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Sample records for acid hva levels

  1. Levels of HVA, 5-HIAA, and MHPG in the CSF of vascular parkinsonism compared to Parkinson's disease and controls.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Megan K; Kuiperij, H Bea; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2013-12-01

    The neurochemical abnormalities underlying vascular parkinsonism (VP) have not been well characterised. A better understanding may help to optimize pharmacological interventions. Since VP patients generally have a poorer response to l-Dopa than Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, we investigated whether levels of relevant CSF neurotransmitter metabolites may be differentially altered in VP and PD and assessed the potential of neurotransmitter metabolites as biomarkers. We compared CSF levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol, in 16 VP patients, 57 PD patients and 60 non-neurological controls. We found that levels of HVA were reduced in PD compared with both VP and controls but did not differ significantly between VP and controls indicating that dopamine deficiency was less pronounced in VP. PMID:24122060

  2. Altered extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA in the rat nucleus accumbens shell in response to sub-chronic nandrolone administration and a subsequent amphetamine challenge.

    PubMed

    Birgner, Carolina; Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred; Bergström, Lena

    2007-01-29

    Associated with acts of violence and polydrug use, abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is an increasing problem in society. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether sub-chronic treatment with the AAS nandrolone decanoate affects dopamine release and dopamine metabolism in the rat nucleus accumbens shell, before and after an amphetamine challenge. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received daily i.m. injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 days. On day 15, the animals were anaesthetized and a microdialysis probe was implanted into the nucleus accumbens shell. Extracellular fluid was collected 1h before and 3h after a single amphetamine injection (5 mg/kg). The samples were then analyzed regarding the content of dopamine, and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Two weeks of nandrolone decanoate administration caused a significant decrease of the basal DOPAC and HVA levels, which remained low during the first hour following the amphetamine challenge. Dopamine levels did not differ significantly between groups, neither after the nandrolone pre-treatment nor the amphetamine challenge. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that AAS alter the metabolism of dopamine in a brain region involved in the development of drug dependence.

  3. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia: a cohort study focused on cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Neider, Daniel; Lindström, Leif H; Bodén, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the association between 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bullying, and later suicide among patients with schizophrenia. Methods Ninety-nine patients with schizophrenia were included. Correlations of clinical factors, 5-HIAA and HVA, and later suicide were investigated. Results Twelve patients committed suicide (12%) during a 28-year follow-up period. Later suicide was correlated to bullying in childhood (P=0.02) and a lower quotient of HVA/5-HIAA in CSF (P<0.05). Conclusion Suicide in schizophrenia is related to childhood exposedness and CSF neurotransmitter levels. PMID:27468235

  4. Plasma HVA in Adults with Mental Retardation and Stereotyped Behavior: Biochemical Evidence for a Dopamine Deficiency Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of the neurotransmitter dopamine through measurement of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in adult subjects with mental retardation and with high rates of body stereotypy (n=12), compulsive behaviors (n=9), or neither (n=12) found lowest HVA concentrations in the stereotypy group and highest in the compulsive group. (DB)

  5. Function of a plant stress-induced gene, HVA22. Synthetic enhancement screen with its yeast homolog reveals its role in vesicular traffic.

    PubMed

    Brands, Alex; Ho, Tuan-hua David

    2002-11-01

    Expression of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) HVA22 gene is induced by environmental stresses, such as dehydration, salinity, and extreme temperatures, and by a plant stress hormone, abscisic acid. Genes sharing high level of sequence similarities with HVA22 exist in diverse eukaryotic organisms, including animals, plants, and fungi, but not in any prokaryotic organisms. The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) HVA22 homolog, Yop1p, has been shown to interact with the GTPase-interacting protein, Yip1p. Deletion of YOP1 led to only a modest reduction of the stationary phase titer at 37C. A synthetic enhancement mutant screen was performed in the yop1 deletion background to identify genes interacting with YOP1. The open reading frame YOR165W (renamed SEY1 for synthetic enhancement of YOP1) was identified as a YOP1-dependent complementation gene. The yeast SEY1 is a homolog of the Arabidopsis RHD3 gene whose mutations cause the accumulation of transport vesicles near the tips of defective root hairs. The yeast double mutant of yop1 and sey1 is defective in vesicular traffic as evidenced by the accumulation of transport vesicles and the decrease in invertase secretion. Based on these observations, we suggest that Yop1p/HVA22 regulates vesicular traffic in stressed cells either to facilitate membrane turnover, or to decrease unnecessary secretion.

  6. Assessment of the central dopaminergic index of plasma HVA in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Amin, F; Davidson, M; Kahn, R S; Schmeidler, J; Stern, R; Knott, P J; Apter, S

    1995-01-01

    Under fasting conditions, the dopamine (DA) metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in plasma originates mainly from central DA neurons or from central and peripheral noradrenergic (NA) neurons. The latter source contributes, in addition to HVA, the norepinephrine metabolites, for example, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG). It has been shown in primates that the association between HVA and MHPG in plasma or urine under varying rates of NA metabolism can be used to obtain an estimate of the central DA neuronal contribution of HVA to plasma or urine. This estimate is called the central dopaminergic index (CDI). Two studies presented here examine the applicability of this model in schizophrenia patients. The results were consistent with the proposed model and suggested that only about 30 percent of the total plasma HVA concentrations in our patients were derived from central DA neurons. A convenient modification of this model is proposed for future studies. Since the CDI of plasma HVA is not likely to be confounded by NA activity, this tool may prove useful in disentangling the roles played by the DA and NA systems in schizophrenia.

  7. IDRD2 TaqIA polymorphism is associated with urinary homovanillic acid levels in a sample of Spanish male alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Ponce, G; Hoenicka, J; Rodríguez-Jiménez, R; Gozalo, A; Jimenéz, M; Monasor, R; Aragüés, M; Rubio, G; Jiménez-Arriero, M A; Ramos, J A; Palomo, T

    2004-01-01

    The TaqIA1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene D2 (DRD2) has been associated with alcoholism, as well as with other addictive behaviours. The exact nature of how the presence of this allele can be a vulnerability factor in the development of alcoholism remains unclear. In this study we found that the presence in the DRD2 genotype of the TaqIA1 allele in Spanish alcoholics is associated with higher levels of urine homovanillic acid (HVA) when compared to patients homozygous for the TaqIA2 allele. A sample of 142 Spanish male alcoholic patients was split into 2 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of the A1 allele in their genotype. The urine sample was analyzed by high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC), and the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and vanilylmandelic acid (VMA) was determined. We found a statistical difference in the concentration of HVA between the groups, that suggests this polymorphism could be related to the variance of urine HVA levels.

  8. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty. PMID:25200982

  9. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty.

  10. Decreased homovanilic acid in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with impaired neuropsychologic function in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    di Rocco, A; Bottiglieri, T; Dorfman, D; Werner, P; Morrison, C; Simpson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether dopamine metabolism is abnormal in HIV infected patients and whether dopamine metabolism abnormalities are related to specific neuropsychologic characteristics in HIV-infected patients, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanilic acid (HVA), the primary dopamine metabolite, in 10 HIV-infected patients and compared it to HVA levels in CSF in a group of 13 healthy control subjects. HIV-infected patients were also assessed with a battery of neuropsychologic tests and HVA levels were then correlated with performance on specific neuropsychologic tests. The mean (+/-SD) HVA level in CSF was 100.9 +/- 29.3 nmol/L in the HIV-infected study group and 230.5 +/- 50.0 nmol/L in the non-HIV-infected control group (p < 0.0001). The decrease in concentrations of HVA in CSF correlated with impairment on performance on neuropsychologic testing (Spearman r = 0.67; p = 0.03). When the relationship between HVA levels and specific cognitive domains was evaluated, we observed trends for positive correlation between HVA levels and tests that measure motor speed (r = 0.59; p = 0.074) and those testing attention, concentration, and executive control (r = 0.54; p = 0.108). There was no relationship between performance on memory tests and CSF HVA levels (r = -0.0061; p = 0.987). These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and suggest that specific motor and cognitive abnormalities may be related to depressed dopaminergic activity. This may have important implications for the development of treatments or preventive strategies for ADC. PMID:11020122

  11. Effect of high-fat intake on motor activity, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in striatum and cortex of rats exposed to stress.

    PubMed

    Kirac, Deniz; Ozden, Inci; Yildirim, Alper; Genç, Ece

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether high fat consumption changes the effects of stress on both motor activity performance, striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin metabolites in rats. The animals were fed either with high fat or standard diet for 4 weeks. Restraint stress lasting for 15 min at +4 degrees C was applied daily to stress-exposed groups. Motor activity performance was measured weekly by using motor activity monitoring systems. At the end of the study, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels of the striatum and cerebral cortex were measured by HPLCEC. It was observed that restraint stress increased locomotor activity and high-fat diet prevented this effect. Stress and high-fat intake had an additive decreasing effect on striatal HVA levels. 5-HIAA levels, on the other hand, were lower in both high fat and high fat + stress groups compared to the stress group. These results suggest that high-fat intake differentially affected the stress response on striatal dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in rat brain regions studied and this may be related to the effects observed in motor activity performance.

  12. Decreased cerebral spinal fluid neurotransmitter levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sparks, S E; Wassif, C A; Goodwin, H; Conley, S K; Lanham, D C; Kratz, L E; Hyland, K; Gropman, A; Tierney, E; Porter, F D

    2014-05-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with cognitive impairment and a distinct behavioral phenotype that includes autistic features. SLOS is caused by a defect in 3β-hydroxysterol Δ(7)-reductase which leads to decreased cholesterol levels and elevated cholesterol precursors, specifically 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol. However, the pathological processes contributing to the neurological abnormalities in SLOS have not been defined. In view of prior data suggesting defects in SLOS in vesicular release and given the association of altered serotonin metabolism with autism, we were interested in measuring neurotransmitter metabolite levels in SLOS to assess their potential to be used as biomarkers in therapeutic trials. We measured cerebral spinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) respectively, in 21 SLOS subjects. Results were correlated with the SLOS anatomical severity score, Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores and concurrent sterol biochemistry. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were significantly reduced in SLOS subjects. In individual patients, the levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were reduced to a similar degree. CSF neurotransmitter metabolite levels did not correlate with either CSF sterols or behavioral measures. This is the first study demonstrating decreased levels of CSF neurotransmitter metabolites in SLOS. We propose that decreased levels of neurotransmitters in SLOS are caused by a sterol-related defect in synaptic vesicle formation and that CSF 5HIAA and HVA will be useful biomarkers in development of future therapeutic trials.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acid associations with dopaminergic indices in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sublette, M Elizabeth; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Keilp, John G; Malone, Kevin M; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-03-01

    Dopaminergic function is thought to be altered in major depression and, in animal studies, is reduced in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency states. Therefore we studied PUFAs and resting prolactin, a marker for dopaminergic tone, and cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid (HVA), the chief dopamine metabolite. In medication-free adults (n = 23) with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), we measured plasma phospholipid levels of omega-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA), and plasma prolactin levels before and after administration of dl-fenfluramine (FEN). In a subset of patients (n = 14), cerebrospinal fluid levels of HVA and the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), were obtained through lumbar puncture. Baseline prolactin was negatively correlated with omega-3 PUFAs (logDHA, F(1,21) = 20.380, p < 0.001; logEPA, F(1,21) = 10.051, p = 0.005) and positively correlated with logAA:DHA (F(1,21) = 15.263, p = 0.001), a measure of omega-6/omega-3 balance. LogDHA was negatively correlated with CSF HVA (Spearman's ρ = -0.675, p = 0.008) but not 5-HIAA (Spearman's ρ = -0.143, p = 0.626) after controlling for sex and HVA - 5-HIAA correlation. PUFAs did not predict the magnitude of the FEN-stimulated change in prolactin, considered to be a serotonin effect. The robust relationship of omega-3 PUFAs with dopaminergic but not serotonergic indices suggests that omega-6:omega-3 balance may impact depression pathophysiology through effects on the dopaminergic system.

  14. Heavy metals influence on ascorbic acid level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaldinov, E. V.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Batenyeva, E. V.; Korotkevich, O. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that heavy metals (HM) are extremely dangerous pollutants influencing to metabolism in animals' organisms. The vitamin C is one of the most important metabolites taking part in many biochemical processes. We studied the influence of main essential HM-Zn and Cu as well as the based supertoxical elements - Cd and Pd on ascorbic acid level in serum. The studies were carried out in Tulinskoe farm of Novosibirsk region. The objects of investigations were piglets (2 month after weaning) and 6-month pigs of Early Ripe Meat breed. The levels of HM in bristle were found by stripping voltammetric analysis using the TA-2 analyzer. Vitamin C content was determined by I.P. Kondrakhin (1985) method using 2,2-dipyridyl. The significant negative correlations between Pb, Cd content and vitamin C (-0.46 ± 0.18, -0.47 ± 0.19) in 6-month pigs were determined. The tendencies of negative correlation between all HM levels in hair and ascorbic acid level in plasma of piglets were revealed. Thus, the obtained correlations let us to suppose that all studied HM influence on 1-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase and other vitamin C metabolism enzymes activity.

  15. Characterization of D2 receptors and dopamine levels in the thalamus of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.A.; Wilcox, R.E. Univ. of Texas, Austin )

    1991-01-01

    The authors kinetically characterized D2 receptors in thalami pooled from a group of Sprague-Dawley rats and then determined thalamic levels of dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and norepinephrine (NE) in relation to a measure of thalamic DA D2 receptor densities in another group of rats. The equilibrium dissociation constant (kd) was estimated as 0.1 nM by three independent methods, while the Bmax for thalamic D2 receptors was found to be 6.4 fmol/mg p using {sup 3}H-spiperone as ligand and ketanserin to occlude 5HT2 binding. Kinetic constants were in agreement with previously reported kinetic data from rodent caudate-putamen. This suggests that thalamic D2 receptors are similar to D2 receptors from other brain areas. Mean thalamic levels of DA, DOPAC, and HVA concur with previous reports of a sparse distribution of thalamic DA neurons. D2 receptor densities were positively correlated with DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA, but not DA or NE. These results establish fundamental characteristics of thalamic DA neurotransmission to assist in the investigation of behavioral pharmacology of this area.

  16. Abscisic Acid Levels and Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, E.; Tzou, D. S.; Galson, Eva C.

    1968-01-01

    Dormant seeds from Fraxinus species require cold-temperature after-ripening prior to germination. Earlier, we found that abscisic acid (ABA) will inhibit germination of excised nondormant embryos and that this can be reversed with a combination of gibberellic acid and kinetin. Using Milborrow's quantitative “racemate dilution” method the ABA concentration in 3 types of Fraxinus seed and pericarp were determined. While ABA was present in all tissues, the highest concentration was found in the seed and pericarp of dormant F. americana. During the chilling treatment of F. americana the ABA levels decreased 37% in the pericarp and 68% in the seed. The ABA concentration of the seed of the nondormant species, F. ornus, is as low as that found in F. americana seeds after cold treatment. Experiments with exogenously added ABA solutions indicate that it is unlikely that the ABA in the pericarp functions in the regulation of seed dormancy. However, the ABA in the seed does seem to have a regulatory role in germination. Images PMID:16656935

  17. Hydroxytyrosol in functional hydroxytyrosol-enriched biscuits is highly bioavailable and decreases oxidised low density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Raquel; Martínez-López, Sara; Baeza Arévalo, Gema; Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo-Clemente, Laura

    2016-08-15

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and its derivatives in olive oil protect low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation. Biscuits could be a convenient alternative to broaden consumers' choice of HT-rich foods, although the biscuit matrix could affect HT bioavailability. We performed a crossover, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate HT bioavailability in HT-enriched biscuits (HT-B) versus non-enriched biscuits (C-B), and the effects on oxidative postprandial status. On two separate days, 13 subjects consumed 30 g of C-B or HT-B (5.25mg HT) after overnight-fasting. Blood and urine were collected at different intervals and analysed by LC-MS-QToF. After HT-B consumption, plasma metabolites peaked between 0.5 and 1h and were extensively excreted in urine. HT-sulphate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)-sulphate were the main metabolites, followed by DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA). HT-glucuronide, DOPAC-glucuronide, HVA-glucuronide and HVA-sulphate were also detected. Postprandial oxidised-LDL concentrations decreased with HT-B. HT is a promising functional ingredient and, in biscuits, it is highly bioavailable and lowers postprandial oxidised-LDL levels. PMID:27006237

  18. Physical activity as a determinant of fecal bile acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Martínez, María Elena; Ashbeck, Erin L.; Roe, Denise J.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Alberts, David S.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. While likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has not been investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline fecal bile acid levels for 735 colorectal adenoma formers obtained from participants in a phase III ursodeoxycholic acid chemoprevention trial. Compared to the lowest quartile of recreational physical activity duration, the highest quartile was associated with a 17% lower fecal bile acid concentration, adjusted for age, sex, dietary fiber intake, and body mass index (P = 0.042). Furthermore, consistent with a previously established relationship between serum triglyceride levels and bile acid metabolism, we stratified by triglyceride level and observed a 34% lower fecal bile acid concentration (highest versus lowest quartiles of physical activity) in individuals with low triglycerides (< 136 mg/dL; P = 0.002). In contrast, no association between physical activity and fecal bile acid concentration was observed for subjects with high triglycerides (≥ 136 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the biological mechanism responsible for the protective effect of physical activity on the incidence of colon cancer may be partially mediated by decreasing colonic bile acid exposure. However, this effect may be limited to individuals with lower triglyceride levels. PMID:19383885

  19. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibody for quantification of homovanillic acid [corrected] in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Shi, R Z; Ho, Y P; Yeung, J H; Or, P M; To, K K; Lau, M W; Arumanayagam, M

    1998-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody to homovanillic acid (HVA) was prepared by synthesis of a HVA-protein conjugate (HVA-ovalbumin) as an immunogen, immunization of mice, and the subsequent hybridization technique. Monoclonal antibodies were screened on the basis of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. An indirect ELISA was developed for quantification of HVA in human urine. The assay was characterized and shown to have high specificity, with cross-reactivities to vanillylmandelic acid and normetanephrine at 0.18% and <0.1%, respectively. The assay coefficients of variation were <10% within the working range of 0.5-40 mg/L. Initial results from testing urine samples of patients with neuroblastoma and other diseases were validated by HPLC, suggesting that this ELISA method is a reliable and convenient system for quantification of HVA in urine and can be used in the mass screening of neuroblastoma in infants.

  20. Serum Uric Acid Level among Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, M; Das, S N; Haque, M F; Shikha, S S; Bhuiyan, A S; Saha, P L; Das, B R; Chowdhury, M; Jahan, M K; Rahman, M M

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed as well as developing countries like Bangladesh. Elevated serum uric acid levels may predict an increased risk for cerebro-vascular (CV) events including stroke. Aim of the study was to measure the serum uric acid level among stroke patients and determine the relationship between serum uric acid level and stroke. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to measure serum uric acid level among 102 stroke patients in a period of one year by using non-probability sampling procedure. Finally, collected data were analyzed using SPSS software Version 17.0. It was observed that the mean age of patients was 60.87±8.05 years, of them 80(78.43%) patients were male and the rest 22(21.57%) were female. About 66(64.70%) of respondents were in age group 60 years and above, while 36(35.30%) were in age group 59 years and below. At least 23(22.55%) of stroke patients had elevated serum uric acid with a mean serum uric acid level of 5.18mg/dl and standard deviation 1.26mg/dl. About 23(27.38%) patients in ischemic stroke had elevated serum uric acid whereas 18(100%) patients in hemorrhagic stroke had normal uric acid level. Uric acid level was elevated in ischemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke patients (p<0.001). High uric acid level may be considered as a risk factor in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27277350

  1. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research. PMID:21766417

  2. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition.

  3. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  4. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  5. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography.

  6. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography. PMID:12843960

  7. Stress-inducible expression of barley Hva1 gene in transgenic mulberry displays enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Checker, Vibha G; Chhibbar, Anju K; Khurana, Paramjit

    2012-10-01

    Coping with different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses is the foundation of sustainable agriculture. Although conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection are being employed in mulberry (Morus indica L.) to develop better varieties, nonetheless the longer time periods required for these approaches necessitates the use of precise biotechnological approaches for sustainable agriculture. In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of mulberry, an important plant of the sericulture industry, an encoding late embryogenesis abundant gene from barley (HVA1) was introduced into mulberry plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic mulberry with barley Hva1 under a constitutive promoter actin1 was shown to enhance drought and salinity tolerance. Here, we report that overexpression of barley Hva1 also confers cold tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Further, barley Hva1 gene under control of a stress-inducible promoter rd29A can effectively negate growth retardation under non-stress conditions and confer stress tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Transgenic lines display normal morphology to enhanced growth and an increased tolerance against drought, salt and cold conditions as measured by free proline, membrane stability index and PSII activity. Protein accumulation was detected under stress conditions confirming inductive expression of HVA1 in transgenics. Investigations to assess stress tolerance of these plants under field conditions revealed an overall better performance than the non-transgenic plants. Enhanced expression of stress responsive genes such as Mi dnaJ and Mi 2-cysperoxidin suggests that Hva1 can regulate downstream genes associated with providing abiotic stress tolerance. The investigation of transgenic lines presented here demonstrates the acquisition of tolerance against drought, salt and cold stress in plants overexpressing barley Hva1, indicating that Arabidopsis rd29A promoter can function in mulberry.

  8. Homovanilic acid in Huntington's disease and Sydenham's chorea.

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, L; Oliveira, C R; Diniz, M; Amaral, R; Conçalves, A F; Pio-Abreu, J

    1981-01-01

    Homovanilic acid (HVA) was determined in the lumbar CSF of 12 patients with Huntington's disease and 12 with Sydenham's chorea before and after probenecid administration. The means of HVA concentration (basal and after probenecid) were lower in those with Huntington's disease than in controls, and were even lower in a sub-group characterised by increased tone and slowness of voluntary movement. There was no correlation between CSF HVA values and the severity of abnormal movements, nor with length of the illness and age of the patients with Huntington's disease. The mean basal HVA concentration did not differ from controls in those with Sydenham's chorea but the accumulation with probenecid was significantly lower. These results suggest a decrease in cerebral dopamine release in both forms of chorea. PMID:6453208

  9. Stability of free amino acid levels in stressed Abarenicola pacifica

    SciTech Connect

    Augenfeld, J.M.; Anderson, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A change in the composition of the free amino acid (FAA) pool of pelecypod molluscs under stress has been described. This response consists of a significant decrease in the level of glycine, while the taurine level remains constant, leading to a decrease in the total free amino acid level and a decrease in the glycine:taurine ratio. It has been suggested that this alteration in FAA composition may be useful as an indicator of physiological stress in a wide variety of invertebrates. This suggestion has been tested by exposing a burrowing polychaete, Abarenicola pacifica, to sediment artificially contaminated with Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC).

  10. Early postnatal docosahexaenoic acid levels and improved preterm brain development

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Chau, Vann; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Miller, Steven P.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Synnes, Anne R.; Xu, Duan; Foong, Justin; Brant, Rollin; Innis, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth has a dramatic impact on polyunsaturated fatty acid exposures for the developing brain. This study examined the association between postnatal fatty acid levels and measures of brain injury and development, as well as outcomes. Methods A cohort of 60 preterm newborns (24–32 weeks GA) was assessed using early and near-term MRI studies. Red blood cell fatty acid composition was analyzed coordinated with each scan. Outcome at a mean of 33 months corrected age was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition. Results Adjusting for confounders, a 1% increase in postnatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at early MRI was associated with 4.3-fold decreased odds of intraventricular hemorrhage, but was not associated with white matter injury or cerebellar haemorrhage. Higher DHA and lower linoleic acid (LA) levels at early MRI were associated with lower diffusivity in white matter tracts, and corresponding improved developmental scores in follow-up. Conclusion Higher DHA and lower LA levels in the first few weeks of life are associated with decreased IVH, improved microstructural brain development, and improved outcomes in preterm born children. Early, and possibly antenatal, intervention in high-risk pregnancies needs to be studied for potential benefits in preterm developmental outcomes. PMID:26761122

  11. Association of Renal Manifestations with Serum Uric Acid in Korean Adults with Normal Uric Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that hyperuricemia is associated with the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidences also suggest that hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in the progression of renal disease. Paradoxically, uric acid is also widely accepted to have antioxidant activity in experimental studies. We aimed to investigate the association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and uric acid in healthy individuals with a normal serum level of uric acid. We examined renal function determined by GFR and uric acid in 3,376 subjects (1,896 men; 1,480 women; aged 20-80 yr) who underwent medical examinations at Gangnam Severance Hospital from November 2006 to June 2007. Determinants for renal function and uric acid levels were also investigated. In both men and women, GFR was negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid, log transformed C reactive protein, and log transformed triglycerides. In multivariate regression analysis, total uric acid was found to be an independent factor associated with estimated GFR in both men and women. This result suggests that uric acid appears to contribute to renal impairment in subjects with normal serum level of uric acid. PMID:21165292

  12. Influence of educational level on determinants of folic acid use.

    PubMed

    van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M; de Walle, Hermien E K; de Rover, Carolien M; Jeeninga, Wendy; Cornel, Martina C; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Buitendijk, Simone E; Paulussen, Theo G W M

    2003-07-01

    In The Netherlands, periconceptional folic acid use to prevent neural tube defects was promoted through a national 'Folic Acid Campaign'. In two regions, a local campaign supplemented the national campaign to increase the chances of reaching women with low socio-economic status (SES). A framework of outcome criteria, defined as awareness knowledge, perceived safety, attitudes and subjective norms, was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the two local campaigns. Data were gathered by means of two cross-sectional studies conducted just before and 1 year after the campaigns took place. Before the campaigns were conducted, there were already differences in all effect criteria and folic acid use between women of different educational levels, mostly in favour of women with a high level of education. Although both educational campaigns appeared to have a positive impact on all outcome criteria, they failed to reduce the existing differences in these outcome criteria between women of different educational levels. Folic acid use can be promoted effectively by mass media campaigns, certainly in a large group of women with no prior knowledge of the health benefits associated with periconceptional folic acid use. However, in order to achieve more equal health outcomes among women of low and high SES, it seems that more tailored interventions for women of low SES are needed.

  13. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  14. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  15. Puget Sound acidity levels drop after ASARCO shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The levels of acidity in Puget Sound region rainfall have decreased significantly since the shutdown of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, according to a study funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results indicate that sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations obtained from samples taken before the closure were significantly different than those collected after the shutdown. Rainwater samples collected downwind during smelter operation were also significantly different from those collected upwind. Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the principal contributors to acid rain. The smelter was a major source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the Puget Sound region before it shut down in March 1985.

  16. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  17. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  18. Evaluation of toluene exposure via drinking water on levels of regional brain biogenic monoamines and their metabolites in CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, G.C.; Sharma, R.P.; Parker, R.D.; Coulombe, R.A. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    Toluene, a potentially neurotoxic substance, is found in trace amounts in groundwater. Adult male CD-1 mice were continuously fed drinking water ad libitum containing 0, 17, 80, and 405 mg/liter toluene. After a 28-day treatment, animals were tested for endogenous levels of the biogenic monoamines norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) and their respective metabolites, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in six discrete brain regions. The maximum toluene-induced increases of biogenic amines and their metabolites generally occurred at a toluene concentration of 80 mg/liter. In the hypothalamus, a major NE-containing compartment, the concentrations of NE significantly increased by 51, 63, and 34% in groups dosed with 17, 80, and 405 mg/liter, respectively. Significant increases of NE were also observed in the medulla oblongata and midbrain. Concomitantly, concentrations of VMA increased in various brain regions. Concentrations of DA were significantly higher in the corpus striatum and hypothalamus. Alterations in levels of DA metabolites, DOPAC and HVA, were marginal. Toluene significantly increased concentrations of 5-HT in all dissected brain regions, except cerebellum, and increased the 5-HIAA levels in the hypothalamus, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex.

