs. Surgically prepared duodenal loops were instilled in vivo for up to 2 h with saline (control) followed by various concentrations (12.5-100 micrograms/ml) of arachidonic acid. The experiments were conducted with and without intravenous pretreatment with indomethacin. The recovered instillates were assayed for the content of prostaglandin and HCO3-, and used for the isolation of mucus glycoprotein. Exposure of duodenal mucosa to arachidonic acid led to concentration-dependent increase in the output of HCO3- and prostaglandin generation. In both cases this response was greater in the proximal duodenum. Pretreatment with indomethacin caused reduction in the basal HCO3- and prostaglandin output, and prevented the increments evoked by arachidonic acid. The proximal and distal duodenum displayed similar basal output and composition of mucus glycoprotein. Comparable increases in these glycoproteins were also obtained with arachidonic acid, the effect of which was abolished by indomethacin. Compared to basal conditions, mucus glycoproteins elaborated in response to arachidonic acid exhibited higher contents of associated lipids and covalently bound fatty acids, and contained less protein. The associated lipids of mucus glycoproteins elaborated in the presence of arachidonic acid showed enrichment in phospholipids and decrease in neutral lipids. The carbohydrate components in these glycoproteins also exhibited higher proportions of sialic acid and sulfate. The changes brought about by arachidonic acid were prevented by indomethacin pretreatment, and in both cases the glycoprotein composition returned to that obtained under basal conditions. The enrichment of mucus glycoprotein in lipids, sialic acid and sulfate in response to endogenous prostaglandin may be of

  20. Eco-friendly ionic liquid assisted capillary electrophoresis and α-acid glycoprotein-assisted liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of anticancer drugs in human fluids.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, Deia; Albishri, Hassan M; Rengarajan, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    In the current work, two eco-friendly analytical methods based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were developed for simultaneous determination of the most commonly used anticancer drugs for Hodgkin's disease: methotrexate (MTX), vinblastine, chlorambucil and dacarbazine. A background electrolyte (BGE) of 12.5 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 0.1 µmol/L 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide (BMImBr) ionic liquid (IL) was used for CE measurements at 250 nm detection wavelength, 20 kV applied voltage and 25 °C. The rinsing protocol was significantly improved to reduce the adsorption of IL on the interior surface of capillary. Moreover, RPLC method was developed on α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column. Mobile phase was 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (100% v/v) and flow rate at 0.1 mL/min. As AGP is a chiral column, it was successfully separated l-MTX from its enantiomer impurity d-MTX. Good linearity of quantitative analysis was achieved with coefficients of determinations (r(2) ) >0.995. The stability of drugs measurements was investigated with adequate recoveries up to 24 h storage time under ambient temperature. The limits of detection were <50 and 90 ng/mL by CE and RPLC, respectively. The using of short-chain IL as an additive in BGE achieved 600-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with conventional Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE). Therefore, for the first time, the proposed methods were successfully applied to determine simultaneously the analytes in human plasma and urine samples at clinically relevant concentrations with fast and simple pretreatments. Developed IL-assisted CE and RPLC methods were also applied to measure MTX levels in patients' samples over time. PMID:25400220

  1. Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: aspects of biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Gotté, Maxime; Plancot, Barbara; Lerouge, Patrice; Bardor, Muriel; Driouich, Azeddine

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins are two types of glycomolecules whose glycans are structurally complex. They are both assembled and modified within the endomembrane system, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, before their transport to their final locations within or outside the cell. In contrast to extensins (EXTs), the O-glycan chains of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly heterogeneous consisting mostly of (i) a short oligo-arabinoside chain of three to four residues, and (ii) a larger β-1,3-linked galactan backbone with β-1,6-linked side chains containing galactose, arabinose and, often, fucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid. The fine structure of arabinogalactan chains varies between, and within plant species, and is important for the functional activities of the glycoproteins. With regards to N-glycans, ER-synthesizing events are highly conserved in all eukaryotes studied so far since they are essential for efficient protein folding. In contrast, evolutionary adaptation of N-glycan processing in the Golgi apparatus has given rise to a variety of organism-specific complex structures. Therefore, plant complex-type N-glycans contain specific glyco-epitopes such as core β,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose residues, and Lewis(a) substitutions on the terminal position of the antenna. Like O-glycans, N-glycans of proteins are essential for their stability and function. Mutants affected in the glycan metabolic pathways have provided valuable information on the role of N-/O-glycoproteins in the control of growth, morphogenesis and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. With regards to O-glycoproteins, only EXTs and AGPs are considered herein. The biosynthesis of these glycoproteins and functional aspects are presented and discussed in this review. PMID:25324850

  2. Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: aspects of biosynthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Gotté, Maxime; Plancot, Barbara; Lerouge, Patrice; Bardor, Muriel; Driouich, Azeddine

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins are two types of glycomolecules whose glycans are structurally complex. They are both assembled and modified within the endomembrane system, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, before their transport to their final locations within or outside the cell. In contrast to extensins (EXTs), the O-glycan chains of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly heterogeneous consisting mostly of (i) a short oligo-arabinoside chain of three to four residues, and (ii) a larger β-1,3-linked galactan backbone with β-1,6-linked side chains containing galactose, arabinose and, often, fucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid. The fine structure of arabinogalactan chains varies between, and within plant species, and is important for the functional activities of the glycoproteins. With regards to N-glycans, ER-synthesizing events are highly conserved in all eukaryotes studied so far since they are essential for efficient protein folding. In contrast, evolutionary adaptation of N-glycan processing in the Golgi apparatus has given rise to a variety of organism-specific complex structures. Therefore, plant complex-type N-glycans contain specific glyco-epitopes such as core β,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose residues, and Lewisa substitutions on the terminal position of the antenna. Like O-glycans, N-glycans of proteins are essential for their stability and function. Mutants affected in the glycan metabolic pathways have provided valuable information on the role of N-/O-glycoproteins in the control of growth, morphogenesis and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. With regards to O-glycoproteins, only EXTs and AGPs are considered herein. The biosynthesis of these glycoproteins and functional aspects are presented and discussed in this review. PMID:25324850

  3. EndoS2 is a unique and conserved enzyme of serotype M49 group A Streptococcus that hydrolyses N-linked glycans on IgG and α1-acid glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, Jonathan; Struwe, Weston B.; Cosgrave, Eoin F. J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Stervander, Martin; Allhorn, Maria; Hollands, Andrew; Nizet, Victor; Collin, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteria have evolved ways to interact with glycosylation functions of the immune system of their hosts. Streptococcus pyogenes [GAS (group A Streptococcus)] secretes the enzyme EndoS that cleaves glycans on human IgG and impairs the effector functions of the antibody. The ndoS gene, encoding EndoS, has, until now, been thought to be conserved throughout the serotypes. However, in the present study, we identify EndoS2, an endoglycosidase in serotype M49 GAS strains. We characterized EndoS2 and the corresponding ndoS2 gene using sequencing, bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression and LC–MS analysis of glycosidic activity. This revealed that EndoS2 is present exclusively, and highly conserved, in serotype M49 of GAS and is only 37% identical with EndoS. EndoS2 showed endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity on all N-linked glycans of IgG and on biantennary and sialylated glycans of AGP (α1-acid glycoprotein). The enzyme was found to act only on native IgG and AGP and to be specific for free biantennary glycans with or without terminal sialylation. GAS M49 expression of EndoS2 was monitored in relation to carbohydrates present in the culture medium and was linked to the presence of sucrose. We conclude that EndoS2 is a unique endoglycosidase in serotype M49 and differs from EndoS of other GAS strains by targeting both IgG and AGP. EndoS2 expands the repertoire of GAS effectors that modify key glycosylated molecules of host defence. PMID:23865566

  4. Boronic Acid-Based Approach for Separation and Immobilization of Glycoproteins and Its Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojin; Xia, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Glycoproteins influence a broad spectrum of biological processes including cell-cell interaction, host-pathogen interaction, or protection of proteins against proteolytic degradation. The analysis of their glyco-structures and concentration levels are increasingly important in diagnosis and proteomics. Boronic acids can covalently react with cis-diols in the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins to form five- or six-membered cyclic esters. Based on this interaction, boronic acid-based ligands and materials have attracted much attention in both chemistry and biology as the recognition motif for enrichment and chemo/biosensing of glycoproteins in recent years. In this work, we reviewed the progress in the separation, immobilization and detection of glycoproteins with boronic acid-functionalized materials and addressed its application in sensing. PMID:24141187

  5. Metrology for AGP - Astrometric Gravitation Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; et al.

    2015-08-01

    The Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) is a concept of space mission aimed at tests of Fundamental Physics in the Solar system, using Fizeau interferometry and coronagraphy techniques to implement differential astrometry among superposed stellar fields. The main goal is verification of the General Relativity (GR) and competing gravitation theories in the weak field of the Solar System by high precision measurement of the light deflection in the vicinity of the Sun at < 10-7 and of the main and minor planet dynamics at the microarcsec/year level. The AGP payload concept is based on a single main telescope (1.15 m diameter) implementing a multi-aperture Fizeau interferometer, for simultaneous observation of four regions close to the Solar limb and in opposition; coronagraphic techniques are applied on the elementary sub-apertures. The star displacement due to light deflection is derived by differential astrometry on images taken in different deflection conditions (e.g. ON and OFF). The instrument design is focused on systematic error control through multiple field simultaneous observation and calibration. The metrology system requirements related to the science goals are discussed, and the technical aspects of possible implementations are investigated. The potential benefit of auto-collimation and cophasing techniques derives from monitoring comparably large sections of the optical system common to the stellar beams. The performance at microarcsec level is verified by simulation.

  6. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2, alpha 1-acid-glycoprotein and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the developing lesions of murine leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Silva Miranda, Mayra; Rodríguez, Kendy Wek; Martínez Cordero, Erasmo; Rojas-Espinosa, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    Murine leprosy is a chronic disease of the mouse, the most popular animal model used in biomedical investigation, which is caused by Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) whose characteristic lesion is the macrophage-made granuloma. From onset to the end of the disease, the granuloma undergoes changes that gradually transform the environment into a more appropriate milieu for the growth of M. lepraemurium. The mechanisms that participate in the formation and maturation of the murine leprosy granulomas are not completely understood; however, microbial and host-factors are believed to participate in their formation. In this study, we analysed the role of various pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory proteins in granulomas of murine leprosy after 21 weeks of infection. We assessed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), alpha acid-glycoprotein (AGP), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at sequential stages of infection. We also looked for the nitric-oxide nitrosylation product, nitrotyrosine (NT) in the granulomatous lesions of murine leprosy. We found that a pro-inflammatory environment predominates in the early granulomas while an anti-inflammatory environment predominates in late granulomas. No obvious signs of bacillary destruction were observed during the entire period of infection, but nitrosylation products and cell alterations were observed in granulomas in the advanced stages of disease. The change from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory environment, which is probably driven by the bacillus itself, results in a more conducive environment for both bacillus replication and the disease progression. PMID:17222216

  7. Method of using alpha-1 acid glycoprotein on T-cells as a marker for alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fudenberg, H.H.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described of diagnosing a dementia of the Alzheimer's type characterized by a change in the percentage of T-cells bearing surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein which comprises providing T-cells from a subject, determining the percentage of those T cells which bear surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and comparing that percentage of the percentage of T cells which bear the glycoprotein in a control, whereby the dementia is diagnosed.

  8. The acid and enzymic hydrolysis of O-acetylated sialic acid residues from rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, A.; Ratcliffe, Wendy A.

    1972-01-01

    Rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein and bovine submaxillary glycoprotein were both found to contain sialic acid residues which are released at a slow rate by the standard conditions of acid hydrolysis. These residues are also resistant to neuraminidases from Vibrio cholerae and Clostridium perfringens. This behaviour was attributed to the presence of O-acetylated sialic acid, since the removal of O-acetyl groups by mild alkaline treatment normalized the subsequent release of sialic acid from rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein by acid and by enzymic hydrolysis. Determination of the O-acetyl residues in rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein indicated that on average two hydroxyl groups of sialic acid are O-acetylated, and these were located on the polyhydroxy side-chain of sialic acid or on C-4 and C-8. These findings confirm the assumption that certain O-acetylated forms of sialic acid are not substrates for bacterial neuraminidases. Several explanations have been suggested to explain the effect of O-acetylation of the side-chain on the rate of acidcatalysed hydrolysis of sialic acid residues. PMID:4349114

  9. Studies on the carbohydrate moiety of α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) by using alkaline hydrolysis and deamination by nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Isemura, M.; Schmid, K.

    1971-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis followed by deamination with nitrous acid was applied for the first time to a glycoprotein, human plasma α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid). This procedure, which specifically cleaves the glycosaminidic bonds, yielded well-defined oligosaccharides. The trisaccharides, which were obtained from the native protein, consisted of a sialic acid derivative, galactose and 2,5-anhydromannose. The linkage between galactose and 2,5-anhydromannose is most probably a (1→4)-glycosidic bond. A hitherto unknown linkage between N-acetylneuraminic acid and galactose was also established, namely a (2→2)-linkage. The three linkages between sialic acid and galactose described in this paper appear to be about equally resistant to mild acid hydrolysis. The disaccharide that was derived from the desialized glycoprotein consisted of galactose and 2,5-anhydromannose. Evidence was obtained for the presence of a new terminal sialyl→N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide accounting for approximately 1mol/mol of protein. The presence of this disaccharide may explain the relatively severe requirements for the complete acid hydrolysis of the sialyl residues. The present study indicates that alkaline hydrolysis followed by nitrous acid deamination in conjunction with gas–liquid chromatography will afford relatively rapid determination of the partial structure of the complex carbohydrate moiety of glycoproteins. PMID:5135244

  10. Cytoplasmic tail length influences fatty acid selection for acylation of viral glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Veit, M; Reverey, H; Schmidt, M F

    1996-01-01

    We report remarkable differences in the fatty acid content of thioester-type acylated glycoproteins of enveloped viruses from mammalian cells. The E2 glycoprotein of Semliki Forest virus contains mainly palmitic acid like most other palmitoylated proteins analysed so far. However, the other glycoprotein (E1) of the same virus, as well as the HEF (haemagglutinin esterase fusion) glycoprotein of influenza C virus, are unique in this respect because they are acylated primarily with stearic acid. Comparative radiolabelling of uninfected cells with different fatty acids suggests that stearate may also be the prevailing fatty acid in some cellular acylproteins. To look for further differences between palmitoylated and stearoylated glycoproteins we characterized stearoylation in more detail. We identified the acylation site of HEF as a cysteine residue located at the boundary between the transmembrane region and the cytoplasmic tail. The attachment of stearate to HEF and E1 occurs post-translationally in a pre-Golgi compartment. Thus, stearoylated and palmitoylated proteins cannot be discriminated on the basis of the fatty acid linkage site or the intracellular compartment, where acylation occurs. However, stearoylated acylproteins contain a very short, positively charged cytoplasmic tail, whereas in palmitoylated proteins this molecular region is longer. Replacing the short cytoplasmic tail of stearoylated HEF with the long influenza A virus haemagglutinin (HA) tail in an HEF-HA chimera, and subsequent vaccinia T7 expression in CV-1 cells, yielded proteins with largely palmitic acid bound. The reverse chimera, HA-HEF with a short cytoplasmic tail was not fatty acylated at all during expression, indicating that conformational or topological constraints control fatty acid transfer. PMID:8761467

  11. A haemagglutinin in the tissue fluid of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, with specificity for sialic acid residues in glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hardy, S W; Grant, P T; Fletcher, T C

    1977-06-15

    An agglutinin for human red cells has a specificity for sialic acid and a high affinity for bovine salivary glycoprotein. Digestion of the glycoprotein with Pronase or neuraminidas indicated that binding of sialic acid to receptors in the agglutinin is the first step in the mechanism of formation of a stable complex between ligand and receptor. PMID:891745

  12. Effect of fluoride exposure on serum glycoprotein pattern and sialic acid level in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Gulay; Cenesiz, Sena; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Nisbet, Ozlem; Nisbet, Cevat; Cenesiz, Metin; Guvenc, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the effects of fluoride exposure on the protein profile, glycoprotein pattern, and total sialic acid concentration of serum in rabbits. For this aim; 20 healthy New Zealand rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups each with ten animals according to their weighing: control group and experimental group. The rabbits in control group were given drinking tap water containing 0.29 mg/l sodium fluoride and experimental group received the same tap water to which was added 40 mg/l sodium fluoride for 70 days. Blood samples were taken from each rabbit on day 70. Serum fluoride concentrations were measured by a fluoride-specific ion electrode in serum. The fluoride levels in the serum were found as 18.4 (+/-1.58) microg/L in control and 301.3 (+/-52.18) microg/L in fluoride exposed rabbits. The sialic acid levels were found as 69.2 (+/-0.32) mg/dL in control and 43.4 (+/-0.13) mg/dL in fluoride exposed group. The electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins, glycoproteins, and total sialic acid concentration were determined. Fifteen different protein fractions with molecular weights ranging from 22 to 249 kDa were displayed in the serum protein electrophoretic gel of both groups. The raw concentrations of the protein fractions decreased in fluoride exposed rabbits as compared with the control rabbits. The serum glycoprotein pattern revealed seven major protein bands from 47 to 167 kDa in experimental and control groups. The slight decrease of raw concentration of the protein bands in glycoprotein pattern of serum was observed in fluoride toxication comparing to control. The results suggest that serum TSA determination and serum protein electrophoresis can be used to evaluate prognosis of fluoride exposure as a supplementary laboratory test in combination with clinical and other laboratory findings of fluorosis. PMID:19904501

  13. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-10-31

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  14. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

    2009-07-14

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  15. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2007-05-15

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  16. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2005-08-09

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  17. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2007-08-28

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  18. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-11-02

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  19. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2007-07-03

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  20. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2007-02-27

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  1. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-11-16

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  2. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Shultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2007-04-03

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  3. G glycoprotein amino acid residues required for human monoclonal antibody RAB1 neutralization are conserved in rabies virus street isolates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Rowley, Kirk J; Booth, Brian J; Sloan, Susan E; Ambrosino, Donna M; Babcock, Gregory J

    2011-08-01

    Replacement of polyclonal anti-rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) used in rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with a monoclonal antibody will eliminate cost and availability constraints that currently exist using RIG in the developing world. The human monoclonal antibody RAB1 has been shown to neutralize all rabies street isolates tested; however for the laboratory-adapted fixed strain, CVS-11, mutation in the G glycoprotein of amino acid 336 from asparagine (N) to aspartic acid (D) resulted in resistance to neutralization. Interestingly, this same mutation in the G glycoprotein of a second laboratory-adapted fixed strain (ERA) did not confer resistance to RAB1 neutralization. Using cell surface staining and lentivirus pseudotyped with rabies virus G glycoprotein (RABVpp), we identified an amino acid alteration in CVS-11 (K346), not present in ERA (R346), which was required in combination with D336 to confer resistance to RAB1. A complete analysis of G glycoprotein sequences from GenBank demonstrated that no identified rabies isolates contain the necessary combination of G glycoprotein mutations for resistance to RAB1 neutralization, consistent with the broad neutralization of RAB1 observed in direct viral neutralization experiments with street isolates. All combinations of amino acids 336 and 346 reported in the sequence database were engineered into the ERA G glycoprotein and RAB1 was able to neutralize RABVpp bearing ERA G glycoprotein containing all known combinations at these critical residues. These data demonstrate that RAB1 has the capacity to neutralize all identified rabies isolates and a minimum of two distinct mutations in the G glycoprotein are required for abrogation of RAB1 neutralization. PMID:21693135

  4. Fluorescent staining of glycoproteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels by 4H-[1]-benzopyrano[4,3-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongxin; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Yang; Chi, Lisha; Ruan, Dandan; Xuan, Yuanhu; Cong, Weitao; Jin, Litai

    2014-06-01

    A fluorescent detection method for glycoproteins in SDS-PAGE by using 4H-[1]-benzopyrano[4,3-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide (BH) was developed in this study. As low as 4-8 ng glycoproteins (transferrin, α1-acid glycoprotein) could be specifically detected by the BH staining method, which is twofold more sensitive than that of the most commonly used Pro-Q Emerald 488 glycoprotein stain. Furthermore, the specificity of the newly developed stain for glycoproteins was demonstrated by 1-D and 2-D SDS-PAGE, deglycosylation, glycoprotein affinity enrichment and LC-MS/MS, respectively. According to the results, it is concluded that BH stain may provide new choices for convenient, sensitive, specific and economic visualization of gel-separated glycoproteins. PMID:24712021

  5. The in situ distribution of glycoprotein-bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

    2014-05-01

    Sialic acids are located at the terminal branches of the cell glycocalyx and secreted glycan molecules. O-Acetylation is an important modification of the sialic acids, however very few studies have demonstrated the in situ distribution of the O-Acetylated sialic acids. Here the distribution of glycoprotein bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids (4-O-Ac sias) in vertebrates was determined using a novel virus histochemistry assay. The 4-O-Ac sias were found in the circulatory system, i.e. on the surface of endothelial cells and RBCs, of several vertebrate species, though most frequently in the cartilaginous fish (class Chondrichthyes) and the bony fish (class Osteichthyes). The O-Acetylated sialic acid was detected in 64 % of the examined fish species. Even though the sialic acid was found less commonly in higher vertebrates, it was found at the same location in the positive species. The general significance of this endothelial labelling pattern distribution is discussed. The seemingly conserved local position through the evolution of the vertebrates, suggests an evolutionary advantage of this sialic acid modification. PMID:24833039

  6. Glycosylation Engineering of Glycoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadamoto, Reiko; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    Naturally occurring glycosylation of glycoproteins varies in glycosylation site and in the number and structure of glycans. The engineering of well-defined glycoproteins is an important technology for the preparation of pharmaceutically relevant glycoproteins and in the study of the relationship between glycans and proteins on a structure-function level. In pharmaceutical applications of glycoproteins, the presence of terminal sialic acids on glycans is particularly important for the in vivo circulatory half life, since sialic acid-terminated glycans are not recognized by asialoglycoprotein receptors. Therefore, there have been a number of attempts to control or modify cellular metabolism toward the expression of glycoproteins with glycosylation profiles similar to that of human glycoproteins. In this chapter, recent methods for glycoprotein engineering in various cell culture systems (mammalian cells, plant, yeast, and E. coli) and advances in the chemical approach to glycoprotein formation are described.

  7. Glycoprotein Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daryl; Spencer, Daniel

    This chapter provides an overview of practical methods for glycosylation analysis of glycoprotein therapeutics . The topics include glycoprofiling methods for glycoforms, monosaccharides (neutral and N-acetylated species as well as sialic acids), oligosaccharides (chemical and enzymatic methods for glycan release, post-release purification, labeling and derivatization, different types of glycan HPLC and MS), and glycosylation site profiling.

  8. Alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS) alters lipid signaling pathways and supports chemotherapy resistance of glioma and hepatic carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Liu, Xing-Jun; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Ming; Lv, Li-Xia; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy continues to be a mainstay of cancer treatment, although drug resistance is a major obstacle. Lipid metabolism plays a critical role in cancer pathology, with elevated ether lipid levels. Recently, alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the critical step in ether lipid synthesis, was shown to be up-regulated in multiple types of cancer cells and primary tumors. Here, we demonstrated that silencing of AGPS in chemotherapy resistance glioma U87MG/DDP and hepatic carcinoma HepG2/ADM cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation, increased drug sensitivity, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis through reducing the intracellular concentration of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), lysophosphatidic acid-ether (LPAe) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), resulting in reduction of LPA receptor and EP receptors mediated PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and the expression of several multi-drug resistance genes, like MDR1, MRP1 and ABCG2. β-catenin, caspase-3/8, Bcl-2 and survivin were also found to be involved. In summary, our studies indicate that AGPS plays a role in cancer chemotherapy resistance by mediating signaling lipid metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:24815474

  9. The biliverdin chromophore binds covalently to a conserved cysteine residue in the N-terminus of Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1.

    PubMed

    Lamparter, Tilman; Carrascal, Montserrat; Michael, Norbert; Martinez, Enriqueta; Rottwinkel, Gregor; Abian, Joaquin

    2004-03-30

    Phytochromes are widely distributed biliprotein photoreceptors. Typically, the chromophore becomes covalently linked to the protein during an autocatalytic lyase reaction. Plant and cyanobacterial phytochromes incorporate bilins with a ring A ethylidene side chain, whereas other bacterial phytochromes utilize biliverdin as chromophore, which has a vinyl ring A side chain. For Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1, site-directed mutagenesis provided evidence that biliverdin is bound to cysteine 20. This cysteine is highly conserved within bacterial homologues, but its role as attachment site has as yet not been proven. We therefore performed mass spectrometry studies on proteolytic holopeptide fragments. For that purpose, an Agp1 expression vector was re-engineered to produce a protein with an N-terminal affinity tag. Following proteolysis, the chromophore co-purified with a ca. 5 kDa fragment during affinity chromatography, showing that the attachment site is located close to the N-terminus. Mass spectrometry analyses performed with the purified chromopeptide confirmed the role of the cysteine 20 as biliverdin attachment site. We also analyzed the role of the highly conserved histidine 250 by site-directed mutagenesis. The homologous amino acid plays an important but yet undefined role in plant phytochromes and has been proposed as chromophore attachment site of Deinococcus phytochrome. We found that in Agp1, this amino acid is dispensable for covalent attachment, but required for tight chromophore-protein interaction. PMID:15035636

  10. Avian serum. cap alpha. /sub 1/-glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and carbohydrate composition from mammalian (. beta. -glycoprotein) counter parts

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Trimble, R.B.; Falco, M.D.; Liem, H.H.; Metcalfe, S.A.; Wellner, D.; Muller-Eberhard, U.

    1986-10-21

    The physicochemical characteristics of chicken hemopexin, which can be isolated by heme-agarose affinity chromatography, is compared with representative mammalian hemopexins of rat, rabbit, and human. The avian polypeptide chain appears to be slightly longer (52 kDa) than the human, rat, or rabbit forms (49 kDa), and also the glycoprotein differs from the mammalian hemopexins in being an ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoprotein instead of a ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein. The distinct electrophoretic mobility probably arises from significant differences in the amino acid composition of the chicken form, which, although lower in serine and particularly in lysine, has a much higher glutamine/glutamate and agrinine content, and also a higher proline, glycine, and histidine content, than the mammalian hemopexins. Compositional analyses and /sup 125/I concanavalin A and /sup 125/I wheat germ agglutinin binding suggest that chicken hemopexin has a mixture of three fucose-free N-linked bi- and triantennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, human hemopexin has give N-linked oligosaccharides and an additional O-linked glycan blocking the N-terminal threonine residue, while the rabbit form has four N-linked oligosaccharides. In keeping with the finding of a simpler carbohydrate structure, the avian hemopexin shows only a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both nondenaturing and denaturing conditions, whereas the hemopexins of the three mammalian species tested show several bands. In contrast, the isoelectric focusing pattern of chicken hemopexin is very complex, revealing at least nine bands between pH 4.0 and pH band 5.0, while the other hemopexins show a broad smear of multiple ill-defined bands in the same region.Results indicate the hemopexin of avians differs substantially from the hemopexins of mammals, which show a notable similarity with regard to carbohydrate structure and amino acid composition.

  11. New monoclonal antibodies to the Ebola virus glycoprotein: Identification and analysis of the amino acid sequence of the variable domains.

    PubMed

    Panina, A A; Aliev, T K; Shemchukova, O B; Dement'yeva, I G; Varlamov, N E; Pozdnyakova, L P; Bokov, M N; Dolgikh, D A; Sveshnikov, P G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-03-01

    We determined the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of variable domains of three new monoclonal antibodies to the glycoprotein of Ebola virus capsid. The framework and hypervariable regions of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains were identified. The primary structures were confirmed using massspectrometry analysis. Immunoglobulin database search showed the uniqueness of the sequences obtained. PMID:27193713

  12. Prestaining of glycoproteins in SDS-PAGE via 4H-[1]-Benzopyrano[4,3-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide with weak influence on protein mobility.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongxin; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Yang; Yu, Qing; Zhu, Xinliang; Niu, Chao; Cong, Weitao; Jin, Litai

    2014-12-01

    A new fluorescent prestaining method for gel-separated glycoproteins in 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE was developed by using 4H-[1]-Benzopyrano[4,3-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide (BH). The prestained gels were readily imaged after electrophoresis without any time-consuming steps needed for poststain. As low as 4-8 ng glycoproteins (transferrin, α1-acid glycoprotein) could be selectively detected, which is comparable to the most commonly used Pro-Q Emerald 488 glycoprotein stain. In addition, subsequent study of deglycosylation, glycoprotein affinity chromatography, and LC-MS/MS analysis were performed to confirm the specificity of the newly developed method. As a result, BH prestain provides a new choice for quick, sensitive, specific, economical, and MS compatible visualization of gel-separated glycoproteins. PMID:25229714

  13. A glycoprotein binding retinoids and fatty acids is present in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Duncan, T; Kutty, G; Chader, G J; Wiggert, B

    1994-07-01

    In the search for a possible Drosophila melanogaster homolog of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), a approximately 140-kDa retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein found in vertebrates, the 110,000 g supernatant fraction prepared from homogenates of fly heads was analyzed for the presence of proteins capable of binding radiolabeled retinol and palmitic acid. A soluble protein, which binds concanavalin A and has a retention time on size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography identical to that of purified bovine IRBP, was identified as binding both ligands. As assessed by fluorescence titration, the protein fraction obtained by concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography of fly head supernatant had apparent dissociation constants of 2.9 x 10(-7) +/- 0.6 M for all-trans retinol, with the number (n) of independent ligand binding sites per protein molecule = 2, and 3.5 x 10(-7) +/- 0.1 M for 16-[9-anthroyloxy] palmitic acid with n = 7. High-performance liquid chromatography of hexane extracts of this protein fraction resolved several peaks with polarity and relative retention times similar, but not identical to all-trans retinol and retinal and their 9-, 11-, and 13-cis isomers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters prepared following lipid extraction of the protein identified lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids as being covalently bound. Laurate, myristate, palmitate, and stearate were noncovalently bound. The apparent molecular mass of the Drosophila protein as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of the retinoid- and fatty acid-binding peak obtained by hydrophobic interaction chromatography of the size-exclusion fraction was approximately 70 kDa. PMID:8031123

  14. Boronic acid-functionalized core-shell-shell magnetic composite microspheres for the selective enrichment of glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Miaorong; Sun, Yangfei; Zheng, Jin; Yang, Wuli

    2013-09-11

    In this work, core-shell-shell-structured boronic acid-functionalized magnetic composite microspheres Fe3O4@SiO2@poly (methyl methacrylate-co-4-vinylphenylbornoic acid) (Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA)) with a uniform size and fine morphology were synthesized. Here, Fe3O4 magnetic particles were prepared by a solvothermal reaction, whereas the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres with a core-shell structure were obtained by a sol-gel process. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS)-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 was used as the seed in the emulsion polymerization of MMA and VPBA to form the core-shell-shell-structured magnetic composite microspheres. As the boronic acid groups on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA) could form tight yet reversible covalent bonds with the cis-1,2-diols groups of glycoproteins, the magnetic composite microspheres were applied to enrich a standard glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the results demonstrated that the composite microspheres have a higher affinity for the glycoproteins in the presence of the nonglycoprotein bovine serum albumin (BSA) over HRP. Additionally, different monomer mole ratios of MMA/VPBA were studied, and the results implied that using MMA as the major monomer could reduce the amount of VPBA with a similar glycoprotein enrichment efficiency but a lower cost. PMID:23924282

  15. Sialic Acids on Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein B Are Required for Cell-Cell Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Maki; Arisawa, Fuminori; Kohyama, Masako; Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Mori, Yasuko; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the human Herpesvirus family that causes varicella (chicken pox) and zoster (shingles). VZV latently infects sensory ganglia and is also responsible for encephalomyelitis. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a member of the sialic acid (SA)-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin family, is mainly expressed in neural tissues. VZV glycoprotein B (gB) associates with MAG and mediates membrane fusion during VZV entry into host cells. The SA requirements of MAG when associating with its ligands vary depending on the specific ligand, but it is unclear whether the SAs on gB are involved in the association with MAG. In this study, we found that SAs on gB are essential for the association with MAG as well as for membrane fusion during VZV infection. MAG with a point mutation in the SA-binding site did not bind to gB and did not mediate cell-cell fusion or VZV entry. Cell-cell fusion and VZV entry mediated by the gB-MAG interaction were blocked by sialidase treatment. N-glycosylation or O-glycosylation inhibitors also inhibited the fusion and entry mediated by gB-MAG interaction. Furthermore, gB with mutations in N-glycosylation sites, i.e. asparagine residues 557 and 686, did not associate with MAG, and the cell-cell fusion efficiency was low. Fusion between the viral envelope and cellular membrane is essential for host cell entry by herpesviruses. Therefore, these results suggest that SAs on gB play important roles in MAG-mediated VZV infection. PMID:26105052

  16. Sialic Acids on Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein B Are Required for Cell-Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Maki; Arisawa, Fuminori; Kohyama, Masako; Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Mori, Yasuko; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-08-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the human Herpesvirus family that causes varicella (chicken pox) and zoster (shingles). VZV latently infects sensory ganglia and is also responsible for encephalomyelitis. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a member of the sialic acid (SA)-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin family, is mainly expressed in neural tissues. VZV glycoprotein B (gB) associates with MAG and mediates membrane fusion during VZV entry into host cells. The SA requirements of MAG when associating with its ligands vary depending on the specific ligand, but it is unclear whether the SAs on gB are involved in the association with MAG. In this study, we found that SAs on gB are essential for the association with MAG as well as for membrane fusion during VZV infection. MAG with a point mutation in the SA-binding site did not bind to gB and did not mediate cell-cell fusion or VZV entry. Cell-cell fusion and VZV entry mediated by the gB-MAG interaction were blocked by sialidase treatment. N-glycosylation or O-glycosylation inhibitors also inhibited the fusion and entry mediated by gB-MAG interaction. Furthermore, gB with mutations in N-glycosylation sites, i.e. asparagine residues 557 and 686, did not associate with MAG, and the cell-cell fusion efficiency was low. Fusion between the viral envelope and cellular membrane is essential for host cell entry by herpesviruses. Therefore, these results suggest that SAs on gB play important roles in MAG-mediated VZV infection. PMID:26105052

  17. Zinc-induced oligomerization of zinc α2 glycoprotein reveals multiple fatty acid-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Henna; Miah, Layeque; Lau, Andy M; Brochard, Lea; Hati, Debolina; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J; McDermott, Lindsay C

    2016-01-01

    Zinc α2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with a class I MHC protein fold and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Although its intrinsic ligand remains unknown, ZAG binds the dansylated C11 fatty acid 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) in the groove between the α1 and α2 domains. The surface of ZAG has approximately 15 weak zinc-binding sites deemed responsible for precipitation from human plasma. In the present study the functional significance of these metal sites was investigated. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and CD showed that zinc, but not other divalent metals, causes ZAG to oligomerize in solution. Thus ZAG dimers and trimers were observed in the presence of 1 and 2 mM zinc. Molecular modelling of X-ray scattering curves and sedimentation coefficients indicated a progressive stacking of ZAG monomers, suggesting that the ZAG groove may be occluded in these. Using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity, these ZAG-zinc oligomers were again observed in the presence of the fluorescent boron dipyrromethene fatty acid C16-BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-hexadecanoic acid). Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that ZAG binds C16-BODIPY. ZAG binding to C16-BODIPY, but not to DAUDA, was reduced by increased zinc concentrations. We conclude that the lipid-binding groove in ZAG contains at least two distinct fatty acid-binding sites for DAUDA and C16-BODIPY, similar to the multiple lipid binding seen in the structurally related immune protein CD1c. In addition, because high concentrations of zinc occur in the pancreas, the perturbation of these multiple lipid-binding sites by zinc may be significant in Type 2 diabetes where dysregulation of ZAG and zinc homoeostasis occurs. PMID:26487699

  18. Multiple-reaction monitoring liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for monosaccharide compositional analysis of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Loubna A; Saleh, Marwa M; Novotny, Milos V; Mechref, Yehia

    2009-06-01

    A simple, sensitive, and rapid quantitative LC-MS/MS assay was designed for the simultaneous quantification of free and glycoprotein bound monosaccharides using a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. This study represents the first example of using LC-MS/MS methods to simultaneously quantify all common glycoprotein monosaccharides, including neutral and acidic monosaccharides. Sialic acids and reduced forms of neutral monosaccharides are efficiently separated using a porous graphitized carbon column. Neutral monosaccharide molecules are detected as their alditol acetate anion adducts [M + CH(3)CO(2)](-) using electrospray ionization in negative ion MRM mode, while sialic acids are detected as deprotonated ions [M - H](-). The new method exhibits very high sensitivity to carbohydrates with limits of detection as low as 1 pg for glucose, galactose, and mannose, and below 10 pg for other monosaccharides. The linearity of the described approach spans over three orders of magnitudes (pg to ng). The method effectively quantified monosaccharides originating from as little as 1 microg of fetuin, ribonuclease B, peroxidase, and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein human (AGP) with results consistent with literature values and with independent CE-LIF measurements. The method is robust, rapid, and highly sensitive. It does not require derivatization or postcolumn addition of reagents. PMID:19318280

  19. The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR controls the liver derived tumor suppressor histidine-rich glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, Ulrich; Birkel, Manfred; Hambruch, Eva; Hornberger, Martin; Kinzel, Olaf; Perović-Ottstadt, Sanja; Schulz, Andreas; Hahn, Ulrike; Burnet, Michael; Kremoser, Claus

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear bile acid receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is strongly expressed in liver and intestine, controls bile acid and lipid homeostasis and exerts tumor-protective functions in liver and intestine. Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant plasma protein produced by the liver with the proposed function as a pattern recognition molecule involved in the clearance of immune complexes, necrotic cells and pathogens, the modulation of angiogenesis, the normalization of deranged endothelial vessel structure in tumors and tumor suppression. FXR recognition sequences were identified within a human HRG promoter fragment that mediated FXR/FXR-agonist dependent reporter gene activity in vitro. We show that HRG is a novel transcriptional target gene of FXR in human hepatoma cells, human upcyte® primary hepatocytes and 3D human liver microtissues in vitro and in mouse liver in vivo. Prolonged administration of the potent nonsteroidal FXR agonist PX20606 increases HRG levels in mouse plasma. Finally, daily oral administration of this FXR agonist for seven days resulted in a significant increase of HRG levels in the plasma of healthy human male volunteers during a clinical Phase I safety study. HRG might serve as a surrogate marker indicative of liver-specific FXR activation in future human clinical studies. Furthermore, potent FXR agonists might be beneficial in serious health conditions where HRG is reduced, for example, in hepatocellular carcinoma but also other solid cancers, liver failure, sepsis and pre-eclampsia. PMID:25363753

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) induction of monocyte arachidonic acid metabolites and interleukin 1.

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, L M; Corcoran, M L; Pyle, S W; Arthur, L O; Harel-Bellan, A; Farrar, W L

    1989-01-01

    This study reports on the direct effect of the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on human monocyte function. Addition of preparations of purified gp120 from the HIV-1 to human monocytes resulted in the production of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and arachidonic acid metabolites from the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Quantification of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-1 revealed an increase in both mediators with 50 ng of gp120 per ml and an increase of 12- and 30- to 40-fold with 200-400 ng of gp120 per ml, respectively. Unlike native gp120, the recombinant nonglycosylated gp120 fragments PB1-RF and PB1-IIIB, as well as one of the core structural proteins of HIV-1, p24, did not increase arachidonic acid metabolism or IL-1 activity. Cytofluorometric analysis revealed that gp120 blocked the binding of OKT4A to the CD4 on monocytes, whereas OKT4 binding was unaffected. Involvement of the CD4 in signal transduction was further demonstrated by the ability of OKT4 and OKT4A monoclonal antibodies to increase monocyte PGE2, IL-1 activity, and nanogram amounts of IL-1 beta. PMID:2536171

  1. In silico Analysis for Predicting Fatty Acids of Black Cumin Oil as Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Babar; Jamal, Qazi Mohd. Sajid; Mir, Showkat R.; Shams, Saiba; Al-Wabel, Naser A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Black cumin oil is obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. which belongs to family Ranunculaceae. The seed oil has been reported to possess antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, central nervous system depressant, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory activities. These bioactivities have been attributed to the fixed oil, volatile oil, or their components. Seed oil consisted of 15 saturated fatty acids (17%) and 17 unsaturated fatty acids (82.9%). Long chain fatty acids and medium chain fatty acids have been reported to increase oral bioavailability of peptides, antibiotics, and other important therapeutic agents. In earlier studies, permeation enhancement and bioenhancement of drugs has been done with black cumin oil. Objective: In order to recognize the mechanism of binding of fatty acids to P-glycoprotein (P-gp), linoleic acid, oleic acid, margaric acid, cis-11, 14-eicosadienoic acid, and stearic acid were selected for in silico studies, which were carried out using AutoDock 4.2, based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm principle. Materials and Methods: Template search with BLAST and HHblits has been performed against the SWISS-MODEL template library. The target sequence was searched with BLAST against the primary amino acid sequence of P-gp from Rattus norvegicus. Results: The amount of energy needed by linoleic acid, oleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, margaric acid, and stearic acid to bind with P-gp were found to be − 10.60, −10.48, −9.95, −11.92, and − 10.37 kcal/mol, respectively. The obtained data support that all the selected fatty acids have contributed to inhibit P-gp activity thereby enhances the bioavailability of drugs. Conclusion: This study plays a significant role in finding hot spots in P-gp and may offer the further scope of designing potent and specific inhibitors of P-gp. SUMMARY Generation of 3D structure of fatty acid compounds from Black cumin oil and 3D homology modeling of Rat P

  2. Deglycosylation of glycoproteins with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid: elucidation of molecular structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Albert S B

    2003-01-01

    The alteration of proteins by post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, sulphation, processing by proteolysis, lipid attachment and glycosylation, gives rise to a broad range of molecules that can have an identical underlying protein core. An understanding of glycosylation of proteins is important in clarifying the nature of the numerous variants observed and in determining the biological roles of these modifications. Deglycosylation with TFMS (trifluoromethanesulphonic acid) [Edge, Faltynek, Hof, Reichert, and Weber, (1981) Anal. Biochem. 118, 131-137] has been used extensively to remove carbohydrate from glycoproteins, while leaving the protein backbone intact. Glycosylated proteins from animals, plants, fungi and bacteria have been deglycosylated with TFMS, and the most extensively studied types of carbohydrate chains in mammals, the N-linked, O-linked and glycosaminoglycan chains, are all removed by this procedure. The method is based on the finding that linkages between sugars are sensitive to cleavage by TFMS, whereas the peptide bond is stable and is not broken, even with prolonged deglycosylation. The relative susceptibility of individual sugars in glycosidic linkage varies with the substituents at C-2 and the occurrence of amido and acetyl groups, but even the most stable sugars are removed under conditions that are sufficiently mild to prevent scission of peptide bonds. The post-translational modifications of proteins have been shown to be required for diverse biological functions, and selective procedures to remove these modifications play an important role in the elucidation of protein structure and function. PMID:12974674

  3. Transmembrane aromatic amino acid distribution in P-glycoprotein. A functional role in broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Pawagi, A B; Wang, J; Silverman, M; Reithmeier, R A; Deber, C M

    1994-01-14

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is associated with overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a membrane protein which interacts with structurally diverse hydrophobic molecules of high membrane affinity. In an analysis of the molecular basis for this broad range of substrate specificity, we found that the transmembrane (TM) regions of Pgp are rich in highly conserved aromatic amino acid residues. Computer-generated three-dimensional model structures showed that a typical substrate, rhodamine 123, can intercalate between three to four phenylalanine side-chains in any of several Pgp TM helices with minimal protrusion of the drug into bulk lipid, and that five to six (of the 12 Pgp putative TM segments) helices can facilitate transport through creation of a sterically compatible pore. In contrast to the case for proteins involved in the transport of membrane-impermeable, relatively polar substrates, the "transport path" for Pgp substrates need not be polar, and may involve either an internal channel occupied largely by aromatic side-chains, or external gaps along TM helix-lipid interfaces. Weakly polar interactions between drug cationic sites and Pgp aromatic residues contribute additionally to overall protein/drug binding. The ability of Pgp to recognize and efflux structurally diverse molecules suggests that rather than a unique structure, the Pgp channel may maintain the intrinsic capacity to undergo wide-ranging drug-dependent dynamic reorganization. PMID:7904655

  4. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina dose. With the exception of Trp and Gly, AID values decreased (P < 0.05) linearly or quadratically for all amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Plasma concentrations of Arg and Tyr decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina inoculation dose and plasma Gln and Asn decreased quadratically (P < 0.01). Linear increases (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma Lys, Leu, Ile, Val, Pro, and Orn as E. acervulina inoculation dose increased. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations

  5. A Single-Amino-Acid Polymorphism in Chikungunya Virus E2 Glycoprotein Influences Glycosaminoglycan Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Preincubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly82 results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg82 results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25. IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are

  6. A novel human T-leukemia virus type 1 cell-to-cell transmission assay permits definition of SU glycoprotein amino acids important for infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Delamarre, L; Rosenberg, A R; Pique, C; Pham, D; Dokhélar, M C

    1997-01-01

    Human T-leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) envelope glycoproteins play a major role in viral transmission, which in the case of this virus occurs almost exclusively via cell-to-cell contact. Until very recently, the lack of an HTLV-1 infectivity assay precluded the determination of the HTLV-1 protein domains required for infectivity. Here, we describe an assay which allows the quantitative evaluation of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission in a single round of infection. Using this assay, we demonstrate that in this system, cell-to-cell transmission is at least 100 times more efficient than transmission with free viral particles. We have examined 46 surface (SU) glycoprotein mutants in order to define the amino acids of the HTLV-1 SU glycoprotein required for full infectivity. We demonstrate that these amino acids are distributed along the entire length of the SU glycoprotein, including the N-terminus and C-terminus regions, which have not been previously defined as being important for HTLV-1 glycoprotein function. For most of the mutated glycoproteins, the capacity to mediate cell-to-cell transmission is correlated with the ability to induce formation of syncytia. This result indicates that the fusion capacity is the main factor responsible for infectivity mediated by the HTLV-1 SU envelope glycoprotein, as is the case for other retroviral glycoproteins. However, other factors must also intervene, since two of the mutated glycoproteins were correctly fusogenic but could not mediate cell-to-cell transmission. Existence of this phenotype shows that capacity for fusion is not sufficient to confer infectivity, even in cell-to-cell transmission, and could suggest that postfusion events involve the SU. PMID:8985345

  7. Rat epididymal luminal fluid acid beta-D-galactosidase optimally hydrolyses glycoprotein substrate at neutral pH.

    PubMed Central

    Skudlarek, M D; Tulsiani, D R; Orgebin-Crist, M C

    1992-01-01

    Several glycosidases, purified and characterized from mammalian tissues, have been shown to be optimally active under acidic conditions when p-nitrophenyl (PNP) or 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides are used as substrates. Although high levels of the glycosidases are present in the epididymal lumen, their physiological role remains uncertain. To be functional, the glycosidases are expected to be enzymatically active at or near the physiological pH of luminal fluid. In this report, we demonstrate that the rat epididymal luminal fluid beta-D-galactosidase, optimally active toward PNP beta-D-galactoside at pH 3.5, shows maximum activity towards a glycoprotein substrate ([Gal-3H]fetuin) at neutral pH. Several lines of evidence, including immunoprecipitation studies using antibody to the acid beta-D-galactosidase, and substrate competition studies, indicate that PNP galactosidase and [3H]Gal galactosidase activities are caused by a single enzyme, and that the two substrates are probably cleaved by the same catalytic site(s). Competition studies with various disaccharides indicate that this enzyme is capable of cleaving a variety of galactose linkages found in both O- and N-linked oligosaccharides. Molecular-sieve column chromatography of the beta-D-galactosidase of luminal fluid under several conditions of buffer and pH show that, whereas the enzyme eluted as a tetramer (apparent M(r) 320,000) under acidic conditions (pH 3.5-4.3), only dimers and monomers (apparent M(r) 180,000 and 92,000 respectively) were observed in neutral conditions (pH 6.8). This aggregation/dissociation phenomenon is reversible. These studies indicate that beta-D-galactosidase is present in the luminal fluid in dissociated forms, and is therefore optimally active towards glycoprotein substrates at physiological pH. The potential role of the enzyme in modification of sperm surface glycoproteins is discussed. PMID:1417750

  8. Complete amino acid sequence of human plasma Zn-. cap alpha. /sub 2/-glycoprotein and its homology to histocompatibility antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Gejyo, F.; Takagaki, K.; Haupt, H.; Schwick, H.G.; Buergi, W.; Marti, T.; Schaller, J.; Rickli, E.; Brossmer, R.

    1988-02-01

    In the present study the complete amino acid sequence of human plasma Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein was determined. This protein whose biological function is unknown consists of a single polypeptide chain of 276 amino acid residues including 8 tryptophan residues and has a pyroglutamyl residue at the amino terminus. The location of the two disulfide bonds in the polypeptide chain was also established. The three glycans, whose structure was elucidated with the aid of 500 MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy, were sialylated N-biantennas. The molecular weight calculated from the polypeptide and carbohydrate structure is 38,478, which is close to the reported value of approx. = 41,000 based on physicochemical measurements. The predicted secondary structure appeared to comprised of 23% ..cap alpha..-helix, 27% ..beta..-sheet, and 22% ..beta..-turns. The three N-glycans were found to be located in ..beta..-turn regions. An unexpected finding was made by computer analysis of the sequence data; this revealed that Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein is closely related to antigens of the major histocompatibility complex in amino acid sequence and in domain structure. There was an unusually high degree of sequence homology with the ..cap alpha.. chains of class I histocompatibility antigens. Moreover, this plasma protein was shown to be a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Zn-..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein appears to be truncated secretory major histocompatibility complex-related molecule, and it may have a role in the expression of the immune response.

  9. Immunolocalization of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in reproductive structures of an early-divergent angiosperm, Trithuria (Hydatellaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Mário; Pereira, Ana Marta; Rudall, Paula J.; Coimbra, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Trithuria is the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, a family of the early-divergent angiosperm lineage Nymphaeales (water-lilies). In this study different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes in T. submersa were evaluated in order to understand the diversity of these proteins and their functions in flowering plants. Methods Immunolabelling of different AGPs and pectin epitopes in reproductive structures of T. submersa at the stage of early seed development was achieved by immunofluorescence of specific antibodies. Key Results AGPs in Trithuria pistil tissues could be important as structural proteins and also as possible signalling molecules. Intense labelling was obtained with anti-AGP antibodies both in the anthers and in the intine wall, the latter associated with pollen tube emergence. Conclusions AGPs could play a significant role in Trithuria reproduction, due to their specific presence in the pollen tube pathway. The results agree with labellings obtained for Arabidopsis and confirms the importance of AGPs in angiosperm reproductive structures as essential structural components and probably important signalling molecules. PMID:23186834

  10. A Fully Attenuated Recombinant Salmonid Alphavirus Becomes Pathogenic through a Single Amino Acid Change in the E2 Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Mérour, Emilie; Lamoureux, Annie; Bernard, Julie; Biacchesi, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant sleeping disease virus (rSDV) was previously shown to be totally attenuated and provide long-term protection in trout (C. Moriette, M. Leberre, A. Lamoureux, T. L. Lai, M. Brémont, J. Virol. 80:4088–4098, 2006). Sequence comparison of the rSDV to wild-type genomes exhibited a number of nucleotide changes. In the current study, we demonstrate that the virulent phenotype of SDV was essentially associated with two amino acid changes, V8A and M136T, in the E2 glycoprotein, with the V8A change mostly being involved in the acquisition of the virulent phenotype. PMID:23449806

  11. Effects of insulin, dexamethasone and cytokines on {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein gene expression in primary cultures of normal rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Barraud, B.; Balavoine, S.; Feldmann, G.; Lardeux, B.

    1996-04-01

    While the effects of insulin, dexamethasone and cytokines on {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein gene expression have been investigated in various hepatoma cell lines, the individual and combined effects of these components on the expression of this gene have been rarely studied in cultured normal rat hepatocytes. In this cell model, we have shown that mRNA levels of {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein were not decreased at least during the first 24 h of culture under basal conditions. During these short-term cultures, the expression of {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein in normal hepatocytes showed a high degree of responsiveness to dexamethasone alone (20-fold increase) and to dexamethasone associated with various cytokines (interleukin-1{beta}, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}) with a 40 to 100-fold increase depending on the cytokine. Insulin alone did not modify {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein mRNA; however, this hormone exerted a positive effect (about 50% increase) in the presence of dexamethasone or dexamethasone with cytokines. These results indicate that the regulation of {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein in cultured normal rat hepatocytes presents major differences when compared to reported observations in rat hepatoma cell lines. 49 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. [Creation of DNA vaccine vector based on codon-optimized gene of rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) with consensus amino acid sequence].

    PubMed

    Starodubova, E S; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Preobrazhenskaya, O V; Karpov, V L

    2016-01-01

    An optimized design of the rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) for use within DNA vaccines has been suggested. The design represents a territorially adapted antigen constructed taking into account glycoprotein amino acid sequences of the rabies viruses registered in the Russian Federation and the vaccine Vnukovo-32 strain. Based on the created consensus amino acid sequence, the nucleotide codon-optimized sequence of this modified glycoprotein was obtained and cloned into the pVAX1 plasmid (a vector of the last generation used in the creation of DNA vaccines). A twofold increase in this gene expression compared to the expression of the Vnukovo-32 strain viral glycoprotein gene in a similar vector was registered in the transfected cell culture. It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of modified G protein exceeds the number of the control protein synthesized using the plasmid with the Vnukovo-32 strain viral glycoprotein gene by 20 times. Thus, the obtained modified rabies virus glycoprotein can be considered to be a promising DNA vaccine antigen. PMID:27239860

  13. Virion incorporation of envelope glycoproteins with long but not short cytoplasmic tails is blocked by specific, single amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, E O; Martin, M A

    1995-01-01

    Incorporation of envelope glycoproteins into a budding retrovirus is an essential step in the formation of an infectious virus particle. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified specific amino acid residues in the matrix domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein that are critical to the incorporation of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins into virus particles. Pseudotyping analyses were used to demonstrate that two heterologous envelope glycoproteins with short cytoplasmic tails (the envelope of the amphotropic murine leukemia virus and a naturally truncated HIV-2 envelope) are efficiently incorporated into HIV-1 particles bearing the matrix mutations. Furthermore, deletion of the cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein gp41 from 150 to 7 or 47 residues reversed the incorporation block imposed by the matrix mutations. These results suggest the existence of a specific functional interaction between the HIV-1 matrix and the gp41 cytoplasmic tail. PMID:7853546

  14. Human Adenovirus 52 Uses Sialic Acid-containing Glycoproteins and the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor for Binding to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lenman, Annasara; Liaci, A. Manuel; Liu, Yan; Årdahl, Carin; Rajan, Anandi; Nilsson, Emma; Bradford, Will; Kaeshammer, Lisa; Jones, Morris S.; Frängsmyr, Lars; Feizi, Ten; Stehle, Thilo; Arnberg, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy. PMID:25674795

  15. The Functional Property Changes of Muscular Na(v)1.4 and Cardiac Na(v)1.5 Induced by Scorpion Toxin BmK AGP-SYPU1 Mutants Y42F and Y5F.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangxue; Xu, Yijia; Zhao, Mingyi; Wang, Fangyang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jin, Yao; Liu, Yanfeng; Song, Yongbo; Zhang, Jinghai

    2015-05-19

    Scorpion toxins are invaluable therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools which influence the voltage-gated sodium channels. However, the details were still unclear about the structure-function relationship of scorpion toxins on VGSC subtypes. In the previous study, we reported one α-type scorpion toxin Bmk AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) which had been demonstrated to ease pain in mice acetic acid writhing test. However, the function of Bmk AGP-SYPU1 on VGSCs is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of BmK AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 heterologously expressed CHO cell lines by using Na⁺-specialized fluorescent dye and whole-cell patch clamp. The data showed that BmK AGP-SYPU1 displayed as an activator of hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5, which might indeed contribute to its biotoxicity to muscular and cardiac system and exhibited the functional properties of both the α-type and β-type scorpion toxin. Notably, Y5F mutant exhibited lower activatory effects on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 compared with BmK AGP-SYPU1. Y42F was an enhanced activator and confirmed that the conserved Tyr42 was the key amino acid involved in bioactivity or biotoxicity. These data provided a deep insight into the structure-function relationship of BmK AGP-SYPU1, which may be the guidance for engineering α-toxin with high selectivity on VGSC subtypes. PMID:25919575

  16. Changes in photosynthesis and pigmentation in an agp deletion mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaoling; Wu, Qingyu; Wu, Guifang; Zhao, Nanming

    2003-03-01

    The agp gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is involved in cyanobacterial glycogen synthesis. By in vitro DNA recombination technology, agp deletion mutant (agp-) of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed. This mutation led to a complete absence of glycogen biosynthesis. As compared with WT (wild type), a 60% decrease in ratio of the c-phycocyanine/chlorophyll a and no significant change in the carotenoid/chlorophyll a were observed in agp- cells. The agp- mutant had 38% less photosynthetic capacity when grown in light over 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Under lower light intensity, the final biomass of the mutant strain was only 1.1 times of that of the WT strain under mixotrophic condition after 6 d culture. Under higher light intensity, however, the final biomass of the WT strain under mixotrophic conditions was 3 times that of the mutant strain after 6 d culture and 1.5 times under photoautotrophic conditions. The results indicate that there is a minimum requirement for glycogen synthesis for normal growth and development in cyanobacteria. PMID:12882559

  17. The Classical Arabinogalactan Protein AGP18 Mediates Megaspore Selection in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Demesa-Arévalo, Edgar; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Female gametogenesis in most flowering plants depends on the predetermined selection of a single meiotically derived cell, as the three other megaspores die without further division or differentiation. Although in Arabidopsis thaliana the formation of the functional megaspore (FM) is crucial for the establishment of the gametophytic generation, the mechanisms that determine the specification and fate of haploid cells remain unknown. Here, we show that the classical arabinogalactan protein 18 (AGP18) exerts an active regulation over the selection and survival of megaspores in Arabidopsis. During meiosis, AGP18 is expressed in integumentary cells located in the abaxial region of the ovule. Overexpression of AGP18 results in the abnormal maintenance of surviving megaspores that can acquire a FM identity but is not sufficient to induce FM differentiation before meiosis, indicating that AGP18 positively promotes the selection of viable megaspores. We also show that all four meiotically derived cells in the ovule of Arabidopsis are competent to differentiate into a gametic precursor and that the function of AGP18 is important for their selection and viability. Our results suggest an evolutionary role for arabinogalactan proteins in the acquisition of monospory and the developmental plasticity that is intrinsic to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:23572547

  18. The classical arabinogalactan protein AGP18 mediates megaspore selection in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Demesa-Arévalo, Edgar; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Female gametogenesis in most flowering plants depends on the predetermined selection of a single meiotically derived cell, as the three other megaspores die without further division or differentiation. Although in Arabidopsis thaliana the formation of the functional megaspore (FM) is crucial for the establishment of the gametophytic generation, the mechanisms that determine the specification and fate of haploid cells remain unknown. Here, we show that the classical arabinogalactan protein 18 (AGP18) exerts an active regulation over the selection and survival of megaspores in Arabidopsis. During meiosis, AGP18 is expressed in integumentary cells located in the abaxial region of the ovule. Overexpression of AGP18 results in the abnormal maintenance of surviving megaspores that can acquire a FM identity but is not sufficient to induce FM differentiation before meiosis, indicating that AGP18 positively promotes the selection of viable megaspores. We also show that all four meiotically derived cells in the ovule of Arabidopsis are competent to differentiate into a gametic precursor and that the function of AGP18 is important for their selection and viability. Our results suggest an evolutionary role for arabinogalactan proteins in the acquisition of monospory and the developmental plasticity that is intrinsic to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:23572547

  19. Acidic pH-Induced Conformations and LAMP1 Binding of the Lassa Virus Glycoprotein Spike

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sai; Sun, Zhaoyang; Pryce, Rhys; Parsy, Marie-Laure; Fehling, Sarah K.; Schlie, Katrin; Siebert, C. Alistair; Garten, Wolfgang; Bowden, Thomas A.; Strecker, Thomas; Huiskonen, Juha T.

    2016-01-01

    Lassa virus is an enveloped, bi-segmented RNA virus and the most prevalent and fatal of all Old World arenaviruses. Virus entry into the host cell is mediated by a tripartite surface spike complex, which is composed of two viral glycoprotein subunits, GP1 and GP2, and the stable signal peptide. Of these, GP1 binds to cellular receptors and GP2 catalyzes fusion between the viral envelope and the host cell membrane during endocytosis. The molecular structure of the spike and conformational rearrangements induced by low pH, prior to fusion, remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the three-dimensional ultrastructure of Lassa virus using electron cryotomography. Sub-tomogram averaging yielded a structure of the glycoprotein spike at 14-Å resolution. The spikes are trimeric, cover the virion envelope, and connect to the underlying matrix. Structural changes to the spike, following acidification, support a viral entry mechanism dependent on binding to the lysosome-resident receptor LAMP1 and further dissociation of the membrane-distal GP1 subunits. PMID:26849049

  20. The synthesis and enzymatic incorporation of sialic acid derivatives for use as tools to study the structure, activity, and inhibition of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Martin, R; Witte, K L; Wong, C H

    1998-08-01

    Methods have been developed for the enzymatic synthesis of complex carbohydrates and glycoproteins containing in the sialic acid moiety the heavy metal mercury or the transition-state analog phosphonate of the influenza C 9-O-acetyl-neuraminic acid esterase-catalyzed reaction. 5-Acetamido-3, 5-dideoxy-9-methylphosphono-beta-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulopyra nosidonic acid (1), 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-9-methylphosphono-2-propyl-alpha-D- glycero-D-galacto-nonulopyranosidonic acid triethylammonium salt (2), and 5-acetamido-9-thiomethylmercuric-3, 5,9-trideoxy-beta-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulopyranosidonic acid (3) were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 are proposed transition state inhibitors of an esterase vital for the binding and infection of influenza C. Compound 3 was enzymatically incorporated into an oligosaccharide and a non-natural glycoprotein for use as an aid in the structure determination of these compounds by X-ray crystallography. PMID:9784869

  1. Identification of amino acids controlling the low-pH-induced conformational change of rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Y; Raux, H; Flamand, A; Ruigrok, R W

    1996-01-01

    The glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus assumes at least three different conformations: the native state detected at the viral surface above pH 7, the activated state involved in the first step of the fusion process, and the fusion-inactive conformation (I). A new category of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which recognized specifically the I conformation at the viral surface has recently been described. These MAbs (17A4 and 29EC2) became neutralizing when the virus was preincubated at acidic pH to induce the conformational change toward the I state of G. Mutants escaping neutralization were then selected. In this study, we have investigated the fusion and the low-pH-induced fusion inactivation properties of these mutants. All of these mutants have fusion properties similar to those of the CVS parental strain, but five mutants (E282K, M44I, M44V, V392G, and M396T) were considerably slowed in their conformational change leading to the I state. These mutants allow us to define regions that control this conformational change. These results also reinforce the idea that structural transition toward the I state is irrelevant to the fusion process. Other mutations in amino acids 10, 13, and 15 are probably located in the epitopes of selecting MAbs. Furthermore, in electron microscopy, we observed a hexagonal lattice of glycoproteins at the viral surface of mutants M44I and V392G as well as strong cooperativity in the conformational change toward the I state. This finding demonstrates the existence of lateral interactions between the spikes of a rhabdovirus. PMID:8892855

  2. The shell matrix of the freshwater mussel Unio pictorum (Paleoheterodonta, Unionoida). Involvement of acidic polysaccharides from glycoproteins in nacre mineralization.

    PubMed

    Marie, Benjamin; Luquet, Gilles; Pais De Barros, Jean-Paul; Guichard, Nathalie; Morel, Sylvain; Alcaraz, Gérard; Bollache, Loïc; Marin, Frédéric

    2007-06-01

    Among molluscs, the shell biomineralization process is controlled by a set of extracellular macromolecular components secreted by the calcifying mantle. In spite of several studies, these components are mainly known in bivalves from only few members of pteriomorph groups. In the present case, we investigated the biochemical properties of the aragonitic shell of the freshwater bivalve Unio pictorum (Paleoheterodonta, Unionoida). Analysis of the amino acid composition reveals a high amount of glycine, aspartate and alanine in the acid-soluble extract, whereas the acid-insoluble one is rich in alanine and glycine. Monosaccharidic analysis indicates that the insoluble matrix comprises a high amount of glucosamine. Furthermore, a high ratio of the carbohydrates of the soluble matrix is sulfated. Electrophoretic analysis of the acid-soluble matrix revealed discrete bands. Stains-All, Alcian Blue, periodic acid/Schiff and autoradiography with (45)Ca after electrophoretic separation revealed three major polyanionic calcium-binding glycoproteins, which exhibit an apparent molecular mass of 95, 50 and 29 kDa, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis shows that these bands, provisionally named P95, P50 and P29, are composed of numerous isoforms, the majority of which have acidic isoelectric points. Chemical deglycosylation of the matrix with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid induces a drastic shift of both the apparent molecular mass and the isoelectric point of these matrix components. This treatment induces also a modification of the shape of CaCO(3) crystals grown in vitro and a loss of the calcium-binding ability of two of the main matrix proteins (P95 and P50). Our findings strongly suggest that post-translational modifications display important functions in mollusc shell calcification. PMID:17488282

  3. Affinity ligands for glycoprotein purification based on the multi-component Ugi reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Khoury, Graziella El; Lowe, Christopher R

    2014-10-15

    One challenge facing the purification of therapeutic glycoproteins by affinity chromatography is creating ligands specific for the glycan moiety. Affinity chromatography of glycoproteins is currently conducted with immobilized lectins or boronates, although biomimetic ligands could present a more desirable option. This work describes the rational design and combinatorial synthesis of carbohydrate-binding ligands based on the solid phase multi-component Ugi reaction. An aldehyde-functionalized Sepharose™ solid support constitutes one component (aldehyde) in the four-component reaction, while the other three components (a primary/secondary amine, a carboxylic acid and an isocyanide) are varied in a combinatorial fashion to generate a tri-substituted Ugi scaffold which provides a degree of rigidity and is functionally suitable for interacting with the glycan moiety of glycoproteins. An Ugi library containing 48 ligands was initially screened against glucose oxidase (GOx) as the model glycoprotein to identify a candidate ligand, A13C24I8, which showed affinity to GOx through its carbohydrate moiety. Immobilized ligand A13C24I8 demonstrated a static binding capacity of 16.7mg GOx/ml resin and an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.45×10(-6)M at pH 7.4. The adsorbent can also bind 8.1mg AGP/ml resin and displays an apparent affinity constant Kd=1.44×10(-5)M. The ligand has a sugar specificity in the following sequence: sorbitol>fructose>mannitol>ribose>arabinose>xylose>galactose>mannose>glucose>fructose; however, it did not display any specificity for sialic acid or methyl α-D-glycosides. A control ligand, generated by substitution of C24 (3-carboxyphenylboronic acid) with C7 (4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid), failed to show affinity to the carbohydrate moiety, supporting the importance of the role that boronic acid group plays in sugar binding. GOx spiked E. coli samples were loaded onto immobilized ligand A13C24I8, 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) and

  4. Tailor-Made Boronic Acid Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles with a Tunable Polymer Shell-Assisted for the Selective Enrichment of Glycoproteins/Glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xihao; Wang, Jiewen; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-11-11

    Biomedical sciences, and in particular biomarker research, demand efficient glycoproteins enrichment platforms. In this work, we present a facile and time-saving method to synthesize phenylboronic acid and copolymer multifunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) using a distillation-precipitation polymerization (DPP) technique. The polymer shell is obtained through copolymerization of two monomers-affinity ligand 3-acrylaminophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) and a hydrophilic functional monomer. The resulting hydrophilic Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) NPs exhibit an enhanced binding capacity toward glycoproteins by an additional functional monomer complementary to the surface presentation of the target protein. The effects of monomer ratio of AAPBA to hydrophilic comonomers on the binding of glycoproteins are systematically investigated. The morphology, structure, and composition of all the synthesized microspheres are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The hydrophilic Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) microspheres show an excellent performance in the separation of glycoproteins with high binding capacity; And strong magnetic response allows them to be easily separated from solution in the presence of an external magnetic field. Moreover, both synthetic Fe3O4@P(AAPBA) and copolymeric NPs show good adsorption to glycoproteins in physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) NPs are successfully utilized to selectively capture and identify the low-abundance glycopeptides from the tryptic digest of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In addition, the selective isolation and enrichment of glycoproteins from the egg white samples at physiological condition is obtained by Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) NPs as adsorbents. PMID:26479332

  5. Indole-3-acetic acid UDP-glucosyltransferase from immature seeds of pea is involved in modification of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Hetmann, Anna; Jakubowska, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The glycosylation of auxin is one of mechanisms contributing to hormonal homeostasis. The enzyme UDPG: indole-3-ylacetyl-β-D-glucosyltransferase (IAA glucosyltransferase, IAGlc synthase) catalyzes the reversible reaction: IAA+UDPG↔1-O-IA-glucose+UDP, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of IAA-ester conjugates in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, we report IAA-glucosyltransferase isolated using a biochemical approach from immature seed of pea (Pisum sativum). The enzyme was purified by PEG fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography and preparative PAGE. LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides of the enzyme revealed the high identity with maize IAGlc synthase, but lack of homology with other IAA-glucosyltransferases from dicots. Biochemical characterization showed that of several acyl acceptors tested, the enzyme had the highest activity on IAA as the glucosyl acceptor (Km=0.52 mM, Vmax=161 nmol min(-1), kcat/Km=4.36 mM s(-1)) and lower activity on indole-3-propionic acid and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Whereas indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-propionic acid were competitive inhibitors of IAGlc synthase, D-gluconic acid lactone, an inhibitor of β-glucosidase activity, potentiated the enzyme activity at the optimal concentration of 0.3mM. Moreover, we demonstrated that the 1-O-IA-glucose synthesized by IAGlc synthase is the substrate for IAA labeling of glycoproteins from pea seeds indicating a possible role of this enzyme in the covalent modification of a class of proteins by a plant hormone. PMID:26057226

  6. Dietary Hizikia fusiformis glycoprotein-induced IGF-I and IGFBP-3 associated to somatic growth, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Hee; Kim, Kang-Woong; Han, Hyon-Sob; Nam, Taek Jeong; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of dietary glycoprotein extracted from the sea mustard Hizikia fusiformis (Phaeophyceae: Sargassaceae) as a dietary supplement on growth performance in association with somatotropin level, proximate compositions, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Water-ethanol extracted glycoprotein from H. fusiformis was supplemented to three fishmeal-based diets at the concentration of 0, 5, and 10gkg(-1) diet (designated as H0, H5, and H10, respectively). After a 12week-long feeding trial, growth performance and biochemical responses were analyzed including proximate composition, and whole body amino acids and fatty acids. We also measured plasma insulin like growth factor (IGF), IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) and interleukin (IL). The fish fed H5 showed the greatest weight gain among the dietary treatments. In parallel with the growth, the fish fed the diets containing H. fusiformis glycoprotein showed an increased plasma IGF-I activity and increased expression of 43-kDa IGFBP-3 compared to that in the control, whereas an opposite trend was observed for 34-kDa IGFBP-1. Although no differences were found in the level of whole body linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) among treatments, increases in arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were observed in fish fed H5 compared to control. IL-2 and -6 levels increased significantly in fish fed H10 compared to those in the control indicating increased immunity. These results suggest that supplementation of H. fusiformis glycoprotein in fish diet may be beneficial for fish growth and immunity in juvenile olive flounder. PMID:24064233

  7. The complete amino acid sequence of the A-chain of human plasma alpha 2HS-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Y; Gejyo, F; Marti, T; Rickli, E E; Bürgi, W; Offner, G D; Troxler, R F; Schmid, K

    1986-02-01

    Normal human plasma alpha 2HS-glycoprotein has earlier been shown to be comprised of two polypeptide chains. Recently, the amino acid and carbohydrate sequences of the short chain were elucidated (Gejyo, F., Chang, J.-L., Bürgi, W., Schmid, K., Offner, G. D., Troxler, R.F., van Halbeck, H., Dorland, L., Gerwig, G. J., and Vliegenthart, J.F.G. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 4966-4971). In the present study, the amino acid sequence of the long chain of this protein, designated A-chain, was determined and found to consist of 282 amino acid residues. Twenty-four amino acid doublets were found; the most abundant of these are Pro-Pro and Ala-Ala which each occur five times. Of particular interest is the presence of three Gly-X-Pro and one Gly-Pro-X sequences that are characteristic of the repeating sequences of collagens. Chou-Fasman evaluation of the secondary structure suggested that the A-chain contains 29% alpha-helix, 24% beta-pleated sheet, and 26% reverse turns and, thus, approximately 80% of the polypeptide chain may display ordered structure. Four glycosylation sites were identified. The two N-glycosidic oligosaccharides were found in the center region (residues 138 and 158), whereas the two O-glycosidic heterosaccharides, both linked to threonine (residues 238 and 252), occur within the carboxyl-terminal region. The N-glycans are linked to Asn residues in beta-turns, while the O-glycans are located in short random segments. Comparison of the sequence of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal 30 residues with protein sequences in a data bank demonstrated that the A-chain is not significantly related to any known proteins. However, the proline-rich carboxyl-terminal region of the A-chain displays some sequence similarity to collagens and the collagen-like domains of complement subcomponent C1q. PMID:3944104

  8. Determination of human serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein and albumin binding of various marketed and preclinical kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona; Bencze, Gyula; Kéri, György; Orfi, László

    2009-01-01

    There are about 380 protein kinase inhibitors in drug development as of today and 15 drugs have been marketed already for the treatment of cancer. This time 139 validated kinase targets are in the focus of drug research of pharmaceutical companies and big efforts are made for the development of new, druglike kinase inhibitors. Plasma protein binding is an important factor of the ADME profiling of a drug compound. Human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG) are the most relevant drug carriers in blood plasma. Since previous literature data indicated that AAG is the principal plasma binding component of some kinase inhibitors the present work focuses on the comprehensive evaluation of AAG binding of a series of marketed and experimental kinase inhibitors by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy approach. HSA binding was also evaluated by affinity chromatography. Protein binding interactions of twenty-six kinase inhibitors are characterized. The contribution of AAG and HSA binding data to the pharmacokinetic profiles of the investigated therapeutic agents is discussed. Structural, biological and drug binding properties of AAG as well as the applicability of the CD method in studying drug-protein binding interactions are also briefly reviewed. PMID:19519376

  9. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Barton F.; Gao, Feng; Korber, Bette T.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.; Kothe, Denise; Li, Ying Ying; Decker, Julie; Liao, Hua-Xin

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  10. Interaction of the recently approved anticancer drug nintedanib with human acute phase reactant α 1-acid glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Subbarao, Naidu; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the interaction of the newly approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Nintedanib (NTB) and Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein (AAG) has been carried out by utilizing UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and molecular docking techniques. The obtained results showed enhancement of the UV-Vis peak of the protein upon binding to NTB with the fluorescence intensity of AAG is being quenched by NTB via the formation of ground state complex (i.e. Static quenching). Forster distance (Ro) obtained from fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is found to be 2.3 nm. The calculated binding parameters from the modified Stern-Volmer equation showed that NTB binds to AAG with a binding constant in the order of 103. Conformational alteration of the protein upon its binding to NTB was confirmed by the circular dichroism. Dynamic light scattering results showed that the binding interaction of NTB leads to the reduction in hydrodynamic radii of AAG. Dynamic molecular docking results showed that the NTB fits into the central binding cavity in AAG and hydrophobic interaction played the key role in the binding process also the docking studies were performed with methotrexate and clofarabine drugs to look into the common binding regions of these drugs on AAG molecule, it was found that five amino acid residues namely Phe 113, Arg 89, Tyr 126, Phe 48 and Glu 63 were common among the binding regions of three studied drugs this phenomenon of overlapping binding regions may influence the drug transport by the carrier molecule in turn affecting the metabolism of the drug and treatment outcome.

  11. Two polysialic acid synthases, mouse ST8Sia II and IV, synthesize different degrees of polysialic acids on different substrate glycoproteins in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Tachida, Y; Tsuji, S

    1997-12-01

    We previously cloned cDNAs encoding two different polysialic acid (PSA) synthases, ST8Sia II and IV, from mouse, and showed that both mouse ST8Sia II and IV can synthesize PSA on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as well as other glycoproteins such as fetuin, at least in vitro (Kojima, N., Tachida, Y., Yoshida, Y., and Tsuji, S. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 19457-19463]. In the present study, to clarify how the two PSA synthases act differently in vivo, we first cloned PSA-expressing cell lines (N2a-II and N2a-IV) by stable transfection of the cDNA encoding either mST8Sia II or IV into mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells, which do not express PSA but express NCAM, then compared the expression of the PSA and NCAM isoforms and de novo synthesis of PSA between N2a-II and N2a-IV. Western blotting with an anti-NCAM polyclonal antibody showed that NCAM was expressed as the polysialylated form in both ST8Sia II cDNA-transfected and ST8Sia IV cDNA-transfected Neuro2a cells, but that the polysialylated NCAMs expressed in ST8Sia IV cDNA-transfected clones migrated much slower on SDS-PAGE than those expressed in ST8Sia II cDNA-transfected clones. The slower migration of polysialylated NCAM of the ST8Sia IV cDNA-transfected clone (N2a-IV) than that of the ST8Sia II cDNA-transfected clone (N2a-II) was also observed when cells were metabolically labeled with [3H]glucosamine or pulse-chase labeled with [35S] methionine followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-PSA antibody or anti-NCAM monoclonal antibody. In addition, polysialylated N-glycans of PSA-carrying glycoproteins prepared from [3H] glucosamine-labeled N2a-IV by immunoprecipitation with anti-PSA monoclonal antibody were eluted at a much higher salt concentration than those from [3H] glucosamine-labeled N2a-II on an anion-exchange column. These results indicated that the degree of de novo polysialylation of NCAM by mST8Sia IV was much higher than that by mST8Sia II. In N2a-IV, NCAM-120, -140, and -180 were expressed as

  12. Abscisic Acid- and Stress-Induced Highly Proline-Rich Glycoproteins Regulate Root Growth in Rice1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, I-Chieh; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Yu, Su-May; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

    2013-01-01

    In the root of rice (Oryza sativa), abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, salinity, or water deficit stress induces the expression of a family of four genes, REPETITIVE PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN (RePRP). These genes encode two subclasses of novel proline-rich glycoproteins with highly repetitive PX1PX2 motifs, RePRP1 and RePRP2. RePRP orthologs exist only in monocotyledonous plants, and their functions are virtually unknown. Rice RePRPs are heavily glycosylated with arabinose and glucose on multiple hydroxyproline residues. They are significantly different from arabinogalactan proteins that have glycan chains composed of arabinose and galactose. Transient and stable expressions of RePRP-green fluorescent protein reveal that a fraction of this protein is localized to the plasma membrane. In rice roots, ABA treatment increases RePRP expression preferentially in the elongation zone. Overexpression of RePRP in transgenic rice reduces root cell elongation in the absence of ABA, similar to the effect of ABA on wild-type roots. Conversely, simultaneous knockdown of the expression of RePRP1 and RePRP2 reduces the root sensitivity to ABA, indicating that RePRP proteins play an essential role in ABA/stress regulation of root growth and development. Moreover, rice RePRPs specifically interact with a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan, in a dosage-dependent manner. It is suggested that RePRP1 and RePRP2 are functionally redundant suppressors of root cell expansion and probably act through interactions with cell wall components near the plasma membrane. PMID:23886623

  13. Influence of group A streptococcal acid glycoprotein on expression of major virulence factors and internalization by epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Marouni, Mehran J; Ziomek, Edmund; Sela, Shlomo

    2003-08-01

    A single transposon insertion upstream to the open-reading-frame identified as the streptococcal acid glycoprotein (sagp) gene rendered a Tn916 isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes with elevated susceptibility to internalization by the epithelial cells. The role of SAGP in S. pyogenes internalization was further studied using isogenic mutant containing an in-frame deletion within the sagp gene. The sagp mutant displayed slower growth-rate and showed 5-fold higher internalization efficiency than the parent strain. Transcription of sagp at the logarithmic phase, but not at the stationary phase of the growth was repressed by csrR, the global regulator gene. At the same time, mutation of the sagp gene partially decreased the transcription of hasA, a gene that is required for capsule synthesis. The mutation had no effect on transcription of the emm3 gene, encoding for the M protein. The most striking effect of the sagp mutation was a down-regulation of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) at both translational and transcriptional level. Treatment of the SAGP mutant cells with the exogenous mSpeB (mature protease) only partially reduced their susceptibility to internalization. The exogenous mSpeB was more effective in reducing the internalization efficiency of a speB mutant and brought it to the level observed for the parent strain. In overall, results show that CsrR, directly or indirectly, affects the expression of SAGP, and that the SAGP modulates expression of not only SpeB, but also other genes that facilitate S. pyogenes internalization. PMID:12901845

  14. A single amino acid change in the cytoplasmic domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus transmembrane molecule increases envelope glycoprotein expression on infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    LaBranche, C C; Sauter, M M; Haggarty, B S; Vance, P J; Romano, J; Hart, T K; Bugelski, P J; Marsh, M; Hoxie, J A

    1995-01-01

    We have described a virus termed CP-MAC, derived from the BK28 molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus, that was remarkable for its ability to infect Sup-T1 cells with rapid kinetics, cell fusion, and CD4 down-modulation (C. C. LaBranche, M. M. Sauter, B. S. Haggarty, P. J. Vance, J. Romano, T. K. Hart, P. J. Bugelski, and J. A. Hoxie, J. Virol. 68:5509-5522, 1994 [Erratum 68:7665-7667]). Compared with BK28, CP-MAC exhibited a number of changes in its envelope glycoproteins, including a highly stable association between the external (SU) and transmembrane (TM) molecules, a more rapid electrophoretic mobility of TM, and, of particular interest, a marked increase in the level of envelope protein expression on the surface of infected cells. These changes were shown to be associated with 11 coding mutations in the env gene (5 in SU and 6 in TM). In this report, we demonstrate that a single amino acid mutation of a Tyr to a Cys at position 723 (Y723C) in the TM cytoplasmic domain of CP-MAC is the principal determinant for the increased expression of envelope glycoproteins on the cell surface. When introduced into the env gene of BK28, the Y723C mutation produced up to a 25-fold increase in the levels of SU and TM on chronically infected cells, as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. A similar effect was observed when a Tyr-to-Cys change was introduced at the analogous position (amino acid 721) in the SIVmac239 molecular clone, which, unlike BK28 does not contain a premature stop codon in its TM cytoplasmic tail. Substituting other amino acids, including Ala, Ile, and Ser, at this position produced increases in surface envelope glycoproteins that were similar to that observed for the Cys substitution, while a Tyr-to-Phe mutation produced a smaller increase. These results could not be accounted for by differences in the kinetics or efficiency of envelope glycoprotein processing or by shedding of SU

  15. Single amino acid changes in the viral glycoprotein M affect induction of alpha interferon by the coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Laude, H; Gelfi, J; Lavenant, L; Charley, B

    1992-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus, an enteropathogenic coronavirus of swine, is a potent inducer of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that virus-infected fixed cells or viral suspensions were able to induce an early and strong IFN-alpha synthesis by naive lymphocytes. Two monoclonal antibodies directed against the viral membrane glycoprotein M (29,000; formerly E1) were found to markedly inhibit virus-induced IFN production, thus assigning to M protein a potential effector role in this phenomenon (B. Charley and H. Laude, J. Virol. 62:8-11, 1988). The present report describes the selection and characterization of a collection of 125 mutant viruses which escaped complement-mediated neutralization by two IFN induction-blocking anti-M protein monoclonal antibodies. Two of these mutants, designated H92 and dm49-4, were found to exhibit a markedly reduced interferogenic activity. IFN synthesis by lymphocytes incubated with purified suspensions of these mutants was 30- to 300-fold lower than that of the parental virus. The transcription of IFN-alpha genes following induction by each mutant was decreased proportionally, as evidenced by Northern (RNA) blot analysis. The sequence of the M gene of 20 complement-mediated neutralization-resistant mutants, including the 2 defective mutants, was determined by direct sequencing of genome RNA. Thirteen distinct amino acid changes were predicted, all located at positions 6 to 22 from the N terminus of the mature M protein and within the putative ectodomain of the molecule. Two substitutions, Thr-17 to Ile and Ser-19 to Pro, were assumed to generate the defective phenotypes of mutants dm49-4 and H92, respectively. The alteration of an Asn-Ser-Thr sequence in dm49-4 virus led to the synthesis of an M protein devoid of a glycan side chain, which suggests a possible involvement of this structure in IFN induction. Overall, these data supported the view that an interferogenic

  16. Naphthalenedisulfonic acid derivatives inhibit HIV-1-induced cytopathogenesis, syncytia formation and virus-cell binding by interaction with the viral envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, P.; Schols, D.; De Clercq, E.; Shigeta, S.; Baba, M.

    1993-12-31

    Bis naphthalenedisulfonic acid analogs with biphenyl spacers have exhibited potent and selective inhibition of HIV-1 replication and giant cell formation. FACS analysis has revealed that these agents also inhibit viral binding to the target cell. Further mechanism of action studies by the FACA method demonstrate that the sulfonic acid analogs inhibit binding of anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody to the viral envelope of glycoprotein, gp120. Binding of OKT4A/Leu3a monoclonal antibody to the target cell CD4 receptor is not affected by these compounds. This investigation suggests that these naphthalenedisulfonic acid derivatives exert their anti-HIV-1 activity by inhibiting the gp120-CD4 interaction through binding of these agents to the viral gp120 antigen.

  17. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. PMID:26072370

  18. CXCL14 enhances proliferation and migration of NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells overexpressing the glycoproteins containing heparan sulfate or sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Cho Rong; You, Dong-Joo; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Mi Jin; Lee, Cheolju; Oh, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Curie; Seong, Jae Young; Hwang, Jong-Ik

    2013-05-01

    CXCL14 is a chemokine family member that is involved in various cellular responses in addition to immune cell activation. Although constitutive CXCL14 expression in normal epithelial cells may help protect against infection by activating immune systems, its expression in cancer cells has raised controversy regarding its possible role in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain unknown. Investigation of cellular CXCL14 binding properties might increase our understanding of the peptide's roles in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that CXCL14 binds to various cell types. Interestingly, binding to NCI-H460 cells was prevented by heparan sulfate and N-acetyl neuraminic acid. Next, we examined effect of CXCL14 binding in NCI-H460 and NCI-H23. CXCL14 enhanced proliferation and migration in NCI-H460 but had no effect on NCI-H23. A reporter gene assay with various transcription factor response elements revealed that only nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling was activated by CXCL14 in NCI-H460 cells, which was blocked by BAPTA-AM, TPCA-1, and brefeldin A. Exogenous expression of some glycoproteins such as syndecan-4, podoplanin, and CD43 in these cells enhanced CXCL14 binding and NF-κB activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CXCL14 binding to glycoproteins harboring heparan sulfate proteoglycans and sialic acids leads proliferation and migration of some cancer cells. PMID:23161284

  19. Pathogenicity of Hantaan Virus in Newborn Mice: Genetic Reassortant Study Demonstrating that a Single Amino Acid Change in Glycoprotein G1 Is Related to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, Hideki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Ogino, Michiko; Araki, Koichi; Ami, Yasushi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo; Li, Dexin; Arikawa, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Two Hantaan virus strains, clone 1 (cl-1), which is virulent in newborn mice, and its attenuated mutant (mu11E10), were used to examine the pathogenesis of Hantaan virus infection in a mouse model and identify virus factors relating to virulence. After subcutaneous inoculation of newborn BALB/c mice, cl-1 caused fatal disease with high viral multiplication in peripheral organs, but mu11E10 produced nonfatal infection with a low level of virus multiplication. Intracerebral inoculation of either strain caused fatal disease. Histopathological changes in the dead animals were prominent in the brain, indicating that the brain is the target organ and produces the fatal outcome. These results indicate that mu11E10 has a generally less virulent phenotype, and because of decreased multiplication in peripheral tissues, neuroinvasiveness is also decreased. An experiment with genetic reassortant viruses showed that in newborn mice the M segment is the most related to virulence and the L segment is partly related. Sequence comparison detected a single deduced amino acid change (cl-1 Ile to mu11E10 Thr) at amino acid number 515 in glycoprotein G1. One nucleotide change, but no amino acid substitution, was observed in the noncoding region of the L segment. In mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro, viruses possessing a cl-1-derived M segment grew more rapidly than viruses containing a mu11E10-derived M segment. These results suggest that the single amino acid change in the glycoprotein alters peripheral growth, which affects invasion of the central nervous system in mice. PMID:10982372

  20. Hydrolyzable Tannins (Chebulagic Acid and Punicalagin) Target Viral Glycoprotein-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions To Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S.; Grindley, T. Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells. Experiments revealed that both tannins targeted and inactivated HSV-1 viral particles and could prevent binding, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread, as well as secondary infection. The antiviral effect from either of the tannins was not associated with induction of type I interferon-mediated responses, nor was pretreatment of the host cell protective against HSV-1. Their inhibitory activities targeted HSV-1 glycoproteins since both natural compounds were able to block polykaryocyte formation mediated by expression of recombinant viral glycoproteins involved in attachment and membrane fusion. Our results indicated that CHLA and PUG blocked interactions between cell surface glycosaminoglycans and HSV-1 glycoproteins. Furthermore, the antiviral activities from the two tannins were significantly diminished in mutant cell lines unable to produce heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate and could be rescued upon reconstitution of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. We suggest that the hydrolyzable tannins CHLA and PUG may be useful as competitors for glycosaminoglycans in the management of HSV-1 infections and that they may help reduce the risk for development of viral drug resistance during therapy with nucleoside analogues. PMID:21307190

  1. A Long-Wavelength Fluorescent Squarylium Cyanine Dye Possessing Boronic Acid for Sensing Monosaccharides and Glycoproteins with High Enhancement in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shingo; Massie, Tara L.; Maeda, Takeshi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Colyer, Christa L.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence sensing of saccharides and glycoproteins using a boronic acid functionalized squarylium cyanine dye (“SQ-BA”) is characterized in terms of synthetic, fluorometric, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. In our previous work, this newly synthesized dye was successfully applied to the separation and quantification of Gram-positive bacteria by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF); however, the fundamental properties of the dye and its saccharide complexes still required elucidation, as presented in this paper. The dye itself forms nonemissive, soluble aggregates in aqueous solution. With the addition of a monosaccharide, the dye aggregate dissociates to form an emissive monomer accompanied by the formation of a cyclic cis-diol ester with long-wavelength emission (λex = 630 nm, λem = 660 nm). A very large fluorescence enhancement factor of 18× was observed for the sensing dye as a fructose complex at pH 10, yielding a limit of detection of 10 μM fructose. The relative order of fluorescence enhancement of SQ-BA with other monosaccharides was found to be: fructose > ribose > arabinose ≈ galactose > xylose > mannose > rhamnose > fucose ≈ glucose; and apparent affinity constants of 102.80, 102.08 and 100.86 M−1 were determined for fructose, ribose and glucose, respectively. Formation of the emissive complexes occurred within minutes, proving the kinetics of the sugar-dye interactions to be suitable for on-column labeling methods in CE-LIF. Furthermore, the sensing dye was successfully applied to glycoproteins, mucin type I–S and type III, which were detected with high sensitivity in batch aqueous solution as a result of the sugar-selective boronic acid-diol esterification as well as hydrophobic interactions. PMID:22778592

  2. A long-wavelength fluorescent squarylium cyanine dye possessing boronic acid for sensing monosaccharides and glycoproteins with high enhancement in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shingo; Massie, Tara L; Maeda, Takeshi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Colyer, Christa L

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence sensing of saccharides and glycoproteins using a boronic acid functionalized squarylium cyanine dye ("SQ-BA") is characterized in terms of synthetic, fluorometric, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. In our previous work, this newly synthesized dye was successfully applied to the separation and quantification of Gram-positive bacteria by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF); however, the fundamental properties of the dye and its saccharide complexes still required elucidation, as presented in this paper. The dye itself forms nonemissive, soluble aggregates in aqueous solution. With the addition of a monosaccharide, the dye aggregate dissociates to form an emissive monomer accompanied by the formation of a cyclic cis-diol ester with long-wavelength emission (λ(ex) = 630 nm, λ(em) = 660 nm). A very large fluorescence enhancement factor of 18× was observed for the sensing dye as a fructose complex at pH 10, yielding a limit of detection of 10 μM fructose. The relative order of fluorescence enhancement of SQ-BA with other monosaccharides was found to be: fructose > ribose > arabinose ≈ galactose > xylose > mannose > rhamnose > fucose ≈ glucose; and apparent affinity constants of 10(2.80), 10(2.08) and 10(0.86) M(-1) were determined for fructose, ribose and glucose, respectively. Formation of the emissive complexes occurred within minutes, proving the kinetics of the sugar-dye interactions to be suitable for on-column labeling methods in CE-LIF. Furthermore, the sensing dye was successfully applied to glycoproteins, mucin type I-S and type III, which were detected with high sensitivity in batch aqueous solution as a result of the sugar-selective boronic acid-diol esterification as well as hydrophobic interactions. PMID:22778592

  3. Effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 on Classical Swine Fever Virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Sainz, I.J.; Largo, E.; Gladue, D.P.; Fletcher, P.; O’Donnell, V.; Holinka, L.G.; Carey, L.B.; Lu, X.; Nieva, J.L.; Borca, M.V.

    2014-05-15

    E2, along with E{sup rns} and E1, is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E2 is involved in several virus functions: cell attachment, host range susceptibility and virulence in natural hosts. Here we evaluate the role of a specific E2 region, {sup 818}CPIGWTGVIEC{sup 828}, containing a putative fusion peptide (FP) sequence. Reverse genetics utilizing a full-length infectious clone of the highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) was used to evaluate how individual amino acid substitutions within this region of E2 may affect replication of BICv. A synthetic peptide representing the complete E2 FP amino acid sequence adopted a β-type extended conformation in membrane mimetics, penetrated into model membranes, and perturbed lipid bilayer integrity in vitro. Similar peptides harboring amino acid substitutions adopted comparable conformations but exhibited different membrane activities. Therefore, a preliminary characterization of the putative FP {sup 818}CPIGWTGVIEC{sup 828} indicates a membrane fusion activity and a critical role in virus replication. - Highlights: • A putative fusion peptide (FP) region in CSFV E2 protein was shown to be critical for virus growth. • Synthetic FPs were shown to efficiently penetrate into lipid membranes using an in vitro model. • Individual residues in the FP affecting virus replication were identified by reverse genetics. • The same FP residues are also responsible for mediating membrane fusion.

  4. A sepal-expressed ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (NtAGP) is required for petal expansion growth in 'Xanthi' tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Man Sup; Min, Sung Ran; Lee, Si-Myung; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Liu, Jang Ryol; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Bae, Jung Myung

    2007-09-01

    In this study, a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi') ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNA (NtAGP) was isolated from a flower bud cDNA library and the role of NtAGP in the growth of the floral organ was characterized. The expression of NtAGP was high in the sepal, moderate in the carpel and stamen, and low in the petal tissues. NtAGP-antisense plants produced flowers with abnormal petal limbs due to the early termination of the expansion growth of the petal limbs between the corolla lobes. Microscopic observation of the limb region revealed that cell expansion was limited in NtAGP-antisense plants but that cell numbers remained unchanged. mRNA levels of NtAGP, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity, and starch content in the sepal tissues of NtAGP-antisense plants were reduced, resulting in significantly lower levels of sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in the petal limbs. The feeding of these sugars to flower buds of the NtAGP-antisense plants restored the expansion growth in the limb area between the corolla lobes. Expansion growth of the petal limb between the corolla lobes was severely arrested in 'Xanthi' flowers from which sepals were removed, indicating that sepal carbohydrates are essential for petal limb expansion growth. These results demonstrate that NtAGP plays a crucial role in the morphogenesis of petal limbs in 'Xanthi' through the synthesis of starch, which is the main carbohydrate source for expansion growth of petal limbs, in sepal tissues. PMID:17660352

  5. An acidic cluster in the cytosolic domain of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B is a signal for endocytosis from the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Tugizov, S; Maidji, E; Xiao, J; Pereira, L

    1999-10-01

    We previously reported that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) is transported to apical membranes in CMV-infected polarized retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells constitutively expressing gB. The cytosolic domain of gB contains a cluster of acidic amino acids, a motif that plays a pivotal role in vectorial trafficking in polarized epithelial cells and may also function as a signal for entry into the endocytic pathway. Here we compared gB internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane in CMV-infected human fibroblasts (HF) and ARPE-19 cells by using antibody-internalization experiments. Immunofluorescence and quantitative assays showed that gB was internalized from the cell surface into clathrin-coated transport vesicles and then recycled to the plasma membrane. gB colocalized with clathrin-coated vesicles containing the transferrin receptor in the early endocytic/recycling pathway, indicating that gB traffics in this pathway. The specific role of the acidic cluster in regulating the sorting of gB-containing vesicles in the early endocytic/recycling pathway was examined in MDCK cells expressing mutated gB derivatives. Immunofluorescence assays showed that derivatives lacking the acidic cluster were impaired in internalization and failed to recycle. These findings, together with our earlier observation that the acidic cluster is a key determinant for targeting gB molecules to apical membranes in epithelial cells, establish that this signal is recognized by cellular proteins that participate in polarized sorting and transport in the early endocytic/recycling pathway. PMID:10482621

  6. An Acidic Cluster in the Cytosolic Domain of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B Is a Signal for Endocytosis from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof; Maidji, Ekaterina; Xiao, Jianqiao; Pereira, Lenore

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) is transported to apical membranes in CMV-infected polarized retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells constitutively expressing gB. The cytosolic domain of gB contains a cluster of acidic amino acids, a motif that plays a pivotal role in vectorial trafficking in polarized epithelial cells and may also function as a signal for entry into the endocytic pathway. Here we compared gB internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane in CMV-infected human fibroblasts (HF) and ARPE-19 cells by using antibody-internalization experiments. Immunofluorescence and quantitative assays showed that gB was internalized from the cell surface into clathrin-coated transport vesicles and then recycled to the plasma membrane. gB colocalized with clathrin-coated vesicles containing the transferrin receptor in the early endocytic/recycling pathway, indicating that gB traffics in this pathway. The specific role of the acidic cluster in regulating the sorting of gB-containing vesicles in the early endocytic/recycling pathway was examined in MDCK cells expressing mutated gB derivatives. Immunofluorescence assays showed that derivatives lacking the acidic cluster were impaired in internalization and failed to recycle. These findings, together with our earlier observation that the acidic cluster is a key determinant for targeting gB molecules to apical membranes in epithelial cells, establish that this signal is recognized by cellular proteins that participate in polarized sorting and transport in the early endocytic/recycling pathway. PMID:10482621

  7. Acid-induced movements in the glycoprotein shell of an alphavirus turn the spikes into membrane fusion mode.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lars; Garoff, Henrik; Xing, Li; Hammar, Lena; Kan, Sin-Tau; Cheng, R Holland

    2002-09-01

    In the icosahedral (T = 4) Semliki Forest virus, the envelope protomers, i.e. E1-E2 heterodimers, make one-to-one interactions with capsid proteins below the viral lipid bilayer, transverse the membrane and form an external glycoprotein shell with projections. The shell is organized by protomer domains interacting as hexamers and pentamers around shell openings at icosahedral 2- and 5-fold axes, respectively, and the projections by other domains associating as trimers at 3- and quasi 3-fold axes. We show here, using cryo- electron microscopy, that low pH, as occurs in the endosomes during virus uptake, results in the relaxation of protomer interactions around the 2- and the 5-fold axes in the shell, and movement of protomers towards 3- and quasi 3-fold axes in a way that reciprocally relocates their putative E1 and E2 domains. This seemed to be facilitated by a trimerization of transmembrane segments at the same axes. The alterations observed help to explain several key features of the spike-mediated membrane fusion reaction, including shell dissolution, heterodimer dissociation, fusion peptide exposure and E1 homotrimerization. PMID:12198142

  8. Characterization of the B-chain of human plasma alpha 2HS-glycoprotein. The complete amino acid sequence and primary structure of its heteroglycan.

    PubMed

    Gejyo, F; Chang, J L; Bürgi, W; Schmid, K; Offner, G D; Troxler, R F; Van Halbeek, H; Dorland, L; Gerwig, G J; Vliegenthart, J F

    1983-04-25

    alpha 2HS-Glycoprotein, a normal human plasma protein, was recently shown to consist of two polypeptide chains. In the present study, we have separated these two chains from one another and have elucidated the complete primary structure of the B-chain. Employing automated Edman degradation, the polypeptide moiety of this chain was shown to consist of 27 amino acid residues with an unequal distribution of the neutral and charged amino acid residues. The first 20 residues are uncharged, whereas the carboxyl-terminal heptapeptide contains all charged residues. Utilizing 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy, the carbohydrate unit proved to be a trisaccharide consisting of sialic acid, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine O-glycosidically linked to serine (residue 6). The structure of the B-chain was found to be as follows. (formula; see text) Thus, the molecular weight of the B-chain is 3386. Evaluation of the polypeptide chain by the procedure of Chou and Fasman (Chou, P.Y., and Fasman, G.D. (1979) Adv. Enzymol. 47, 45-148) predicts that the B-chain has two beta-turns. Thereby, the carbohydrate unit which is linked to the Ser residue located in the first beta-turn appears to be directed away from the protein. The second beta-turn probably includes the Cys residue which links the B- to the A-chain. In agreement with the CD analysis, the B-chain lacks beta-conformation but possesses a short alpha-helical region. PMID:6833285

  9. Comparison of the 2D and 3D Nanostructured Lectin-Based Biosensors for In Situ Detection of Sialic Acid on Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Bertok, Tomas; Sediva, Alena; Vikartovska, Alica; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present here comparison of a build-up of two ultrasensitive lectin biosensors based on 2D or 3D architecture. A 2D lectin biosensor was prepared by a covalent immobilisation of lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) recognising sialic acid directly on a mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on planar gold surfaces. A 3D biosensor was prepared by covalent immobilisation of SNA lectin on a mixed SAM layer formed on gold nanoparticles. Surface plasmon resonance technique allowed to follow kinetics of a mixed SAM (1:1 mixture of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 6-mercaptohexanol) formation on a bare gold electrode and on an electrode modified by 5 nm and 20 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Results from the study revealed that a mixed SAM formation is slower on surfaces with increased curvature, the process of SAM formation on all surfaces is completed within 6 min, but a density of thiols on such surfaces differs significantly. Quartz crystal microbalance experiments showed that a surface density of immobilised lectin of (2.53 ± 0.01) pmol cm-2 was higher on planar gold surface compared to the surface modified by 20 nm AuNPs with a surface density of (0.94 ± 0.01) pmol cm-2. Even though a larger amount of SNA lectin was immobilised on a surface of the 2D biosensor compared to the 3D biosensor, lectin molecules immobilised on AuNPs were more accessible for its analytes – glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin, containing different amount of sialic acid on the protein surface. Most likely a better accessibility of lectin for its analytes on a 3D surface and proper interfacial properties of a 3D surface are behind unprecedented detection limit down to aM level for the lectin biosensor based on such a nanoscale tuned interface.

  10. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein concentration and molecular heterogeneity: relationship to oxprenolol binding in serum from healthy volunteers and patients with lung carcinoma or cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fraeyman, N F; Dello, C D; Belpaire, F M

    1988-01-01

    1. alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) concentration and molecular heterogeneity, and oxprenolol protein binding were studied in serum of 15 healthy volunteers, 14 patients with lung carcinoma and 17 patients with liver cirrhosis. 2. The AAG serum concentration was increased to 180.7% in patients with lung cancer and decreased to 73.4% in cirrhotic patients as compared with controls (P less than 0.05). 3. The concanavalin A (conA) dependent heterogeneity of serum AAG was very similar in controls and patients with lung cancer: a ratio of 9/9/2 was obtained for the conA nonreactive, the conA weakly reactive and the conA strongly reactive subfraction respectively; in cirrhotic patients, the ratio shifted to 11/7/1. 4. The heterogeneity in electric charge, demonstrated by isoelectric focusing, was similar in the three groups of subjects: 70-80% of the focussed bands were found in the main three bands. 5. The binding of oxprenolol to serum proteins was increased in lung tumour patients and decreased in liver cirrhotic patients as compared with controls (P less than 0.05). There was no change in binding affinity and oxprenolol binding was significantly correlated to total AAG serum concentration and to the concentration of each of the conA dependent subtypes, in controls as well as in both patients groups. Images Figure 1 PMID:3203044

  11. Attenuation of Chikungunya Virus Vaccine Strain 181/Clone 25 Is Determined by Two Amino Acid Substitutions in the E2 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Forrester, Naomi L.; Plante, Kenneth; Rossi, Shannan L.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Adams, A. Paige; Seymour, Robert L.; Weger, James; Borland, Erin M.; Sherman, Michael B.; Powers, Ann M.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the mosquito-borne alphavirus that is the etiologic agent of massive outbreaks of arthralgic febrile illness that recently affected millions of people in Africa and Asia. The only CHIKV vaccine that has been tested in humans, strain 181/clone 25, is a live-attenuated derivative of Southeast Asian human isolate strain AF15561. The vaccine was immunogenic in phase I and II clinical trials; however, it induced transient arthralgia in 8% of the vaccinees. There are five amino acid differences between the vaccine and its parent, as well as five synonymous mutations, none of which involves cis-acting genome regions known to be responsible for replication or packaging. To identify the determinants of attenuation, we therefore tested the five nonsynonymous mutations by cloning them individually or in different combinations into infectious clones derived from two wild-type (WT) CHIKV strains, La Reunion and AF15561. Levels of virulence were compared with those of the WT strains and the vaccine strain in two different murine models: infant CD1 and adult A129 mice. An attenuated phenotype indistinguishable from that of the 181/clone 25 vaccine strain was obtained by the simultaneous expression of two E2 glycoprotein substitutions, with intermediate levels of attenuation obtained with the single E2 mutations. The other three amino acid mutations, in nsP1, 6K, and E1, did not have a detectable effect on CHIKV virulence. These results indicate that the attenuation of strain 181/clone 25 is mediated by two point mutations, explaining the phenotypic instability observed in human vaccinees and also in our studies. PMID:22457519

  12. Effect of HEPES buffer on the uptake and transport of P-glycoprotein substrates and large neutral amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Pal, Dhananjay; Shah, Sujay J.; Kwatra, Deep; Paturi, Kalyani D.; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2010-01-01

    HEPES has been widely employed as an organic buffer agent in cell culture medium as well as uptake and transport experiments in vitro. However, concentrations of HEPES used in such studies vary from one laboratory to another. In this study, we investigated the effect of HEPES on the uptake and bidirectional transport of P-gp substrates employing both Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells. ATP-dependent uptake of glutamic acid was also examined. ATP production was further quantified applying ATP Determination Kit. An addition of HEPES to the cellular washing and incubation media significantly altered the uptake and transport of P-gp substrates in both Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells. Uptake of P-gp substrates substantially diminished as the HEPES concentration was raised to 25 mM. Bidirectional (A-B and B-A) transport studies revealed that permeability ratio of PappB-A to PappA-B in the presence of 25 mM HEPES was significantly higher than control. The uptake of phenylalanine is an ATP-independent process, whereas the accumulation of glutamic acid is ATP-dependent. While phenylalanine uptake remained unchanged glutamic acid uptake was elevated with the addition of HEPES. Verapamil is an inhibitor of P-gp mediated uptake, elevation of cyclosporine uptake in the presence of 5 μM verapamil was compromised by the presence of 25 mM HEPES. The results of ATP assay indicated that HEPES stimulated the production of ATP. This study suggests that the addition of HEPES in the medium modulated the energy dependent efflux and uptake processes. The effect of HEPES on P-gp mediated drug efflux and transport may provide some mechanistic insight into possible reasons for inconsistencies in the results reported from various laboratories. PMID:20163160

  13. Recombinant sialidase NanA (rNanA) cleaves α2-3 linked sialic acid of host cell surface N-linked glycoprotein to promote Edwardsiella tarda infection.

    PubMed

    Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Tabata, Mutsumi; Shinyoshi, Sayaka; Oishi, Kazuki; Araki, Kyosuke; Komatsu, Masaharu; Itakura, Takao; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is one of the major pathogenic bacteria affecting both marine and freshwater fish species. Sialidase NanA expressed endogenously in E. tarda is glycosidase removing sialic acids from glycoconjugates. Recently, the relationship of NanA sialidase activity to E. tarda infection has been reported, however, the mechanism with which sialidase NanA aids the pathogenicity of E. tarda remained unclear. Here, we comprehensively determined the biochemical properties of NanA towards various substrates in vitro to provide novel insights on the potential NanA target molecule at the host cell. GAKS cell pretreated with recombinant NanA showed increased susceptibility to E. tarda infection. Moreover, sialidase inhibitor treated E. tarda showed a significantly reduced ability to infect GAKS cells. These results indicate that NanA-induced desialylation of cell surface glycoconjugates is essential for the initial step of E. tarda infection. Among the natural substrates, NanA exhibited the highest activity towards 3-sialyllactose, α2-3 linked sialic acid carrying sialoglycoconjugates. Supporting this finding, intact GAKS cell membrane exposed to recombinant NanA showed changes of glycoconjugates only in α2-3 sialo-linked glycoproteins, but not in glycolipids and α2-6 sialo-linked glycoproteins. Lectin staining of cell surface glycoprotein provided further evidence that α2-3 sialo-linkage of the N-linked glycoproteins was the most plausible target of NanA sialidase. To confirm the significance of α2-3 sialo-linkage desialylation for E. tarda infection, HeLa cells which possessed lower amount of α2-3 sialo-linkage glycoprotein were used for infection experiment along with GAKS cells. As a result, infection of HeLa cells by E. tarda was significantly reduced when compared to GAKS cells. Furthermore, E. tarda infection was significantly inhibited by mannose pretreatment suggesting that the bacterium potentially recognizes and binds to mannose or mannose containing

  14. Effects of brain IKKβ gene silencing by small interfering RNA on P-glycoprotein expression and brain damage in the rat kainic acid-induced seizure model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Su, Ling-Ying; Liu, Xin-Hong; Li, Le-Chao; Hao, Jin-Bo; Huang, Xian-Jing; Di, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in brain is an important mechanism accounting for the drug-therapy failure in epilepsy. Over-expression of P-gp in epilepsy rat brain may be regulated by inflammation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Inhibitory κ B kinase subunit β (IKKβ) is an up-stream molecular controlling NF-κB activation. With the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique and kainic acid (KA)-induced rat epileptic seizure model, the present study was aimed to further evaluate the role of NF-κB inhibition, via blocking IKKβ gene transcription, in the epileptic brain P-gp over-expression, seizure susceptibility, and post-seizure brain damage. siRNA targeting IKKβ was administered to rats via intracerebroventricular injection before seizure induction by KA microinjection; scrambled siRNA was used as control. Brain mRNA and protein levels of IKKβ and P-gp were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Latency to grade III or V seizure onset was recorded, brain damage was evaluated by neuronal cell counting and epileptiform activity was monitored by electroencephalography. IKKβ siRNA pre-treatment inhibited NF-κB activation and abolished P-gp over-expression in KA-induced epileptic rat brain, accompanied by decreased seizure susceptibility. These findings suggested that epileptogenic-induced P-gp over-expression could be regulated by IKKβ through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:24040792

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor Vismodegib (GDC-0449) in Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors: the Role of Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Richard A.; Lum, Bert L.; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Jin, Jin Yan; Jorga, Karin; Von Hoff, Daniel D.; Rudin, Charles M.; Reddy, Josina C.; Low, Jennifer A.; LoRusso, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In a phase I trial for patients with refractory solid tumors, hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib (GDC-0449) showed little decline in plasma concentrations over 7 days after a single oral dose and nonlinearity with respect to dose and time after single and multiple dosing. We studied the role of GDC-0449 binding to plasma protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) to better understand these unusual pharmacokinetics. Experimental Design Sixty-eight patients received GDC-0449 at 150 (n = 41), 270 (n = 23), or 540 (n = 4) mg/d, with pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling at multiple time points. Total and unbound (dialyzed) GDC-0449 plasma concentrations were assessed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, binding kinetics by surface plasmon resonance–based microsensor, and AAG levels by ELISA. Results A linear relationship between total GDC-0449 and AAG plasma concentrations was observed across dose groups (R2 = 0.73). In several patients, GDC-0449 levels varied with fluctuations in AAG levels over time. Steady-state, unbound GDC-0449 levels were less than 1% of total, independent of dose or total plasma concentration. In vitro, GDC-0449 binds AAG strongly and reversibly (KD = 13 μmol/L) and human serum albumin less strongly (KD = 120 μmol/L). Simulations from a derived mechanistic PK model suggest that GDC-0449 pharmacokinetics are mediated by AAG binding, solubility-limited absorption, and slow metabolic elimination. Conclusions GDC-0449 levels strongly correlated with AAG levels, showing parallel fluctuations of AAG and total drug over time and consistently low, unbound drug levels, different from previously reported AAG-binding drugs. This PK profile is due to high-affinity, reversible binding to AAG and binding to albumin, in addition to solubility-limited absorption and slow metabolic elimination properties. PMID:21300760

  16. Interaction of new kinase inhibitors cabozantinib and tofacitinib with human serum alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. A comprehensive spectroscopic and molecular Docking approach.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-04-15

    In the current study we have investigated the interaction of newly approved kinase inhibitors namely Cabozantinib (CBZ) and Tofacitinib (TFB) with human Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) under simulated physiological conditions using fluorescence quenching measurements, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and molecular docking methods. CBZ and TFB binds to AAG with significant affinity and the calculated binding constant for the drugs lie in the order of 10(4). With the increase in temperature the binding constant values decreased for both CBZ and TFB. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from AAG to CBZ and TFB suggested the fluorescence intensity of AAG was quenched by the two studied drugs via the formation of a non-fluorescent complex in the static manner. The molecular distance r value calculated from FRET is around 2 nm for both drugs, fluorescence spectroscopy data was employed for the study of thermodynamic parameters, standard Gibbs free energy change at 300 K was calculated as -5.234 kcal mol(-1) for CBZ-AAG interaction and -6.237 kcal mol(-1) for TFB-AAG interaction, standard enthalpy change and standard entropy change for CBZ-AAG interaction are -9.553 kcal mol(-1) and -14.618 cal mol(-1) K(-1) respectively while for AAG-TFB interaction, standard enthalpy and standard entropy change was calculated as 4.019 kcal mol(-1) and 7.206 cal mol(-1) K(-1) respectively. Protein binding of the two drugs caused the tertiary structure alterations. Dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated the reduction in the hydrodynamic radii of the protein. Furthermore molecular docking results suggested the Hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding were the interactive forces in the binding process of CBZ to AAG while in case of TFB only hydrophobic interactions were found to be involved, overlap of the binding site for two studied drugs on the AAG molecule was revealed by docking results. PMID:26851488

  17. Interaction of new kinase inhibitors cabozantinib and tofacitinib with human serum alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. A comprehensive spectroscopic and molecular Docking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-04-01

    In the current study we have investigated the interaction of newly approved kinase inhibitors namely Cabozantinib (CBZ) and Tofacitinib (TFB) with human Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) under simulated physiological conditions using fluorescence quenching measurements, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and molecular docking methods. CBZ and TFB binds to AAG with significant affinity and the calculated binding constant for the drugs lie in the order of 104. With the increase in temperature the binding constant values decreased for both CBZ and TFB. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from AAG to CBZ and TFB suggested the fluorescence intensity of AAG was quenched by the two studied drugs via the formation of a non-fluorescent complex in the static manner. The molecular distance r value calculated from FRET is around 2 nm for both drugs, fluorescence spectroscopy data was employed for the study of thermodynamic parameters, standard Gibbs free energy change at 300K was calculated as - 5.234 kcal mol- 1 for CBZ-AAG interaction and - 6.237 kcal mol- 1 for TFB-AAG interaction, standard enthalpy change and standard entropy change for CBZ-AAG interaction are - 9.553 kcal mol- 1 and - 14.618 cal mol- 1K- 1 respectively while for AAG-TFB interaction, standard enthalpy and standard entropy change was calculated as 4.019 kcal mol- 1 and 7.206 cal mol- 1K- 1 respectively. Protein binding of the two drugs caused the tertiary structure alterations. Dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated the reduction in the hydrodynamic radii of the protein. Furthermore molecular docking results suggested the Hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding were the interactive forces in the binding process of CBZ to AAG while in case of TFB only hydrophobic interactions were found to be involved, overlap of the binding site for two studied drugs on the AAG molecule was revealed by docking results.

  18. Enhanced gene delivery efficiency of cationic liposomes coated with PEGylated hyaluronic acid for anti P-glycoprotein siRNA: a potential candidate for overcoming multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Ran, Rui; Liu, Yayuan; Gao, Huile; Kuang, Qifang; Zhang, Qianyu; Tang, Jie; Huang, Kai; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2014-12-30

    RNA interference is an effective method to achieve highly specific gene regulation. However, the commonly used cationic liposomes have poor biocompatibility, which may lead to systematic siRNA delivery of no avail. PEGylation is a good strategy in shielding the positive charge of cationic liposomes, but the enhanced serum stability is often in company with compromised cellular uptake and endosome escape. In this study, PEG was covalently linked to negatively charged hyaluronic acid and it was used to coat the liposome-siRNA nanoparticles. The resulting PEG-HA-NP complex had a diameter of 188.6 ± 10.8 nm and a dramatically declined zeta-potential from +34.9 ± 4.0 mV to -18.2 ± 2.2 mV. Owing to the reversed surface charge, PEG-HA-NP could remain stable in fetal bovine serum (FBS) to up to 24h. In contrast with normal PEGylation, hyaluronic acid and PEG co-modified PEG-HA-NP provided comparable cellular uptake and P-glycoprotein downregulation efficacy in MCF-7/ADR cells compared with Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and naked NP regardless of its anionic charged surface. Because of its good biocompatibility in serum, PEG-HA-NP possessed the best tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and subsequently the strongest P-glycoprotein silencing capability in tumor bearing mice compared with naked NP and HA-NP after i.v. injection, with a 34% P-glycoprotein downregulation. Therefore, PEG-HA coated liposomal complex was demonstrated to be a promising siRNA delivery system in adjusting solid tumor P-glycoprotein expression, which may become a potential carrier in reversing MDR for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25448564

  19. Osmotic water permeability in glycoprotein containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Neitchev, V Z; Kostadinov, A P

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of osmotic water permeability in proteoliposomes containing alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was investigated by means of stopped-flow spectrophotometry. A biphasic time-course of scattered light with time was registered. The rate constants calculated from fits to an exponential function in the first phase were proportional to the final medium osmolarity. The apparent second order rate constants Kapp (Osm-1 sec-1) were determined at different glycoprotein concentrations in the original mixture for preparation of proteoliposomes. The value of Kapp at lipid:glycoprotein weight ratio = 1 was plotted in Arrhenius coordinates. The calculated activation energy for water permeation through the lipid bilayer suggests that eventual channel mechanism may be involved due to the presence of glycoprotein molecule in the liposomes. PMID:3431542

  20. dbAARD & AGP: A computational pipeline for the prediction of genes associated with age related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Isha; Gahlot, Lokesh Kumar; Khurana, Pooja; Hasija, Yasha

    2016-04-01

    The atrocious behavioral and physiological shift with aging accelerate occurrence of deleterious disorders. Contemporary research is focused at uncovering the role of genetic associations in age-related disorders (ARDs). While the completion of the Human Genome Project and the HapMap project has generated huge amount of data on genetic variations; Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variations, essentially SNPs associated with several disorders including ARDs. However, a repository that houses all such ARD associations is lacking. The present work is aimed at filling this void. A database, dbAARD (database of Aging and Age Related Disorders) has been developed which hosts information on more than 3000 genetic variations significantly (p-value <0.05) associated with 51 ARDs. Furthermore, a machine learning based gene prediction tool AGP (Age Related Disorders Gene Prediction) has been constructed by employing rotation forest algorithm, to prioritize genes associated with ARDs. The tool achieved an overall accuracy in terms of precision 75%, recall 76%, F-measure 76% and AUC 0.85. Both the web resources have been made available online at http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/dbAARD/ and http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/AGP/ respectively for easy retrieval and usage by the scientific community. We believe that this work may facilitate the analysis of plethora of variants associated with ARDs and provide cues for deciphering the biology of aging. PMID:26836976

  1. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components. PMID:27477888

  2. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-08-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components.