  19. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and the clinical responses to duloxetine treatment or plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and homovanillic acid in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Atake, Kiyokazu; Yoshimura, Reiji; Hori, Hikaru; Katsuki, Asuka; Nakamura, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationships among the plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites, the clinical response to duloxetine treatment, and Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Subjects and methods Sixty-four patients and 30 healthy control subjects were recruited. Major depressive episodes were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. The severity of depression was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17). Patients whose HAMD17 scores were 15 or greater were enrolled in the study. Blood sampling and clinical evaluation were performed at week 0 and week 8. The levels of plasma catecholamine metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Genotyping was performed using direct sequencing. Results Thirty of 45 patients (67%) responded to duloxetine treatment during the 8 weeks of treatment. The baseline plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), but not homovanillic acid (HVA), were lower in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who had the Val/Val genotype than in patients who were Met-carriers. Patients with MDD and the Val/Val genotype, but not Met carriers, had increased plasma levels of MHPG after 8 weeks of duloxetine treatment. The baseline plasma MHPG levels in healthy control subjects with the Val/Val genotype were significantly higher than those in patients with MDD. Among the subjects in the MDD group with the Val/Val genotype, the plasma MHPG levels increased to the same degree as in the healthy control subjects with the Val/Val genotype after 8 weeks of duloxetine treatment. Conclusion The relationship among the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites, and responses to duloxetine is complex. Nevertheless, our results suggest that patients with MDD and the

  20. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  1. Myriocin, a serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor, alters regional brain neurotransmitter levels without concurrent inhibition of the brain sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Osuchowski, Marcin F; Johnson, Victor J; He, Quanren; Sharma, Raghubir P

    2004-02-28

    Myriocin is a specific serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) inhibitor whose effect on the brain is unknown. Brain amine metabolism and sphingolipid biosynthesis were studied in mice treated intraperitoneally with 0, 0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg per day of myriocin for 5 days. Regional concentrations of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and norepinephrine (NE), were determined. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So) concentrations and SPT activity in brain and liver were used to evaluate the impact of myriocin on sphingolipid biosynthesis. Myriocin treatment increased DA in striatum and hippocampus and reduced it in cortex. NE concentration decreased in cerebellum and 5-HT levels were reduced in cortex and in medulla oblongata. Changes in ratios for DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA were observed in hippocampus, cortex and midbrain. Brain Sa, So and SPT activity remained unchanged, whereas Sa and SPT activity decreased in liver. Results showed that myriocin may alter the levels and metabolism of brain amines and this effect is not related with inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in the nervous system. PMID:14700532

  2. Associations between five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and plasma levels of monoamine metabolite in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenya; Miura, Itaru; Kanno-Nozaki, Keiko; Horikoshi, Sho; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2015-12-15

    The five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia symptoms is the most common multiple-factor model used in analyses; its use may improve evaluation of symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Plasma monoamine metabolite levels are possible indicators of clinical symptoms or response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. We investigated the association between five-factor model components and plasma monoamine metabolites levels to explore the model's biological basis. Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography in 65 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Significant negative correlation between plasma 5-HIAA levels and the depression/anxiety component was found. Furthermore, significant positive correlation was found between plasma MHPG levels and the excitement component. Plasma HVA levels were not correlated with any five-factor model component. These results suggest that the five-factor model of the PANSS may have a biological basis, and may be useful for elucidating the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Assessment using the five-factor model may enable understanding of monoaminergic dysfunction, possibly allowing more appropriate medication selection. Further studies of a larger number of first-episode schizophrenia patients are needed to confirm and extend these results.

  3. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  4. Prognostic Significance of Uric Acid Levels in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Zhi-Chao; Lu, Tao-Sheng; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The importance and function of serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with cardiovascular disease or stroke are unclear. We sought to evaluate the appropriate UA levels for stroke patients and the association between endogenous UA levels and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, particularly regarding the possible interaction between gender and UA levels with respect to AIS prognosis. We examined 303 patients who had an onset of ischemic stroke within 48 h. Of those, 101 patients received thrombolytic treatment. Serum UA (μmol/L) levels were measured the second morning after admission. Patient prognosis was evaluated 90 days after clinical onset by modified Rankin Scale. Patients were divided into four groups according to serum UA quartiles. A binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess clinical relevance in regard to functional outcome and endogenous UA levels. Analysis of subgroups by gender and normal glomerular filtration rate were also been done. Poor functional outcome was associated with older age, history of atrial fibrillation, or higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with higher UA levels (>380 μmol/L) or lower UA levels (≤250 μmol/L) were 2-3 times more likely to have a poor outcome (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.14-7.61; OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02-7.58, respectively) compared to the baseline group (UA level 316-380 μmol/L). The same results were observed in thrombolyzed patients. Patients with high and low UA levels were 9-18 times more likely to having poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 316-380 μmol/L; OR 18.50, 95% CI: 2.041-167.67; OR 9.66, 95% CI 1.42-65.88, respectively). In men, patients with high UA levels were 6 times more likely to have poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 279-334 μmol/L; OR 6.10, 95% CI 1.62-22.93). However, female patients with UA level 271-337 μmol/L were seven times more

  5. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  6. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.

  7. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  8. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K.; Fuiman, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  9. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs.

  10. What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels?

    PubMed

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-09-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency.

  11. What is the Relationship between Gestational Age and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (ARA) Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. PMID:26205427

  12. Cyclodextrin-modified MEKC method for quantification of selected acidic metabolites of catecholamines in the presence of various biogenic amines. Application to diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Miękus, Natalia; Kowalski, Piotr; Olędzka, Ilona; Plenis, Alina; Bień, Ewa; Miękus, Aleksandra; Krawczyk, Małgorzata; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Bączek, Tomasz

    2015-10-15

    The main aim of the presented study was to develop a reliable and non-time-consuming method for the simultaneous separation of biogenic amines (BAs) like noradrenalin, adrenalin, dopamine and their main metabolites - homovanillic acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) - in urine samples. To achieve this, the validated α-cyclodextrin (α-CD)-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with DAD was proposed. The optimized separation parameters were as follows: background electrolyte was composed of 10mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate, 30mM SDS, 15% (v/v) methanol and 25mM α-CD, adjusted to pH 9.36 with 1N NaOH; uncoated fused silica capillary (75μm i.d.×60.2cm length); λ=200nm; injection time 5s, applied voltage 25kV; temperature 25 (±0.1)°C. Next, the developed MEKC method was practically applied to evaluate the levels of selected acidic metabolites of catecholamines like HVA, VMA and DOPAC in urine samples collected from patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma (NB), melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI). PMID:26402573

  13. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  14. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  15. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  16. Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and γ-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-α-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid and L-α-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

  17. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  18. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  19. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  20. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  1. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  2. Heavy metal levels and delta-amino-levulinic acid dehydrase levels in peripheral polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, B; Clausen, J; Rastogi, S C

    1976-04-01

    On the basis of assay of heavy metals in whole blood (lead, cadimum, chromium, copper, nickel and manganese) and delta-amino-levulinic-acid dehydrase (ALA-D) and ALA in urine in a normal Danish population, the levels of these clinco-chemical factors were assayed in 23 patients with peripheral neuropathy of unknown etiology. All patients studied showed electro-physiological sign of denervation and/or reduced motor or sensoric nerve conduction velocity. Cadmium and manganese were never found to be increased. In all but four patients, an increase of one or more heavy metals was found. Ten patients showed raised levels of two or more metals, the dominant metal being lead (10 cases), nine patients showed increased in chromium. A significant corrleation was found between increasing lead levels and decreasing ALA-D activity. Although normal concentrations of manganese were found, correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between increased manganese and decreased ALA-D. The raised values of heavy metals could not be traced to occupational or other exposure to heavy metals and the increased values were not related to tobacco consumption. The findings are discussed in relation to known data on neuropathy and the results seem to indicate a multifactorial patholgenesis of the disease. Among factors contributing to the precipitation of the syndrome may be raised levels of heavy metals.

  3. A new stress model, a scream sound, alters learning and monoamine levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Song, Tusheng; Hou, Ni; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoge; Zhang, Dianzeng; Wang, Lumin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Chen

    2014-01-17

    Most existing animal models for stress involve the simultaneous application of physical and psychological stress factors. In the current study, we described and used a novel psychological stress model (scream sound stress). To study the validity of it, we carried out acute and chronic scream sound stress. First, adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into white noise, stress and background groups. The white noise group and stress group were treated with white noise and scream sound for 4h in the morning respectively. Compared with white noise and background groups, exposure to acute scream sound increased corticosterone (CORT) level and decreased latency in Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were altered in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of stress rats. Second, adult SD rats were randomly divided into background and stress groups, which were treated with scream sound for three weeks. Exposure to chronic scream sound suppressed body weight gain, increased corticosterone (CORT) level, influenced the morphology of adrenal gland, improved spleen and thymus indices, and decreased latency in MWM test. NE, DA, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA levels were also altered in the brain of stress rats. Our results suggested that scream sound, as a novel stressor, facilitated learning ability, as well as altered monoamine levels in the rat brain. Moreover, scream sound is easy to apply and can be applied in more animals at the same time.

  4. Chicoric Acid Levels in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...

  5. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  6. Effect of supplemental folic acid on valproic acid-induced embryotoxicity and tissue zinc levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D K; Grafton, T F; Dial, S L; Gehring, T A; Siitonen, P H

    1995-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-convulsant drug known to cause spina bifida in humans. Administration of the vitamin, folic acid, has been shown to decrease the recurrence and possibly also the occurrence of neural tube defects, primarily spina bifida, in humans. Additionally, treatment with a derivative (folinic acid) of folic acid has been reported to decrease the frequency of VPA-induced exencephaly in mice treated with the drug in vivo. A protective effect by folinic acid has not been observed in vitro. The purpose of this investigation was to reexamine the ability of folinic acid to decrease the incidence of VPA-induced neural tube defects in vivo. We also examined the effect of increased intake of folic acid on zinc levels in various maternal and embryonic tissues. Folinic acid, whether administered by intraperitoneal injection or in osmotic mini-pumps, did not decrease the number of mouse fetuses with VPA-induced exencephaly. Dietary supplementation with 10-20 times the daily required intake of folic acid in rodents also failed to decrease the embryotoxicity of VPA. Such dietary supplementation had no effect on zinc levels in maternal liver, brain, or kidney, nor in embryonic tissues. These results indicate that folic acid is not able to reverse the embryotoxicity induced by the anticonvulsant, that there is no apparent effect of high dietary folate intake on maternal or embryonic zinc levels and suggest that folate is probably not involved in the mechanism of VPA-induced embryotoxicity. PMID:8838251

  7. Fatty acid profiles in relation to triglyceride level in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Mohamed, Tharwat; Goto, Akiko; Oikawa, Shin; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate possible relationships between triglyceride (TG) levels and fatty acid composition in bovine liver, hepatic TG and seven individual fatty acids were measured in 23 Holstein dairy cows, of them 6 are healthy. Liver TG level was greater than 3 % in 12 cows which were ruled fatty liver. Palmitic and oleic acid proportions were significantly higher in fatty liver cows than in the healthy cows, while stearic acid was lower in fatty liver cows. With increased liver TG, stearic acid proportions decreased dramatically. Results indicate that hepatic lipidosis markedly alters the proportions of the various fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

  8. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  9. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer.

  10. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  11. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  12. Modulation of sialic acid levels among some organs during insulin resistance or hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Onojah, Alice; Sani, Lawal; Adamu, Auwal; Abdullahi, Hadiza

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a possible connection between insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia with membrane sialic acid content. In this study, the effects of high (20% ad libitum) fructose and glucose feeding on the sialic acid levels of some organs were investigated in rats. The blood glucose levels of the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats were consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the normal control throughout the experiment. Free serum sialic acid and total hepatic sialic acid levels were elevated in the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats compared to normal control, but only the data for the high glucose-fed group were significantly (P < 0.05) different from the normal control. Conversely, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the pancreatic sialic acid level was observed in high glucose-fed group compared to normal control. Also, the high fructose-fed rats had lower, but insignificant (P > 0.05), pancreatic sialic acid level than the normal control. On the other hand, high fructose and glucose feeding did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the sialic acid levels of the skeletal muscle and heart, though a tendency to increase the sialic acid level was evident in the heart. In the kidney, the sialic acid level was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in both high fructose- and glucose-fed groups. It was concluded that the liver and kidney tend to stimulate sialic acid synthesis, while the pancreas downregulate sialic acids synthesis and/or promote sialic acid release from glycoconjugates. Also, these organs may contribute to high-serum sialic acid level observed during diabetes. PMID:26468092

  13. High levels of stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and low levels of linoleic acid in serum cholesterol ester are associated with high insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Kayo; Sato, Masao; Ejima, Yuko; Nanri, Akiko; Yi, Siyan; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Akter, Shamima; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Kimura, Yasumi; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    The association of fatty acid composition with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been reported in Western populations, but there is limited evidence of this association among the Japanese, whose populace consume large amounts of fish. To test the hypothesis that high palmitic, palmitoleic, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids and low levels of linoleic and n-3 fatty acids are associated with higher insulin resistance among the Japanese, the authors investigated the relationship between serum fatty acid composition and serum C-peptide concentrations in 437 Japanese employees aged 21 to 67 years who participated in a workplace health examination. Serum cholesterol ester and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Desaturase activity was estimated by fatty acid product-to-precursor ratios. A multiple regression was used to assess the association between fatty acid and C-peptide concentrations. C-peptide concentrations were associated inversely with linoleic acid levels in cholesterol ester and phospholipid (P for trend = .01 and .02, respectively) and positively with stearic and palmitoleic acids in cholesterol ester (P for trend =.02 and .006, respectively) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in cholesterol ester and phospholipid (P for trend < .0001 for both). C-peptide concentrations were not associated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. C-peptide concentrations significantly increased as δ-9-desaturase (16:1 n-7/16:0) and δ-6-desaturase (18:3 n-6/18:2 n-6) increased (P for trend = .01 and .03, respectively) and δ-5-desaturase (20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6) decreased (P for trend = .004). In conclusion, a fatty acid pattern with high levels of serum stearic, palmitoleic, or dihomo-γ-linolenic acids; δ-9-desaturase (16:1 n-7/16:0) or δ-6-desaturase (18:3 n-6/18:2 n-6) activities; and low levels of serum linoleic acid or δ-5-desaturase (20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6) activity might be associated with higher insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

  14. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  15. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  16. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes. PMID:26201386

  17. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes.

  18. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  19. Serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Korean patients with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Kim, S M; Kim, Y K; Hann, S K

    1999-06-01

    The association of vitiligo and pernicious anemia has been previously documented. The low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were thought to be related to vitiligo. To date, there have been very few reports about the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo. Using radioimmunoassay, we measured the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in 100 Korean patients with vitiligo. The mean serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were 6.31 +/- 2.82 ng/ml and 630.25 +/- 230.94 pg/ml, respectively, in patients with vitiligo. These levels showed no significant difference compared to the normal control group, suggesting that folic acid and vitamin B12 do not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

  20. Hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid inhibit histone deacetylase at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela I; Kim, Dong Hoon; Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Cho, Yoon Sun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA, 1), an inhibitor of IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and a latent PPARgamma agonist, is used as an effective immunosuppressant for clinical transplantation and recently entered clinical trials in advanced multiple myeloma patients. On the other hand, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a non-specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. MPA seemed to bear a cap, a linker, and a weak metal-binding site as a latent inhibitor of HDAC. Therefore, the hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid having an effective metal-binding site, mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (MPHA, 2), 7-O-acetyl mycophenolic acid (7-O-Ac MPHA, 3), and 7-O-lauroyl mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (7-O-L MPHA, 4) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds inhibited histone deacetylase with IC50 values of 1, 0.9 and 0.5 microM, and cell proliferation at concentrations of 2, 1.5 and 1 microM, respectively. PMID:18838793

  1. Hippuric Acid Levels in Paint Workers at Steel Furniture Manufacturers in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine hippuric acid levels in urine samples, airborne toluene levels, acute and chronic neurological symptoms, and to describe any correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene. Methods The hippuric acid concentration in the urine of 87 paint workers exposed to toluene at work (exposed group), and 87 nonexposed people (control group) was studied. Study participants were selected from similar factories in the same region. Urine samples were collected at the end of a shift and analyzed for hippuric acid by high performance liquid chromatography. Air samples for the estimation of toluene exposure were collected with diffusive personal samplers and the toluene quantified using gas–liquid chromatography. The two groups were also interviewed and observed about their work practices and health. Results The median of the 87 airborne toluene levels was 55 ppm (range, 12–198 ppm). The median urinary hippuric acid level was 800 mg/g creatinine (range, 90–2547 mg/g creatinine). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between airborne toluene exposure and urine hippuric acid levels (r = 0.548, p < 0.01). Workers with acute symptoms had significantly higher hippuric acid levels than those who did not (p < 0.05). It was concluded that there was a significant correlation between toluene exposure, hippuric acid levels, and health (p < 0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a significant correlation between workers exposure to toluene at work, their urine hippuric acid levels, and resulting symptoms of poor health. Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required at these workplaces. There was good correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene levels. PMID:25516817

  2. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  3. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

  4. Effects of toxic work environments on sperm quality and ascorbic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )

    1990-02-26

    Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.

  5. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  6. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    sludge solids. We recommend that these results be evaluated further to determine if these solutions contain sufficient neutron poisons. We observed low general corrosion rates in tests in which carbon steel coupons were contacted with solutions of oxalic acid, citric acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acids. Wall thinning can be minimized by maintaining short contact times with these acid solutions. We recommend additional testing with oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures to measure dissolution performance of sludges that have not been previously dried. This testing should include tests to clearly ascertain the effects of total acid strength and metal complexation on dissolution performance. Further work should also evaluate the downstream impacts of citric acid on the SRS High-Level Waste System (e.g., radiochemical separations in the Salt Waste Processing Facility and addition of organic carbon in the Saltstone and Defense Waste Processing facilities).

  7. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    PubMed

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  8. Analysis of methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid at low microgram per liter levels in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1997-11-28

    A method is described for determining methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, which are hydrolysis products of the nerve agents VX (S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothiolate) and GB (sarin, isopropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate). The analytes are extracted from 50 ml groundwater using a solid-phase extraction column packed with 500 mg of silica with a bonded quaternary amine phase, and are eluted and derivatized with methanolic trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Separation and quantitation are achieved using a capillary column gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector operated in its phosphorus-selective mode. Two independent statistically-unbiased procedures were employed to determine the detection limits, which ranged between 3 and 9 micrograms/l, for the three analytes. PMID:9435117

  9. Effects of cochlear ablation on amino acid levels in the rat cochlear nucleus and superior olive.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Donald A; Jin, Yong-Ming; Liu, Xiaochen; Godfrey, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids have important roles in the chemistry of the auditory system, including communication among neurons. There is much evidence for glutamate as a neurotransmitter from auditory nerve fibers to cochlear nucleus neurons. Previous studies in rodents have examined effects of removal of auditory nerve input by cochlear ablation on levels, uptake and release of glutamate in cochlear nucleus subdivisions, as well as on glutamate receptors. Effects have also been reported on uptake and release of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glycine, two other amino acids strongly implicated in cochlear nucleus synaptic transmission. We mapped the effects of cochlear ablation on the levels of amino acids, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, aspartate, glutamine, taurine, serine, threonine, and arginine, in microscopic subregions of the rat cochlear nucleus. Submicrogram-size samples microdissected from freeze-dried brainstem sections were assayed for amino acid levels by high performance liquid chromatography. After cochlear ablation, glutamate and aspartate levels decreased by 2 days in regions receiving relatively dense innervation from the auditory nerve, whereas the levels of most other amino acids increased. The results are consistent with a close association of glutamate and aspartate with auditory nerve fibers and of other amino acids with other neurons and glia in the cochlear nucleus. A consistent decrease of GABA level in the lateral superior olive could be consistent with a role in some lateral olivocochlear neurons. The results are compared with those obtained with the same methods for the rat vestibular nerve root and nuclei after vestibular ganglionectomy.

  10. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ameliorate amyloid-beta and tau pathology via a mechanism involving presenilin 1 levels.

    PubMed

    Green, Kim N; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Khashwji, Hasan; Hall, Eileen B; Yurko-Mauro, Karin A; Ellis, Lorie; LaFerla, Frank M

    2007-04-18

    The underlying cause of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is unknown, but a number of environmental and genetic factors are likely to be involved. One environmental factor that is increasingly being recognized as contributing to brain aging is diet, which has evolved markedly over modern history. Here we show that dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD reduced the intraneuronal accumulation of both amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau. In contrast, combining DHA with n-6 fatty acids, either arachidonic acid or docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6), diminished the efficacy of DHA over a 12 month period. Here we report the novel finding that the mechanism accounting for the reduction in soluble Abeta was attributable to a decrease in steady-state levels of presenilin 1, and not to altered processing of the amyloid precursor protein by either the alpha- or beta-secretase. Furthermore, the presence of DPAn-6 in the diet reduced levels of early-stage phospho-tau epitopes, which correlated with a reduction in phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a putative tau kinase. Collectively, these results suggest that DHA and DPAn-6 supplementations could be a beneficial natural therapy for AD.

  11. Amino acid limitation induces down-regulation of WNT5a at transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zuguang; Chen Hong

    2009-01-23

    An aberrant WNT signaling contributes to the development and progression of multiple cancers. WNT5a is one of the WNT signaling molecules. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that amino acid deprivation induces changes in the WNT signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Results showed that targets of the amino acid response pathway, ATF3 and p21, were induced in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 during amino acid limitation. There was a significant decrease in the WNT5a mRNA level following amino acid deprivation. The down-regulation of WNT5a mRNA by amino acid deprivation is not due to mRNA destabilization. There is a reduction of nuclear {beta}-catenin protein level by amino acid limitation. Under amino acid limitation, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased and the blockage of ERK1/2 by the inhibitor U0126 partially restored WNT5a mRNA level. In conclusion, amino acid limitation in colon cancer cells induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which then down-regulates WNT5a expression.

  12. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  14. Genetic loci associated with circulating levels of very long-chain saturated fatty acids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wu, Jason H. Y.; McKnight, Barbara; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Sun, Qi; Chasman, Daniel I.; Foy, Millennia; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwen; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Arnett, Donna K.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Djousse, Luc; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wu, Hongyu; Jensen, Majken K.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Jacobs, David R.; Rich, Stephen S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Steffen, Lyn; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Ridker, Paul M.; Fornage, Myriam; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFAs is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher arachidic acid (20:0 , P = 5.81 × 10−13). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (P = 2.65 × 10−40) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of behenic acid (P = 4.22 × 10−26) and lignoceric acid (P = 3.20 × 10−21). These novel associations suggest an inter-relationship of circulating VLSFAs and sphingolipid synthesis. PMID:25378659

  15. Comparative Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in the Slender Pea and Other Pea Phenotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Free indole-3-acetic acid levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three ultra-tall `slender' Pisum sativum L. lines differing in gibberellin content. Measurements were made for apices and stem elongation zones of light-grown plants and values were compared with wild-type, dwarf, and nana phenotypes in which internode length is genetically regulated, purportedly via the gibberellin level. Indole-3-acetic acid levels of growing stems paralleled growth rates in all lines, and were high in all three slender genotypes. Growth was inhibited by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, demonstrating the requirement of auxin activity for stem elongation, and also by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. It is concluded that the slender phenotype may arise from constant activation of a gibberellin receptor or transduction chain event leading directly or indirectly to elevated levels of indole-3-acetic acid, and that increased indole-3-acetic acid levels are a significant factor in the promotion of stem elongation. PMID:16667653

  16. Uric Acid Level and Erectile Dysfunction In Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Covic, Adrian; McFann, Kim; Johnson, Richard J.; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects, and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict erectile dysfunction in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease. Aim To evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED. Main Outcome Measures The short version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ≤21). Serum Uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an exercise stress test. Results 149 of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes, and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, CRP, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (OR = 1.36, p = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for eGFR. Conclusion Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels. PMID:24433559

  17. Effects of aspartame and carbohydrate administration on human and rat plasma large neutral amino acid levels and rat brain amino acid and monoamine levels.

    PubMed

    Romano, M; Casacci, F; De Marchi, F; Pacei, T; Esteve, A; Lomuscio, G; Mennini, T; Salmona, M

    1989-01-01

    Thirty fasted human volunteers were given 0.83 and 8.3 mg aspartame/kg body weight alone, as part of a basal low carbohydrate meal (648 kcal, 10% carbohydrate) or as part of a high energy carbohydrate-rich meal (1290 kcal, 34% carbohydrate). Amino acid concentrations in plasma were determined before and 30, 60 and 180 min after the consumption of aspartame. Under these conditions, which mimic realistic aspartame consumption, aspartame had no significant effect on plasma concentration of any amino acid. In addition, the effect of aspartame alone or with carbohydrates on plasma and brain amino acid levels was studied in rats after acute or subacute (14 d) oral treatment. In subacute dosing experiments aspartame was included in the diet. Brain monoamine concentrations were also measured in the same animals. Plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids were modified under acute conditions. In contrast, after subacute treatment no significant differences in plasma or brain amino acid concentrations or in brain monoamine concentrations were observed.

  18. Preterm Birth is Associated with Higher Uric Acid Levels in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Lisa K.; Nixon, Patricia A.; Russell, Gregory B.; Snively, Beverly M.; O’Shea, T. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare serum uric acid levels in adolescents born prematurely and adolescents born at term and to assess the correlation between serum uric acid and blood pressure in those born prematurely. Study design In this observational cohort study, 124 adolescents born prematurely and 44 adolescents born at term were studied at 14 years of age. Multivariate analyses were used to describe the relationship of premature birth to serum uric acid, while adjusting for confounding variables. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between uric acid and systolic blood pressure among those born prematurely. Results Adjusting for race, sex, maternal hypertension and fetal growth, preterm adolescents had higher serum uric acid levels than adolescents born at term [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval: 0.46 (0.10, 0.81) mg/dL, 27.4 (6, 48.2) μmol/L, p=0.012]. Among those born prematurely, uric acid was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure [Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.29 (0.12, 0.44; p= 0.0013). Conclusions Serum uric acid levels are higher in adolescents born prematurely than in those born at term and this difference could contribute to higher blood pressure among individuals born prematurely. PMID:25868431

  19. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  20. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  1. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal digestion of OM and NDF, and increased (linear, P < 0.05) ruminal N efficiency. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P < 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal starch digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation increased postruminal digestion of starch in heavier steers but did not affect starch digestion in lighter steers. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal fatty acid digestion, which was due to a decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of C16:0 and C18:0. Supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) total-tract digestion of OM and NDF. The estimated NEm (Mcal/kg) of yellow grease averaged (linear, P < 0.01) 6.02, 5.70, and 5.06 for the 3, 6, and 9% of level supplementation, respectively. We conclude that intestinal fatty acid digestion (FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) of total fatty acid intake per unit body weight (FAI, g/kg BW): FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes

  2. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  3. Childrens' learning and behaviour and the association with cheek cell polyunsaturated fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Kirby, A; Woodward, A; Jackson, S; Wang, Y; Crawford, M A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3, in their red blood cells and plasma, and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate behavioural symptoms in this population. However, in order to compare levels it seems appropriate to establish fatty acid levels in a mainstream school aged population and if levels relate to learning and behaviour. To date no study has established this. For this study, cheek cell samples from 411 typically developing school children were collected and analysed for PUFA content, in order to establish the range in this population. In addition, measures of general classroom attention and behaviour were assessed in these children by teachers and parents. Cognitive performance tests were also administered in order to explore whether an association between behaviour and/or cognitive performance and PUFA levels exists. Relationships between PUFA levels and socio-economic status were also explored. Measures of reading, spelling and intelligence did not show any association with PUFA levels, but some associations were noted with the level of omega-3 fatty acids and teacher and parental reports of behaviour, with some evidence that higher omega-3 levels were associated with decreased levels of inattention, hyperactivity, emotional and conduct difficulties and increased levels of prosocial behaviour. These findings are discussed in relation to previous findings from omega-3 supplementation studies with children. PMID:20172688

  4. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were {minus}180 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to {minus}1,150 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate.

  5. Inverse Association Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Du, Na; Xu, Donghua; Hou, Xu; Song, Xuejia; Liu, Cancan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Yangang; Li, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The association between Alzheimer's disease and uric acid levels had gained great interest in recent years, but there was still lack of definite evidence. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Relevant studies published before October 26, 2014, were searched in PubMed, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases. Study-specific data were combined using random-effects or fixed-effects models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-four studies (21 case-control and 3 cohort studies) were finally included into the meta-analysis. Those 21 case-control studies included a total of 1128 cases of Alzheimer's disease and 2498 controls without Alzheimer's disease. Those 3 cohort studies included a total of 7327 participants. Meta-analysis showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease had lower levels of uric acid than healthy controls (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.77 mg/dl, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.36, P = 0.0002). High serum uric acid levels were significantly associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.85, P = 0.001). There was low risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. There is an inverse association between serum uric acid levels and Alzheimer's disease. High serum uric acid level is a protective factor of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L = cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF = N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu3 + in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu3 + ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of 5D0 and triplet state contracts.

  7. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts.

  8. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts. PMID:26802538

  9. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brigandi, Sarah A.; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (p < 0.001). In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20) compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism. PMID:25946342

  10. Uric acid levels predict future blood pressure and new onset hypertension in the general Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Takase, H; Kimura, G; Dohi, Y

    2014-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that uric acid levels predict new-onset hypertension in the Japanese general population. Normotensive individuals who visited our hospital for a yearly health checkup (n=8157, men=61.0% and age=50.7±12.2 years) were enrolled in the present study. After baseline evaluation, participants were followed up for a median of 48.3 months (range 4.9-101.0 months), with the endpoint being the development of hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) > or = 140 mm Hg, diastolic BP > or = 90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medication. The impact of uric acid and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline on future BP and development of hypertension was assessed. During follow-up, 19.0% of women (n=605) and 29.5% of men (n=1469) participants developed hypertension. Incident hypertension was increased across the quartiles for baseline uric acid levels (P<0.0001), and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significant and independent association between the uric acid level and the onset of hypertension in both men and women participants (P<0.05). Furthermore, uric acid was independently and positively correlated with future BP (P<0.05). Thus, uric acid is an independent predictor of new-onset hypertension in both women and men.

  11. The mechanism of low levels of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gallon, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is a toxic air pollutant that exists at less than 0.5 ppm in the atmosphere. This toxic compound is known to initiate autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids both in vivo and in vitro. When autoxidation occurs in vivo, membrane damage that can lead to cell death can occur. Low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were shown to react with the polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, methyl linoleate and methyl linoleate, by a H-abstraction mechanism. However, methyl oleate, an unsaturated fatty acid ester, was demonstrated to react with a low concentration of nitrogen dioxide by only an addition mechanism. Although methyl oleate reacts by an addition mechanism, a 50:50 molar solution of methyl oleate and methyl linoleate reacted with a low level of nitrogen dioxide exclusively by a H-abstraction mechanism. Therefore, low levels of nitrogen dioxide will probably react with polyunsaturated fatty acid components of pulmonary lipids by a H-abstraction mechanism forming nitrous acid directly in the cell membrane. Vitamin E was demonstrated to be able to act as a preventative antioxidant in the nitrogen dioxide and methyl linoleate reactions; but vitamin C could not prevent nitrogen dioxide from reacting with methyl linoleate by a H-abstraction mechanism. These results suggest that low levels of nitrogen dioxide will react with polyunsaturated fatty acids by a H-abstraction mechanism and that vitamin E can be used to prevent the reaction from occurring.