  3. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components. PMID:27477888

  4. Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis for Selective Control of Electrophoretic Mobility of Sialic Acid Using Lanthanide-Hexadentate Macrocyclic Polyazacarboxylate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Daiki; Ouchi, Kazuki; Shibukawa, Masami; Saito, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to control the electrophoretic mobility in order to obtain high resolution among saccharides in complex samples. We report herein on a new affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method for an anionic monosaccharide, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which is important in terms of pathological diagnosis, using lanthanide-hexadentate macrocyclic polyazacarboxylate complexes (Ln-NOTA) as affinity reagents. It was shown that Ln-NOTA complexes increased the anionic mobility of Neu5Ac by approximately 40% through selective complexation with Neu5Ac. The extent of change in the mobility strongly depended on the type of central metal ion of Ln-NOTA. The stability constant (K) of Lu-NOTA with Neu5Ac was determined by ACE to be log Kb = 3.62 ± 0.04, which is the highest value among artificial receptors for Neu5Ac reported so far. Using this ACE, the Neu5Ac content in a glycoprotein sample, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), was determined after acid hydrolysis. Complete separation between Neu5Ac and hydrolysis products was successful by controlling the mobility to determine the concentration of Neu5Ac. PMID:26561258

  5. Targeting of glycoprotein I (gE) of varicella-zoster virus to the trans-Golgi network by an AYRV sequence and an acidic amino acid-rich patch in the cytosolic domain of the molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Hao, Y; Gershon, M D; Ambron, R T; Gershon, A A

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that varicella-zoster virus (VZV) envelope glycoproteins (gps) are selectively transported to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and that the cytosolic domain of gpI (gE) targets it to the TGN. To identify targeting signals in the gpI cytosolic domain, intracellular protein trafficking was studied in transfected cells expressing chimeric proteins in which a full-length or mutated gpI cytosolic domain was fused to the gpI transmembrane domain and interleukin-2 receptor (tac) ectodomain. Expressed protein was visualized with antibodies to tac. A targeting sequence (AYRV) and a second, acidic amino acid-rich region of the gpI cytosolic domain (putative signal patch) were each sufficient to cause expressed protein to colocalize with TGN markers. This targeting was lost when the tyrosine of the AYRV sequence was replaced with glycine or lysine, when arginine was replaced with glutamic acid, or when valine was substituted with lysine. In contrast, tyrosine could be replaced by phenylalanine and valine could be substituted with leucine. Mutation of alanine to aspartic acid or deletion of alanine abolished TGN targeting. Exposure of transfected cells to antibodies to the tac ectodomain revealed that the TCN targeting of expressed tac-gpI chimeric proteins occurred as a result of selective retrieval from the plasmalemma. These data suggest that the AYRV sequence and a second signaling patch in the cytosolic domain of gpI are responsible for its targeting to the TGN. The observations also support the hypothesis that the TGN plays a critical role in the envelopment of VZV. PMID:8794291

  6. Effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 on Classical Swine Fever Virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E2, along with E^rns and E1, is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E2 is involved in several virus functions including cell attachment, host range susceptibility and virulence in natural hosts. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers as well as heterodimers with E1, media...

  7. Roles of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein in transporting para-aminosalicylic acid and its N-acetylated metabolite in mice brain

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lan; Xu, Cong; O'Neal, Stefanie; Bi, Hui-chang; Huang, Min; Zheng, Wei; Zeng, Su

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is effective in the treatment of manganism-induced neurotoxicity (manganism). In this study we investigated the roles of P-glycoprotein (MDR1a) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in transporting PAS and its N-acetylated metabolite AcPAS through blood-brain barrier. Methods: MDR1a-null or wild-type mice were intravenously injected with PAS (200 mg/kg). Thirty minutes after the injection, blood samples and brains were collected, and the concentrations of PAS and AcPAS in brain capillaries and parenchyma were measured using HPLC. Both MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP1 cells that overexpressed P-gp and MRP1, respectively, were used in two-chamber Transwell transport studies in vitro. Results: After injection of PAS, the brain concentration of PAS was substantially higher in MDR1a-null mice than in wild-type mice, but the brain concentration of AcPAS had no significant difference between MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Concomitant injection of PAS with the MRP-specific inhibitor MK-571 (50 mg/kg) further increased the brain concentration of PAS in MDR1a-null mice, and increased the brain concentration of AcPAS in both MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Two-chamber Transwell studies with MDCK-MDR1 cells demonstrated that PAS was not only a substrate but also a competitive inhibitor of P-gp, while AcPAS was not a substrate of P-gp. Two-chamber Transwell studies with the MDCK-MRP1 cells showed that MRP1 had the ability to transport both PAS and AcPAS across the BBB. Conclusion: P-gp plays a major role in the efflux of PAS from brain parenchyma into blood in mice, while MRP1 is involved in both PAS and AcPAS transport in the brain. PMID:25418377

  8. Glycoproteins: Occurrence and Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Valentin

    Protein glycosylation is regarded as the most complex form of post-translational modification leading to a heterogeneous expression of glycoproteins as mixtures of glycoforms. This chapter describes the structure and occurrence of glycoproteins with respect to their glycan chains. Discussed are different carbohydrate-peptide linkages including GPI anchors, common structures of N- and O-glycans, and the structure of glycosaminoglycans contained in proteoglycans. Also covered are the bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan and the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin group. Properties and functions of the glycans contained in glycoproteins are dealt with in the next chapter of this book.

  9. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of the arabinogalactan protein gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) comprise a family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that are implicated in plant growth and development. In this study, 69 AGPs are identified from the rice genome, including 13 classical AGPs, 15 arabinogalactan (AG) peptides, three non-classical AGPs, three early nodulin-like AGPs (eNod-like AGPs), eight non-specific lipid transfer protein-like AGPs (nsLTP-like AGPs), and 27 fasciclin-like AGPs (FLAs). The results from expressed sequence tags, microarrays, and massively parallel signature sequencing tags are used to analyse the expression of AGP-encoding genes, which is confirmed by real-time PCR. The results reveal that several rice AGP-encoding genes are predominantly expressed in anthers and display differential expression patterns in response to abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, and abiotic stresses. Based on the results obtained from this analysis, an attempt has been made to link the protein structures and expression patterns of rice AGP-encoding genes to their functions. Taken together, the genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the rice AGP gene family might facilitate further functional studies of rice AGPs. PMID:20423940

  10. The effect of ginger extract on glycoproteins of Raji cells.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Zahra; Nassir-Ud-Din; Kohan, Haleemeh Kabini; Kadivar, Mehdi; Kalyee, Zahra; Rad, Behzad Laame; Iravani, Ayda; Rahimi, Nourooz Ali; Wahabi, Farideh; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Pourfallah, Fatemeh; Arjmand, Mohammad

    2014-01-15

    Protein glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of specific diseases, including cancers. The ginger rhizome is known to have anti-cancer and anti-fungal properties. This investigation was carried out to study the effect of ginger on glycoproteins of Raji cells. A 10% yield of ginger extract was mixed with 0.01% DMSO and added to 6 x 10(4) Raji cells at different concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 h at 37 degrees C. Their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined and analyzed statistically using Graphpad prism software. Cell extracts were prepared and their glycoproteins purified using lectin-affinity chromatography (Q proteome total glycoprotein and O glycoprotein kits) and SDS PAGE was carried out. IC50 of ginger extract on Raji cells was 20 microg mL(-1) at 72 h with < 0.01 significance. Silver staining of purified glycoprotiens in Raji cells indicated the presence of O-glycans and N-glycans. N-linked mannose and N-linked sialic acids were detected with the total glycoprotein kit. O-linked galactose and O-linked sialic acids were identified with the O-glycoprotein. Ginger reduced the expression of O-linked sialic acid and also N-linked mannose on Raji cells but had no effect on other glycoproteins. Sialic acid is now well known as a cancer marker and investigations are on to use it as a drug-target in cancerous tissues. PMID:24783808

  11. Ammonia transport in the kidney by Rhesus glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Verlander, Jill W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism is a fundamental element of acid-base homeostasis, comprising a major component of both basal and physiologically altered renal net acid excretion. Over the past several years, a fundamental change in our understanding of the mechanisms of renal epithelial cell ammonia transport has occurred, replacing the previous model which was based upon diffusion equilibrium for NH3 and trapping of NH4+ with a new model in which specific and regulated transport of both NH3 and NH4+ across renal epithelial cell membranes via specific membrane proteins is required for normal ammonia metabolism. A major advance has been the recognition that members of a recently recognized transporter family, the Rhesus glycoprotein family, mediate critical roles in renal and extrarenal ammonia transport. The erythroid-specific Rhesus glycoprotein, Rh A Glycoprotein (Rhag), was the first Rhesus glycoprotein recognized as an ammonia-specific transporter. Subsequently, the nonerythroid Rh glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), were cloned and identified as ammonia transporters. They are expressed in specific cell populations and membrane domains in distal renal epithelial cells, where they facilitate ammonia secretion. In this review, we discuss the distribution of Rhbg and Rhcg in the kidney, the regulation of their expression and activity in physiological disturbances, the effects of genetic deletion on renal ammonia metabolism, and the molecular mechanisms of Rh glycoprotein-mediated ammonia transport. PMID:24647713

  12. Characterization of TRIF selectivity in the AGP class of lipid A mimetics: role of secondary lipid chains.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Juhienah K; Bowen, William S; Bazin, Hélène G; Ryter, Kendal T; Livesay, Mark T; Ward, Jon R; Evans, Jay T; Johnson, David A

    2015-02-01

    TLR4 agonists that favor TRIF-dependent signaling and the induction of type 1 interferons may have potential as vaccine adjuvants with reduced toxicity. CRX-547 (4), a member of the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphate (AGP) class of lipid A mimetics possessing three (R)-3-decanoyloxytetradecanoyl groups and d-relative configuration in the aglycon, selectively reduces MyD88-dependent signaling resulting in TRIF-selective signaling, whereas the corresponding secondary ether lipid 6a containing (R)-3-decyloxytetradecanoyl groups does not. In order to determine which secondary acyl groups are important for the reduction in MyD88-dependent signaling activity of 4, the six possible ester/ether hybrid derivatives of 4 and 6a were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to induce NF-κB in a HEK293 cell reporter assay. An (R)-3-decanoyloxytetradecanoyl group on the 3-position of the d-glucosamine unit was found to be indispensable for maintaining low NF-κB activity irrespective of the substitutions (decyl or decanoyl) on the other two secondary positions. These results suggest that the carbonyl group of the 3-secondary lipid chain may impede homodimerization and/or conformational changes in the TLR4-MD2 complex necessary for MyD88 binding and pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. PMID:25553892

  13. Prestaining of glycoproteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels by dansylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Xuan; Yu, Qing; Duan, Yuanmeng; Huang, Binbin; Hong, Guoying; Zhou, Ayi; Jin, Litai

    2014-06-01

    A new fluorescent prestaining method for gel-separated glycoproteins in 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE was developed by using dansylhydrazine in this study. The prestained gels could be easily imaged after electrophoresis without any time-consuming steps needed for poststains. As low as 4-8 ng glycoproteins (transferrin, α1-acid glycoprotein) could be selectively detected, which is comparable to that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, one of the most commonly used glycoprotein stain. In addition, a subsequent study of deglycosylation, glycoprotein affinity isolation, and LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to confirm the specificity of the newly developed method. PMID:24668852

  14. Adherence of oral streptococci to salivary glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, P A; Prakobphol, A; Lee, T; Hoover, C I; Fisher, S J

    1992-01-01

    We used an overlay method to study the ability of human salivary glycoproteins to serve as receptors for several strains of streptococci that colonize the oral cavity. Parotid and submandibular-sublingual salivas were collected as ductal secretions, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. The resulting blots were overlaid with [35S]methionine-labeled bacteria, and salivary components to which the bacteria bound were detected by autoradiography. Potential glycoprotein receptors were identified for 8 of the 16 strains tested. In three cases (Streptococcus sanguis 72-40 and 804 and Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ176), highly specific interactions with a single salivary component were detected. Removal of sialic acid residues from the low-molecular-weight salivary mucin prevented adherence of one of these strains (S. sanguis 72-40), suggesting that this saccharide either mediates binding or is a critical component of the receptor site. In the remaining five strains (Streptococcus gordonii G9B and 10558, S. sanguis 10556, and Streptococcus oralis 10557 and 72-41), interactions with multiple salivary components, including the low-molecular-weight salivary mucin, highly glycosylated proline-rich glycoproteins, and alpha-amylase, were detected. These results suggest that some oral streptococci can bind specifically to certain of the salivary glycoproteins. The interactions identified may play an important role in governing bacterial adherence and clearance within the oral cavity. Images PMID:1729194

  15. Determination of the Human Antibody Response to the Neutralization Epitopes Encompassing Amino Acids 313–327 and 432–443 of Hepatitis C Virus E1E2 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruyu; Rao, Huiying; Wang, Jianghua; Xie, Xingwang; Jiang, Dong; Pan, Xiaoben; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Henghui; Wei, Lai

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the E1E2 glycoproteins may have the potential to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The protective epitopes targeted by these MAbs have been mapped to the regionsencompassing amino acids 313–327 and 432–443. In this study, we synthesized these two peptides and tested the reactivity of serum samples from 336 patients, 210 of whichwere from Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) patients infected with diverse HCV genotypes.The remaining 126 samples were isolated from patients who had spontaneously clearedHCV infection.In the chronic HCV-infected group (CHC group), the prevalence of human serum antibodies reactive to epitopes 313–327 and 432–443was 24.29%(51 of 210) and4.76%(10 of 210),respectively. In thespontaneousclearance group (SC group),the prevalence was 0.79%(1 of 126) and 12.70%(16 of 126), respectively.The positive serum samples that contained antibodies reactive to epitope 313–327 neutralizedHCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) bearing the envelope glycoproteins of genotypes 1a or 1b and/or 4, but genotypes 2a, 3a, 5 and 6 were not neutralized. The neutralizing activity of these serum samples could not be inhibited by peptide 313–327. Six samples (SC17, SC38, SC86, SC92, CHC75 and CHC198) containing antibodies reactive to epitope 432–443 had cross-genotype neutralizing activities. Theneutralizing activityof SC38, SC86, SC92 and CHC75waspartiallyinhibited by peptide 432–443. However,the neutralizing activity of sample SC17 for genotype 4HCVpp and sample CHC198 for genotype 1b HCVppwere notinhibited by the peptide.This study identifies the neutralizing ability of endogenous anti-HCV antibodies and warrants the exploration of antibodies reactive to epitope432–443as sources for future antibody therapies. PMID:23826163

  16. Effects of L- and D-REKR amino acid-containing peptides on HIV and SIV envelope glycoprotein precursor maturation and HIV and SIV replication.

    PubMed Central

    Bahbouhi, Bouchaib; Chazal, Nathalie; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Chiva, Cristina; Kogan, Marcelo; Albericio, Fernando; Giralt, Ernest; Bahraoui, Elmostafa

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of synthetic l- and d-peptides encompassing the HIV-1(BRU) gp160 REKR cleavage site to interfere with HIV and simian immuno-deficiency virus (SIV) replication and maturation of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) precursors. To facilitate their penetration into cells, a decanoyl (dec) group was added at the N-terminus. The sequences synthesized included dec5d or dec5l (decREKRV), dec9d or dec9l (decRVVQREKRV) and dec14d or dec14l (TKAKRRVVQREKRV). The peptide dec14d was also prepared with a chloromethane (cmk) group as C-terminus. Because l-peptides exhibit significant cytotoxicity starting at 35 microM, further characterization was conducted mostly with d-peptides, which exhibited no cytotoxicity at concentrations higher than 70 microM. The data show that only dec14d and dec14dcmk could inhibit HIV-1(BRU), HIV-2(ROD) and SIV(mac251) replication and their syncytium-inducing capacities. Whereas peptides dec5d and dec9d were inactive, dec14dcmk was at least twice as active as peptide dec14d. At the molecular level, our data show a direct correlation between anti-viral activity and the ability of the peptides to interfere with maturation of the Env precursors. Furthermore, we show that when tested in vitro the dec14d peptide inhibited PC7 with an inhibition constant K(i)=4.6 microM, whereas the peptide dec14l preferentially inhibited furin with a K(i)=28 microM. The fact that PC7 and furin are the major prohormone convertases reported to be expressed in T4 lymphocytes, the principal cell targets of HIV, suggests that they are involved in the maturation of HIV and SIV Env precursors. PMID:12071862

  17. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. PMID:24889823

  18. The Role of HIV-1 gp41 Glycoprotein in Infectious Tropism Inferred from Physico-Chemical Properties of its Amino Acid Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, E.; Villarreal, C.; Huerta, L.; Cocho, G.

    2006-09-01

    We performed a statistical analysis of the amino acid sequence of the gp41 ectodomain of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1. We found strong correlations between physicochemical properties of highly variable residues and the viral infectious tropism.

  19. KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, H; Hama, Y; Sumi, T; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    2001-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the mucus coat of fish plays a variety of important physical, chemical, and physiological functions. One of the major constituents of the mucus coat is mucus glycoprotein. We found that sialic acids in the skin mucus of the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, consisted predominantly of KDN. Subsequently, we isolated KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus and characterized its chemical nature and structure. Loach mucus glycoprotein was purified from the Tris-HCl buffer extract of loach skin mucus by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Nuclease P1 treatment, and Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration. The purified mucus glycoprotein was found to contain 38.5 KDN, 0.5% NeuAc, 25.0% GalNAc, 3.5% Gal, 0.5% GlcNAc and 28% amino acids. Exhaustive Actinase digestion of the glycoprotein yielded a glycopeptide with a higher sugar content and higher Thr and Ser contents. The molecular size of this glycopeptide was approximately 1/12 of the intact glycoprotein. These results suggest that approximately 11 highly glycosylated polypeptide units are linked in tandem through nonglycosylated peptides to form the glycoporotein molecule. The oligosaccharide alditols liberated from the loach mucus glycoprotein by alkaline borohydride treatment were separated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and HPLC. The purified sugar chains were analyzed b --> 6GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 3(GalNAcbeta1 --> 14)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(GalNAcalpha1 --> 3)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(Gal3alpha1--> 3)GalNAc-ol, and NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Gal NAc-ol. It is estimated that one loach mucus glycoprotein molecule contains more than 500 KDN-containing sugar chains that are linked to Thr and Ser residues of the protein core through GalNAc. PMID:14533798

  20. Regulation of cytokine gene expression by orosomucoid in neonatal swine adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue has been reported to express a1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) mRNA, a protein with inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to determine if AGP can regulate pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in neonatal porcine subcutaneous adipos...

  1. Identification of two amino acids in the hemagglutinin glycoprotein of measles virus (MV) that govern hemadsorption, HeLa cell fusion, and CD46 downregulation: phenotypic markers that differentiate vaccine and wild-type MV strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lecouturier, V; Fayolle, J; Caballero, M; Carabaña, J; Celma, M L; Fernandez-Muñoz, R; Wild, T F; Buckland, R

    1996-01-01

    We have used site-directed mutagenesis of the hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein of measles virus (MV) to investigate the molecular basis for the phenotypic differences observed between MV vaccine strains and recently isolated wild-type MV strains. The former downregulate CD46, the putative cellular receptor of MV, are positive for hemadsorption, and are fusogenic in HeLa cells, whereas the latter are negative for these phenotypic markers. CD46 downregulation in particular, could have profound consequences for the immunopathology of MV infection, as this molecule protects the cell from complement lysis. Mutagenesis of two amino acids, valine and tyrosine at positions 451 and 481, respectively, in the H protein from the vaccine-like Hallé MV strain to their counterparts, glutamate and asparagine, in the H protein from the wild-type Ma93F MV strain (creating the V451E/Y481N double mutation) abrogated CD46 downregulation, HeLa cell fusion, and hemadsorption. The converse double mutagenesis of the Ma93F H protein (E451V/N481Y) transferred the CD46-downregulating, fusogenic, and hemadsorption functions to this protein. The data provide the first mapping study of the functional domains of MV H. The consequences of these results for MV vaccine design and the role of CD46 in MV infection are discussed. PMID:8676439

  2. Spectroscopic Investigation on the Primary Photoreaction of Bathy Phytochrome Agp2-Pr of Agrobacterium fabrum: Isomerization in a pH-dependent H-bond Network.

    PubMed

    Singer, Patrick; Wörner, Sybille; Lamparter, Tilman; Diller, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    Bathy phytochrome Agp2 from Agrobacterium fabrum exhibits an unusually low pKa =7.6 in the Pr state in contrast to a pKa >11 in the Pfr state, indicating a pH-dependent charge distribution and H-bond network in the Pr chromophore binding pocket around neutral pH. Here, we report on ultrafast UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy of the primary Pr photoisomerization of Agp2 at pH 6 and pH 9 and upon H2 O/D2 O buffer exchange. The triexponential Pr kinetics slows down at increased pH and pronounced pH-dependent kinetic isotope effects are observed. The results on the Pr photoreaction suggest: 1) component-wise hindered dynamics on the chromophore excited-state potential energy surface at high pH and 2) proton translocation processes either via single-proton transfer or via significant reorganization of H-bond networks. Both effects reflect the interplay between the pH-dependent charge distribution in the Pr chromophore binding pocket on the one hand and chromophore excitation and its Z→E isomerization on the other hand. PMID:27075723

  3. NH2-terminal globular domain of human platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha has a methionine 145/threonine145 amino acid polymorphism, which is associated with the HPA-2 (Ko) alloantigens.

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, R W; Faber, N M; Cuypers, H T; Ouwehand, W H; von dem Borne, A E

    1992-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX complex, a prominent platelet GP complex, is the primary receptor for vWF. Previously, we have established that an antigenic polymorphism of platelets, the HPA-2 or Ko alloantigen system, is located on the 45-kD amino-terminal globular domain of GPIb alpha. With the polymerase chain reaction, we have amplified two segments of the GPIb alpha gene coding for the first 382 amino acids of two HPA-2a and two HPA-2b homozygous individuals. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed as the only difference a C-T polymorphism at position 434 of the coding region for the mature protein. This base change results in a substitution of threonine (ACG) in HPA-2a (Kob) to methionine (ATG) in HPA-2b (Koa) at amino acid position 145. The C-T polymorphism is reflected in a difference in restriction enzyme recognition, resulting in an Aha 2-site in the HPA-2b allele and a SfaN1 site in the HPA-2a allele. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amplified DNA of 3 HPA-2(a-,b+), 2 HPA-2(a+,b+), and 11 HPA-2(a+,b-) donors showed that these restriction sites were associated with the HPA-2 alleles. DNA-typing for the HPA-2 alloantigen system on genomic DNA obtained from a small number of cells may be applied for determining the genotype of a fetus from an immunized mother or of severely thrombocytopenic patients. Images PMID:1346615

  4. Human parainfluenza type 3 virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA and limited amino acid sequence of the purified protein.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Coligan, J E; Jambou, R C; Venkatesan, S

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of mRNA for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza type 3 virus obtained from the corresponding cDNA clone had a single long open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 64,254 daltons consisting of 572 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence was confirmed by limited N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of CNBr cleavage fragments of native HN that was purified by immunoprecipitation. The HN protein is moderately hydrophobic and has four potential sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) of N-glycosylation in the C-terminal half of the molecule. It is devoid of both the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal membrane anchorage domain characteristic of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus and the fusion (F0) protein of the paramyxoviruses. Instead, it has a single prominent hydrophobic region capable of membrane insertion beginning at 32 residues from the N terminus. This N-terminal membrane insertion is similar to that of influenza virus neuraminidase and the recently reported structures of HN proteins of Sendai virus and simian virus 5. Images PMID:3003381

  5. Pulsatile glycoprotein hormone secretion in glycoprotein-producing pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Samuels, M H; Henry, P; Kleinschmidt-Demasters, B K; Lillehei, K; Ridgway, E C

    1991-12-01

    To study patterns of hormone production and secretion in glycoprotein-producing pituitary tumors, 12 patients with such tumors underwent the following studies. Preoperatively, all patients had serum TSH, LH, FSH, and alpha-subunit levels measured every 15 min for 24 h. Hormone pulses were located by cluster analysis, and pulse parameters were compared to those in healthy young men, healthy young women, healthy postmenopausal women, and subjects with primary hypothyroidism. After surgery, immunocytochemistry for the four glycoproteins was performed on all tumors, and Northern blot analysis was performed in six tumors with probes for the four subunits. By immunocytochemistry, 42% of the tumors were positive for TSH beta, 83% for LH beta, 75% for FSH beta, and 92% for alpha-subunit. Preoperative serum hormone levels varied widely between patients and were not well correlated with the intensity of immunocytochemical staining. Northern blot analysis did not appear to be as sensitive as immunocytochemistry for detection of the glycoproteins. All patients had pulsatile glycoprotein secretion, with pulses of normal frequency but varied amplitude. These results suggest that in patients with glycoprotein tumors, hormone pulses may be an integral part of autonomous secretion, or that hypothalamic control is involved in glycoprotein secretion and, perhaps, in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:1955510

  6. The human platelet alloantigens Br(a) and Brb are associated with a single amino acid polymorphism on glycoprotein Ia (integrin subunit alpha 2).

    PubMed Central

    Santoso, S; Kalb, R; Walka, M; Kiefel, V; Mueller-Eckhardt, C; Newman, P J

    1993-01-01

    The human GPIa/IIa complex, also known as integrin alpha 2 beta 1, serves as a major receptor for collagen in platelets and other cell types. In addition to its role in platelet adhesion to extracellular matrix, GPIa/IIa is also known to bear the clinically important Br(a) and Brb alloantigenic determinants, which can result in antibody-mediated platelet destruction. Immunochemical studies showed that the Br antigenic epitopes reside solely on the GP Ia subunit and do not depend on sialic acid residues. To define the polymorphism responsible for the Br alloantigen system platelet RNA PCR technique, was used to amplify GPIa mRNA transcripts. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified platelet GPIa cDNA from Br(a/a) and Brb/b individuals revealed a single A<-->G polymorphism at base 1648. MnlI RFLP analysis of cDNA from serologically determined individuals confirmed that this polymorphism segregates with Br phenotype. This single base change results in a substitution of Lys (AAG) in Br(a) to Glu (GAG) in Brb at amino acid residue 505 In spite of the reversal in charge at this position, however, we found no difference in the ability of Bra and Brb homozygous platelets to adhere to collagens types I, III, or V, nor did anti-Bra or anti-Brb alloantibodies interfere with platelet adhesion to any of these fibrillar collagens. The identification of the nucleotide substitution that defines the Bra/Brb alloantigen system will now permit both pre- and postnatal diagnosis for Br phenotype. Images PMID:7901236

  7. Amino acid sequence and molecular modelling of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa and fibronectin receptor iso-antagonists from Trimeresurus elegans venom.

    PubMed Central

    Scaloni, A; Di Martino, E; Miraglia, N; Pelagalli, A; Della Morte, R; Staiano, N; Pucci, P

    1996-01-01

    Low-molecular-mass Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing polypeptides were isolated from the venom of Trimeresurus elegans by a simple two-step procedure consisting of membrane filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. A combination of electrospray MS, fast-atom bombardment MS and Edman degradation allowed us to ascertain the presence in the venom of different isoforms and to determine their primary structures. The amino acid sequences resembled the structure of elegantin, the only disintegrin previously reported from the T. elegans venom [Williams, Rucinski, Holt and Niewiarowski (1990) Biochim. Biophys, Acta 1039, 81-89]. MS analyses indicated the occurrence of differential proteolytic processing at both the N-terminus and the C-termins of the polypeptide chains. The amino acid sequence alignment of the elegantin isoforms with known components of the disintegrin family demonstrated the complete conservation of the 12 cysteine residues involved in disulphide bridges. Molecular modelling of elegantins predicted an overall folding of these molecules quite similar to that reported for the kistrin solution structure. The newly identified polypeptide isoforms strongly inhibited ADP-induced aggregation in both human and canine platelet-rich plasma but showed a different species-dependent specificity. These molecules were also able to inhibit B16-BL6 murine melanoma cell adhesion to immobilized fibronectin. The comparison of the structures and biological activities of elegantin isoforms and kistrin allowed us to highlight some structural features that, in addition to the RGD locus might be involved in the interaction of these snake-venom polypeptides with the integrin receptors on the platelet and cell surface. PMID:8920980

  8. Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein M Inhibits Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Klupp, Barbara G.; Nixdorf, Ralf; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    A transient transfection-fusion assay was established to investigate membrane fusion mediated by pseudorabies virus (PrV) glycoproteins. Plasmids expressing PrV glycoproteins under control of the immediate-early 1 promoter-enhancer of human cytomegalovirus were transfected into rabbit kidney cells, and the extent of cell fusion was quantitated 27 to 42 h after transfection. Cotransfection of plasmids encoding PrV glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH, and gL resulted in formation of polykaryocytes, as has been shown for homologous proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (A. Turner, B. Bruun, T. Minson, and H. Browne, J. Virol. 72:873–875, 1998). However, in contrast to HSV-1, fusion was also observed when the gD-encoding plasmid was omitted, which indicates that PrV gB, gH, and gL are sufficient to mediate fusion. Fusogenic activity was enhanced when a carboxy-terminally truncated version of gB (gB-008) lacking the C-terminal 29 amino acids was used instead of wild-type gB. With gB-008, only gH was required in addition for fusion. A very rapid and extended fusion was observed after cotransfection of plasmids encoding gB-008 and gDH, a hybrid protein consisting of the N-terminal 271 amino acids of gD fused to the 590 C-terminal amino acids of gH. This protein has been shown to substitute for gH, gD, and gL function in the respective viral mutants (B. G. Klupp and T. C. Mettenleiter, J. Virol. 73:3014–3022, 1999). Cotransfection of plasmids encoding PrV gC, gE, gI, gK, and UL20 with gB-008 and gDH had no effect on fusion. However, inclusion of a gM-expressing plasmid strongly reduced the extent of fusion. An inhibitory effect was also observed after inclusion of plasmids encoding gM homologs of equine herpesvirus 1 or infectious laryngotracheitis virus but only in conjunction with expression of the gM complex partner, the gN homolog. Inhibition by PrV gM was not limited to PrV glycoprotein-mediated fusion but also affected fusion induced by the F protein of bovine

  9. Lubrication by glycoprotein brushes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappone, Bruno; Ruths, Marina; Greene, George W.; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Grafted polyelectrolyte brushes show excellent lubricating properties under water and have been proposed as a model to study boundary lubrication in biological system. Lubricin, a glycoprotein of the synovial fluid, is considered the major boundary lubricant of articular joints. Using the Surface Force Apparatus, we have measured normal and friction forces between model surfaces (negatively charged mica, positively charged poly-lysine and aminothiol, hydrophobic alkanethiol) bearing adsorbed layers of lubricin. Lubricin layers acts like a versatile anti-adhesive, adsorbing on all the surfaces considered and creating a repulsion similar to the force between end-grafted polymer brushes. Analogies with polymer brushes also appear from bridging experiment, where proteins molecules are end-adsorbed on two opposing surfaces at the same time. Lubricin `brushes' show good lubricating ability at low applied pressures (P<0.5MPa), especially on negatively charged surfaces like mica. At higher load, the adsorbed layers wears and fails lubricating the surfaces, while still protecting the underlying substrate from wearing. Lubricin might thus be a first example of biological polyelectrolytes providing `brush-like' lubrication and wear-protection.

  10. A facile and general approach for preparation of glycoprotein-imprinted magnetic nanoparticles with synergistic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In light of the significance of glycoprotein biomarkers for early clinical diagnostics and treatments of diseases, it is essential to develop efficient and selective enrichment platforms for glycoproteins. In this study, we present a facile and general strategy to prepare the boronate affinity-based magnetic imprinted nanoparticles. Boronic acid ligands were first grafted on the directly aldehyde-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles through amidation reaction. Then, template glycoproteins were immobilized on the boronic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles via boronate affinity binding. Subsequently, a thin layer of dopamine was formed to coat the surface of magnetic nanoparticles through self-polymerization. After the template glycoproteins were removed, the cavities that can specific bind the template glycoproteins were fabricated. Adopting horseradish peroxidase as model template, the effects of imprinting conditions as well as the properties and performance of the obtained products were investigated. The resultant imprinted materials exhibit highly favorable features, including uniform surface morphology with thin imprinted shell of about 8nm, super-paramagnetic property, fast kinetics of 40min, high adsorption capacity of 60.3mgg(-1), and satisfactory reusability for at least five cycles of adsorption-desorption without obvious deterioration. Meanwhile, the obtained magnetic imprinted nanoparticles could capture target glycoprotein from nonglycoproteins, but also from other glycoproteins because the synergistic selectivity of boronate affinity and imprinting effect. In addition, the facile preparation method shows feasibility in the imprinting of different glycoproteins. PMID:27130111

  11. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate ({sup 14}C)glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with ({sup 14}C)glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 {times} 10{sup 4} daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline.

  12. Histidine-rich glycoprotein inhibits contact activation of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, A B; Andersen, H F; Magnusson, S; Halkier, T

    1990-12-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein has been purified from bovine plasma employing two different purification procedures. The first procedure was one-step ion-exchange chromatography using phosphocellulose, while the second procedure involved fractionation using polyethyleneglycol 6000 followed by column chromatography employing CM-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose. The effect of purified bovine histidine-rich glycoprotein on the contact activation of blood coagulation was studied in human plasma by using as activating surface either an ellagic acid-phospholipid suspension (Cephotest) or sulfatide. Contact activation was monitored by the generation of amidolytic activity towards a synthetic chromogenic substrate (S-2302) for factor XIIa and plasma kallikrein. Bovine histidine-rich glycoprotein inhibits the contact activation induced by both of these activating surfaces. PMID:2084959

  13. Structures and Functions of Pestivirus Glycoproteins: Not Simply Surface Matters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fun-In; Deng, Ming-Chung; Huang, Yu-Liang; Chang, Chia-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Pestiviruses, which include economically important animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, possess three envelope glycoproteins, namely Erns, E1, and E2. This article discusses the structures and functions of these glycoproteins and their effects on viral pathogenicity in cells in culture and in animal hosts. E2 is the most important structural protein as it interacts with cell surface receptors that determine cell tropism and induces neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. All three glycoproteins are involved in virus attachment and entry into target cells. E1-E2 heterodimers are essential for viral entry and infectivity. Erns is unique because it possesses intrinsic ribonuclease (RNase) activity that can inhibit the production of type I interferons and assist in the development of persistent infections. These glycoproteins are localized to the virion surface; however, variations in amino acids and antigenic structures, disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, and RNase activity can ultimately affect the virulence of pestiviruses in animals. Along with mutations that are driven by selection pressure, antigenic differences in glycoproteins influence the efficacy of vaccines and determine the appropriateness of the vaccines that are currently being used in the field. PMID:26131960

  14. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  15. Arenavirus Stable Signal Peptide Is the Keystone Subunit for Glycoprotein Complex Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bederka, Lydia H.; Bonhomme, Cyrille J.; Ling, Emily L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rodent arenavirus glycoprotein complex encodes a stable signal peptide (SSP) that is an essential structural component of mature virions. The SSP, GP1, and GP2 subunits of the trimeric glycoprotein complex noncovalently interact to stud the surface of virions and initiate arenavirus infectivity. Nascent glycoprotein production undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events: first within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cleave SSP from the remaining precursor GP1/2 (glycoprotein complex [GPC]) glycoprotein and second within the Golgi stacks by the cellular SKI-1/S1P for GP1/2 processing to yield GP1 and GP2 subunits. Cleaved SSP is not degraded but retained as an essential glycoprotein subunit. Here, we defined functions of the 58-amino-acid lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) SSP in regard to glycoprotein complex processing and maturation. Using molecular biology techniques, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry, we detected SSP at the plasma membrane of transfected cells. Further, we identified a sorting signal (FLLL) near the carboxyl terminus of SSP that is required for glycoprotein maturation and trafficking. In the absence of SSP, the glycoprotein accumulated within the ER and was unable to undergo processing by SKI-1/S1P. Mutation of this highly conserved FLLL motif showed impaired glycoprotein processing and secretory pathway trafficking, as well as defective surface expression and pH-dependent membrane fusion. Immunoprecipitation of SSP confirmed an interaction between the signal peptide and the GP2 subunit; however, mutations within this FLLL motif disrupted the association of the GP1 subunit with the remaining glycoprotein complex. PMID:25352624

  16. Glycan analysis of therapeutic glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are glycoproteins produced by living cell systems. The glycan moieties attached to the proteins can directly affect protein stability, bioactivity, and immunogenicity. Therefore, glycan variants of a glycoprotein product must be adequately analyzed and controlled to ensure product quality. However, the inherent complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. This review provides an update of recent advances in glycan analysis, including the potential utility of lectin-based microarray for high throughput glycan profiling. Emphasis is placed on comparison of the major types of analytics for use in determining unique glycan features such as glycosylation site, glycan structure, and content. PMID:26599345

  17. DNA Methylation at the Neonatal State and at the Time of Diagnosis: Preliminary Support for an Association with the Estrogen Receptor 1, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor 1, and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Female Adolescent Patients with OCD

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Starnawska, Anna; Mattheisen, Manuel; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hollegaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Non-genetic factors and their interaction with genes have attracted increasing attention. Epigenetics is regarded an important interface between environmental signals and activation/repression of genomic responses. Epigenetic mechanisms have not previously been examined in OCD in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of selected genes in blood spots from neonates later diagnosed with OCD and in the same children/adolescents at the time of diagnosis compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the association of the differential methylation profiles with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome. Dried and new blood spot samples were obtained from 21 female children/adolescents with verified OCD and 12 female controls. The differential methylation was analyzed using a linear model and the correlation with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome was analyzed using the Pearson correlation. We evaluated selected Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip probes within and up to 100,000 bp up- and downstream of 14 genes previously associated with OCD (SLC1A1, SLC25A12, GABBR1, GAD1, DLGAP1, MOG, BDNF, OLIG2, NTRK2 and 3, ESR1, SL6A4, TPH2, and COMT). The study found no significantly differential methylation. However, preliminary support for a difference was found for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 (cg10234998, cg17099072) in blood samples at birth and for the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (cg10939667), the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (cg16650906), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (cg14080521) in blood samples at the time of diagnosis. Preliminary support for an association was observed between the methylation profiles of GABBR1 and MOG and baseline severity, treatment effect, and responder status; and between the methylation profile of ESR1 and baseline

  18. DNA Methylation at the Neonatal State and at the Time of Diagnosis: Preliminary Support for an Association with the Estrogen Receptor 1, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor 1, and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Female Adolescent Patients with OCD.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Starnawska, Anna; Mattheisen, Manuel; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hollegaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Non-genetic factors and their interaction with genes have attracted increasing attention. Epigenetics is regarded an important interface between environmental signals and activation/repression of genomic responses. Epigenetic mechanisms have not previously been examined in OCD in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of selected genes in blood spots from neonates later diagnosed with OCD and in the same children/adolescents at the time of diagnosis compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the association of the differential methylation profiles with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome. Dried and new blood spot samples were obtained from 21 female children/adolescents with verified OCD and 12 female controls. The differential methylation was analyzed using a linear model and the correlation with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome was analyzed using the Pearson correlation. We evaluated selected Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip probes within and up to 100,000 bp up- and downstream of 14 genes previously associated with OCD (SLC1A1, SLC25A12, GABBR1, GAD1, DLGAP1, MOG, BDNF, OLIG2, NTRK2 and 3, ESR1, SL6A4, TPH2, and COMT). The study found no significantly differential methylation. However, preliminary support for a difference was found for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 (cg10234998, cg17099072) in blood samples at birth and for the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (cg10939667), the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (cg16650906), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (cg14080521) in blood samples at the time of diagnosis. Preliminary support for an association was observed between the methylation profiles of GABBR1 and MOG and baseline severity, treatment effect, and responder status; and between the methylation profile of ESR1 and baseline

  19. Differential mode of interaction of ThioflavinT with native β structural motif in human α 1-acid glycoprotein and cross beta sheet of its amyloid: Biophysical and molecular docking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Nusrat, Saima; Alam, Parvez; Zaidi, Nida; Badr, Gamal; Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-08-01

    The present study details the interaction mechanism of Thioflavin T (ThT) to Human α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) applying various spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. Fluorescence quenching data revealed the binding constant in the order of 104 M-1 and the standard Gibbs free energy change value, ΔG = -6.78 kcal mol-1 for the interaction between ThT and AAG indicating process is spontaneous. There is increase in absorbance of AAG upon the interaction of ThT that may be due to ground state complex formation between ThT and AAG. ThT impelled rise in β-sheet structure in AAG as observed from far-UV CD spectra while there are minimal changes in tertiary structure of the protein. DLS results suggested the reduction in AAG molecular size, ligand entry into the central binding pocket of AAG may have persuaded the molecular compaction in AAG. Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) results showed the interaction process to be endothermic with the values of standard enthalpy change ΔH0 = 4.11 kcal mol-1 and entropy change TΔS0 = 10.82 kcal.mol- 1. Moreover, docking results suggested hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding played the important role in the binding process of ThT with F1S and A forms of AAG. ThT fluorescence emission at 485 nm was measured for properly folded native form and for thermally induced amyloid state of AAG. ThT fluorescence with native AAG was very low, while on the other hand with amyloid induced state of the protein AAG showed a positive emission peak at 485 nm upon the excitation at 440 nm, although it binds to native state as well. These results confirmed that ThT binding alone is not responsible for enhancement of ThT fluorescence but it also required beta stacked sheet structure found in protein amyloid to give proper signature signal for amyloid. This study gives the mechanistic insight into the differential interaction of ThT with beta structures found in native state of the proteins and amyloid forms, this study reinforce

  20. Glycoprotein secretion in a tracheal organ culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Warunek, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Glycoprotein secretion in the rat trachea was studied in vitro, utilizing a modified, matrix embed/perfusion chamber. Baseline parameters of the culture environment were determined by enzymatic and biochemical procedures. The effect of pilocarpine on the release of labelled glycoproteins from the tracheal epithelium was assessed. After a single stimulation with the drug, there was a significant increase in the release of /sup 14/C-glucosamine and /sup 3/H-fucose-labelled glycoprotein. The response was dose-dependent. Similar results were obtained after a second exposure to pilocarpine. However, no dose response was observed. Morphological analyses of the tracheal epithelial secretory cells by Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff staining showed a significant decrease in the total number of Alcian Blue staining cells and an increase in the mixed cell population after a single exposure to pilocarpine. Second stimulation with the drug showed that the trachea was able to respond again, this time with a further decrease in the number of Alcian Blue staining cells and a decrease in the PAS staining cells as well. Carbohydrate analyses after the first simulation with pilocarpine showed increased levels of N-acetyl neuraminic acid and the neutral carbohydrates, fucose and galactose, in the precipitated glycoproteins.

  1. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.; Kaizu, T.

    1980-04-01

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with (3H) glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques.

  2. Square-wave voltammetry assays for glycoproteins on nanoporous gold.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Binod; Bhattarai, Jay K; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Fujikawa, Kohki; Catania, Rosa; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2014-03-15

    Electrochemical enzyme-linked lectinsorbent assays (ELLA) were developed using nanoporous gold (NPG) as a solid support for protein immobilization and as an electrode for the electrochemical determination of the product of the reaction between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and p-aminophenyl phosphate (p-APP), which is p-aminophenol (p-AP). Glycoproteins or concanavalin A (Con A) and ALP conjugates were covalently immobilized onto lipoic acid self-assembled monolayers on NPG. The binding of Con A - ALP (or soybean agglutinin - ALP) conjugate to glycoproteins covalently immobilized on NPG and subsequent incubation with p-APP substrate was found to result in square-wave voltammograms whose peak difference current varied with the identity of the glycoprotein. NPG presenting covalently bound glycoproteins was used as the basis for a competitive electrochemical assay for glycoproteins in solution (transferrin and IgG). A kinetic ELLA based on steric hindrance of the enzyme-substrate reaction and hence reduced enzymatic reaction rate after glycoprotein binding is demonstrated using immobilized Con A-ALP conjugates. Using the immobilized Con A-ALP conjugate, the binding affinity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found to be 105 nM, and that for transferrin was found to be 650 nM. Minimal interference was observed in the presence of 5 mg mL(-1) BSA as a model serum protein in both the kinetic and competitive ELLA. Inhibition studies were performed with methyl D-mannoside for the binding of TSF and IgG to Con A-ALP; IC50 values were found to be 90 μM and 286 μM, respectively. Surface coverages of proteins were estimated using solution depletion and the BCA protein concentration assay. PMID:24611035

  3. Square-wave voltammetry assays for glycoproteins on nanoporous gold

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Binod; Bhattarai, Jay K.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Fujikawa, Kohki; Catania, Rosa; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical enzyme-linked lectinsorbent assays (ELLA) were developed using nanoporous gold (NPG) as a solid support for protein immobilization and as an electrode for the electrochemical determination of the product of the reaction between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and p-aminophenyl phosphate (p-APP), which is p-aminophenol (p-AP). Glycoproteins or concanavalin A (Con A) and ALP conjugates were covalently immobilized onto lipoic acid self-assembled monolayers on NPG. The binding of Con A – ALP (or soybean agglutinin – ALP) conjugate to glycoproteins covalently immobilized on NPG and subsequent incubation with p-APP substrate was found to result in square-wave voltammograms whose peak difference current varied with the identity of the glycoprotein. NPG presenting covalently bound glycoproteins was used as the basis for a competitive electrochemical assay for glycoproteins in solution (transferrin and IgG). A kinetic ELLA based on steric hindrance of the enzyme-substrate reaction and hence reduced enzymatic reaction rate after glycoprotein binding is demonstrated using immobilized Con A–ALP conjugates. Using the immobilized Con A-ALP conjugate, the binding affinity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found to be 105 nM, and that for transferrin was found to be 650 nM. Minimal interference was observed in the presence of 5 mg mL−1 BSA as a model serum protein in both the kinetic and competitive ELLA. Inhibition studies were performed with methyl D-mannoside for the binding of TSF and IgG to Con A-ALP; IC50 values were found to be 90 μM and 286 μM, respectively. Surface coverages of proteins were estimated using solution depletion and the BCA protein concentration assay. PMID:24611035

  4. Pre-staining of glycoprotein in SDS-PAGE by the synthesis of a new hydrazide derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ayi; Zhou, Tieli; Yu, Dongdong; Shen, Yingjie; Shen, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhongxin; Jin, Litai; Zhang, Huajie; Wang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a new hydrazide derivative (UGF202) was synthesized and introduced as a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent probe to pre-stain glycoproteins in 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE. As low as 0.5-1 ng glycoproteins (transferrin, α1-acid glycoprotein, avidin) could be selectively detected, which is comparable to that of Pro-Q Emerald 300 stain, one of the most sensitive and commonly used glycoprotein staining kit. In addition, the specificity of the newly developed method was confirmed by the study of de-glycosylation, glycoproteins affinity enrichment and LC-MS/MS, respectively. According to the results, it is concluded that UGF202 pre-stain can provide an alternative for the visualization of gel-separated glycoproteins. PMID:26256282

  5. A comparative study of the major glycoprotein isolated from normal and neoplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Schrager, J; Oates, M D

    1973-04-01

    The isolation and composition of glycoproteins from mucosae of normal stomachs, of stomachs with gastric ulcer, and of stomachs with carcinoma is described. The glycoproteins from the mucosae of normal stomachs and with gastric ulcer showed virtually the same carbohydrate and amino acid content as the principal gastric glycoprotein isolated from gastric aspirates. They all revealed a common basic carbohydrate composition: galactose, fucose, glucosamine, and galactosamine were present in approximate molar ratios of 4:3:3:1. THE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT THE GLYCOPROTEINS ISOLATED FROM GASTRIC ASPIRATES FROM NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC GASTRIC MUCOSAE SHARE A NUMBER OF STRUCTURAL FEATURES: (1) a protein core with a characteristic amino acid composition; (2) the range of sugars forming the carbohydrate side chains; (3) galactosamine approximately equimolar with the sum of threonine and serine; (4) galactose approximately equimolar with the sum of glucosamine and galactosamine; (5) absence of mannose; (6) a high carbohydrate content (80-85%); and (7) blood group activity. The neoplastic glycoproteins differed from the normal glycoproteins in that the quantitative relationships of the carbohydrate components of the neoplastic glycoproteins showed variations dividing the extracts investigated into groups, each group with a distinctive and constant carbohydrate composition. The blood group specificity of 15 out of 24 cases investigated differed from that of the hosts' red cells. PMID:4706916

  6. Rabbit Tamm–Horsfall urinary glycoprotein. Chemical composition and subunit structure

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Anne M. S.; Neuberger, A.; Ratcliffe, Wendy A.

    1971-01-01

    1. Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein from rabbit urine has been isolated and characterized. The homogeneity of the preparation has been established by a variety of procedures including disc gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation in aqueous solution, sodium dodecyl sulphate and formic acid. 2. The chemical composition has been determined and a carbohydrate content of approx. 31% was obtained. The relative contents of the amino acids were shown to be very similar to those in human Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein. A trace of lipid was also detected. 3. Leucine was identified as the only N-terminal amino acid. 4. The subunit structure was investigated in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate by gel filtration and disc gel electrophoresis. These studies indicated that the subunit possessed a molecular weight of approx. 84000±6000. A similar value was obtained after reduction and S-alkylation of the glycoprotein indicating that the disulphide bonds were all intrachain. 5. A minimum value for the chemical molecular weight of 85000±6000 was obtained from the number of N-terminal amino acids released by cyanogen bromide cleavage of the glycoprotein. 6. The immunological properties of the glycoprotein were studied. Cross reactivity was demonstrated between human Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein and a guinea-pig anti-rabbit Tamm–Horsfall antiserum. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:5129252

  7. Investigation of binding mechanism of novel 8-substituted coumarin derivatives with human serum albumin and α-1-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yeggoni, Daniel Pushpa Raju; Manidhar, Darla Mark; Suresh Reddy, Cirandur; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2016-09-01

    Coumarin molecules have biological activities possessing lipid-controlling activity, anti-hepatitis C activity, anti-diabetic, anti-Parkinson activity, and anti-cancer activity. Here, we have presented an inclusive study on the interaction of 8-substituted-7-hydroxy coumarin derivatives (Umb-1/Umb-2) with α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) and human serum albumin (HSA) which are the major carrier proteins in the human blood plasma. Binding constants obtained from fluorescence emission data were found to be KUmb-1=3.1 ± .01 × 10(4) M(-1), KUmb-2 = 7 ± .01 × 10(4) M(-1), which corresponds to -6.1 and -6.5 kcal/mol of free energy for Umb-1 and Umb-2, respectively, suggesting that these derivatives bind strongly to HSA. Also these molecules bind to AGP with binding constants of KUmb-1-AGP=3.1 ± .01 × 10(3) M(-1) and KUmb-2-AGP = 4.6 ± .01 × 10(3) M(-1). Further, the distance, r between the donor (HSA) and acceptor (Umb-1/Umb-2) was calculated based on the Forster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer and the values were observed to be 1.14 and 1.29 nm in Umb-1-HSA and Umb-2-HSA system, respectively. The protein secondary structure of HSA was partially unfolded upon binding of Umb-1 and Umb-2. Furthermore, site displacement experiments with lidocaine, phenylbutazone (IIA), and ibuprofen (IIIA) proves that Umb derivatives significantly bind to subdomain IIIA of HSA which is further supported by docking studies. Furthermore, Umb-1 binds to LYS402 with one hydrogen bond distance of 2.8 Å and Umb-2 binds to GLU354 with one hydrogen bond at a distance of 2.0 Å. Moreover, these molecules are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl groups of carbon-3 of coumarin derivatives. PMID:26440860

  8. Novel bifidobacterial glycosidases acting on sugar chains of mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Takane; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2005-05-01

    Bifidobacterium bifidum was found to produce a specific 1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase. Its gene (afc A) has been cloned and the DNA sequence was determined. The Afc A protein consisting of 1959 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 205 kDa can be divided into three domains; the N-terminal function-unknown domain (576 aa), the catalytic domain (898 aa), and the C-terminal bacterial Ig-like domain (485 aa). The recombinant catalytic domain specifically hydrolyzed the terminal alpha-(1-->2)-fucosidic linkages of various oligosaccharides and sugar chains of glycoproteins. The primary structure of the catalytic domain exhibited no similarity to those of any glycoside hydrolases but showed similarity to those of several hypothetical proteins in a database, which resulted in establishment of a novel glycoside hydrolase family (GH family 95). Several bifidobacteria were found to produce a specific endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, which is the endoglycosidase liberating the O-glycosidically linked galactosyl beta1-->3 N-acetylgalactosamine disaccharide from mucin glycoprotein. The molecular cloning of endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was carried out on Bifidobacterium longum based on the information in the database. The gene was found to comprise 1966 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 210 kDa. The recombinant protein released galactosyl beta1-->3 N-acetylgalactosamine disaccharide from natural glycoproteins. This enzyme of B. longum is believed to be involved in the catabolism of oligosaccharide of intestinal mucin glycoproteins. Both 1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase and endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase are novel and specific enzymes acting on oligosaccharides that exist mainly in mucin glycoproteins. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that bifidobacteria produce these enzymes to preferentially utilize the oligosaccharides present in the intestinal ecosystem. PMID:16233817

  9. Bio-vaterite formation by glycoproteins from freshwater pearls.

    PubMed

    Natoli, Antonino; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz-Christoph; Stifanic, Mauro; Batel, Renato; Soldati, Analia L; Jacob, Dorrit E; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-06-01

    A 48 kDa acidic and putative calcium-binding glycoprotein was isolated from pearls of the freshwater mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. This protein was compared with a related 46 kDa polypeptide, obtained from the nacreous shell of the same species. Separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the difference in molecular weight is due to the higher extent of glycosylation of the 48 kDa protein existing in pearls. Evidence is presented that the sugar moieties of the protein contribute to crystal growth, starting with the nucleation step. In in vitro precipitation experiments, the 48 kDa glycoprotein of pearls directed the formation of round-shaped vaterite crystals while the 46 kDa glycoprotein of shells promoted formation of small irregular calcite particles. Furthermore, both proteins, 48 kDa/46 kDa, comprised carbonic anhydrase activity that has been implicated in CaCO(3) formation. Thus, a function of the isolated glycoproteins in biomineralization is proposed together with the mechanism by which they can stabilize different calcium carbonate polymorphs. PMID:20171896

  10. QUANTITATIVE MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS COMBINED WITH ENRICHMENT METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148–165, 2015. PMID:24889823

  11. High efficiency labeling of glycoproteins on living cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ying; Ramya, T. N. C.; Dirksen, Anouk; Dawson, Philip E.; Paulson, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a simple method for efficiently labeling cell surface glycans on virtually any living animal cell. The method employs mild Periodate oxidation to generate an aldehyde on sialic acids, followed by Aniline-catalyzed oxime Ligation with a suitable tag (PAL). Aniline catalysis dramatically accelerates oxime ligation, allowing use of low concentrations of aminooxy-biotin at neutral pH to label the majority of cell surface glycoproteins while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:19234450

  12. Effects of pronase and neuraminidase treatment on a myelin-associated glycoprotein in developing brain.

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, R H

    1976-01-01

    Rats (14 days old) were injected with [14c]fucose and young adult rats with [3H]fucose in order to label the myelin-associated glycoproteins. As previously reported, the major [14C]fucose-labelled glycoprotein in the immature myelin had a higher apparent molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels that the [3H]fucose-labelled glycoprotein in mature myelin. This predominant doubly labelled glycoprotein component was partially purified by preparative gel electrophoresis and converted to glycopeptides by extensive Pronase digestion. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 separated the glycopeptides into several clases, which were designted A,B, C AND D, from high to low molecular weight. The 14C-labelled glycopeptides from immature myeline were enriched in the highest-molecular-weight class A relative to the 3H-labelled glycopeptides from mature myelin. Neuraminidase treatment of the glycoprotein before Pronase digestion greatly decreased the proportion of glycopeptides fractionating in the higher-molecular-weight classes and largely eliminated the developmental differences that were apparent by gel filtration. However, neuraminidase treatment did not decrease the magnitude of the developmental difference revealed by electrophoresing the intact glycoprotein on sodium dodecyl sulphate gels, although it did decrease the apparent molecular weight of the glycoprotein from both the 15-day-old and adult rats by an amount comparable in magnitude to that developmental difference. The results from gel filtration of glycopeptides indicate that there is a higher content of large molecular weight, sialic acid-rich oligosaccharide units in the glycoprotein of immature myelin. However, the higher apparent molecular weight for the glycoprotein from 15-day-old rats on sodium dodcyl sulphate gels is not due primarily to its higher sialic acid content. PMID:942396

  13. Importance of the short cytoplasmic domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein for fusion activity and envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions

    SciTech Connect

    Celma, Cristina C.P.; Paladino, Monica G.; Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Affranchino, Jose L.

    2007-09-30

    The mature form of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein of lentiviruses is a heterodimer composed of the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) possesses a TM glycoprotein with a cytoplasmic tail of approximately 53 amino acids which is unusually short compared with that of the other lentiviral glycoproteins (more than 100 residues). To investigate the relevance of the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain to Env-mediated viral functions, we characterized the biological properties of a series of Env glycoproteins progressively shortened from the carboxyl terminus. All the mutant Env proteins were efficiently expressed in feline cells and processed into the SU and TM subunits. Deletion of 5 or 11 amino acids from the TM C-terminus did not significantly affect Env surface expression, fusogenic activity or Env incorporation into virions, whereas removal of 17 or 23 residues impaired Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Further truncation of the FIV TM by 29 residues resulted in an Env glycoprotein that was poorly expressed at the cell surface, exhibited only 20% of the wild-type Env fusogenic capacity and was inefficiently incorporated into virions. Remarkably, deletion of the TM C-terminal 35 or 41 amino acids restored or even enhanced Env biological functions. Indeed, these mutant Env glycoproteins bearing cytoplasmic domains of 18 or 12 amino acids were found to be significantly more fusogenic than the wild-type Env and were efficiently incorporated into virions. Interestingly, truncation of the TM cytoplasmic domain to only 6 amino acids did not affect Env incorporation into virions but abrogated Env fusogenicity. Finally, removal of the entire TM cytoplasmic tail or deletion of as many as 6 amino acids into the membrane-spanning domain led to a complete loss of Env functions. Our results demonstrate that despite its relatively short length, the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain plays an important role in modulating Env-mediated viral functions.

  14. Phosphorylation of the multidrug resistance associated glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Mellado, W.; Horwitz, S.B.

    1987-11-03

    Drug-resistant cell lines derived from the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774.2 express the multidrug resistant phenotype which includes the overexpression of a membrane glycoprotein (130-140 kilodaltons). Phosphorylation of this resistant-specific glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein) in intact cells and in cell-free membrane fractions has been studied. The phosphorylated glycoprotein can be immunoprecipitated by a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for the glycoprotein. Phosphorylation studies done with partially purified membrane fractions derived from colchicine-resistant cells indicated that (a) phosphorylation of the glycoprotein in 1 mM MgCl/sub 2/ was enhanced a minimum of 2-fold by 10 ..mu..M cAMP and (b) the purified catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) phosphorylated partially purified glycoprotein that was not phosphorylated by (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP alone, suggesting that autophosphorylation was not involved. These results indicate that the glycoprotein is a phosphoprotein and that at least one of the kinases responsible for its phosphorylation is a membrane-associated protein kinase A. The state of phosphorylation of the glycoprotein, which is a major component of the multidrug resistance phenotype, may be related to the role of the glycoprotein in maintaining drug resistance.

  15. Phosphorylation of the multidrug resistance associated glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Mellado, W; Horwitz, S B

    1987-11-01

    Drug-resistant cell lines derived from the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774.2 express the multidrug resistance phenotype which includes the overexpression of a membrane glycoprotein (130-140 kilodaltons). Phosphorylation of this resistant-specific glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein) in intact cells and in cell-free membrane fractions has been studied. The phosphorylated glycoprotein can be immunoprecipitated by a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for the glycoprotein. Phosphorylation studies done with partially purified membrane fractions derived from colchicine-resistant cells indicated that (a) phosphorylation of the glycoprotein in 1 mM MgCl2 was enhanced a minimum of 2-fold by 10 microM cAMP and (b) the purified catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) phosphorylated partially purified glycoprotein that was not phosphorylated by [gamma-32P]ATP alone, suggesting that autophosphorylation was not involved. These results indicate that the glycoprotein is a phosphoprotein and that at least one of the kinases responsible for its phosphorylation is a membrane-associated protein kinase A. The state of phosphorylation of the glycoprotein, which is a major component of the multidrug resistance phenotype, may be related to the role of the glycoprotein in maintaining drug resistance. PMID:3427052

  16. Sialylation sensitive bands in the Raman spectra of oligosaccharides and glycoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikov, V.; Kryukov, E.; Kovner, M.; Ermishov, M.; Tuzikov, A.; Shiyan, S.; Bovin, N.; Nabiev, I.

    1999-05-01

    N-Acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid which plays a key role in process of cell recognition and interaction was studied by Raman spectroscopy. It was revealed that the strong band at 873 cm -1 arising from the glycerol fragment vibrations can be used as a Raman marker of sialic acid. In the Raman spectra of oligosaccharides and glycoproteins this band is observed at 880 cm -1. The strong dependence of the 880 cm -1 band intensity on the sialic acid ( Sia) content in α 1-acid glycoprotein was shown. The data demonstrate the possibility to use Raman spectroscopy approach as a simple and non-destructive assay for the rapid registration and quantification of Sia in the glycoproteins and on the membranes of the living cells.