  12. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  13. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  14. Enhanced level of n-3 fatty acid in membrane phospholipids induces lipid peroxidation in rats fed dietary docosahexaenoic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Miyazawa, T

    2001-03-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) oil with different lipid types on lipid peroxidation was studied in rats. Each group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was pair fed 15% (w/w) of either DHA-triglycerides (DHA-TG), DHA-ethyl esters (DHA-EE) or DHA-phospholipids (DHA-PL) for up to 3 weeks. The palm oil (supplemented with 20% soybean oil) diet without DHA was fed as the control. Dietary DHA oils lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats fed DHA-TG (by 30%), DHA-EE (by 45%) and DHA-PL (by 27%), compared to control. The incorporation of dietary DHA into plasma and liver phospholipids was more pronounced in the DHA-TG and DHA-EE group than in the DHA-PL group. However, DHA oil intake negatively influenced lipid peroxidation in both plasma and liver. Phospholipid peroxidation in plasma and liver was significantly higher than control in rats fed DHA-TG or DHA-EE, but not DHA-PL. These results are consistent with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased alpha-tocopherol levels in plasma and liver. In addition, liver microsomes from rats of each group were exposed to a mixture of chelated iron (Fe(3+)/ADP) and NADPH to determine the rate of peroxidative damage. During NADPH-dependent peroxidation of microsomes, the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, as well as TBARS, were elevated and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly exhausted in DHA-TG and DHA-EE groups. During microsomal lipid peroxidation, there was a greater loss of n-3 fatty acids (mainly DHA) than of n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). These results indicate that polyunsaturation of n-3 fatty acids is the most important target for lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the ingestion of large amounts of DHA oil enhances lipid peroxidation in the target membranes where greater amounts of n-3 fatty acids are incorporated, thereby increasing the peroxidizability and possibly accelerating the atherosclerotic process.

  15. Decreased docosahexaenoic acid levels in retina and pigment epithelium of frogs fed crickets.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Wiegand, R D; Anderson, R E

    1992-06-01

    Whole retina, rod outer segments, and retinal pigment epithelium of frogs (Rana pipiens) fed crickets for more than 1 year had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6n-3) than the same tissues of frogs fed crickets for less than 1 month. Decreases in 22:6n-3 levels in these tissues were compensated for by increases in the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily 22:5n-6. There were no changes in the levels of saturated, monoenoic, or dienoic acids. Analysis of diacyl phospholipid molecular species (PLMS) revealed decreases in both the 22:6(n-3)-containing dipolyenoic molecular species in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine, and the monopolyenoic molecular species in phosphatidylcholine. These PLMS were replaced by species containing 22:5n-6 or other n-6 PUFAs. Examination of fatty acid methyl esters of total lipids extracted from crickets revealed that less than 1 mol% fatty acids were of the n-3 family, while more than 30 mol% were of the n-6 family. Thus, frogs raised on an n-3-deficient diet have reduced levels of n-3 PUFA in their retinas, rod outer segments, and retinal pigment epithelium. Although such changes have been reported for mammals, this is the first report of the effects of n-3 deficiency on the lipids of amphibians.

  16. Uric acid levels in subjects with bipolar disorder: A comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has hypothesised increased uric acid levels, possibly because of an amplified purinergic metabolism and a reduced adenosine activity, in subjects with bipolar disorder. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating if individuals with bipolar disorder had uric acid levels higher than both healthy controls and subjects with major depression (trait marker hypothesis). It also tested if uric acid levels could differ in different phases of bipolar disorder (state marker hypothesis). Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs), using random-effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the I(2) index. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying twelve studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed increased uric acid levels in individuals with bipolar disorder as compared with both healthy controls (SMD = 0.65, p < 0.001, I(2) = 82.9%) and those with major depression (SMD = 0.46, p < 0.001; I(2) = 68.7%). However, meta-regression analyses confirmed this association only as compared with healthy controls. Finally, though uric acid levels were higher in manic/mixed phases as compared with depressive ones (SMD = 0.34; p = 0.04, I(2) = 58.8%), a sensitivity analysis did not confirm the association. In sum, our meta-analysis shows that subjects with bipolar disorder have uric acid levels higher than healthy controls. The potential role of factors that might clarify the nature of this association deserves additional research.

  17. Plasma levels of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid after oral ingestion of plain and buffered acetylsalicylic acid in relation to bleeding time and thrombocyte function.

    PubMed

    Proost, J H; Van Imhoff, G W; Wesseling, H

    1983-02-25

    Buffered acetylsalicylic acid (Alka Seltzer, B-ASA) and plain aspirin (P-ASA) tablets were compared as to their effects on bleeding time and platelet function in eight healthy male volunteers. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg) of each preparation were investigated in a cross-over design, each volunteer being his own control in each dose group (n=4). Both preparations disturbed platelet aggregation to the same extent. Bleeding time increased after both preparations, though significantly more after the buffered preparation than after plain acetylsalicylic acid, irrespective of the dosage. The 1000 mg dose prolonged bleeding time significantly more than the 500 mg dose, irrespective of the preparation. Kinetic analysis showed that B-ASA gave higher peak plasma levels of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and accordingly salicylic acid peak levels were also higher after the buffered preparation. It is concluded that B-ASA in equi-analgesic doses prolongs bleeding time more than the plain preparation. Since it is less agressive on the gastro-intestinal mucosa, its use may be advantageous in situations where acetylsalicylic acid induced loss of platelet aggregation is desired. However, the risk of prolonged bleeding--e.g. after tooth extractions--is probably higher after the buffered preparation. PMID:6844122

  18. Differential effects of prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid on activity level throughout day and night.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Tilak, J P

    1996-12-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with disrupted state control and lowered activity levels. Prenatal retinoic acid excess also influences activity levels in laboratory rats. Activity level is usually monitored during a brief period in young offspring. The effects of these drugs on pup activity levels throughout the day is unknown. There is also little information on the long-lasting effects of these teratogens in adult animals. We compared the daily activity of rats which were prenatally exposed to cocaine or retinoic acid (RA). Appropriate control groups were also used. The offspring were evaluated for activity levels in a neophobic situation and for a 22-h period in same-sex groups of 3 littermates. As both pups and adults, the cocaine groups were hypoactive while the RA group was hyperactive when first placed into the testing cage (neophobic situation). Similarly, during the remainder of the 22-h testing period, the pup and adult cocaine animals exhibited reduced activity levels while the RA animals exhibited elevated activity levels. Thus, prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid exposures affected offspring activity levels differently, both drugs have long-lasting neurobehavioral effects that persist into adulthood, and effects are influenced by time-of-day. Strain-dependent differences and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  19. Association of the folic acid consumption and its serum levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-PourMehr, Hanieh; Mohamad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Malakouti, Jamileh; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal mortality. Despite numerous studies, its etiology is unknown. Recently there has been attention towards Folic acid. This study examined the association of Folic acid consumption and its serum levels with Preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A case-control study conducted in Tabriz- Alzahra hospital. 52 preeclamptic women in 34-42 weeks and 52 normotensive pregnant women were studied from Jun to Nov 2009. Data was gathered through interview with the women and review of their medical records. Folic acid serum levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence method on Elecsys-2010 system using the Roche brand kit. Data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square, exact fisher and logistic regression. Results: 46% of women in the case group and 71% in the control group regularly consumed Folic acid supplements before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. Frequency of correct pattern of Folic acid consumption in the case group were significantly lower than control group (P = 0.02). Findings about frequency of main food groups’ consumption containing folic acid indicated that the only mean difference between two groups was in relation to fruits (P = 0.002). The mean of Folic Acid serum levels in preeclamptic group was significantly lower than non- preeclamptic group [10.9 (3.9) vs. 13.6 (4.0) ng/ml, P = 0.001]. Conclusion: it is recommended all health care providers educate clients especially high risk women about regular and timely consumption of supplements as well as food groups containing Folic acid specially fruits and its possible role in prevention of preeclampsia. PMID:23922590

  20. Serum phytanic and pristanic acid levels and prostate cancer risk in Finnish smokers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret E; Albanes, Demetrius; Moser, Ann B; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Snyder, Kirk; Männistö, Satu; Gann, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products, and may contribute to the elevated risks of prostate cancer associated with higher consumption of these foods. Pristanic acid is formed during peroxisomal oxidation of phytanic acid, and is the direct substrate of α-Methyl-CoA-Racemase (AMACR)--an enzyme that is consistently overexpressed in prostate tumors relative to benign tissue. We measured phytanic and pristanic acids as percentages of total fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in prediagnostic blood samples from 300 prostate cancer cases and 300 matched controls, all of whom were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study supplementation trial and follow-up cohort. In addition to providing a fasting blood sample at baseline, all men completed extensive diet, lifestyle, and medical history questionnaires. Among controls, the strongest dietary correlates of serum phytanic and pristanic acids were saturated fat, dairy fat, and butter (r = 0.50 and 0.40, 0.46 and 0.38, and 0.40 and 0.37, respectively; all P-values <0.001). There was no association between serum phytanic acid and risk of total or aggressive prostate cancer in multivariate logistic regression models (for increasing quartiles, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for aggressive cancer were 1.0 (referent), 1.62 (0.97-2.68), 1.12 (0.66-1.90), and 1.14 (0.67-1.94), P(trend) = 0.87). Pristanic acid was strongly correlated with phytanic acid levels (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001), and was similarly unrelated to prostate cancer risk. Significant interactions between phytanic and pristanic acids and baseline circulating β-carotene concentrations were noted in relation to total and aggressive disease among participants who did not receive β-carotene supplements as part of the original ATBC intervention trial. In summary, we observed no overall association between serum phytanic and

  1. Reversal learning enhanced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): concomitant rise in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels.

    PubMed

    King, A R; Martin, I L; Melville, K A

    1974-11-01

    1 Small doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (12.5-50 mug/kg) consistently facilitated learning of a brightness discrimination reversal.2 2-Bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148), a structural analogue of LSD, with similar peripheral anti-5-hydroxytrypamine activity but no psychotomimetic properties, had no effect in this learning situation at a similar dose (25 mug/kg).3 LSD, but not BOL-148, caused a small but significant increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, but had no effect on the levels of catecholamines in the brain at 25 mug/kg.

  2. The effect of erythropoietin on serum uric acid levels during renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to assess the effect of erythropoietin on a rat model, particularly under a renal ischemia reperfusion protocol. The beneficial or lack of effects of that molecule on the excreted renal product of serum uric acid were studied biochemically. Material and methods: Forty rats were used with a mean weight of 247.7 gr. Serum uric acid levels were measured measured at 60 min after reperfusion (Groups A and C) and at 120 min after reperfusion (groups B and D). Results: 1) Erythropoietin administration non-significantly decreased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.02 mg/dL [−0.2415423 mg/dL-0.2015423 mg/dL] (p=0.8560), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.8438). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.17 mg/dL [−0.0444933 mg/dL-0.3844933 mg/dL] (p=0.1169), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.1648). 3) The interaction of erythropoietin administration and reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.1 mg/dL [−0.0295564 mg/dL-0.2295564 mg/dL] (p=0.1264). Conclusion: Erythropoietin administration, reperfusion time and their interaction have no significant short-term alterations on serum uric acid levels. Conclusions cannot be extracted by non-significant p-values within 2 hours. Obviously, longer study times may permit safer results. PMID:26328161

  3. Serum uric acid levels and long-term outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Tokiko; Mochizuki, Toshio; Takei, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2014-07-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but data regarding the relationship between serum uric acid levels and the long-term outcomes of CKD patients have been limited. The present study evaluated the associations between baseline serum uric acid levels with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The subjects of this study were 551 stage 2-4 CKD patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid tertiles and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and development of ESRD, initially without adjustment, and then after adjusting for several groups of covariates. The mean age of the study subjects was 58.5 years, 59.3 % were men, and 10.0 % had diabetes. The mean eGFR was 42.02 ± 18.52 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In all subjects, the mean serum uric acid level was 6.57 ± 1.35 mg/dl, and 52.2 % of study subjects were on hypouricemic therapy (allopurinol; 48.3 %) at baseline. Thirty-one patients (6.1 %) died during a follow-up period of approximately 6 years. There was no significant association between serum uric acid level and all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR in the unadjusted Cox models. In the adjusted models, hyperuricemia was found to be associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality after adjustment with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol, but not associated with development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR. The results of this study showed that hyperuricemia but not serum uric acid levels were associated with all-cause mortality, CVD mortality after adjustments with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol in stage 2-4 CKD patients.

  4. Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains.

    PubMed

    Shin, Rick S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul; McIntyre, Dan C

    2002-08-01

    A neurochemical basis for many of the epilepsies has long been suspected to result from an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter mechanisms. Data supporting changes in extrasynaptic amino acid levels during epileptogenesis, however, remain controversial. In the present study, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure the levels of extracellular GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate during seizure development in rats with a genetic predisposition for (Fast), or against (Slow), amygdala kindling. Dialysates were collected from both amygdalae before, during, and up to 12 min after a threshold-triggered amygdala afterdischarge (AD). One hour later, samples were again collected from both amygdalae in response to a hippocampal threshold AD. Daily amygdala kindling commenced the next day but without dialysis. After the rats were fully kindled, the same protocol was again employed. Amino acid levels were not consistently increased above baseline with triggered seizures in either strain. Instead, before kindling, a focal seizure in the Slow rats was associated with a large decrease in GABA in the non-stimulated amygdala, while amino acid levels in the Fast rats remained near baseline in both amygdalae. Similar results were seen after kindling. By contrast, before and after kindling, hippocampal stimulation caused large decreases in all amino acid levels in both amygdalae in both strains. These data suggest that, in response to direct stimulation, extracellular amino acid concentrations remain stable in tissues associated with either greater natural (Fast) or induced (kindled Fast/Slow) excitability, but are lowered with indirect stimulation (hippocampus) and/or low excitability.

  5. Establishing tolerable dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and razor clam (Siliqua patula) domoic acid contaminant levels.

    PubMed Central

    Mariën, K

    1996-01-01

    Domoic acid has been found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in Washington State and elsewhere on the West Coast of the United States. Due to toxic effects associated with domoic acid exposure, an effort has been made to establish tolerable domoic acid levels in crabs and clams obtained from commercial harvest and sale and from individual recreational harvesting. To accomplish this, the amount of clams and crabs consumed by populations of concern was determined, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) was developed for individuals most sensitive to effects of this compound, and the TDI was equated with consumption patterns to determine tolerable clam and crab domoic acid levels. Results indicate that the primary health effects associated with domoic acid toxicity can be averted in populations of concern and for others consuming crabs or clams less frequently (or in lesser quantity) if domoic acid contaminant concentration does not exceed 30 mg/kg in the hepatopancreas and viscera of dungeness crabs or 20 mg/kg in clams. PMID:8959413

  6. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  7. A Comparative Study of Serum Uric Acid levels and Lipid Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Niranjan, G.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Amirtha, Ganesh B.; Ramesh, R.; Babu, M. Sathish; Saha, Subiman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) appears to be common in the Indian population of different geographical origins, religions and languages. Measurement of lipid fractions and ratios are widely recommended for risk assessment. A few studies have shown that serum uric acid plays a role in the development of cardiovascular morbidity. Very few reports are cited linking serum uric acid with the lipid fraction in CAD Objectives: To find the significance of non-HDL cholesterol, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, TC/HDL ratio and serum uric acid level in CAD patients Subjects and Methodology: In this study, we included fifty CAD patients as subjects and an equal number of controls. Both subjects and controls were assessed for anthropometric, physiological and biochemical parameters Results: The present study showed significant increased levels of total cholesterol (p=0.002), TAGs (p<0.001), HDL (p=0.005), LDL (p<0.006) and non-HDL cholesterol (p<0.001). LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (p<0.001) and TC/HDL ratio (p<0.001) in CAD patients (subjects) were also significant when compared to controls. Uric acid level in CAD patients was increased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios could be regarded as objective markers, in association with existing atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with CAD. PMID:25018681

  8. Effect of folic acid and zinc sulphate on endocrine parameters and seminal antioxidant level after varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Azizollahi, G H; Baneshi, M R; Safari, Z; Azizollahi, S

    2014-04-01

    Varicocele is among the most common problems which may lead to male infertility. Spermatogenesis is impaired as a consequence of this vascular defect, through mechanisms that are not well described. This study aimed to evaluate serum hormonal level (inhibin B, FSH and testosterone) and seminal plasma antioxidant defence levels after folic acid and zinc sulphate administration in varicocelectomised patients. Participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups. Our randomisation schedule was as follows: zinc sulphate/folic acid, folic acid, zinc sulphate and placebo. The patients underwent varicocelectomy, before which a blood and semen sample were obtained and also three and six months after varicocelectomy for evaluation of blood hormonal level (FSH, testosterone, inhibin B) and seminal oxidative stress status (nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity). Patients in different groups took orally one capsule per day after dinner following varicocelectomy for 6 months. A significant rise in peripheral blood inhibin B and seminal plasma activity was detected in the zinc sulphate/folic acid group after 6 months. The present clinical trial indicates a change in the hormonal status of varicocelectomised patients following long-term administration of zinc sulphate and folic acid.

  9. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  10. Low Serum Uric Acid Level Is a Risk Factor for Death in Incident Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S.M. Kurt; Lee, Andrew L.; Winters, Thomas J.; Tam, Emily; Jaleel, Mohammed; Stenvinkel, Peter; Johnson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A reverse epidemiology of classic cardiovascular risk factors was observed in hemodialysis patients with a high comorbidity burden. We hypothesized that uric acid, a novel cardiovascular risk factor, also has an altered association with survival in these patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 168 consecutive outpatient hemodialysis patients over a 6-year period. Serum uric acid, albumin levels and relevant laboratory information were recorded monthly. The disease severity was assessed using Comorbidity Index (CoI) scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups according to their serum uric acid concentrations: group I was the lowest quintile, group II was the middle 3 quintiles and group III was the highest quintile. The risks of death were calculated utilizing a Cox regression model. Results Using group II as a reference group, the hazard ratio of group I was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–4.11, p = 0.01] and group III was 0.89 (95% CI 0.47–1.71, p = 0.74). The serum uric acid levels correlated inversely with CoI scores (r = −0.31, 95% CI −0.44 to −0.17, p < 0.0001) and positively with serum albumin levels (r = 0.35, 95% CI 0.21–0.48, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Low serum uric acid is a mortality risk factor in incident hemodialysis patients with a high comorbidity burden and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:18689987

  11. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  12. Understanding of how Propionibacterium acidipropionici respond to propionic acid stress at the level of proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ningzi; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is an important platform chemical in the food, agriculture, and pharmaceutical industries and is mainly biosynthesized by propionibacteria. Acid tolerance in PA-producing strains is crucial. In previous work, we investigated the acid tolerance mechanism of Propionibacterium acidipropionici at microenvironmental levels by analyzing physiological changes in the parental strain and three PA-tolerant mutants obtained by genome shuffling. However, the molecular mechanism of PA tolerance in P. acidipropionici remained unclear. Here, we performed a comparative proteomics study of P. acidipropionici CGMCC 1.2230 and the acid-tolerant mutant P. acidipropionici WSH1105; MALDI-TOF/MS identified 24 proteins that significantly differed between the parental and shuffled strains. The differentially expressed proteins were mainly categorized as key components of crucial biological processes and the acid stress response. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm differential expression of nine key proteins. Overexpression of the secretory protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase subunit α in Escherichia coli BL21 improved PA and acetic acid tolerance; overexpression of NADH dehydrogenase and methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase improved PA tolerance. These results provide new insights into the acid tolerance of P. acidipropionici and will facilitate the development of PA production through fermentation by propionibacteria. PMID:25377721

  13. A `Clicked' Tetrameric Hydroxamic Acid Glycopeptidomimetic Antagonizes Sugar-Lectin Interactions On The Cellular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zang, Yi; Xie, Juan; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2014-07-01

    A tetrameric N-acetyl galactosaminyl (GalNAc) peptidomimetic was constructed by N-acetylation of repeating proline-based hydroxamic acid units, followed by a convergent `click chemistry' coupling. This novel glycopeptidomimetic was determined to effectively antagonize the interaction between a transmembrane hepatic lectin and GalNAc on the cellular level.

  14. Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Le; Huang, Yue-Hui; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Peng; He, Meng-Jie; Huang, Xin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-11-15

    Urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs), such as dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), have been suggested as potential biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, variable exposure to and the short elimination half-lives of these biomarkers can result in considerable variability in urinary measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Here we examined the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among eleven men who provided urine samples on 8 days over 3 months. The urinary concentrations of DCAA and TCAA were measured by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize the within-person and between-person variances and computed the sensitivity and specificity to assess how well single or multiple urine collections accurately determined personal 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels. The within-person variance was much higher than the between-person variance for all three sample types (spot, first morning, and 24-h urine samples) for DCAA (ICC=0.08–0.37) and TCAA (ICC=0.09–0.23), regardless of the sampling interval. A single-spot urinary sample predicted high (top 33%) 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels with high specificity (0.79 and 0.78, respectively) but relatively low sensitivity (0.47 and 0.50, respectively). Collecting two or three urine samples from each participant improved the classification. The poor reproducibility of the measured urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations indicate that a single measurement may not accurately reflect individual long-term exposure. Collection of multiple urine samples from one person is an option for reducing exposure classification errors in studies exploring the effects of DBP exposure on reproductive health. - Highlights: • We evaluated the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among men. • Urinary DCAA and TCAA levels varied greatly over a 3-month

  15. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-15

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-β-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

  16. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  17. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  18. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  19. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs. PMID:22864056

  1. Fatty acid status and its relationship to cognitive decline and homocysteine levels in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baierle, Marília; Vencato, Patrícia H; Oldenburg, Luiza; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M; Duarte, Marta M M F; Veit, Juliana C; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥ 60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly. PMID:25221976

  2. Cochlear ablation effects on amino acid levels in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D A; Chen, K; Godfrey, M A; Lee, A C; Crass, S P; Shipp, D; Simo, H; Robinson, K T

    2015-06-25

    Inner ear damage can lead to hearing disorders, including tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. We measured the effects of severe inner ear damage, produced by cochlear ablation, on the levels and distributions of amino acids in the first brain center of the auditory system, the cochlear nucleus. Measurements were also made for its projection pathways and the superior olivary nuclei. Cochlear ablation produces complete degeneration of the auditory nerve, which provides a baseline for interpreting the effects of partial damage to the inner ear, such as that from ototoxic drugs or intense sound. Amino acids play a critical role in neural function, including neurotransmission, neuromodulation, cellular metabolism, and protein construction. They include major neurotransmitters of the brain - glutamate, glycine, and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) - as well as others closely related to their metabolism and/or functions - aspartate, glutamine, and taurine. Since the effects of inner ear damage develop over time, we measured the changes in amino acid levels at various survival times after cochlear ablation. Glutamate and aspartate levels decreased by 2weeks in the ipsilateral ventral cochlear nucleus and deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, with the largest decreases in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN): 66% for glutamate and 63% for aspartate. Aspartate levels also decreased in the lateral part of the ipsilateral trapezoid body, by as much as 50%, suggesting a transneuronal effect. GABA and glycine levels showed some bilateral decreases, especially in the PVCN. These results may represent the state of amino acid metabolism in the cochlear nucleus of humans after removal of eighth nerve tumors, which may adversely result in destruction of the auditory nerve. Measurement of chemical changes following inner ear damage may increase understanding of the pathogenesis of hearing impairments and enable improvements in their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25839146

  3. Seasonal changes in serum free fatty acid level in the migratory Canada goose.

    PubMed

    John, T M; George, J C

    1977-12-01

    The changes in the serum level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the migratory Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior) breeding in Ft. Churchill (Manitoba, Canada) and wintering in Swan Lake (Missouri, U.S.A.), were studied during the different periods of its yearly life cycle. The lowest serum FFA level was noted during the spring premigratory phase (early March) at Swan Lake, and the highest during moult (early August) at Ft. Churchill. Serum FFA level during the spring postmigratory period (early May at Ft. Churchill) was significantly higher than that during the spring premigratory period and the breeding period (early at Ft. Churchill). No signigicant difference in FFA levels was noted between the fall premigratory (early September at Ft. Churchill) and the fall postmigratory (mid-October at Swan Lake) periods. The significance of the seasonal variations in serum FFA level is discussed in relation to the cyclic physiological events taking place in the bird. PMID:79367

  4. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl mice deficient in apolipoprotein E expression.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoko; Kushiro, Masayo; Tachibana, Masayoshi; Matsushima, Yoshibumi

    2004-03-01

    N-3 fatty acids exert a potent serum lipid-lowering effect in rodents mainly by affecting hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. However, it has been observed that fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester do not lower serum lipid levels in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout (Apoetm1Unc) mice generated by gene targeting. To test the hypothesis that apoE expression is required for n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism, we examined the effect of fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the activity and gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis using an alternative apoE-deficient mouse model with the BALB/c genetic background (BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl). ApoE-deficient mice were fed diets containing 9.4% palm oil, fish oil, or 5.4% palm oil and 1% EPA plus 3% DHA ethyl esters for 15 days. In contrast to the reported data on apoE-knockout mice, fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters greatly decreased serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels in the Apoeshl mice. The decreases were greater with fish oil than with ethyl esters. The alterations by dietary n-3 fatty acids of serum lipid levels were accompanied by parallel changes in the activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. The reason for the discrepancy between the results of the current study and previous studies is unknown. However, our study at least indicates that a lack of apoE expression does not necessarily accompany deficits in the n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Lipka, Alexander E.; Deason, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Buell, Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three of the nine essential amino acids in human and animal diets and are important for numerous processes in development and growth. However, seed BCAA levels in major crops are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, making genetic improvement for increased and balanced seed BCAAs an important nutritional target. Addressing this issue requires a better understanding of the genetics underlying seed BCAA content and composition. Here, a genome-wide association study and haplotype analysis for seed BCAA traits in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a strong association with a chromosomal interval containing two BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASES, BCAT1 and BCAT2. Linkage analysis, reverse genetic approaches, and molecular complementation analysis demonstrated that allelic variation at BCAT2 is responsible for the natural variation of seed BCAAs in this interval. Complementation analysis of a bcat2 null mutant with two significantly different alleles from accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara is consistent with BCAT2 contributing to natural variation in BCAA levels, glutamate recycling, and free amino acid homeostasis in seeds in an allele-dependent manner. The seed-specific phenotype of bcat2 null alleles, its strong transcription induction during late seed development, and its subcellular localization to the mitochondria are consistent with a unique, catabolic role for BCAT2 in BCAA metabolism in seeds. PMID:24368787

  6. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  7. Laboratory evaluation and analysis of advanced lead-acid load-leveling batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. F.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Christianson, C. C.; Marr, J. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by the Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of performance and accelerated life tests conducted on these batteries over a five-year period. This paper describes the operational reliability and maintenance requirements for this technology, and also includes analyses of the batteries' thermal characteristics, arsine/stibine emission rates, and cell degradation modes as determined from post-test examinations.

  8. Changes in serum uric acid levels after allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sang Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun; Lee, Eunyoung Emily; Song, Yeong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Since cell turnover in the hematopoietic system constitutes a major source of uric acid (UA) production, we investigated whether hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with significant changes in serum UA levels in patients with hematological disorders. Methods Patients who underwent HSCT at our institution between 2001 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. Serum UA levels at 3 months before, 1 week before, and 3 months and 1 year after HSCT were examined. Results Complete clinical and laboratory information including data regarding UA levels was available for 93 patients. At baseline, the mean UA level was 4.9±2.1 mg/dL, with an overall prevalence of hyperuricemia of 15% (defined as serum UA>6.8 mg/dL). Mean UA levels tended to be higher in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (4.8±2.0 mg/dL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5.1±2.3 mg/dL) and lower in patients with aplastic anemia (mean, 4.2±1.8 mg/dL). UA levels dropped during myeloablative conditioning, reaching a nadir on the day of HSCT (3.27±1.4 mg/dL). Over the 3 months following HSCT, UA levels rose sharply (5.0±2.1 mg/dL) and remained stable up to 1 year after HSCT (5.5±1.6 mg/dL). UA levels in HSCT recipients at 12 months correlated with those of their respective graft donors (Pearson r=0.406, P=0.001). Conclusion HSCT is associated with significant changes in uric acid levels in patients with hematologic disorders. PMID:27722132

  9. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  10. Ascorbic acid serum levels are reduced in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Huijskens, Mirelle J.A.J.; Wodzig, Will K.W.H.; Walczak, Mateusz; Germeraad, Wilfred T.V.; Bos, Gerard M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that patients treated with chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have highly significant reduced serum ascorbic acid (AA) levels compared to healthy controls. We recently observed in in vitro experiments that growth of both T and NK cells from hematopoietic stem cells is positively influenced by AA. It might be of clinical relevance to study the function and recovery of immune cells after intensive treatment, its correlation to AA serum levels and the possible effect of AA supplementation. PMID:27014565

  11. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Uche, Ebele; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects. PMID:26989408

  12. Association between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and placental lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Sert, Selda; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Lead inhibits the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and results in neurotoxic aminolevulinic acid accumulation in the blood. During pregnancy, lead in the maternal blood can easily cross the placenta. The aim of this study was to determine whether the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism (rs1800435) was related to the placental lead levels. The study population comprised 97 blood samples taken from mothers to investigate ALAD G177C polymorphism and their placentas to measure lead levels. ALAD G177C polymorphism was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with a graphite furnace and Zeeman background correction system was used for lead determination. The median placental lead levels for ALAD1-1, ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2 genotypes were 7.54 μg/kg, 11.78 μg/kg and 18.53 μg/kg, respectively. Statistically significant association was found between the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism and placental lead levels (p<0.05). This study suggested that maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism was associated with placental lead levels.