  17. Preparation of Concanavalin A-Chelating Magnetic Nanoparticles for Selective Enrichment of Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liping; Feng, Shun; Li, Shanshan; Song, Peipei; Wang, Jide

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a soft and nondestructive approach was developed to prepare concanavalin A-chelating magnetic nanoparticles (Con A-MNPs) for selective enrichment of glycoproteins. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-modified-MNPs (EDTA-MNPs) were prepared by a one-pot chemical coprecipitation method first, and then, Cu(II) cations were used as bridge groups to immobilize Con A on EDTA-MNPs. The as-prepared absorbents with a mean diameter of 15 nm showed a strong magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field. The results of thermogravimetric analysis showed the content of immobilized Con A was up to 28 wt %. For glycoprotein ovalbumin, the maximum capacity and equilibrium constant were 72.41 mg/g and 0.6035 L/mg, respectively. The as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited a remarkable selectivity for glycoproteins and can enrich glycoproteins specifically from a mixture of glycoprotein and nonglycoprotein even at a molar ratio of 1:600. It was also successfully applied for the enrichment of glycoproteins from real egg white samples. We expect that our finding will serve as a helpful template for others to design new adsorbents for enriching glycoproteins. PMID:26066908

  18. Structural and functional attributes of zona pellucida glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Satish K; Chakravarty, Sanchita; Suraj, K; Bansal, Pankaj; Ganguly, Anasua; Jain, Manish K; Bhandari, Beena

    2007-01-01

    A translucent matrix termed the zona pellucida (ZP) surrounds the mammalian oocyte. It plays a critical role in fertilization by acting as a "docking site" for binding of spermatozoa followed by induction of the acrosome reaction in the zona bound sperm. Recent analyses of the genes of the human oocyte revealed that the ZP matrix is composed of four glycoproteins, designated as ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4, instead of 3 found in the mouse ZP. Comparison of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the human ZP glycoproteins with those from various species, revealed that these are evolutionarily conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZP1 and ZP4 may be related as these have the highest sequence identity at the aa level within a given species. Each zona protein has a signal sequence driving these proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, a aproximately 260 aa long 'ZP domain' comprising of 8-10 conserved cysteine residues, a C-terminal, hydrophobic transmembrane-like region and a short cytoplasmic tail. In order to understand the structure-function relationship of human ZP glycoproteins, our lab has cloned and expressed ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 proteins both in E. coli as well as baculovirus expression systems. Simultaneously, our group has been able to amplify the cDNA encoding human ZP1. Employing baculovirus-expressed recombinant ZP glycoproteins; our group has provided evidence for the first time that in human, in addition to ZP3, ZP4 is also able to induce acrosomal exocytosis in the capacitated spermatozoa. ZP3 mediated induction of the acrosome reaction can be inhibited by pertussis toxin suggesting the involvement of G, protein in downstream signaling in contrast to ZP4, which follows a G, protein independent pathway. Hence, elucidation of the role of individual ZP glycoproteins in humans will provide a better insight into the gamete interaction culminating in fertilization. PMID:17566274

  19. Improved tryptic digestion assisted with an acid-labile anionic surfactant for the separation and characterization of glycopeptide glycoforms of a proteolytic-resistant glycoprotein by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Albert; Giménez, Estela; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Certain glycoproteins are rather difficult to digest due to compacted tertiary or quaternary structures. In a previous study, a capillary LC coupled to TOF-MS (μLC-TOF-MS) method was developed for the detection and characterization of the glycopeptide glycoforms of human transferrin (Tf), a proteolytic resistant glycoprotein, in serum samples. After immunoaffinity purification, Tf was digested with trypsin in the presence of RapiGest(®) and μLC-TOF-MS analyses permitted to detect the N413 and N611 glycopeptide glycoforms. Conversely, the use of this surfactant, albeit mandatory to quantitatively digest the isolated Tf, proved detrimental to CE-TOF-MS analysis due to its interaction with the inner surface of the silica capillary walls. As CE is usually regarded as an interesting alternative to other separation techniques (low consumption of reagents, excellent separation efficiency, and reduced analysis times), in this work, the undesirable interferences of the surfactant have been removed to allow the correct separation and detection of Tf glycoforms by CE-TOF-MS. Moreover, the digestion protocol described by the RapiGest(®) manufacturer has been modified to minimize desialylation of Tf glycopeptide glycoforms. The new developed CE-TOF-MS methodology has been then compared with the former μLC-TOF-MS by means of sensitivity and separation efficiency of Tf glycopeptide glycoforms in the standard glycoprotein. Additionally, Tf glycopeptide glycoforms from serum of healthy volunteers and patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation have also been analyzed following the developed methodology. PMID:26331950

  20. Effect of glycoprotein-processing inhibitors on fucosylation of glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, P.M.; Elbein, A.D.

    1985-11-25

    Influenza viral hemagglutinin contains L-fucose linked alpha 1,6 to some of the innermost GlcNAc residues of the complex oligosaccharides. To determine what structural features of the oligosaccharide were required for fucosylation influenza virus-infected MDCK cells were incubated in the presence of various inhibitors of glycoprotein processing to stop trimming at different points. After several hours of incubation with the inhibitors, (5,6-TH)fucose and (1- UC)mannose were added to label the glycoproteins, and cells were incubated in inhibitor and isotope for about 40 h to produce mature virus. Glycopeptides were prepared from the viral and the cellular glycoproteins, and these glycopeptides were isolated by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-4. The glycopeptides were then digested with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H and rechromatographed on the Bio-Gel column. In the presence of castanospermine or 2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine, both inhibitors of glucosidase I, most of the radioactive mannose was found in Glc3Man7-9GlcNAc structures, and these did not contain radioactive fucose. In the presence of deoxymannojirimycin, an inhibitor of mannosidase I, most of the ( UC)mannose was in a Man9GlcNAc structure which was also not fucosylated. However, in the presence of swainsonine, an inhibitor of mannosidase II, the ( UC)mannose was mostly in hybrid types of oligosaccharides, and these structures also contained radioactive fucose. Treatment of the hybrid structures with endoglucosaminidase H released the (TH)fucose as a small peptide (Fuc-GlcNAc-peptide), whereas the ( UC)mannose remained with the oligosaccharide. The data support the conclusion that the addition of fucose linked alpha 1,6 to the asparagine-linked GlcNAc is dependent upon the presence of a beta 1,2-GlcNAc residue on the alpha 1,3-mannose branch of the core structure.

  1. Functional roles of membrane glycoprotein CD36.

    PubMed

    Daviet, L; McGregor, J L

    1996-01-01

    Cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are mediated by a number of membrane glycoproteins. On the basis of structural homologies, several families of cell adhesion molecules (integrins, selectins, immunoglobulins, cadherins, leucine-rich glycoproteins) have been established. Since 1991, a new family of CD36-like proteins has been identified. CD36 is a cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a large variety of ligands. CD36 has been implicated in thrombosis, vascular biology, lipid metabolism and atherogenesis. In this review, we aim to summarize our present knowledge on this important, multifunctional glycoprotein. PMID:21043590

  2. Altered intracellular pH regulation in cells with high levels of P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Young, Gregory; Reuss, Luis; Altenberg, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding-cassette transporter that pumps many structurally unrelated drugs out of cells through an ATP-dependent mechanism. As a result, multidrug-resistant cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein have reduced intracellular steady-state levels of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, increased cytosolic pH has been a frequent finding in multidrug-resistant cells that express P-glycoprotein, and it has been proposed that this consequence of P-glycoprotein expression may contribute to the lower intracellular levels of chemotherapeutic agents. In these studies, we measured intracellular pH and the rate of acid extrusion in response to an acid load in two cells with very different levels of P-glycoprotein expression: V79 parental cells and LZ-8 multidrug resistant cells. Compared to the wild-type V79 cells, LZ-8 cells have a lower intracellular pH and a slower recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load. The data also show that LZ-8 cells have reduced ability to extrude acid, probably due to a decrease in Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity. The alterations in intracellular pH and acid extrusion in LZ-8 cells are reversed by 24-h exposure to the multidrug-resistance modulator verapamil. The lower intracellular pH in LZ-8 indicates that intracellular alkalinization is not necessary for multidrug resistance. The reversal by verapamil of the decreased acid-extrusion suggests that P-glycoprotein can affect other membrane transport mechanism. PMID:22003434

  3. Preferential antagonism of the interactions of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 with immobilized glycoprotein ligands by snake-venom RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) proteins. Evidence supporting a functional role for the amino acid residues flanking the tripeptide RGD in determining the inhibitory properties of snake-venom RGD proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, X; Williams, J A; Deadman, J J; Salmon, G P; Kakkar, V V; Wilkinson, J M; Baruch, D; Authi, K S; Rahman, S

    1994-01-01

    The inhibitory properties of a panel of snake-venom-derived RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) proteins, including the disintegrins kistrin, elegantin and albolabrin, and the neurotoxin homologue dendroaspin, were investigated in a platelet-adhesion assay using three immobilized ligands of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (alpha IIb beta 3), namely fibrinogen, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF). The snake-venom proteins preferentially inhibited the adhesion of ADP-treated platelets to one or more of the immobilized ligands. Kistrin and dendroaspin exhibited similar inhibitory characteristics, abrogating platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and vWF at nanomolar concentrations, but poorly inhibiting adhesion to fibronectin. Kistrin and dendroaspin share little overall amino-acid-sequence identity, but a considerable level of sequence similarity exists around the RGD tripeptide. Synthetic cyclic peptides corresponding to these regions of kistrin and dendroaspin inhibited platelet adhesion to both fibrinogen and fibronectin with approximately equal potency, but were 100-fold weaker antagonists of the interactions of the alpha IIb beta 3 complex with fibrinogen than their parent proteins. The disintegrins elegantin and albolabrin, which share approx. 60% overall amino-acid-sequence similarity with kistrin but have different residues around the RGD tripeptide, exhibited different antagonistic preferences. Elegantin inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized vWF and fibronectin, but was significantly less effective at disrupting adhesion to fibrinogen. Albolabrin selectively inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized vWF and was less effective with fibrinogen and fibronectin as adhesive ligands. In contrast with the behaviour of these venom proteins, the adhesion of ADP-treated platelets to immobilized fibrinogen, fibronectin and vWF was inhibited non-selectively by a range of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for the alpha IIb beta 3 complex. These observations, therefore

  4. A double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence sensing material for glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Yun, Yaguang; Hu, Yongjin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-11-15

    A novel strategy was developed to prepare double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence material for highly specific enrichment and sensing of glycoprotein. The novel double responsive smart sensing material was synthesized by choosing Horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as modal protein, the grapheme oxide (GO) as support material, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as fluorescence signal reporter, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as functional monomers. The structure and component of smart sensing material was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respectively. These results illustrated the smart sensing material was prepared successfully. The recognition characterizations of smart sensing material were evaluated, and results showed that the fluorescence intensity of smart sensing material was reduced gradually, as the concentration of protein increased, and the smart sensing material showed selective recognition for HRP among other proteins. Furthermore, the recognition ability of the smart sensing material for glycoprotein was regulated by controlling the pH value and temperature. Therefore, this strategy opens up new way to construct smart material for detection of glycoprotein. PMID:27236725

  5. Glycoproteins That Exhibit Extensive Size Polymorphisms in Dictyostelium Discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E.; Gooley, A. A.; Hudson, G. C.; Williams, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Electrophoretic variants which arise from amino acid substitutions, leading to charge differences between proteins are ubiquitous and have been used extensively for genetic analysis. Less well documented are polymorphisms in the size of proteins. Here we report that a group of glycoproteins, which share a common carbohydrate epitope, vary in size in different isolates of the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum. One of these proteins, PsA, a developmentally regulated prespore-specific surface glycoprotein, has previously been shown to exist in three size forms due to allelic variation at the pspA locus on linkage group I. In this report, a second glycoprotein, PsB, which is also prespore specific but found inside prespore cells, is studied. PsB maps to linkage group II and exhibits at least four different sizes in the isolates examined. We propose that the size polymorphisms are the product of allelic variation at the pspB locus, due to differences in the number of repeat units. PMID:2731733

  6. Rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein expression levels are not critical for pathogenicity of RV.

    PubMed

    Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J

    2011-01-01

    Previous comparisons of different rabies virus (RV) strains suggested an inverse relationship between pathogenicity and the amount of glycoprotein produced in infected cells. In order to provide more insight into this relationship, we pursued an experimental approach that allowed us to alter the glycoprotein expression level without altering the glycoprotein sequence, thereby eliminating the contribution of amino acid changes to differences in viral virulence. To this end, we constructed an infectious clone of the highly pathogenic rabies virus strain CVS-N2c and replaced its cognate glycoprotein gene with synthetic versions in which silent mutations were introduced to replace wild-type codons with the most or least frequently used synonymous codons. A recombinant N2c variant containing the fully codon-optimized G gene and three variants carrying a partially codon-deoptimized G gene were recovered on mouse neuroblastoma cells and shown to express 2- to 3-fold more and less glycoprotein, respectively, than wild-type N2c. Pathogenicity studies in mice revealed the WT-N2c virus to be the most pathogenic strain. Variants containing partially codon-deoptimized glycoprotein genes or the codon-optimized gene were less pathogenic than WT-N2c but still caused significant mortality. We conclude that the expression level of the glycoprotein gene does have an impact on pathogenicity but is not a dominant factor that determines pathogenicity. Thus, strategies such as changes in codon usage that aim solely at altering the expression level of the glycoprotein gene do not suffice to render a pathogenic rabies virus apathogenic and are not a viable and safe approach for attenuation of a pathogenic strain. PMID:21068252

  7. Rabies Virus (RV) Glycoprotein Expression Levels Are Not Critical for Pathogenicity of RV▿

    PubMed Central

    Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous comparisons of different rabies virus (RV) strains suggested an inverse relationship between pathogenicity and the amount of glycoprotein produced in infected cells. In order to provide more insight into this relationship, we pursued an experimental approach that allowed us to alter the glycoprotein expression level without altering the glycoprotein sequence, thereby eliminating the contribution of amino acid changes to differences in viral virulence. To this end, we constructed an infectious clone of the highly pathogenic rabies virus strain CVS-N2c and replaced its cognate glycoprotein gene with synthetic versions in which silent mutations were introduced to replace wild-type codons with the most or least frequently used synonymous codons. A recombinant N2c variant containing the fully codon-optimized G gene and three variants carrying a partially codon-deoptimized G gene were recovered on mouse neuroblastoma cells and shown to express 2- to 3-fold more and less glycoprotein, respectively, than wild-type N2c. Pathogenicity studies in mice revealed the WT-N2c virus to be the most pathogenic strain. Variants containing partially codon-deoptimized glycoprotein genes or the codon-optimized gene were less pathogenic than WT-N2c but still caused significant mortality. We conclude that the expression level of the glycoprotein gene does have an impact on pathogenicity but is not a dominant factor that determines pathogenicity. Thus, strategies such as changes in codon usage that aim solely at altering the expression level of the glycoprotein gene do not suffice to render a pathogenic rabies virus apathogenic and are not a viable and safe approach for attenuation of a pathogenic strain. PMID:21068252

  8. Modulation of heparin cofactor II activity by histidine-rich glycoprotein and platelet factor 4.

    PubMed Central

    Tollefsen, D M; Pestka, C A

    1985-01-01

    Heparin cofactor II is a plasma protein that inhibits thrombin rapidly in the presence of either heparin or dermatan sulfate. We have determined the effects of two glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins, i.e., histidine-rich glycoprotein and platelet factor 4, on these reactions. Inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II and heparin was completely prevented by purified histidine-rich glycoprotein at the ratio of 13 micrograms histidine-rich glycoprotein/microgram heparin. In contrast, histidine-rich glycoprotein had no effect on inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II and dermatan sulfate at ratios of less than or equal to 128 micrograms histidine-rich glycoprotein/microgram dermatan sulfate. Removal of 85-90% of the histidine-rich glycoprotein from plasma resulted in a fourfold reduction in the amount of heparin required to prolong the thrombin clotting time from 14 s to greater than 180 s but had no effect on the amount of dermatan sulfate required for similar anti-coagulant activity. In contrast to histidine-rich glycoprotein, purified platelet factor 4 prevented inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II in the presence of either heparin or dermatan sulfate at the ratio of 2 micrograms platelet factor 4/micrograms glycosaminoglycan. Furthermore, the supernatant medium from platelets treated with arachidonic acid to cause secretion of platelet factor 4 prevented inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II in the presence of heparin or dermatan sulfate. We conclude that histidine-rich glycoprotein and platelet factor 4 can regulate the antithrombin activity of heparin cofactor II. Images PMID:3838317

  9. Sequence polymorphism of the predicted human metapneumovirus G glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Peret, Teresa C T; Abed, Yacine; Anderson, Larry J; Erdman, Dean D; Boivin, Guy

    2004-03-01

    The putative G glycoprotein genes of 25 human metapneumovirus (hMPV) field isolates obtained during five consecutive epidemic seasons (1997 to 2002) were sequenced. Sequence alignments identified two major genetic groups, designated groups 1 and 2, and two minor genetic clusters within each major group, designated subgroups A and B. Extensive nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence variability was observed, consisting of high rates of nucleotide substitutions, use of alternative transcription-termination codons and insertions that retained the reading frame. Deduced amino acid sequences showed the greatest variability, with most differences located in the extracellular domain of the protein: nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities for the entire open reading frame ranged from 52 to 58 % and 31 to 35 %, respectively, between the two major groups. Like the closely related avian pneumovirus and human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, the predicted G protein of hMPV shared the basic features of a type II mucin-like glycosylated protein. However, differences from these related viruses were also observed, e.g. lack of conserved cysteine clusters as seen in human respiratory syncytial virus and avian pneumovirus. The displacement of genetic groups of hMPV observed during the study period suggests that potential antigenic differences in the G glycoprotein, which have evolved in response to immune-mediated pressure, may influence the circulation patterns of hMPV strains. PMID:14993653

  10. Design and synthesis of human ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) inhibitors by peptide coupling of diverse chemical scaffolds on carboxyl and amino termini of (S)-valine-derived thiazole amino acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyakam; Prasad, Nagarajan Rajendra; Chufan, Eduardo E; Patel, Bhargav A; Wang, Yi-Jun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Talele, Tanaji T

    2014-05-22

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) serves as a therapeutic target for the development of multidrug resistance reversal agents. In this study, we synthesized 21 novel compounds by peptide coupling at corresponding carboxyl and amino termini of (S)-valine-based bis-thiazole and monothiazole derivatives with diverse chemical scaffolds. Using calcein-AM efflux assay, we identified compound 28 (IC50 = 1.0 μM) carrying 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl and 2-aminobenzophenone groups, respectively, at the amino and carboxyl termini of the monothiazole zwitter-ion. Compound 28 inhibited the photolabeling of P-gp with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin with IC50 = 0.75 μM and stimulated the basal ATP hydrolysis of P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 ATPase = 0.027 μM). Compound 28 at 3 μM reduced resistance in cytotoxicity assay to paclitaxel in P-gp-expressing SW620/Ad300 and HEK/ABCB1 cell lines. Biochemical and docking studies showed site-1 to be the preferable binding site for 28 within the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp. PMID:24773054

  11. Identification of a Glycoprotein Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lindenthal, Christoph; Elsinghorst, Eric A.

    1999-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain H10407 is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileocecum and colon in vitro. Two separate chromosomally encoded invasion loci (tia and tib) have been cloned from this strain. These loci direct nonadherent and noninvasive laboratory strains of E. coli to adhere to and invade cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane protein that is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes. TibA is synthesized as a 100-kDa precursor (preTibA) that must be modified for biological activity. Outer membranes of recombinant E. coli expressing TibA or preTibA were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted to nitrocellulose. The presence of glycoproteins was detected by oxidization of carbohydrates with periodate and labeling with hydrazide-conjugated digoxigenin. Only TibA could be detected as a glycoprotein. Complementation experiments with tib deletion mutants of ETEC strain H10407 demonstrate that the TibA glycoprotein is expressed in H10407, that the entire tib locus is required for TibA synthesis, and that TibA is the only glycoprotein produced by H10407. Protease treatment of intact H10407 cells removes the carbohydrates on TibA, suggesting that they are surface exposed. TibA shows homology with AIDA-I from diffuse-adhering E. coli and with pertactin precursor from Bordetella pertussis. Both pertactin and AIDA-I are members of the autotransporter family of outer membrane proteins and are afimbrial adhesins that play an important role in the virulence of these organisms. Analysis of the predicted TibA amino acid sequence indicates that TibA is also an autotransporter. Analysis of the tib locus DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame with similarity to RfaQ, a glycosyltransferase. The product of this tib locus open reading frame is proposed to be responsible for Tib

  12. Identification of a glycoprotein produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, C; Elsinghorst, E A

    1999-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain H10407 is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileocecum and colon in vitro. Two separate chromosomally encoded invasion loci (tia and tib) have been cloned from this strain. These loci direct nonadherent and noninvasive laboratory strains of E. coli to adhere to and invade cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane protein that is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes. TibA is synthesized as a 100-kDa precursor (preTibA) that must be modified for biological activity. Outer membranes of recombinant E. coli expressing TibA or preTibA were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted to nitrocellulose. The presence of glycoproteins was detected by oxidization of carbohydrates with periodate and labeling with hydrazide-conjugated digoxigenin. Only TibA could be detected as a glycoprotein. Complementation experiments with tib deletion mutants of ETEC strain H10407 demonstrate that the TibA glycoprotein is expressed in H10407, that the entire tib locus is required for TibA synthesis, and that TibA is the only glycoprotein produced by H10407. Protease treatment of intact H10407 cells removes the carbohydrates on TibA, suggesting that they are surface exposed. TibA shows homology with AIDA-I from diffuse-adhering E. coli and with pertactin precursor from Bordetella pertussis. Both pertactin and AIDA-I are members of the autotransporter family of outer membrane proteins and are afimbrial adhesins that play an important role in the virulence of these organisms. Analysis of the predicted TibA amino acid sequence indicates that TibA is also an autotransporter. Analysis of the tib locus DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame with similarity to RfaQ, a glycosyltransferase. The product of this tib locus open reading frame is proposed to be responsible for Tib

  13. Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes. Inheritance and relation to Lp(a)-lipoprotein concentrations in plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Utermann, G; Menzel, H J; Kraft, H G; Duba, H C; Kemmler, H G; Seitz, C

    1987-01-01

    The Lp(a) lipoprotein represents a quantitative genetic trait. It contains two different polypeptide chains, the Lp(a) glycoprotein and apo B-100. We have demonstrated the Lp(a) glycoprotein directly in human sera by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions after immunoblotting using anti-Lp(a) serum and have observed inter- and intraindividual size heterogeneity of the glycoprotein with apparent molecular weights ranging from approximately 400,000-700,000 D. According to their relative mobilities compared with apo B-100 Lp(a) patterns were categorized into phenotypes F (faster than apo B-100), B (similar to apo B-100), S1, S2, S3, and S4 (all slower than apo B-100), and into the respective double-band phenotypes. Results from neuraminidase treatment of isolated Lp(a) glycoprotein indicate that the phenotypic differences do not reside in the sialic acid moiety of the glycoprotein. Family studies are compatible with the concept that Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes are controlled by a series of autosomal alleles (Lp[a]F, Lp[a]B, Lp[a]S1, Lp[a]S2, Lp[a]S3, Lp[a]S4, and Lp[a]0) at a single locus. Comparison of Lp(a) plasma concentrations in different phenotypes revealed a highly significant association of phenotype with concentration. Phenotypes B, S1, and S2 are associated with high and phenotypes S3 and S4 with low Lp(a) concentrations. This suggests that the same gene locus is involved in determining Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes and Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations in plasma and is the first indication for structural differences underlying the quantitative genetic Lp(a)-trait. Images PMID:2956279

  14. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate (/sup 14/C)glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring (/sup 14/C)leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, (/sup 14/C)fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration.

  15. Growth and metabolism of fucosylated plasma-membrane glycoproteins in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Ada G.; Rachmeler, Martin; Johnson, Terry C.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of 1.0mm-dibutyryl cyclic AMP (N6,O2′-dibutyryladenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate) and 1.5mm-theophylline completely inhibits the growth of mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells by 24–36h. When compared with N2a cultures without inhibitors (controls), the proportion of cells in S phase, measured by radioautography with [3H]-thymidine, was decreased from 55 to 12%. In addition, the presence of the inhibitors decreased apparent [3H]fucose incorporation into glycoproteins by 50%, and removing the inhibitors resulted in a rapid recovery of both DNA synthesis and glycoprotein metabolism. Measurement of intracellular acid-soluble radioactive fucose revealed that decreased fucose uptake could account for the apparent change in incorporation. Removing dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline from the medium resulted in a rapid uptake of radioactive fucose to within control values, which illustrated that the inhibitors decreased transport of the carbohydrate, although the cells remained viable. Treatment with dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline also reversibly inhibited glycoprotein degradation. Plasma membranes isolated from growing cells and from growth-inhibited cells labelled with [14C]fucose and [3H]fucose respectively were co-electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels. These displayed no apparent differences in synthesis of specific membrane glycoproteins. Electrophoresis of plasma membranes isolated from cultures pulse–chased with [14C]fucose and [3H]fucose was used to discern turnover patterns of specific plasma-membrane glycoproteins. High-molecular-weight glycoproteins exhibited rapid rates of turnover in membranes from growing cells, but moderate turnover rates in growth-inhibited cells and cells reversed from growth inhibition. These data indicate that growth arrest of N2a cells results in alterations in the metabolic turnover of plasma-membrane glycoproteins. PMID:218551

  16. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, M F; Nauss, J M; Donohue, T M; Tuma, D J

    1983-03-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate [14C]glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring [14C]leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, [14C]fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration. PMID:6822326

  17. Forcible destruction of severely misfolded mammalian glycoproteins by the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Yoshiki; Horimoto, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Tokiro; Takeda, Shunichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kamiya, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins possessing unfolded/misfolded parts in their luminal regions are cleared from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by ER-associated degradation (ERAD)-L with distinct mechanisms. Two-step mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 is crucial in the ERAD-L of glycoproteins. We recently showed that this process is initiated by EDEM2 and completed by EDEM3/EDEM1. Here, we constructed chicken and human cells simultaneously deficient in EDEM1/2/3 and analyzed the fates of four ERAD-L substrates containing three potential N-glycosylation sites. We found that native but unstable or somewhat unfolded glycoproteins, such as ATF6α, ATF6α(C), CD3-δ–ΔTM, and EMC1, were stabilized in EDEM1/2/3 triple knockout cells. In marked contrast, degradation of severely misfolded glycoproteins, such as null Hong Kong (NHK) and deletion or insertion mutants of ATF6α(C), CD3-δ–ΔTM, and EMC1, was delayed only at early chase periods, but they were eventually degraded as in wild-type cells. Thus, higher eukaryotes are able to extract severely misfolded glycoproteins from glycoprotein ERAD and target them to the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. PMID:26572623

  18. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  19. Convallatoxin: a new P-glycoprotein substrate.

    PubMed

    Gozalpour, Elnaz; Greupink, Rick; Bilos, Albert; Verweij, Vivienne; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2014-12-01

    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs), such as digoxin and digitoxin that are derived from digitalis species, are currently used to treat heart failure and atrial fibrillation, but have a narrow therapeutic index. Drug-drug interactions at the transporter level are frequent causes of DLCs toxicity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is the primary transporter of digoxin and its inhibitors influence pharmacokinetics and disposition of digoxin in the human body; however, the involvement of P-gp in the disposition of other DLCs is currently unknown. In present study, the transport of fourteen DLCs by human P-gp was studied using membrane vesicles originating from human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells overexpressing P-gp. DLCs were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The Lily of the Valley toxin, convallatoxin, was identified as a P-gp substrate (Km: 1.1±0.2 mM) in the vesicular assay. Transport of convallatoxin by P-gp was confirmed in rat in vivo, in which co-administration with the P-gp inhibitor elacridar, resulted in increased concentrations in brain and kidney cortex. To address the interaction of convallatoxin with P-gp on a molecular level, the effect of nine alanine mutations was compared with the substrate N-methyl quinidine (NMQ). Phe343 appeared to be more important for transport of NMQ than convallatoxin, while Val982 was particularly relevant for convallatoxin transport. We identified convallatoxin as a new P-gp substrate and recognized Val982 as an important amino acid involved in its transport. These results contribute to a better understanding of the interaction of DLCs with P-gp. PMID:25264938

  20. Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Strenge, K; Schauer, R; Kelm, S

    1999-02-01

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG. PMID:10037148

  1. Characterization of intact neo-glycoproteins by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pedrali, Alice; Tengattini, Sara; Marrubini, Giorgio; Bavaro, Teodora; Hemström, Petrus; Massolini, Gabriella; Terreni, Marco; Temporini, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an HPLC HILIC-UV method was developed for the analysis of intact neo-glycoproteins. During method development the experimental conditions evaluated involved different HILIC columns (TSKgel Amide-80 and ZIC-pHILIC), and water-acetonitrile mixtures containing various types of acids and salts. The final selected method was based on a TSKgel Amide-80 column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water both containing 10 mM HClO4. The influence of temperature and sample preparation on the chromatographic performances of the HILIC method was also investigated. The method was applied to the separation of neo-glycoproteins prepared starting from the model protein RNase A by chemical conjugation of different glycans. Using the method here reported it was possible to monitor by UV detection the glycosylation reaction and assess the distribution of neo-glycoprotein isoforms without laborious sample workup prior to analysis. PMID:24983858

  2. Defining glycoprotein cancer biomarkers by MS in conjunction with glycoprotein enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ehwang; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important and common post-translational modification. More than 50% of human proteins are believed to be glycosylated to modulate the functionality of proteins. Aberrant glycosylation has been correlated to several diseases, such as inflammatory skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s and prion diseases, and cancer. Many approved cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins which are not highly abundant proteins. Therefore, effective qualitative and quantitative assessment of glycoproteins entails enrichment methods. This chapter summarizes glycoprotein enrichment methods, including lectin affinity, immunoaffinity, hydrazide chemistry, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, and click chemistry. The use of these enrichment approaches in assessing the qualitative and quantitative changes of glycoproteins in different types of cancers are presented and discussed. This chapter highlights the importance of glycoprotein enrichment techniques for the identification and characterization of new reliable cancer biomarkers. PMID:26330015

  3. Defining glycoprotein cancer biomarkers by MS in conjunction with glycoprotein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Song, Ehwang; Mechref, Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important and common post-translational modification. More than 50% of human proteins are believed to be glycosylated to modulate the functionality of proteins. Aberrant glycosylation has been correlated to several diseases, such as inflammatory skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's and prion diseases, and cancer. Many approved cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins which are not highly abundant proteins. Therefore, effective qualitative and quantitative assessment of glycoproteins entails enrichment methods. This chapter summarizes glycoprotein enrichment methods, including lectin affinity, immunoaffinity, hydrazide chemistry, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, and click chemistry. The use of these enrichment approaches in assessing the qualitative and quantitative changes of glycoproteins in different types of cancers are presented and discussed. This chapter highlights the importance of glycoprotein enrichment techniques for the identification and characterization of new reliable cancer biomarkers. PMID:26330015

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Chandipura virus glycoprotein G

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Eduard; Buonocore, Linda; Rose, John K.; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Gaudin, Yves; Albertini, Aurélie A.

    2012-01-01

    Fusion in members of the Rhabdoviridae virus family is mediated by the G glycoprotein. At low pH, the G glycoprotein catalyzes fusion between viral and endosomal membranes by undergoing a major conformational change from a pre-fusion trimer to a post-fusion trimer. The structure of the G glycoprotein from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV G), the prototype of Vesiculovirus, has recently been solved in its trimeric pre-fusion and post-fusion conformations; however, little is known about the structural details of the transition. In this work, a soluble form of the ectodomain of Chandipura virus G glycoprotein (CHAV Gth) was purified using limited proteolysis of purified virus; this soluble ectodomain was also crystallized. This protein shares 41% amino-acid identity with VSV G and thus its structure could provide further clues about the structural transition of rhabdoviral glycoproteins induced by low pH. Crystals of CHAV Gth obtained at pH 7.5 diffracted X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 150.3, b = 228.2, c = 78.8 Å. Preliminary analysis of the data based on the space group and the self-rotation function indicated that there was no trimeric association of the protomers. This unusual oligomeric status could result from the presence of fusion intermediates in the crystal. PMID:22949203

  5. Confident Assignment of Site-Specific Glycosylation in Complex Glycoproteins in a Single Step

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A glycoprotein may contain several sites of glycosylation, each of which is heterogeneous. As a consequence of glycoform diversity and signal suppression from nonglycosylated peptides that ionize more efficiently, typical reversed-phase LC–MS and bottom–up proteomics database searching workflows do not perform well for identification of site-specific glycosylation for complex glycoproteins. We present an LC–MS system for enrichment, separation, and analysis of glycopeptides from complex glycoproteins (>4 N-glycosylation sequons) in a single step. This system uses an online HILIC enrichment trap prior to reversed-phase C18-MS analysis. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the system using a set of glycoproteins including human transferrin (2 sequons), human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (5 sequons), and influenza A virus hemagglutinin (9 sequons). The online enrichment renders glycopeptides the most abundant ions detected, thereby facilitating the generation of high-quality data-dependent tandem mass spectra. The tandem mass spectra exhibited product ions from both glycan and peptide backbone dissociation for a majority of the glycopeptides tested using collisionally activated dissociation that served to confidently assign site-specific glycosylation. We demonstrated the value of our system to define site-specific glycosylation using a hemagglutinin containing 9 N-glycosylation sequons from a single HILIC-C18-MS acquisition. PMID:25153361

  6. Human herpesvirus 8 glycoprotein B binds the entry receptor DC-SIGN

    PubMed Central

    Hensler, Heather R; Tomaszewski, Monica J; Rappocciolo, Giovanna; Rinaldo, Charles R; Jenkins, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) uses DC-SIGN as an entry receptor for dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. The viral attachment protein for DC-SIGN is unknown. HHV-8 virions contain 5 conserved herpesvirus glycoproteins, a single unique glycoprotein, and 2 predicted glycoproteins. Previous studies have shown that DC-SIGN binds highly mannosylated glycoproteins. The HHV-8 glycoprotein B (gB) has been reported to be highly mannosylated, and therefore we hypothesized that gB will bind to DC-SIGN. In this report we confirm that gB has a high mannose carbohydrate structure and demonstrate for the first time that it binds DC-SIGN in a dose-dependent manner. We also identify key amino acids in the DC-SIGN carbohydrate recognition domain that are required for HHV-8 infection and compare these results with published binding regions for ICAM-2/3 and HIV-1 gp120. These results clarify some of the initial events in HHV-8 entry and can be used for the design of targeted preventive therapies. PMID:25018023

  7. Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions.

    PubMed Central

    Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S

    1996-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive destruction of the CD4+ T-cell subset, resulting in immune deficiency and AIDS. The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry. In the past few years, several studies have indicated that the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with cells and molecules of the immune system leads to pleiotropic biological effects on immune functions, which include effects on differentiation of CD34+ lymphoid progenitor cells and thymocytes, aberrant activation and cytokine secretion patterns of mature T cells, induction of apoptosis, B-cell hyperactivity, inhibition of T-cell dependent B-cell differentiation, modulation of macrophage functions, interactions with components of complement, and effects on neuronal cells. The amino acid sequence homologies of the envelope glycoproteins with several cellular proteins have suggested that molecular mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review summarizes work done by several investigators demonstrating the profound biological effects of envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 on immune system cells. Extensive studies have also been done on interactions of the viral envelope proteins with components of the immune system which may be important for eliciting a "protective immune response." Understanding the influences of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on the immune system may provide valuable insights into HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and carries implications for the trials of HIV-1 envelope protein vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:8801439

  8. Modulation of P-glycoprotein ATPase activity by some phytoconstituents.

    PubMed

    Najar, I A; Sachin, B S; Sharma, S C; Satti, N K; Suri, K A; Johri, R K

    2010-03-01

    In the present investigation 16 phytoconstituents, which are active moieties found in several medicinal herbs, have been evaluated for their P-glycoprotein (P-gp) stimulation/inhibition profiles using a P-gp-dependent ATPase assay in rat jejunal membrane (in vitro). Acteoside, agnuside, catechin, chlorogenic acid, picroside -II and santonin showed an inhibitory effect. Negundoside, picroside -I and oleanolic acid caused a stimulatory effect. Andrographolide, apocyanin, berberine, glycyrrhizin, magniferin and piperine produced a biphasic response (stimulation at low concentration and inhibition at high concentration). The results suggested that a possible interaction of these phytoconstituents at the level of P-gp, could be an important parameter in determining their role in several key pharmacodynamic events. PMID:19653312

  9. Post-Synthetic Defucosylation of AGP by Aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-Fucosidase Expressed in Arabidopsis Apoplast Induces Compensatory Upregulation of α-1,2-Fucosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Reem, Nathan T.; Young, Zachary T.; Chambers, Lauran; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations. Here we report that post-synthetic removal of fucose residues specifically from arabinogalactan proteins in the Arabidopsis plant cell wall induces differential expression of fucosyltransferases and leads to the root and hypocotyl elongation changes. These results demonstrate that the post-synthetic modification of cell wall components presents a valuable approach to investigate the potential signaling pathways induced during plant responses to such modifications that usually occur during plant development and stress responses. PMID:27448235

  10. Post-Synthetic Defucosylation of AGP by Aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-Fucosidase Expressed in Arabidopsis Apoplast Induces Compensatory Upregulation of α-1,2-Fucosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Pogorelko, Gennady V; Reem, Nathan T; Young, Zachary T; Chambers, Lauran; Zabotina, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations. Here we report that post-synthetic removal of fucose residues specifically from arabinogalactan proteins in the Arabidopsis plant cell wall induces differential expression of fucosyltransferases and leads to the root and hypocotyl elongation changes. These results demonstrate that the post-synthetic modification of cell wall components presents a valuable approach to investigate the potential signaling pathways induced during plant responses to such modifications that usually occur during plant development and stress responses. PMID:27448235

  11. The DNA sequence of the equine herpesvirus 4 gene encoding glycoprotein gp17/18, the homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gD.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, A A; Neilan, J; Wilson, L; Davison, A J; Allen, G

    1993-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene to the left of the gI gene of equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) was determined. The gene encodes a peptide of 402 amino acids with an unprocessed M(r) of 45,323. The predicted polypeptide has several features of a glycoprotein including a hydrophobic signal sequence, a membrane spanning domain and four potential N-linked glycosylation sites within the proposed external domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of EHV-4 gD shows 83% identity with that of equine herpesvirus 1 gD. Conservation of the tertiary structure is suggested by the alignment of six cysteine residues with those of the gD of six other alphaherpesviruses. Screening a lambda gt11/EHV-4 expression library with monoclonal antibodies against several of the most abundant EHV-4 glycoproteins unequivocally identified the protein encoded by the EHV-4 gD gene as gp17/18. PMID:8397286

  12. Glycoprotein Structural Genomics: Solving the Glycosylation Problem

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Veronica T.; Crispin, Max; Aricescu, A. Radu; Harvey, David J.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Fennelly, Janet A.; Yu, Chao; Boles, Kent S.; Evans, Edward J.; Stuart, David I.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Owens, Raymond J.; Davis, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Glycoproteins present special problems for structural genomic analysis because they often require glycosylation in order to fold correctly, whereas their chemical and conformational heterogeneity generally inhibits crystallization. We show that the “glycosylation problem” can be solved by expressing glycoproteins transiently in mammalian cells in the presence of the N-glycosylation processing inhibitors, kifunensine or swainsonine. This allows the correct folding of the glycoproteins, but leaves them sensitive to enzymes, such as endoglycosidase H, that reduce the N-glycans to single residues, enhancing crystallization. Since the scalability of transient mammalian expression is now comparable to that of bacterial systems, this approach should relieve one of the major bottlenecks in structural genomic analysis. PMID:17355862

  13. Phosphorylation of the multidrug resistant associated glycoprotein (p-glycoprotein): Preparation and characterization of 7-acetyltaxol

    SciTech Connect

    Mellado, W.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the role of phosphorylation in P-glycoprotein function, phosphorylation of P-glycoprotein in intact cells and in cell-free membrane fractions has been studied. Results obtained with cell-free membrane fractions indicate that P-glycoprotein is a substrate for a membrane-associated protein kinase A (PK-A). To assess whether P-glycoprotein was phosphorylated in vivo by PK-A, MDR cells were incubated with ({sup 32}P)Pi in the presence or absence of 100 uM 8Br-cAMP. The tryptic phosphopeptides of six P-glycoproteins from five independently derived MDR cell lines were analyzed by HPLC. A similar analysis carried out with two other P-glycoproteins (from J7.V3-1 and the lower band of J7.T1-50) demonstrated a major phosphopeptide with a retention time of 26 min. Fraction 26 was resolved as a single phosphopeptide by 2-D mapping. The phosphorylation of fraction 26 which was derived from P-glycoprotein in J7.V3-1 or the J7.T1-50 lower band was enhanced when the cells were treated with 8BrcAMP.

  14. HPLC-MS/MS Analyses Show That the Near-Starchless aps1 and pgm Leaves Accumulate Wild Type Levels of ADPglucose: Further Evidence for the Occurrence of Important ADPglucose Biosynthetic Pathway(s) Alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Francisco José; Li, Jun; Almagro, Goizeder; Montero, Manuel; Pujol, Pablo; Galarza, Regina; Kaneko, Kentaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Wada, Kaede; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a) involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM), ADPglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGP) and starch synthase (SS), and (b) is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI). This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT) and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a) there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b) pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c) the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low. PMID:25133777

  15. Mapping the neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, C.; Chien, M.S.; Landolt, M.L.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1996-01-01

    Twelve neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the fish rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), were used to select 20 MAb escape mutants. The nucleotide sequence of the entire glycoprotein (G) gene was determined for six mutants representing differing cross-neutralization patterns and each had a single nucleotide change leading to a single amino acid substitution within one of three regions of the protein. These data were used to design nested PCR primers to amplify portions of the G gene of the 14 remaining mutants. When the PCR products from these mutants were sequenced, they also had single nucleotide substitutions coding for amino acid substitutions at the same, or nearby, locations. Of the 20 mutants for which all or part of the glycoprotein gene was sequenced, two MAbs selected mutants with substitutions at amino acids 230-231 (antigenic site I) and the remaining MAbs selected mutants with substitutions at amino acids 272-276 (antigenic site II). Two MAbs that selected mutants mapping to amino acids 272-276, selected other mutants that mapped to amino acids 78-81, raising the possibility that this portion of the N terminus of the protein was part of a discontinuous epitope defining antigenic site II. CLUSTAL alignment of the glycoproteins of rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and IHNV revealed similarities in the location of the neutralizing epitopes and a high degree of conservation among cysteine residues, indicating that the glycoproteins of three different genera of animal rhabdoviruses may share a similar three-dimensional structure in spite of extensive sequence divergence.

  16. Isolation of oligomannose-type glycans from bean glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Ye, J; Wold, F

    1993-02-15

    We have isolated individual oligosaccharyl-asparagine derivatives from the total soluble glycoproteins from kidney beens (Phaseolus vulgaris) and from lima beans (Phaseolus limensis). The protein/glycoprotein mixture was digested exhaustively by pronase, and the glycan-containing fractions were separated from free amino acids and peptides by gel filtration. The oligosaccharyl-asparagine derivatives were finally fractionated on Dowex 50 (C. C. Huang, H.E. Meyer, and R. Montgomery, Carbohydr. Res. 13, 127-137, 1970), and the individual fractions were characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and ion exchange chromatography. With the procedures described, only oligomannose derivatives were obtained from the beans. In the case of kidney beans, six different derivatives were observed and characterized, Man9GlcNAc2Asn, two positional isomers of Man8GlcNAc2Asn, two positional isomers of Man7GlcNAc2Asn, and Man6GlcNAc2Asn. Under identical conditions the lima beans yielded primarily the Man9GlcNAc2Asn derivative along with a small amount of the two Man8GlcNAc2Asn derivatives. The oligomannose structures can be isolated in reasonable quantities (2-20 mg) from about 200 g of dry beans. PMID:8465965

  17. Drosophila UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase: sequence and characterization of an enzyme that distinguishes between denatured and native proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C G; Fessler, L I; Nelson, R E; Fessler, J H

    1995-01-01

    A Drosophila UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase was isolated, cloned and characterized. Its 1548 amino acid sequence begins with a signal peptide, lacks any putative transmembrane domains and terminates in a potential endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal, HGEL. The soluble, 170 kDa glycoprotein occurs throughout Drosophila embryos, in microsomes of highly secretory Drosophila Kc cells and in small amounts in cell culture media. The isolated enzyme transfers [14C]glucose from UDP-[14C]Glc to several purified extracellular matrix glycoproteins (laminin, peroxidasin and glutactin) made by these cells, and to bovine thyroglobulin. These proteins must be denatured to accept glucose, which is bound at endoglycosidase H-sensitive sites. The unusual ability to discriminate between malfolded and native glycoproteins is shared by the rat liver homologue, previously described by A.J.Parodi and coworkers. The amino acid sequence presented differs from most glycosyltransferases. There is weak, though significant, similarity with a few bacterial lipopolysaccharide glycotransferases and a yeast protein Kre5p. In contrast, the 56-68% amino acid identities with partial sequences from genome projects of Caenorhabditis elegans, rice and Arabidopsis suggest widespread homologues of the enzyme. This glucosyltransferase fits previously proposed hypotheses for an endoplasmic reticular sensor of the state of folding of newly made glycoproteins. Images PMID:7729408

  18. Antibodies Targeting Novel Neutralizing Epitopes of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein Preclude Genotype 2 Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Liu, Ruyu; Rao, Huiying; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Jianghua; Xie, Xingwang; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, partly due to our insufficient understanding of the virus glycoprotein immunology. Most neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were identified using glycoprotein immunogens, such as recombinant E1E2, HCV pseudoparticles or cell culture derived HCV. However, the fact that in the HCV acute infection phase, only a small proportion of patients are self-resolved accompanied with the emergence of nAbs, indicates the limited immunogenicity of glycoprotein itself to induce effective antibodies against a highly evolved virus. Secondly, in previous reports, the immunogen sequence was mostly the genotype of the 1a H77 strain. Rarely, other genotypes/subtypes have been studied, although theoretically one genotype/subtype immunogen is able to induce cross-genotype neutralizing antibodies. To overcome these drawbacks and find potential novel neutralizing epitopes, 57 overlapping peptides encompassing the full-length glycoprotein E1E2 of subtype 1b were synthesized to immunize BALB/c mice, and the neutralizing reactive of the induced antisera against HCVpp genotypes 1-6 was determined. We defined a domain comprising amino acids (aa) 192-221, 232-251, 262-281 and 292-331 of E1, and 421-543, 564-583, 594-618 and 634-673 of E2, as the neutralizing regions of HCV glycoprotein. Peptides PUHI26 (aa 444-463) and PUHI45 (aa 604-618)-induced antisera displayed the most potent broad neutralizing reactive. Two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the PUHI26 and PUHI45 epitopes efficiently precluded genotype 2 viral (HCVcc JFH and J6 strains) infection, but they did not neutralize other genotypes. Our study mapped a neutralizing epitope region of HCV glycoprotein using a novel immunization strategy, and identified two monoclonal antibodies effective in preventing genotype 2 virus infection. PMID:26406225

  19. Antibodies Targeting Novel Neutralizing Epitopes of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein Preclude Genotype 2 Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Huiying; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Jianghua; Xie, Xingwang; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, partly due to our insufficient understanding of the virus glycoprotein immunology. Most neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were identified using glycoprotein immunogens, such as recombinant E1E2, HCV pseudoparticles or cell culture derived HCV. However, the fact that in the HCV acute infection phase, only a small proportion of patients are self-resolved accompanied with the emergence of nAbs, indicates the limited immunogenicity of glycoprotein itself to induce effective antibodies against a highly evolved virus. Secondly, in previous reports, the immunogen sequence was mostly the genotype of the 1a H77 strain. Rarely, other genotypes/subtypes have been studied, although theoretically one genotype/subtype immunogen is able to induce cross-genotype neutralizing antibodies. To overcome these drawbacks and find potential novel neutralizing epitopes, 57 overlapping peptides encompassing the full-length glycoprotein E1E2 of subtype 1b were synthesized to immunize BALB/c mice, and the neutralizing reactive of the induced antisera against HCVpp genotypes 1–6 was determined. We defined a domain comprising amino acids (aa) 192–221, 232–251, 262–281 and 292–331 of E1, and 421–543, 564–583, 594–618 and 634–673 of E2, as the neutralizing regions of HCV glycoprotein. Peptides PUHI26 (aa 444–463) and PUHI45 (aa 604–618)-induced antisera displayed the most potent broad neutralizing reactive. Two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the PUHI26 and PUHI45 epitopes efficiently precluded genotype 2 viral (HCVcc JFH and J6 strains) infection, but they did not neutralize other genotypes. Our study mapped a neutralizing epitope region of HCV glycoprotein using a novel immunization strategy, and identified two monoclonal antibodies effective in preventing genotype 2 virus infection. PMID:26406225

  20. The degradation and turnover of fucosylated glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of a neuroblastoma-cell line

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, James E.; Johnson, Terry C.

    1977-01-01

    When monolayer cultures of neuroblastoma N2a cells were prelabelled with [3H]fucose to steady state, and then reincubated in complete medium in the presence of unlabelled 40mm-l-fucose, there was a rapid metabolism of fucosylated cellular macromolecules and the specific radioactivity of the acid-insoluble material decreased by 22% within 2h. After this period of time the remaining radioactive glycoproteins appeared to be more stable and the rate of loss of specific radioactivity markedly decreased. Since fucose is known to be associated predominantly with plasma-membrane components, the analysis of fucosylated glycoproteins was characterized in plasma-membrane fractions by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Two experimental approaches were used to measure glycoprotein degradation and turnover in the cell-surface membranes. In one set of experiments, with a similar incubation procedure to that used with intact cells, three membrane components were rapidly degraded (150000, 130000 and 48000 daltons), but another surface glycoprotein (68000 daltons) appeared to be more slowly metabolized than the mean rate of glycoprotein degradation. The relationship of the degradation of membrane glycoproteins to their turnover was analysed by dual-label experiments that used both [14C]fucose and [3H]fucose. Glycoproteins of the surface membrane of neuroblastoma cells were found to turn over at heterogeneous rates. The components mentioned above that exhibited significantly rapid rates of degradation, were also shown to turn over more rapidly than the average surface component. In addition to the membrane components detected by the use of only [3H]fucose, dual-label experiments illustrated that numerous surface glycoproteins were metabolized more rapidly or slowly than most of the cell-surface constituents. PMID:911319

  1. An update on post-translational modifications of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins: toward a model highlighting their contribution to plant cell wall architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, May; Velasquez, Silvia M.; Jamet, Elisabeth; Estevez, José M.; Albenne, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composite structures mainly composed of polysaccharides, also containing a large set of proteins involved in diverse functions such as growth, environmental sensing, signaling, and defense. Research on cell wall proteins (CWPs) is a challenging field since present knowledge of their role into the structure and function of cell walls is very incomplete. Among CWPs, hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich O-glycoproteins (HRGPs) were classified into three categories: (i) moderately glycosylated extensins (EXTs) able to form covalent scaffolds; (ii) hyperglycosylated arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs); and (iii) Hyp/proline (Pro)-Rich proteins (H/PRPs) that may be non-, weakly- or highly-glycosylated. In this review, we provide a description of the main features of their post-translational modifications (PTMs), biosynthesis, structure, and function. We propose a new model integrating HRGPs and their partners in cell walls. Altogether, they could form a continuous glyco-network with non-cellulosic polysaccharides via covalent bonds or non-covalent interactions, thus strongly contributing to cell wall architecture. PMID:25177325

  2. Simultaneous assay of neutral sugars and amino sugars by an automatic sugar analyzer: applications to glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kellich, G; Ziegler, D

    1975-04-01

    The simultaneous assay of neutral sugars and amino sugars commonly found in glycoproteins is described. The automatic sugar analyzer used for the determination is based on the ion-exchange chromatography of sugar-borate complexes on a strong anion-exchange resin. The sugars are identified with the orcinol/sulfuric acid reagent. While less than 40 nmol of mannose, fucose, galactose, glucose, xylose, or arabinose is sufficient for analysis at least 200 nmol mannosamine, glucosamine, or galactosamine is required; acidic monosaccharides cannot be determined. The technique of sugar analysis is applied to structural studies on natural compounds, e.g. the monosaccharide composition of lichenan and the carbohydrate moiety of the glycoproteins ovomucoid and Collocalia mucoid. PMID:1150155

  3. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2005-02-01

    The influence of Scoparia dulcis, a traditionally used plant for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was examined in streptozotocin diabetic rats on dearrangement in glycoprotein levels. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. An aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally for 6 weeks. The effect of the Scoparia dulcis extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma and tissue glycoproteins studied was in comparison to glibenclamide. The levels of blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins were increased significantly whereas the level of plasma insulin was significantly decreased in diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the level of sialic acid and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine and fucose in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Oral administration of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) to diabetic rats led to decreased levels of blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins. The levels of plasma insulin and tissue sialic acid were increased whereas the levels of tissue hexose, hexosamine and fucose were near normal. The present study indicates that Scoparia dulcis possesses a significant beneficial effect on glycoproteins in addition to its antidiabetic effect. PMID:15739907

  4. ProGlycProt: a repository of experimentally characterized prokaryotic glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Aadil H.; Mondal, Homchoru; Chauhan, Jagat S.; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Methi, Amrish; Rao, Alka

    2012-01-01

    ProGlycProt (http://www.proglycprot.org/) is an open access, manually curated, comprehensive repository of bacterial and archaeal glycoproteins with at least one experimentally validated glycosite (glycosylated residue). To facilitate maximum information at one point, the database is arranged under two sections: (i) ProCGP—the main data section consisting of 95 entries with experimentally characterized glycosites and (ii) ProUGP—a supplementary data section containing 245 entries with experimentally identified glycosylation but uncharacterized glycosites. Every entry in the database is fully cross-referenced and enriched with available published information about source organism, coding gene, protein, glycosites, glycosylation type, attached glycan, associated oligosaccharyl/glycosyl transferases (OSTs/GTs), supporting references, and applicable additional information. Interestingly, ProGlycProt contains as many as 174 entries for which information is unavailable or the characterized glycosites are unannotated in Swiss-Prot release 2011_07. The website supports a dedicated structure gallery of homology models and crystal structures of characterized glycoproteins in addition to two new tools developed in view of emerging information about prokaryotic sequons (conserved sequences of amino acids around glycosites) that are never or rarely seen in eukaryotic glycoproteins. ProGlycProt provides an extensive compilation of experimentally identified glycosites (334) and glycoproteins (340) of prokaryotes that could serve as an information resource for research and technology applications in glycobiology. PMID:22039152

  5. B epitopes and selection pressures in feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Pancino, G; Chappey, C; Saurin, W; Sonigo, P

    1993-01-01

    In order to map linear B epitopes in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoproteins (Env), a random library of FIV Env polypeptides fused to beta-galactosidase and expressed in Escherichia coli was screened by using sera from experimentally FIV-infected cats. We mapped five antibody-binding domains in the surface envelope glycoprotein (SU1 to SU5) and four in the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (TM1 to TM4). Immunological analysis with 48 serum samples from naturally or experimentally infected cats of diverse origins revealed a broad group reactivity for epitopes SU2, TM2, and TM3, whereas SU3 appeared as strictly type specific. To study selection pressures acting on the identified immunogenic domains, we analyzed structural constraints and distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations (amino acids unchanged or changed). Two linear B epitopes (SU3 and TM4) appeared to be submitted to positive selection for change, a pattern of evolution predicting their possible involvement in antiviral protection. These experiments provide a pertinent choice of oligopeptides for further analysis of the protective response against FIV envelope glycoproteins, as a model to understand the role of antibody escape in lentiviral persistence and to design feline AIDS vaccines. Images PMID:7678301

  6. Separation of bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin from Pichia pastoris glycoproteins by borate anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung Hee; Neville, David M

    2003-08-01

    A major problem encountered in the large-scale purification of the bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(G4S), from Pichia pastoris supernatants was the presence of host glycoproteins exhibiting similar charge, size, and hydrophobicity characteristics. We overcame this problem by employing borate anion exchange chromatography. The borate anion has an affinity for carbohydrates and imparts negative charges to these structures. We found that at a concentration of sodium borate between 50 and 100 mM, the nonglycosylated immunotoxin did not bind to Poros 50 HQ anion exchanger resin, but glycoproteins, including aggregates related to the immunotoxin, did. By using this property of the immunotoxin in the presence of sodium borate, we successfully developed a 3-step purification procedure: (i) Butyl-650M hydrophobic interaction chromatography, (ii) Poros 50 HQ anion exchange chromatography in the presence of borate, and (iii) HiTrap Q anion exchange chromatography. The final preparation exhibited a purity of greater than 98% and a yield of greater than 50% from the supernatant. Previously, boronic acid resins have been used to separate glycoproteins from proteins. However, combining borate anion with conventional anion exchange resins accomplishes the separation of the immunotoxin from glycoproteins and eliminates the need to evaluate nonstandard resins with respect to good manufacturing practice guidelines. PMID:12951782

  7. Ion Mobility-Mass Correlation Trend Line Separation of Glycoprotein Digests without Deglycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Siems, William F.; Gang, David R.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput ion mobility mass spectrometer (IMMS) was used to rapidly separate and analyze peptides and glycopeptides derived from glycoproteins. Two glycoproteins, human α-1-acid glycoprotein and antithrombin III were digested with trypsin and subjected to electrospray traveling wave IMMS analysis. No deglycosylation steps were performed; samples were complex mixtures of peptides and glycopeptides. Peptides and glycosylated peptides with different charge states (up to 4 charges) were observed and fell on distinguishable trend lines in 2-D IMMS spectra in both positive and negative modes. The trend line separation patterns matched between both modes. Peptide sequence was identified based on the corresponding extracted mass spectra and collision induced dissociated (CID) experiments were performed for selected compounds to prove class identification. The signal-to-noise ratio of the glycopeptides was increased dramatically with ion mobility trend line separation compared to non-trend line separation, primarily due to selection of precursor ion subsets within specific mobility windows. In addition, isomeric mobility peaks were detected for specific glycopeptides. IMMS demonstrated unique capabilities and advantages for investigating and separating glycoprotein digests in this study and suggests a novel strategy for rapid glycoproteomics studies in the future. PMID:23914139

  8. The amino acid exchange R28E in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) abrogates interleukin-6 receptor-dependent but retains CNTF receptor-dependent signaling via glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR).