  13. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Uche, Ebele; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects. PMID:26989408

  14. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanrong; Lin, Yanli; Wu, Xiaojie; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Xiong, Fuyin; Wang, Ning; Pan, Dengke; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-02-01

    Livestock meat is generally low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are beneficial to human health. An alternative approach to increasing the levels of n-3 PUFAs in meat is to generate transgenic livestock animals. In this study, we describe the generation of cloned pigs that express the cbr-fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Analysis of fatty acids demonstrated that the cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs produced high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs; consequently, a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was observed. We demonstrated that the n-3 desaturase gene from C. briggsae was functionally expressed, and had a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the transgenic pigs, which may allow the production of pork enriched in n-3 PUFAs.

  15. Serum vitamin B12 and folic Acid levels in acute cerebral atherothrombotic infarction.

    PubMed

    Kocer, Abdulkadir; Ince, Nurhan; Canbulat, Cuneyt E; Sargin, Mehmet

    2004-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cerebral stroke. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important determinants of homocysteine metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the relationship, if present, between vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and acute cerebral stroke in this study. Blood aliquots drawn within 24 hours after the stroke from hospitalized patients (n=66) with the diagnosis of acute ischemic cerebrovascular episode and also blood samples from 38 healthy controls without any vascular risk factor were analyzed. With a competitive, chemoluminescence assay, serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured in blood samples taken within 24 hours after the stroke. The differences and correlations were tested using frequency test, student-t test and multivariate analysis. Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 245.40 (S.D.: 72.9) and 343.2 (S.D.: 113.0) pg/ml respectively (p=0.0001). This difference was independent from other risk factors. Likewise, mean serum folic acid levels were lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 4.62 (S.D.: 1.94) and 5.97 (S.D.: 1.19) ng/ml, respectively (p=0.003). Mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate at the convalescence phase were 253.05 (S.D.: 68.78) pg/ml and 4.48 (S.D.: 2.08) ng/ml, respectively; the values obtained at the acute phase were not significantly different from the values obtained at the convalescence phase. We conclude that low vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations are associated with an increased risk of stroke, and the relationship for vitamin B12 is independent from the other known modifiable stroke risk factors. For understanding the effects of B12 and folate in stroke patients, more detailed follow-up studies with long period are needed.

  16. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  17. Uric acid plasma level and urine pH in rats treated with ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Drewa, Tomasz; Wolski, Zbigniew; Gruszka, Marzena; Misterek, Bartosz; Lysik, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    It was a chance discovery that ambroxol parenteral administration led to urinary bladder stone formation in rats. This study was undertaken to examine the serum uric acid levels and urine pH in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. Ambroxol influence on the uric acid level was measured in 5 rats (Rattus sp.) treated with 60 mg/kg (dissolved in injection water, sc, daily) during 2 weeks. Ambroxol influence on urine pH was examined on 45 rats divided into 3 groups. Rats from the 1st and 2nd group received 30 and 60 mg/kg/24h ambroxol, respectively. Urine was collected once daily and measured with strip kit. All values were presented as the means with standard deviations. The Student t test was used to compare the means, p < 0.05 was considered as significant. Dynamics of pH changes was measured in 4 rats treated with 60 mg/kg/24h of ambroxol. Controls received 1 mL of injection water sc. Serum uric acid level increased up to 8.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL vs. 5.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL in control (p < 0.002). In the 1st and 2nd group urine pH increased up to 7.5 +/- 0.5 and 7.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.4 (p < 0.05). Ambroxol withdrawal resulted in sequential urine pH decrease. 11 days after interruption of ambroxol therapy pH reached the starting value. Urine pH changes and possible disturbances in uric acid metabolic pathway may influence on the stone formation in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. The influence of ambroxol on urinary tract GAG layer and the balance between xanthine and CaOx in the urine should be checked.

  18. Regulation of laminin and entactin mRNA levels by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, M.E.; Phillips, S.L.; Carlin, B.E.; Merlie, J.P.; Chung, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP induced F9 embryonal carcinoma cells to differentiate to parietal endoderm; the morphological changes were accompanied by the increased synthesis of the basement membrane glycoproteins laminin and entactin. cDNA clones have been isolated for the A (400 kD), B1 (220 kD), and B2 (205 kD) chains of laminin. Northern blot analysis indicated that the A, B1, and B2 chains were encoded by RNA species of 9.8, 6.0, and 8.0 kb, respectively. The kinetics of induction of the laminin mRNAs were studied by dot-blotting dilutions of RNA extracted from F9 cells cultured in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP for increasing amounts of time and hybridizing to /sup 32/P-labeled recombinant plasmids. Very low levels of the A and B chain RNAs were found in uninduced cells, and a large increase occurred between 48 and 72 hr of growth in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. A cDNA clone was also obtained for entactin, a 150 kD glycoprotein that forms a complex with laminin. Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP treatment also increased the amount of entactin RNA in F9 cells. These results suggested that a common mechanism may exist for the coordinate regulation of the 4 basement membrane protein genes during differentiation.

  19. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Total Sialic Acid Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Surekha R; Kolte, Abhay P; Gupta, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic gingivitis and periodontitis are inflammatory diseases. An important function of host sialic acid is to regulate innate immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of Total sialic acid (TSA) in saliva and serum and also to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects were clinically examined and distributed into three groups (n=30) according to the periodontal status namely healthy, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.Clinical measurements including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, oral hygeine index were recorded .TSA concentration was determined in saliva and serum of all subjects. Results: In healthy group the mean salivary TSA level was 39.05mg/dl ±6.35(p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 49.75 mg/dl ± 4.87 (p<0.0001). In the chronic gingivitis group the mean salivary TSA level was 68.23 mg/dl ± 2.71 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 65.65 mg/dl ±3.56 (p<0.0001). In the chronic periodontitis group the mean salivary TSA was 81.33 mg/dl ±3.94 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 75.98 mg/dl ±3.58 (p<0.0001). Conclusion:The present data indicates that salivary & serum TSA levels can differentiate between chronic periodontitis patients and normal individuals. Thus it can be used as an adjunct to diagnose, monitor response to therapy, to determine the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes. PMID:25386514

  20. Acid Secretion and Serum Gastrin Levels in the Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R. Edward; Longmire, William P.; Passaro, Edward

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen cases of patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome were reviewed. In two cases the diagnosis was made by incidental biopsy of small liver nodules at operation for peptic ulcer disease. Seven patients had gastric secretory tests which showed a basal acid output to maximum acid output ratio of more than 65 percent. Five patients had bao:mao ratios less than 50 percent. A 30-month interval between incidental discovery of tumor and clinically evident disease was observed in two patients. Recurrence of symptoms after excision of tumor was noted after a similar interval in another case. Serum gastrin levels, before total gastrectomy, were elevated in all cases. The lowest preoperative level in this series of patients was 550 picograms per ml (normal 100 to 150 picograms). They were diagnostic in two patients with normal gastric secretory studies. The levels fell to normal following total gastrectomy in six patients. Two patients still had elevated levels five years and 14 years after total gastrectomy. One was discovered to have a parathyroid adenoma with hypercalcemia. Total gastrectomy was curative in all the patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; lesser operations were not. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:5031740

  1. Changes in intramuscular amino acid levels in submaximally exercised horses - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, R; Bauer, A; Hackl, S; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2010-08-01

    The time-dependent changes in intramuscular amino acid (AA) levels caused by exercise and by feeding a protein/AA supplement were analysed in nine horses. Horses were submitted to a total of four standardized exercise tests (SETs). Amino acid concentrations were determined prior to, immediately after, 4 and 18 h after exercise. The experiment was subdivided into two consecutive periods of 3 weeks. In each period two SETs were performed. In the second period, horses were given a protein/AA supplement within 1 h after exercise. Significant changes in mean plasma AA levels similar to previous studies were noted to be time-dependent and to be associated with feeding the supplement. The intramuscular concentrations of the free AA in relation to pre-exercise levels showed significant time-dependent changes for alanine, asparagine, aspartate, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, serine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Feeding the supplement significantly increased the 4 h post-exercise intramuscular concentration of alanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine. At 18 h after exercise, apart from isoleucine and methionine, levels were still increased and also those of asparagine, histidine and valine in relation to none treatment. Hence, it was concluded that AA mixtures administered orally to horses within 1 h after exercise increased intramuscular AA pool. PMID:19663973

  2. Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, vitreous humor, and pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid are relatively stable in postmortem serum and may, therefore, be used for diagnostic purposes when chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure are investigated as causes of death. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain in defining the best alternative to postmortem serum for the identification and assessment of significantly decreased kidney function. In this study, we investigated urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humor in a series of medico-legal cases (500 autopsies) with various causes of death. No postmortem interval-related differences were observed in any of the investigated fluids for any analyzed parameter, confirming the biochemical stability of all compounds after death. Data analysis failed to reveal statistically significant differences between postmortem serum and pericardial fluid urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations. Conversely, statistically significant differences were observed in all analyzed biomarkers between postmortem serum and vitreous humor levels, with lower concentrations of all markers measured in vitreous. The results of this study suggest that, in order to estimate as accurately as possible blood analyte concentrations at the time of death, pericardial fluid should be preferred to vitreous humor.

  3. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Methattel Raman, Shijeesh; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  4. Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Different Levels of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Lundin, Ulrika; Gayrard, Nathalie; Mischak, Harald; Aparicio, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Weinberger, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Patients with CKD display altered plasma amino acid profiles. This study estimated the association between the estimated GFR and urinary and plasma amino acid profiles in CKD patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Urine and plasma samples were taken from 52 patients with different stages of CKD, and plasma samples only were taken from 25 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Metabolic profiling was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after phenylisothiocyanate derivatization. Results Most plasma amino acid concentrations were decreased in hemodialysis patients, whereas proline, citrulline, asparagine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and hydroxykynurenine levels were increased (P<0.05). Both plasma levels and urinary excretion of citrulline were higher in the group of patients with advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3 versus CKD stages 4 and 5; in plasma: 35.9±16.3 versus 61.8±23.6 µmol/L, P<0.01; in urine: 1.0±1.2 versus 7.1±14.3 µmol/mol creatinine, P<0.001). Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were higher in advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3, 0.57±0.29; CKD stages 4 and 5, 1.02±0.48, P<0.001), whereas urinary excretion was lower (2.37±0.93 versus 1.51±1.43, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusting on estimated GFR, serum albumin, proteinuria, and other covariates revealed associations between diabetes and plasma citrulline (P=0.02) and between serum sodium and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03). Plasma tyrosine to phenylalanine and valine to glycine ratios were lower in advanced CKD stages (P<0.01). Conclusion CKD patients have altered plasma and urinary amino acid profiles that are not corrected by dialysis. Depending on solutes, elevated plasma levels were associated with increased or decreased urinary excretion, depicting situations of uremic retention (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or systemic overproduction (citrulline). These results give some insight in

  5. The inimitable kynurenic acid: the roles of different ionotropic receptors in the action of kynurenic acid at a spinal level.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gabor; Tar, Lilla; Bohar, Zsuzsanna; Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Vecsei, Laszlo; Pardutz, Arpad; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-03-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite that interacts with NMDA, AMPA/kainate and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. The goal of this study was to clarify the roles of these receptors in the action of KYNA at a spinal level by using highly specific receptor antagonists alone or in triple combinations. Chronic osteoarthritis-like joint pain was induced with monosodium-iodoacetate in male Wistar rats. Mechanical allodynia and motor function were quantified. In the first series we determined the dose-response and time course effects of intrathecally administered KYNA (10-100 μg), D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; an NMDA receptor antagonist; 10-200 μg), methyllycaconitine (MLA; an alpha 7 nicotinic receptor antagonist; 100-200 μg) and 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzoquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX; an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist; 1-20 μg). In the second series, four different triple combinations of MLA, AP5 and NBQX were investigated. Intrathecal administration of KYNA caused a dose-dependent motor impairment and antinociception. The highly specific NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 caused a motor impairment and antinociception with lower potency. High doses of NBQX resulted in significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment, while only the highest dose of MLA gave rise to significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment. After the coadministration of these ligands as combinations, no potentiation was observed. It may be supposed that the effects of KYNA are primarily due to the inhibition of NMDA receptors at both glycine and phencyclidine (PCP) binding sites, and not to the interactions at the different ionotropic receptors, but the mechanisms behind its high bio-efficiency are still unknown.

  6. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Feneberg, Emily; Steinacker, Petra; Lehnert, Stefan; Böhm, Bernhard; Mayer, Geert; Otto, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an established indicator of astrogliosis. Therefore, variable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of this protein might reflect disease-specific pathologic profiles. In patients with narcolepsy, a loss of hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) neurons in the brain and low concentrations of hcrt-1 in CSF have been reported. We performed a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate if GFAP also is altered in the CSF of these patients. Here we detected significantly higher CSF levels of GFAP in patients with low hcrt-1 levels, of which the majority had a diagnosis of narcolepsy and cataplexy (NC); however, this finding was not observed in patients with hcrt-1 levels that were within reference range. In conclusion, GFAP may be useful as an additional disease biomarker in patients with narcolepsy, and this hypothesis should be investigated in larger studies.

  7. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    PubMed

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  8. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  9. Ascorbic acid levels of aqueous humor of dogs after experimental phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    De Biaggi, Christianni P; Barros, Paulo S M; Silva, Vanessa V; Brooks, Dennis E; Barros, Silvia B M

    2006-01-01

    Phacoemulsification has been successfully employed in humans and animals for lens extraction. This ultrasonic extracapsular surgical technique induces hydroxyl radical formation in the anterior chamber, which accumulates despite irrigation and aspiration. In this paper we determined the total antioxidant status of aqueous humor after phacoemulsification by measuring aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 11; weighing about 10 kg) with normal eyes as determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and indirect ophthalmoscopy had phacoemulsification performed in one eye with the other eye used as a control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before surgery and at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 after surgery. Total aqueous humor antioxidant status was inferred from the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis (2-amidopropane) chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by anova followed by the paired t-test. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 48 to 27 min during the first 24 h with a gradual increase thereafter, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 7 days postoperatively. Reduced levels of ascorbic acid followed this reduction in antioxidant capacity (from 211 to 99 microm after 24 h), remaining lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Protein concentration in aqueous humor increased from 0.62 mg/mL to 30.8 mg/mL 24 h after surgery, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Paracentesis alone did not significantly alter the parameters measured. These results indicate that after phacoemulsification, the aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels and antioxidant defenses in aqueous humor are reduced, indirectly corroborating free radical

  10. Comparison of plasma uric acid levels in five varieties of the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Hartman, S; Taleb, S A; Geng, T; Gyenai, K; Guan, X; Smith, E

    2006-10-01

    Plasma uric acid (PUA) is a consensus physiological biomarker for many phenotypes in vertebrates because it is a reliable indicator for processes such as oxidative stress and tubular function. In birds, it is considered a major antioxidant and is also the primary endproduct of nitrogen metabolism. Despite this importance, knowledge of baseline levels of PUA in physiologically normal birds, including the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, is limited. Here, we compared PUA levels in a total of 106 apparently normal male and female birds at 8 and 32 wk of age from 5 strains of the domestic turkey, including Bourbon Red, Narragansett, Blue Slate, Royal Palm, and Spanish Black. Though differences in PUA were not significant at 8 and 32 wk of age, BW, variety, and sex effects were highly significant. When adjusted for BW, female birds had, on average, a higher PUA per kilogram of BW than male birds. When adjusted for both sex and BW, Royal Palm birds had the lowest average PUA, and Blue Slate had the highest PUA. Results of these investigations represent the first comparative analysis of PUA in physiologically normal turkey varieties. They suggest that differences in basal plasma levels of uric acid in physiologically normal turkeys are influenced by sex, weight, and genetic background but may be independent of age.

  11. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-03-20

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  12. Effect of increasing the level of omega-3 fatty acids on rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, C D; Kisielewski, A E

    1990-09-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil as compared to corn oil on the lipid dynamics and calcium ATPase activity of rat skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum was examined. After four-week supplementation with fish oil, the levels of eicosapentaenoic (20:5 omega 3), docosapentaenoic (22:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega 3) acids in the total lipids were 5.3, 5.5 and 28.1% of the total fatty acids, respectively. In contrast, with corn oil only 22:6 was found (8.9%). The level of these fatty acids in phosphatidylethanolamine from the membranes of animals fed fish oil was 4.2 (20:5), 5.4 (22:5) and 49.1% (22:6); and for phosphatidylcholine it was 5.4 (20:5), 4.6 (22:5) and 17.4% (22:6). Again, in corn oil fed animals, only 22:6 was found in appreciable amounts, namely 28.3% in phosphatidylethanolamine and 1.8% in phosphatidylcholine. The steady state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was used to assess lipid order and was found to be only slightly less for membranes from animals supplemented with fish oil (0.120) as compared to those supplemented with corn oil (0.124). The calcium ATPase was found to be unaffected by supplementation consistent with the observed modest changes in lipid order as well as with suggestions that the enzyme is relatively insensitive to the level of unsaturation. It could be argued that if large increases in fatty acyl polyunsaturation in mammalian cell membranes would lead to marked alterations in bulk membrane lipid motional properties, this may not be in the interest of preserving physiological function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Plastidial fatty acid levels regulate resistance gene-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Shekara, A C; Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Barman, Subhankar Roy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2007-04-24

    In Arabidopsis, resistance to Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV) depends on the resistance (R) gene, HRT, and the recessive locus rrt. Resistance also depends on salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, and PAD4. Exogenous application of SA confers resistance in RRT-containing plants by increasing HRT transcript levels in a PAD4-dependent manner. Here we report that reduction of oleic acid (18:1) can also induce HRT gene expression and confer resistance to TCV. However, the 18:1-regulated pathway is independent of SA, rrt, EDS1, and PAD4. Reducing the levels of 18:1, via a mutation in the SSI2-encoded stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase, or by exogenous application of glycerol, increased transcript levels of HRT as well as several other R genes. Second-site mutations in the ACT1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase or GLY1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase restored 18:1 levels in HRT ssi2 plants and reestablished a dependence on rrt. Resistance to TCV and HRT gene expression in HRT act1 plants was inducible by SA but not by glycerol, whereas that in HRT pad4 plants was inducible by glycerol but not by SA. The low 18:1-mediated induction of R gene expression was also dependent on ACT1 but independent of EDS1, PAD4, and RAR1. Intriguingly, TCV inoculation did not activate this 18:1-regulated pathway in HRT plants, but instead resulted in the induction of several genes that encode 18:1-synthesizing isozymes. These results suggest that the 18:1-regulated pathway may be specifically targeted during pathogen infection and that altering 18:1 levels may serve as a unique strategy for promoting disease resistance.

  14. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  15. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  16. System-level understanding of the potential acid-tolerance components of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 under extreme acid stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2015-09-01

    In previous study, two extremely acidophilic strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 (collection site: bioleaching leachate) and ZJJN-5 (collection site: bioleaching wastewater) were isolated from a typical industrial bio-heap in China. Here, we unraveled the potential acid-tolerance components of ZJJN-3 by comparing the physiological differences with ZJJN-5 under different acid stresses. The parameters used for comparison included intracellular pH (pHin), capsule morphology, fatty acid composition of cell membrane, transcription of key molecular chaperones, H(+)-ATPase activities and NAD(+)/NADH ratio. It was indicated that the acid-tolerance of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 was systematically regulated. Capsule first thickened and then shed off along with increased acid stress. Cell membrane maintained the intracellular stability by up-regulating the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acids. Meanwhile, the transcription of key repair molecular chaperones (GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ) was up-regulated by 2.2-3.5 folds for ensuring the proper folding of peptide. Moreover, low pHin promoted ZJJN-3 to biosynthesize more H(+)-ATPase for pumping H(+) out of cells. Furthermore, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio increased due to the decreased H(+) concentration. Based on the above physiological analysis, the potential acid-tolerance components of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 were first proposed and it would be useful for better understanding how these extremophiles responded to the high acid stress.

  17. Receptor-level interrelationships of amino acids and the adequate amino acid type hormones in Tetrahymena: a receptor evolution model.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1986-01-01

    Histidine stimulates the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena to the same extent as histamine, and also stimulates its division, which histamine does not. Tyrosine and diiodotyrosine equally stimulate the growth of the Tetrahymena. Both amino acids inhibit the characteristic influence of the adequate amino acid hormone when added to Tetrahymena culture 72 h in advance of it. Primary interaction with diiodotyrosine and tyrosine notably increases the cellular growth rate. Histamine has a similar, although less notable effect than histidine. In the light of these experimental observations there is reason to postulate that the receptors of the amino acid hormones have developed from amino acid receptors.

  18. Peripartum responses of dairy cows to prepartal feeding level and dietary fatty acid source.

    PubMed

    Hayirli, A; Keisler, D H; Doepel, L; Petit, Hélène

    2011-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding level and oilseed supplementation during the close-up dry period on energy balance (EB), hepatic lipidosis, metabolic status, and productivity in early lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein cows were blocked according to parity and expected calving date and then assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial allocation with 2 feeding levels: ad libitum (AL) or 30% feed restriction (FR), and 3 dietary fatty acid sources: canola seed, linola seed, or flaxseed at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM), to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acids, respectively during the last 4 wk of gestation. After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet. Cows fed AL lost less body weight (-2.9 vs. -6.0%) and body condition score (+0.67 vs. -2.30%), and consequently were in more positive EB (+4.6 vs. -0.3 Mcal) during the prepartum period than cows subjected to FR. Postpartum, FR cows lost less body weight (-9.7 vs. -12.4%) and experienced less severe negative EB (-4.5 vs. -7.0 Mcal) than AL cows. Cows fed AL had higher plasma insulin (6.8 vs. 4.4 μIU/mL) and lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations (436 vs. 570 mEq/mL) during the close-up period than cows subjected to FR. Cows fed AL tended to have lower liver glycogen content in early lactation than cows subjected to FR (4.4 vs. 2.9 % of DM) [corrected], but had similar triglyceride content (13.1 ± 1.2 μg/g of DM). Fatty acid source did not influence response variables. In conclusion, eliminating intake depression by FR during the close-up period had positive carryover effects on EB and metabolic status during early lactation, but feeding linoleic and linolenic acids via unprotected oilseeds only had negligible effects on peripartum responses.

  19. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  20. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Padgett, William T; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  1. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids correlate with growth rate in plant cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Meï, Coline; Michaud, Morgane; Cussac, Mathilde; Albrieux, Catherine; Gros, Valérie; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A.; Jouhet, Juliette; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants, fatty acids (FAs) with 18 carbons (18C) represent about 70% of total FAs, the most abundant species being 18:2 and 18:3. These two polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) represent about 55% of total FAs in Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures, whereas 18:1 represents about 10%. The level of PUFAs may vary, depending on ill-defined factors. Here, we compared various sets of plant cell cultures and noticed a correlation between the growth rate of a cell population and the level of unsaturation of 18C FAs. These observations suggest that the final level of PUFAs might depend in part on the rate of cell division, and that FAD2 and FAD3 desaturases, which are respectively responsible for the formation of 18:2 and 18:3 on phospholipids, have limiting activities in fast-growing cultures. In plant cell culture, phosphate (Pi) deprivation is known to impair cell division and to trigger lipid remodeling. We observed that Pi starvation had no effect on the expression of FAD genes, and that the level of PUFAs in this situation was also correlated with the growth rate. Thus, the level of PUFAs appears as a hallmark in determining cell maturity and aging. PMID:26469123

  2. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  3. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Modulate Catecholamine Levels with Significant Relations to Clinical Outcome after Surgery in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Asahina, Masato; Hirano, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    postoperative UPDRS- III score in off phase three months after STN-DBS. The preoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels had significantly negative correlations with postoperative UPDRS- III score in off phase one year after STN-DBS and the preoperative CSF homovanilic acid (HVA) levels had significant negative correlations with postoperative UPDRS- III score in on phase three months after STN-DBS. In PDQ-39 SI (summary index), preoperative plasma dopamine (DA) level had significantly negative correlations with postoperative PDQ-39 SI one year after STN-DBS suggesting that higher preoperative plasma DA level resulted in better quality of life (QOL) one year after STN-DBS. The stepwise multiple linear regression study revealed that higher preoperative plasma HVA levels had negative influence on the postoperative motor symptoms (i.e., increase in the score of UPDRS), whereas higher preoperative CSF L-DOPA levels had positive influence on the postoperative motor symptoms and QOL (decrease in the score of UPDRS and PDQ-39 SI) The catecholamine levels were not significantly reduced postoperatively in 11 patients despite the significant reduction in levodopa equivalent doses. Unexpectedly, CSF HVA levels significantly increased from 0.00089±0.0003 ng/μl to 0.002±0.0008 ng/μl after STN-DBS. Conclusion The preoperative catecholamine levels might affect the postoperative motor symptoms and quality of life. The catecholamine levels were not significantly reduced postoperatively despite the significant reduction in levodopa equivalent doses. PMID:26394059

  4. Insulin Resistance is Associated With Total Bile Acid Level in Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wanwan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Zhengyi; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Baihui; Chen, Ying; Ding, Lin; Huang, Xiaolin; Lv, Xiaofei; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Qinyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bile acid metabolism was reported to be involved in glucose metabolism homeostasis. However, the exact relationship between bile acid and glucose metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity is not clarified. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association between insulin sensitivity and hyperbileacidemia in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic population. This community-based cross-sectional study included 9603 residents from Jiading, Shanghai, China, who were 40 years and older. Standardized questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were conducted. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.7 was defined as insulin resistance and fasting TBA ≥ 10 mmol/L was defined as hyperbileacidemia. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that HOMA-IR, age, and male sex were positively associated with hyperbileacidemia in both nondiabetic and diabetic participants. In multivariate logistic models, participants with insulin resistance had significantly higher risk of hyperbileacidemia compared to those who have no insulin resistance, in both nondiabetic and diabetic population (nondiabetic: OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.42–2.19; P < 0.001; diabetic: OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.06 – 2.31; P = 0.025, respectively). Further adjustment for the HbA1c level in diabetic population did not change the significant association (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.06 − 2.40; P = 0.024). In nondiabetic participants, each 1-unit increment of HOMA-IR conferred an 18% higher risk of hyperbileacidemia (95% CI 1.04–1.35; P = 0.013), whereas in diabetic participants, this association was similar but not significant (95% CI 0.95–1.59; P = 0.117). Insulin resistance was positively associated with hyperbileacidemia in both nondiabetic and diabetic population. The increase in the bile acid level in insulin-resistant population regardless of status of diabetes and glucose level indicated the important role of insulin resistance

  5. Uncoupling protein 3 expression levels influence insulin sensitivity, fatty acid oxidation, and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Senese, Rosalba; Valli, Vivien; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Silvestri, Elena; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Controversy exists on whether uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) positively or negatively influences insulin sensitivity in vivo, and the underlying signaling pathways have been scarcely studied. We studied how a progressive reduction in UCP3 expression (using UCP3 +/+, UCP3 +/-, and UCP3 -/- mice) modulates insulin sensitivity and related metabolic parameters. In order to further validate our observations, we also studied animals in which insulin resistance was induced by administration of a high-fat diet (HFD). In UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice, gastrocnemius muscle Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) (serine 473) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (threonine 171) phosphorylation, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) membrane levels were reduced compared to UCP3 +/+ mice. The HOMA-IR index (insulin resistance parameter) was increased both in the UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice. In these mice, insulin administration normalized Akt/PKB phosphorylation between genotypes while AMPK phosphorylation was further reduced, and sarcolemmal GLUT4 levels were induced but did not reach control levels. Furthermore, non-insulin-stimulated muscle fatty acid oxidation and the expression of several involved genes both in muscle and in liver were reduced. HFD administration induced insulin resistance in UCP3 +/+ mice and the aforementioned parameters resulted similar to those of chow-fed UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice. In conclusion, high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance in wild-type mice mimics that of chow-fed UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice showing that progressive reduction of UCP3 levels results in insulin resistance. This is accompanied by decreased fatty acid oxidation and a less intense Akt/PKB and AMPK signaling.

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Monoamine Metabolites in the Epileptic Baboon

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C. Ákos; Patel, Mayuri; Uteshev, Victor V.

    2016-01-01

    The baboon represents a natural model for genetic generalized epilepsy and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In this retrospective study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) were evaluated in 263 baboons of a pedigreed colony. CSF monoamine abnormalities have been linked to reduced seizure thresholds, behavioral abnormalities and SUDEP in various animal models of epilepsy. The levels of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylglycol, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and homovanillic acid in CSF samples drawn from the cisterna magna were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These levels were compared between baboons with seizures (SZ), craniofacial trauma (CFT) and asymptomatic, control (CTL) baboons, between baboons with abnormal and normal EEG studies. We hypothesized that the CSF levels of major monoaminergic metabolites (i.e., dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine) associate with the baboons’ electroclinical status and thus can be used as clinical biomarkers applicable to seizures/epilepsy. However, despite apparent differences in metabolite levels between the groups, usually lower in SZ and CFT baboons and in baboons with abnormal EEG studies, we did not find any statistically significant differences using a logistic regression analysis. Significant correlations between the metabolite levels, especially between 5-HIAA and HVA, were preserved in all electroclinical groups. While we were not able to demonstrate significant differences in monoamine metabolites in relation to seizures or EEG markers of epilepsy, we cannot exclude the monoaminergic system as a potential source of pathogenesis in epilepsy and SUDEP. A prospective study evaluating serial CSF monoamine levels in baboons with recently witnessed seizures, and evaluation of abnormal expression and function of monoaminergic receptors and transporters within epilepsy-related brain regions, may impact the electroclinical status. PMID:26924854

  7. Effects of a low birthweight infant formula containing human milk levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, B; Edenhofer, S; Lipowsky, G; Reinhardt, D

    1995-08-01

    Long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for low birth weight infants (LBWI). Therefore, enrichment of LBWI formulae with metabolites both linoleic (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acids at levels typical for human milk has been recommended. However, previous feeding trials with LCP-enriched formulae evaluated only a dietary supplementation with omega-3 LCP from fish oils alone or with both omega-3 and omega-6 LCP at levels considerably lower than usual human milk contents. We studied the effects of an LBWI formula providing the major omega-3 and omega-6 LCP, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids, in amounts similar to those in average human milk. Twenty-seven LBWIs were enrolled in this study when they tolerated full enteral feeding (> or = 130 ml milk/kg/day). Infants either received their own mother's milk (n = 8, birthweight 1218 +/- 146 g, gestational age 30.2 +/- 1.5 weeks, mean +/- SD) fortified with protein and minerals (FM-85, Nestle Ag, Munchen, Germany; dosage 5 g/100 ml milk) or were randomly assigned to blinded batches of an LBWI formula (Prematil, Milupa AG, Friedrichsdorf, Germany) without LCP (n = 10, 1280 +/- 229 g, 31.1 +/- 3.1 weeks) or with LCP (n = 9, 1253 +/- 334 g, 30.4 +/- 3.3 wks.). During the study period of 21 days, the three feeding groups did not differ in growth and feeding tolerances as assessed by occurrence of gastric residuals, spitting, or abdominal distention; however, firms stools were noted more frequently in the two formula groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

  9. Optimal level of purple acid phosphatase5 is required for maintaining complete resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Sridhar; Stone, Sophia L.; Benkel, Bernhard; Zhang, Junzeng; Berrue, Fabrice; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Plants possess an exceedingly complex innate immune system to defend against most pathogens. However, a relative proportion of the pathogens overcome host's innate immunity and impair plant growth and productivity. We previously showed that mutation in purple acid phosphatase (PAP5) lead to enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Here, we report that an optimal level of PAP5 is crucial for mounting complete basal resistance. Overexpression of PAP5 impaired ICS1, PR1 expression and salicylic acid (SA) accumulation similar to pap5 knockout mutant plants. Moreover, plant overexpressing PAP5 was impaired in H2O2 accumulation in response to Pst DC3000. PAP5 is localized in to peroxisomes, a known site of generation of reactive oxygen species for activation of defense responses. Taken together, our results demonstrate that optimal levels of PAP5 is required for mounting resistance against Pst DC3000 as both knockout and overexpression of PAP5 lead to compromised basal resistance. PMID:26300891

  10. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  11. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. Methods We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Results The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P < 0.001). In addition, dietary EPA, C22:5 n-3 and DHA were significantly correlated with the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids and DHA, with the Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.35 (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with those in the lowest fish intake quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a significantly higher DHA level (adjusted mean difference, 0.99 ± 0.10%, test for trend, P < 0.001). Similar patterns between dietary DHA intake and plasma DHA levels were found. However, the association between dietary fish intake and plasma EPA was not significant (test for trend, P = 0.69). Conclusions The dietary intakes of fish and of long chain n-3 fatty acids, as determined by the food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PMID:23414574

  12. Acrylamide increases dopamine levels by affecting dopamine transport and metabolism related genes in the striatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoqi; Guo, Xiongxiong; Xiong, Fei; Cheng, Guihong; Lu, Qing; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Dopaminergic system dysfunction is proved to be a possible mechanism in acrylamide (ACR) -induced neurotoxicity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has an increasingly important role in the dopaminergic system. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate effects of ACR on dopamine and its metabolite levels, dopamine transport and metabolic gene expression in dopaminergic neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed orally with ACR at 0 (saline), 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day for 20 days. Splayed hind limbs, reduced tail flick time and abnormal gait which preceded other neurologic parameters were observed in the above rats. ACR significantly increased dopamine levels, decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) contents in an area dependent manner in rat striatum. Immunohistochemical staining of the striatum revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells significantly increased, while monoamine oxidase (MAO) positive cells were drastically reduced, which was consistent with changes in their mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression levels were both down-regulated in the striatum. These results suggest that dopamine levels increase significantly in response to ACR, presumably due to changes in the dopamine transport and metabolism related genes expression in the striatal dopaminergic neurons.

  13. Evaluation of postmortem urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid levels in pericardial fluid in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Quan, Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-10-01

    In postmortem biochemistry, there is insufficient data available for the practical analysis of factors in the pericardial fluid. The aim of the present study was to examine postmortem pericardial fluid for urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) levels to investigate the pathophysiology of death in forensic autopsy cases (total, n = 409; within 48 h postmortem), which included blunt, sharp instrument injury, asphyxiation, drowning, fire fatalities, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine-related fatalities, other poisoning, delayed death from trauma and natural diseases. There was a significant elevation in the three markers for chronic renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine fatalities and delayed traumatic death, which was comparable with the clinical criteria for their serum levels. These postmortem findings showed azotemia due to renal failure, elevated protein catabolism and rhabdomyolysis. Although the pericardial levels were otherwise similar to the clinical serum reference ranges, only the drowning fatalities showed significantly lower levels for each marker. These observations suggested the stability of UN, Cr and UA in the pericardial fluid within 48 h postmortem and their usefulness for the pathophysiological investigation of death involving azotemia.

  14. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress. PMID:25113613

  15. The Relationship between Uric Acid Levels and Huntington’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Auinger, Peggy; Kieburtz, Karl; McDermott, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) may be associated with the progression of Parkinson’s disease and related neurodegenerative conditions; however, its association with Huntington’s disease (HD) progression has not been explored. A secondary analysis of 347 subjects from the CARE-HD clinical trial was performed to examine the relationship between baseline UA levels and the level of functional decline in HD. Outcomes included change in scores at 30 months for the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale components. There was less worsening of total functional capacity over time with increasing baseline UA levels (adjusted mean worsening in scores: 3.17, 2.99, 2.95, 2.28, 2.21, from lowest to highest UA quintile, p=0.03). These data suggest a possible association between higher UA levels and slower HD progression, particularly as measured by total functional capacity. If confirmed, UA could be an important predictor and potentially modifiable factor affecting the rate of HD progression. PMID:20063429

  16. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  17. Branching Mutant rms-2 in Pisum sativum (Grafting Studies and Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels).

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, C. A.; Ross, J. J.; Murfet, I. C.

    1994-01-01

    Isogenic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were used to determine the physiological site of action of the Rms-2 gene, which maintains apical dominance, and its effect on endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. In mutant rms-2 scions, which normally produce lateral branches below node 3 and above node 7, apical dominance was almost fully restored by grafting to Rms-2 (wild-type) stocks. In the reciprocal grafts, rms-2 stocks did not promote branching in wild-type shoots. Together, these results suggest that the Rms-2 gene inhibits branching in the shoot of pea by controlling the synthesis of a translocatable (hormone-like) substance that is produced in the roots and/or cotyledons and in the shoot. At all stages, including the stage at which aerial lateral buds commence outgrowth, the level of IAA in rms-2 shoots was elevated (up to 5-fold) in comparison with that in wild-type shoots. The internode length of rms-2 plants was 40% less than in wild-type plants, and the mutant plants allocated significantly more dry weight to the shoot than to the root in comparison with wild-type plants. Grafting to wild-type stocks did not normalize IAA levels or internode length in rms-2 scions, even though it inhibited branching, suggesting that the involvement of Rms-2 in the control of IAA level and internode length may be confined to processes in the shoot. PMID:12232140

  18. Sulforaphane reduces the alterations induced by quinolinic acid: modulation of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Santana-Martínez, R A; Galván-Arzáte, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Avila-Chávez, E; López-Acosta, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A; Maldonado, P D

    2014-07-11

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5mg/kg, i.p.) 24h and 5min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities.

  19. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403

  20. Urinary thiodiglycolic acid levels for vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, Y F; Ma, Y C

    2001-11-01

    Thiodiglycolic acid (TdGA) is the major metabolite of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) detected in human urine. Although urinary TdGA has been reported to be associated with ambient VCM exposure, the relationship between urinary TdGA and a low level of air VCM is not clear. Questionnaires were administered to 16 polyvinyl chloride manufacturing workers to obtain a detailed history of occupation and lifestyle. For each worker, personal air monitoring for VCM was performed and a time-weighted average for VCM exposure was calculated. The urinary TdGA levels at the end of a work shift, and at the commencement of the next shift, were also assessed for each worker. Urine analysis revealed that TdGA levels at the beginning of the next shift were higher than those at the end of that shift. Workers experiencing a VCM exposure greater than 5 ppm in air revealed a urinary TdGA level significantly greater than those experiencing a VCM exposure of less than 5 ppm (P < 0.05). The best fit of regression for urinary TdGA on air VCM was Y = 1.06 + 0.57X for urine collected at the commencement of the following work shift, where X is the air VCM concentration and Y is the urinary TdGA concentration (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.01). We conclude that the urinary TdGA level is best detected at the commencement of the next shift and that it can be used as an exposure marker for polyvinyl chloride workers when the air VCM level to which they are exposed is greater than 5 ppm.

  1. Sustained low abscisic acid levels increase seedling vigor under cold stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Mega, Ryosuke; Meguro-Maoka, Ayano; Endo, Akira; Shimosaka, Etsuo; Murayama, Seiji; Nambara, Eiji; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Abrams, Suzanne R; Sato, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) is mainly catabolized by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8ox), which also strictly regulates endogenous ABA levels. Although three members of the ABA8ox gene family are conserved in rice, it is not clear which stressors induce expression of these genes. Here, we found that OsABA8ox1 was induced by cold stress within 24 h and that OsABA8ox2 and OsABA8ox3 were not. In contrast, OsABA8ox2 and OsABA8ox3 were ABA-inducible, but OsABA8ox1 was not. OsABA8ox1, OsABA8ox2, and OsABA8ox3 restored germination of a cyp707a1/a2/a3 triple mutant of Arabidopsis to rates comparable to those of the wild type, indicating that OsABA8ox1, OsABA8ox2, and OsABA8ox3 function as ABA-catabolic genes in vivo. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing OsABA8ox1 showed decreased levels of ABA and increased seedling vigor at 15 °C. These results indicate that sustained low levels of ABA lead to increased seedling vigor during cold stress. On the other hand, excessively low endogenous ABA levels caused reduced drought and cold tolerance, although some of the transgenic rice lines expressing OsABA8ox1 at moderate levels did not show these harmful effects. Adequate regulation of endogenous ABA levels is thought to be crucial for maintaining seedling vigor under cold stress and for cold and drought tolerance in rice.

  2. Production of yogurt with enhanced levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and valuable nutrients using lactic acid bacteria and germinated soybean extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Bum; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2007-05-01

    Yogurt with high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids and isoflavones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and germinated soybean extract. Fermented soya milk (GABA soya yogurt) produced with starter and substrate had the GABA concentration of 424.67 microg/gDW, whereas fermented milk produced by a conventional method had GABA less than 1.5 microg/gDW. The GABA soya yogurt also contained significantly high levels of free amino acids and isoflavones compared with other conventional yogurts. The results suggested that the Lactobacillus brevis OPY-1 and germinated soybean possessed a prospect to be applied in dairy and other health products with high nutritive values and functional properties.

  3. The deposition of conjugated linoleic acids in eggs of laying hens fed diets varying in fat level and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Huyghebaert, Gerard; De Smet, Stefaan; Nollet, Lode; Arnouts, Sven; Demeyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into eggs and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism when layers are fed diets with different fat sources and fat levels. Layers were fed either a low fat diet (LF) or one of three high fat diets based on soybean oil (SB), animal fat (AF) or flaxseed oil (FSO). CLA was added at a concentration of 1 g/100 g feed from two different CLA premixes with a different CLA profile. For the trial, 144 laying hens were allocated to 12 treatments (4 basal fat sources x 3 CLA treatments) with 3 replicates of 4 hens each. No significant differences were observed in feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion or laying rate between chickens fed control and CLA-supplemented diets. Differences in yolk fat, cholesterol or yolk color were not clearly related to the dietary CLA. However, the supplementation of CLA to the diets had clear effects on the fatty acid composition, i.e., a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content were essentially unaffected. The results suggest that CLA may influence the activity of the desaturases to a different extent in the synthesis of (n-6) and (n-3) long-chain fatty acids. These effects of CLA depend on the level of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids available in the feed. The apparent deposition rate (%) is clearly higher for the c9, t11 isomer than for the t10, c12 isomer. Adding CLA to layers diets rich in (n-3) fatty acids produces eggs that could promote the health of the consumer in terms of a higher intake of (n-3) fatty acids and CLA. PMID:11823576

  4. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation.

  5. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  6. Erythrocyte membrane docosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with islet autoimmunity: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jill M.; Kroehl, Miranda; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Frederiksen, Brittni N.; Seifert, Jennifer; Wong, Randall; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Rewers, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses We previously reported that lower n-3 fatty acid intake and levels in erythrocyte membranes were associated with increased risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) but not progression to type 1 diabetes in children at increased risk for diabetes. We hypothesise that specific n-3 fatty acids and genetic markers contribute synergistically to this increased risk of IA in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Methods DAISY is following 2547 children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of IA, defined as being positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65, IA-2 or insulin autoantibodies on two consecutive visits. Using a case-cohort design, erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and dietary intake were measured prospectively in 58 IA-positive children and 299 IA-negative children. Results Lower membrane levels of the n-3 fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), were predictive of IA (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.09,0.55), while alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not, adjusting for HLA and diabetes family history. We examined whether the effect of dietary intake of the n-3 fatty acid ALA on IA risk was modified by fatty acid elongation and desaturation genes. Adjusting for HLA, diabetes family history, ethnicity, energy intake and questionnaire type, ALA intake was significantly more protective for IA in the presence of an increasing number of minor alleles at FADS1 rs174556 (pinteraction=0.017), at FADS2 rs174570 (pinteraction=0.016) and at FADS2 rs174583 (pinteraction=0.045). Conclusions/interpretation The putative protective effect of n-3 fatty acids on IA may result from a complex interaction between intake and genetically-controlled fatty acid desaturation. PMID:24240437

  7. Effects of copper on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag; Kirbag, Sevda

    2007-07-01

    The effect of copperchloride (CuCl2) on the level of chlorophyll (a+b), proline, protein and abscisic acid in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were investigated Control and copper treated (0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mM) seedlings were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Abscisic acid content was determined in root, shoot and leaf tissues of seedlings by HPLC. Copper stress caused significant increase of the abscisic acid contents in roots, shoots and leaves of seedlings. The increase was dependent on the copper salt concentration. Enhanced accumulation of proline in the leaves of seedlings exposed to copper was determined, as well as a decrease of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was observed that the level of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) remarkably decreased as copper concentration increased to 0.6 mM, although the levels of proline and abscisic acid in the leaves of plants were increased--a dose-depended behavior The same trends were also observed with the level of abscisic acid of stems and roots. Copper has dose- depended effects on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Thus, we assumed that copper levels increase above some critical points seedling growth get negative effects. This assumption is in line with previous findings.

  8. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  9. Effect of increased methionine level on performance and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in ducks.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Lemme, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Wertelecki, T

    2009-10-01

    The experiment was conducted with 960 one-day-old ducklings fed mixtures (I control - 0.28% methionine) additionally supplemented with DL-methionine (DL-Met) at amounts: 0.03% (group II), 0.07% (III), 0.12% (IV) and 0.18% (V). The performance, carcass quality and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids as the criterions of methionine (Met) effectivity were considered. The analysis of growth and development of ducks as an effect of diversified DL-Met supplements indicate that increased content of this amino acid in the diets has not affected clearly the performance parameters. The body weight of 21-day-old ducklings was significantly affected only by the level of 0.12% of added Met in comparison to control group. On day 42, the differences among groups were negligible; only the addition of 0.12% DL-Met has increased the body weight by 2.4% when compared with control (p > 0.05). Feed conversion estimated for a period of 1-42 days has not been influenced by Met supplementation. The indistinct, however, visible tendency of better ileal amino acids' apparent digestibility (for Asp.a.,Thr, Ser, Glu, Lys) was noted in the groups fed supplemented diets. Application of 0.07% and 0.18% of DL-met, has significantly (p < 0.05) improved the coefficient of cysteine (Cys) apparent ileal digestibility; however, the improvement of Met apparent ileal digestibility has been achieved by the addition of 0.18% Met. The mortality of ducklings in the experiment was very low and varied between 3.15% (II) and 0.0% (groups I and III). In general, application of 0.12% of DL-Met to mixture containing 0.28% Met had positive effect on the productive output of birds and also improved the apparent ileal digestibility of Cys and Met.

  10. LC-MS/MS quantification of N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid levels in the urine and potential relationship with dietary sialic acid intake and disease in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Pan, Lili; Liu, Ni; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-28

    Red meat and dairy products contain high sialic acid (Sia) levels, but the metabolic fate and health impact in children remain unknown. The aims of the present study were to quantify the levels of urinary Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) and to determine their relationship with dietary Sia intake. Spot urine samples were collected from 386 healthy children aged 3 (n 108), 4 (n 144) and 5 (n 134) years at 06.30-07.00, 11.30-12.00 and 16.30-17.00 hours. Food intake levels were recorded on the day of urine sample collection. Sia levels were quantified using LC-MS/MS with [13C3]Sia as an internal standard. We found that (1) total urinary Sia levels in healthy pre-school children ranged from 40 to 79 mmol Sia/mol creatinine; (2) urinary Sia levels were independent of age and consisted of conjugated Neu5Ac (approximately 70·8 %), free Neu5Ac (approximately 21·3 %), conjugated KDN (approximately 4·2 %) and free KDN (approximately 3·7 %); Neu5Gc was detected in the urine of only one 4-year-old girl; (3) total urinary Sia levels were highest in the morning and declined over time in 4- and 5-year-old children (P< 0·05), but not in 3-year-old children; (4) Sia intake levels at breakfast and lunch were approximately 2·5 and 0·16 mg Sia/kg body weight; and (5) there was no significant correlation between dietary Sia intake levels and urinary Sia levels. Urinary Sia levels varied with age and time of day, but did not correlate with Sia intake in 3- to 5-year-old children. The difference in urinary Sia levels in children of different age groups suggests that the metabolism and utilisation rates of dietary Sia are age dependent.

  11. Protein nutrition of Tenebrio molitor L. XX. Growth response of larvae to graded levels of amino acids.

    PubMed

    John, A M; Davis, G R; Sosulski, F W

    1979-12-01

    Larvae of Tenebrio molitor L;, Gembloux strain, race F, having an average initial weight of 10 mg were reared for 4 weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% relative humidity on diets containing an amino-acid mixture resembling the composition of larval tissues; Each of 14 amino acids was tested individually at levels of 0, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200% of the amount found in larval tissues, while the concentration of other amino acids remained constant. Diets were maintained isonitrogenous at 1.6% nitrogen with supplementary glutamic acid, glycine, serine and tyrosine; Maximum fresh weight gains and dry weights were achieved by larvae fed reference levels of all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, threonine and tryptophan. Maximum growth was achieved by larvae fed 50% of the phenylalanine level found in larval tissues, Threonine and tryptophan were the limiting amino acids in this study and are probably required in the diet in excess of twice the concentration occuring in larval tissues, Probable ranges for quantitative amino-acid requirements of T. molitor were determined and suggestions were made for improving the nutritional adequacy of the amino-acid mixture.

  12. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Vanella, Luca; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Russo, Alessandra; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape), isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration. PMID:26904104

  13. Drought-Induced Increases in Abscisic Acid Levels in the Root Apex of Sunflower 1

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. Mason; Pharis, Richard P.; Huang, Yan Y.; Reid, David M.; Yeung, Edward C.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) levels in 3-mm apical root segments of slowly droughted sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv Russian Giant) were analyzed as the methyl ester by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using characteristic ions. An internal standard, hexadeuterated ABA (d6ABA) was used for quantitative analysis. Sunflower seedlings, grown in aeroponic chambers, were slowly droughted over a 7-day period. Drought stress increased ABA levels in the root tips at 24, 72, and 168 hour sample times. Control plants had 57 to 106 nanograms per gram ABA dry weight in the root tips (leaf water potential, −0.35 to −0.42 megapascals). The greatest increase in ABA, about 20-fold, was found after 72 hours of drought (leaf water potential, −1.34 to −1.47 megapascals). Levels of ABA also increased (about 7− to 54-fold) in 3-mm apical root segments which were excised and then allowed to dessicate for 1 hour at room temperature. PMID:16664535

  14. A new classification of the amino acid side chains based on doublet acceptor energy levels.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, S F; Morgan, R S; Brooks, C L

    1988-01-01

    We describe a new classification of the amino acid side chains based on the potential energy level at which each will accept an extra (doublet) electron. The doublet acceptor energy level, and the doublet acceptor orbital were calculated using semiempirical INDO/2-UHF molecular orbital theory. The results of these calculations show that the side chains fall into four groups. We have termed these groups repulsive, insulating, semiconducting, and attractive in accordance with where each lies on the relative energy scale. We use this classification to examine the role of residues between the donor and acceptor in modulating the rate and mechanism of electron transfer in proteins. With the calculated acceptor levels, we construct a potential barrier for those residues between the donor and acceptor. It is the area beneath this barrier that determines the decay of electronic coupling between donor and acceptor, and thus the transfer rate. We have used this schematic approach to characterize the four electron transfer pathways in myoglobin recently studied by Mayo et al. (Mayo, S.L., W.R. Ellis, R.J. Crutchley, and H.B. Gray. 1986. Science [Wash. DC]. 233:948-952). PMID:3342271

  15. Effect of different levels of supplied cobalt on the fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Karlengen, Inger J; Taugbøl, Ole; Salbu, Brit; Aastveit, Are H; Harstad, Odd M

    2013-03-14

    In previous studies, administration of high amounts of Co decreased the proportion of MUFA in bovine milk. The present study was conducted to examine the amount of Co needed to obtain this effect. High-yielding dairy cows (n 4), equipped with ruminal cannulas, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The basal diet consisted of concentrate mixture (9 kg/d) without added Co and grass silage (ad libitum). The following four levels of Co were administrated as cobalt acetate dissolved in distilled water: no Co (treatment 1, T1); 4·0 mg Co/d (T2); 380 mg Co/d (T3); 5300 mg Co/d (T4). Each period lasted for 18 d, including 11 d of treatment. During the treatment periods, the solutions were continuously infused into the rumen. Milk yield and milk concentration of fat, fatty acids (FA), protein, lactose, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu were determined. Blood plasma was analysed with respect to FA, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu. Feed intake and total tract digestibility of feed components were also determined. There was a linear effect of increasing the level of Co on milk FA composition. The effects of Co on FA composition in blood were insignificant compared with the effects on milk. In milk fat, the concentration of cis-9-18 : 1 was reduced by as much as 38 % on T4 compared with T1. Feed intake and milk yield were negatively affected by increasing the Co level.

  16. Effect of marginal ascorbic acid deficiency on saliva level of cortisol in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Enwonwu, C O; Sawiris, P; Chanaud, N

    1995-08-01

    Male guinea pigs subjected to prolonged marginal ascorbic acid deficiency developed moon facies and oedema, features of functional adrenal hypercorticism. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls fed an adequate diet for a similar period, ascorbate deficiency had no effect on submandibular gland weight but elicited a significant (p < 0.005) reduction in stimulated whole-saliva flow rate. Plasma cortisol concentration (nmol/L) was significantly increased (p < 0.005) in the deficient animals (998.21 +/- 57.19 compared to 254.66 +/- 15.62 for the controls). Associated with marked hypercortisolaemia in the deficient animals was a significant (p < 0.01) but less prominent increase in the whole-saliva cortisol level, resulting in a mean saliva/plasma cortisol ratio of 46% for this group compared to 72% for the controls. Increased corticosteroid levels suppress immunological and inflammatory responses, particularly neutrophil function, impair production of some cytokines, inhibit collagen synthesis, and impair wound healing and bone matrix formation. Numerous conditions such as ageing, stress, smoking, ionizing radiation, ingestion of drugs, protein malnutrition, diabetes, and several other pathological states, which are among the risk factors for xerostomia and periodontal/oral mucosal lesions, promote tissue depletion of ascorbate. This study suggests that increased salivary and blood levels of glucocorticoids in these conditions may be important in reducing the ability of the host to mount an effective immune response to oral pathogens. PMID:7487575

  17. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vanella, Luca; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Russo, Alessandra; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape), isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration. PMID:26904104

  18. Atomic-Level Characterization of the Chain-Flipping Mechanism in Fatty-Acids Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Francesco; Masetti, Matteo; Recanatini, Maurizio; Cavalli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    During fatty acids biosynthesis the elongating acyl chain is sequestered within the core of the highly conserved acyl carrier protein (ACP). At each catalytic step, the acyl intermediates are transiently delivered from ACP to the active site of the enzymatic counterparts and, at the same time, are protected from the solvent to prevent nonselective reactivity. Yet, the molecular determinants of such a universal transition-termed chain flipping-remain poorly understood. Here we capture the atomic-level details of the chain-flipping mechanism by using metadynamics simulations. We observe the fatty-acid chain gliding through the protein-protein interface with barely 30% of its surface exposed to water molecules. The small ACP's helix III acts as gatekeeper of the process, and we find its conformational plasticity critical for a successful substrate transfer. The results are in agreement with a wide range of experimental observations and provide unprecedented insight on the molecular determinants and driving forces of the chain-flipping process. PMID:27409360

  19. Atomic-Level Characterization of the Chain-Flipping Mechanism in Fatty-Acids Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Francesco; Masetti, Matteo; Recanatini, Maurizio; Cavalli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    During fatty acids biosynthesis the elongating acyl chain is sequestered within the core of the highly conserved acyl carrier protein (ACP). At each catalytic step, the acyl intermediates are transiently delivered from ACP to the active site of the enzymatic counterparts and, at the same time, are protected from the solvent to prevent nonselective reactivity. Yet, the molecular determinants of such a universal transition-termed chain flipping-remain poorly understood. Here we capture the atomic-level details of the chain-flipping mechanism by using metadynamics simulations. We observe the fatty-acid chain gliding through the protein-protein interface with barely 30% of its surface exposed to water molecules. The small ACP's helix III acts as gatekeeper of the process, and we find its conformational plasticity critical for a successful substrate transfer. The results are in agreement with a wide range of experimental observations and provide unprecedented insight on the molecular determinants and driving forces of the chain-flipping process.

  20. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced increases in ascorbic acid levels on tissue. beta. -glucuronidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Barrett, T.J.; Leonard, D.A.; Horton, H.M.; Kenyon, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The interrelationship between tissue ascorbic acid levels and tissue ..beta..-glucuronidase activity was examined in rats injected with 3-methylcholanthrene, an agent which induces ascorbic acid synthesis in rats. Six Fisher 344 rats were dosed intraperitoneally (IP) with 30 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene. Ascorbic acid levels and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-G) activity were determined for lung, liver and kidney tissues. In a follow-up study, rats were dosed for three consecutive days with 3-methylcholanthrene. Controls in both groups were dosed IP with Emulphor (EL-620). Animals were sacrificed one week after the final dosage and lung, liver and kidney tissues were examined.

  1. Increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid modify the plasma cholesterol level and hepatic mass of scavenger receptor BI without affecting bile acid biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Loison, Carole; Mendy, François; Serougne, Colette; Lutton, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2% of the total dietary energy) on the plasma and hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Six groups of hamsters received semi-purified diets containing 0.05% cholesterol and 12.5% lipids and differing only by the nature of the triglycerides (Safflower oil, lard, lard/coconut oil (1:1), milk fat, milk fat/coconut oil (1:1), coconut oil) for 3 weeks. A positive regression between the plasma cholesterol level and the dietary myristic acid level was observed (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001). However, it is noteworthy that the increase in plasma total cholesterol only reflects an increase in the level of HDL-cholesterol. In parallel, the mass SR-BI decreased linearly with the increased level of myristic acid in the diet, whereas the LDL-R did not change. This study shows that increasing amounts of myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2%) do not alter the cholesterol or bile acid metabolism and increase only the HDL-C. PMID:12216956

  2. Sialic acid level in maternal and neonatal lymphocytes and sera correlated to birth order and sex of the neonate.

    PubMed

    Komlos, L; Landmann, J; Notmann, J; Dulitzky, F; Kyzer, S; Hart, J; Halbrecht, I; Levinsky, H

    1992-01-01

    Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) was determined 1 h after normal term deliveries on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 42 mother-neonate pairs and in 29 maternal and neonatal sera. Results were evaluated according to maternal parity and sex of the neonate. The cases were divided into two groups: primiparae, and secundi- and multiparae. In primiparae the sialic acid level on lymphocytes from male neonates and from their mothers was by 23-30% decreased as compared to female neonatal and maternal cells. In the higher parity group, a significantly increased sialic acid level was found on lymphocytes from male as compared to female neonates, and maternal serum sialic acid concentration, unrelated to the newborns' sex, was by 17-20% increased as compared to primiparae. The results suggest that with increasing parity higher levels of sialic acid on male neonatal cells may possibly contribute to mask fetal male-specific histocompatibility antigens. Increased sialic acid levels in maternal sera from secundi- and multiparae suggest its possible contribution to an increased serum blocking effect. PMID:1472580

  3. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet.