    PubMed

    Wagener, Eva-Maria; Aurich, Matthias; Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Floss, Doreen M; Garbers, Christoph; Breusing, Kati; Rabe, Björn; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen

    2014-06-27

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans. CNTF binds to high or low affinity receptor complexes consisting of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR or IL-6R·gp130·LIFR, respectively. Clinical studies of the CNTF derivative Axokine revealed intolerance at higher concentrations, which may rely on the low-affinity binding of CNTF to the IL-6R. Here, we aimed to generate a CNTFR-selective CNTF variant (CV). CV-1 contained the single amino acid exchange R28E. Arg(28) is in close proximity to the CNTFR binding site. Using molecular modeling, we hypothesized that Arg(28) might contribute to IL-6R/CNTFR plasticity of CNTF. CV-2 to CV-5 were generated by transferring parts of the CNTFR-binding site from cardiotrophin-like cytokine to CNTF. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine selectively signals via the CNTFR·gp130·LIFR complex, albeit with a much lower affinity compared with CNTF. As shown by immunoprecipitation, all CNTF variants retained the ability to bind to CNTFR. CV-1, CV-2, and CV-5, however, lost the ability to bind to IL-6R. Although all variants induced cytokine-dependent cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation via CNTFR·gp130·LIFR, only CV-3 induced STAT3 phosphorylation via IL-6R·gp130·LIFR. Quantification of CNTF-dependent proliferation of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR expressing cells indicated that only CV-1 was as biologically active as CNTF. Thus, the CNTFR-selective CV-1 will allow discriminating between CNTFR- and IL-6R-mediated effects in vivo. PMID:24802752

  9. The Amino Acid Exchange R28E in Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) Abrogates Interleukin-6 Receptor-dependent but Retains CNTF Receptor-dependent Signaling via Glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIFR)*

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Eva-Maria; Aurich, Matthias; Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Floss, Doreen M.; Garbers, Christoph; Breusing, Kati; Rabe, Björn; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans. CNTF binds to high or low affinity receptor complexes consisting of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR or IL-6R·gp130·LIFR, respectively. Clinical studies of the CNTF derivative Axokine revealed intolerance at higher concentrations, which may rely on the low-affinity binding of CNTF to the IL-6R. Here, we aimed to generate a CNTFR-selective CNTF variant (CV). CV-1 contained the single amino acid exchange R28E. Arg28 is in close proximity to the CNTFR binding site. Using molecular modeling, we hypothesized that Arg28 might contribute to IL-6R/CNTFR plasticity of CNTF. CV-2 to CV-5 were generated by transferring parts of the CNTFR-binding site from cardiotrophin-like cytokine to CNTF. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine selectively signals via the CNTFR·gp130·LIFR complex, albeit with a much lower affinity compared with CNTF. As shown by immunoprecipitation, all CNTF variants retained the ability to bind to CNTFR. CV-1, CV-2, and CV-5, however, lost the ability to bind to IL-6R. Although all variants induced cytokine-dependent cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation via CNTFR·gp130·LIFR, only CV-3 induced STAT3 phosphorylation via IL-6R·gp130·LIFR. Quantification of CNTF-dependent proliferation of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR expressing cells indicated that only CV-1 was as biologically active as CNTF. Thus, the CNTFR-selective CV-1 will allow discriminating between CNTFR- and IL-6R-mediated effects in vivo. PMID:24802752

  10. Interaction of Sindbis virus glycoproteins during morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K J; Scupham, R K; Pfeil, J A; Wan, K; Sagik, B P; Bose, H R

    1977-01-01

    In cells infected with the Sindbis temperature-sensitive mutants ts-23 and ts-10 (complementation group D), which contain a defect in the envelope glycoprotein E1, the precursor polypeptide PE2 is not cleaved to the envelope glycoprotein E2 at the nonpermissive temperature. This defect is phenotypically identical to the defect observed in the complementation group E mutant, ts-20. The lesion in ts-23 is reversible upon shift to permissive temperature, whereas that of ts-10 is not. Antiserum against whole virus, E1, or E2 also prevents the cleavage of PE2 in cells infected with wild-type Sindbis virus. Because the cleavage of PE2 is inhibited by the lesion in mutants that are genotypically distinct and by anti-E1 or -E2 serum, it appears that PE2 and E1 exist as a complex in the membrane of the infected cell. Images PMID:833949

  11. The glycoprotein genes and gene junctions of the fish rhabdoviruses spring viremia of carp virus and hirame rhabdovirus: Analysis of relationships with other rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjorklund, H.V.; Higman, K.H.; Kurath, G.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein genes and all of the internal gene junctions of the fish pathogenic rhabdoviruses spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) have been determined from cDNA clones generated from viral genomic RNA. The SVCV glycoprotein gene sequence is 1588 nucleotides (nt) long and encodes a 509 amino acid (aa) protein. The HIRRV glycoprotein gene sequence comprises 1612 nt, coding for a 508 aa protein. In sequence comparisons of 15 rhabdovirus glycoproteins, the SVCV glycoprotein gene showed the highest amino acid sequence identity (31.2-33.2%) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV), Chandipura virus (CHPV) and vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV). The HIRRV glycoprotein gene showed a very high amino acid sequence identity (74.3%) with the glycoprotein gene of another fish pathogenic rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), but no significant similarity with glycoproteins of VSIV or rabies virus (RABV). In phylogenetic analyses SVCV was grouped consistently with VSIV, VSNJV and CHPV in the Vesiculovirus genus of Rhabdoviridae. The fish rhabdoviruses HIRRV, IHNV and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) showed close relationships with each other, but only very distant relationships with mammalian rhabdoviruses. The gene junctions are highly conserved between SVCV and VSIV, well conserved between IHNV and HIRRV, but not conserved between HIRRV/IHNV and RABV. Based on the combined results we suggest that the fish lyssa-type rhabdoviruses HIRRV, IHNV and VHSV may be grouped in their own genus within the family Rhabdoviridae. Aquarhabdovirus has been proposed for the name of this new genus.

  12. Early and Delayed Effects of Naturally Occurring Asbestos on Serum Biomarkers of Inflammation and Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies recently showed that intratracheal (IT) instillation of Libby amphibole (LA) increases circulating acute-phase proteins (APP; a-2 macroglobulin, A2M; and a-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) and inflammatory biomarkers (osteopontin and lipocalin) in rats. In this study, objectives...

  13. Histochemical studies of the colonic epithelial glycoproteins of the normal rabbit.

    PubMed

    Reid, P E; Walker, D C; Terpin, T; Owen, D A

    1988-10-01

    Two general classes of glycoproteins have been identified in the colonic epithelial cells of New Zealand white rabbits. Each is associated with an ultrastructurally distinct secretory cell. The first of these classes is found in cells, termed vesiculated columnar cells, characterized by electron-translucent vesicles, a small rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex and prominent microvilli. The glycoproteins of the vesiculated cells contain abundant O-sulphate ester, sialic acids with ester substituents at positions C-8 or C-9 (or with two or three side chain substituents) and neutral sugars with vicinal diols whose periodate oxidation is prevented by an O-acyl ester substituent(s). The second class of glycoproteins occurs in goblet cells characterized by electron-dense vesicles, an abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, a well-developed Golgi apparatus and few, if any, microvilli. Goblet cells along the entire length of the crypts contain neutral sugars with periodate-oxidisable vicinal diols and a ferriferricyanide-reactive component. Cells in the upper halves of the crypts also contain components that are sulphated, Schiff-reactive and acid-fast. In the lower halves of the crypts, the goblet cells contain smaller quantities of the above components plus sialic acids, some of which possibly have an O-acyl substituent located at position C-8 or C-9 (or which have two or three side chain O-acyl substituents). It is suggested that the function of the glycoproteins from the vesiculated columnar cells is protective and that from the goblet cells is lubricative. PMID:2464561

  14. Association of human erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins with blood-group Cad specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J P; Blanchard, D

    1982-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membranes from a blood-group-B individual with the rare Cad phenotype indicates a lower-than-normal mobility of the main sialoglycoproteins, suggesting an increase in apparent molecular mass of 3kDa and 2kDa respectively for glycoprotein alpha (synonym glycophorin A) and glycoprotein delta (synonym glycophorin B). Since the chief structural determinant of Cad specificity is N-acetylgalactosamine, the membrane receptors have been isolated by affinity binding on immobilized Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) lectin. The predominant species eluted from the gel was the abnormal glycoprotein alpha, whereas in control experiments no material could be recovered from the adsorbent incubated with group-B Cad-negative erythrocyte membranes. After partition of the membranes with organic solvents, the blood-group-Cad activity was found in aqueous phases containing the sialoglycoproteins, but not in the organic phases containing simple or complex glycolipids, which, however, retained the blood-group-B activity. The carbohydrate composition of highly purified lipid-free glycoprotein alpha molecules prepared from Cad and control erythrocytes was determined. Interestingly the molar ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine was equal to 2:1 in the case of controls and equal to 1:1 in the case of Cad erythrocytes. Taken together these results suggest that Cad specificity is defined by N-acetylgalactosamine residues carried by the alkali-labile oligosaccharide chains attached to the erythrocyte membrane sialo-glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6187337

  15. Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Glycoproteins for Deciphering Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai-Xi; Amin, Mohammed N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glycoproteins are an important class of biomolecules involved in a number of biological recognition processes. However, natural and recombinant glycoproteins are usually produced as mixtures of glycoforms that differ in the structures of the pendent glycans, which are difficult to separate in pure glycoforms. As a result, synthetic homogeneous glycopeptides and glycoproteins have become indispensable probes for detailed structural and functional studies. A number of elegant chemical and biological strategies have been developed for synthetic construction of tailor-made, full-size glycoproteins to address specific biological problems. In this review, we highlight recent advances in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneous glycoproteins. Selected examples are given to demonstrate the applications of tailor-made, glycan-defined glycoproteins for deciphering glycosylation functions. PMID:24439206

  16. Specificity analysis of lectins and antibodies using remodeled glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Iskratsch, Thomas; Braun, Andreas; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B H

    2009-03-15

    Due to their ability to bind specifically to certain carbohydrate sequences, lectins are a frequently used tool in cytology, histology, and glycan analysis but also offer new options for drug targeting and drug delivery systems. For these and other potential applications, it is necessary to be certain as to the carbohydrate structures interacting with the lectin. Therefore, we used glycoproteins remodeled with glycosyltransferases and glycosidases for testing specificities of lectins from Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL), Griffonia simplicifolia (GSL I-B(4)), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Lens culinaris (LCA), Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA), peanut (Arachis hypogaeae) (PNA), Ricinus communis (RCA I), Sambucus nigra (SNA), Vicia villosa (VVA), and wheat germ (Triticum vulgaris) (WGA) as well as reactivities of anti-carbohydrate antibodies (anti-bee venom, anti-horseradish peroxidase [anti-HRP], and anti-Lewis(x)). After enzymatic remodeling, the resulting neoglycoforms display defined carbohydrate sequences and can be used, when spotted on nitrocellulose or in enzyme-linked lectinosorbent assays, to identify the sugar moieties bound by the lectins. Transferrin with its two biantennary complex N-glycans was used as scaffold for gaining diverse N-glycosidic structures, whereas fetuin was modified using glycosidases to test the specificities of lectins toward both N- and O-glycans. In addition, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and Schistosoma mansoni egg extract were chosen as controls for lectin interactions with fucosylated glycans (Lewis(x) and core alpha1,3-fucose). Our data complement and expand the existing knowledge about the binding specificity of a range of commercially available lectins. PMID:19123999

  17. Galectin Binding to Neo-Glycoproteins: LacDiNAc Conjugated BSA as Ligand for Human Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Sophia; Laaf, Dominic; Elling, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-lectin interactions are relatively weak. As they play an important role in biological recognition processes, multivalent glycan ligands are designed to enhance binding affinity and inhibitory potency. We here report on novel neo-glycoproteins based on bovine serum albumin as scaffold for multivalent presentation of ligands for galectins. We prepared two kinds of tetrasaccharides (N-acetyllactosamine and N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated) by multi-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis utilizing recombinant glycosyltransferases. Subsequent conjugation of these glycans to lysine groups of bovine serum albumin via squaric acid diethyl ester yielded a set of 22 different neo-glycoproteins with tuned ligand density. The neo-glycoproteins were analyzed by biochemical and chromatographic methods proving various modification degrees. The neo-glycoproteins were used for binding and inhibition studies with human galectin-3 showing high affinity. Binding strength and inhibition potency are closely related to modification density and show binding enhancement by multivalent ligand presentation. At galectin-3 concentrations comparable to serum levels of cancer patients, we detect the highest avidities. Selectivity of N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated structures towards galectin-3 in comparison to galectin-1 is demonstrated. Moreover, we also see strong inhibitory potency of our scaffolds towards galectin-3 binding. These novel neo-glycoproteins may therefore serve as selective and strong galectin-3 ligands in cancer related biomedical research. PMID:26213980

  18. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, C.; Jackson, W. ); Traugh, J.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when ({sup 32}P)GTP was substituted for ({sup 32}P)ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein.

  19. Native functionality and therapeutic targeting of arenaviral glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Crispin, Max; Zeltina, Antra; Zitzmann, Nicole; Bowden, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Surface glycoproteins direct cellular targeting, attachment, and membrane fusion of arenaviruses and are the primary target for neutralizing antibodies. Despite significant conservation of the glycoprotein architecture across the arenavirus family, there is considerable variation in the molecular recognition mechanisms used during host cell entry. We review recent progress in dissecting these infection events and describe how arenaviral glycoproteins can be targeted by small-molecule antivirals, the natural immune response, and immunoglobulin-based therapeutics. Arenaviral glycoprotein-mediated assembly and infection pathways present numerous opportunities and challenges for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27104809

  20. Purification and physical chemical characterization of 23S glycoprotein from sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) eggs.

    PubMed

    Giga, Y; Ikai, A

    1985-07-01

    A large glycoprotein with a sedimentation coefficient, S(0)20,w, of 23.3S was purified to homogeneity from sea urchin eggs (Anthocidaris crassispina) by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-4B and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The molecular weight of the protein was 700,000 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) it showed a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 180,000 or 360,000 in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, respectively. The protein consisted of four polypeptides of equal molecular weight, which were disulfide bonded in pairs. Its carbohydrate content as determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method was 20% of the total weight. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, circular dichroic spectrum and electron microscopic image are also presented. The protein showed many structural similarities with the previously purified major glycoprotein (MCP) in the coelomic fluid of the same animal in addition to being immunologically cross reactive with it. However, the two proteins were distinct glycoproteins. Their biological functions have not been identified. PMID:4044553

  1. [Lactoferrin - a glycoprotein of great therapeutic potentials].

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Ryszard; Kamińska, Ewa; Michalski, Piotr; Lauterbach, Jan Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein, which is present in most biological fluids with particularly high levels in colostrum and in mammalian milk. Bovine lactoferrin is more than 70% homologous with human lactoferrin. Most of the clinical trials have used bovine lactoferrin for supplementation. This review summarizes the recent advances in explaining the mechanisms, which are responsible for the multifunctional roles of lactoferrin, and presents its potential prophylactic and therapeutic applications. On the ground of the results of preliminary clinical observations, authors suggest beneficial effect of lactoferrin supplementation on the prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with birth weight below 1250 grams. PMID:27442696

  2. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  3. Cell surface display of chimeric glycoproteins via the S-layer of Paenibacillus alvei

    PubMed Central

    Zarschler, Kristof; Janesch, Bettina; Kainz, Birgit; Ristl, Robin; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, mesophilic bacterium Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T possesses a two-dimensional crystalline protein surface layer (S-layer) with oblique lattice symmetry composed of a single type of O-glycoprotein species. Herein, we describe a strategy for nanopatterned in vivo cell surface co-display of peptide and glycan epitopes based on this S-layer glycoprotein self-assembly system. The open reading frame of the corresponding structural gene spaA codes for a protein of 983 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 24 amino acids. The mature S-layer protein has a theoretical molecular mass of 105.95 kDa and a calculated pI of 5.83. It contains three S-layer homology domains at the N-terminus that are involved in anchoring of the glycoprotein via a non-classical, pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer to the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. For this polymer, several putative biosynthesis enzymes were identified upstream of the spaA gene. For in vivo cell surface display, the hexahistidine tag and the enhanced green fluorescent protein, respectively, were translationally fused to the C-terminus of SpaA. Immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the fused epitopes were efficiently expressed and successfully displayed via the S-layer glycoprotein matrix on the surface of P. alvei CCM 2051T cells. In contrast, exclusively non-glycosylated chimeric SpaA proteins were displayed, when the S-layer of the glycosylation-deficient wsfP mutant was used as a display matrix. PMID:20513375

  4. Cell surface display of chimeric glycoproteins via the S-layer of Paenibacillus alvei.

    PubMed

    Zarschler, Kristof; Janesch, Bettina; Kainz, Birgit; Ristl, Robin; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2010-07-01

    The Gram-positive, mesophilic bacterium Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) possesses a two-dimensional crystalline protein surface layer (S-layer) with oblique lattice symmetry composed of a single type of O-glycoprotein species. Herein, we describe a strategy for nanopatterned in vivo cell surface co-display of peptide and glycan epitopes based on this S-layer glycoprotein self-assembly system. The open reading frame of the corresponding structural gene spaA codes for a protein of 983 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 24 amino acids. The mature S-layer protein has a theoretical molecular mass of 105.95kDa and a calculated pI of 5.83. It contains three S-layer homology domains at the N-terminus that are involved in anchoring of the glycoprotein via a non-classical, pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer to the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. For this polymer, several putative biosynthesis enzymes were identified upstream of the spaA gene. For in vivo cell surface display, the hexahistidine tag and the enhanced green fluorescent protein, respectively, were translationally fused to the C-terminus of SpaA. Immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the fused epitopes were efficiently expressed and successfully displayed via the S-layer glycoprotein matrix on the surface of P. alvei CCM 2051(T) cells. In contrast, exclusively non-glycosylated chimeric SpaA proteins were displayed, when the S-layer of the glycosylation-deficient wsfP mutant was used as a display matrix. PMID:20513375

  5. Properties of a glycopeptide isolated from human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein. Interaction with leucoagglutinin and anti-(human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein) antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Abbondanza, A; Franceschi, C; Licastro, F; Serafini-Cessi, F

    1980-01-01

    A sialylated glycopeptide isolated after Pronase digestion of human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein behaves as a powerful monovalent hapten in the precipitin reaction between human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and leucoagglutinin, but fails to inhibit the interaction of the glycoprotein with rabbit anti-(human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein) antibodies. The glycopeptide is much less active than the intact glycoprotein as an inhibitor of lymphocyte transformation induced by leucoagglutinin. PMID:6967312

  6. Enhanced detection of glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Marshall, S; Cabrera, M; Horvat, A

    1988-05-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method to enhance detection of glycoproteins resolved by either one- or two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. The method is a modification of the procedure described by D. Fargeaud et al. (D. Fargeaud, J. C. Benoit, F. Kato, and G. Chappuis (1984) Arch. Virol. 80, 69-82) that uses concanavalin A conjugated with fluorescein isothyocyanate to detect the carbohydrate moiety of glycoproteins. Briefly, the electrophoresed gel is exposed to the fluorescent lectin, thoroughly washed, and sequentially transferred to 50% methanol in deionized water and to absolute methanol. The result is an abrupt dehydration of the gel which turns evenly white and stiff. At least a twofold enhancement of fluorescence is obtained as detected by exposing the treated gel to an appropriate uv source. The sensitivity of the procedure allows us to detect purified immunoglobulin molecules by their carbohydrate content in the range of 0.2 microgram of total protein. The specificity of the detection is demonstrated by a comparison with the corresponding polypeptide profile obtained by silver nitrate staining of the gel. PMID:3394948

  7. Podoplanin - a small glycoprotein with many faces.

    PubMed

    Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr; Suchanski, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small membrane glycoprotein with a large number of O-glycoside chains and therefore it belongs to mucin-type proteins. It can be found on the surface of many types of normal cells originating from various germ layers. It is present primarily on the endothelium of lymphatic vessels, type I pneumocytes and glomerular podocytes. Increased levels of podoplanin or its neo-expression have been found in numerous types of human carcinomas, but it is especially common in squamous cell carcinomas, such as cervical, larynx, oral cavity, skin and lung cancer. This small sialomucin is also seen on the surface of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in lung adenocarcinomas, as well as in breast and pancreatic tumors. In most cancers, a high level of podoplanin expression, both in cancer cells, as well as in CAFs, is correlated with an increased incidence of metastasis to lymph nodes and shorter survival time of patients. Little is known about the biological role of podoplanin, however research carried out on mice with a knock-out gene of this glycoprotein shows that the presence of podoplanin determines normal development of lungs, the lymphatic system and heart. Podoplanin on cancer cells and CAFs seems to play an important role in the development and progression of various cancers. However, its role in these processes is both unclear and controversial. In this review, the role of podoplanin in both physiological processes and carcinogenesis is discussed. PMID:27186410

  8. Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data

    PubMed Central

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Pinto, Marta; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Williams, Antony J; Balderud, Linda Zander; Engkvist, Ola; Chichester, Christine; Hersey, Anne; Overington, John P; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Huge amounts of small compound bioactivity data have been entering the public domain as a consequence of open innovation initiatives. It is now the time to carefully analyse existing bioassay data and give it a systematic structure. Our study aims to annotate prominent in vitro assays used for the determination of bioactivities of human P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates as they are represented in the ChEMBL and TP-search open source databases. Furthermore, the ability of data, determined in different assays, to be combined with each other is explored. As a result of this study, it is suggested that for inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein it is possible to combine data coming from the same assay type, if the cell lines used are also identical and the fluorescent or radiolabeled substrate have overlapping binding sites. In addition, it demonstrates that there is a need for larger chemical diverse datasets that have been measured in a panel of different assays. This would certainly alleviate the search for other inter-correlations between bioactivity data yielded by different assay setups. PMID:23293680

  9. Glycosylation modulates arenavirus glycoprotein expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Bonhomme, Cyrille J. Capul, Althea A. Lauron, Elvin J. Bederka, Lydia H. Knopp, Kristeene A. Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2011-01-20

    The glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) contains nine potential N-linked glycosylation sites. We investigated the function of these N-glycosylations by using alanine-scanning mutagenesis. All the available sites were occupied on GP1 and two of three on GP2. N-linked glycan mutations at positions 87 and 97 on GP1 resulted in reduction of expression and absence of cleavage and were necessary for downstream functions, as confirmed by the loss of GP-mediated fusion activity with T87A and S97A mutants. In contrast, T234A and E379N/A381T mutants impaired GP-mediated cell fusion without altered expression or processing. Infectivity via virus-like particles required glycans and a cleaved glycoprotein. Glycosylation at the first site within GP2, not normally utilized by LCMV, exhibited increased VLP infectivity. We also confirmed the role of the N-linked glycan at position 173 in the masking of the neutralizing epitope GP-1D. Taken together, our results indicated a strong relationship between fusion and infectivity.

  10. Podoplanin - a small glycoprotein with many faces

    PubMed Central

    Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr; Suchanski, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small membrane glycoprotein with a large number of O-glycoside chains and therefore it belongs to mucin-type proteins. It can be found on the surface of many types of normal cells originating from various germ layers. It is present primarily on the endothelium of lymphatic vessels, type I pneumocytes and glomerular podocytes. Increased levels of podoplanin or its neo-expression have been found in numerous types of human carcinomas, but it is especially common in squamous cell carcinomas, such as cervical, larynx, oral cavity, skin and lung cancer. This small sialomucin is also seen on the surface of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in lung adenocarcinomas, as well as in breast and pancreatic tumors. In most cancers, a high level of podoplanin expression, both in cancer cells, as well as in CAFs, is correlated with an increased incidence of metastasis to lymph nodes and shorter survival time of patients. Little is known about the biological role of podoplanin, however research carried out on mice with a knock-out gene of this glycoprotein shows that the presence of podoplanin determines normal development of lungs, the lymphatic system and heart. Podoplanin on cancer cells and CAFs seems to play an important role in the development and progression of various cancers. However, its role in these processes is both unclear and controversial. In this review, the role of podoplanin in both physiological processes and carcinogenesis is discussed. PMID:27186410

  11. Role of envelope glycoproteins in intracellular virus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The possible role viral glycoproteins in intracellular maturation was studied by using two different viruses, avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, and Punta Toro virus (PTV), a bunyavirus. Using the antibiotic tunicamycin, which inhibits glycosylation of N-linked glycoproteins, it was shown that coronavirus particles are formed in the absence of glycosylation. Analysis of the protein composition of these particles indicated that they contain an unglycosylated form of the membrane-associated E1 glycoprotein but lack the E2 spike glycoprotein. A cDNA clone derived from the PTV M RNA genome segment, which encodes the G1 and G2 glycoproteins, was cloned into vaccinia virus. Studies by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the glycoproteins synthesized from this recombinant were found to accumulate intracellularly at the Golgi complex, where virus budding usually takes place. Surface immunoprecipitation and {sup 125}I-protein A binding assays also demonstrated that a majority of the glycoproteins are retained intracellularly and are not transported to the cellular surface. The sequences which encode the G1 and G2 glycoproteins were independently cloned into vaccinia virus as well.

  12. Optimized deglycosylation of glycoproteins by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)-asparagine amidase from Flavobacterium meningosepticum.

    PubMed

    Nuck, R; Zimmermann, M; Sauvageot, D; Josi D; Reutter, W

    1990-01-01

    Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F(PNGase F) from Flavobacterium meningosepticum is a highly useful enzyme for the structural analysis of N (asparagine)-linked carbohydrate chains derived from glycoproteins. The enzyme was enriched using a published procedure [Tarentino AL, Gomez CM, Plummer TH, Jr (1984) Biochemistry 1985:4665-71; Tarentino AL, Plummer TH, Jr (1987) Methods Enzymol 138:770-78] and further purified by hydrophobic interaction HPLC on a weak hydrophobic TSK-Ether column from which it was eluted by a decreasing gradient of 1.7 M ammonium sulphate in 100 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.0, containing 5 mM EDTA. To determine the optimal conditions for a complete deglycosylation of glycoproteins by PNGase F, experiments were performed with human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, because the five complex type carbohydrate chains are quite resistant to enzymic hydrolysis. The influence of different detergents on the enzyme reaction was studied. Complete deglycosylation of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was achieved by the use of 60 mU/ml PNGase F in 0.25 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.6, containing 0.2% (w/v) SDS, 20 mM mercaptoethanol and 0.5% Mega-10. PMID:2136346

  13. Rabies virulence: effect on pathogenicity and sequence characterization of rabies virus mutations affecting antigenic site III of the glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Seif, I; Coulon, P; Rollin, P E; Flamand, A

    1985-01-01

    Using four neutralizing monoclonal antibodies which presumably bind to the same antigenic site on the CVS glycoprotein (antigenic site III as defined by cross-neutralization tests), we isolated 58 mutants of the CVS strain of rabies virus. These mutants were highly resistant to the selecting antibodies and grew efficiently in cell cultures. We classified them into five groups on the basis of the pattern of resistance to the four antibodies. We determined pathogenicities of the mutants for adult mice by intracerebral inoculation. Group 2 mutants were nonpathogenic or had attenuated pathogenicity. On the contrary, mutants from the other groups were pathogenic, causing paralysis and death as does CVS. We determined the nucleotide alterations of representative mutants from each group by using the dideoxy method of RNA sequencing. In the glycoproteins of eight nonpathogenic or attenuated mutants, we identified an amino acid substitution at position 333. Arginine 333 was replaced by either glutamine or glycine. In the glycoprotein of eight pathogenic mutants, we identified an amino acid substitution at lysine 330, asparagine 336, or isoleucine 338. Thus, although all substitutions affected neutralization and were located close to each other in the glycoprotein sequence, only substitutions at position 333 affected pathogenicity. Images PMID:2579247

  14. Aberrant expression of a chemokinetic glycoprotein in psoriatic skin.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, S; Schmalsteig, F C; Brysk, M M; Hendrick, S J; Solomon, A R

    1987-05-01

    Clinically involved and uninvolved skin samples of 6 psoriatic patients, 4 samples each of normal skin specimens, basal cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma were studied by an indirect immunofluorescence technique. The monospecific antibody used in this study was directed against a 30 kD glycoprotein, normally expressed by the terminally differentiated corneocytes. Functional characterization of this glycoprotein was evaluated by neutrophil cell movement assays. The involved and uninvolved skin of psoriatic patients expressed the 30 kD glycoprotein not only in the stratum corneum but in all the viable epidermal layers as well. Functional studies revealed this glycoprotein to be a potent chemokinetic molecule. These results suggest that the 30 kD glycoprotein is an intrinsic chemokinetic molecule of the terminally differentiated corneocytes, and its precocious and aberrant expression in psoriatic epidermis is potentially responsible for some of the pathophysiologic aspects of psoriasis. PMID:3302266

  15. Properties of odour-binding glycoproteins from rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, E E; Novoselov, V I; Bystrova, M F

    1988-01-22

    The specific membrane glycoproteins with high affinity for camphor and decanal were isolated from rat olfactory epithelium. Antibodies to these glycoproteins inhibited both the electroolfactogram and the binding of odorants. The enzyme immunoassay has shown these glycoproteins to be present in the olfactory epithelium of rat, mouse, guinea-pig and hamster but not in that of frog and carp. The molecular mass of the odour-binding glycoproteins from rat olfactory epithelium solubilized by Triton X-100 was approx. 140 kDa. They consisted of two subunits (88 and 55 kDa). The 88 kDa subunit was capable of binding odorants. The data obtained suggest that the glycoproteins isolated have some properties that make them plausible candidates for olfactory receptor molecules. PMID:3337807

  16. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics of fungal wall glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qing Yuan; de Groot, Piet W J; de Koster, Chris G; Klis, Frans M

    2008-01-01

    The manifold functions of fungal wall glycoproteins include maintenance of cell wall integrity, homotypic and heterotypic adhesion, biofilm formation, acquisition of iron and sterols, protein degradation and coping with oxidative stress. Transcriptome studies indicate that the expression levels of most cell wall glycoproteins can vary widely and are tightly controlled. However, owing to their complex and variable glycosylation, fungal wall glycoproteins are difficult to analyze using traditional proteomics approaches. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled rapid and sensitive identification and quantitation of fungal wall glycoproteins; this will be particularly useful for studying the dynamics of the subproteome of fungal wall glycoproteins, and for the development of novel vaccines and diagnostic tools. PMID:18096391

  17. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  18. Analysis of N-linked oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins on nitrocellulose sheets using lectin-peroxidase reagents.

    PubMed

    Kijimoto-Ochiai, S; Katagiri, Y U; Ochiai, H

    1985-05-15

    A rapid and convenient method was established for analysis of the N-linked carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins on nitrocellulose sheets. Proteins were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose sheets, reacted with peroxidase-coupled lectins, and detected by color development of the enzyme reaction. Four glycoproteins having N-linked oligosaccharide chains were used as test materials: Taka-amylase A (which has a high-mannose-type chain), ovalbumin (high-mannose-type chains and hybrid-type chains), transferrin (biantennary chains of complex type), and fetuin (triantennary chains of complex type and O-linked-type chains). Concanavalin A interacted with Taka-amylase A, transferrin, and ovalbumin but barely interacted with fetuin. After treatment of the glycoproteins on a nitrocellulose sheet with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, transferrin reacted with concanavalin A but Taka-amylase A and ovalbumin did not. Wheat germ agglutinin interacted with Taka-amylase A but not ovalbumin; therefore, they were distinguishable from each other. Fetuin and transferrin were detected by Ricinus communis agglutinin or peanut agglutinin after removal of sialic acid by treatment with neuraminidase or by weak-acid hydrolysis. Erythroagglutinating Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin detected fetuin and transferrin. Thus, the combined use of these procedures distinguished the four different types of N-linked glycoproteins. This method was also applied to the analysis of membrane glycoproteins from sheep red blood cells. The terminally positioned sugars of sialic acid, alpha-fucose, alpha-galactose, and alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine were also detected with lectins from Limulus polyphemus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Maclura pomifera, and Dolichos biflorus, respectively. PMID:2411164

  19. Structural characterization of the N-linked pentasaccharide decorating glycoproteins of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Kandiba, Lina; Lin, Chia-Wei; Aebi, Markus; Eichler, Jerry; Guerardel, Yann

    2016-07-01

    N-Glycosylation is a post-translational modification performed in all three domains of life. In the halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii, glycoproteins such as the S-layer glycoprotein are modified by an N-linked pentasaccharide assembled by a series of Agl (archaeal glycosylation) proteins. In the present study, mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to define the structure of this glycan attached to at least four of the seven putative S-layer glycoprotein N-glycosylation sites, namely Asn-13, Asn-83, Asn-274 and Asn-279. Such approaches detected a trisaccharide corresponding to glucuronic acid (GlcA)-β1,4-GlcA-β1,4-glucose-β1-Asn, a tetrasaccharide corresponding to methyl-O-4-GlcA-β-1,4-galacturonic acid-α1,4-GlcA-β1,4-glucose-β1-Asn, and a pentasaccharide corresponding to hexose-1,2-[methyl-O-4-]GlcA-β-1,4-galacturonic acid-α1,4-GlcA-β1,4-glucose-β1-Asn, with previous MS and radiolabeling experiments showing the hexose at the non-reducing end of the pentasaccharide to be mannose. The present analysis thus corrects the earlier assignment of the penultimate sugar as a methyl ester of a hexuronic acid, instead revealing this sugar to be a methylated GlcA. The assignments made here are in good agreement with what was already known of the Hfx. volcanii N-glycosylation pathway from previous genetic and biochemical efforts while providing new insight into the process. PMID:26863921

  20. Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

    1987-01-27

    Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

  1. The N-glycan Glycoprotein Deglycosylation Complex (Gpd) from Capnocytophaga canimorsus Deglycosylates Human IgG

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Francesco; Manfredi, Pablo; Mally, Manuela; Moes, Suzette; Jenö, Paul; Cornelis, Guy R.

    2011-01-01

    C. canimorsus 5 has the capacity to grow at the expenses of glycan moieties from host cells N-glycoproteins. Here, we show that C. canimorsus 5 also has the capacity to deglycosylate human IgG and we analyze the deglycosylation mechanism. We show that deglycosylation is achieved by a large complex spanning the outer membrane and consisting of the Gpd proteins and sialidase SiaC. GpdD, -G, -E and -F are surface-exposed outer membrane lipoproteins. GpdDEF could contribute to the binding of glycoproteins at the bacterial surface while GpdG is a endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase cleaving the N-linked oligosaccharide after the first N-linked GlcNAc residue. GpdC, resembling a TonB-dependent OM transporter is presumed to import the oligosaccharide into the periplasm after its cleavage from the glycoprotein. The terminal sialic acid residue of the oligosaccharide is then removed by SiaC, a periplasm-exposed lipoprotein in direct contact with GpdC. Finally, most likely degradation of the oligosaccharide proceeds sequentially from the desialylated non reducing end by the action of periplasmic exoglycosidases, including β-galactosidases, β-N-Acetylhexosaminidases and α-mannosidases. PMID:21738475

  2. The use of chimeric virus-like particles harbouring a segment of hantavirus Gc glycoprotein to generate a broadly-reactive hantavirus-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80-89) or site #4 (aa 280-289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24513568

  3. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89) or site #4 (aa 280–289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24513568

  4. The microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs) and the microfibrillar niche.

    PubMed

    Mecham, Robert P; Gibson, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The microfibril-associated glycoproteins MAGP-1 and MAGP-2 are extracellular matrix proteins that interact with fibrillin to influence microfibril function. The two proteins are related through a 60 amino acid matrix-binding domain but their sequences differ outside of this region. A distinguishing feature of both proteins is their ability to interact with TGFβ family growth factors, Notch and Notch ligands, and multiple elastic fiber proteins. MAGP-2 can also interact with αvβ3 integrins via a RGD sequence that is not found in MAGP-1. Morpholino knockdown of MAGP-1 expression in zebrafish resulted in abnormal vessel wall architecture and altered vascular network formation. In the mouse, MAGP-1 deficiency had little effect on elastic fibers in blood vessels and lung but resulted in numerous unexpected phenotypes including bone abnormalities, hematopoietic changes, increased fat deposition, diabetes, impaired wound repair, and a bleeding diathesis. Inactivation of the gene for MAGP-2 in mice produced a neutropenia yet had minimal effects on bone or adipose homeostasis. Double knockouts had phenotypes characteristic of each individual knockout as well as several additional traits only seen when both genes are inactivated. A common mechanism underlying all of the traits associated with the knockout phenotypes is altered TGFβ signaling. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of the MAGPs and discusses ideas related to their role in growth factor regulation. PMID:25963142

  5. Characterization of the glycoproteins of bat-derived influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Maeda, Ken; Ogawa, Hirohito; Yoshida, Reiko; Igarashi, Manabu; Takada, Ayato

    2016-01-15

    Recently found bat-derived influenza viruses (BatIVs) have hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments distinct from those of previously known influenza A viruses. However, pathogenicities of these BatIVs remain unknown since infectious virus strains have not been isolated yet. To gain insight into the biological properties of BatIVs, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) pseudotyped with the BatIV HA and NA. We found that VSVs pseudotyped with BatIV HAs and NAs efficiently infected particular bat cell lines but not those derived from primates, and that proteolytic cleavage with a trypsin-like protease was necessary for HA-mediated virus entry. Treatment of the susceptible bat cells with some enzymes and inhibitors revealed that BatIV HAs might recognize some cellular glycoproteins as receptors rather than the sialic acids used for the other known influenza viruses. These data provide fundamental information on the mechanisms underlying the cellular entry and host restriction of BatIVs. PMID:26605499

  6. Molecular optimization of rabies virus glycoprotein expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Ben Azoun, Safa; Belhaj, Aicha Eya; Göngrich, Rebecca; Gasser, Brigitte; Kallel, Héla

    2016-05-01

    In this work, different approaches were investigated to enhance the expression rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) in the yeast Pichia pastoris; this membrane protein is responsible for the synthesis of rabies neutralizing antibodies. First, the impact of synonymous codon usage bias was examined and an optimized RABV-G gene was synthesized. Nevertheless, data showed that the secretion of the optimized RABV-G gene was not tremendously increased as compared with the non-optimized one. In addition, similar levels of RABV-G were obtained when α-factor mating factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the acid phosphatase PHO1 was used as a secretion signal. Therefore, sequence optimization and secretion signal were not the major bottlenecks for high-level expression of RABV-G in P. pastoris. Unfolded protein response (UPR) was induced in clones containing high copy number of RABV-G expression cassette indicating that folding was the limiting step for RABV-G secretion. To circumvent this limitation, co-overexpression of five factors involved in oxidative protein folding was investigated. Among these factors only PDI1, ERO1 and GPX1 proved their benefit to enhance the expression. The highest expression level of RABV-G reached 1230 ng ml(-1) . Competitive neutralizing assay confirmed that the recombinant protein was produced in the correct conformational form in this host. PMID:26880068

  7. Seroreactive recombinant herpes simplex virus type 2-specific glycoprotein G.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, D L; Smith, C M; Rose, J M; Brandis, J; Coates, S R

    1991-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genome codes for an envelope protein, glycoprotein G (gG), which contains predominantly type 2-specific epitopes. A portion of this gG gene has been expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Expression was regulated by a lambda phage pL promoter. The 60,000-molecular-weight recombinant protein was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Amino acid sequence analysis confirmed the N terminus of the purified protein. Mice immunized with recombinant gG developed antibodies reactive with native HSV-2 protein, but not with HSV-1 protein, in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The serological activity of this purified recombinant gG protein was evaluated by immunoblot assay. This protein was reactive with an HSV-2 gG monoclonal antibody. It was also reactive with HSV-2 rabbit antiserum but not with HSV-1 rabbit antiserum. Of 15 patient serum samples known to have antibody to HSV-2, 14 were reactive with this recombinant type 2-specific gG protein, and none of 15 HSV antibody-negative patient serum samples showed reactivity. In agreement with the expected prevalence of HSV-2 infection, 27.6% of 134 serum samples from random normal individuals had antibodies reactive with recombinant gG. This recombinant gG protein may be of value in detecting HSV-2-specific antibody responses in patients infected with HSV-2. Images PMID:1653787

  8. Interaction modes and approaches to glycopeptide and glycoprotein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chun; Su, Wan-Chih; Huang, Bao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ju; Tai, Hwan-Ching; Obena, Rofeamor P

    2014-02-21

    Protein glycosylation has received increased attention for its critical role in cell biology and diseases. Developing new methodologies to discern phenotype-dependent glycosylation will not only elucidate the mechanistic aspects of cell signaling cascades but also accelerate biomarker discovery for disease diagnosis or prognosis. In the analytical pipeline, enrichment at either the protein or peptide level is the most critical prerequisite for analyzing heterogeneous glycan composition, linkage, site occupancy and carrier proteins. Because the critical factor for choosing a suitable enrichment method is primarily a particular technique's selectivity and affinity towards target glycoproteins/glycopeptides, it is important to fully understand the working principles for the different approaches. For mechanistic insight into the enrichment protocol, we focused on the fundamental chemical and physical processes for the commonly used approaches based on: (a) glycan/peptide physicochemical properties (hydrophilic interactions, chelation/coordination chemistry) and (b) glycan-specific recognition (lectin-based affinity, covalent bond formation by hydrazide/boronic acid). Various interaction modes, such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interaction, multivalency, and metal- or water-mediated stabilization, are discussed in detail. In addition, we will review the design of and modifications to such methods, hyphenated approaches, and glycoproteomic applications. Finally, we will outline challenges to existing strategies and offer novel proposals for glycoproteome enrichment. PMID:24336240

  9. P-glycoprotein in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias Díaz, S; Vera-Recabarren, M; Vázquez de Lara, L; Méndez Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; González-Ramírez, R; Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane protein of 170 kD encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene, localized on chromosome 7. More than 50 polymorphisms of the MDR-1 gene have been described; a subset of these has been shown to play a pathophysiological role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease, femoral head osteonecrosis induced by steroids, lung cancer and renal epithelial tumors. Polymorphisms that have a protective effect on the development of conditions such as Parkinson disease have also been identified. P-glycoprotein belongs to the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter superfamily and its structure comprises a chain of approximately 1280 aminoacid residues with an N-C terminal structure, arranged as 2 homologous halves, each of which has 6 transmembrane segments, with a total of 12 segments with 2 cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. Many cytokines like interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha increase Pgp expression and activity. Pgp functions as an efflux pump for a variety of toxins in order to protect particular organs and tissues as the central nervous system. Pgp transports a variety of substrates including glucocorticoids while other drugs such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A act as modulators of this protein. The most widely used method to measure Pgp activity is flow cytometry using naturally fluorescent substrates such as anthracyclines or rhodamine 123. The study of drug resistance and its association to Pgp began with the study of resistance to chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus; however, the role of Pgp in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis has been a focus of study lately and has emerged as an important mechanism by which treatment failure occurs. The present review analyzes the role of Pgp in these autoimmune diseases. PMID:25712147

  10. N-Glycoproteomics of Human Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita; Renkonen, Risto

    2016-03-01

    Seminal plasma aids sperm by inhibiting premature capacitation, helping in the intracervical transport and formation of an oviductal sperm reservoir, all of which appear to be important in the fertilization process. Epitopes such as Lewis x and y are known to be present on seminal plasma glycoproteins, which can modulate the maternal immune response. It is suggested by multiple studies that seminal plasma glycoproteins play, largely undiscovered, important roles in the process of fertilization. We have devised a strategy to analyze glycopeptides from a complex, unknown mixture of protease-digested proteins. This analysis provides identification of the glycoproteins, glycosylation sites, glycan compositions, and proposed structures from the original sample. This strategy has been applied to human seminal plasma total glycoproteins. We have elucidated glycan compositions and proposed structures for 243 glycopeptides belonging to 73 N-glycosylation sites on 50 glycoproteins. The majority of the proposed glycan structures were complex type (83%) followed by high-mannose (10%) and then hybrid (7%). Most of the glycoproteins were either sialylated, fucosylated, or both. Many Lewis x/a and y/b epitopes bearing glycans were found, suggesting immune-modulating epitopes on multiple seminal plasma glycoproteins. The study also shows that large scale N-glycosylation mapping is achievable with current techniques and the depth of the analysis is roughly proportional to the prefractionation and complexity of the sample. PMID:26791533

  11. Immunomodulatory Effects of Nontoxic Glycoprotein Fraction Isolated from Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Ha Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2016-05-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of brown rice milling, is a rich source of dietary fiber and protein, and its usage as a functional food is expected to increase. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of glycoprotein obtained from rice bran were studied in normal mice and mouse models of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. We prepared glycoprotein from rice bran by using ammonium precipitation and anion chromatography techniques. Different doses of glycoprotein from rice bran (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days. On day 21, cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally. Glycoprotein from rice bran showed a significant dose-dependent restoration of the spleen index and white blood cell count in the immunocompromised mice. Glycoprotein from rice bran affected the immunomodulatory function by inducing the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, which produce potential T and B cells. Moreover, it prevented cyclophosphamide-induced damage of Th1-type immunomodulatory function through enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-12). These results indicate that glycoprotein from rice bran significantly recovered cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Based on these data, it was concluded that glycoprotein from rice bran is a potent immunomodulator and can be developed to recover the immunity of immunocompromised individuals. PMID:26891000

  12. Identification of members of the P-glycoprotein multigene family

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.F.; Sarangi, F.; Zastawny, R.L.; Veinot-Drebot, L.; Ling, V. )

    1989-03-01

    Overproduction of P-glycoprotein is intimately associated with multidrug resistance. This protein appears to be encoded by a multigene family. Thus, differential expression of different members of this family may contribute to the complexity of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Three lambda genomic clones isolated from a hamster genomic library represent different members of the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family. Using a highly conserved exon probe, the authors found that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes. They also found that the P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes in mice but has only two genes in humans and rhesus monkeys. The hamster P-glycoprotein genes have similar exon-intron organizations within the 3' region encoding the cytoplasmic domains. The propose that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family arose from gene duplication. The hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes appear to be more closely related to each other than either gene is to the pgp3 gene. They speculate that the hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes arose from a recent gene duplication event and that primates did not undergo this duplication and therefore contain only two P-glycoprotein genes.

  13. Stable rescue of a glycoprotein gII deletion mutant of pseudorabies virus by glycoprotein gI of bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Kopp, A; Mettenleiter, T C

    1992-05-01

    Glycoproteins homologous to glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus constitute the most highly conserved group of herpesvirus glycoproteins. This strong conservation of amino acid sequences might be indicative of a common functional role. Indeed, gB homologs have been implicated in the processes of viral entry and virus-mediated cell-cell fusion. Recently, we showed that pseudorabies virus (PrV) lacking the essential gB-homologous glycoprotein gII could be propagated on a cell line expressing the gB homolog of bovine herpesvirus 1, gI(BHV-1), leading to a phenotypic complementation of the gII defect (I. Rauh, F. Weiland, F. Fehler, G. Keil, and T.C. Mettenleiter, J. Virol. 65:621-631, 1991). However, this pseudotypic virus could still replicate only on complementing cell lines, thereby limiting experimental approaches to analyze the effects of the gB exchange in detail. We describe here the construction and isolation of a PrV recombinant, 9112C2, that lacks gII(PrV) but instead stably carries and expresses the gene encoding gI(BHV-1). The recombinant is able to replicate on noncomplementing cells with growth kinetics and final titers similar to those of its gII-positive wild-type PrV parent. Neutralization tests and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated incorporation of gI(BHV-1) into 9112C2 virions with concomitant absence of gII(PrV). Analysis of in vitro host ranges of wild-type PrV, BHV-1, and recombinant 9112C2 showed that in cells of pig, rabbit, canine, monkey, or human origin, the plating efficiency of 9112C2 was similar to that of its PrV parent. Exchange of gII(PrV) for gI(BHV-1) in recombinant 9112C2 or by phenotypic complementation of gII- PrV propagated on gI(BHV-1)-expressing cell lines resulted in penetration kinetics intermediate between those of wild-type PrV and BHV-1. In conclusion, we report the first isolation of a viral recombinant in which a lethal glycoprotein mutation has been rescued by a homologous glycoprotein of a different

  14. PCR cloning and characterization of multiple ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNAs from tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.; Gianfagna, T.

    1998-01-01

    Four ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) cDNAs were cloned from tomato fruit and leaves by the PCR techniques. Three of them (agp S1, agp S2, and agp S3) encode the large subunit of AGP, the fourth one (agp B) encodes the small subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs show very high identities (96-98%) to the corresponding potato AGP isoforms, although there are major differences in tissue expression profiles. All four tomato AGP transcripts were detected in fruit and leaves; the predominant ones in fruit are agp B and agp S1, whereas in leaves they are agp B and agp S3. Genomic southern analysis suggests that the four AGP transcripts are encoded by distinct genes.

  15. The arrangement of disulfide loops in human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein. Similarity to the disulfide bridge structures of cystatins and kininogens.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, J; Haupt, H; Auerswald, E A; Müller-Ester, W

    1989-08-25

    The complete disulfide loop structure of human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein has been elucidated. alpha 2-HS glycoprotein isolated from human plasma was found to be a two-chain protein composed of a heavy and a light chain. The heavy chain comprises the A-chain of alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (Yoshioka, Y., Gejyo, F., Marti, T., Rickli, E. E., Bürgi, W., Offner, G. D., Troxler, R. F., and Schmid, K. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 1665-1676) and part of the connecting peptide which has been predicted from the corresponding cDNA sequence (Lee, C. C., Bowman, B. H., and Yang, F. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 4403-4407), whereas the light chain corresponds to the beta-chain of alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (Gejyo, F., Chang, J. L., Bürgi, W., Schmid, K., Offner, G. D., Troxler, R. F., Van Halbeek, H., Dorland, L., Gerwig, G. J., Vliegenthart, J. F. G. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 4966-4971). Twelve half-cystine residues are present in the alpha 2-HS glycoprotein molecule, and 11 of them are positioned in the heavy chain and a single one in the light chain of the molecule; they form six disulfide bridges. The first and the last half-cystine residues of the amino acid sequence of alpha 2-HS glycoprotein are engaged in the formation of a loop spanning the extreme NH2- and COOH-terminal portions of the molecule, thereby connecting the heavy and light chains. The other 10 half-cystines residues are linked consecutively in the heavy chain and form five loops which span 4-19 amino acid residues. Among them are two pairs of loops which are characterized by mutual sequence homology. The particular arrangement of disulfide loops in alpha 2-HS glycoprotein is similar to the patterns of linearly arranged and tandemly repeated disulfide loops of cysteine proteinase inhibitors, i.e. the cystatins and the kininogens. It is concluded that alpha 2-HS glycoprotein represents a structural prototype of a novel family among the cystatin superfamily, characterized by the presence of two cystatin

  16. Labelling of membrane glycoprotein in erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium knowlesi*

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, P. I.; Hirst, S. I.; Shakespeare, P. G.; Tappenden, L.

    1977-01-01

    Normal rhesus monkey erythrocytes and erythrocytes infected by P. knowlesi were labelled with galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) and tritiated sodium borohydride. The glycoproteins of normal erythrocytes were not labelled unless the cells were pretreated with neuraminidase, when peaks of activity with apparent molecular weights of 170 000, 126 000, 90 000, 50 000, and 35 000 were observed. Schizont-infected erythrocytes showed an absence of glycoprotein labelling even after neuraminidase treatment. The results indicate that there is an alteration in the glycoproteins of schizont-infected erythrocytes, which may contribute to the increased permeability and the immunological alterations on the surface of these cells. PMID:412601

  17. Lectin binding and surface glycoprotein pattern of human macrophage populations.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, H; Radzun, H J; Schumacher, U; Parwaresch, M R

    1986-01-01

    In the present study unstimulated and stimulated human blood monocytes, untreated and phorbol ester treated U-937 cells, as well as human peritoneal and alveolar macrophages were studied with respect to their surface membrane properties. Binding of different lectins and electrophoretic patterns of tritium labeled surface glycoproteins were compared. The analysis of surface glycoproteins could be interpreted as evidence for a common origin of the analysed cell populations. Furthermore, banding patterns of glycoproteins might be useful to define certain activation states within monocyte/macrophage differentiation. In contrast, lectin binding pattern did not clearly discriminate macrophage subpopulations. PMID:3102412

  18. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system....5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-glycoproteins... alpha-1-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-1 group when subjected...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  20. Recognition and invasion of human erythrocytes by malarial parasites: contribution of sialoglycoproteins to attachment and host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.J.; Blankenberg, T.; Sensabaugh, G.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1984-05-01

    The receptivity of human erythrocytes to invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites can be decreased by neuraminidase or trypsin treatment, an observation that supports a role for the erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins (glycophorins) in invasion. We have found that ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein (AGP), added to in vitro cultures, can restore invasion of enzyme-treated human erythrocytes. AGP is structurally different from the glycophorins although it does carry 12% sialic acid. Its ability to restore receptivity to desialylated cells is dependent on its sialic acid complement, its concentration, and its binding to the erythrocyte surface. We present evidence that AGP forms a bridge between the merozoite and the enzyme-treated erythrocyte that allows the stronger and more complex interactions of invasion to proceed. We suggest that the glycophorins play the same role on the surface of the intact erythrocyte. 31 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Detection of glycoproteins in the Acanthamoeba plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paatero, G.I.L. ); Gahmberg, C.G. )

    1988-11-01

    In the present study the authors have shown that glycoproteins are present in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii by utilizing different radioactive labeling techniques. Plasma membrane proteins in the amoeba were iodinated by {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase labeling and the solubilized radiolabeled glycoproteins were separated by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The periodate/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} and galactose oxidase/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} labeling techniques were used for labeling of surface carbohydrates in the amoeba. Several surface-labeled glycoproteins were observed in addition to a diffusely labeled region with M{sub r} of 55,000-75,000 seen on electrophoresis, which could represent glycolipids. The presence of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii was confirmed by metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine followed by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  2. Mutations in the Carboxyl Terminal Region of E2 Glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus is Responsible for Viral Attenuation in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously showed that a virulent strain of CSFV containing the E2 glycoprotein gene from vaccine strain was markedly attenuated in pigs. The identification of the amino acid residues responsible for the attenuation will be useful in the rational development of live attenuated vaccines (LAV)...

  3. Removal of a N-linked Glycosylation Site on the Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia E(rns) Glycoprotein Affects Virulence in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E(rns) glycoprotein is involved in several functions; including virus attachment and entry to target cells, production of antibodies, and virulence. Here, we describe the role of CSFV strain Brescia E(rns) glycosylation on virulence in swine. Amino acid residue N...

  4. Mutations in the Carboxi Terminal Region of E2 Glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus is Responsible for Viral Attenuation in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that chimeric virus 319.1 virus containing the E2 glycoprotein gene from Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) vaccine strain CS with the genetic background of virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BIC virus) was attenuated in pigs. To identify the amino acids mediating 319.1 virus attenuation...

  5. Enzymatic sulfation of mucus glycoprotein in gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Liau, Y.H.; Carter, S.R.; Gwozdzinski, K.; Nadziejko, C.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L.

    1986-05-01

    Among the posttranslational modifications that mucus glycoprotein undergo prior to secretion into the gastric lumen is the process of sulfation of the carbohydrate chains. These sulfate groups impart strongly negative charge to nucus glycoprotein and are thought to play a major role in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. The authors report here the presence and some properties of an enzyme involved in the sulfation of gastric mucus glycoprotein. The sulfotransferase activity which catalyzes the transfer of sulfate ester group from PAPS to mucus glycoprotein was located in the detergent extracts of the microsomal fraction of rat gastric mucosa. Optimum enzymatic activity for sulfation of gastric mucin was obtained using 0.5% Triton X-100 and 25mM NaF at a pH of 6.8. ATP, ADP, MgCl/sub 2/ and MnCl/sub 2/ at concentrations examined were inhibitory. Under optimal conditions, the rate of sulfate incorporation was proportional to the microsomal enzyme protein concentration up to 50..mu..g and remained constant with time of incubation for at least 1h. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for gastric mucus glycoprotein was 8.3 x 10/sup -6/M. The /sup 35/S-labeled product of the enzyme reaction cochromatographed on Bio-Gel A-50 with gastric mucin, and gave on CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation a band at the density of 1.48 in which the /sup 35/S label coincided with the glycoprotein.

  6. Homology modelling of human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Domicevica, Laura; Biggin, Philip C

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that exports a huge range of compounds out of cells and is thus one of the key proteins in conferring multi-drug resistance in cancer. Understanding how it achieves such a broad specificity and the series of conformational changes that allow export to occur form major, on-going, research objectives around the world. Much of our knowledge to date has been derived from mutagenesis and assay data. However, in recent years, there has also been great progress in structural biology and although the structure of human P-gp has not yet been solved, there are now a handful of related structures on which homology models can be built to aid in the interpretation of the vast amount of experimental data that currently exists. Many models for P-gp have been built with this aim, but the situation is complicated by the apparent flexibility of the system and by the fact that although many potential templates exist, there is large variation in the conformational state in which they have been crystallized. In this review, we summarize how homology modelling has been used in the past, how models are typically selected and finally illustrate how MD simulations can be used as a means to give more confidence about models that have been generated via this approach. PMID:26517909

  7. A general method for immobilization of glycoproteins on regenerable immobilized metal-ion carriers: application to glucose oxidase from Penicillium chrysogenum and horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Chaga, G

    1994-08-01

    A general method for immobilization of glycoproteins on immobilized metal-ion carriers is described. The method includes oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the glycoprotein with potassium periodate, covalent modification with histidine and immobilization on bivalent metal ion-iminodiacetic acid-agarose. The method is exemplified with horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase from Penicillium chrysogenum. The modified and immobilized enzymes are stable for at least 2 months at 4 degrees C. The immobilized enzymes were used as enzyme electrodes for the determination of the glucose concentration. PMID:7917065

  8. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study of (/sup 35/S)- and (/sup 3/H)-labeled mucus glycoproteins secreted by the isolated mucociliated gill epithelium of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Sabouni, A.; Ma, J.K.; Malanga, C.J.

    1986-03-05

    HPLC combined with (/sup 35/S)-sulfate/(/sup 3/H)-glucosamine radiolabeling were employed to study the synthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. The radiolabeled secreted glycoproteins were separated from the medium by precipitation with a mixture of trichloroacetic-phosphotungstic acids (TCA/PTA). The redissolved glycoproteins were chromatographed on an anion exchange protein column at varying pH of the mobile phase and fractions were collected for liquid scintillation counting. Varying the pH of the mobile phase from pH 3 to 7 resulted in a decrease of glycoprotein bound (/sup 35/S) from 69.5 to 0.5% of the total recovered (/sup 35/S)-sulfate with the remainder recovered as free (/sup 35/S)-sulfate. The (/sup 3/H)-labeled glycoprotein recovered under the uV peaks at this pH range was 99.5%. When high performance size exclusion chromatography was performed the change in mobile phase pH did not affect the 100% recovery of either (/sup 35/S)- or (/sup 3/H)-labels under the uV peaks. No free (/sup 35/S)-sulfate was obtained when (/sup 35/S)-labeled glycoproteins were separated form the medium using dialysis. These data suggest that the standard method of TCA/PTA precipitation of (/sup 35/S)-labeled glycoproteins may cleave the (/sup 35/S)-sulfate ester linkages to the oligosaccharide chains. The (/sup 35/S)-sulfate may then rebind to the macromolecule by a relatively strong noncovalent bond. This may prove critical in anion exchange protein HPLC studies.

  9. Source of error in the chromatographic study of /sup 35/S-sulfate labeled mucous glycoproteins secreted by the gill epithelium of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Sabouni, A.H.; Ma, J.K.; Malanga, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    HPLC combined with (/sup 35/S)-sulfate/(/sup 3/H)-glucosamine radiolabeling were employed to study the synthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. The secreted radiolabeled glycoproteins were separated from the medium by precipitation with a mixture of trichloroacetic-phosphotungstic acids (TCA/PTA). The redissolved glycoproteins were chromatographed on an anion exchange protein column at varying pH of the mobile phase and fractions were collected for liquid scintillation counting. Varying the pH of the mobile phase from pH 3 to 7 resulted in a decrease of glycoprotein bound (/sup 35/S) from 69.5 to 0.5% of the total recovered (/sup 35/S)-sulfate with the remainder recovered as free (/sup 35/S)-sulfate. The (/sup 3/H)-labeled glycoprotein recovered under the uV peaks at this pH range was 99.5%. When high performance size exclusion chromatography was performed the change in mobile phase pH did not affect the 100% recovery of either (/sup 35/S)-or (/sup 3/H)-labels under the uV peaks. No free (/sup 35/S)-sulfate was obtained when (/sup 35/S)-labeled glycoproteins were separated from the medium using dialysis. These data suggest that the standard method of TCA/PTA precipitation of (/sup 35/S)-labeled glycoproteins may cleave the (/sup 35/S)-sulfate ester linkages to the oligosaccharide chains. The (/sup 35/S)-sulfate may then rebind to the macromolecule by a relatively strong noncovalent bond. This may prove critical in anion exchange protein HPLC studies.