  4. Increased plasma levels of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    About 350 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes (T2D). The major risk factor of T2D is impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) with 10% of pre-diabetes subjects develop T2D every year. Understanding of mechanisms of development of T2D from pre-diabetes is important for prevention and treatment of T2D. Chronic stress and chronic low grade inflammation are prominent risk factors for T2D development in pre-diabetic subjects. However, molecular mechanisms mediating effect of stress and inflammation on development of T2D from pre-diabetes remain unknown. One of such mechanisms might involve kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. We suggested that chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation-induced upregulation of formation of upstream KTP metabolites, KYN and 3-hydroxyKYN, combined with chronic stress or chronic low grade inflammation-induced deficiency of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, a cofactor of downstream enzymes of KTP, triggers overproduction of diabetogenic downstream KYN metabolites, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxyKYNA (also known as xanthurenic acid (XA)). As the initial assessment of our working hypothesis, we evaluated plasma levels of up- and down-stream KP metabolites in the same samples of T2D patients. KYN, XA and KYNA levels in plasma samples of T2D patients were higher than in samples of non-diabetic subjects. Our results provide further support of “kynurenine hypothesis of insulin resistance and its progression to T2D” that suggested that overproduction of diabetogenic KP metabolites, induced by chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation, is one of the mechanisms promoting development of T2D from pre-diabetes. Downstream metabolites of KP might serve as biomarkers of T2D and targets for clinical intervention. PMID:26055228

  5. Domain-level rocking motion within a polymerase that translocates on single-stranded nucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huiyung; Li, Changzheng; Zhou, Sufeng; Poulos, Thomas L.; Gershon, Paul David

    2013-04-01

    An X-ray crystallographic structure is described for unliganded Vaccinia virus poly(A) polymerase monomer (VP55), showing the first domain-level structural isoforms among either VP55, it’s processivity factor VP39, or the VP55-VP39 heterodimer. The occurrence of domain-level motion specifically in monomeric VP55 is consistent with the finding that the monomeric protein undergoes saltatory translocation whereas the heterodimer does not. Vaccinia virus poly(A) polymerase (VP55) is the only known polymerase that can translocate independently with respect to single-stranded nucleic acid (ssNA). Previously, its structure has only been solved in the context of the VP39 processivity factor. Here, a crystal structure of unliganded monomeric VP55 has been solved to 2.86 Å resolution, showing the first backbone structural isoforms among either VP55 or its processivity factor (VP39). Backbone differences between the two molecules of VP55 in the asymmetric unit indicated that unliganded monomeric VP55 can undergo a ‘rocking’ motion of the N-terminal domain with respect to the other two domains, which may be ‘rigidified’ upon VP39 docking. This observation is consistent with previously demonstrated experimental molecular dynamics of the monomer during translocation with respect to nucleic acid and with different mechanisms of translocation in the presence and absence of processivity factor VP39. Side-chain conformational changes in the absence of ligand were observed at a key primer contact site and at the catalytic center of VP55. The current structure completes the trio of possible structural forms for VP55 and VP39, namely the VP39 monomer, the VP39–VP55 heterodimer and the VP55 monomer.

  6. Structure of a microbial community in soil after prolonged addition of low levels of simulated acid rain

    PubMed

    Pennanen; Fritze; Vanhala; Kiikkila; Neuvonen; Baath

    1998-06-01

    Humus samples were collected 12 growing seasons after the start of a simulated acid rain experiment situated in the subarctic environment. The acid rain was simulated with H2SO4, a combination of H2SO4 and HNO3, and HNO3 at two levels of moderate acidic loads close to the natural anthropogenic pollution levels of southern Scandinavia. The higher levels of acid applications resulted in acidification, as defined by humus chemistry. The concentrations of base cations decreased, while the concentrations of exchangeable H+, Al, and Fe increased. Humus pH decreased from 3.83 to 3.65. Basal respiration decreased with decreasing humus pH, and total microbial biomass, measured by substrate-induced respiration and total amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), decreased slightly. An altered PLFA pattern indicated a change in the microbial community structure at the higher levels of acid applications. In general, branched fatty acids, typical of gram-positive bacteria, increased in the acid plots. PLFA analysis performed on the bacterial community growing on agar plates also showed that the relative amount of PLFA specific for gram-positive bacteria increased due to the acidification. The changed bacterial community was adapted to the more acidic environment in the acid-treated plots, even though bacterial growth rates, estimated by thymidine and leucine incorporation, decreased with pH. Fungal activity (measured as acetate incorporation into ergosterol) was not affected. This result indicates that bacteria were more affected than fungi by the acidification. The capacity of the bacterial community to utilize 95 different carbon sources was variable and only showed weak correlations to pH. Differences in the toxicities of H2SO4 and HNO3 for the microbial community were not found.

  7. Parenteral lipid emulsions in guinea pigs differentially influence plasma and tissue levels of fatty acids, squalene, cholesterol, and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kevin; Xu, Zhidong; Walker, Candace; Pavlina, Thomas; McGrath, Sheila; Zaloga, Gary; Siddiqui, Rafat

    2014-08-01

    Lipid emulsions are made by mixing vegetable and/or fish oils with egg yolk and contain different types and amounts of fatty acids and sterols. This study assessed the effects of oral diet, soybean oil (SO)-, fish oil (FO)-, a mixture of olive and soybean oil (OOSO)-, and a mixture of fish, olive, coconut, and soybean oil (FOCS)-based emulsions on plasma triacylglycerols and plasma and tissue fatty acid and sterol content following acute and chronic intravenous administration in the guinea pig. Upon acute administration, peak triacylglycerols were highest with SO and lowest with OOSO. Upon chronic administration, the plasma triglyceride levels did not increase in any group over that of the controls. Fatty acid levels varied greatly between organs of animals on the control diets and organs of animals following acute or chronic lipid administration. Squalene levels increased in plasma following acute administration of OOSO, but plasma squalene levels were similar to control in all emulsion groups following chronic administration. Total plasma phytosterol levels were increased in the SO, OOSO, and FOCS groups following both acute and chronic infusions, whereas phytosterols were not increased following FO infusion. Total phytosterol levels were higher in liver, lung, kidney and adipose tissue following SO and OOSO. Levels were not increased in tissues after FO and FOCS infusion. These results indicate that fatty acid and sterol contents vary greatly among organs and that no one tissue reflects the fatty acid or sterol composition of other tissues, suggesting that different organs regulate these compounds differently.

  8. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  9. Relation of Lipid Content of Coronary Plaque to Level of Serum Uric Acid.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuichi; Nakayama, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazumasa; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2015-11-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) level is known to be a prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the pathogenesis of the relation between SUA level and coronary plaque characteristics has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between SUA level and plaque composition of nonculprit lesions in patients with ACS. A total of 81 patients with ACS who underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention were included. They were classified into 3 groups according to tertiles of SUA level. Using integrated backscatter (IB)-IVUS system, tissue components were classified into 4 categories: calcium deposits, dense fibrosis, fibrosis, and lipid. Tertiles of SUA level were as follows: low tertile <5.0 mg/dl; intermediate tertile 5.0 to 6.4 mg/dl; and high tertile >6.4 mg/dl. There was a trend toward greater vessel volume in the high tertile group than in the low and intermediate tertile groups (19.4 ± 3.7 vs 17.4 ± 4.4 vs 16.7 ± 4.1 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in lumen volume between the 3 groups. Plaque volume was significantly greater in the high than in the low tertile group (8.6 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.2 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.01). IB-IVUS analysis demonstrated greater lipid (59.1 ± 9.1% vs 49.7 ± 10.9% vs 51.1 ± 9.3%, p = 0.001) and less fibrous components (36.8 ± 7.8% vs 44.3 ± 7.8% vs 43.2 ± 6.7%, p <0.001) in the high than in the low and intermediate tertile groups. Multivariate analysis showed high SUA as an independent predictor of increasing lipid volume. In conclusion, elevated SUA level is associated with greater lipid content of coronary plaque in patients with ACS than in patients with normal levels.

  10. Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C

    1985-10-15

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression.

  11. Extra virgin olive oil modulates brain docosahexaenoic acid level and oxidative damage caused by 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Amel, Nakbi; Wafa, Tayeb; Samia, Dabbou; Yousra, Belaid; Issam, Chargui; Cheraif, Imed; Attia, Nebil; Mohamed, Hammami

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathomechanism of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disorders and many others. This study sought to verify whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) exerted a brain protective effect against the oxidative stress caused by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) pesticide at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. 2,4-D, EVOO and its fractions were administered to rats by gavages for four consecutive weeks. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring brain lipid peroxide level, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidant enzyme activities and fatty acid composition. 2,4-D induced a decrease in both plasma and brain acetylcholinesterase activity and a rise in Brain TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level and antioxidant enzyme activities compared with the control group. These changes were partly reversed by either EVOO or its fractions oral administration to 2,4-D treated rats. EVOO enhanced a neuroprotective effect evaluated by the restoration of brain fatty acid composition especially the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Our results indicate that EVOO exerts a neuroprotective activity against oxidative damage in brain induced by 2,4-D, which could be attributed to its antioxidative property. PMID:27570270

  12. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both GA and OPA are widely used in disinfection of endoscopes and have been previously discussed, but there is little research on the practical use of PAA as an endoscope disinfectant. An experimental model of a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope being contaminated with 9 strains of microorganism was designed. After the cleaning and disinfecting procedure was completed, we evaluated the biocidal activity (850 ppm PAA, 2% GA, and 0.55% OPA) on our flexible gastrointestinal endoscope model. We also evaluated sterilization effectiveness of PAA on other bacteria, including some antibiotic-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile). The residual bacterial colony count number of the PAA-disinfected endoscope was significantly lower than that of the GA- and OPA-disinfected endoscopes. The biocidal effect and efficiency of the endoscope disinfection by PAA appeared to be better than either the GA- or OPA-disinfected endoscope. PAA has demonstrated a good sterilization effect on other bacterial species; of particular note are common antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile. The results of this study demonstrate that PAA is a fast and effective high-level disinfectant for use in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes. PMID:27070796

  13. Aspartame administration to the infant monkey: hypothalamic morphology and plasma amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W A; Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Renn, E

    1980-09-01

    Infant monkeys received 2 gm/kg body weight of aspartame (APM) or 2 gm/kg body weight APM plus 1 gm/kg body weight monosodium glutamate (MSG) by gastric tube. Blood samples were obtained at intervals over the ensuing 4 hours and analyzed for amino acid levels. At this time, each infant was perfused with glutaraldehyde. The hypothalamus was embedded in plastic and then serially sectioned at 1 mu. Hypothalamic morphology was normal in all eight infants given 2 gm/kg body weight APM and in the six infants given 2 gm/kg body weight APM plus 1 gm/kg body weight MSG. By light microscopy, no pycnotic nuclei, neuronal degeneration, or dendritic swelling was noted. In both experimental and control brains, localized areas of poor perfusion exhibited abnormal morphology. Elevated plasma levels of aspartate, glutamate, and phenylalanine indicated that the test compounds were administered and absorbed. Variable rates of absorption were evident, probably due to the necessity of administering APM as a slurry, due to its low solubility. On the basis of blood absorption curves, it appears that infant monkeys metabolize aspartate and glutamate and phenylalanine somewhat more rapidly than man. It is concluded that APM given alone or with MSG, in large acute doses, does not result in hypothalamic damage in the newborn monkey.

  14. The Effect of Temperature on the Level and Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Diacylglycerols of Brassica napus Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John P.; Khan, Mobashsher U.; Mitchell, Kirk; Johnson, Geoff

    1988-01-01

    Experiments on the effects of temperature on the levels of unsaturated fatty acids and their rates of desaturation in Brassica napus leaf lipids have shown that significant differences occur in the composition of all diacylglycerols in the leaf between plants grown at high and low temperatures. In the major thylakoid diacylglycerols, monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, not only is there an increase in the level of unsaturation at low temperatures, but there is a change in the balance between molecular species of chloroplastic origin (16/18C) and cytosolic origin (18/18C). Radioactivity tracer data indicate that at low temperatures there are two distinct phases of desaturation in the fatty acids of the major diacylglycerols of these leaves. A rapid phase, which appears in plants grown at low temperatures and results in the desaturation of palmitic acid to hexadecadienoic acid and oleic acid to linoleic acid may explain the high levels of unsaturated fatty acids found in the leaf diacylglycerols from plants grown at low temperatures. The appearance of this rapid phase is controlled by the temperature at which the plant is grown and is not subject to rapid variations in environmental temperature. PMID:16666243

  15. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  16. Relationship of circulating hyaluronic acid levels to disease control in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eszes, Noémi; Toldi, Gergely; Bohács, Anikó; Ivancsó, István; Müller, Veronika; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tamási, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7-31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1-66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients' age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = -0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and <20 (uncontrolled patients) with a 0.826 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.69-0.97, p = 0.001) when 37.4 ng/mL is used as cut-off value in ANP group, and with 0.78 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.65-0.92, p = 0.0009) in the whole asthmatic cohort. In conclusion circulating HA might be a marker of asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance.

  17. Single-Cell Measurements of Enzyme Levels as a Predictive Tool for Cellular Fates during Organic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Zdraljevic, Stefan; Wagner, Drew; Cheng, Kevin; Ruohonen, Laura; Jäntti, Jussi; Penttilä, Merja; Resnekov, Orna

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids derived from engineered microbes can replace fossil-derived chemicals in many applications. Fungal hosts are preferred for organic acid production because they tolerate lignocellulosic hydrolysates and low pH, allowing economic production and recovery of the free acid. However, cell death caused by cytosolic acidification constrains productivity. Cytosolic acidification affects cells asynchronously, suggesting that there is an underlying cell-to-cell heterogeneity in acid productivity and/or in resistance to toxicity. We used fluorescence microscopy to investigate the relationship between enzyme concentration, cytosolic pH, and viability at the single-cell level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to synthesize xylonic acid. We found that cultures producing xylonic acid accumulate cells with cytosolic pH below 5 (referred to here as “acidified”). Using live-cell time courses, we found that the probability of acidification was related to the initial levels of xylose dehydrogenase and sharply increased from 0.2 to 0.8 with just a 60% increase in enzyme abundance (Hill coefficient, >6). This “switch-like” relationship likely results from an enzyme level threshold above which the produced acid overwhelms the cell's pH buffering capacity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we showed that expression of xylose dehydrogenase from a chromosomal locus yields ∼20 times fewer acidified cells and ∼2-fold more xylonic acid relative to expression of the enzyme from a plasmid with variable copy number. These results suggest that strategies that further reduce cell-to-cell heterogeneity in enzyme levels could result in additional gains in xylonic acid productivity. Our results demonstrate a generalizable approach that takes advantage of the cell-to-cell variation of a clonal population to uncover causal relationships in the toxicity of engineered pathways. PMID:24038690

  18. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  19. Secondary palatal closure in rats in association with relative maternofetal levels of folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, Jens; Maile, Sergei; Proff, Peter; Reicheneder, Claudia; Bienengräber, Volker; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Animal experiments are used in embryological and teratological studies of matters relevant to humans. In gravid rats, a decrease in the levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 was observed in maternal blood and in amniotic fluid. At the time of secondary palatal closure (14th day of pregnancy), the folic acid level of the amniotic fluid was 73% lower than that of the maternal blood. A drop in vitamin B12 in conjunction with an increase in amniotic homocysteine levels is seen as a risk factor for malformation of the palate. The understanding of causes of cleft generation could lead to a prophylactic treatment approach.

  20. Effects of smoking on fatty acid composition of phospholipid sperm membrane and the malondialdehyde levels in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Štramová, X; Čegan, A; Hampl, R; Kanďár, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acids composition of sperm phospholipids, level of lipoperoxidation represented by malondialdehyde and to examine differences between recent smokers and nonsmokers. The levels of malondialdehyde were in the group of all patients 1.51 ± 0.56 μmol l(-1) , in smokers 1.36 ± 0.59 μmol l(-1) and in nonsmokers 1.53 ± 0.55 μmol l(-1) . Total sperm membrane phospholipid fatty acids were profiled into several groups, saturated acids (in smokers 61.86 ± 9.02%, in nonsmokers 61.20 ± 11.66%), polyunsaturated acids n-3 (in smokers 12.62 ± 8.18%, in nonsmokers 14.28 ± 13.65%), polyunsaturated acids n-6 (in smokers 9.13 ± 4.37%, in nonsmokers 10.10 ± 3.79%) and other acids (in smokers 14.36 ± 3.94%, in nonsmokers 13.88 ± 2.31%). Significant correlations were found between the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sperm motility in all patients (r = -0.358, P = 0.013), between both the level of MDA and progressive motility (r = -0.465, P = 0.001) and between the level of MDA and total motility (r = -0.382, P = 0.037) in nonsmokers. There were no statistically significant differences between composition of sperm phospholipid important fatty acids in smokers and nonsmokers. Significant correlations between selected sperm fatty acids and sperm motility and morphology in smokers and nonsmokers were not observed. PMID:25311153

  1. Effects of smoking on fatty acid composition of phospholipid sperm membrane and the malondialdehyde levels in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Štramová, X; Čegan, A; Hampl, R; Kanďár, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acids composition of sperm phospholipids, level of lipoperoxidation represented by malondialdehyde and to examine differences between recent smokers and nonsmokers. The levels of malondialdehyde were in the group of all patients 1.51 ± 0.56 μmol l(-1) , in smokers 1.36 ± 0.59 μmol l(-1) and in nonsmokers 1.53 ± 0.55 μmol l(-1) . Total sperm membrane phospholipid fatty acids were profiled into several groups, saturated acids (in smokers 61.86 ± 9.02%, in nonsmokers 61.20 ± 11.66%), polyunsaturated acids n-3 (in smokers 12.62 ± 8.18%, in nonsmokers 14.28 ± 13.65%), polyunsaturated acids n-6 (in smokers 9.13 ± 4.37%, in nonsmokers 10.10 ± 3.79%) and other acids (in smokers 14.36 ± 3.94%, in nonsmokers 13.88 ± 2.31%). Significant correlations were found between the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sperm motility in all patients (r = -0.358, P = 0.013), between both the level of MDA and progressive motility (r = -0.465, P = 0.001) and between the level of MDA and total motility (r = -0.382, P = 0.037) in nonsmokers. There were no statistically significant differences between composition of sperm phospholipid important fatty acids in smokers and nonsmokers. Significant correlations between selected sperm fatty acids and sperm motility and morphology in smokers and nonsmokers were not observed.

  2. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jayong; Veeramachaneni, Sudipta; Liu, Chun; Mernitz, Heather; Russell, Robert M; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2009-09-01

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby preventing ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation. For 1 month, 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol (36% of the total energy) diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group) or ethanol in combination with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of all-trans-RA (Alc + RA group), 2 mg/kg body weight of VE (Alc + VE group), or both together (Alc + RA + VE group). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with an isocaloric amount of maltodextrin instead of ethanol. The ethanol-fed groups had 3-fold higher hepatic CYP2E1 levels, 50% lower hepatic RA levels, and significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation when compared with the controls. The ethanol-fed rats given VE had more than 4-fold higher hepatic VE concentrations than the ethanol-fed rats without VE, but this did not prevent ethanol induction of CYP2E1, lower hepatic retinoid levels, or hepatocellular hyperproliferation. Furthermore, VE supplementation could not prevent RA catabolism in liver microsomal fractions of the ethanol-fed rats in vitro. These results show that VE supplementation can neither inhibit ethanol-induced changes in RA catabolism nor prevent ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation in the rat liver.

  3. Predictors of urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and pentachlorophenol in 121 adults in Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited data exist on the driving factors that influence the non-occupational exposures of adults to pesticides using urinary biomonitoring. In this work, the objectives were to quantify the urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TC...

  4. Lorenzo's oil inhibits ELOVL1 and lowers the level of sphingomyelin with a saturated very long-chain fatty acid[S

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Takayuki; Wakashima, Takeshi; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) due to mutations in the ABCD1 gene responsible for VLCFA transport into peroxisomes. Lorenzo's oil, a 4:1 mixture of glyceryl trioleate and glyceryl trierucate, has been used to reduce the saturated VLCFA level in the plasma of X-ALD patients; however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains elusive. We report the biochemical characterization of Lorenzo's oil activity toward elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL) 1, the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs. Oleic and erucic acids inhibited ELOVL1, and, moreover, their 4:1 mixture (the FA composition of Lorenzo's oil) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity. The kinetics analysis revealed that this was a mixed (not a competitive) inhibition. At the cellular level, treatment with the 4:1 mixture reduced the level of SM with a saturated VLCFA accompanied by an increased level of SM with a monounsaturated VLCFA, probably due to the incorporation of erucic acid into the FA elongation cycle. These results suggest that inhibition of ELOVL1 may be an underlying mechanism by which Lorenzo's oil exerts its action. PMID:24489110

  5. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Agnes; Mfilinge, Prosper; Limbu, Samwel M.; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F = 6.19,  P = 0.001). The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F = 0.652,  P = 0.583). The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. PMID:25610654

  6. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a

  7. Effect of aspartame and aspartate loading upon plasma and erythrocyte free amino acid levels in normal adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Baker, G L

    1977-10-01

    Aspartame is a dipeptide (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester) with a sweeting potential 180 to 200 times that of sucrose. Questions have been raised about potential toxic effects of its constituent amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine when the compound is ingested in large amounts. Plasma and erythrocyte amino acid levels were measured in 12 normal subjects after administration of either Aspartame (34 mg/kg) or equimolar quantities of aspartate (13 mg/kg) in a crossover design. No changes in either plasma or erythrocyte aspartate levels were noted at any time after either Aspartame or aspartate ingestion. Plasma phenylalanine levels decrease slightly after aspartate loading, and increased from fasting levels (4.9 +/- 1 mumoles/100 ml) to 10.7 +/- 1.9 mumoles/100 ml about 45 to 60 minutes after Aspartame loading. Phenylalanine levels returned to baseline by 4 hours. Erythrocyte phenylalanine levels showed similar changes.

  8. Antiepileptic potential of matrine via regulation the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-12-05

    Our present study aimed to determine the antiepileptic activity of matrine, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of matrine, seizures in mice induced by PTZ and MES were established, then the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests in mice were also carried out. For the molecular mechanism investigations, contents of aspartic acid (Asp), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), glycine (Gly) in seizures mice were determined; then, the chronic seizures rats induced by PTZ were prepared, and western blotting was used to determine the expressions of GAD 65, GABAA and GABAB in the brains. In the results, matrine showed significant antiepileptic effects on seizures mice induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests were also demonstrated that matrine had obvious antiepileptic effects. Additionally, our results revealed that after treatment with matrine, contents of GABA can be elevated, and the contents of Glu were obviously decreased. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the mechanism regarding the antiepileptic effect of may be related to the up-regulations of GAD 65 and GABAA in the brain. Collectively, we suggested that matrine can be developed as an effective antiseptic drug.

  9. Antiepileptic Potential of Matrine via Regulation the Levels of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamic Acid in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jun; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    Our present study aimed to determine the antiepileptic activity of matrine, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of matrine, seizures in mice induced by PTZ and MES were established, then the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests in mice were also carried out. For the molecular mechanism investigations, contents of aspartic acid (Asp), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), glycine (Gly) in seizures mice were determined; then, the chronic seizures rats induced by PTZ were prepared, and western blotting was used to determine the expressions of GAD 65, GABAA and GABAB in the brains. In the results, matrine showed significant antiepileptic effects on seizures mice induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests were also demonstrated that matrine had obvious antiepileptic effects. Additionally, our results revealed that after treatment with matrine, contents of GABA can be elevated, and the contents of Glu were obviously decreased. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the mechanism regarding the antiepileptic effect of may be related to the up-regulations of GAD 65 and GABAA in the brain. Collectively, we suggested that matrine can be developed as an effective antiseptic drug. PMID:24317434

  10. Acidification in the Adirondacks: defining the biota in trophic levels of 30 chemically diverse acid-impacted lakes.

    PubMed

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Boylen, Charles W; Eichler, Lawrence W; Harrison, James P; Sutherland, James W; Shaw, William; Daniels, Robert A; Charles, Donald F; Acker, Frank W; Sullivan, Timothy J; Momen, Bahram; Bukaveckas, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on species diversity, from bacteria through fish, essential for understanding the full impact of acidification on biota. Baseline midsummer chemistry and community composition are presented for a group of chemically diverse Adirondack lakes. Species richness of all trophic levels except bacteria is significantly correlated with lake acid-base chemistry. The loss of taxa observed per unit pH was similar: bacterial genera (2.50), bacterial classes (1.43), phytoplankton (3.97), rotifers (3.56), crustaceans (1.75), macrophytes (3.96), and fish (3.72). Specific pH criteria were applied to the communities to define and identify acid-tolerant (pH<5.0), acid-resistant (pH 5.0-5.6), and acid-sensitive (pH>5.6) species which could serve as indicators. Acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive categories are at end-points along the pH scale, significantly different at P<0.05; the acid-resistant category is the range of pH between these end-points, where community changes continually occur as the ecosystem moves in one direction or another. The biota acid tolerance classification (batc) system described herein provides a clear distinction between the taxonomic groups identified in these subcategories and can be used to evaluate the impact of acid deposition on different trophic levels of biological communities.

  11. Determination of folate/folic acid level in milk by microbiological assay, immuno assay and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramya; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2013-05-01

    A concurrent determination of folate versus folic acid in milk by microbiological assay (MA) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as the assay organism, Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) by competitive binding rapid ELISA kit (RIDASCREEN®) and high-pressure-liquid chromatography (HPLC) was done for detection of the folate form and its level. MA gave total folate content as Lb. rhamnosus showed similar response to most folate isomers formed by the tri-enzyme treatment in comparison with the other two methods which specifically estimated the folic acid. In case of ELISA, specificity was apparently limited to folic acid and dihydro folic acid and thereby showed a lower response for other folate derivatives. Estimation by HPLC with UV detector was highly specific and hence only folic acid could be detected without any cross reactivity. Among the different methods HPLC was observed to be the most sensitive method for determination of folic acid and hence can efficiently determine the folic acid fortification level while MA remained highly efficient, sensitive and reproducible method for estimation of total folate indicating its potential use for dietary folate estimation.

  12. Effects of dietary folic acid level and symbiotic folate production on fitness and development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Blatch, Sydella A; Meyer, Kyle W; Harrison, Jon F

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid is a vitamin for probably all animals. When converted to folate forms, it is used in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism. Literature suggests insects must consume folates, folates do not affect others, is a toxin for some, and that a few insects synthesize it. It has been reported that Drosophila melanogaster does not consistently need dietary folate because it can synthesize it. This seems unlikely since animals generally lack this ability. More likely, folates thought to have been made by the fly came from microbial symbionts. We aimed to clarify how dietary folic acid affects fitness and development in fruit flies and whether flies may receive folates from microbial symbionts. We found larvae were more viable and developed faster with increasing dietary folic acid, with the surprising exception that larvae fed nearly-zero folic acid developed faster. Their body folate levels did not significantly differ from those that consumed up to 600 times more folic acid. However, these flies fed little folate only achieved normal body folate levels and development times when antibiotics were excluded from the diet. When flies consumed near-zero folates with antibiotics, their body folate levels decreased and development was prolonged. An assay for the endosymbiont Wolbachia in flies used to generate the experimental flies did not show presence of these bacteria. Our data suggest D. melanogaster can harbor unknown bacterial symbiont(s) that provide essential folates to their host when it is scarce in the diet, allowing the fruit fly to maintain growth and development.

  13. Deletions of the SACPD-C locus elevate seed stearic acid levels but also result in fatty acid and morphological alterations in nitrogen fixing nodules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are the primary source of edible oil in the United States. Despite its widespread utility, soybean oil is oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent chemical hydrogenation, a process which also generates trans fats. An alternative to chemical hydrogenation is genetic modification of seed oil through identification and introgression of mutant alleles. One target for improvement is the elevation of a saturated fat with no negative cardiovascular impacts, stearic acid, which typically constitutes a minute portion of seed oil (~3%). Results We examined radiation induced soybean mutants with moderately increased stearic acid (10-15% of seed oil, ~3-5 X the levels in wild-type soybean seeds) via comparative whole genome hybridization and genetic analysis. The deletion of one SACPD isoform encoding gene (SACPD-C) was perfectly correlated with moderate elevation of seed stearic acid content. However, SACPD-C deletion lines were also found to have altered nodule fatty acid composition and grossly altered morphology. Despite these defects, overall nodule accumulation and nitrogen fixation were unaffected, at least under laboratory conditions. Conclusions Although no yield penalty has been reported for moderate elevated seed stearic acid content in soybean seeds, our results demonstrate that genetic alteration of seed traits can have unforeseen pleiotropic consequences. We have identified a role for fatty acid biosynthesis, and SACPD activity in particular, in the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:24886084

  14. Association of the acid phosphatase (ACP1) gene with triglyceride levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Nunzio; MacMurray, James; Peters, Warren; Rostamkhani, Masoud; Comings, David E

    2002-11-01

    The acid phosphatase (ACP1) locus codes for a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) that is found ubiquitously in human tissues. The *A allele of the ACP1 gene is associated with lower total enzymatic activity than the *B and *C alleles. An association between the *A allele and extreme values of body-mass-index (BMI) and dyslipidemia has previously been described in several samples of obese subjects from the Italian population. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between ACP1 *A allele genotypes (*A/*A, *A/*B, and *A/*C) and non-*A allele genotypes (*B/*B, *B/*C, and *C/*C) and metabolic variables in 277 Caucasian post-menopausal subjects consisting of 82 non-obese subjects (BMI/=35) subjects. ACP1 genotypes were found to be significantly associated with total cholesterol (plevels in the obese and very obese women only. The significantly lower levels of triglycerides in *A carriers in this group suggest a protective effect of the *A allele against hypertriglyceridemia. It has been unclear why some individuals who gain weight develop dyslipidemia and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome while others do not. The present study suggests that those who gain weight and carry the ACP1 *A allele may be partially protected against developing the metabolic syndrome. The confirmation of ACP1 as a modifier gene of the metabolic complications could open the door to the prevention of the lethal complications of obesity. PMID:12409270

  15. Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake increases resolvin and protectin levels in the rat placenta

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan L.; Mark, Peter J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Barden, Anne; Mas, Emilie; Mori, Trevor A.; Waddell, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Placental inflammation is associated with several pregnancy disorders. Inflammation is limited by anti-inflammatory and proresolving mechanisms, the latter partly mediated by resolvins and protectins derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). We examined effects of dietary n-3PUFAs on levels of resolvins, protectins, and lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes in the rat placenta. Rats consumed standard (Std) or high n-3PUFA (Hn3) diets from day 1 of pregnancy; tissues were collected on day 17 or 22 (term = day 23). Maternal Hn3 diet increased resolvin and protectin precursors, 18R/S-HEPE (P < 0.001), and 17R/S-HDHA (P < 0.01) at both days. Resolvins (17R-RvD1 and RvD1) increased at day 22 (P < 0.001) after Hn3 consumption, coincident with higher Alox15b and Alox5 mRNA expression, while RvD2 increased at both days (P < 0.05). Protectins, PD1, and 10S,17S-DiHDHA increased over late gestation (P < 0.001), coincident with higher Alox15 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and further increased with Hn3 diet (P < 0.05). Maternal systemic and placental proinflammatory mediators were not suppressed by Hn3 diet; systemic IL1β, placental Il1β, and Il6 mRNA expression increased marginally with Hn3 at day 22 (P < 0.001), while Ptgs1 (Cox1) expression increased both days (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that maternal n-3PUFA supplementation enhances expression of enzymes in the n-3PUFA metabolic pathway and increases placental levels of resolvins and protectins. PMID:23723388

  16. Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaoyun; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang

    2014-01-15

    The origin of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) occurring in hydrosphere has long been a controversial issue. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs/HFCs) as replacements of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are precursors of TFA in the atmosphere, their contribution to rainwater TFA is a concern as their ambient mixing ratios are continually growing. Here we present rainwater TFA monitored from April 2007 to March 2008 in urban Guangzhou, a central city in south China's highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta region. Rainwater TFA levels ranged 45.8-974 ng L(-1) with a median of 166 ng L(-1). TFA levels negatively correlated with rainfall amount, the yearly rainfall-weighted average for TFA was 152 ng L(-1). The annual TFA wet deposition flux was estimated to be 229 g km(-2) yr(-1), and the total wet deposition of TFA reached ~1.7 tyr(-1) in Guangzhou. The Two-Box model was applied to estimate attributions of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers to rainwater TFA assuming TFA generated was proportional to gross domestic product (GDP), gross industrial product (GIP) or number of private cars. The results revealed that the degradation of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers could explain 131.5-152.4 ng L(-1) rainwater TFA, quite near the observed rainfall-weighted annual mean of 152 ng L(-1), suggesting rainwater TFA in Guangzhou was predominantly originated from these anthropogenic precursors. HCFCs/HFCs accounted for 83.3-96.5% of rainwater TFA observed, while fluoropolymers' contributions were minor (~5%). HFC-134a alone could explain 55.9-90.0% of rainwater TFA, and its contribution would be greatly enhanced with its wide use in mobile air conditioning systems and rapid increase in ambient mixing ratios.

  17. Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaoyun; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang

    2014-01-15

    The origin of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) occurring in hydrosphere has long been a controversial issue. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs/HFCs) as replacements of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are precursors of TFA in the atmosphere, their contribution to rainwater TFA is a concern as their ambient mixing ratios are continually growing. Here we present rainwater TFA monitored from April 2007 to March 2008 in urban Guangzhou, a central city in south China's highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta region. Rainwater TFA levels ranged 45.8-974 ng L(-1) with a median of 166 ng L(-1). TFA levels negatively correlated with rainfall amount, the yearly rainfall-weighted average for TFA was 152 ng L(-1). The annual TFA wet deposition flux was estimated to be 229 g km(-2) yr(-1), and the total wet deposition of TFA reached ~1.7 tyr(-1) in Guangzhou. The Two-Box model was applied to estimate attributions of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers to rainwater TFA assuming TFA generated was proportional to gross domestic product (GDP), gross industrial product (GIP) or number of private cars. The results revealed that the degradation of HCFCs/HFCs and fluoropolymers could explain 131.5-152.4 ng L(-1) rainwater TFA, quite near the observed rainfall-weighted annual mean of 152 ng L(-1), suggesting rainwater TFA in Guangzhou was predominantly originated from these anthropogenic precursors. HCFCs/HFCs accounted for 83.3-96.5% of rainwater TFA observed, while fluoropolymers' contributions were minor (~5%). HFC-134a alone could explain 55.9-90.0% of rainwater TFA, and its contribution would be greatly enhanced with its wide use in mobile air conditioning systems and rapid increase in ambient mixing ratios. PMID:24035981

  18. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Simon R; Metcalfe, Hannah J; Plumb, Jonathan; Beerli, Christian; Poll, Chris; Singh, Dave; Abbott-Banner, Katharine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2) and acid SMase (aSMase), which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS), smokers (S), and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20) were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages) by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54%) compared with NS (31.7%) (P<0.05), and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2%) and S (69.5%) alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4%) (P<0.05). aSMase labeling was also increased in the subepithelium and alveolar walls of S compared with NS. Ceramide (C20) was significantly increased in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients compared with controls. Conclusion nSMase-2 and aSMase are both increased in COPD alveolar macrophages at the protein level; this may contribute toward the elevated ceramide (C20) detected in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients. PMID:27660431

  19. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. PMID:26849997

  20. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance.

  1. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Simon R; Metcalfe, Hannah J; Plumb, Jonathan; Beerli, Christian; Poll, Chris; Singh, Dave; Abbott-Banner, Katharine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2) and acid SMase (aSMase), which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS), smokers (S), and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20) were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages) by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54%) compared with NS (31.7%) (P<0.05), and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2%) and S (69.5%) alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4%) (P<0.05). aSMase labeling was also increased in the subepithelium and alveolar walls of S compared with NS. Ceramide (C20) was significantly increased in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients compared with controls. Conclusion nSMase-2 and aSMase are both increased in COPD alveolar macrophages at the protein level; this may contribute toward the elevated ceramide (C20) detected in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients.

  2. Determination of Critical Point of pO2 Level in the Production of Lactic Acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel, Maizirwan; Karim, Mohamed Ismail Abdul; Salleh, Mohamad Ramlan Mohamed; Abdullah, Rohane

    The study was conducted to determine the critical point of pO2 level in the production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The fermentation process was successfully carried out in laboratory scale fermenter/bioreactor using different pO2 level (the main parameter that significantly affects the growth of L. rhamnosus and lactic acid production) together with two other parameters; the agitation rate and pH. From the result, it was observed that the best production of lactic acid with the concentration of 16.85 g L-1 or 1.68% production yield has been obtained at the operating parameters of 5% pO2 level, agitation speed of 100 rpm and sample pH 6. The critical point of pO2 was found to be between 5 and 10%.

  3. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study. PMID:19329391

  4. Development of a highly sensitive MIP based-QCM nanosensor for selective determination of cholic acid level in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Aytaç; Karanfil, Gamze; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Say, Rıdvan

    2014-09-01

    Determination of cholic acid is very important and necessary in body fluids due to its both pharmaceutical and clinical significance. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor, which is imprinted cholic acid, has been developed for the assignation of cholic acid. The cholic acid selective memories have been generated on QCM electrode surface by using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacryloylamidohistidine-copper (II) (MAH-Cu(II)) pre-organized monomer. The cholic acid imprinted nanosensor was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and then analytical performance of the cholic acid imprinted QCM nanosensor was studied. The detection limit was found to be 0.0065μM with linear range of 0.01-1,000 μM. Moreover, the high value of Langmuir constant (b) (7.3*10(5)) obtained by Langmuir graph showed that the cholic acid imprinted nanosensor had quite strong binding sites affinity. At the last step of this procedure, cholic acid levels in body fluids were determined by the prepared imprinted QCM nanosensor.

  5. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study.

  6. A possible association between elevated serum levels of brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan A; El-Khashab, Heba Y; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2015-03-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are not only essential for energy production, but they also exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events. Autoimmunity may have a pathogenic role in a subgroup of autistic children. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between serum levels of anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of PUFAs in autistic children. Plasma levels of PUFAs (including linoleic, alphalinolenic, arachidonic "AA" and docosahexaenoic "DHA" acids) and serum anti-MBP were measured in 80 autistic children, aged between 4 and 12 years, and 80 healthy-matched children. Autistic patients had significantly lower plasma levels of PUFAs than healthy children. On the other hand, ω6/ω3 ratio (AA/DHA) was significantly higher in autistic patients than healthy children. Low plasma DHA, AA, linolenic and linoleic acids were found in 67.5%, 50%, 40% and 35%, respectively of autistic children. On the other hand, 70% of autistic patients had elevated ω6/ω3 ratio. Autistic patients with increased serum levels of anti-MBP auto-antibodies (75%) had significantly lower plasma DHA (P<0.5) and significantly higher ω6/ω3 ratio (P<0.5) than patients who were seronegative for these antibodies. In conclusions, some autistic children have a significant positive association between reduced levels of plasma DHA and increased serum levels of anti-MBP brain-specific auto-antibodies. However, replication studies of larger samples are recommended to validate whether reduced levels of plasma PUFAs are a mere association or have a role in the induction of the production of anti-MBP in some autistic children.

  7. Retinoic acid reverses the PTU related decrease in neurogranin level in mice brain.

    PubMed

    Enderlin, V; Vallortigara, J; Alfos, S; Féart, C; Pallet, V; Higueret, P

    2004-09-01

    Recent data have shown that fine regulation of retinoid mediated gene expression is fundamentally important for optimal brain functioning in aged mice. Nevertheless, alteration of the thyroid hormone signalling pathway may be a limiting factor, which impedes retinoic acid (RA) from exerting its modulating effect. Mild hypothyroidism is often described in the elderly. Thus, in the present study, it was of interest to determine if RA exerts its neurological modulating effect in mild hypothyroidism. To obtain further insight into this question, mice were submitted to a low propylthiouracyl (PTU) drink (0.05%) in order to slightly reduce the serum level of triiodothyronine (T3). A quantitative evaluation of RA nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR), T3 nuclear receptor (TR) and of neurogranin (RC3, a RA target gene which codes for a protein considered as a good marker of synaptic plasticity) in PTU treated mice injected with vehicle or RA or T3 was carried out. The PTU-related decrease in expression of RAR, RXR and RC3 was restored following RA or T3 administration, as observed in aged mice. The amount of TR mRNA, which was not affected in PTU treated mice, was increased only after T3 treatment as observed in overt hypothyroidism. These results suggest that neurobiological alterations observed in aged mice are probably related to RA and T3 signalling pathway modifications associated, in part, with mild changes in thyroid function.

  8. Trifluoroacetic Acid Level in the Atmosphere of Beijing and Its Relationship with PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA), one of the main degradation products of HCFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-134a, were detected in Beijing, China between 2013 and 2014. By analyzing the 137 atmospheric samples, the results showed that the annual mean atmospheric concentration of TFA was 1459±223 pg•m-3. TFA was mainly distributed in gaseous phase, for the concentration was 1396±225 pg•m-3, while that in particle phase was 62±8 pg•m-3. Considering the frequent occurrence of hazy weather in Beijing, the relationship between TFA and PM2.5 in atmosphere was analyzed. The correlation analysis shows that the proportion of particle phase in atmosphere concentration of TFA and mass concentration of PM2.5 are positively correlated with each other (P<0.001), indicating the particles have an absorption effect on TFA. At the same time, when mass concentration of PM2.5 in atmosphere is high, atmospheric concentration of TFA is relatively low. According to the correlation analysis, mass concentration of PM2.5 and atmospheric concentration of TFA are negatively correlated with each other (P=0.005). The main reason is very likely that particle's extinction for light can be enhanced as particle level rises, which causes TFA precursors photolysis to weaken. The results indicate that PM2.5 has a significant impact on TFA.

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A cost and design study was conducted on the production of lead-acid batteries. The major conclusions with regard to a mature level of production, 1000 man-work hours (MWH) per year in 100 MWH installations, are the following: using vertically integrated, automated plants, and a 14 KAH cell design, it is projected that the 100 MWH battery can be manufactured for $76 per kilowatt hour (KWH). The large 10 and 14 kilowatt amphere hour (KAH) cells were found to be more economical than the small 3.4 KAH (6.5 KWH) cell. It is inferred that batteries prepared from large, cell sizes (10 and 14 KAH) will be inherently more reliable due to the reduced number of intercell connections and reduced number of cells requiring maintenance operations, compared to batteries made with small cells (3400 AH). The battery footprint energy density goal can be achieved with tiering of the 14 KAH cell and the specification of somewhat reduced aisle widths on the outside of the strings. Sensitivity studies were performed on the impact of lead price, design cycle life, materials cost reductions, and increase in active materials utilization on the cost of the 100 MWH battery.

  10. ABI4 mediates antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and gibberellins at transcript and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Yanli; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Liu, Chunyan; Yang, Wenyu; Cao, Xiaofeng; Serino, Giovanna; Xie, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones which antagonistically mediate numerous physiological processes, and their optimal balance is essential for normal plant development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ABA and GA antagonism still needs to be determined. Here, we report that ABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) is a central factor in GA/ABA homeostasis and antagonism in post-germination stages. ABI4 overexpression in Arabidopsis (OE-ABI4) leads to developmental defects including a decrease in plant height and poor seed production. The transcription of a key ABA biosynthetic gene, NCED6, and of a key GA catabolic gene, GA2ox7, is significantly enhanced by ABI4 overexpression. ABI4 activates NCED6 and GA2ox7 transcription by directly binding to the promoters, and genetic analysis revealed that mutation in these two genes partially rescues the dwarf phenotype of ABI4 overexpressing plants. Consistently, ABI4 overexpressing seedlings have a lower GA/ABA ratio than the wild type. We further show that ABA induces GA2ox7 transcription while GA represses NCED6 expression in an ABI4-dependent manner; and that ABA stabilizes the ABI4 protein whereas GA promotes its degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA and GA antagonize each other by oppositely acting on ABI4 transcript and protein levels.

  11. Influence of Dietary Selenium Species on Selenoamino Acid Levels in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Godin, Simon; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Prabhu, Philip Antony Jesu; Kaushik, Sachi; Médale, Françoise; Bouyssiere, Brice

    2015-07-22

    Two forms of selenium (Se) supplementation of fish feeds were compared in two different basal diets. A 12-week feeding trial was performed with rainbow trout fry using either a plant-based or a fish meal-based diet. Se yeast and selenite were used for Se supplementation. Total Se and Se speciation were determined in both diets and whole body of trout fry using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two selenoamino acids, selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenocysteine (SeCys), were determined in whole body of fry after enzymatic digestion using protease type XIV with a prior derivatization step in the case of SeCys. The plant-based basal diet was found to have a much lower total Se than the fish meal-based basal diet with concentrations of 496 and 1222 μg(Se) kg(-1), respectively. Dietary Se yeast had a higher ability to raise whole body Se compared to selenite. SeMet concentration in the fry was increased only in the case of Se yeast supplementation, whereas SeCys levels were similar at the end of the feeding trial for both Se supplemented forms. The results show that the fate of dietary Se in fry is highly dependent on the form brought through supplementation and that a plant-based diet clearly benefits from Se supplementation. PMID:26161943

  12. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega-3 to unhealthy levels.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Andersen, J R; Våge, V; Rajalahti, T; Mjøs, S A; Kvalheim, O M

    2016-08-01

    Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls. During the next 3 weeks of treatment, the FA levels in lifestyle patients were unchanged, while the weight loss continued at almost the same rate as in the first 3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and change of serum FA patterns were unrelated outcomes of the intervention for lifestyle patients. For bariatric patients, these processes were associated probably due to reduced dietary input and increased input from the patients' own fat deposits, causing a higher rate of weight loss and simultaneous reduction of the ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid.

  13. Differences in Arachidonic Acid Levels and Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Variants in African Americans and European Americans with Diabetes/Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Susan; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Rudock, Megan E.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Ivester, Priscilla; Ainsworth, Hannah C.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Case, L. Douglas; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Chilton, Floyd H.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, increases in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as linoleic acid, have been hypothesized to cause or exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. This study examines an individual’s innate capacity to synthesize n-6-long chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), with respect to the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) locus in Americans of African and European descent with diabetes/metabolic syndrome. Compared to European Americans (EAm), African Americans (AfAm) exhibited markedly higher serum levels of arachidonic acid (AA) (EAm 7.9±2.1; AfAm 9.8±1.9 % of total fatty acids, mean ± sd; p<2.29×10−9) and the AA to n-6-precursor fatty acid ratio, which estimates FADS1 activity (EAm 5.4±2.2, AfAm 6.9±2.2; p=1.44×10−5). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) mapping to the FADS locus revealed strong association with AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and dihomogamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in the EAm. Importantly, EAm homozygous for the minor allele (T) had significantly lower AA levels (TT: 6.3±1.0; GG: 8.5±2.1; p=3.0×10−5) and AA/DGLA ratios (TT: 3.4±0.8; GG: 6.5±2.3; p=2.2×10−7) but higher DGLA levels (TT: 1.9±0.4; GG: 1.4±0.4; p=3.3×10−7) compared to those homozygous for the major allele (GG). Allele frequency patterns suggest that the GG genotype at rs174537 (associated with higher circulating levels of AA) is much higher in AfAm (0.81) compared to EAm (0.46). Similarly, marked differences in rs174537 genotypic frequencies were observed in HapMap populations. These data suggest that there are likely important differences in the capacity of different populations to synthesize LC-PUFAs. These differences may provide a genetic mechanism contributing to health disparities between populations of African and European descent. PMID:21733300

  14. Perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels and profiles in breast milk, maternal and cord serum of French women and their newborns.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Ronan; Veyrand, Bruno; Yamada, Ami; Berrebi, Alain; Zalko, Daniel; Durand, Sophie; Pollono, Charles; Marchand, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    One major concern regarding perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is their potential role in onset of health troubles consecutive to early exposure during the perinatal period. In the present work, the internal exposure levels of 18 targeted PFAAs were determined in ca. 100 mother-newborn pairs recruited in France between 2010 and 2013. In serum, the cumulated concentrations of the 7 most frequently detected compounds were 5.70ng/mL and 2.83ng/mL (median values) in maternal and cord serum, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexylesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) contributed to around 90% of the total PFAAs contamination, with concentration levels and contamination profiles in accordance with other published work in Europe. Levels measured in breast milk were far lower (20 to 150 fold) than those determined in serum. Associations between the different monitored substances as well as between levels determined in the different investigated biological matrices mostly do not appear statistically significant. The estimated materno-foetal transfer would be thus substance-dependant, mainly driven by the physico-chemical properties of the different PFAAs (nature of polar group and length of alkylated side chain). We conclude that trans-placental passage and breastfeeding are both significant routes of human exposure to PFAAs. PMID:26232143

  15. Serum Uric Acid Level Predicts Progression of IgA Nephropathy in Females but Not in Males

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuya; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Nagatoya, Katsuyuki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Terumasa; Kuragano, Takayuki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of most common forms of glomerulonephritis. At this point, the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on IgAN is not clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical impact of hyperuricemia on the progression of IgAN. Study Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 935 IgAN patients who were diagnosed by kidney biopsy at Osaka University Hospital, Osaka General Hospital, and Osaka Rosai Hospital. were included in this study. Predictor Uric acid levels at renal biopsy. Outcomes The outcome of interest was the time from the kidney biopsy to the time when a 50% increase in the baseline serum creatinine level was observed, which was defined as "progression". Measurements The baseline characteristics according to the kidney biopsy at the time of diagnosis were collected from the medical records, and included age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (use of antidiabetic drugs), serum levels of creatinine, urinary protein, smoking status, RAAS blockers and steroid therapy. Results An elevated serum uric acid level was an independent risk factor for progression in female patients (per 1.0 mg/dL, multivariate-adjusted incident rate ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval 1.07, 1.64], P = 0.008) but not in male patients (1.02 [0.81, 1.29], P = 0.855). To control a confounding effect of renal function on an association between serum uric acid level and progression in female patients, age- and serum creatinine-matched and propensity score-matched analyses were performed, and these results also supported the effect by uric acid on kidney disease progression independent of basal kidney function. Limitations A cohort analyzed retorospectively. Conclusions This study revealed that an elevated uric acid level was an independent risk factor for ESKD in female IgAN patients. Therefore, uric acid might be a treatable target in female IgAN patients. PMID:27560997

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  17. Associations between plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and negative symptoms or cognitive impairments in early-stage schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Goto, Naoki; Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakeda, Shingo; Moriya, Junji; Hayashi, Kenji; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Korogi, Yukunori; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate a variety of cognitive deficits, including attention, executive functions, and working memory, even in the early stage of disease. In the present study, we examined the association between blood levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and scores on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in patients with early-stage schizophrenia. We also investigated the association between frontal GABA levels using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3T and scores on the WCST in the same patients. Blood levels of BDNF and catecholamine metabolites and brain GABA levels using 1H-MRS were measured in 18 schizophrenic patients (nine males, nine females; age range 13-52 year). A significantly positive correlation was observed between plasma MHPG levels and %PEM (rho = -0.686, p = 0.0047). A trend toward negative correlation was found between frontal lobe GABA levels and the per cent of preservation error (%PEM) in the early stage of schizophrenia (rho = -0.420, p = 0.0836). These results suggest that noradrenergic neurons might be involved in neuropsychological functions in early-stage of schizophrenia. PMID:19946939

  18. Dataset on inflammatory proteins expressions and sialic acid levels in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with administration of N-acetylneuraminic acid and/or quercetin.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rongrong; Li, Fahui; Qin, Shucun; Wang, Yi; Si, Yanhong; Xu, Xuelian; Tian, Hua; Zhai, Lei; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Yongjun; Zhou, Yawei; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Guo, Shoudong

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article describe an effect of N-acetylneuraminic acid and/or quercetin on the inflammatory proteins expressions (TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MOMA-2) and the N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) levels of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice that are given a high-fat diet. Protein expression was performed by immunohistochemical imaging and NANA was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or semi-quantified using Image-Pro Plus software after ligation with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC). Further interpretation and discussion could be found at our research article entitled "Exogenous supplement of N-acetylneuraminic acid ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice" (Guo et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27419199

  19. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  20. Transcriptome analysis highlights changes in the leaves of maize plants cultivated in acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al(3+).

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Lucia; Begcy, Kevin; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Jorge, Renato A; Menossi, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Soil acidity limits crop yields worldwide and is a common result of aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity, which is known to inhibit root growth. Here, we compared the transcriptome of leaves from maize seedlings grown under control conditions (soil without free Al) and under acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al. This study reports, for the first time, the complex transcriptional changes that occur in the leaves of maize plants grown in acidic soil with phytotoxic levels of Al. Our data indicate that 668 genes were differentially expressed in the leaves of plants grown in acidic soil, which is significantly greater than that observed in our previous work with roots. Genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes were upregulated, although no specific transporter of organic acids was differentially expressed in leaves. We also provide evidence for positive roles for auxin and brassinosteroids in Al tolerance, whereas gibberellin and jasmonate may have negative roles. Our data indicate that plant responses to acidic soil with high Al content are not restricted to the root; tolerance mechanisms are also displayed in the aerial parts of the plant, thus indicating that the entire plant responds to stress. PMID:25205121

  1. Combined effects of lactic acid and nisin solution in reducing levels of microbiological contamination in red meat carcasses.

    PubMed

    Barboza de Martinez, Yasmina; Ferrer, Kenna; Salas, Enrique Marquez

    2002-11-01

    Changes in bacterial counts on beef carcasses at specific points during slaughter and fabrication were determined, and the effectiveness of nisin, lactic acid, and a combination of the lactic acid and nisin in reducing levels of microbiological contamination was assessed. Swab samples were obtained from the surfaces of randomly selected beef carcasses. Carcasses were swabbed from the neck, brisket, and renal site after skinning, splitting, and washing. Treatments involving lactic acid (1.5%), nisin (500 IU/ml), or a mixture of nisin and lactic acid were applied after the neck area was washed. A control group was not sprayed. Results indicated that the highest prevalence of aerobic plate counts (APCs), total coliforms, and Escherichia coli was found in the neck site after splitting, and the lowest level of microbial contamination was found after skinning. Washing with water did not significantly reduce the bacterial load. The largest reduction in APCs, total coliforms, and E. coli occurred on carcasses treated with a mixture of nisin and lactic acid. A mixture of nisin and lactic acid can be applied to beef carcasses through spray washing and can reduce bacterial populations by 2 log units. PMID:12430703

  2. Childrens' Learning and Behaviour and the Association with Cheek Cell Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),…

  3. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  4. Determination of trace levels of haloacetic acids and perchlorate in drinking water by ion chromatography with direct injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjian; Mou, Shifen

    2003-05-16

    Disinfection by products of haloacetic acids and perchlorate pose significant health risks, even at low microg/l levels in drinking water. A new method for the simultaneous determination of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and perchlorate as well as some common anions in one run with ion chromatography was developed. The HAAs tested included mono-, di-, trichloroacetic acids, mono, di-, tribromoacetic acids, bromochloroacetic acid, dibromochloroacetic acid, and bromodichloroacetic acid. Two high-capacity anion-exchange columns, a carbonate-selective column and a hydroxide-selective hydrophilic one, were used for the investigation. With the carbonate-selective column, the nine HAAs as well as fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate could be well separated and determined in one run. With the very hydrophilic column and a gradient elution of sodium hydroxide, methanol and deionized water, the nine HAAs, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate as well as perchlorate could be simultaneously determined in one run within 34 min. The detection limits for HAAs were between 1.11 and 9.32 microg/l. For perchlorate, it was 0.60 microg/l.

  5. Inhibition of epithelial cell adhesion by retinoic acid. Relationship to reduced extracellular matrix production and alterations in Ca2+ levels.

    PubMed Central

    Varani, J.; Gibbs, D. F.; Inman, D. R.; Shah, B.; Fligiel, S. E.; Voorhees, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Human squamous epithelial cells maintained in growth factor-deficient medium were examined for sensitivity to all-trans retinoic acid (retinoic acid). Under conditions of low external Ca2+ (0.15 mmol/l [millimolar]), or high external Ca2+ (1.4 mmol/l), retinoic acid stimulated proliferation. Concomitantly, cell-substrate adhesion was decreased. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess production of two extracellular matrix components, ie, fibronectin and thrombospondin. In the presence of retinoic acid, production of both was decreased. Because both fibronectin and thrombospondin serve as epithelial cell adhesion factors, the decreased production of these moieties could contribute to reduced adhesion. Using 45Ca2+ to measure total cell-associated Ca2+ and the Ca2(+)-sensitive dye Indo-1 to measure intracellular free Ca2+, it was found that concentrations of retinoic acid that altered cell-substrate adhesion in the squamous epithelial cells had no effect on total, cell-associated Ca2+, but reduced intracellular free Ca2+ by 50% to 60%. Because Ca2+ is a regulator of adhesion, the ability of retinoic acid to modulate Ca2+ levels in the squamous epithelial cells may explain, in part, how retinoic acid influences their adhesiveness. Images Figure 1 PMID:2012176

  6. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( < 0.001) for RC than for grass. For both forage species, 18:3-3 and TFA content decreased linearly ( < 0.001) with advancing growth stage, with the highest abundance at the vegetative stage. Most of lipid in fresh RC and grass herbage (97%) was esterified, whereas NEFA accounted for 71% of TFA in both silages. Ensiling resulted in marginal increases in TFA content and the amounts of individual fatty acids compared with fresh herbages. Herbage total PPO activity was higher ( < 0.001) for RC than grass (11 vs. 0.11 μkatal/g leaf fresh weight). Net lipolysis during ensiling was extensive for both forage species (660 to 759 g/kg fatty acid for grass and 563 to 737 g/kg fatty acid for RC). Formic acid application (0 vs. 6 L/t) resulted in a marked decrease ( = 0.026) in net lipolysis during the ensiling of RC, whereas the opposite was true ( = 0.026) for grass

  7. Increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in human newborn infants by administration of sardines and fish oil during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Lowensohn, R; Hatcher, L

    1996-03-01

    In rhesus monkeys, maternal n-3 fatty acid deficiency during pregnancy produces infant monkeys deficient in n-3 fatty acids at birth. These results stimulated current experiments to find out if n-3 fatty acids from fish in the diets of pregnant women would influence the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in the newborn human infant. Fifteen healthy pregnant women were enrolled to receive a 9-wk dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from the 26th to the 35th wk of pregnancy. Sixteen pregnant women were not supplemented and served as controls. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation consisted of sardines and additional fish oil, which provided a total of 2.6 g of n-3 fatty acids per day (d) for the 9-wk period of supplementation. This included 1.01 g DHA. The end point of this study was the blood concentrations of DHA in the newborn infant. DHA in maternal red blood cells increased from 4.6% of total fatty acids to 7.15% at the end of the supplement period and at the time of delivery decreased (as expected) to 5.97% of total fatty acids. Maternal plasma showed a similar change from 2.12 to 3.51% of total fatty acids and then decreased to 2.35%. Levels of DHA in plasma and red blood cells of unsupplemented mothers did not change during the same time period. Levels of DHA in blood of newborn infants differed greatly in infants born from n-3-supplemented mothers compared with control infants. In red blood cells, DHA was 7.92% of total fatty acids compared with 5.86% (control infants). Plasma values showed a similar difference: 5.05% vs. 3.47% (controls). In n-3-supplemented infants, DHA concentrations were 35.2% higher than in control infants in red blood cells and 45.5% higher in plasma. These data indicate the importance of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids and, in particular, maternal dietary DHA in promoting higher concentrations of DHA in the blood of the newborn infant.