  10. Reglucosylation by UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 delays glycoprotein secretion but not degradation

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Abla; Patel, Nishant; Tamura, Taku; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) is a central quality control gatekeeper in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The reglucosylation of glycoproteins supports their rebinding to the carbohydrate-binding ER molecular chaperones calnexin and calreticulin. A cell-based reglucosylation assay was used to investigate the role of UGT1 in ER protein surveillance or the quality control process. UGT1 was found to modify wild-type proteins or proteins that are expected to eventually traffic out of the ER through the secretory pathway. Trapping of reglucosylated wild-type substrates in their monoglucosylated state delayed their secretion. Whereas terminally misfolded substrates or off-pathway proteins were most efficiently reglucosylated by UGT1, the trapping of these mutant substrates in their reglucosylated or monoglucosylated state did not delay their degradation by the ER-associated degradation pathway. This indicated that monoglucosylated mutant proteins were actively extracted from the calnexin/calreticulin binding-reglucosylation cycle for degradation. Therefore trapping proteins in their monoglucosylated state was sufficient to delay their exit to the Golgi but had no effect on their rate of degradation, suggesting that the degradation selection process progressed in a dominant manner that was independent of reglucosylation and the glucose-containing A-branch on the substrate glycans. PMID:25428988

  11. N-glycoprotein analysis discovers new up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, Annalisa; Gaspari, Marco; Sacco, Rosario; Elia, Laura; Gabriele, Caterina; Romano, Roberto; Rizzuto, Antonia; Cuda, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide. Therefore, the identification of high-specificity and -sensitivity biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer is urgently needed. Post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, are known to play an important role in cancer progression. In the present work, we used a quantitative proteomic technique based on (18)O stable isotope labeling to identify differentially expressed N-linked glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with healthy colorectal tissue from 19 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We identified 54 up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer samples, therefore potentially involved in the biological processes of tumorigenesis. In particular, nine of these (PLOD2, DPEP1, SE1L1, CD82, PAR1, PLOD3, S12A2, LAMP3, OLFM4) were found to be up-regulated in the great majority of the cohort, and, interestingly, the association with colorectal cancer of four (PLOD2, S12A2, PLOD3, CD82) has not been hitherto described. PMID:25247386

  12. Receptor choice determinants in the envelope glycoproteins of amphotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Battini, J L; Heard, J M; Danos, O

    1992-01-01

    The envelope glycoproteins (SU) of mammalian type C retroviruses possess an amino-terminal domain of about 200 residues, which is involved in binding a cell surface receptor. In this domain, highly conserved amino acid sequences are interrupted by two segments of variable length and sequence, VRA and VRB. We have studied the role of these variable regions in receptor recognition and binding by constructing chimeric molecules in which portions of the amino-terminal domains from amphotropic (4070A), xenotropic (NZB), and polytropic (MCF 247) murine leukemia virus SU proteins were permuted. These chimeras, which exchanged either one or two variable regions, were expressed at the surface of replication-defective viral particles by a pseudotyping assay. Wild-type or recombinant env genes were transfected into a cell line producing Moloney murine leukemia virus particles devoid of envelope glycoproteins in which a retrovirus vector genome carrying an Escherichia coli lacZ gene was packaged. The host range and sensitivity to interference of pseudotyped virions were assayed, and we observed which permutations resulted in receptor switch or loss of function. Our results indicate that the determinants of receptor choice are found within the just 120 amino acids of SU proteins. Downstream sequences contribute to the stabilization of the receptor-specific structure. PMID:1310758

  13. Human myeloid plasma membrane glycoprotein CD13 (gp150) is identical to aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed Central

    Look, A T; Ashmun, R A; Shapiro, L H; Peiper, S C

    1989-01-01

    To determine the primary structure of CD13, a 150-kD cell surface glycoprotein originally identified on subsets of normal and malignant human myeloid cells, we isolated the complete sequences encoding the polypeptide in overlapping complementary DNA (cDNA) clones. The authenticity of our cDNA clones was demonstrated by the ability of the coding sequences, subcloned in a retroviral expression vector, to mediate expression of bona fide CD13 molecules at the surface of transfected mouse fibroblasts. The nucleotide sequence predicts a 967 amino acid integral membrane protein with a single, 24 amino acid hydrophobic segment near the amino terminus. Amino-terminal protein sequence analysis of CD13 molecules indicated that the hydrophobic segment is not cleaved, but rather serves as both a signal for membrane insertion and as a stable membrane-spanning segment. The remainder of the molecule consists of a large extracellular carboxyterminal domain, which contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence characteristic of members of the zinc-binding metalloprotease superfamily. Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class revealed that CD13 is identical to aminopeptidase N, a membrane-bound glycoprotein thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes prepared from cells of the central nervous system. Images PMID:2564851

  14. A carbohydrate-binding affinity ligand for the specific enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; El Khoury, Graziella; Zhang, Peiqing; Rudd, Pauline M; Lowe, Christopher R

    2016-04-29

    One challenge facing the production of glycoprotein therapeutics is the lack of stable and selective affinity ligands for their enrichment. Synthetic affinity ligands based on the solid phase multi-component Ugi reaction represent a desirable option, particularly those incorporating benzoboroxole and its derivatives, which have been shown to enrich glycoproteins under physiological conditions. Thus, an Ugi ligand, A21C11I8, comprising 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenylboronic acid was synthesised on aldehyde-functionalised Sepharose™. Immobilised A21C11I8 displayed affinity for the glycosylated protein, glucose oxidase (GOx), which bound primarily through its glycan moiety. The ligand had a preference for sugar alcohols and the furanose form of the monosaccharides tested. Compared with immobilised 3-aminophenylboronic acid and Concanavalin A, the Ugi ligand was able to purify GOx from spiked Escherichia coli supernatants with retention of its maximum enzymatic activity and protein recovery. Glycan profiles of human immunoglobulin G tested on A21C11I8 columns suggested that the adsorbent possesses the potential to resolve sialylated and neutral glycoforms. The benzoboroxole-functionalised Ugi ligand may find application in selective glycoform separation. PMID:27040514

  15. The catalytic triad of the influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF esterase: characterization by site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Pleschka, S; Klenk, H D; Herrler, G

    1995-10-01

    Influenza C virus is able to inactivate its own cellular receptors by virtue of a sialate 9-O-acetylesterase that releases the acetyl residue at position C-9 of N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2). The receptor-destroying enzyme activity is a function of the surface glycoprotein HEF and this esterase belongs to the class of serine hydrolases. In their active site, these enzymes contain a catalytic triad made up of a serine, a histidine and an aspartic acid residue. Sequence comparison with other serine esterases has indicated that, in addition to serine-71 (S71), the amino acids histidine-368 or -369 (H368/369) and aspartic acid 261 (D261) are the most likely candidates to form the catalytic triad of the influenza C virus glycoprotein. By site-directed mutagenesis, mutants were generated in which alanine substituted for either of these amino acids. Using a phagemid expression vector, pSP1D-HEF the HEF gene was expressed in both COS 7 and MDCK I cells. The glycoprotein was obtained in a functional form only in the latter cells, as indicated by its transport to the cell surface and measurable enzyme activity. The low level of expression could be increased by stimulating the NF-KB-binding activity of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter/enhancer element of the vector. The esterase activity of the mutant proteins was compared with that of the wild-type glycoprotein. With Neu5,9Ac2 as the substrate, the esterase specific activities of the S71/A mutant and the H368,369/A mutant were reduced by more than 90%. In the case of the D261/A mutant the specific activity was reduced by 64%. From this data we conclude that S71, H368/369 and D261 are likely to represent the catalytic triad of the influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF. In addition, N280 is proposed to stabilize the oxyanion of the presumptive transition state intermediate formed by the enzyme-substrate complex. PMID:7595356

  16. Aldosterone-induced glycoproteins: electrophysiological-biochemical correlation.

    PubMed

    Szerlip, H M; Weisberg, L; Geering, K; Rossier, B C; Cox, M

    1988-05-01

    Aldosterone induces the synthesis of a group of glycoproteins (GP65,70) in toad urinary bladders which are potential effectors of the natriferic action of this hormone. In the present study we have confirmed that aldosterone produces a two-phase electrophysiological response. During the early phase (less than 3 h) short-circuit current and transepithelial conductance increase in parallel, while during the late phase (greater than 3 h) short-circuit current continues to increase without any further change in conductance. By biosynthetically labeling aldosterone-treated toad bladders with [35S]methionine either during the early (h 0-2 or 1-3) or the late (h 4-6 or 7-9) phases of the natriferic response, we have demonstrated that GP65,70 is synthesized as a late effect of aldosterone. Since synthesis of GP65,70 occurs at a time when the electromotive force of the Na+ pump is increasing, and since GP65,70 biochemically resembles the beta subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase, studies were undertaken to examine whether GP65,70 is the beta subunit. Purified amphibian renal beta subunit was analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was found to have an isoelectric point and Mr value similar to those of GP65,70. However, when nitrocellulose blots containing wheat germ agglutinin-purified proteins from aldosterone-treated bladders were stained with monospecific polyclonal antibodies developed against the beta subunit, GP65,70 was not recognized, whereas a group of slightly more acidic proteins of similar Mr were recognized. Thus, GP65,70 is not the beta subunit of Na+/Ka+-ATPase. Further studies are needed to determine the cellular function of GP65,70. PMID:2835098

  17. Alterations of intestinal glycoprotein hydrolases in congenital diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The diabetic BioBreed (BB{sub d}) rat was used for the study of the molecular structure of intestinal brush border sucrase-{alpha}-dextrinase (SD) and aminooligopeptidase (AOP) in diabetes mellitus. The specific catalytic activity of S-D and AOP in the BB{sub d} rat is normal. However, solid-phase radioimmunoassay revealed loss of some antigenic determinants in the BB{sub d} rat. S-D and AOP migrated abnormally on 6% SDS-gel electrophoresis in the BB{sub d} rat. S was larger (+5 kDa), D was either smaller (-5 kDa) or unaltered, and AOP was smaller (-5 kDa) in the BB{sub d} than in the normal Wistar. The structural abnormalities were independent of hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis and restored to normal by daily insulin treatment (NPH, 3-4 units/rat) for two to three weeks. Newly-synthesized brush border hydrolases were examined after 6 hours of intraperitoneal injection of ({sup 35}S) methionine (2 mCi) and found to be altered, suggesting that structural abnormality appeared acutely during intracellular synthesis rather than being due to slow extracellular modifications such as non-enzymatic glycosylation. Deglycosylation of brush border proteins by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid resulted in an apoprotein with normal electrophoretic migration in BB{sub d}, indicating that the alteration was due to the carbohydrates component of the glycoprotein. Pulse-chase studies with ({sup 35}S) methionine were consistent with normal protein an co-translational and initial N-linked carbohydrate assembly in association with the endoplasmic reticulum in BB{sub d}. However, the post-translational maturation of N-linked and addition of 0-linked carbohydrate chains in Golgi were prolonged, and produced a larger single-chain precursor of S-D in BB{sub d} than normal.

  18. Evaluation of the presence of arabinogalactan proteins and pectins during Quercus suber male gametogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Mário Luís; Sobral, Rómulo; Costa, Maria Manuela Ribeiro; Amorim, Maria Isabel; Coimbra, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Quercus suber (cork oak) is a dominant tree of the Fagaceae in forests of the south-west Iberian Peninsula. It is monoecious with a long progamic phase that provides a comprehensive system for comparative studies in development and sexual reproduction. In this study the distribution of arabinogalactan protein (AGPs) and pectin epitopes in anthers of Q. suber was assessed to map these hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins and the galacturonate-rich acidic polysaccharides during pollen development. Methods Immunolocalization in male flowers was performed with a set of monoclonal antibodies directed against the carbohydrate moiety that recognizes AGPs and pectins. To identify AGP genes involved in cork oak male flower development, a search was conducted for annotated AGP genes in the available transcriptome data of the Cork Oak EST Consortium database (www.corkoakdb.org). Key Results Ubiquitous labelling in all cell types was obtained with anti-homogalacturan antibodies for methyl-esterified pectins. In contrast, the antibody that labelled non-methyl-esterified homogalacturans had a preferential presence in microsporocyte cells walls at the beginning of pollen development. Intense labelling was obtained with anti-AGP antibodies both in the tapetum and in the intine wall near the pollen apertures and later in the generative cell wall and vegetative cell. Evaluation of the putative AGPs highly expressed in the male gametophyte was achieved by quantitative RT-PCR analysis in male and female cork oak flowers. Conclusions Four putative AGP genes were identified that are preferentially expressed in the male flower compared with the female flower. The putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues of these genes are associated with preferential expression in pollen, suggesting that the AGPs probably play a significant role in cork oak reproduction. PMID:25452249

  19. Glycan specificity of myelin-associated glycoprotein and sialoadhesin deduced from interactions with synthetic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Strenge, K; Schauer, R; Bovin, N; Hasegawa, A; Ishida, H; Kiso, M; Kelm, S

    1998-12-01

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and sialoadhesin (Sn) bind to sialylated glycans on cell surfaces and are thought to be involved in cell-cell interactions. In order to investigate how the interactions of these proteins are influenced by the glycan structure, we compared the inhibitory potencies of different synthetic monovalent oligosaccharides and polyvalent polyacrylamide derivatives. Using oligosaccharides with modifications in the sialic acid, galactose or N-acetylglucosamine moieties, we could demonstrate that both MAG and Sn bind with high preference to alpha2,3-linked sialic acid and interact at least with the three terminal monosaccharide units. For MAG, contacts with even more distant monosaccharides are likely, since pentasaccharides are bound better than trisaccharides. Also, an additional sialic acid at position six of the third-terminal monosaccharide unit enhances binding to MAG, whereas it does not influence binding to Sn significantly. Modifications of the sialic acid glycerol side chain demonstrated that the hydroxy groups at positions 8 and 9 are required for binding to both proteins. Surprisingly, MAG binds 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid significantly better than N-acetylneuraminic acid, whereas Sn prefers the latter structure. These results indicate that the interactions of MAG and Sn are mainly with sialic acid and that additional contacts with the subterminal galactose and N-acetylglucosamine residues also contribute to the binding strength, although to a lesser degree. PMID:9874234

  20. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Monodisperse boronate polymeric particles synthesized by a precipitation polymerization strategy: particle formation and glycoprotein response from the standpoint of the Flory-Huggins model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianxi; Qu, Yanyan; Yang, Kaiguang; Wu, Qi; Shan, Yichu; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-02-12

    The development of a highly specific recognition system for glycoprotein capture from complex biological samples is a prerequisite to the success of mass spectra-based glycoproteomics analysis. To achieve this purpose, a one-pot precipitation polymerization (PP) strategy with a novel solvent system composed of water/ethanol (4:1, v/v) is described for preparing boronate-affinity polymeric micro/nano particles using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as the functional monomer and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBA) alone or together with divinylbenzene (DVB) as the cross-linker(s). The proposed polymerization strategy not only affords monodisperse polymeric submicrometer particles with a smooth surface and controllable size, ranging from 300 to 700 nm, but also increases the loading capacity of boronic acid, which could hardly be achieved by other polymerization methods, thus leading to the specific recognition of glycoproteins. The effects of solvent systems and monomers on the morphology and boronate-affinity capacity of prepared materials were further investigated based on the Flory-Huggins model. It was proved that the reaction rate of various monomers during particle formation might be the key factor affecting the affinity capacity for glycoproteins. Our results demonstrated that under the theoretical guidance of the Flory-Huggins model the PP strategy with a selected monomer and solvent system might provide a good approach to prepare submicrometer polymer particles with plenty of boronic acid groups on the surface to achieve a highly selective enrichment of glycoproteins. PMID:24422433

  2. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+) and Negative (ER-) Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Semaan, Suzan M.; Wang, Xu; Marshall, Alan G.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining) and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples. PMID:22773931

  3. Physical Properties of the Glycoprotein Mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Garrett; Davis, William; Superfine, Richard; Boucher, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Epithelial cell surfaces are covered by a protective gel known as mucus. The physiological function of this gel depends on its rheological properties, and these properties are largely derived from the secreted glycoprotein mucin. The genetic disease Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the adhesion of thick, viscous mucus on these tissues. In the lungs, this results in the interruption of mucus transport thus compromising the first line of defense against pathogens in these tissues. In order to restore the flow of tracheobronchial mucus out of the body, knowledge of the molecular and physical properties of mucin and mucin solutions would be greatly beneficial. The present model for these molecules is that of a long linear strand consisting of highly glycosylated regions linked by cystein-rich globular regions. It is thought that the globular regions may interact either through intermolecular disulfide bonds or through hydrophobic interactions. It has also been speculated that the glycosylated regions may have lectin-like interactions. In the present work, single mucin molecules were imaged at high resolution using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Phase mode imaging was used to map the interactions between functionalized AFM tips and the molecular topography. Additionally, using force-distance curves with the AFM, the adhesion between mucin bound tips and cell surface glycocalyx and glycocalyx-like model surfaces, was measured. And, finally, the viscoelastic properties of mucin solutions were measured using the recently developed technique, single particle tracking microrheology. A model is being developed that will incorporate the properties of mucins beginning at the single molecule and ending with the bulk viscoelastic properties.

  4. P-glycoprotein activity and biological response

    SciTech Connect

    Vaalburg, W. . E-mail: w.vaalburg@pet.umcg.nl; Hendrikse, N.H.; Elsinga, P.H.; Bart, J.; Waarde, A. van

    2005-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane drug efflux pump encoded by the MDR-1 gene in humans. Most likely P-gp protects organs against endogenous and exogenous toxins by extruding toxic compounds such as chemotherapeutics and other drugs. Many drugs are substrates for P-gp. Since P-gp is also expressed in the blood-brain barrier, P-gp substrates reach lower concentrations in the brain than in P-gp-negative tissues. Failure of response to chemotherapy of malignancies can be due to intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Many tumors are multidrug resistant (MDR); resistant to several structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic agents. Several mechanisms are involved in MDR of which P-gp is studied most extensively. P-gp extrudes drugs out of tumor cells resulting in decreased intracellular drug concentrations, leading to the MDR phenotype. Furthermore, the MDR-1 gene exhibits several single nucleotide polymorphisms, some of which result in different transport capabilities. P-gp functionality and the effect of P-gp modulation on the pharmacokinetics of novel and established drugs can be studied in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) using carbon-11 and fluorine-18-labeled P-gp substrates and modulators. PET may demonstrate the consequences of genetic differences on tissue pharmacokinetics. Inhibitors such as calcium-channel blockers (verapamil), cyclosporin A, ONT-093, and XR9576 can modulate the P-gp functionality. With PET the effect of P-gp modulation on the bioavailability of drugs can be investigated in humans in vivo. PET also allows the measurement of the efficacy of newly developed P-gp modulators.

  5. Functional regulation of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier in proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqian; Cabrera, Robert M.; Li, Yue; Miller, David S.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with many adverse clinical manifestations. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by brain capillary endothelial cells, protects the brain from exposure to neurotoxicants. The function of BBB is modulated by multiple ABC transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein. A proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT)-deficient mouse has been previously described as a model for systemic folate deficiency. Herein, we demonstrate that exposing mouse brain capillaries to the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid (VPA; 5 μM), significantly increased P-glycoprotein transport function in the wild-type animals. A ligand to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), produced a similar induction of P-glycoprotein, which tightened the BBB, thereby increasing the neuroprotection. However, VPA- or TCDD-induced P-glycoprotein transport was blocked in the PCFT-nullizygous mice, indicating that multiple neuroprotective mechanisms are compromised under folate-deficient conditions. Brain capillaries from S-folinic acid (SFA; 40 mg/kg)-treated PCFT-nullizygous mice exhibited increased P-glycoprotein transport following VPA exposure. This suggests that SFA supplementation restored the normal BBB function. In addition, we show that tight-junction proteins are disintegrated in the PCFT mutant mice. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that folate deficiency disrupts the BBB function by targeting the transporter and tight junctions, which may contribute to the development of neurological disorders.—Wang, X., Cabrera, R. M., Li, Y., Miller, D. S., Finnell, R. H. Functional regulation of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier in proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) mutant mice. PMID:23212123

  6. Linkage of a membrane skeleton to integral membrane glycoproteins in human platelets. Identification of one of the glycoproteins as glycoprotein Ib.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, J E

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether platelets contain a membrane skeleton. Platelets were labeled by a sodium periodate/sodium [3H]borohydride method and lysed with Triton X-100. Much of the filamentous actin could be sedimented at low g forces (15,600 g, 4 min), but some of the actin filaments required high-speed centrifugation for their sedimentation (100,000 g, 3 h). The latter filaments differed from those in the low-speed pellet in that they could not be depolymerized by Ca2+ and could not be sedimented at low g forces even from Triton X-100 lysates of platelets that had been activated with thrombin. Actin-binding protein sedimented with both types of filaments, but 3H-labeled membrane glycoproteins were recovered mainly with the high-speed filaments. The primary 3H-labeled glycoprotein recovered with this "membrane skeleton" was glycoprotein (GP) Ib. Approximately 70% of the platelet GP Ib was present in this skeleton. Several other minor glycoproteins, including greater than 50% of the GP Ia and small amounts of three unidentified glycoproteins of Mr greater than 200,000, were also recovered with the membrane skeleton. The Triton X-100 insolubility of GP Ib, GP Ia, a minor membrane glycoprotein of 250,000 Mr, and actin-binding protein resulted from their association with actin filaments as they were rendered Triton X-100-soluble when actin filaments were depolymerized with deoxyribonuclease I and co-isolated with actin filaments on sucrose gradients. When isolated platelet plasma membranes were extracted with Triton X-100, actin, actin-binding protein, and GP Ib were recovered as the Triton X-100 residue. These studies show that unstimulated platelets contain a membrane skeleton composed of actin filaments and actin-binding protein that is distinct from the rest of the cytoskeleton and is attached to GP Ib, GP Ia, and a minor glycoprotein of 250,000 Mr on the plasma membrane. Images PMID:2932470

  7. Intracellular processing of the Newcastle disease virus fusion glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, T.; Ward, L.J.; Semerjian, A.

    1985-03-01

    The fusion glycoprotein (Fo) of Newcastle disease virus is cleaved at an intracellular site into F1 and F2. This result was confirmed by comparing the transit time of the fusion protein to the cell surface with the time course of cleavage of Fo. The time required for cleavage of half of the pulse-labeled Fo protein is ca. 40 min faster than the half time of the transit of the fusion protein to the cell surface. To determine the cell compartment in which cleavage occurs, use was made of inhibitors which block glycoprotein migration at specific points and posttranslational modifications known to occur in specific cell membranes. Cleavage of Fo is inhibited by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; thus, cleavage does not occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Monensin blocks the incorporation of Newcastle disease virus glycoproteins into virions and blocks the cleavage of the fusion glycoprotein. However, Fo cannot be radioactively labeled with (/sup 3/H) fucose, whereas F1 is readily labeled. These results argue that cleavage occurs in the trans Golgi membranes or in a cell compartment occupied by glycoproteins quite soon after their transit through the trans Golgi membranes. The implications of the results presented for the transit times of the fusion protein between subcellular organelles are discussed.

  8. Biosynthesis of heterogeneous forms of multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, L M; Williams, S S; Horwitz, S B

    1987-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant J774.2 mouse macrophage-like cells, selected for resistance to colchicine, vinblastine, or taxol, overexpress antigenically related glycoproteins with distinct electrophoretic mobilities. These plasma membrane glycoproteins are likely to play a pivotal role in the expression of the multidrug resistance phenotype. To determine how these multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins differ, the biosynthesis and N-linked carbohydrate composition of these proteins were examined and compared. Vinblastineor colchicine-selected cells made a 125-kDa precursor that was rapidly processed (t1/2 approximately equal to 20 min) to mature forms of 135 and 140 kDa, respectively. Heterogeneity between the 135- and 140-kDa forms of the molecule can be attributed to N-linked carbohydrate. In contrast, taxol-selected cells made two precursors, 125 and 120 kDa, which appeared within 5 and 15 min after the onset of pulse labeling, respectively. They were processed to mature forms of 140 and 130 kDa. Since a single deglycosylated precursor or mature form was not observed after enzymatic removal of N-linked oligosaccharides, other differences, besides N-linked glycosylation, which occur in early processing compartments, are likely to account for the two multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins in taxol-selected cells. These results demonstrate that a family of multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins can be differentially expressed. PMID:2888763

  9. The HTLV-I envelope glycoproteins: structure and functions.

    PubMed

    Delamarre, L; Rosenberg, A R; Pique, C; Pham, D; Callebaut, I; Dokhélar, M C

    1996-01-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) envelope has a structural organization shared by all retroviral envelopes, which contain two mature viral glycoproteins deriving from a common precursor: an external surface protein (SU), associated with a transmembrane protein (TM) responsible for anchoring the SU-TM complex at the cell surface or in the viral envelope. Our understanding of the tertiary structure of these proteins is extremely poor. The intracellular maturation follows the normal cellular secretory pathway, resulting in expression of the mature glycoproteins at the cell surface. The five potential N-glycosylation sites are glycosylated. Most mutations artificially introduced into the glycoproteins result in loss of function, mostly due to abnormal intracellular maturation. This probably indicates a very compact structure of these proteins, where the entire structure is involved in correct conformation. Studies using neutralizing antibodies or mutagenesis have defined functional domains in the SU protein, which is responsible for receptor binding. These domains occur throughout the SU glycoprotein. Sequence analysis of the HTLV-I TM predicts a structure, and probably functions, similar to other retrovirus TMs: involvement of this glycoprotein in the different oligomerization steps leading to a fusogenic SU-TM complex and in the fusion process itself. These features remain to be proven, and it is not yet understood why the free HTLV-I viral particle is not infectious. PMID:8797709

  10. Core Structure of S2 from the Human Coronavirus NL63 Spike Glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng,Q.; Deng, Y.; Liu, J.; van der Hoek, L.; Berkhout, B.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been identified as a causative agent of acute respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children. The HCoV-NL63 spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This viral entry process is a primary target for vaccine and drug development. HCoV-NL63 S is expressed as a single-chain glycoprotein and consists of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal transmembrane fusion domain (S2). The latter contains two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) sequences that are each extended by 14 amino acids relative to those of the SARS coronavirus or the prototypic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus. Limited proteolysis studies of the HCoV-NL63 S2 fusion core identify an {alpha}-helical domain composed of a trimer of the HR segments N57 and C42. The crystal structure of this complex reveals three C42 helices entwined in an oblique and antiparallel manner around a central triple-stranded coiled coil formed by three N57 helices. The overall geometry comprises distinctive high-affinity conformations of interacting cross-sectional layers of the six helices. As a result, this structure is unusually stable, with an apparent melting temperature of 78 {sup o}C in the presence of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M concentration. The extended HR regions may therefore be required to prime the group 1 S glycoproteins for their fusion-activating conformational changes during viral entry. Our results provide an initial basis for understanding an intriguing interplay between the presence or absence of proteolytic maturation among the coronavirus groups and the membrane fusion activity of their S glycoproteins. This study also suggests a potential strategy for the development of improved HCoV-NL63 fusion inhibitors.

  11. The Alphavirus E3 Glycoprotein Functions in a Clade-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The 80 trimeric, glycoprotein spikes that cover the surface of alphavirus particles are required for mediating viral entry into a host cell. Spike assembly is a regulated process that requires interactions between five structural proteins, E3, E2, 6K and its translational frameshift product TF, and E1. E3 is a small, ∼65-amino-acid glycoprotein that has two known functions: E3 serves as the signal sequence for translocation of the E3-E2-6K-E1 polyprotein into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and cleavage of E3 from E2 is essential for virus maturation. Nonetheless, when E3 is replaced with an ER signal sequence, spikes do not form and infectious particles are not assembled, suggesting an additional role(s) for E3 in the viral life cycle. To further investigate the role of E3 in spike assembly, we made chimeric viruses in which E3 from one alphavirus species is replaced with E3 from another species. Our results demonstrate that when E3 is interchanged between alphavirus species that belong to the same virus clade, viral titers and particle morphologies and compositions are similar to what are observed for the parental virus. In contrast, for chimeras in which E3 is derived from a different clade than the parental virus, we observed reduced titers and the formation of particles with atypical morphologies and protein compositions. We further characterized the E3 chimeras using a combination of structure-function and revertant analyses. This work revealed two specific interactions between E3 and its cognate E2 glycoprotein that are important for regulating spike assembly. PMID:23035234

  12. A strategy to reveal potential glycan markers from serum glycoproteins associated with breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Abd Hamid, Umi M; Royle, Louise; Saldova, Radka; Radcliffe, Catherine M; Harvey, David J; Storr, Sarah J; Pardo, Maria; Antrobus, Robin; Chapman, Caroline J; Zitzmann, Nicole; Robertson, John F; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M

    2008-12-01

    Aberrant glycosylation on glycoproteins that are either presented on the surface or secreted by cancer cells is a potential source of disease biomarkers and provides insights into disease pathogenesis. N-Glycans of the total serum glycoproteins from advanced breast cancer patients and healthy individuals were sequenced by HPLC with fluorescence detection coupled with exoglycosidase digestions and mass spectrometry. We observed a significant increase in a trisialylated triantennary glycan containing alpha1,3-linked fucose which forms part of the sialyl Lewis x epitope. Following digestion of the total glycan pool with a combination of sialidase and beta-galactosidase, we segregated and quantified a digestion product, a monogalactosylated triantennary structure containing alpha1,3-linked fucose. We compared breast cancer patients and controls and detected a 2-fold increase in this glycan marker in patients. In 10 patients monitored longitudinally, we showed a positive correlation between this glycan marker and disease progression and also demonstrated its potential as a better indicator of metastasis compared to the currently used biomarkers, CA 15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A pilot glycoproteomic study of advanced breast cancer serum highlighted acute-phase proteins alpha1-acid glycoprotein, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, and haptoglobin beta-chain as contributors to the increase in the glycan marker which, when quantified from each of these proteins, marked the onset of metastasis in advance of the CA 15-3 marker. These preliminary findings suggest that specific glycans and glycoforms of proteins may be candidates for improved markers in the monitoring of breast cancer progression. PMID:18818422

  13. Features that affect secretion and assembly of zona pellucida glycoproteins during mammalian oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jovine, Luca; Qi, Huayu; Williams, Zev; Litscher, Eveline S; Wassarman, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    For sperm to fertilize eggs, they must bind to and penetrate the zona pellucida (ZP) that surrounds the plasma membrane of all mammalian eggs. The ZP first appears during oocyte growth and increases in thickness as oocytes increase in diameter. The ZP is an extracellular matrix composed of long, crosslinked filaments. In mice, three glycoproteins, called mZP1-3, are synthesised and secreted by growing oocytes and assembled into a thick (-6.5 microm) extracellular coat over a 2-3 week period. Recently, we identified several regions of nascent ZP glycoproteins that affect their secretion and incorporation into the ZP (assembly) by growing oocytes. Among these are the ZP domain, the consensus furin cleavage site (CFCS) and the C-terminal propeptide (CTP) with its transmembrane domain (TMD), external hydrophobic patch (EHP), charged patch (CP), conserved cysteine (Cys) residue, and short cytoplasmic tail (CT). Particularly important is the ZP domain, a approximately 260 amino acid region with 8 conserved Cys residues that is common to a variety of extracellular proteins of diverse functions found in a wide range of multicellular eukaryotes. Our results show that the ZP domain functions as a polymerisation module and that its N-terminal half, including 4 conserved Cys residues, is largely responsible for this role. Additionally, two conserved hydrophobic sequences, one within the ZP domain (internal hydrophobic patch; IHP) and another within the CTP (EHP), apparently regulate polymerisation of nascent ZP glycoproteins. Collectively, our findings suggest a general mechanism for assembly of all ZP domain proteins based on coupling between proteolytic processing and polymerisation. PMID:17566273

  14. New insight into p-glycoprotein as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Breier, Albert; Gibalova, Lenka; Seres, Mario; Barancik, Miroslav; Sulova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer tissue is a phenomenon in which cancer cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large group of unrelated drugs with different mechanisms of pharmacological activity. Mechanisms that reduce cell sensitivity to damage induced by a variety of chemicals were found to be caused by diverse, albeit well-defined, phenotypic alterations. The molecular basis of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump - P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This glycoprotein is an ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family. Cells that develop MDR of this type express massive amounts of P-gp that can induce a drug resistance of more than 100 times higher than normal cells to several drugs, which are substrates of P-gp. Expression of P-gp could be inherent to cancer cells with regard to the specialized tissues from which the cells originated. This is often designated as intrinsic Pgp- mediated MDR. However, overexpression of P-gp may be induced by selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to anticancer drugs; this particular example is known as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. Drugs that are potential inducers of P-gp are often substrates of this transporter. However, several substances that have been proven to not be transportable by P-gp (such as cisplatin or alltrans retinoic acid) could induce minor improvements in P-gp overexpression. It is generally accepted that the drug efflux activity of Pgp is a major cause of reduced cell sensitivity to several compounds. However, P-gp may have side effects that are independent of its drug efflux activity. Several authors have described a direct influence of P-gp on the function of proteins involved in regulatory pathways, including apoptotic progression (such as p53, caspase-3 and Pokemon). Moreover, alterations of cell regulatory pathways, including protein expression, glycosylation and phosphorylation, have been demonstrated in cells overexpressing P-gp, which may consequently induce

  15. Glycoprotein 2 antibodies in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, Dirk; Reinhold, Dirk; Werner, Lael; Schierack, Peter; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Conrad, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CrD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two major inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), remains poorly understood. Autoimmunity is considered to be involved in the triggering and perpetuation of inflammatory processes leading to overt disease. Approximately 30% of CrD patients and less than 8% of UC patients show evidence of humoral autoimmunity to exocrine pancreas, detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Pancreatic autoantibodies (PAB) were described for the first time in 1984, but the autoantigenic target(s) of PABs were identified only in 2009. Utilizing immunoblotting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the major zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) has been discovered as the main PAB autoantigen. The expression of GP2 has been demonstrated at the site of intestinal inflammation, explaining the previously unaddressed contradiction of pancreatic autoimmunity and intestinal inflammation. Recent data demonstrate GP2 to be a specific receptor on microfold (M) cells of intestinal Peyer's patches, which are considered to be the original site of inflammation in CrD. Novel ELISAs, employing recombinant GP2 as the solid phase antigen, have confirmed the presence of IgA and IgG anti-GP2 PABs in CrD patients and revealed an association of anti-GP2 IgA as well as IgG levels with a specific clinical phenotype in CrD. Also, GP2 plays an important role in modulating innate and acquired intestinal immunity. Its urinary homologue, Tamm-Horsfall protein or uromodulin, has a similar effect in the urinary tract, further indicating that GP2 is not just an epiphenomenon of intestinal destruction. This review discusses the role of anti-GP2 autoantibodies as novel CrD-specific markers, the quantification of which provides the basis for further stratification of IBD patients. Given the association with a disease phenotype and the immunomodulating properties of GP2 itself, an important role for GP2

  16. Mutagenesis of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein supports a role for Gc (1066-1087) as the fusion peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Soldan, Samantha S.; Stachelek, Karen M.; Roth, Susan M.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco . E-mail: scarano@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2007-02-20

    The La Crosse Virus (LACV) M segment encodes two glycoproteins (Gn and Gc), and plays a critical role in the neuropathogenesis of LACV infection as the primary determinant of neuroinvasion. A recent study from our group demonstrated that the region comprising the membrane proximal two-thirds of Gc, amino acids 860-1442, is critical in mediating LACV fusion and entry. Furthermore, computational analysis identified structural similarities between a portion of this region, amino acids 970-1350, and the E1 fusion protein of two alphaviruses: Sindbis virus and Semliki Forrest virus (SFV). Within the region 970-1350, a 22-amino-acid hydrophobic segment (1066-1087) is predicted to correlate structurally with the fusion peptides of class II fusion proteins. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of key amino acids in this 22-amino acid segment and determined the functional consequences of these mutations on fusion and entry. Several mutations within this hydrophobic domain affected glycoprotein expression to some extent, but all mutations either shifted the pH threshold of fusion below that of the wild-type protein, reduced fusion efficiency, or abrogated cell-to-cell fusion and pseudotype entry altogether. These results, coupled with the aforementioned computational modeling, suggest that the LACV Gc functions as a class II fusion protein and support a role for the region Gc 1066-1087 as a fusion peptide.

  17. Viral glycoproteins: biological role and application in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nilotpal; Mukhopadhyay, Sumi

    2016-03-01

    The viruses that infect humans cause a huge global disease burden and produce immense challenge towards healthcare system. Glycoproteins are one of the major components of human pathogenic viruses. They have been demonstrated to have important role(s) in infection and immunity. Concomitantly high titres of antibodies against these antigenic viral glycoproteins have paved the way for development of novel diagnostics. Availability of appropriate biomarkers is necessary for advance diagnosis of infectious diseases especially in case of outbreaks. As human mobilization has increased manifold nowadays, dissemination of infectious agents became quicker that paves the need of rapid diagnostic system. In case of viral infection it is an emergency as virus spreads and mutates very fast. This review encircles the vast arena of viral glycoproteins, their importance in health and disease and their diagnostic applications. PMID:26925438

  18. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. PMID:25456403

  19. Processing of virus-specific glycoproteins of varicella zoster virus

    SciTech Connect

    Namazue, J.; Campo-Vera, H.; Kitamura, K.; Okuno, T.; Yamanishi, K.

    1985-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV) glycoproteins were used to study the processing of three glycoproteins with molecular weights of 83K-94K (gp 2), 64K (gp 3), and 55K (gp 5). Immunoprecipitation experiments performed with VZV-infected cells, pulse labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine in the presence of tunicamycin, suggest that O-linked oligosaccharide is present on the glycoprotein of gp 2. Use of the enzyme endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H revealed that the fully processed form of gp 3 had high-mannose type and that of gp 5 had only complex type of N-linked oligosaccharides. Experiments with monensin suggest that the precursor form (116K) of gp 3 is cleaved during the processing from Golgi apparatus to cell surface membrane. The extension of O-linked oligosaccharide chain and the complex type of N-linked oligosaccharide chains also occurs during this processing.

  20. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2-glycoprotein III aids in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of this serum protein and a variety of...

  1. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding lamp A, a human lysosomal membrane glycoprotein with apparent M sub r approx 120,000

    SciTech Connect

    Viitala, J.; Carlsson, S.R.; Siebert, P.D.; Fukuda, M. )

    1988-06-01

    Although several lysosomal membrane glycoproteins have been characterized by using specific antibodies, none of the studies so far elucidated the amino acid sequence of a lysosomal membrane glycoprotein. Here we describe cDNA clones encoding for one of the lysosome-associated membrane proteins with apparent M{sub r} {approx} 120,000, lamp A. The amino acid sequence based on the fully coded cDNA shows that as many as 18 potential N-glycosylation sites can be found in the total of 385 amino acid residues. The results obtained by endoglycosidase F digestion support the conclusion that this glycoprotein contains 18 N-glycans. These N-glycosylation sites are clustered in two domains; one contains 10 and the other contains 8 N-glycosylation sites. These domains are separated by a (proline-serine)-rich region that has a distinct homology to the IgA hinge structure. The first N-glycosylated domain is elongated to a potential leader peptide toward the NH{sub 2}-terminal end. The second N-glycosylated domain, on the other hand, is connected to a putative transmembrane portion consisting of hydrophobic amino acids. This segment, in turn, is elongated to a short cytoplasmic segment composed of 11 amino acid residues at the COOH-terminal end.

  2. Synthesis, processing, and function of N-glycans in N-glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    Many membrane-resident and secrected proteins, including growth factors and their receptors are N-glycosylated. The initial N-glycan structure consists of 14 sugar residues (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) that are first synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a branched structure on a lipid anchor (dolicholpyrophosphate) and then co-translationally, “en bloc” transferred and linked via N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to asparagine within a specific N-glycosylation acceptor sequence (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) of the nascent recipient protein. In the ER and then the Golgi apparatus, the N-linked glycan structure is modified by hydrolytic removal of sugar residues (“trimming”) followed by re-glycosylation with additional sugar residues (“processing”) such as galactose, fucose or sialic acid in complex N-glycoproteins. While the sequence of the reactions leading to biosynthesis, “en bloc” transfer and processing of N-glycans is well investigated, it is still not completely understood how N-glycans affect the biological fate and function of N-glycoproteins. Initially, N-glycans have been found to be critical for proper protein folding and quality control by chaperones in the ER, a process now known as the “calnexin/calreticulin cycle” in the unfolded protein response and ER-assisted degradation (ERAD). More recently, N-glycans have been shown to modulate the function of many cell surface proteins involved in migration and adhesion, including those regulating myelination. Currently, the Golgi has emerged as an organelle that is intimately linked to editing the function of N-glycans in N-glycoprotein transport and sorting. For one, it has been shown that mutations in Golgi glycosyltransferases and transport proteins lead to defects in N-glycan processing that cause severe congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). On the other hand, it has been found that N-glycans affect transport of glycosylated proteins in the Golgi, including sorting of secreted proteins such as

  3. Palmitoylation of the cysteine-rich endodomain of the SARS-coronavirus spike glycoprotein is important for spike-mediated cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Chad M.; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Iyer, Arun; Colgrove, Robin; Farzan, Michael; Knipe, David M.; Kousoulas, K.G. . E-mail: vtgusk@lsu.edu

    2007-04-10

    The SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus-induced cell-to-cell fusion. The cytoplasmic portion of the S glycoprotein contains four cysteine-rich amino acid clusters. Individual cysteine clusters were altered via cysteine-to-alanine amino acid replacement and the modified S glycoproteins were tested for their transport to cell-surfaces and ability to cause cell fusion in transient transfection assays. Mutagenesis of the cysteine cluster I, located immediately proximal to the predicted transmembrane, domain did not appreciably reduce cell-surface expression, although S-mediated cell fusion was reduced by more than 50% in comparison to the wild-type S. Similarly, mutagenesis of the cysteine cluster II located adjacent to cluster I reduced S-mediated cell fusion by more than 60% compared to the wild-type S, while cell-surface expression was reduced by less than 20%. Mutagenesis of cysteine clusters III and IV did not appreciably affect S cell-surface expression or S-mediated cell fusion. The wild-type S was palmitoylated as evidenced by the efficient incorporation of {sup 3}H-palmitic acid in wild-type S molecules. S glycoprotein palmitoylation was significantly reduced for mutant glycoproteins having cluster I and II cysteine changes, but was largely unaffected for cysteine cluster III and IV mutants. These results show that the S cytoplasmic domain is palmitoylated and that palmitoylation of the membrane proximal cysteine clusters I and II may be important for S-mediated cell fusion.

  4. Characterization of caprine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D gene and its translation product.

    PubMed

    Keuser, Véronique; Detry, Bruno; Thiry, Julien; de Fays, Katalin; Schynts, Frédéric; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-02-01

    Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic infection in neonatal kids as well as abortion and fertility disorders in adult goats. This virus is closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Glycoprotein D (gD) mediates important functions in alphaherpesviruses and is also a main immunogen. The sequence of CpHV-1 gD gene and the biochemical properties of its translation product were analyzed and compared to those of BoHV-1 and other alphaherpesviruses. A relatively high homology was found between CpHV-1 and BoHV-1 glycoproteins D amino acid sequences (similarity of 68.8%). Moreover, six cysteine residues are conserved by CpHV-1 gD and the other studied alphaherpesviruses. CpHV-1 gD has a molecular mass similar to BoHV-1 gD and contains complex N-linked oligosaccharides. In contrast to the BoHV-1 gD, CpHV-1 gD is expressed as a late protein. In spite of the observed differences which could influence its biological functions, CpHV-1 gD shares most characteristics with other alphaherpesviruses and especially BoHV-1. PMID:16140410

  5. A Potato cDNA Encoding a Homologue of Mammalian Multidrug Resistant P-Glycoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    A homologue of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene was obtained while screening a potato stolon tip cDNA expression library with S-15-labeled calmodulin. The mammalian MDR gene codes for a membrane-bound P-glycoprotein (170-180 kDa) which imparts multidrug resistance to cancerous cells. The potato cDNA (PMDR1) codes for a polypeptide of 1313 amino acid residues (ca. 144 kDa) and its structural features are very similar to the MDR P-glycoprotein. The N-terminal half of the PMDR1-encoded protein shares striking homology with its C-terminal half, and each half contains a conserved ATP-binding site and six putative transmembrane domains. Southern blot analysis indicated that potato has one or two MDR-like genes. PMDR1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in all organs studied with higher expression in the stem and stolon tip. The PMDR1 expression was highest during tuber initiation and decreased during tuber development.

  6. Effects of transport inhibitors on the generation and transport of a soluble viral glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S; Doherty, R; O'Rourke, E J; Ariel, N; Huang, A S

    1987-10-01

    The generation and transport of the soluble glycoprotein (Gs) of wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) were studied using cell fractionation and transport inhibitors. Gs was found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the Golgi-enriched membrane fractions of infected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The identity of intracellular Gs was confirmed by its precipitation with a monoclonal antibody to the ectodomain but not with a anti-peptide antibody directed against the first 15 amino acids at the carboxy terminus of the VSV transmembrane glycoprotein G. Their extracellular appearance was affected in a concentration-dependent manner by monensin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and was completely inhibited by incubation at 20 degrees. Inhibitors failed to dissociate the transport of Gs from G. These experiments indicate that in fibroblast cells Gs can be generated intracellularly, probably in the RER, and that Gs, like G, is transported from there to the Golgi complex and then presumably to the extracellular environment. PMID:2821686

  7. Rabies virus glycoprotein variants display different patterns in rabies monosynaptic tracing

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takuma; Morimoto, Kinjiro

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus (RV) has been widely used to trace multi-synaptic neuronal circuits. The recent development of glycoprotein-deficient rabies virus (RV-ΔG) expressing various proteins has enabled analyzes of both the structure and function of neuronal circuits. The main advantage of RV-ΔG is its ability to trace monosynaptic circuits by the complementation of rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG), but it has the disadvantage of cytotoxicity. Several strain variants of RV have different biological characteristics, such as synaptic spreading and cytotoxicity, mainly due to amino acid mutations in RVG. We developed an improved protocol for the production of a highly attenuated strain of RV-ΔG and assessed whether RVG variants affect rabies monosynaptic tracing and the health of infected neurons. We demonstrated that (1) rabies monosynaptic tracing with RVG variants traced different subsets of presynaptic partners, (2) RVG of the attenuated strain also labeled astrocytes, and (3) the cytotoxicity of RV-ΔG did not depend on RVG but on RV-ΔG. These findings indicate that RVG variants are an important determinant of rabies monosynaptic tracing. PMID:24427117

  8. N-Glycosylation Profiling of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Envelope Glycoprotein 5

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Tao, Shujuan; Orlando, Ron; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-sense ssRNA virus whose envelope contains four glycoproteins and three nonglycosylated proteins. Glycans of major envelope glycoprotein 5 (GP5) are proposed as important for virus assembly and entry into permissive cells. Structural characterization of GP5 glycans would facilitate the mechanistic understanding of these processes. Thus, we purified the PRRSV type 2 prototype strain, VR2332, and analyzed the virion-associated glycans by both biochemical and mass spectrometric methods. Endoglycosidase digestion showed that GP5 was the primary protein substrate, and that the carbohydrate moieties were primarily complex-type N-glycans. Mass spectrometric analysis (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) of GP5 N-glycans revealed an abundance of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) oligomers in addition to sialic acids. GlcNAc and LacNAc accessibility to ligands was confirmed by lectin co-precipitation. Our findings help to explain PRRSV infection of cells lacking sialoadhesin and provide a glycan database to facilitate molecular structural studies of PRRSV. PMID:25726973

  9. Functional characterization of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein by transposon linker-insertion mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Kuhn, Richard J. . E-mail: kuhnr@purdue.edu

    2007-06-20

    The glycoprotein envelope of alphaviruses consists of two proteins, E1 and E2. E1 is responsible for fusion and E2 is responsible for receptor binding. An atomic structure is available for E1, but one for E2 has not been reported. In this study, transposon linker-insertion mutagenesis was used to probe the function of different domains of E2. A library of mutants, containing 19 amino acid insertions in the E2 glycoprotein sequence of the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV), was generated. Fifty-seven independent E2 insertions were characterized, of which more than half (67%) gave rise to viable virus. The wild-type-like mutants identify regions that accommodate insertions without perturbing virus production and can be used to insert targeting moieties to direct SINV to specific receptors. The defective and lethal mutants give insight into regions of E2 important for protein stability, transport to the cell membrane, E1-E2 contacts, and receptor binding.

  10. A comparative study of peanut agglutinin and amaranthin binding to human urinary bladder tumor glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, N C; Orntoft, T F

    1995-01-01

    The reactivity of two T-antigen specific lectins, Amaranthin (ACA) and Peanut Agglutinin (PNA), was compared by immunohistochemical staining of serial sections of human bladder tumors and by Western Blot analysis of glycoproteins extracted from human bladder tumors prior to and after sialic acid removal. In low grade tumors ACA reacted prior to neuraminidase treatment. PNA on the other hand only showed positive reaction in these tumors after neuraminidase treatment. The two lectins showed identical staining patterns after neuraminidase treatment in tumors. In Western blottings both lectins detected a 28 kD glycoprotein. PNA also reacted with several other bands after neuraminidase treatment. The reactivity of ACA was not enhanced after neuraminidase treatment. In monosaccharide inhibition tests ACA- and PNA-binding to different T-antigens was most efficiently inhibited by GalNAc and Gal respectively. PNA binding was also inhibited by Glc, GlcNAc and GalNAc at higher concentrations, while the binding of ACA was only scarcely affected by Glc, GlcNAc and Gal. PMID:8578258

  11. Membrane proteins specified by herpes simplex viruses. V. Identification of an Fc-binding glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Baucke, R B; Spear, P G

    1979-01-01

    A glycoprotein with affinity for the Fc region of immunoglobulin was isolated from extracts of cultured cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, and experiments were done to characterize its properties and to investigate whether it could account for the Fc-binding activity previously demonstrated on the surfaces of intact herpes simplex virus-infected cells. The technique of affinity chromatography was used to identify and isolate the Fc-binding glycoprotein and to demonstrate the specificity of its interaction with immunoglobulin G-Fc. Although three electrophoretically distinguishable Fc-binding polypeptides were identified by affinity chromatography, these three species appear to be different forms of the same translation product, based on comparisons of proteolytic digestion products and on the kinetics of appearance of each form after a brief pulse with radioactive amino acids. The results suggest that one polypeptide, designated pE, is processed to yield gE1, which is in turn processed to yield gE2. Both gE1 and gE2 are glycosylated membrane proteins and both can be labeled by the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination of intact infected cells, indicating the presence of these proteins in surface membranes of the cells. Increases in the amounts of gE1 and gE2 at the cell surface were found to parallel the increase in Fc-binding activity of intact infected cells. Images PMID:229267

  12. Phage-displayed peptides mimicking the discontinuous neutralization sites of puumala Hantavirus envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, T; Lundkvist, A; Soliymani, R; Koivunen, E; Vaheri, A; Lankinen, H

    1999-09-30

    We selected peptide ligands mimicking the surface structure of discontinuous binding sites of Puumala hantavirus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from a random 18-amino acid peptide library containing a disulfide bridge in a fixed position and displayed on a filamentous phage. The varying of selection conditions, either by shortening of the association time or by competitive elution with antigen, was crucial for the selection of peptide inserts that could be aligned with the primary sequences of the envelope glycoproteins G1 and G2. Correspondingly, when the envelope glycoprotein sequences were synthesized as overlapping peptides as spots on membrane, the same site in primary structure was found as with phage display, which corroborates the use of the two methods in mapping of conformational epitopes. Also, epitopes reactive with early-phase sera from Puumala virus infection were defined with the pepspot assay in the amino-terminal region of G1. Similarities of the selected phage clones to a monoclonal antibody-escape mutant site and to a linear early-phase epitope were found. PMID:10502511

  13. Differential Expression of O-glycoprotein Glycans in Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Talabnin, Krajang; Talabnin, Chutima; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Wongkham, Sopit; Sripa, Banchob

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is the most common posttranslational modification in mammalian cells. Aberrant protein glycosylation has been reported in various diseases, including cancer. We identified and quantified the glycan structures of O-linked glycoprotein from cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines from different histological types and compared their profiles by nanospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (NSI-MSn). Five human CCA cell lines, K100, M055, M139, M213 and M214 were characterized. The results showed that the O-linked glycans of the CCA cell lines comprised tri- to hexa-saccharides with terminal galactose and sialic acids: NeuAc1Gal1GalNAc1, Gal2GlcNAc1GalNAc1, NeuAc2Gal1GalNAc1 NeuAc1Gal2GlcNAc1GalNAc1 and NeuAc2Gal2GlcNAc1GalNAc1 All five CCA cell lines showed a similar glycan pattern, but with differences in their quantities. NeuAc1Gal1GalNAc1 proved to be the most abundant structure in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (K100; 57.1%), moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (M055; 42.6%) and squamous cell carcinoma (M139; 43.0%), while moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (M214; 40.1%) and adenosquamous cell carcinoma (M213; 34.7%) appeared dominated by NeuAc2Gal1GalNAc1. These results demonstrate differential expression of the O-linked glycans in the different histological types of CCA. All five CCA cell lines have abundant terminal sialic acid (NeuAc) O-linked glycans, suggesting an important role for sialic acid in cancer cells. Our structural analyses of glycans may provide important information regarding physiology of disease-related glycoproteins in CCA. PMID:26925665

  14. Reversible conformational changes and fusion activity of rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Y; Tuffereau, C; Segretain, D; Knossow, M; Flamand, A

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the implication of the rabies virus glycoprotein (G) in the first steps of the viral cycle, we studied the pH dependence of virus-induced fusion and hemagglutination, as well as modifications of the structure and properties of the viral glycoprotein following pH acidification. Our results suggest that the G protein adopts at least three distinct configurations, each associated with different properties. At neutral pH, G did not fuse membranes or hemagglutinate erythrocytes. It was insensitive to digestion with bromelain and trypsin. At pH 6.4, the glycoprotein became sensitive to proteases. Hemagglutination was at its maximum and then sharply decreased with the pH. No fusion was detected. Aggregation of virus was also observed. The third configuration, at below pH 6.1, was associated with the appearance of fusion. Some neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were able to differentiate these three configurations. Preincubation of the virus at below pH 6 inhibited fusion, but this inhibition, like the structural modifications of the glycoprotein, was reversible when G was reincubated at neutral pH. Images PMID:1870204

  15. EXPRESSION OF THE MAIZE MOSAIC VIRUS GLYCOPROTEIN IN INSECT CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize mosaic virus (genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae) is transmitted in a persistent-propagative manner by Peregrinus maidis, the corn planthopper. Like other rhabdoviruses, the MMV genome encodes a surface glycoprotein that is likely involved in virus attachment and entry into host ce...

  16. Synthesis of cell envelope glycoproteins of Cryptococcus laurentii.

    PubMed

    Schutzbach, John; Ankel, Helmut; Brockhausen, Inka

    2007-05-21

    Fungi of the genus Cryptococcus are encapsulated basidiomycetes that are ubiquitously found in the environment. These organisms infect both lower and higher animals. Human infections that are common in immune-compromised individuals have proven difficult to cure or even control with currently available antimycotics that are quite often toxic to the host. The virulence of Cryptococcus has been linked primarily to its polysaccharide capsule, but also to cell-bound glycoproteins. In this review, we show that Cryptococcus laurentii is an excellent model for studies of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis in the more pathogenic relative C. neoformans. In particular, we will discuss the structure and biosynthesis of O-linked carbohydrates on cell envelope glycoproteins of C. laurentii. These O-linked structures are synthesized by at least four mannosyltransferases, two galactosyltransferases, and at least one xylosyltransferase that have been characterized. These glycosyltransferases have no known homologues in human tissues. Therefore, enzymes involved in the synthesis of cryptococcal glycoproteins, as well as related enzymes involved in capsule synthesis, are potential targets for the development of specific inhibitors for treatment of cryptococcal disease. PMID:17316583

  17. THE SECRETORY PATHWAYS OF RAT SERUM GLYCOPROTEINS AND ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Colvin M.; Cherian, M. George

    1972-01-01

    These studies compare the secretory pathways of newly formed rat serum glycoproteins and albumin by studying their submicrosomal localization at early times after the beginning of their synthesis and also by determining the submicrosomal site of incorporation of N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, galactose, and leucine into protein. N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and galactose were only incorporated in vitro into proteins from membrane-attached polysomes and not into proteins from free polysomes. Mannose incorporation occurred in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, was stimulated by puromycin but not by cycloheximide, and 90% of the mannose-labeled protein was bound to the membranes. Galactose incorporation, by contrast, occurred in the smooth microsome fraction and 89% of the radioactive protein was in the cisternae. Albumin was mostly recovered (98%) in the cisternae, with negligible amounts in the membranes. To determine whether the radio-active sugars were being incorporated into serum proteins or into membrane protein, the solubilized in vivo-labeled proteins were treated with specific antisera to rat serum proteins or to albumin. Immunoelectrophoresis of the 14C-labeled leucine membrane and cisternal proteins showed that the membranes contained radioactive serum glycoprotein but no albumin, while the cisternal fraction contained all of the radioactive albumin and some glycoproteins. The results indicate that newly formed serum glycoproteins remain attached to the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum after they are released from the membrane-attached polysomes, while albumin passes directly into the cisternae. PMID:5057975

  18. Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E.; Hancock, William S.; Haab, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents. PMID:23286506

  19. Cancer Biomarker Discovery: Lectin-Based Strategies Targeting Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David; Mao, Li

    2012-01-01

    Biomarker discovery can identify molecular markers in various cancers that can be used for detection, screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease progression. Lectin-affinity is a technique that can be used for the enrichment of glycoproteins from a complex sample, facilitating the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers associated with a disease state. PMID:22710864

  20. Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E; Hancock, William S; Haab, Brian B

    2013-02-01

    Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents. PMID:23286506

  1. Characterization and mapping of a nonessential pseudorabies virus glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Wathen, M.W.; Wathen, L.M.K.

    1986-04-01

    Antigenic variants of pseudorabies virus (PRV) containing mutations in a viral glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 82,000 (gIII) were isolated by selecting for resistance to a complement-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MCA82-2) directed against gIII. These mutants were completely resistant to neutralization with MCA82-2 in the presence of complement. Two mutants selected for further studies either did not express gIII or expressed an improperly processed form of the glycoproteins. The mutations were also associated with an altered plaque morphology (syncytium formation). The gIII gene was mapped by the marker rescue of a gIII/sup -/ mutant with cloned restriction enzyme fragments to the long unique region of the PRV genome between 0.376 and 0.383 map units. This corresponds to the map location of a glycoprotein described by Robbins et al. Since gIII is nonessential for viral replication in cell culture and has several other characteristics in common with the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gC, gIII may represent the PRV equivalent to herpes simplex virus gC.

  2. The peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, A.I. ); Keeble, S.; Watt, F.M. )

    1988-08-01

    The peanut lectin (PNA) is known to bind more strongly to keratinocytes that are undergoing terminal differentiation than to proliferating keratinocytes. In order to investigate the significance of this change in cell-surface carbohydrate authors have identified the PNA-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes and antibodies against them. Two heavily glycosylated bands of 110 and 250 kDa were resolved by PAGE of ({sup 14}C)galactose- or ({sup 14}C)mannose- and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine-labeled cell extracts eluted with galactose from PNA affinity columns. The higher molecular weight band was also detected on PNA blots of unlabeled cell extracts transferred to nitrocellulose. Both bands were sensitive to pronase digestion, but only the 250-kDa band was digested with trypsin. A rabbit antiserum that we prepared (anti-PNA-gp) immunoprecipitated both bands from cell extracts. In contrast to PNA, anti-PNA-gp bound equally to proliferating and terminally differentiating cells, indicating that some epitope(s) of the PNA-binding glycoproteins is present on the cell surface prior to terminal differentiation. When keratinocytes grown as a monolayer in low-calcium medium were switched to medium containing 2 mM calcium ions in order to induce desmosome formation and stratification, there was a dramatic redistribution of the PNA-binding glycoproteins, which became concentrated at the boundaries between cells. This may suggest a role for the glycoproteins in cell-cell interactions during stratification.

  3. Magnetic enzyme reactors for isolation and study of heterogeneous glycoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korecká, Lucie; Ježová, Jana; Bílková, Zuzana; Beneš, Milan; Horák, Daniel; Hradcová, Olga; Slováková, Marcela; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2005-05-01

    The newly developed magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with defined hydrophobicity and porosity were used for the preparation of magnetic enzyme reactors. Magnetic particles with immobilized proteolytic enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain and with enzyme neuraminidase were used to study the structure of heterogeneous glycoproteins. Factors such as the type of carrier, immobilization procedure, operational and storage stability, and experimental conditions were optimized.

  4. Inflammatory glycoproteins in cardiometabolic disorders, autoimmune diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Margery A; Gruppen, Eke G; Otvos, James D; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2016-08-01

    The physiological function initially attributed to the oligosaccharide moieties or glycans on inflammatory glycoproteins was to improve protein stability. However, it is now clear that glycans play a prominent role in glycoprotein structure and function and in some cases contribute to disease states. In fact, glycan processing contributes to pathogenicity not only in autoimmune disorders but also in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes and malignancy. While most clinical laboratory tests measure circulating levels of inflammatory proteins, newly developed diagnostic and prognostic tests are harvesting the information that can be gleaned by measuring the amount or structure of the attached glycans, which may be unique to individuals as well as various diseases. As such, these newer glycan-based tests may provide future means for more personalized approaches to patient stratification and improved patient care. Here we will discuss recent progress in high-throughput laboratory methods for glycomics (i.e. the study of glycan structures) and glycoprotein quantification by methods such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We will also review the clinical utility of glycoprotein and glycan measurements in the prediction of common low-grade inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, as well as for monitoring autoimmune disease activity. PMID:27312321

  5. Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers as HIV-1 Vaccine Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein spike is the target of neutralizing antibody attack, and hence represents the only relevant viral antigen for antibody-based vaccine design. Various approaches have been attempted to recapitulate Env in membrane-anchored and soluble forms, and these will be discussed here in the context of recent successes and challenges still to be overcome. PMID:26344344

  6. Distinct structural rearrangements of the VSV glycoprotein drive membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Libersou, Sonia; Albertini, Aurélie A.V.; Ouldali, Malika; Maury, Virginie; Maheu, Christine; Raux, Hélène; de Haas, Felix; Roche, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into cells requires the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, driven by conformational changes in viral glycoproteins. Many studies have shown that fusion involves the cooperative action of a large number of these glycoproteins, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We used electron microscopy and tomography to study the low pH–induced fusion reaction catalyzed by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G). Pre- and post-fusion crystal structures were observed on virions at high and low pH, respectively. Individual fusion events with liposomes were also visualized. Fusion appears to be driven by two successive structural rearrangements of G at different sites on the virion. Fusion is initiated at the flat base of the particle. Glycoproteins located outside the contact zone between virions and liposomes then reorganize into regular arrays. We suggest that the formation of these arrays, which have been shown to be an intrinsic property of the G ectodomain, induces membrane constraints, achieving the fusion reaction. PMID:20921141

  7. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  8. Microfluidic digital isoelectric fractionation for rapid multidimensional glycoprotein analysis.

    PubMed

    Mai, Junyu; Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V

    2012-04-17

    Here we present an integrated microfluidic device for rapid and automated isolation and quantification of glycoprotein biomarkers directly from biological samples on a multidimensional analysis platform. In the first dimension, digital isoelectric fractionation (dIEF) uses discrete pH-specific membranes to separate proteins and their isoforms into precise bins in a highly flexible spatial arrangement on-chip. dIEF provides high sample preconcentration factors followed by immediate high-fidelity transfer of fractions for downstream analysis. We successfully fractionate isoforms of two potential glycoprotein cancer markers, fetuin and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), with 10 min run time, and results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively to conventional slab gel IEF. In the second dimension, functionalized monolithic columns are used to capture and detect targeted analytes from each fraction. We demonstrate rapid two-dimensional fractionation, immunocapture, and detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) spiked in human serum. This rapid, flexible, and automated approach is well-suited for glycoprotein biomarker research and verification studies and represents a practical avenue for glycoprotein isoform-based diagnostic testing. PMID:22409593

  9. Pore-exposed tyrosine residues of P-glycoprotein are important hydrogen-bonding partners for drugs.

    PubMed

    Dönmez Cakil, Yaprak; Khunweeraphong, Narakorn; Parveen, Zahida; Schmid, Diethart; Artaker, Matthias; Ecker, Gerhard F; Sitte, Harald H; Pusch, Oliver; Stockner, Thomas; Chiba, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The multispecific efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein, plays an important role in drug disposition. Substrate translocation occurs along the interface of its transmembrane domains. The rotational C2 symmetry of ATP-binding cassette transporters implies the existence of two symmetry-related sets of substrate-interacting amino acids. These sets are identical in homodimeric transporters, and remain evolutionary related in full transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, in which substrates bind preferentially, but nonexclusively, to one of two binding sites. We explored the role of pore-exposed tyrosines for hydrogen-bonding interactions with propafenone type ligands in their preferred binding site 2. Tyrosine 953 is shown to form hydrogen bonds not only with propafenone analogs, but also with the preferred site 1 substrate rhodamine123. Furthermore, an accessory role of tyrosine 950 for binding of selected propafenone analogs is demonstrated. The present study demonstrates the importance of domain interface tyrosine residues for interaction of small molecules with P-glycoprotein. PMID:24366667

  10. Point mutation in a leucine-rich repeat of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha resulting in the Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J; Russell, S R; Marchese, P; Murata, M; Mazzucato, M; De Marco, L; Ruggeri, Z M

    1993-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeats are a conserved structural motif, of yet undefined significance, found in a group of proteins from different species. Among these are the four components of the human platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex, a membrane receptor that performs an essential role in the thrombogenic function of platelets by interacting with the adhesive protein, von Willebrand factor. We have found that a single amino acid substitution (Ala156-->Val) within one of the six leucine-rich repeats in the alpha-subunit of glycoprotein Ib results in a variant form of the congenital bleeding disorder, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, characterized by giant dysfunctional platelets. Genetic studies of the propositus and his family members were complemented by immunological and functional analysis of expressed recombinant GP Ib alpha fragments to demonstrate that the observed mutation is the cause of defective von Willebrand factor binding. These studies define the molecular basis of the Bernard-Soulier syndrome within this family and demonstrate that structural integrity of a leucine-rich repeat is necessary for normal function of the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V receptor complex and, possibly, for normal platelet morphology. Images PMID:7690774

  11. Identification of a novel sarcoglycan gene at 5q33 encoding a sarcolemmal 35 kDa glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nigro, V; Piluso, G; Belsito, A; Politano, L; Puca, A A; Papparella, S; Rossi, E; Viglietto, G; Esposito, M G; Abbondanza, C; Medici, N; Molinari, A M; Nigro, G; Puca, G A

    1996-08-01

    Mutations in any of the genes encoding the alpha, beta or gamma-sarcoglycan components of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins result in both sporadic and familial cases of either limb-girdle muscular dystrophy or severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy. The collective name 'sarcoglycanopathies' has been proposed for these forms. We report the identification of a fourth member of the human sarcoglycan family. We named this novel cDNA delta-sarcoglycan. Its mRNA expression is abundant in striated and smooth muscles, with a main 8 kb transcript, encoding a predicted basic transmembrane glycoprotein of 290 amino acids. Antibodies specifically raised against this protein recognized a single band at 35 kDa on western blots of human and mouse muscle. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a unique sarcolemmal localization. FISH, radiation hybrid and YAC mapping concordantly linked the delta-sarcoglycan gene to 5q33, close to D5S487 and D5S1439. The gene spans at least 100 kb and is composed of eight exons. The identification of a novel sarcoglycan component modifies the current model of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. PMID:8842738

  12. The first biantennary bacterial secondary cell wall polymer and its influence on S-layer glycoprotein assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Steindl, Christian; Schäffer, Christina; Wugeditsch, Thomas; Graninger, Michael; Matecko, Irena; Müller, Norbert; Messner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The cell surface of Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus DSM 10155 is covered with a square surface (S)-layer glycoprotein lattice. This S-layer glycoprotein, which was extracted with aqueous buffers after a freeze-thaw cycle of the bacterial cells, is the only completely water-soluble S-layer glycoprotein to be reported to date. The purified S-layer glycoprotein preparation had an overall carbohydrate content of 19%. Detailed chemical investigations indicated that the S-layer O-glycans of previously established structure accounted for 13% of total glycosylation. The remainder could be attributed to a peptidoglycan-associated secondary cell wall polymer. Structure analysis was performed using purified secondary cell wall polymer-peptidoglycan complexes. NMR spectroscopy revealed the first biantennary secondary cell wall polymer from the domain Bacteria, with the structure alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)]-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->O)-PO(2)(-)-O-PO(2)(-)-(O-->6)-MurNAc- (where MurNAc is N -acetylmuramic acid). The neutral polysaccharide is linked via a pyrophosphate bond to the C-6 atom of every fourth N -acetylmuramic acid residue, in average, of the A1gamma-type peptidoglycan. In vivo, the biantennary polymer anchored the S-layer glycoprotein very effectively to the cell wall, probably due to the doubling of motifs for a proposed lectin-like binding between the polymer and the N-terminus of the S-layer protein. When the cellular support was removed during S-layer glycoprotein isolation, the co-purified polymer mediated the solubility of the S

  13. Identification of the Receptor-Binding Domain of the Spike Glycoprotein of Human Betacoronavirus HKU1

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiuyuan; Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Osborne, Christina; Castano, Anna; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins mediate receptor binding, membrane fusion, and virus entry and determine host range. Murine betacoronavirus (β-CoV) in group A uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of S protein to bind to its receptor, whereas the β-CoVs severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV in group B and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV in group C and several α-CoVs use the downstream C domain in their S proteins to recognize their receptor proteins. To identify the receptor-binding domain in the spike of human β-CoV HKU1 in group A, we generated and mapped a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the ectodomain of HKU1 spike protein. They did not cross-react with S proteins of any other CoV tested. Most of the HKU1 spike MAbs recognized epitopes in the C domain between amino acids 535 and 673, indicating that this region is immunodominant. Two of the MAbs blocked HKU1 virus infection of primary human tracheal-bronchial epithelial (HTBE) cells. Preincubation of HTBE cells with a truncated HKU1 S protein that includes the C domain blocked infection with HKU1 virus, but preincubation of cells with truncated S protein containing only the NTD did not block infection. These data suggest that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of HKU1 spike protein is located in the C domain, where the spike proteins of α-CoVs and β-CoVs in groups B and C bind to their specific receptor proteins. Thus, two β-CoVs in group A, HKU1 and murine CoV, have evolved to use different regions of their spike glycoproteins to recognize their respective receptor proteins. IMPORTANCE Mouse hepatitis virus, a β-CoV in group A, uses the galectin-like NTD in its spike protein to bind its receptor protein, while HCoV-OC43, another β-CoV in group A, uses the NTD to bind to its sialic-acid containing receptor. In marked contrast, the NTD of the spike glycoprotein of human respiratory β-CoV HKU1, which is also in group A, does not bind sugar. In this study, we showed that for the

  14. Human blood platelet membrane glycoproteins. Resolution in different polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic systems.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C S; Ali-Briggs, E F; Zonneveld, G T; Sturk, A; Clemetson, K J

    1980-02-29

    The separation of the major platelet membrane glycoproteins of normal subjects and subjects with well defined platelet membrane glycoprotein abnormalities have been examined using four different polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic techniques (continuous and discontinuous). The mobilities of the resolved glycoprotein bands have been correlated with the glycoprotein nomenclature proposed for the conventional sodium dodecyl sulphate-phosphate buffer system. Since the glycoprotein distribution varies depending on the system used, the merits of each method should be considered before application to a specific problem. PMID:6768152

  15. Antifreeze glycoproteins from an Antarctic fish. Quasi-elastic light scattering studies of the hydrodynamic conformations of antifreeze glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A I; Feeney, R E; Osuga, D T; Yeh, Y

    1975-05-10

    A quasi-elastic light-scattering technique was used to study the hydrodynamic conformations of antifreeze glycoproteins from an Antarctic fish. Antifreeze glycoprotein is composed of repeating units of Ala-Ala-Thr, with each threonine O-linked to a disaccharide, and it exists as several polymers of different numbers of this repeating unit. Molecular weights of the two major active polymers are 10,500 and 17,500 by such methods as centrifugation and osmotic pressure, but smaller than 20 by freezing-point depression. Translational diffusion coefficients at 20 degrees were 8.35 times 10-7 cm2 s-1 and 6.15 times 10-7 cm2 s-1 for the M-r-10,500 and 17,500 polymers, respectively. Measurements at -0.2 degrees in the presence of ice crystals did not indicate any conformational changes that might be related to the lowering of the freezing temperature. Lowering the temperature of these glycoprotein solutions close to temperatures of freezing caused a decrease in the effective hydrodynamic radius of both active and inactive glycoprotein components. PMID:1168194

  16. The human fibroblast receptor for gp86 of human cytomegalovirus is a phosphorylated glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Keay, S; Baldwin, B

    1992-01-01

    A human embryonic lung (HEL) cell receptor for gp86 of human cytomegalovirus that functions in virus-cell fusion was further characterized. Anti-idiotype antibodies that mimic gp86 were used to immunoprecipitate the 92.5-kDa fibroblast membrane receptor for gp86, which was preincubated with various endoglycosidases. The receptor, which has a pI ranging from 5.3 to 5.6, appears to be a glycoprotein with primarily N-linked sugar residues, some of which have high concentrations of mannose and some of which are complex oligosaccharides. Western blots (immunoblots) of electrophoretically transferred receptor incubated with various biotinylated lectins confirmed the presence of sugar moieties, including N-acetylglucosamine, glucose or mannose, and galactose, but not fucose or N-acetylgalactosamine. This gp86 receptor from uninfected HEL cells also incorporated radiolabeled phosphate from orthophosphoric acid, indicating that it is a constitutively phosphorylated receptor. Images PMID:1321272

  17. Formation of Lipid-Bound Oligosaccharides Containing Mannose. Their Role in Glycoprotein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Nicolas H.; Carminatti, Hector; Staneloni, Roberto J.; Leloir, Luis F.; Cantarella, Ana I.

    1973-01-01

    Incubation of GDP-[14C]mannose with liver microsomes and magnesium ions led to the formation of dolichol monophosphate mannose and of other acidlabile compounds that contain oligosaccharides. Formation of these compounds was enhanced by addition of an acceptor lipid in the same fractions of DEAE-cellulose chromatography where bound dolichol is found. Alkaline treatment of the oligosaccharides, obtained by acid methanolysis, followed by paper electrophoresis, gave rise to the formation of two positively charged substances believed to be formed by deacetylation of hexosamine residues. Incubation of the oligosaccharide-containing compounds with liver microsomes and manganese ions resulted in a transfer to endogenous protein. The role of dolichol derivatives in glycoprotein synthesis is discussed. PMID:4519632

  18. The Role of Polyprenol-Bound Saccharides as Intermediates in Glycoprotein Synthesis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Armando J.; Behrens, Nicolas H.; Leloir, Luis F.; Carminatti, Hector

    1972-01-01

    It has been reported that liver microsomes catalyze the transfer of glucose from uridine diphosphate glucose to dolichol monophosphate so as to produce dolichol monophosphate glucose. Dolichol is a polyprenol containing about 20 isoprene units. The glucosyl residue of dolichol monophosphate glucose is transferred to an endogenous acceptor on further incubation with liver microsomes. The glucosylated endogenous acceptor appears to be an oligosaccharide of about 20 monosaccharide units bound to dolichol through a phosphate or pyrophosphate bridge. In this paper it is reported that liver microsomes catalyze the transfer of the oligosaccharide from the glucosylated endogenous acceptor to an endogenous protein. This transfer reaction requires the presence of bivalent cations, manganese being more effective than magnesium. The presence of deoxycholate is also required. Besides the glycoprotein, several water-soluble products are also formed. Preliminary evidence indicates that they are glucose, iligosaccharides of different size, and possibly oligosaccharides bound to amino acids. PMID:4508319

  19. Expression in bacteria of gB-glycoprotein-coding sequences of Herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Person, S; Warner, S C; Bzik, D J; Debroy, C; Fox, B A

    1985-01-01

    A plasmid with an insert that encodes the glycoprotein B(gB) gene of Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been isolated. DNA sequences coding for a portion of the HSV-2 gB peptide were cloned into a bacterial lacZ alpha expression vector and used to transform Escherichia coli. Upon induction of lacZpo-promoted transcription, some of the bacteria became filamentous and produced inclusion bodies containing a large amount of a 65-kDal peptide that was shown to be precipitated by broad-spectrum antibodies to HSV-2 and HSV-1. The HSV-2 insert of one of these clones specifies amino acid residues corresponding to 135 through 629 of the gB of HSV-1 [Bzik et al., Virology 133 (1984) 301-314]. PMID:2412940

  20. Differential regulation of a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein gene family in wounded and infected plants.

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, D R; Sauer, N; Lamb, C J

    1987-01-01

    We have characterized three different transcripts induced by fungal elicitor, wounding, or infection which encode apoproteins of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins involved in plant defense against infection. The proteins encoded by two of these transcripts contain a proline-rich domain involving tandem repetition of the 16-amino-acid unit Tyr3-Lys-Ser-Pro4-Ser-Pro-Ser-Pro4. The third transcript encodes a protein with a proline-rich domain involving a variant of this 16-mer canonical repeat: Tyr3-His-Ser-Pro4-Lys-His-Ser-Pro4. Each transcript is encoded by a separate gene present at single or low copy number in the haploid genome. These transcripts exhibit markedly different patterns of accumulation in different stress conditions, indicating the operation of several distinct intercellular stress signal systems in higher plants. Images PMID:3437892

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 envelope glycoproteins oligomerize through conserved sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Center, R J; Kemp, B E; Poumbourios, P

    1997-01-01

    Hetero-oligomerization between human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope glycoprotein (Env) truncation mutants and epitope-tagged gp160 is dependent on the presence of gp41 transmembrane protein (TM) amino acids 552 to 589, a putative amphipathic alpha-helical sequence. HIV-2 Env truncation mutants containing this sequence were also able to form cross-type hetero-oligomers with HIV-1 Env. HIV-2/HIV-1 hetero-oligomerization was, however, more sensitive to disruption by mutagenesis or increased temperature. The conservation of the Env oligomerization function of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 alpha-helical sequences suggests that retroviral TM alpha-helical motifs may have a universal role in oligomerization. PMID:9188654

  2. Purification, sequence characterization and effect of goat oviduct-specific glycoprotein on in vitro embryo development.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, M A; Jagadeesh, J; De, A K; Kaushik, J K; Malakar, D; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Das, S K; Mohanty, A K

    2011-04-01

    Oviduct-specific glycoprotein (oviductin) plays an important role during fertilization and early embryonic development. The oviductin cDNA was successfully cloned and sequenced in goat, which possessed an open reading frame of 1620 nucleotides representing 539 amino acids. Predicted amino acid sequence showed very high identity with sheep (97%) followed by cow (94%), porcine (77%), hamster (69%), human (66%), rabbit (65%), mouse (64%) and baboon (62%). The bioinformatics analysis of the sequences revealed the presence of a signal sequence of 21 amino acids, one potential N-linked glycosylation site at position 402, 21 potential O-linked glycosylation sites and 36 potential phosphorylation sites. The native oviductin was purified from the oviductal tissue, which showed three distinct bands on SDS-PAGE and western blot (MW ~60-95 kDa). The predicted molecular weight of goat oviductin was 57.5 kDa, calculated from the amino acid sequences. The observed higher molecular weight has been attributed to the presence of large number of potential O-linked glycosylation sites. The lower concentration (10 μg/mL) of oviductin increased the cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst yield significantly (P < 0.05) as compared to higher concentration (100 μg/mL). Goat oviductin retarded the activity of pronase (0.1%) on zona solubility of oocytes significantly (P < 0.01). PMID:21196036

  3. Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Cohen, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells.

  4. Detailed characterization of a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein secreted by lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Manaka, K; Kobayashi, K; Hirai, H

    1993-09-01

    A cancer-associated, high-molecular-weight glycoprotein antigen (6B3.Ag) recognized by monoclonal antibody 6B3 was purified from culture medium of human large cell lung carcinoma cell line (HLC-2) and characterized biochemically and immunochemically. The 6B3.Ag was purified more than 1,200-fold with a yield of 30% by salting out, precipitation by acidification at pH 4.5, and chromatographies on Sepharose 4B and concanavalin A-Sepharose. The molecular weight of 6B3.Ag is approximately 1,000,000 and the molecule is a homodecamer of 94,000 subunits. The 6B3.Ag is a glycoprotein containing 22.9% sugars, consisting of both N- and O-glycoside chains. The N-terminal 19 amino acids were determined and only 4 out of 19 amino acid residues were different from those of an antigen, L3, secreted by lung carcinoma cell line Calu-1. The serum level of 6B3.Ag was determined in normal adults as well as patients with various diseases by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean serum level of 6B3.Ag was 3.1 micrograms/ml, ranging from 1.6 to 6.2 micrograms/ml in 131 healthy adults. When the cut-off value was set at 6.2 micrograms/ml, the incidence of positive values in the sera was elevated not only in malignant diseases such as hepatoma (73%) and leukemia (62%), but also in benign diseases such as chronic hepatitis (42%) and liver cirrhosis (63%). While the incidence of positive values was elevated in advanced liver diseases, namely, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatoma, the cancer specificity of 6B3.Ag did not appear to be high. PMID:8407567

  5. Effect of intercalated cell-specific Rh C glycoprotein deletion on basal and metabolic acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Verlander, Jill W.; Bishop, Jesse M.; Nelson, Raoul D.; Handlogten, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg) is an NH3-specific transporter expressed in both intercalated cells (IC) and principal cells (PC) in the renal collecting duct. Recent studies show that deletion of Rhcg from both intercalated and principal cells inhibits both basal and acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion. The purpose of the current studies was to better understand the specific role of Rhcg expression in intercalated cells in basal and metabolic acidosis-stimulated renal ammonia excretion. We generated mice with intercalated cell-specific Rhcg deletion (IC-Rhcg-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques; control (C) mice were floxed Rhcg but Cre negative. Under basal conditions, IC-Rhcg-KO and C mice excreted urine with similar ammonia content and pH. Mice were then acid loaded by adding HCl to their diet. Ammonia excretion after acid loading increased similarly in IC-Rhcg-KO and C mice during the first 2 days of acid loading but on day 3 was significantly less in IC-Rhcg-KO than in C mice. During the first 2 days of acid loading, urine was significantly more acidic in IC-Rhcg-KO mice than in C mice; there was no difference on day 3. In IC-Rhcg-KO mice, acid loading increased principal cell Rhcg expression in both the cortex and outer medulla as well as expression of another ammonia transporter, Rh glycoprotein B (Rhbg), in principal cells in the outer medulla. We conclude that 1) Rhcg expression in intercalated cells is necessary for the normal renal response to metabolic acidosis; 2) principal cell Rhcg contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia excretion; and 3) adaptations in Rhbg expression occur in response to acid-loading. PMID:20462967

  6. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Giannenas, I.; Papaneophytou, C. P.; Tsalie, E.; Pappas, I.; Triantafillou, E.; Tontis, D.; Kontopidis, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. PMID:25049947

  7. Peptides presenting the binding site of human CD4 for the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Julia; Kassler, Kristin; Sticht, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Summary Based on the structure of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 in complex with its cellular receptor CD4, we have designed and synthesized peptides that mimic the binding site of CD4 for gp120. The ability of these peptides to bind to gp120 can be strongly enhanced by increasing their conformational stability through cyclization, as evidenced by binding assays, as well as through molecular-dynamics simulations of peptide–gp120 complexes. The specificity of the peptide–gp120 interaction was demonstrated by using peptide variants, in which key residues for the interaction with gp120 were replaced by alanine or D-amino acids. PMID:23209523

  8. Can mutational GC-pressure create new linear B-cell epitopes in herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B?

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich

    2009-01-01

    We showed that GC-content of nucleotide sequences coding for linear B-cell epitopes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) glycoprotein B (gB) is higher than GC-content of sequences coding for epitope-free regions of this glycoprotein (G + C = 73 and 64%, respectively). Linear B-cell epitopes have been predicted in HSV1 gB by BepiPred algorithm ( www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/BepiPred ). Proline is an acrophilic amino acid residue (it is usually situated on the surface of protein globules, and so included in linear B-cell epitopes). Indeed, the level of proline is much higher in predicted epitopes of gB than in epitope-free regions (17.8% versus 1.8%). This amino acid is coded by GC-rich codons (CCX) that can be produced due to nucleotide substitutions caused by mutational GC-pressure. GC-pressure will also lead to disappearance of acrophobic phenylalanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine coded by GC-poor codons. Results of our "in-silico directed mutagenesis" showed that single nonsynonymous substitutions in AT to GC direction in two long epitope-free regions of gB will cause formation of new linear epitopes or elongation of previously existing epitopes flanking these regions in 25% of 539 possible cases. The calculations of GC-content and amino acid content have been performed by CodonChanges algorithm ( www.barkovsky.hotmail.ru ). PMID:19811425

  9. A novel approach for chemically deglycosylating O-linked glycoproteins. The deglycosylation of submaxillary and respiratory mucins

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, T.A.; Gupta, R.; Jentoft, N. )

    1992-01-28

    A new approach for removing O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate side chains from glycoproteins is described. Periodate oxidation of the C3 and C4 carbons in peptide-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues generates a dialdehyde product which, under mild alkaline conditions, undergoes a {beta}-elimination which releases carbohydrate and leaves an intact peptide cores. The pH and time dependence, and intermediates of the elimination, have been extensively followed by carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy and amino acid analysis using ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM) as the substrate. The deglycosylation of OSM is complete and provides apomucin in high yield with an amino acid composition identical to the starting material. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic studies and carbohydrates analysis of the deglycosylation intermediates of the human mucin indicate that certain sialic acid containing and N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides have elevated resistance to TFMSA treatment at 0C. By the use of neuraminidase, repeated mild TFMSA treatments, and multiple oxidations and {beta}-eliminations, the human mucin can be nearly completely deglycosylated. It is expected that all mucins and most glycoproteins containing O-glycosidic linkages can be readily and nearly completely deglycosylated using this combined approach.

  10. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  11. Comparative Efficacy of an Organic Acid Blend and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate as Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens: Effects on Performance, Gut Histology, and Small Intestinal Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Saikat; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids as a growth promoter for broiler chickens relative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Broiler chickens were supplemented with graded doses of an organic acid blend (OAB, 1 g and 2 g/kg diet) and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 0.5 g and 1 g/kg diet) for 35 days. Supplementation of OAB improved (P < .001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and increased protein accretion (P < .001). Dietary acidification caused pH of the gizzard to decline linearly (P < .01) with the dose of supplemental OAB. In the lower intestine, pH remained unaffected by dietary treatments. Unlike BMD, supplemental OAB selectively promoted growth of lactobacilli in the small intestine. Moreover, compared to BMD, OAB tended to maintain the villi in the small intestine at a greater height. Although benefits of exceeding the dose of supplemental organic acids more than 1 g/kg diet are not always conspicuous, based on the live weight and feed conversion data, supplementation of 2 g organic acid per kg diet may be recommended for total replacement of AGPs in broiler diet. PMID:20445787

  12. Adjusting for the acute phase response is essential to interpret iron status indicators among young Zanzibari children prone to chronic malaria and helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Wright, Victoria J; Haji, Hamad J; Ramsan, Mahdi; Goodman, David; Tielsch, James M; Bickle, Quentin D; Raynes, John G; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2009-11-01

    The extent to which the acute phase response (APR) influences iron status indicators in chronic infections is not well documented. We investigated this relationship using reported recent fever and 2 acute phase proteins (APP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). In a sample of 690 children matched on age and helminth infection status at baseline, we measured plasma for AGP, CRP, ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and erythropoietin (EPO) and whole blood for hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and malaria parasite density, and we obtained maternal reports of recent fever. We then examined the influence of the APR on each iron status indicator using regression analysis with Hb as the outcome variable. Ferritin was inversely related to Hb in the APR-unadjusted model. Adjusting for the APR using reported recent fever alone was not sufficient to reverse the inverse Hb-ferritin relationship. However, using CRP and/or AGP resulted in the expected positive relationship. The best fit model included reported recent fever, AGP and CRP (R(2) = 0.241; P < 0.001). The best fit Hb-ZPP, Hb-TfR, and Hb-EPO models included reported recent fever and AGP but not CRP (R(2) = 0.253, 0.310, and 0.292, respectively; P < 0.001). ZPP, TfR, and EPO were minimally influenced by the APR, whereas ferritin was immensely affected. Reported recent fever alone cannot be used as a marker for the APR. Either AGP or CRP is useful for adjusting if only 1 APP can be measured. However, AGP best predicted the APR in this population. PMID:19741202

  13. Synthesis and application of a macroporous boronate affinity monolithic column using a metal-organic gel as a porogenic template for the specific capture of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Lin, Zian; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-12-23

    A macroporous boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared and applied to specifically capture glycoproteins using metal-organic gels (MOGs) as a porogenic template. This newly explored application of MOGs has proven to be a more convenient method for the formation of macropores in contrast to traditional porogenic methods. The poly (3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic columns were synthesized in stainless columns by in situ polymerization. To fabricate the macroporous formation with a uniformed open-channel network, the preparation conditions, such as reaction temperature, the concentration of the MOGs and the ratio of monomers were systematically investigated. The prepared macroporous monoliths were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and transferrin (TF) were chosen as test glycoproteins, and the chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the macroporous boronate affinity monoliths exhibited a higher selectivity and better dynamic binding capacity toward glycoproteins compared with non-glycoproteins. The resulted affinity monolithic column was successfully employed to specifically capture TF from a bovine serum sample. PMID:22078233

  14. The Presence of a Single N-terminal Histidine Residue Enhances the Fusogenic Properties of a Membranotropic Peptide Derived from Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein H

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Raiola, Luca; Russo, Luigi; Pedone, Carlo; Isernia, Carla; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced membrane fusion remains one of the most elusive mechanisms to be deciphered in viral entry. The structure resolution of glycoprotein gB has revealed the presence of fusogenic domains in this protein and pointed out the key role of gB in the entry mechanism of HSV-1. A second putative fusogenic glycoprotein is represented by the heterodimer comprising the membrane-anchored glycoprotein H (gH) and the small secreted glycoprotein L, which remains on the viral envelope in virtue of its non-covalent interaction with gH. Different domains scattered on the ectodomain of HSV-1 gH have been demonstrated to display membranotropic characteristics. The segment from amino acid 626 to 644 represents the most fusogenic region identified by studies with synthetic peptides and model membranes. Herein we have identified the minimal fusogenic sequence present on gH. An enlongation at the N terminus of a single histidine (His) has proved to profoundly increase the fusogenic activity of the original sequence. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies have shown that the addition of the N-terminal His contributes to the formation and stabilization of an α-helical domain with high fusion propensity. PMID:20348105

  15. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Makoto; Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2015-01-01

    The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs) contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S) and membrane (M), and envelope (E), a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions. PMID:25855243

  16. Expression of the CD68 glycoprotein in the rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Valeria; Della Morte, Rossella; Avallone, Luigi; Costagliola, Anna; Vittoria, Alfredo; Tafuri, Simona

    2015-11-01

    The 110 kDa trans-membrane glycoprotein CD68 is highly expressed by human monocytes and tissue macrophages. However, in addition to the monocyte/macrophage system, CD68 has been also found in normal and tumor cells with no macrophagic activity such as lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, small intestinal epithelial cells, and neoplastic cells of different origins. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the immunohistochemical localization of CD68 in the principal cells of the cranial and caudal segments of rat epididymis. These results were confirmed by biochemical analyses showing the expression of CD68 mRNA transcripts and the protein in the epididymis tissues. Our findings, while providing further evidence that CD68 expression is not restricted to the monocyte/macrophage system, suggest that the glycoprotein might be involved in the functions of epididymal principal cells that contribute to spermatozoa maturation process. PMID:26433032

  17. Frostbite Protection in Mice Expressing an Antifreeze Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Heisig, Martin; Mattessich, Sarah; Rembisz, Alison; Acar, Ali; Shapiro, Martin; Booth, Carmen J.; Neelakanta, Girish; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Ectotherms in northern latitudes are seasonally exposed to cold temperatures. To improve survival under cold stress, they use diverse mechanisms to increase temperature resistance and prevent tissue damage. The accumulation of anti-freeze proteins that improve cold hardiness occurs in diverse species including plants, arthropods, fish, and amphibians. We previously identified an Ixodes scapularis anti-freeze glycoprotein, named IAFGP, and demonstrated its cold protective function in the natural tick host and in a transgenic Drosophila model. Here we show, in a transgenic mouse model expressing an anti-freeze glycoprotein, that IAFGP protects mammalian cells and mice from cold shock and frostbite respectively. Transgenic skin samples showed reduced cell death upon cold storage ex vivo and transgenic mice demonstrated increased resistance to frostbite injury in vivo. IAFGP actively protects mammalian tissue from freezing, suggesting its application for the prevention of frostbite, and other diseases associated with cold exposure. PMID:25714402

  18. Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  19. Some factors affecting the production, by cultured baby-hamster kidney cells, of BHK glycoprotein I which cross-reacts immunologically with Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, F J; Dunstan, D R; Foster, C L; Serafini-Cessi, F; Marshall, R D

    1977-01-01

    Cultured baby-hamster kidney cells (BHK-21/C13), which are adapted to grow in suspension (strain 2P), roduce a glycoprotein, termed BHK glycoprotein I, which cross-reacts immunologically with hamster urinary (Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein. BHK glycoprotein I was isolated in an electrophoretically (sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel) homogeneous form by application of affinity chromatography to the medium in which cells had been cultured. Insolubilized anti-(Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein immunoglobulin G) was used as the adsorbent. The amount of BHK glycoprotein I associated with the cultured cells was found by both radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence to be related to the amount of Ca2+ in the medium and to the particular stage of the cell cycle. 5'-Nucleotidase was also shed by the cells into the culture medium in amounts related to the stage of the cell cycle. The turnover of hamster Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein in vivo appeared to be considerably more rapid than can be accounted for by cell turnover. Hamster Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein was shown to be ineffective in inhibiting agglutination of chicken erythrocytes caused by influenza virus. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PMID:328011

  20. Back to the future with the AGP–Ca2+ flux capacitor

    PubMed Central

    Lamport, Derek T. A.; Varnai, Peter; Seal, Charlotte E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous in green plants. AGPs comprise a widely varied group of hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich cell surface glycoproteins (HRGPs). However, the more narrowly defined classical AGPs massively predominate and cover the plasma membrane. Extensive glycosylation by pendant polysaccharides O-linked to numerous Hyp residues like beads of a necklace creates a unique ionic compartment essential to a wide range of physiological processes including germination, cell extension and fertilization. The vital clue to a precise molecular function remained elusive until the recent isolation of small Hyp–arabinogalactan polysaccharide subunits; their structural elucidation by nuclear magentic resonance imaging, molecular simulations and direct experiment identified a 15-residue consensus subunit as a β-1,3-linked galactose trisaccharide with two short branched sidechains each with a single glucuronic acid residue that binds Ca2+ when paired with its adjacent sidechain. Scope AGPs bind Ca2+ (Kd ∼ 6 μm) at the plasma membrane (PM) at pH ∼5·5 but release it when auxin-dependent PM H+-ATPase generates a low periplasmic pH that dissociates AGP–Ca2+ carboxylates (pka ∼3); the consequential large increase in free Ca2+ drives entry into the cytosol via Ca2+ channels that may be voltage gated. AGPs are thus arguably the primary source of cytosolic oscillatory Ca2+ waves. This differs markedly from animals, in which cytosolic Ca2+ originates mostly from internal stores such as the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, we propose that external dynamic Ca2+ storage by a periplasmic AGP capacitor co-ordinates plant growth, typically involving exocytosis of AGPs and recycled Ca2+, hence an AGP–Ca2+ oscillator. Conclusions The novel concept of dynamic Ca2+ recycling by an AGP–Ca2+ oscillator solves the long-standing problem of a molecular-level function for classical AGPs and thus integrates three fields: AGPs, Ca2+ signalling and auxin

  1. Ice growth in supercooled solutions of antifreeze glycoproteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, K.; Hallett, J.; Burcham, T. S.; Feeney, R. E.; Kerr, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of different degrees of supercooling on the habit and rates of growth of ice crystals from solutions of antifreeze glycoproteins are reported. To isolate the influence of different solutions and supercooling alone, a system was devised that nucleated crystals in the middle of a uniformly supercooled sample. Alternatively, single crystals of selected orientation were inserted into free liquid surface. A crystallization rate up to five times greater than that in pure water was found. A mechanism explaining these results is suggested.

  2. EXPRESSION SYSTEM-DEPENDENT MODULATION OF HIV-1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN ANTIGENICITY AND IMMUNOGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Leopold; Sheppard, Neil C.; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B.E.; Robson, Cynthia L.; Chen, Hongying; Xu, Xiaodong; Krashias, George; Bonomelli, Camille; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Kwong, Peter D.; Jeffs, Simon A.; Jones, Ian M.; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant expression systems differ in the type of glycosylation they impart on expressed antigens such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, potentially affecting their biological properties. We performed head-to-head antigenic, immunogenic and molecular profiling of two distantly-related Env surface (gp120) antigens produced in different systems: a) mammalian (293F) cells in the presence of kifunensine which impart only high mannose glycans; b) insect (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) cells, which confer mainly paucimannosidic glycans; c) Sf9 cells recombinant for mammalian glycosylation enzymes (Sf9 Mimic™), which impart high mannose, hybrid and complex glycans without sialic acid; d) 293F cells, which impart high mannose, hybrid and complex glycans with sialic acid. Molecular models revealed a significant difference in gp120 glycan coverage between the Sf9- and wild-type mammalian cell-derived material that is predicted to impact upon ligand binding sites proximal to glycans. Modelling of solvent-exposed surface electrostatic potentials showed that sialic acid imparts a significant negative surface charge that may influence gp120 antigenicity and immunogenicity. Gp120 expressed in systems that do not incorporate sialic acid displayed increased ligand binding to the CD4-binding and CD4–induced sites compared to those expressed in the system that does, and imparted other more subtle differences in antigenicity in a gp120 subtype-specific manner. Non-sialic acid-containing gp120 was significantly more immunogenic than the sialyated version when administered in two different adjuvants, and induced higher titres of antibodies competing for CD4 binding site ligand-gp120 interaction. These findings suggest that non-sialic acid imparting systems yield gp120 immunogens with modified antigenic and immunogenic properties, considerations which should be considered when selecting expression systems for glycosylated antigens to be used

  3. Requirements within the Ebola Viral Glycoprotein for Tetherin Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Vande Burgt, Nathan H.; Kaletsky, Rachel L.; Bates, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Tetherin is an interferon-induced, intrinsic cellular response factor that blocks release of numerous viruses, including Ebola virus, from infected cells. As with many viruses targeted by host factors, Ebola virus employs a tetherin antagonist, the viral glycoprotein (EboGP), to counteract restriction and promote virus release. Unlike other tetherin antagonists such as HIV-1 Vpu or KSHV K5, the features within EboGP needed to overcome tetherin are not well characterized. Here, we describe sequences within the EboGP ectodomain and membrane spanning domain (msd) as necessary to relieve tetherin restriction of viral particle budding. Fusing the EboGP msd to a normally secreted form of the glycoprotein effectively promotes Ebola virus particle release. Cellular protein or lipid anchors could not substitute for the EboGP msd. The requirement for the EboGP msd was not specific for filovirus budding, as similar results were seen with HIV particles. Furthermore trafficking of chimeric proteins to budding sites did not correlate with an ability to counter tetherin. Additionally, we find that a glycoprotein construct, which mimics the cathepsin-activated species by proteolytic removal of the EboGP glycan cap and mucin domains, is unable to counteract tetherin. Combining these results suggests an important role for the EboGP glycan cap and msd in tetherin antagonism. PMID:26516900

  4. Polyethyleneimine is a potent systemic adjuvant for glycoprotein antigens.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Neil C; Brinckmann, Sarah A; Gartlan, Kate H; Puthia, Manoj; Svanborg, Catharina; Krashias, George; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C; Flavell, Richard A; Sattentau, Quentin J; Wegmann, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is an organic polycation used extensively as a gene and DNA vaccine delivery reagent. Although the DNA targeting activity of PEI is well documented, its immune activating activity is not. We recently reported that PEI has robust mucosal adjuvanticity when administered intranasally with glycoprotein antigens. Here, we show that PEI has strong immune activating activity after systemic delivery. PEI administered subcutaneously with viral glycoprotein (HIV-1 gp140) enhanced antigen-specific serum IgG production in the context of mixed Th1/Th2-type immunity. PEI elicited higher titers of both antigen binding and neutralizing antibodies than alum in mice and rabbits and induced an increased proportion of antibodies reactive with native antigen. In an intraperitoneal model, PEI recruited neutrophils followed by monocytes to the site of administration and enhanced antigen uptake by antigen-presenting cells. The Th bias was modulated by PEI activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome; however its global adjuvanticity was unchanged in Nlrp3-deficient mice. When coformulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, PEI adjuvant potency was synergistically increased and biased toward a Th1-type immune profile. Taken together, these data support the use of PEI as a versatile systemic adjuvant platform with particular utility for induction of secondary structure-reactive antibodies against glycoprotein antigens. PMID:24844701

  5. Glycoprotein Biosynthesis in Cotyledons of Pisum sativum L

    PubMed Central

    Beevers, Leonard; Mense, Rose M.

    1977-01-01

    Particulate preparations from developing cotyledons of Pisum sativum L. cv. Burpeeana catalyze glycosyl transfer from UDP-[14C]N-acetylglucosamine and GDP-[14C]mannose. Radioactivity is transferred to lipid components soluble in chloroform-methanol (2:1) and chloroform-methanol-water (1:1:0.3) and into a water-insoluble and lipid-free residue. The chloroform-methanol-soluble component formed from GDP-[14C]mannose appears to be a mannosyl lipid, whereas the chloroform-methanol-water-soluble fraction is probably a mixed oligosaccharide-lipid containing N-acetylglucosamine and mannose residues. The chloroform-methanol-soluble component formed from UDP-[14C]N-acetylglucosamine appears to be N,N′-diacetylchitibiosyl lipid, which may be incorporated with mannose to form the chloroform-methanol-water-soluble mixed oligosaccharide lipid. The oligosaccharide lipid appears to function as a precursor for the transfer of the oligosaccharide to the peptide moiety in the formation of the glycoproteins. The bulk of the radioactivity, arising from UDP-[14C]N-acetylglucosamine, incorporated into the insoluble residue, is associated with glycoprotein. In contrast only a small percentage of radioactivity in the insoluble residue, arising from GDP-[14C]mannose incorporation, appears to be associated with glycoprotein. The majority of the radioactivity found in the residue fraction labeled from GDP-[14C]mannose appears to be associated with oligomannosyl residues. PMID:16660168

  6. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. )

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  7. Requirements within the Ebola Viral Glycoprotein for Tetherin Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Vande Burgt, Nathan H; Kaletsky, Rachel L; Bates, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Tetherin is an interferon-induced, intrinsic cellular response factor that blocks release of numerous viruses, including Ebola virus, from infected cells. As with many viruses targeted by host factors, Ebola virus employs a tetherin antagonist, the viral glycoprotein (EboGP), to counteract restriction and promote virus release. Unlike other tetherin antagonists such as HIV-1 Vpu or KSHV K5, the features within EboGP needed to overcome tetherin are not well characterized. Here, we describe sequences within the EboGP ectodomain and membrane spanning domain (msd) as necessary to relieve tetherin restriction of viral particle budding. Fusing the EboGP msd to a normally secreted form of the glycoprotein effectively promotes Ebola virus particle release. Cellular protein or lipid anchors could not substitute for the EboGP msd. The requirement for the EboGP msd was not specific for filovirus budding, as similar results were seen with HIV particles. Furthermore trafficking of chimeric proteins to budding sites did not correlate with an ability to counter tetherin. Additionally, we find that a glycoprotein construct, which mimics the cathepsin-activated species by proteolytic removal of the EboGP glycan cap and mucin domains, is unable to counteract tetherin. Combining these results suggests an important role for the EboGP glycan cap and msd in tetherin antagonism. PMID:26516900

  8. Identification of glycoproteins from mouse skin tumors and plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Zhang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Plasma has been the focus of testing different proteomic technologies for the identification of biomarkers due to its ready accessibility. However, it is not clear if direct proteomic analysis of plasma can be used to discover new marker proteins from tumor that are associated with tumor progression. Here, we reported that such proteins can be detected in plasma in a chemical induced skin cancer mouse model. We analyzed glycoproteins from both benign papillomas and malignant carcinomas from mice using our recently developed platform, solid-phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG) and mass spectrometry, and identified 463 unique N-linked glycosites from 318 unique glycoproteins. These include most known extracellular proteins that have been reported to play roles in skin cancer development such as thrombospondin, cathepsins, epidermal growth factor receptor, cell adhesion molecules, cadherins, integrins, tuberin, fibulin, TGFβ receptor, etc. We further investigated whether these tumor proteins could be detected in plasma from tumor bearing mice using isotope labeling and 2D-LC-MALDI-MS/MS. Two tumor glycoproteins, Tenascin-C and Arylsulfatase B, were identified and quantified successfully in plasma from tumor bearing mice. This result indicates that analysis of tumor associated proteins in tumors and plasma by method using glycopeptide capture, isotopic labeling, and mass spectrometry can be used as a discovery tool to identify candidate tumor proteins that may be detected in plasma. PMID:21072318

  9. The immunomodulating roles of glycoproteins in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Manish S.; Gubbels, Jennifer A.A.; Felder, Mildred; Connor, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the immune system demands an intricate defense mechanism by tumors. Ovarian and other tumors employ specific glycoproteins and the associated glycan sequences to modulate immune responses. Glycoproteins enable tumor cells that express or secrete these molecules to evade immune cell attack and induce the immune system to promote tumor growth. This review focuses first on the immune environment in ovarian cancer, and the mechanisms of activation and inhibition that immune cells undergo in order to either attack or ignore a target cell. Next we illustrate the immunomodulatory roles of ovarian cancer-associated glycans and glycoproteins in 1. preventing immune synapse formation, 2. serving as ligands of immune cell receptors, 3. scavenging cytokines and chemokines, and 4. participating in the formation of autoantibodies against the tumor. The importance of these immunomodulating strategies from the view points of understanding the tumor immunology of ovarian tumors, potential origin of such mechanisms, and specific strategies to circumvent the glycoconjugate-mediated suppression of immune responses is discussed in this review. PMID:22201900

  10. Structure-Based Mutational Analysis of the Highly Conserved Domain IV of Glycoprotein H of Pseudorabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Walter; Backovic, Marija; Klupp, Barbara G.; Rey, Felix A.

    2012-01-01

    Glycoprotein H (gH) is an envelope protein conserved in the Herpesviridae. Together with glycoprotein B (gB), the heterodimeric complex of gH and glycoprotein L (gL) mediates penetration and direct viral cell-to-cell spread. In herpes simplex and pseudorabies virus (PrV), coexpression of gH/gL, gB, and gD induces membrane fusion to form polykaryocytes. The recently determined crystal structure of a core fragment of PrV gH revealed marked structural similarity to other gH proteins (M. Backovic et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107:22635–22640, 2010). Within the membrane-proximal part (domain IV), a conserved negatively charged surface loop (flap) is flanked by intramolecular disulfide bonds. Together with an N-linked carbohydrate moiety, this flap covers an underlying patch of hydrophobic residues. To investigate the functional relevance of these structures, nonconservative amino acid substitutions were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated proteins were tested for correct expression, fusion activity, and functional complementation of gH-deleted PrV. Several single amino acid changes within the flap and the hydrophobic patch were tolerated, and deletion of the glycosylation site had only minor effects. However, multiple alanine substitutions within the flap or the hydrophobic patch led to significant defects. gH function was also severely affected by disruption of the disulfide bond at the C terminus of the flap and after introduction of cysteine pairs designed to bridge the central part of the flap with the hydrophobic patch. Interestingly, all mutated gH proteins were able to complement gH-deleted PrV, but fusion-deficient gH mutants resulted in a pronounced delay in virus entry. PMID:22623768

  11. Membrane anchoring domain of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gB is sufficient for nuclear envelope localization.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R; Ghosh, K; Rasile, L; Ghosh, H P

    1994-01-01

    We have used the glycoprotein gB of herpes simplex virus type 1 (gB-1), which buds from the inner nuclear membrane, as a model protein to study localization of membrane proteins in the nuclear envelope. To determine whether specific domains of gB-1 glycoprotein are involved in localization in the nuclear envelope, we have used deletion mutants of gB-1 protein as well as chimeric proteins constructed by replacing the domains of the cell surface glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus with the corresponding domains of gB. Mutant and chimeric proteins expressed in COS cells were localized by immunoelectron microscopy. A chimeric protein (gB-G) containing the ectodomain of gB and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of G did not localize in the nuclear envelope. When the ectodomain of G was fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of gB, however, the resulting chimeric protein (G-gB) was localized in the nuclear envelope. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of G with the 69 hydrophobic amino acids containing the membrane anchoring domain of gB allowed the hybrid protein (G-tmgB) to be localized in the nuclear envelope, suggesting that residues 721 to 795 of gB can promote retention of proteins in the nuclear envelope. Deletion mutations in the hydrophobic region further showed that a transmembrane segment of 21 hydrophobic amino acids, residues 774 to 795 of gB, was sufficient for localization in the nuclear envelope. Since wild-type gB and the mutant and chimeric proteins that were localized in the nuclear envelope were also retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, the membrane spanning segment of gB could also influence retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Images PMID:8139012

  12. The utility of nonspecific proteases in the characterization of glycoproteins by high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Peter; Martin, Stephen A.

    1997-12-01

    Degradation of glycoproteins with the nonspecific protease pronase was examined by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). High mass resolution (in excess of 10 000 at FWHM) and mass accuracy on monoisotopic species (better than 10 ppm) obtained with the combination of delayed extraction and the reflector mode of analysis enabled the successful interpretation of very complex mixtures resulting from extensive hydrolysis. After 48 h of degradation of glycoproteins, the glycopeptides were well separated from small peptides based on their molecular weight. Accurate monoisotopic masses of the glycopeptides permitted the determination of the glycan composition and the (nonspecific) peptide segment the glycans were attached to. Ribonuclease B and ovalbumin were used to demonstrate feasibility of the method. Unless the peptide sequence of the glycopeptide contains a basic residue, the negative-ion mode is preferred over the positive-ion mode. The absence of alkali adducts reduce the complexity of the mass spectra and the relative sensitivities of the glycopeptides were found better in the negative-ion mode. A highly complex sample, [alpha]-acid glycoprotein was also analyzed. Multiply sialylated glycopeptides had to be run in the linear mode where the metastable loss of sialic acid residues did not interfere with the detection of other components. From the linear mode mass spectrum, five glycosylation sites were identified along with the more abundant glycoforms. Comparison with the literature indicated that several minor components were undetected. The presented approach also permitted the determination of the sialylation pattern of the complex type glycans.

  13. The pseudorabies virus gII gene is closely related to the gB glycoprotein gene of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, A K; Dorney, D J; Wathen, M W; Whealy, M E; Gold, C; Watson, R J; Holland, L E; Weed, S D; Levine, M; Glorioso, J C

    1987-01-01

    We have looked for conserved DNA sequences between four herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein genes encoding gB, gC, gD, and gE and pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA, HSV-1 DNA fragments representing these four glycoprotein-coding sequences were hybridized to restriction enzyme fragments of PRV DNA by the Southern blot procedure. Specific hybridization was observed only when HSV-1 gB DNA was used as probe. This region of hybridization was localized to a 5.2-kilobase (kb) region mapping at approximately 0.15 map units on the PRV genome. Northern blot (RNA blot) analysis, with a 1.2-kb probe derived from this segment, revealed a predominant hybridizing RNA species of approximately 3 kb in PRV-infected PK15 cells. DNA sequence analysis of the region corresponding to this RNA revealed a single large open reading frame with significant nucleotide homology with the gB gene of HSV-1 KOS 321. In addition, the beginning of the sequenced PRV region also contained the end of an open reading frame with amino acid homology to HSV-1 ICP 18.5, a protein that may be involved in viral glycoprotein transport. This sequence partially overlaps the PRV gB homolog coding sequence. We have shown that the PRV gene with homology to HSV-1 gB encoded the gII glycoprotein gene by expressing a 765-base-pair segment of the PRV open reading frame in Escherichia coli as a protein fused to beta-galactosidase. Antiserum, raised in rabbits, against this fusion protein immunoprecipitated a specific family of PRV glycoproteins of apparent molecular mass 110, 68, and 55 kilodaltons that have been identified as the gII family of glycoproteins. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence indicated that the PRV gII protein shares 50% amino acid homology with the aligned HSV-1 gB protein. All 10 cysteine residues located outside of the signal sequence, as well as 4 of 6 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, were conserved between the two proteins. The primary protein sequence for HSV-1 gB regions

  14. Mutations in the putative HR-C region of the measles virus F2 glycoprotein modulate syncytium formation.

    PubMed

    Plemper, Richard K; Compans, Richard W

    2003-04-01

    The fusion (F) glycoproteins of measles virus strains Edmonston (MV-Edm) and wtF (MV-wtF) confer distinct cytopathic effects and strengths of hemagglutinin (H) interaction on a recombinant MV-Edm virus. They differ in just two amino acids, V94 and V101 in F-Edm versus M94 and F101 in F-wtF, both of which lie in the relatively uncharacterized F(2) domain. By comparing the sequence of MV F with those of the parainfluenza virus SV5 and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F proteins, the structures of which are known, we show that MV F(2) also possesses a potential heptad repeat (HR) C domain. In NDV, the N-terminal half of HR-C interacts with HR-A in F(1) while the C-terminal half is induced to kink outward by a central proline residue. We found that this proline is part of an LXP motif conserved in all three viruses. Folding and transport of MV F require this motif to be intact and also require covalent interaction of cysteine residues that probably support the potential HR-A-HR-C interaction. Amino acids 94 and 101, both located in "d" positions of the HR-C helical wheel, lie in the potentially outwardly kinked region. We demonstrate that their effect on MV fusogenicity and glycoprotein interaction is mediated solely by amino acid 94. Substitutions at position 94 with polar or charged amino acids are tolerated poorly or not at all, while changes to smaller and more hydrophilic amino acids are tolerated in both transiently expressed F protein and recombinant virus. MV F V94A and MV F V94G viruses induce extensive syncytium formation and are relatively, or almost completely, resistant to a known inhibitor of MV glycoprotein-induced fusion. We propose that the conformational changes in MV F protein required to expose the fusion peptide involve the C-terminal half of the HR-C helix, specifically amino acid 94. PMID:12634376

  15. Characterization of the O- and N-linked oligosaccharides in glycoproteins synthesized by Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Nyame, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    The structures of the O- and N-linked oligosaccharides in glycoproteins synthesized by larval and adult schistosomes of Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated. Mechanically transformed schistosomula or adult schistosomes were incubated in media containing either (/sup 3/H)mannose, (/sup 3/H)glucosamine or (/sup 3/H)galactose for 48 and 24 hr, respectively, to radiolabel metabolically the oligosaccharide moieties of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Analyses of the radiolabeled glycoproteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and fluorography demonstrated that numerous glycoproteins from 48-hr old schistosomula and adult schistosomes were labeled by both the (/sup 3/H)mannose and (/sup 3/H)glucosamine precursors. The (/sup 3/H)galactose precursor was incorporated into numerous glycoproteins in adult schistosomes; however, few, if any, glycoproteins in schistosomula were labeled by this radioactive sugar precursor.

  16. Structure of the buffalo secretory signalling glycoprotein at 2.8 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Srivastava, Devendra B.; Kumar, Janesh; Saravanan, Kolandaivelu; Bilgrami, Sameeta; Sharma, Sujata; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Singh, Tej P.

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of a signalling glycoprotein isolated from buffalo dry secretions (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Two unique residues, Tyr120 and Glu269, found in SPB-40 distort the shape of the sugar-binding groove considerably. The water structure in the groove is also different. The conformations of three flexible loops, His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260, also differ from those found in other structurally similar proteins. The crystal structure of a 40 kDa signalling glycoprotein from buffalo (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. SPB-40 acts as a protective signalling factor by binding to viable cells during the early phase of involution, during which extensive tissue remodelling occurs. It was isolated from the dry secretions of Murrah buffalo. It was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 19% ethanol as the precipitant. The protein was also cloned and its complete nucleotide and amino-acid sequences were determined. When compared with the sequences of other members of the family, the sequence of SPB-40 revealed two very important mutations in the sugar-binding region, in which Tyr120 changed to Trp120 and Glu269 changed to Trp269. The structure showed a significant distortion in the shape of the sugar-binding groove. The water structure in the groove is also drastically altered. The folding of the protein chain in the flexible region comprising segments His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260 shows large variations when compared with other proteins of the family.

  17. Characterization of epitopes on the rabies virus glycoprotein by selection and analysis of escape mutants.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Firouzeh; Wandeler, Alexander I; Nadin-Davis, Susan A

    2016-07-15

    The glycoprotein (G) is the only surface protein of the lyssavirus particle and the only viral product known to be capable of eliciting the production of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the isolation of escape mutants resistant to monoclonal antibody (Mab) neutralization was attempted by a selection strategy employing four distinct rabies virus strains: the extensively passaged Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth (ERA) strain and three field isolates representing two bat-associated variants and the Western Canada skunk variant (WSKV). No escape mutants were generated from either of the bat-associated viral variants but two neutralization mutants were derived from the WSKV isolate. Seven independent ERA mutants were recovered using Mabs directed against antigenic sites I (four mutants) and IIIa (three mutants) of the glycoprotein. The cross-neutralization patterns of these viral mutants were used to determine the precise location and nature of the G protein epitopes recognized by these Mabs. Nucleotide sequencing of the G gene indicated that those mutants derived using Mabs directed to antigenic site (AS) III all contained amino acid substitutions in this site. However, of the four mutants selected with AS I Mabs, two bore mutations within AS I as expected while the remaining two carried mutations in AS II. WSKV mutants exhibited mutations at the sites appropriate for the Mabs used in their selection. All ERA mutant preparations were more cytopathogenic than the parental virus when propagated in cell culture; when in vivo pathogenicity in mice was examined, three of these mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity while the remaining four mutants exhibited comparable pathogenic properties to those of the parent virus. PMID:27132040

  18. Glycoprotein E of Varicella-Zoster Virus Enhances Cell-Cell Contact in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Chengjun; Schneeberger, Eveline E.; Arvin, Ann M.

    2000-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection involves the cell-cell spread of virions, but how viral proteins interact with the host cell membranes that comprise intercellular junctions is not known. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were constructed to express the glycoproteins gE, gI, or gE/gI constitutively and were used to examine the effects of these VZV glycoproteins in polarized epithelial cells. At low cell density, VZV gE induced partial tight junction (TJ) formation under low-calcium conditions, whether expressed alone or with gI. Although most VZV gE was intracellular, gE was also shown to colocalize with the TJ protein ZO-1 with or without concomitant expression of gI. Freeze fracture electron microscopy revealed normal TJ strand morphology in gE-expressing MDCK cells. Functionally, the expression of gE was associated with a marked acceleration in the establishment of maximum transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in MDCK-gE cells; MDCK-gI and MDCK-gE/gI cells exhibited a similar pattern of early TER compared to MDCK cells, although peak resistances were lower than those of gE alone. VZV gE expression altered F-actin organization and lipid distribution, but coexpression of gI modulated these effects. Two regions of the gE ectodomain, amino acids (aa) 278 to 355 and aa 467 to 498, although lacking Ca2+ binding motifs, exhibit similarities with corresponding regions of the cell adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and desmocollin. These observations suggest that VZV gE and gE/gI may contribute to viral pathogenesis by facilitating epithelial cell-cell contacts. PMID:11070038

  19. P-glycoprotein and its inducible expression in three bivalve species after exposure to Prorocentrum lima.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Su-Li; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in aquatic organisms. To provide more information of P-gp in shellfish, in this study, complete cDNA of P-gp in three bivalve species including Ruditapes philippinarum, Scapharca subcrenata and Tegillarca granosa were cloned and its expressions in gill, digestive gland, adductor muscle and mantle of the three bivalves were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a toxogenic dinoflagellate. The complete sequences of R. philippinarum, S. subcrenata and T. granosa P-gp showed high homology with MDR/P-gp/ABCB proteins from other species, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the amino acid sequences of P-gp from S. subcrenata and T. granosa had a closest relationship, forming an independent branch, then grouping into the other branch with Mytilus californianus, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. However, P-gp sequences from R. philippinarum were more similar to the homologs from the more distantly related Aplysia californica than to homologs from S. subcrenata and T. granosa, suggesting that bivalves P-gp might have different paralogs. P-glycoprotein expressed in all detected tissues but there were large differences between them. After exposure to P. lima, the expression of P-gp changed in the four tissues in varying degrees within the same species and between different species, but the changes in mRNA and protein level were not always synchronous. PMID:26539802

  20. Importance of the intracytoplasmic domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope glycoprotein for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luciw, P A; Shaw, K E; Shacklett, B L; Marthas, M L

    1998-12-01

    SIVmac1A11 and SIVmac239 are nonpathogenic and pathogenic molecular clones in rhesus macaques, respectively. Although these viruses exhibit approximately 98% nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology, differences are found in the length of the translation frames for several genes. SIVmac239 has a premature stop codon in nef, whereas SIVmac1A11 has a premature stop codon in vpr and two premature stop codons in the intracytoplasmic domain of the env-transmembrane (TM) subunit. Recombinant viruses, constructed through reciprocal exchange of large DNA restriction enzyme fragments between SIVmac1A11 and SIVmac239, were evaluated in adult rhesus macaques. This in vivo analysis revealed that two or more regions of the SIVmac genome were essential for high virus load and disease progression (Marthas et al., 1993. J. Virol. 67, 6047-6055). An important gap in knowledge remaining from this study was whether the premature stop codons in env-TM of recombinant virus SIV1A11/239gag-env/1A11 (Full-length vpr and nef, two stop codons in env-TM) reverted to coding triplets in vivo. Here, we report that viral sequences in macaques, which succumbed to an AIDS-like disease after infection with SIV1A11/239gag-env/1A11, exhibited reversion of both env-TM stop codons. In addition, antibodies to the intracytoplasmic domain of env-TM were detected in macaques containing revertant virus and showing disease; this finding indicates that this domain of the env glycoprotein was expressed in vivo. Thus selection for viral variants with full-length env-TM demonstrated that the cytoplasmic domain of the SIVmac env glycoprotein plays a role in viral persistence and immunodeficiency in primates. PMID:9875311

  1. Evidence suggesting that HCV p7 protects E2 glycoprotein from premature degradation during virus production.

    PubMed

    Atoom, Ali M; Jones, Daniel M; Russell, Rodney S

    2013-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome encodes a 63 amino acid (aa) protein, p7, which is located between the structural and non-structural proteins. p7 localizes to endoplasmic reticulum membranes and is composed of two transmembrane domains (TM1 and TM2) and a cytoplasmic loop. While its exact role is unknown, p7 is crucial for assembly and/or release of infectious virus production in cell culture, as well as infectivity in chimpanzees. The contribution of p7 to the HCV life cycle may result from at least two distinct roles. Firstly, several studies have shown that p7 acts as an ion channel, the functionality of which is critical for infection. Secondly, p7 interacts with NS2 in a manner that may regulate the targeting of other structural proteins during the assembly process. In this study, we observed that mutations in TM1 and the cytoplasmic loop of p7 decreased infectious virus production in a single-cycle virus production assay. Analysis of intra- and extracellular virus titers indicated that p7 functions at a stage prior to generation of infectious particles. These effects were not due to altered RNA replication since no effects on levels of NS3 or NS5A protein were observed, and were not a consequence of altered recruitment of core protein to lipid droplets. Similarly, these mutations seemingly did not prevent nucleocapsid oligomerization. Importantly, we found that an alanine triplet substitution including the two basic residues of the cytoplasmic loop, which is integral to p7 ion channel function, significantly reduced E2 glycoprotein levels. A time course experiment tracking E2 levels indicated that E2 was degraded over time, as opposed to being synthesized in reduced quantities. The results of this study provide strong evidence that one of the functions of p7 is to protect HCV glycoproteins from premature degradation during virion morphogenesis. PMID:23816605

  2. Selective capture of glycoproteins using lectin-modified nanoporous gold monolith.

    PubMed

    Alla, Allan J; D' Andrea, Felipe B; Bhattarai, Jay K; Cooper, Jared A; Tan, Yih Horng; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2015-12-01

    The surface of nanoporous gold (np-Au) monoliths was modified via a flow method with the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) to develop a substrate for separation and extraction of glycoproteins. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of α-lipoic acid (LA) on the np-Au monoliths were prepared followed by activation of the terminal carboxyl groups to create amine reactive esters that were utilized in the immobilization of Con A. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the surface coverages of LA and Con A on np-Au monoliths which were found to be 1.31×10(18) and 1.85×10(15)moleculesm(-2), respectively. An in situ solution depletion method was developed that enabled surface coverage characterization without damaging the substrate and suggesting the possibility of regeneration. Using this method, the surface coverages of LA and Con A were found to be 0.989×10(18) and 1.32×10(15)moleculesm(-2), respectively. The selectivity of the Con A-modified np-Au monolith for the high mannose-containing glycoprotein ovalbumin (OVA) versus negative control non-glycosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) was demonstrated by the difference in the ratio of the captured molecules to the immobilized Con A molecules, with OVA:Con A=2.3 and BSA:Con A=0.33. Extraction of OVA from a 1:3 mole ratio mixture with BSA was demonstrated by the greater amount of depletion of OVA concentration during the circulation with the developed substrate. A significant amount of captured OVA was eluted using α-methyl mannopyranoside as a competitive ligand. This work is motivated by the need to develop new materials for chromatographic separation and extraction substrates for use in preparative and analytical procedures in glycomics. PMID:26554297

  3. Development of matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chevrier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, construction and characterization of an ultraviolet laser desorption time-of-flight [TOF] mass spectrometer and its subsequent application to glycoprotein structural analysis utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization [MALDI] mass spectrometry. At the inception of this work, commercial mass spectrometers utilizing MALDI were not available, and most reports of the phenomena utilized the 266 nm wavelength provided by frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers. This work involved the design and construction of a high-voltage-extraction linear TOF mass analyzer equipped with a multiple sample inlet system and a 337 manometer, 600 picosecond pulsed nitrogen laser. In MALDI the [open quotes]matrix[close quotes], a strong absorber of a laser wavelength, is co-crystallized with the analyte. The laser photons absorbed by the matrix lead to ionization of the analyte and subsequent desorption from the surface into the gas phase. While nicotinic acid and caffeic acid were reported as effective matrices at 266 and 355 nm, respectively, several other matrices were examined for their efficiency at 337 nm, including [alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid and gentisic acid, which proved to be advantageous for glycoconjugate analysis. Glycoproteins, phosphoproteins, nucleic acids, and proteolytic digests were all successfully analyzed using the pulsed nitrogen laser. Analysis of numerous peptides and proteins demonstrated femtomolar sensitivity, mass range in excess of 350 kiloDaltons, mass resolution circa 700, and mass accuracy better than 0.1%. The completed instrument was utilized to analyze glycopeptides for carbohydrate sites and microheterogeneity, by performing MALDI mass spectrometry [MALDI/MS] following enzymatic and chemical reactions. In many cases, unfractionated or partially fractionated mixtures were analyzed directly thereby reducing preparative chromatography.

  4. Alteration of the pH dependence of coronavirus-induced cell fusion: effect of mutations in the spike glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, T M; Escarmis, C; Buchmeier, M J

    1991-01-01

    Infection of susceptible murine cells with the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (MHV4) results in extensive cell-cell fusion at pHs from 5.5 to 8.5. The endosomotropic weak bases chloroquine and ammonium chloride do not prevent MHV4 infection. In marked contrast, we have selected variants from a neural cell line persistently infected with MHV4 which are entirely dependent on acid pH to fuse host cells and are strongly inhibited by endosomotropic weak bases. Wild-type and variant viruses were compared at the level of the fusion-active surface (S) glycoprotein gene. Cloning and sequencing of each 4,131-base open reading frame predicted a total of eight amino acid differences which fell into three distinct clusters. Each S glycoprotein, when expressed from cDNA, was synthesized in equivalent amounts, and similar proportions were transported to the cell surface. Wild-type S induced cell-cell fusion at neutral pH, whereas variant S required prolonged exposure to acidic pH to induce fusion. Expression of hybrid S genes prepared by exchange of restriction fragments between wild-type and variant cDNAs revealed that elimination of neutral pH fusion was solely dependent on amino acid alterations at positions 1067 (Q to H), 1094 (Q to H), and 1114 (L to R). These changes lie within a predicted heptad repeat region of the transmembrane cleavage fragment of S (S2). These findings demonstrate that the pH dependence of coronavirus fusion is highly variable and that this variability can be determined by as few as three amino acid residues. Images PMID:1848311

  5. Mutational Analysis of the Candidate Internal Fusion Peptide of the Avian Leukosis and Sarcoma Virus Subgroup A Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lorraine D.; White, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    The transmembrane subunit (TM) of the avian leukosis and sarcoma virus (ALSV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) contains a stretch of conserved hydrophobic amino acids internal to its amino terminus (residues 21 to 42). By analogy with similar sequences in other viral envelope glycoproteins, this region has been proposed to be a fusion peptide. We investigated the role of this region by changing each of three hydrophobic residues (Ile-21, Val-30, and Ile-39) to glutamatic acid and lysine in the ALSV subgroup A Env. Like wild-type (wt) Env, all six mutant Env proteins were proteolytically processed, oligomerized, and expressed at the cell surface in a form that bound Tva, the ALSV subgroup A receptor. Like wt Env, Ile21Glu, Ile21Lys, Val30Glu, and Val30Lys changed conformation upon binding Tva, as assayed by sensitivity to thermolysin. Ile39Glu and Ile39Lys were cleaved by thermolysin in both the absence and presence of Tva. Although incorporated into virus particles at approximately equal levels, all mutant Envs were compromised in their ability to support infection. The mutants at residues 21 and 30 showed levels of infection 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of wt Env. The mutants at residue 39 were noninfectious. Furthermore, none of the mutants displayed activity in a cell-cell fusion assay. Our results support the contention that residues 21 to 42 of ALSV subgroup A Env constitute its fusion peptide. PMID:9525653

  6. Purification and Characterization of a Salt-extractable Hydroxyproline-rich Glycoprotein from Aerated Carrot Discs 1

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, David A.; Varner, Joseph E.

    1980-01-01

    The salt-extractable hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) of the cell wall of aerated carrot root discs has been studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The predominant proline-labeled protein extractable from the cell wall is rich in hydroxyproline as shown by its specific loss of 3H from proline labeled in position 4 and its shift in electrophoretic mobility after labeling in the presence of an inhibitor of hydroxyproline synthesis. Unlabeled HRGP can be identified by staining gels for carbohydrate. The HRGP has been purified by ion exchange chromatography and CsCl gradient centrifugation. The HRGP consists of about 50% protein and 50% carbohydrate with an overall molecular weight of 86,000. The amino acid composition of the protein portion consists of 50% hydroxyproline, 19% basic amino acids, 12% serine, and 10% tyrosine. This glycoprotein accumulates in a salt-extractable pool in the cell wall beginning between 10 and 20 hours of aeration and may also become incorporated into the nonextractable portion of the cell wall. Images PMID:16661526

  7. Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II is promoted in vitro by cationic chaperones, including polyhistidine and wall glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chormova, Dimitra; Fry, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Dimerization of rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) via boron cross-links contributes to the assembly and biophysical properties of the cell wall. Pure RG-II is efficiently dimerized by boric acid (B(OH)3 ) in vitro only if nonbiological agents for example Pb(2+) are added. By contrast, newly synthesized RG-II domains dimerize very rapidly in vivo. We investigated biological agents that might enable this. We tested for three such agents: novel enzymes, borate-transferring ligands and cationic 'chaperones' that facilitate the close approach of two polyanionic RG-II molecules. Dimerization was monitored electrophoretically. Parsley shoot cell-wall enzymes did not affect RG-II dimerization in vitro. Borate-binding ligands (apiose, dehydroascorbic acid, alditols) and small organic cations (including polyamines) also lacked consistent effects. Polylysine bound permanently to RG-II, precluding electrophoretic analysis. However, another polycation, polyhistidine, strongly promoted RG-II dimerization by B(OH)3 without irreversible polyhistidine-RG-II complexation. Likewise, partially purified spinach extensins (histidine/lysine-rich cationic glycoproteins), strongly promoted RG-II dimerization by B(OH)3 in vitro. Thus certain polycations, including polyhistidine and wall glycoproteins, can chaperone RG-II, manoeuvring this polyanionic polysaccharide domain such that boron-bridging is favoured. These chaperones dissociate from RG-II after facilitating its dimerization, indicating that they act catalytically rather than stoichiometrically. We propose a natural role for extensin-RG-II interaction in steering cell-wall assembly. PMID:26301520

  8. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides. PMID:21989589

  9. IMPROVED SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD FOR GLYCAN ANALYSIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS BY CE-LIF AND CE-MS

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Zoltan; Guttman, András; Rejtar, Tomas; Karger, Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a high resolution separation technique broadly used in the biotechnology industry for carbohydrate analysis. The standard sample preparation protocol for CE analysis of glycans released from glycoproteins generally requires derivatization times of overnight at 37°C, using ≥100 fold excess of fluorophore reagent, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic-acid (APTS), if the sample is unknown, or it is a regulated biotherapeutic product, possibly containing terminal sialic acid(s). In this paper, we report on significant improvements for the standard CE sample preparation method of glycan analysis. By replacing the conventionally used acetic acid catalyst with citric acid, as low as 1 : 10 glycan to fluorophore molar ratio (vs the typical 1 : ≥100 ratio) maintained the >95% derivatization yield at 55°C with only 50 minutes reaction time. Terminal sialic acid loss was negligible at 55°C during the derivatization process, and thus the kinetics of labeling at 55°C was faster than the loss of sialic acid from the glycan. The reduced relative level of APTS simplified the removal of excess reagent, important in both CE-LIF (electrokinetic injection bias) and CE-MS (ion suppression). Coupling capillary electrophoresis to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry confirmed that the individual peaks separated by CE corresponded to single glycans and increased the confidence of structural assignment based on glucose unit values. PMID:20309892

  10. Identification and antigenicity of the major envelope glycoprotein of lymphadenopathy-associated virus

    SciTech Connect

    Montagnier, L.; Clavel, F.; Krust, B.; Chamaret, S.; Rey, F.; Barre-Sinoussi, F.; Chermann, J.C.

    1985-07-15

    The major envelope glycoprotein of the causative agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) has been identified and characterized. The glycoprotein has an apparent molecular weight of 110,000-120,000 under denaturing conditions in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Upon deglycosylation by a specific endoglycosydase, its size is reduced to 80,000. Cellular precursors of this glycoprotein have been detected with apparent molecular weight of 150,000 and 135,000. Nearly all AIDS and pre-AIDS patients have detectable antibodies against this viral glycoprotein.

  11. The role of interfacial structured water on the glycoprotein arrangement in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Neitchev, V Z; Kostadinov, A P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of perturbing the interfacial water structure in liposomes on the glycoprotein arrangement in the bilayer was investigated. This perturbation was achieved by a series of reagents called structure makers and breakers. The glycoprotein arrangement in the liposomes was determined by fluorescence measurement with 1-anilino-2-naphthalene sulphonate (ANS). A dependence of (n) (number of binding sites for ANS on the glycoprotein molecule) with concentration of structure maker and breaker reagents was observed. The results have been interpreted as a possible new arrangement of membrane-bound glycoprotein, due to the effect of perturbing the interfacial water structure in the liposomes. PMID:3807904

  12. Complementation of the Function of Glycoprotein H of Human Herpesvirus 6 Variant A by Glycoprotein H of Variant B in the Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Oyaizu, Hiroko; Tang, Huamin; Ota, Megumi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Ozono, Keiichi; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a T-cell-tropic betaherpesvirus. HHV-6 can be classified into two variants, HHV-6 variant A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B, based on genetic, antigenic, and cell tropisms, although the homology of their entire genomic sequences is nearly 90%. The HHV-6A glycoprotein complex gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 is a viral ligand that binds to the cellular receptor human CD46. Because gH has 94.3% amino acid identity between the variants, here we examined whether gH from one variant could complement its loss in the other. Recently, we successfully reconstituted HHV-6A from its cloned genome in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) (rHHV-6ABAC). Using this system, we constructed HHV-6ABAC DNA containing the HHV-6B gH (BgH) gene instead of the HHV-6A gH (AgH) gene in Escherichia coli. Recombinant HHV-6ABAC expressing BgH (rHHV-6ABAC-BgH) was successfully reconstituted. In addition, a monoclonal antibody that blocks HHV-6B but not HHV-6A infection neutralized rHHV-6ABAC-BgH but not rHHV-6ABAC. These results indicate that HHV-6B gH can complement the function of HHV-6A gH in the viral infectious cycle. PMID:22647694

  13. Inhibitory effect of plant-originated glycoprotein (27 kDa) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cadmium chloride-induced BNL CL.2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium is very harmful to the environment and to human beings because of its long lifetime. The toxicity of cadmium as an industrial pollutant and a food contaminant, and as one of the major components in cigarette smoke is well known. Cadmium can cause a number of lesions in many organs, such as the kidney, the lung, the liver, the brain, the blood system. However, the mechanism of toxicity of cadmium is not yet clear. Also, it has been well known as human carcinogen which is indirectly caused inflammation-mediated hepatocarcinoma. In the present study it was demonstrated that glycoprotein (27 kDa) isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) protects BNL CL.2 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (10 μM). Intracellular ROS and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, activities of activator protein (AP)-1, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and arachidonic acid (AA) using immunoblot analysis or radioactivity were evaluated. The results obtained from this experiment indicated that GJE glycoprotein (100 μg/mL) inhibits the production of intracellular ROS, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Also, it significantly suppressed inflammatory factors [expression of AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), arachidonic acid, COX-2, and MMP-9]. Taken together, these findings suggest that GJE glycoprotein might be used for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion as one of natural compounds. PMID:21924884

  14. [Isolation and characterization of an unknown, leucine-rich 3.1-S-alpha2-glycoprotein from human serum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Haupt, H; Baudner, S

    1977-06-01

    This article describes the isolation and characterization of a previously unknown, leucine-rich 3.1S-alpha2-glycoprotein from human serum. The starting material was Supernatant II, which is a byproduct in the large-scale preparation of albumin and gamma-globulin by the ethacridine lactate/ammonium sulfate procedure. The purified protein is homogenous both in carrier-free and molecular-sieve electrophoresis. Its electrophoretic mobility indicates that it belongs to the alpha2-globulins. Isoelectric focussing splits it into 4 bands with isoelectric points between 3.8 and 4.1. In the ultracentrifuge it sediments in a single band at 3.1S. The molecular weight determined by equilibrium sedimentation is 49 600 +/- 4 000. Subunits were not detected. Chemical analysis reveals it to be a glycoprotein with a carbohydrate content of 23%. The amino acid content is unusual in that the leucine content is almost 17%, i.e. about every fifth amino acid is a leucine. The average concentration of the leucine-rich 3.1S-alpha2-glycoprotein in human serum was determined by a quantitative immunological method as 2.1 mg per 100 ml. The protein is not related to any of the previously known well characterized serum proteins. PMID:69600

  15. Fusion protein of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5: nucleotide sequence of mRNA predicts a highly hydrophobic glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, R G; Harris, T J; Lamb, R A

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA coding for the fusion glycoprotein (F) of the paramyxovirus, simian virus 5, has been obtained. There is a single large open reading frame on the mRNA that encodes a protein of 529 amino acids with a molecular weight of 56,531. The proteolytic cleavage/activation site of F, to yield F2 and F1, contains five arginine residues. Six potential glycosylation sites were identified in the protein, two on F2 and four on F1. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that F is extensively hydrophobic over the length of the polypeptide chain. Three regions are very hydrophobic and could interact directly with membranes: these are the NH2-terminal putative signal peptide, the COOH-terminal putative membrane anchorage domain, and the NH2-terminal region of F1. Images PMID:6093114

  16. Sensitive Glycoprotein Sandwich Assays by the Synergistic Effect of In Situ Generation of Raman Probes and Plasmonic Coupling of Ag Core-Au Satellite Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaoshuang; Li, Xueyuan; Chen, Dong; Du, Xuezhong

    2016-05-01

    Sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assays of glycoproteins have been proposed using p-aminothiophenol (PATP)-embedded Ag core-Au satellite nanostructures modified with p-mercaptophenylboronic acid (PMBA) and the self-assembled monolayer of PMBA on a smooth gold-coated wafer. The apparent Raman probe PATP on the surfaces of the Ag cores underwent a photodimerization to generate 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) in situ upon excitation of laser, and the in situ generated DMAB acted as the actual Raman probe with considerably strong SERS signals, which was further enhanced by the plasmonic coupling of the Ag core-Au satellite nanostructures due to the synergistic effect. The sandwich assays of glycoproteins showed high sensitivity and excellent selectivity against nonglycoproteins. The Ag core-Au satellite SERS nanostructures can be used for highly sensitive SERS assays of other analytes. PMID:27064515

  17. Analogies and homologies in lipopolysaccharide and glycoprotein biosynthesis in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hug, Isabelle; Feldman, Mario F

    2011-02-01

    Bacteria generate and attach countless glycan structures to diverse macromolecules. Despite this diversity, the mechanisms of glycoconjugate biosynthesis are often surprisingly similar. The focus of this review is on the commonalities between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and glycoprotein assembly pathways and their evolutionary relationship. Three steps that are essential for both pathways are completed by membrane proteins. These include the initiation of glycan assembly through the attachment of a first sugar residue onto the lipid carrier undecaprenyl pyrophosphate, the translocation across the plasma membrane and the final transfer onto proteins or lipid A-core. Two families of initiating enzymes have been described: the polyprenyl-P N-acetylhexosamine-1-P transferases and the polyprenyl-P hexosamine-1-P transferases, represented by Escherichia coli WecA and Salmonella enterica WbaP, respectively. Translocases are either Wzx-like flippases or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). The latter can consist either of two polypeptides, Wzt and Wzm, or of a single polypeptide homolog to the Campylobacter jejuni PglK. Finally, there are two families of conjugating enzymes, the N-oligosaccharyltransferases (N-OTase), best represented by C. jejuni PglB, and the O-OTases, including Neisseria meningitidis PglL and the O antigen ligases involved in LPS biosynthesis. With the exception of the N-OTases, probably restricted to glycoprotein synthesis, members of all these transmembrane protein families can be involved in the synthesis of both glycoproteins and LPS. Because many translocation and conjugation enzymes display relaxed substrate specificity, these bacterial enzymes could be exploited in engineered living bacteria for customized glycoconjugate production, generating potential vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:20871101

  18. Aberrant profiles of native and oxidized glycoproteins in Alzheimer plasma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han-Ling; Chertkow, Howard M; Bergman, Howard; Schipper, Hyman M

    2003-11-01

    A proteomic approach was employed to elucidate possible differential expression of native and oxidized glycoproteins using pooled plasma samples derived from ten patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and pooled plasma samples from nine normal elderly control (NEC) subjects. The plasma samples were fractionated by sequential affinity chromatography on heparin-agarose (HepA) and concanavalin A-agarose (ConA) columns followed by separation on one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Carbonylation (oxidation) of proteins was monitored by in-strip derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP) and anti-DNP immunoblotting. Nine spots representing glycoproteins which showed enrichment or high specific oxidation indices in AD HepA-ConA 2-D gels relative to NEC samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight-mass spectrometry and identified with high probability (p < 0.001) as isoforms of human transferrin (Tf), hemopexin (Hpx) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha-1-AT). These glycoproteins were concentrated, respectively, 5-, 6.5- and 107-fold in HepA-ConA eluates derived from AD plasma relative to the NEC samples. Specific oxidation indices of the identified Tf and Hpx isoforms in AD plasma were respectively, 7.4 and 2.8 relative to NEC. Our findings provide further evidence for systemic derangements in heme/iron/redox homeostasis and activation of the acute phase response in sporadic AD. Moreover, the data implicate isoforms of Tf, Hpx and alpha-1-AT as potential biological markers of this condition. PMID:14595822

  19. Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B: recombinant expression and antibody recognition.

    PubMed

    Dry, Inga; Todd, Helen; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Mclean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Manson, Erin D T; Haig, David M; Nayuni, Shilpa; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M; Grant, Dawn M; Bartley, Kathryn; Stewart, James P; Russell, George C

    2016-03-01

    The gammaherpesvirus alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) causes fatal malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible species including cattle, but infects its reservoir host, wildebeest, without causing disease. Pathology in cattle may be influenced by virus-host cell interactions mediated by the virus glycoproteins. Cloning and expression of a haemagglutinin-tagged version of the AlHV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was used to demonstrate that the AlHV-1-specific monoclonal antibody 12B5 recognised gB and that gB was the main component of the gp115 complex of AlHV-1, a glycoprotein complex of five components identified on the surface of AlHV-1 by immunoprecipitation and radiolabelling. Analysis of AlHV-1 virus particles showed that the native form of gB was detected by mAb 12B5 as a band of about 70 kDa, whilst recombinant gB expressed by transfected HEK293T cells appeared to be subject to additional cleavage and incomplete post-translational processing. Antibody 12B5 recognised an epitope on the N-terminal furin-cleaved fragment of gB on AlHV-1 virus particles. It could be used to detect recombinant and virus-expressed gB on western blots and on the surface of infected cells by flow cytometry, whilst recombinant gB was detected on the surface of transfected cells by immunofluorescence. Recombinant gB has potential as an antigen for ELISA detection of MCF virus infection and as a candidate vaccine antigen. PMID:26650040

  20. Expression of alpha-GalNAc glycoproteins by breast cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, S. A.; Leathem, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The expression of complex carbohydrates recognised by Helix pomatia lectin (HPA, nominal monosaccharide binding specificity alpha-GalNAc) has been shown to predict unfavourable prognosis in breast and other cancers. It has been suggested that the prognostic significance of HPA binding may be through recognition of either Tn epitope (alpha-GalNAc-O-serine/threonine) or blood group A antigen (terminal alpha-1-->3GalNAc attached to the basic H-antigen, Fuc-alpha-1-->2-Gal-beta-1-->4(or 3) GlcNAc-->R). In this study, the expression of glycoproteins terminating in alpha-GalNAc residues was investigated immunohistochemically using HPA and two monoclonal antibodies--BRIC 66 (anti-alpha-GalNAc) and BRIC 111 (anti-Tn). In paraffin sections, 74/87 (85%) of breast cancers expressed HPA-binding ligands, while 28/87 (32%) were positive for BRIC 66 binding and 25/87 (29%) expressed Tn. Distribution of staining patterns were distinctive and different with the three markers. BRIC 66, BRIC 111 and HPA binding to glycoproteins derived from breast cancer homogenates and to blood group A and Tn positive glycoproteins in Western blots confirmed the immunohistochemistry data. The results suggest that the prognostic significance of HPA binding in breast cancer is unlikely to be simply through recognition of blood group A antigen or Tn epitope on cancer cells. Breast cancers may express a complex profile of related but distinct glycans sharing similar terminal immunodominant sugar GalNAc, which may be implicated in aggressive biological behaviour. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7537516

  1. Low-pH conformational changes of rabies virus glycoprotein and their role in membrane fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Y; Ruigrok, R W; Knossow, M; Flamand, A

    1993-01-01

    Fusion of rabies virus with membranes occurs at acidic pH and is mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein (G). In this paper, we provide the basis for a description of structural transitions associated with exposure to low pH and of their role in membrane fusion. First, we have extended previous studies of fusion kinetics and we have shown that low-pH inhibition of fusion is detectable at 0.5 pH units higher than fusion. Second, low-pH-induced conformational changes were analyzed by using electron microscopy and monoclonal antibody binding assays. The existence of a pH-dependent equilibrium between the native and a low-pH inactive conformation was demonstrated. Third, besides these two conformations, we, using the fluorescent probe ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid), provide evidence for the existence of a transient third state which appears to be more hydrophobic than the native state. Our results suggest that this transient state is responsible for viral aggregation at low pH and could play a role in the first steps of the fusion mechanism. Images PMID:8437221

  2. Cloning, expression, characterization and crystallization of BRP39, a signalling glycoprotein expressed during mammary gland apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ashok K; Fisher, Andrew J; Yu, Zhihao; Pradeep, Mangottil A; Janjanam, Jagdeesh; Kaushik, Jai K

    2009-04-01

    Breast regression protein (BRP39) is a glycoprotein, which is expressed during mammary gland involution in mouse. The physiological function of BRP39 is not known. High levels of expression of BRP39 have also been associated with breast cancer development. In the present investigation a cDNA encoding rBRP39 (recombinant BRP39) was cloned by PCR techniques. It consists of 1,143 nucleotides and encodes an open reading frame of 381 amino acid residues including a signal sequence of 21 amino acids. Recombinant BRP39 was produced in E. coli in a soluble form at low temperature (15 degrees C). Expression and purification of rBRP39 was confirmed by western blot analysis. Purified rBRP39 showed high chitin-binding activity but no chitinase activity. The lack of chitinase activity may be attributed to the mutation of critical active site residue Glu120 to Leu120 and Asp118 to Ala118 in BRP39. However, a mutant in which the residue was reverted back to Glu, by site directed mutagenesis, displayed no chitinase activity. Purified recombinant BRP39 was crystallized and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.8A resolution. The crystals belonged to the space group C2 with unit cell parameters a=130.4A, b=81.3A, c=229.2A, beta=105.9 degrees. The structure refinement is in progress. PMID:19041398

  3. Sialylated oligosaccharides O-glycosidically linked to glycoprotein C from herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olio, F; Malagolini, N; Speziali, V; Campadelli-Fiume, G; Serafini-Cessi, F

    1985-10-01

    Glycoprotein C (gC) was purified by immunoabsorbent from herpes simplex virus type-1-infected BHK cells labeled with [14C]glucosamine for 11 h and chased for 3 h. Glycopeptides obtained by pronase digestion of gC were fractionated by Bio-Gel filtration and concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography. Each glycopeptide fraction was analyzed for amino sugar composition by thin-layer chromatography. The majority of radioactivity was recovered as N-acetylglucosamine, but a significant amount of labeled N-acetylgalactosamine was detected and recovered preferentially in some glycopeptide species. Mild alkaline borohydride treatment of the glycopeptides resulted in the release of small degradation products which contained N-acetylgalactosaminitol as the major labeled component and a drastic reduction of N-acetylgalactosamine in the residual glycopeptides. These results demonstrated that gC carries O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides in addition to the N-linked di- and triantennary glycans previously described (F. Serafini-Cessi, F. Dall'Olio, L. Pereira, and G. Campadelli-Fiume, J. Virol. 51:838-844, 1984). Chromatographic behavior on DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and neuraminidase digestion of O-linked oligosaccharides indicated the presence of two major sialylated species carrying one and two sialic acid residues, respectively. The characterization of a peculiar glycopeptide species supported the notion that some of the O-linked oligosaccharides are bound to a cluster of hydroxyamino acids located near an N-glycosylation site which carries one N-linked diantennary oligosaccharide. PMID:2993643

  4. The precursor to B-type natriuretic peptide is an O-linked glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schellenberger, Ute; O'Rear, Jessica; Guzzetta, Andrew; Jue, Rodney A; Protter, Andrew A; Pollitt, N Stephen

    2006-07-15

    Human pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP), the precursor for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and compared by Western blot analysis to BNP cross-reacting material immunoprecipitated from the plasma of heart failure patients. Both recombinant and native forms co-migrated as a diffuse band centered around 25 kDa and were reduced to a 12 kDa species by treatment with a mixture of O-link deglycosylation enzymes. The 108-amino acid CHO-expressed protein was examined by tryptic mapping and LC-MS and found to be an O-linked glycoprotein. Determination of the sites of O-glycosyl addition by blank cycle sequencing of tryptic and Glu-C (Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease) peptides showed that there are seven sites of glycosylation confined to a 36-amino acid residue stretch within the center of the propeptide region. This data is consistent with previous observations of higher molecular weight isoforms of BNP. PMID:16750161

  5. Canine renal parathyroid hormone receptor is a glycoprotein: characterization and partial purification

    SciTech Connect

    Karpf, D.B.; Arnaud, C.D.; King, K.; Bambino, T.; Winer, J.; Nyiredy, K.; Nissenson, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    Covalent labeling of the canine renal parathyroid hormone receptor with (/sup 125/I)bPTH(1-34) reveals several major binding components that display characteristic consistent with a physiologically relevant adenylate cyclase linked receptor. Through the use of the specific glycosidases neuraminidase and endoglycosidase F and affinity chromatography on lectin-agarose gels, we show here that the receptor is a glycoprotein that contains several complex N-linked carbohydrate chains consisting of terminal sialic acid and penultimate galactose in a ..beta..1,4 linkage to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. No high mannose chains or O-linked glycans appear to be present. The peptide molecular weight of the deglycosylated labeled receptor is 62,000 (or 58,000 if the mass of bPTH(1-34) is excluded). The binding of (/sup 125/I)bPTH(1-34) to the receptor is inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by wheat-germ agglutinin, but not by either succinylated wheat-germ agglutinin or Ricinus communis lectin, suggesting that terminal sialic acid may be involved in agonist binding. A combination of lectin affinity chromatography and immunoaffinity chromatography affords a 200-fold purification of the covalently labeled receptor.

  6. Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Directs Fusion through NPC1+ Endolysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, James A.; D'Souza, Ryan S.; Ruas, Margarida; Galione, Antony; Casanova, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus, a deadly hemorrhagic fever virus, was thought to enter cells through endolysosomes harboring its glycoprotein receptor, Niemann-Pick C1. However, an alternate model was recently proposed in which ebolavirus enters through a later NPC1-negative endosome that contains two-pore Ca2+ channel 2 (TPC2), a newly identified ebolavirus entry factor. Here, using live cell imaging, we obtained evidence that in contrast to the new model, ebolavirus enters cells through endolysosomes that contain both NPC1 and TPC2. PMID:26468524

  7. Antigiardial activity of glycoproteins and glycopeptides from Ziziphus honey.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Kabashi, Ahmed S; Koko, Waleed S; Azim, M Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Natural honey contains an array of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycopeptides. Size-exclusion chromatography fractionated Ziziphus honey proteins into five peaks with molecular masses in the range from 10 to >200 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia with IC50 values ≤ 25 μg/mL. Results indicated that honey proteins were more active as antiprotozoal agents than metronidazole. This study indicated the potential of honey proteins and peptides as novel antigiardial agents. PMID:25587739

  8. HIV Entry and Envelope Glycoprotein-mediated Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Robert; Durell, Stewart; Viard, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    HIV entry involves binding of the trimeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120/gp41 to cell surface receptors, which triggers conformational changes in Env that drive the membrane fusion reaction. The conformational landscape that the lipids and Env navigate en route to fusion has been examined by biophysical measurements on the microscale, whereas electron tomography, x-rays, and NMR have provided insights into the process on the nanoscale and atomic scale. However, the coupling between the lipid and protein pathways that give rise to fusion has not been resolved. Here, we discuss the known and unknown about the overall HIV Env-mediated fusion process. PMID:23043104

  9. Label-free detection of glycoproteins by the lectin biosensor down to attomolar level using gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bertok, Tomas; Sediva, Alena; Katrlik, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Pavol; Mikula, Milan; Nosko, Martin; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present here an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on a lectin biorecognition capable to detect concentrations of glycoproteins down to attomolar (aM) level by investigation of changes in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). On polycrystalline gold modified by an aminoalkanethiol linker layer, gold nanoparticles were attached. A Sambucus nigra agglutinin was covalently immobilised on a mixed self-assembled monolayer formed on gold nanoparticles and finally, the biosensor surface was blocked by poly(vinylalcohol). The lectin biosensor was applied for detection of sialic acid containing glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin. Building of a biosensing interface was carefully characterised by a broad range of techniques such as electrochemistry, EIS, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface plasmon resonance with the best performance of the biosensor achieved by application of HS-(CH2)11-NH2 linker and gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm. The lectin biosensor responded to an addition of fetuin (8.7% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (338 ± 11) Ω decade-1 and to asialofetuin (≤ 0.5% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (109 ± 10) Ω decade-1 with a blank experiment with oxidised asialofetuin (without recognisable sialic acid) revealing sensitivity of detection of (79 ± 13) Ω decade-1. These results suggest the lectin biosensor responded to changes in the glycan amount in a quantitative way with a successful validation by a lectin microarray. Such a biosensor device has a great potential to be employed in early biomedical diagnostics of diseases such as arthritis or cancer, which are connected to aberrant glycosylation of protein biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:23601864

  10. Immunoreactivity and avidity of IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies from patients with autoimmune diseases to different peptide clusters of β2-glycoprotein I.

    PubMed

    Artenjak, A; Locatelli, I; Brelih, H; Simonič, D M; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Swadzba, J; Musial, J; Iwaniec, T; Stojanovich, L; Conti, F; Valesini, G; Avčin, T; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Shoenfeld, Y; Blank, M; Ambrožič, A; Sodin-Semrl, S; Božič, B; Čučnik, S

    2015-02-01

    The pathogenicity of antibodies against β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) depends on multiple factors such as subclass type, epitope binding and avidity. Due to their large heterogeneity, their impact on antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) onset is still not fully clarified. We studied the binding characteristics of IgG anti-β2GPI with known avidity from sera of 201 autoimmune patients (87 with APS, 67 with APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 47 with only SLE) to six β2GPI peptides corresponding to amino acid clusters on domains I-II, II, III and III-IV by indirect ELISA and evaluated their association with clinical features of APS. Peptides A (LKTPRV; domain I-II), B (KDKATF; domain IV) and C (TLRVYK; domain III) were derived from a hexapeptide phage display library previously shown to react with pathogenic monoclonal anti-β2GPI. Peptides D (NGPANSK; domain III), E (YNPLWFV; domain II) and F (KMDGNHP; domain III-IV) represent surface amino acid clusters on β2GPI. The percentage of patients positive for peptides were observed as follows: 30.3% for peptide D, 28.90% for B, 25.9% for C, 24.9% for E, 24.4% for F and 10.0% for A. The anti-peptide antibodies in studied serum samples were predominantly of heterogeneous avidity, followed by law avidity anti-peptide antibodies, whereas only a few were of high avidity. Positive and negative correlations were found between several anti-peptide antibodies and the rate of thrombosis. Our results indicated diverse reactivity of IgG anti-β2GPI to different epitopes on β2GPI. Classification of IgG anti-β2GPI into subgroups regarding epitope specificity and avidity could represent an additional tool in understanding their pathogenicity in APS. PMID:25395339

  11. A new variant of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (Strasbourg I). Platelets with functionally defective glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complexes and a glycoprotein IIIa 214Arg----214Trp mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, F; Stierlé, A; Fournier, D; Morales, M; André, G; Nurden, A T; Cazenave, J P

    1992-01-01

    We describe a new variant of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (variant Strasbourg I). The patient (M.S.) showed an absence of platelet aggregation to ADP, thrombin, and collagen, and a decreased clot retraction. Platelet fibrinogen was approximately 20% of normal levels. ADP-stimulated platelets bound markedly reduced amounts of soluble fibrinogen and platelet adhesion to surface-bound fibrinogen was defective. Normal to subnormal amounts of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa (alpha IIb beta 3) complexes, the platelet fibrinogen receptor, were revealed by SDS-PAGE, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and antibody binding. However, the complexes were unusually sensitive to dissociation with EDTA at room temperature. Furthermore, flow cytometry showed that the platelets failed to bind the activation-dependent monoclonal antibody, PAC-1, after stimulation. In contrast, an RGDS-containing peptide induced significant binding of the anti-ligand-induced binding site antibody, D3GP3, suggesting the presence of a functional RGD binding domain on the patient's GPIIb-IIIa complex. Sequence analysis was performed after polymerase chain reaction amplification of selected patient's GPIIIa exons, and of the patient's platelet GPIIb and GPIIIa mRNAs. A point mutation (C to T) was localized in exon D (iv) of GPIIIa that resulted in an 214Arg to 214Trp amino acid substitution. The defect has been inherited from the parents who are heterozygous for the same mutation. This substitution points to an essential amino acid in a region of GPIIIa involved in the binding of fibrinogen and influencing the Ca(2+)-dependent stability of the GPIIb-IIIa complex. Images PMID:1602006

  12. Glycoprotein screening in colorectal cancer based on differentially expressed Tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongyun; Cheng, Zongyong; Ouyang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Yanyan; Chen, Shuijiao; Wang, Chunlian; Lu, Fanggen; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the identification of new biomarkers for CRC is valuable for its diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to screen differentially expressed glycoproteins (especially O-glycoproteins) and to identify diagnostic or therapeutic candidates for colorectal cancer (CRC) based on different Tn antigen expression levels. Fresh cancer tissues and adjacent healthy tissues were obtained from CRC patients and classified into three groups based on their Tn antigen expression: CRC with negative Tn expression (CRC Tn‑), CRC with positive Tn expression (CRC Tn+) and normal control without Tn expression (NC). Protein extractions were separated and identified by iTRAQ technology. Glycoproteins and O-glycoproteins were selected using UniProt and DAVID. Deep bioinformatic analysis, including Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KO), was used to annotate this O-glycoprotein interaction network. Subsequently, two O‑glycoproteins were verified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry in either LS174T cells or CRC tissues. We found that 330 differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ between CRC Tn‑ and NC tissues, 317 between CRC Tn+ and NC tissues, and 316 between CRC Tn‑ and Tn+ tissues. Of the 316 proteins, 55 glycoproteins and 19 O‑glycoproteins were identified and analyzed via deep informatics. Namely, different Tn antigen expression levels in CRC led to differential protein expression patterns, especially for glycoproteins and O‑glycoproteins. Decorin and SORBS1, two representative functional O-glycoproteins, were significantly downregulated in the CRC Tn+ tissues compared with the level in the CRC Tn‑ or NC tissues. Based on this deep bioinformatic analysis, Decorin and SORBS1 are hypothesized to be involved in the TGF‑β and PPAR‑γ signaling pathways, respectively. PMID:27432485

  13. Structure and expression analysis of genes encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit in wheat and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Ma, Jian; Qi, Peng-Fei; Li, Wei; Chen, Guo-Yue; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Deng, Mei; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Liu, Chunji; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2016-07-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP), which consists of two large subunits (AGP-L) and two small subunits (AGP-S), controls the rate-limiting step in the starch biosynthetic pathway. In this study, a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of AGP-L gene (named as Agp2) in wheat and a series of Agp2 gene sequences in wheat relatives were isolated. The coding region of Agp2 contained 15 exons and 14 introns including a full-length ORF of 1566 nucleotides, and the deduced protein contained 522 amino acids (57.8 kDa). Generally, the phylogenetic tree of Agp2 indicated that sequences from A- and D-genome donor species were most similar to each other and sequences from B-genome donor species contained more variation. Starch accumulation and Agp2 expression in wheat grains reached their peak at 21 and 15 days post anthesis (DPA), respectively. PMID:27299732

  14. Extreme positive selection on a new highly-expressed larval glycoprotein (LGP) gene in Galaxias fishes (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae).

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lise J; Wallis, Graham P

    2011-01-01

    We describe the intron-exon structure and DNA/protein sequences of a new larval glycoprotein (LGP) gene from nine species of galaxiid fish. The gene has a distant similarity to Danio THP (Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein; uromodulin) and cichlid SPP120 (seminal plasma glycoprotein) due to conserved features of its zona pellucida (ZP) domain, including eight highly conserved cysteines and a consensus furin cleavage site. Using a combination of 454 sequencing of cDNA and exon-primed intron-spanning sequencing of genomic DNA, we obtained full sequences of the coding region (996 bp) and its intervening sequences (1,459 bp). LGP shows an exceptionally strong signal of positive selection over the entire coding region, as evidenced by d(N)/d(S) values >1. Across nine species of Galaxias, 87/332 (26%) amino acid residues are variable, compared with 9/386 (2%) for mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) in the same group of species. Across 36 interspecific pairwise comparisons, genetic distances are in all cases larger for coding region than for introns, by a factor of 2.4-fold on average. Reading frame, gene structure, splice sites, and many ZP motifs are conserved across all species. Together with the fact that the gene is expressed in all species, these results argue clearly against the possibility of a pseudogene. We show by 454 sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction that the transcript is abundant (ca. 0.5%) in newly hatched larvae and appears to be almost absent from a range of adult tissues. We postulate that the strong Darwinian evolution exhibited by this protein may reflect some type of immunoprotection at this vulnerable larval stage. PMID:20696791

  15. Structural Characterization of the glycoprotein GP2 Core Domain from the CAS Virus, a Novel Arenavirus-like Species

    PubMed Central

    Koellhoffer, Jayne F.; Dai, Zhou; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Liu, Yanyun; Toro, Rafael; Harrison, Joseph; Chandran, Kartik; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Almo, Steven C.; Lai, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Fusion of the viral and host cell membranes is a necessary first step for infection by enveloped viruses, and is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein. The transmembrane subunits from the structurally defined “class I” glycoproteins adopt an α-helical “trimer- of-hairpins” conformation during the fusion pathway. Here we present our studies on the envelope glycoprotein transmembrane subunit, GP2, of the CAS virus (CASV). CASV was recently identified from annulated tree boas (Corallus annulatus) with inclusion body disease and is implicated in the disease etiology. We have generated and characterized two protein constructs consisting of the predicted CASV GP2 core domain. The crystal structure of the CASV GP2 post-fusion conformation indicates a trimeric α-helical bundle that is highly similar to those of Ebola Virus (EBOV) and Marburg Virus (MARV) GP2, despite CASV genome homology to arenaviruses. Denaturation studies demonstrate that the stability of CASV GP2 is pH-dependent with higher stability at lower pH; we propose that this behavior is due to a network of interactions among acidic residues that would destabilize the α-helical bundle under conditions where the side chains are deprotonated. The pH-dependent stability of the post-fusion structure has been observed in EBOV and MARV GP2, as well as other viruses that enter via the endosome. Infection experiments with CASV and the related Golden Gate Virus (GGV) support a mechanism of entry that requires endosomal acidification. Our results suggest that despite being primarily arenavirus-like, the transmembrane subunit of CASV is extremely similar to the filoviruses. PMID:24333483

  16. Modification of a PAMPA model to predict passive gastrointestinal absorption and plasma protein binding.

    PubMed

    Bujard, Alban; Voirol, Hervé; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Schappler, Julie

    2015-09-18

    The Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) is a well-known high throughput screening (HTS) technique for predicting in vivo passive absorption. In this technique, two compartments are separated by an artificial membrane that mimics passive permeability through biological membranes such as the dermal layer, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and the blood brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, a hexadecane artificial membrane (HDM)-PAMPA was used to predict the binding of compounds towards the human plasma using a mixture of human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The ratio of HSA and AGP was equivalent to that found in the human plasma for both proteins (∼20:1). A pH gradient (5.0-7.4) was performed to increase the screening capacity and overcome the issue of passive permeability for acidic and amphoteric compounds. With this assay, the prediction of passive GIT absorption was maintained and the compounds were discriminated according to their permeability (on a no-to-high scale). The plasma protein binding (PPB) was estimated via the correlation of the differences between the amount of compound crossing the artificial membrane in assays conducted with and without protein using only a two end-point measurement. The use of a mixture of HSA and AGP to modulate drug permeation was compared to the use of the same concentrations of HSA and AGP used separately. The addition of HSA alone in the acceptor compartment was sufficient for estimating PPB, while it was demonstrated that AGP alone could enable the estimation of AGP binding. PMID:26118348

  17. Identification of a mouse synaptic glycoprotein gene in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi; Sun, Chun Xiao; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hua Dong; Wang, Chen Ran; Zhao, Guo Ping; Jin, Meilei; Lau, Lok Ting; Fung, Yin-Wan Wendy; Liu, Shuang

    2005-10-01

    Neuronal differentiation and aging are known to involve many genes, which may also be differentially expressed during these developmental processes. From primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons, we have previously identified various differentially expressed gene transcripts from cultured cortical neurons using the technique of arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Among these transcripts, clone 0-2 was found to have high homology to rat and human synaptic glycoprotein. By in silico analysis using an EST database and the FACTURA software, the full-length sequence of 0-2 was assembled and the clone was named as mouse synaptic glycoprotein homolog 2 (mSC2). DNA sequencing revealed transcript size of mSC2 being smaller than the human and rat homologs. RT-PCR indicated that mSC2 was expressed differentially at various culture days. The mSC2 gene was located in various tissues with higher expression in brain, lung, and liver. Functions of mSC2 in neurons and other tissues remain elusive and will require more investigation. PMID:16341590

  18. Entrapment in anti myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Faber, Catharina G; Notermans, Nicolette C; Wokke, John H J; Franssen, Hessel

    2009-04-01

    Anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is a chronic disorder in which IgM antibodies react with Schwann cell glycoproteins, including MAG and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). Nerve conduction studies show features of axon loss and predominantly distal slowing consistent with demyelination. Because a genetic loss of PMP22 function yields hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), loss of PMP22 function due to anti- MAG antibodies may result in increased sensitivity to entrapment. We investigated this by performing standardized electrophysiological studies in 16 patients with anti-MAG neuropathy and 16 disease controls with genetically confirmed HNPP. Disproportionate slowing relative to adjacent segments occurred in similar proportions of patients with anti-MAG neuropathy and HNPP, and was of the same magnitude in each group. Affected were the elbow, carpal tunnel and the wrist-hand segments of the median and ulnar nerves. However, in anti-MAG neuropathy as compared to HNPP, absolute values of distal motor latencies and conduction velocities outside entrapment sites were slower and amplitudes were lower. In conclusion, increased sensitivity for entrapment may occur in anti-MAG neuropathy and contribute to part of the nerve damage. PMID:19306083

  19. Characterization of immunomodulatory activities of honey glycoproteins and glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Mesaik, M Ahmed; Dastagir, Nida; Uddin, Nazim; Rehman, Khalid; Azim, M Kamran

    2015-01-14

    Recent evidence suggests an important role for natural honey in modulating immune response. To identify active components responsible, this study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of glycoproteins and glycopeptides fractionated from Ziziphus honey. Honey proteins/peptides were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography into five peaks with molecular masses in the range of 2-450 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited potent, concentration-dependent inhibition of reactive oxygen species production in zymosan-activated human neutrophils (IC50 = 6-14 ng/mL) and murine macrophages (IC50 = 2-9 ng/mL). Honey proteins significantly suppressed the nitric oxide production by LPS-activated murine macrophages (IC50 = 96-450 ng/mL). Moreover, honey proteins inhibited the phagocytosis latex bead macrophages. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α by human monocytic cell line in the presence of honey proteins was analyzed. Honey proteins did not affect the production of IL-1β; however, TNF-α production was significantly suppressed. These findings indicated that honey glycoproteins and glycopeptides significantly interfere with molecules of the innate immune system. PMID:25496517

  20. Glycosylation of closely spaced acceptor sites in human glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Gilmore, Reid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Asparagine-linked glycosylation of proteins by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) occurs when acceptor sites or sequons (N-x≠P-T/S) on nascent polypeptides enter the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the OST that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially non-overlapping cellular roles. Potential glycosylation sites move past the STT3A complex, which is associated with the translocation channel, at the protein synthesis elongation rate. Here, we investigated whether close spacing between acceptor sites in a nascent protein promotes site skipping by the STT3A complex. Biosynthetic analysis of four human glycoproteins revealed that closely spaced sites are efficiently glycosylated by an STT3B-independent process unless the sequons contain non-optimal sequence features, including extreme close spacing between sequons (e.g. NxTNxT) or the presence of paired NxS sequons (e.g. NxSANxS). Many, but not all, glycosylation sites that are skipped by the STT3A complex can be glycosylated by the STT3B complex. Analysis of a murine glycoprotein database revealed that closely spaced sequons are surprisingly common, and are enriched for paired NxT sites when the gap between sequons is less than three residues. PMID:24105266

  1. Characterization of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B expressed by canine herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Y; Xuan, X; Kimura, M; Otsuka, H

    1999-10-01

    A recombinant canine herpesvirus (CHV) which expressed glycoprotein B (gB) of pseudorabies virus (PrV) was constructed. The antigenicity of the PrV gB expressed by the recombinant CHV is similar to that of the native PrV. The expressed PrV gB was shown to be transported to the surface of infected cells as judged by an indirected immunofluorescence test. Antibodies raised in mice immunized with the recombinant CHV neutralized the infectivity of PrV in vitro. It is known that the authentic PrV gB exists as a glycoprotein complex, which consists of gBa, gBb and gBc. In MDCK cells, PrV gB expressed by the recombinant CHV was processed like authentic PrV gB, suggesting that the cleavage mechanism of PrV gB depends on a functional cleavage domain from PrV gB gene and protease from infected cells. PMID:10563288

  2. Differential expression of salivary glycoproteins in aggressive and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA, Daniela de Morais; ZENÓBIO, Elton Gonçalves; VAN DYKE, Thomas; SILVA, Karine Simões; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira; SOARES, Rodrigo Villamarim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of secretion and the expression of mucin glycoprotein-2 (MG2) and lactoferrin in individuals with or without periodontitis. Material and Methods Five individuals with aggressive periodontitis (APG), 5 with generalized chronic periodontitis (CPG) and 5 without periodontitis (CG) were enrolled after informed consent. Non-stimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual saliva was collected and samples analyzed by Western blot probed with specific antibodies. Results Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rates did not differ among groups. Western blot analysis revealed that stimulation led to: an increase in MG2 expression in all groups, and to lactoferrin expression in APG and CPG. In non-stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of both glycoproteins. In stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of MG2, whereas APG the highest of lactoferrin. Conclusions The pattern of secretion of MG2 and lactoferrin in health and disease is complex. Although the present study analyzed samples from a limited number of participants, the reduced expression of MG2 and lactoferrin in APG and CPG under non-stimulated condition, the predominant circumstance of salivary secretion during the day, suggests that these salivary constituents may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:22666834

  3. Inhibition of bacterial ice nucleators by fish antifreeze glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Parody-Morreale, A; Murphy, K P; Di Cera, E; Fall, R; DeVries, A L; Gill, S J

    1988-06-23

    Certain bacteria promote the formation of ice in super-cooled water by means of ice nucleators which contain a unique protein associated with the cell membrane. Ice nucleators in general are believed to act by mimicking the structure of an ice crystal surface, thus imposing an ice-like arrangement on the water molecules in contact with the nucleating surface and lowering the energy necessary for the initiation of ice formation. Quantitative investigation of the bacterial ice-nucleating process has recently been made possible by the discovery of certain bacteria that shed stable membrane vesicles with ice nucleating activity. The opposite effect, inhibition of ice formation, has been described for a group of glycoproteins found in different fish and insect species. This group of substances, termed antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), promotes the supercooling of water with no appreciable effect on the equilibrium freezing point or melting temperature. Substantial evidence now indicates that AFGPs act by binding to a growing ice crystal and slowing crystal growth. As the ice-nucleating protein surface is believed to have a structure similar to an embryonic ice crystal, AFGPs might be predicted to interact directly with a bacterial ice-nucleating site. We report here that AFGPs from the antarctic fish Dissostichus mawsoni inhibit the ice-nucleating activity of membrane vesicles from the bacterium Erwinia herbicola. The inhibition effect shows saturation at high concentration of AFGP and conforms to a simple binding reaction between the AFGP and the nucleation centre. PMID:3386720

  4. Cell wall proteome of Clostridium thermocellum and detection of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tingting; Xu, Xinping; Peng, Yanfeng; Luo, Yuanming; Yang, Keqian

    2012-06-20

    Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, has the unusual capacity to convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol and hydrogen. In this work, the cell wall proteome of C. thermocellum was investigated. The proteins in the cell wall fraction of C. thermocellum prepared by the boiling SDS method were released by mutanolysin digestion and resolved on two-dimensional (2D) gel. One hundred and thirty-two proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, among which the extracellular solute-binding protein (CbpB/cthe_1020), enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and translation elongation factor EF-Tu were detected as highly abundant proteins. Besides the known surface localized proteins, including FtsZ, MinD, GroEL, DnaK, many enzymes involved in bioenergetics, such as alcohol dehydrogenases and hydrogenases were also detected. By glycan stain and MS analysis of glycopeptides, we identified CbpB as a glycoprotein, which is the second glycoprotein from C. thermocellum characterized. The fact that CbpB was highly abundant in the cell wall region and glycosylated, reflects its importance in substrate assimilation. Our results indicate cell wall proteins constitute a significant portion of cellular proteins and may play important physiological roles (i.e. bioenergetics) in this bacterium. The insights described are relevant for the development of C. thermocellum as a biofuel producer. PMID:22494898

  5. Immunomodulatory roles of the carcinoembryonic antigen family of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ling; Allez, Matthieu; Park, Mee-Sook; Mayer, Lloyd

    2006-08-01

    One of the most remarkable aspects of the immune system is its ability to fashion an immune response most appropriate to the activating stimulus. Although the immune system possesses a number of adaptations to accomplish this, an important theme is local immune regulation by site-specific expression of receptors and ligands. One family of molecules that is gaining attention as modulators of the immune system is the carcinoembryonic antigen cell-adhesion molecule family (CEACAM). Functionally, the carcinoembryonic antigen family can mediate cell-cell contact, host-pathogen interactions, and immune regulation. For example, biliary glycoprotein (CEACAM1) can have direct activity on T cells, leading to the inhibition of helper or cytotoxic T cell function. The expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEACAM5) on intestinal epithelial cells is involved in the activation of populations of regulatory CD8(+) T cells, while a distinct subset of regulatory CD8+ T cells is activated by nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (CEACAM6) on placental trophoblasts. Interestingly, the function and phenotype of these cells depend upon the specific member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family expressed, as well as the antigen-presenting molecule with which it associates. Thus, these glycoproteins comprise a family of molecules whose functions can depend on their nature and context. PMID:17057200

  6. Stationary phases for the enrichment of glycoproteins and glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Yu; Yang, Chun-Kai; Liu, Ching-Piao; Liu, Chuen-Ying

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of protein glycosylation is important for biomedical and biopharmaceutical research. Recent advances in LC-MS analysis have enabled the identification of glycosylation sites, the characterisation of glycan structures and the identification and quantification of glycoproteins and glycopeptides. However, this type of analysis remains challenging due to the low abundance of glycopeptides in complex protein digests, the microheterogeneity at glycosylation sites, ion suppression effects and the competition for ionisation by co-eluting peptides. Specific sample preparation is necessary for comprehensive and site-specific glycosylation analyses using MS. Therefore, researchers continue to pursue new columns to broaden their applications. The current manuscript covers recent literature published from 2008 to 2013. The stationary phases containing various chemical bonding methods or ligands immobilisation strategies on solid supports that selectively enrich N-linked or sialylated N-glycopeptides are categorised with either physical or chemical modes of binding. These categories include lectin affinity, hydrophilic interactions, boronate affinity, titanium dioxide affinity, hydrazide chemistry and other separation techniques. This review should aid in better understanding the syntheses and physicochemical properties of each type of stationary phases for enriching glycoproteins and glycopeptides. PMID:24729282

  7. [Immune efficacy of rabies virus glycoprotein expressed by baculovirus vector].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Liu, Ye; Fu, Yun-Hong; Sun, Cheng-Long; Yang, Yang; Gong, Ting; Song, Fei-Fei; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To construct a recombinant baculovirus expressing glycoprotein (GP) of RV SRV9 strain and test the immunological efficacy in mice, open reading frame of rabies virus GP gene of SRV9 strain was cloned into the shuttle vector Bacmid to construct the recombinant shuttle plasmid Bacmid-G and transfection was performed into S f9 cells with the recombinant shuttle plasmid. CPE appeared in cell cultures was identified by electronmicroscopy. Western-blot, IFA and immunity tests in mice were performed to identify the immunoreactivity and immunogenicity of the expression products. Our results showed a recombinant baculovirus expressing GP protein of rabies virus SRV9 was obtained. The expression products possessed a favorable immunogenicity and fall immunized mice could develop 100% protective level of anti-rabies neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, The SRV9 glycoprotein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in this study had good immunogenicity and could induce anti-rabies neutralizing antibody, which laid the foundation of further development of rabies subunit vaccine. PMID:23233923

  8. Glycoprotein Biochemistry--Some Clinical Aspects of Interest to Biochemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe some clinical features of glycoprotein biochemistry, including recognition, selected blood glycoproteins, glycated proteins, histochemistry, and cancer. The material presented has largely been taught to medical laboratory students; however, it can be used to teach premedical students and pure biochemistry students. Includes two…

  9. Expression and characterization of glycophospholipid-anchored human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, K; Johnston, P B; Roberts, S J; Dubay, J W; Hunter, E

    1993-01-01

    Four chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env genes were constructed which encoded the extracellular domain of either the wild-type or a cleavage-defective HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp160) fused at one of two different positions in env to a C-terminal glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) attachment signal from the mouse Thy-1.1 glycoprotein. All four of the constructs encoded glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed when Rev was supplied in trans, and the two cleavable forms were processed normally to gp120 and a chimeric "gp41." The chimeric glycoproteins, in contrast to the wild-type glycoprotein, could be cleaved from the surface of transfected cells by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, indicating that they were anchored in the plasma membrane by a GPI moiety. These GPI-anchored glycoproteins were transported intracellularly at a rate only slightly lower than that of the full-length HIV-1 glycoprotein and were present on the cell surface in equivalent amounts. Nevertheless, all four glycoproteins were defective in mediating both cell-cell and virus-cell fusion as determined by syncytium formation in COS-1-HeLa-T4 cell mixtures and trans complementation of an env-defective HIV-1 genome. Images PMID:8102410

  10. [Electrophoretic analysis of urinary glycoproteins in diabetic nephropathy using peroxidase-lectins].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Y; Dohi, K; Dohi, Y; Nishiura, K; Kanauchi, M; Ishii, K; Kawano, T; Takenaka, M; Sugimoto, K; Moriyama, T

    1989-11-01

    We examined the clinical usefulness determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by reaction with peroxidase-coupled lectins using urinary glycoproteins for diabetic nephropathy in 20 patients with diabetes mellitus. Lectins used were Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-E4), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), and Lens culinaris (LCA), which have high affinity for beta 1----4N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc beta 1----4GlcNAc), N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), alpha-galactosamine (alpha-GalNAc), and alpha-mannose (alpha-Man) residues, respectively. Electrophoretic patterns of urinary glycoproteins clearly showed the presence of lectin-reactive glycoproteins with molecular weights lower than that of albumin. The molecular weight of the main bands reacted with WGA, PHA-E4 or LCA were 50,000 and 38,000, and increased with the progress of diabetic nephropathy. WGA reacted strongly with many glycoproteins having a wide range of molecular weights. LCA and PHA-E4 reacted preferentially with glycoproteins of molecular weights glycoproteins of molecular weights lower than 50,000, but no reaction was observed by DBA. These results suggest that low molecular urinary glycoproteins have abundant carbohydrate residues such as GlcNAc beta 1----4GlcNAc, GalNAc, and alpha-Man. The excretion of low molecular weight glycoproteins with high affinities for some lectins suggests functional impairment in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:2483179

  11. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.543