  8. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Nordström, A C; Jacobs, F A; Eliasson, L

    1991-07-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  9. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (P<0.001). In addition, our results showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (P<0. 01). In this study, data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (ANOVA test). To the best of our knowledge, it seems that UA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging. PMID:27470332

  10. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid influences behavior and plasma catecholamine levels at times of psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, T; Sawazaki, S; Nagasawa, T; Nagao, Y; Kanagawa, Y; Yazawa, K

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to clarify the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake on behavior and plasma catecholamines (CA). In Study 1, 42 students took either DHA-rich oil capsules containing 1.5-1.8 g DHA/d or control oil capsules containing 97% soybean oil plus 3% of another fish oil for 3 mon in a double-blind fashion. They took a psychological test (PF Study) at the start and end of the study. This study started at the end of summer vacation and ended just before the final exams. In the control group, external aggression (aggression against others) in PF Study was significantly increased at the end of the study as compared with that measured at the start (+8.9%), whereas it was not significantly changed in the DHA group (-1.0%). In a similar double-blind study (Study 2), we measured external aggression under nonstressful conditions. External aggression slightly decreased in the control group, whereas there were no significant changes in the DHA group. In Study 3 with 14 students, plasma CA were measured at the start and end of capsule administration period of 2 mon. Subjects were under continuous stress of the final exams that lasted throughout the whole study period. The ratio of plasma epinephrine to norepinephrine concentrations was significantly increased in the DHA group (78%), whereas it stayed at the same level in the control group. In Study 4, mice were fed either DHA-deficient diet or -sufficient diet for 4 wk, and their rearing frequency (an anxiety index) was measured. In the DHA-sufficient group, the rearing frequency was significantly less than in the other group. These effects of DHA intake may be applied to people in an attempt to ameliorate stress-related diseases. PMID:10419086

  11. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (P<0.001). In addition, our results showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (P<0. 01). In this study, data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (ANOVA test). To the best of our knowledge, it seems that UA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging.

  12. Cost–utility of adjuvant zoledronic acid in patients with breast cancer and low estrogen levels

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, N.W.D.; Skedgel, C.; Rayson, D.; Younis, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjuvant zoledronic acid (za) appears to improve disease-free survival (dfs) in women with early-stage breast cancer and low levels of estrogen (lle) because of induced or natural menopause. Characterizing the cost–utility (cu) of this therapy could help to determine its role in clinical practice. Methods Using the perspective of the Canadian health care system, we examined the cu of adjuvant endocrine therapy with or without za in women with early-stage endocrine-sensitive breast cancer and lle. A Markov model was used to compute the cumulative costs in Canadian dollars and the quality-adjusted life-years (qalys) gained from each adjuvant strategy, discounted at a rate of 5% annually. The model incorporated the dfs and fracture benefits of adjuvant za. Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine key model parameters. Results Compared with a no-za strategy, adjuvant za in the induced and natural menopause groups was associated with, respectively, $7,825 and $7,789 in incremental costs and 0.46 and 0.34 in qaly gains for cu ratios of $17,007 and $23,093 per qaly gained. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the results were most sensitive to changes in the za dfs benefit. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested a 100% probability of adjuvant za being a cost-effective strategy at a threshold of $100,000 per qaly gained. Conclusions Based on available data, adjuvant za appears to be a cost-effective strategy in women with endocrine-sensitive breast cancer and lle, having cu ratios well below accepted thresholds. PMID:26300674

  13. The electronic origin and vibrational levels of the first excited singlet state of isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    SciTech Connect

    Berghout, H. Laine; Crim, F. Fleming; Zyrianov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna

    2000-04-15

    The combination of vibrationally mediated photofragment yield spectroscopy, which excites molecules prepared in single vibrational states, and multiphoton fluorescence spectroscopy, which excites molecules cooled in a supersonic expansion, provides detailed information on the energetics and vibrational structure of the first excited singlet state (S{sub 1}) of isocyanic acid (HNCO). Dissociation of molecules prepared in individual vibrational states by stimulated Raman excitation probes vibrational levels near the origin of the electronically excited state. Detection of fluorescence from dissociation products formed by multiphoton excitation through S{sub 1} of molecules cooled in a supersonic expansion reveals the vibrational structure at higher energies. Both types of spectra show long, prominent progressions in the N-C-O bending vibration built on states with different amounts of N-C stretching excitation and H-N-C bending excitation. Analyzing the spectra locates the origin of the S{sub 1} state at 32 449{+-}20 cm{sup -1} and determines the harmonic vibrational frequencies of the N-C stretch ({omega}{sub 3}=1034{+-}20 cm{sup -1}), the H-N-C bend ({omega}{sub 4}=1192{+-}19 cm{sup -1}), and the N-C-O bend ({omega}{sub 5}=599{+-}7 cm{sup -1}), values that are consistent with several ab initio calculations. The assigned spectra strongly suggest that the N-C stretching vibration is a promoting mode for internal conversion from S{sub 1} to S{sub 0}. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Shallow hypothermia depends on the level of fatty acid unsaturation in adipose and liver tissues in a tropical heterothermic primate.

    PubMed

    Vuarin, Pauline; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Perret, Martine; Pifferi, Fabien

    2014-07-01

    Optimal levels of unsaturated fatty acids have positive impacts on the use of prolonged bouts of hypothermia in mammalian hibernators, which generally have to face low winter ambient temperatures. Unsaturated fatty acids can maintain the fluidity of fat and membrane phospholipids at low body temperatures. However, less attention has been paid to their role in the regulation of shallow hypothermia, and in tropical species, which may be challenged more by seasonal energetic and/or water shortages than by low temperatures. The present study assessed the relationship between the fatty acids content of white adipose and liver tissues and the expression of shallow hypothermia in a tropical heterothermic primate, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). The adipose tissue is the main tissue for fat storage and the liver is involved in lipid metabolism, so both tissues were expected to influence hypothermia dependence on fatty acids. As mouse lemurs largely avoid deep hypothermia (i.e. torpor) use under standard captive conditions, the expression of hypothermia was triggered by food-restricting experimental animals. Hypothermia depth increased with time, with a stronger increase for individuals that exhibited higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids suggesting that they were more flexible in their use of hypothermia. However these same animals delayed the use of long hypothermia bouts relative to individuals with a higher level of saturated fatty acids. This study evidences for the first time that body fatty acids unsaturation levels influence the regulation of body temperature not only in cold-exposed hibernators but also in tropical, facultative heterotherms.

  15. Mutations in a delta9-Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase Gene Are Associated with Enhanced Stearic Acid Levels in Soybean Seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Shanklin, J.; Burton, J. W.; Upchurch, R. G.; Whittle, E.; Dewey, R. E.

    2008-11-01

    Stearic acid (18:0) is typically a minor component of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil, accounting for only 2 to 4% of the total fatty acid content. Increasing stearic acid levels of soybean oil would lead to enhanced oxidative stability, potentially reducing the need for hydrogenation, a process leading to the formation of undesirable trans fatty acids. Although mutagenesis strategies have been successful in developing soybean germplasm with elevated 18:0 levels in the seed oil, the specific gene mutations responsible for this phenotype were not known. We report a newly identified soybean gene, designated SACPD-C, that encodes a unique isoform of {Delta}{sup 9}-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase, the enzyme responsible for converting stearic acid to oleic acid (18:1). High levels of SACPD-C transcript were only detected in developing seed tissue, suggesting that the encoded desaturase functions to enhance oleic acid biosynthetic capacity as the immature seed is actively engaged in triacylglycerol production and storage. The participation of SACPD-C in storage triacylglycerol synthesis is further supported by the observation of mutations in this gene in two independent sources of elevated 18:0 soybean germplasm, A6 (30% 18:0) and FAM94-41 (9% 18:0). A molecular marker diagnostic for the FAM94-41 SACPD-C gene mutation strictly associates with the elevated 18:0 phenotype in a segregating population, and could thus serve as a useful tool in the development of cultivars with oils possessing enhanced oxidative stability.

  16. Intake of Meals Containing High Levels of Carbohydrates or High Levels of Unsaturated Fatty Acids Induces Postprandial Dysmetabolism in Young Overweight/Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Adamska, Edyta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Gościk, Joanna; Waszczeniuk, Magdalena; Krętowski, Adam; Górska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial metabolic response depends on the meals' components and can be different in normal weight and obese people. However, there are some discrepancies between various reports. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic response after intake of standardised meals with various fat and carbohydrate contents and to determine the differences among normal weight and overweight/obese individuals. The study group comprised 46 healthy men. The participants were divided into two groups and study was carried out using a crossover method. Group I received high- and normal-carbohydrate meals, whereas group II received high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals. Glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and free fatty acids levels were measured at fasting state and at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after meal intake. Despite the lack of differences in glucose levels, insulin levels were higher among overweight/obese individuals after each meal. TG and FFA levels were higher after normal-carbohydrate and high-fat meals. Moreover, in overweight/obese young men after high-fat meal intake postprandial hypertriglyceridemia was observed, even if meals contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids, and fasting triglycerides levels were in normal range. The conducted study showed that postprandial metabolic response depends not only on the meal macronutrient content but also on the current body mass index (BMI). PMID:26609520

  17. Method development for liquid chromatographic/triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis of trace level perfluorocarboxylic acids in articles of commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method to identify and quantify trace levels of C5 to C12 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in articles of commerce (AOC) is developed and rigorously validated. Solid samples were extracted in methanol, and liquid samples were diluted with a solvent consisting of 60...

  18. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  19. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  20. Lorenzo's oil inhibits ELOVL1 and lowers the level of sphingomyelin with a saturated very long-chain fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Takayuki; Wakashima, Takeshi; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio

    2014-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) due to mutations in the ABCD1 gene responsible for VLCFA transport into peroxisomes. Lorenzo's oil, a 4:1 mixture of glyceryl trioleate and glyceryl trierucate, has been used to reduce the saturated VLCFA level in the plasma of X-ALD patients; however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains elusive. We report the biochemical characterization of Lorenzo's oil activity toward elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL) 1, the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs. Oleic and erucic acids inhibited ELOVL1, and, moreover, their 4:1 mixture (the FA composition of Lorenzo's oil) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity. The kinetics analysis revealed that this was a mixed (not a competitive) inhibition. At the cellular level, treatment with the 4:1 mixture reduced the level of SM with a saturated VLCFA accompanied by an increased level of SM with a monounsaturated VLCFA, probably due to the incorporation of erucic acid into the FA elongation cycle. These results suggest that inhibition of ELOVL1 may be an underlying mechanism by which Lorenzo's oil exerts its action.

  1. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  2. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  3. Differences in whole blood serotonin levels based on a typology of parasuicide.

    PubMed

    Rilke, O; Safar, C; Israel, M; Barth, T; Felber, W; Oehler, J

    1998-01-01

    Suicidal behavior has to be considered as a multifactorial phenomenon, which can be analyzed in a classifying-phenomenological manner. We have examined the relation of parasuicide typology to whole blood concentrations of serotonin, HVA, and tryptophan in 58 patients classified into 4 groups of parasuicide typology compared to 22 nonsuicidal depressed patients and 20 healthy subjects. Suicidal patients classified as impetuous, desperate and ambivalent types had significantly reduced whole blood 5-HT levels in comparison with the appealing type as well as nonsuicidal subjects. No differences were detected in the HVA content, but whole blood tryptophan concentrations were significantly reduced in impetuous suicidal patients and depressed patients compared to healthy subjects. This study provides evidence for reduced whole blood serotonin content based on different types of parasuicide.

  4. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Yong, Kok-Khun; Yao, Yan-Dong; Shen, Huan-Ting; Hsieh, Shiu-Man; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Sun, Tai-Ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB) for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W), electroporation (100 V/cm2), and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm2) was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO2) demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 μA/mM) for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R2=0.894) was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2–0.8 mM) inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the UAB-1×3-ZnO2. In conclusion, a new approach to noninvasive transdermal extraction and quantification of uric acid has been established. PMID:25061289

  5. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels.

    PubMed

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Yong, Kok-Khun; Yao, Yan-Dong; Shen, Huan-Ting; Hsieh, Shiu-Man; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Sun, Tai-Ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB) for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO₂ nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W), electroporation (100 V/cm(2)), and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2)) was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO₂ nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO₂) demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 μA/mM) for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R(2)=0.894) was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2-0.8 mM) inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the UAB-1×3-ZnO₂. In conclusion, a new approach to noninvasive transdermal extraction and quantification of uric acid has been established.

  6. FXR-induced lysine-specific histone demethylase, LSD1, reduces hepatic bile acid levels and protects the liver against bile acid toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Chae; Fang, Sungsoon; Byun, Sangwon; Seok, Sunmi; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) function as endocrine signaling molecules that activate multiple nuclear and membrane receptor signaling pathways to control fed-state metabolism. Since the detergent-like property of BAs causes liver damage at high concentrations, hepatic BA levels must be tightly regulated. BA homeostasis is regulated largely at the level of transcription by nuclear receptors, particularly the primary bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and small heterodimer partner (SHP) that inhibits BA synthesis by recruiting repressive histone-modifying enzymes. Although histone modifiers have been shown to regulate BA-responsive genes, their in vivo functions remain unclear. Here we show that lysine-specific histone demethylase1 (LSD1) is directly induced by BA-activated FXR, is recruited to BA synthetic genes, Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1, and the BA uptake transporter gene, Ntcp, and removes a gene-activation mark, tri-methylated histone H3 lysine-4, leading to gene repression. LSD1 recruitment was dependent on SHP, and LSD1-mediated demethylation of H3K4-me3 was required for additional repressive histone modifications, H3K9/K14 deacetylation and H3K9 methylation. BA overload, feeding 0.5% cholic acid chow for 6 days, resulted in adaptive responses of altered expression of hepatic genes involved in BA synthesis, transport, and detoxification/conjugation. In contrast, adenoviral-mediated downregulation of hepatic LSD1 blunted these responses, which led to substantial increases in liver and serum BA levels, serum AST/ALT levels, and hepatic inflammation. This study identifies LSD1 as a novel histone-modifying enzyme in the orchestrated regulation mediated by the FXR and SHP that reduces hepatic BA levels and protects the liver against BA toxicity. PMID:25545350

  7. AquaLite, a bioluminescent label for immunoassay and nucleic acid detection: quantitative analyses at the attomol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Stults, Nancy L.

    1996-04-01

    AquaLiteR is a direct, bioluminescent label capable of detecting attomol levels of analyte in clinical immunoassays and assays for the quantitative measurement of nucleic acids. Bioluminescent immunoassays (BIAs) require no radioisotopes and avoid complex fluorescent measurements and many of the variables of indirect enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). AquaLite, a recombinant form of the photoprotein aequorin from a bioluminescent jellyfish, is coupled directly to antibodies to prepare bioluminescent conjugates for assay development. When the AquaLite-antibody complex is exposed to a solution containing calcium ions, a flash of blue light ((lambda) max equals 469 nm) is generated. The light signal is measured in commercially available luminometers that simultaneously inject a calcium solution and detect subattomol photoprotein levies in either test tubes or microtiter plates. Immunometric or 'sandwich' type assays are available for the quantitative measurement of human endocrine hormones and nucleic acids. The AquaLite TSH assay can detect 1 attomol of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 0.2 mL of human serum and is a useful clinical tool for diagnosing hyperthyroid patients. AquaLite-based nucleic acid detection permits quantifying attomol levels of specific nucleic acid markers and represents possible solution to the difficult problem of quantifying the targets of nucleic acid amplification methods.

  8. Hexacosanoic and docosanoic acids plasma levels in patients with cerebral childhood and asymptomatic X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: Lorenzo's oil effect.

    PubMed

    Deon, Marion; Garcia, Mariana Pires; Sitta, Angela; Barschak, Alethéa G; Coelho, Daniella M; Schimit, Graziela O; Pigatto, Maiara; Jardim, Laura B; Wajner, Moacir; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen R

    2008-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder of peroxisomal metabolism, biochemically characterized by deficient beta-oxidation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). The consequent accumulation of these fatty acids in different tissues and in biological fluids is associated with a progressive central and peripheral demyelination, as well as with adrenocortical insufficiency and hypogonadism. Seven variants of this disease have been described, cerebral childhood being the most frequent. The recommended therapy consists of the use of the glyceroltrioleate/glyceroltrierucate mixture known as Lorenzo's Oil (LO), combined with a VLCFA-poor diet, but only in asymptomatic patients will this treatment prevent the progression of the symptomatology. In the present study we evaluated the biochemical course of patients with cerebral childhood (CCER) and asymptomatic clinical forms of X-ALD treated with LO associated with a VLCFA-restricted diet. We observed that hexacosanoic acid plasma concentrations and hexacosanoic/docosanoic ratio were significantly reduced in CCER patients during treatment when compared with diagnosis. Hexacosanoic acid plasma level was significantly reduced when compared with that at diagnosis and achieved the normal levels only in asymptomatic patients under LO treatment. In asymptomatic patients the magnitude of hexacosanoic acid decrease was higher than that of the CCER patients. These results show the good biochemical response of LO treatment in asymptomatic X-ALD patients. It is possible to suppose that this could be correlated with the prevention of the appearance of neurological signals in this group of patients treated with LO.

  9. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-04-03

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels.

  10. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  11. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006–2015

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, M.; Dick, J.R.; Tocher, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids. PMID:26899924

  12. Effects of L-carnitine pretreatment in methamphetamine and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Binienda, Zbigniew K; Przybyla, Beata D; Robinson, Bonnie L; Salem, Nadia; Virmani, Ashraf; Amato, Antonino; Ali, Syed F

    2006-08-01

    Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 3-ni-tropropionic acid (3-NPA) at 30 mg/kg or methamphetamine (METH) at 20 mg/kg alone or following pretreatment with L-cartnitine (LC) at 100 mg/kg. Rectal temperature was measured before and 4 h following treatment. Animals were sacrificed at 4 h posttreatment. Monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites were analyzed in the striatum using high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC/ED). Transcripts of several genes related to DA metabolism were quantified using real time reverse transciption polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Core temperature decreased significantly after 3-NPA acid and increased in METH-treated rats (P < 0.05). Temperature change at 4 h exhibited a significant LC effect for 3-NPA, preventing hypothermia (P < 0.05) and no effect for METH. Concentration of DA and 5-HT, and their metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), increased significantly in 3-NPA and decreased in METH-treated rats. An increase in DOPAC/DA turnover and serotonin observed after 3-NPA was abolished in LC-/3-NPA-treated rats. In both 3-NPA- and METH-treated rats, LC prevented an increase in DA receptor D(1) gene expression. It appears that carnitine effect preventing hypothermia after 3-NPA treatments may be related not only to its mitochondriotropic actions but also to inhibitory effect on the DA and 5-HT systems activated after the exposure to 3-NPA. The same effect observed at the transcriptional level, at least for the DA receptor D(1), may account for protection against METH toxicity.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat) Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression. PMID:24719886

  14. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  15. Liquid chromatographic analysis of phosphoamino acids at femtomole level using chemical derivatization with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl fluorescein-O-acetate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ying-Hua; Li, Rong-Jun; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Du, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Hong

    2007-10-01

    Phosphorylation of amino acid residues in proteins plays a major role in biological systems. In this paper, a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method based on chemical derivatization has been described for the separation and quantification of phosphoamino acids at femtomole level, using fluorimetric detection (FLD). The protocol involved pre-column derivatization of phosphoamino acids with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl fluorescein-O-acetate (SIFA) and subsequent separation on ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 column. Several experimental factors that influenced derivatization and separation were carefully investigated. The derivatization was performed at 40 degrees C for 40 min in borate buffer (pH 8.5). Under the optimum conditions, phosphoserine (P-Ser), phosphothreonine (P-Thr) and phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) were satisfactorily separated in 8 min. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) for the phosphoamino acids could reach 10-20 fmol, which was the lowest value reported for HPLC methods and comparable to those obtained by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection methods. The proposed method has been validated and used to characterize the phosphoamino acids in the hydrolyzed phosphorylated protein samples. The results clearly demonstrated the potential of this technique to study phosphoamino acids as well as provided a new analytical methodology that should be applicable to the study of phosphorylation of protein in biological system.

  16. Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in U.S. Donor Human Milk: Meeting the Needs of Premature Infants?

    PubMed Central

    Baack, Michelle L.; Norris, Andrew W.; Yao, Jianrong; Colaizy, Tarah

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine fatty acid levels in the US donor milk supply. Study Design Donor human milk samples from Iowa (n=62), Texas (n=5), North Carolina (n=5), and California (n=5) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Levels in Iowa donor milk were compared before and after pasteurization using Student’s t-test. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels were compared among all milk banks using ANOVA. Results ARA (0.4 pre, 0.4 post, p=0.18) and DHA (0.073 pre, 0.073 post, p=0.84) were not affected by pasteurization. DHA varied between banks (p <0.0001), whereas ARA did not (p = 0.3). DHA levels from all banks were lower than published values for maternal milk and infant formula (p<0.0001). Conclusion Pasteurization of breastmilk does not affect DHA or ARA levels. However, DHA content in US donor milk varies with bank location and may not meet the recommended provision for preterm infants. PMID:22323096

  17. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  18. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar-resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Renuka; Camas, Alberto; Ankala, Arunkanth; Engelberth, Jurgen; Tumlinson, James H; Williams, W Paul; Wilkinson, Jeff R; Luthe, Dawn Sywassink

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine if constitutive levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and other octadecanoid compounds were elevated prior to herbivory in a maize genotype with documented resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and other lepidopteran pests. The resistant inbred Mp708 had approximately 3-fold higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) prior to herbivore feeding than the susceptible inbred Tx601. Constitutive levels of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) also were higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In addition, the constitutive expression of JA-inducible genes, including those in the JA biosynthetic pathway, was higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In response to herbivory, Mp708 generated comparatively higher levels of hydrogen peroxide, and had a greater abundance of NADPH oxidase transcripts before and after caterpillar feeding. Before herbivore feeding, low levels of transcripts encoding the maize insect resistance cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) and the Mir1-CP protein were detected consistently. Thus, Mp708 appears to have a portion of its defense pathway primed, which results in constitutive defenses and the ability to mount a stronger defense when caterpillars attack. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the constitutive accumulation of JA in Mp708 are unknown, it might account for its enhanced resistance to lepidopteran pests. This genotype could be valuable in studying the signaling pathways that maize uses to response to insect herbivores.

  19. Using high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplements to lower triglyceride levels in 10–19 year-olds

    PubMed Central

    de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Milliren, Carly E.; Denhoff, Erica R.; Steltz, Sarah K.; Selamet Tierney, Elif Seda; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) supplements lower triglyceride (TG) levels in adults; little pediatric information is available. We evaluated their effect in hypertriglyceridemic adolescents. Methods 25 patients ages 10–19 years with TG levels 150–1000 mg/dL were randomized to 6 months double-blind trial of Lovaza [∼3360 mg docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid/day] vs. Placebo. Results Baseline mean TG levels were 227 mg/dl (SD 49). TG levels declined at 3 months in the Lovaza group by 54 ± 27 mg/dL [mean ± standard error (SE)] (p=0.02) and by 34 ± 26 mg/dL (p=0.16) in the Placebo group. The difference in TG lowering between groups was not significant (p=0.52). There were no between-group differences in endothelial function, blood pressure, body mass index, C-reactive protein or side effects. Conclusions High dose omega-3 FA supplements are well tolerated in adolescents. However, declines in TG levels did not differ significantly from Placebo in this small study. PMID:24707021

  20. Chemical interactions between amino acid and RNA: multiplicity of the levels of specificity explains origin of the genetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligmann, Hervé; Amzallag, Nissim

    2002-11-01

    The emergence of the genetic code remains an enigma. Proposed mechanisms are based on random, historical, thermodynamic and natural selection. However, they introduce chance as a key factor for overcoming the difficulties encountered by the model. We propose here a model in which three successive levels of chemical specificity generated the nucleotide assignments of amino acids in the genetic code. The first level results from hydrophobic and stereospecific interactions between amino acids and short oligonucleotides (termed oligons). The second and third levels of specificity are determined by conditions of energy transfer from loaded oligons (amino acid-oligomer covalently linked) to formation of phosphodiester bond (second level of specificity) and peptidic bond (third level of specificity), while these reactions are catalyzed by RNA templates. This model is sustained by the relationships observed between dipole moments of the nucleotides (forming the anticodon) and reactivity of the amino acyl linkage of the loaded oligon. Moreover, analysis of modern tRNAs reveals that they were probably generated by loose duplication of the nucleotide sequence forming the oligons, after emergence of the 'genetic code.' Indeed, the similarity of nucleotide composition with that of the anticodon decreases with the tRNA domain's distance from the anticodon, but the acceptor stem is relatively more similar to the anticodon than other stems closer to it. This would be because energy transfer constraints that existed between anticodon and amino acid in prebiotic loaded oligonucleotides still affect the structures of modern tRNA acceptor stems. In the model presented, the genetic code is inherent to the most archaic 'molecular physiology' in protolife, even before emergence of a functional 'protein world.' Simple physical processes, in which a level of specificity is integrated in an emerging meta-structure expressing new properties, generate a parsimonious and realistic explanation

  1. Impact of physiological levels of chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation on intestinal and hepatic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in Cyp7a1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan D.; Lopez, Adam M.; Tong, Ernest Y.; Posey, Kenneth S.; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Repa, Joyce J.; Turley, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Mice deficient in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) have a diminished bile acid pool (BAP) and therefore represent a useful model for investigating the metabolic effects of restoring the pool with a specific BA. Previously we carried out such studies in Cyp7a1−/−mice fed physiological levels of cholic acid (CA) and achieved BAP restoration, along with an increased CA enrichment, at a dietary level of just 0.03% (w/w). Here we demonstrate that in Cyp7a1−/− mice fed chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) at a level of 0.06 % (w/w), the BAP was restored to normal size and became substantially enriched with muricholic acid (MCA)(>70%), leaving the combined contribution of CA and CDCA to be <15%. This resulted in a partial to complete reversal of the main changes in cholesterol and BA metabolism associated with Cyp7a1 deficiency such as an elevated rate of intestinal sterol synthesis, an enhanced level of mRNA for Cyp8b1 in the liver, and depressed mRNA levels for Ibabp, Shp and Fgf15 in the distal small intestine. When Cyp7a1−/− and matching Cyp7a1+/+ mice were fed a diet with added cholesterol (0.2%) (w/w), either alone, or also containing CDCA (0.06%) (w/w) or CA (0.03%) (w/w) for 18 days, the hepatic total cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) in the Cyp7a1−/− mice were 26.9±3.7, 16.4±0.9 and 47.6±1.9, respectively, vs 4.9±0.4, 5.0±0.7 and 6.4±1.9, respectively in the corresponding Cyp7a1+/+ controls. These data affirm the importance of using moderate levels of dietary BA supplementation to elicit changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism through shifts in BAP size and composition. PMID:25447797

  2. Observations on high levels of fusidic acid resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Harrogate, North Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, J C; Layton, A; Barnham, M

    2000-06-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate possible reasons for a marked increase in fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (FusR S. aureus) identified by our routine hospital microbiology service. Information was obtained on a sample of 64 consecutive patients from whom resistant S. aureus had been cultured. The source of isolates was found to be diffuse within the hospital and community. The site of sample was most frequently chronic cutaneous infections (68%). All the S. aureus isolates were resistant to both fusidic acid and penicillin and many were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Topical fusidic acid had been used by 40% of patients in the preceding 6 months and none had received oral fusidic acid (sodium fusidate). Most (80%) had received an oral antibiotic in the preceding 2 years. Information from the Prescriptions Pricing Authority revealed that the total number of prescriptions for fusidic acid-containing preparations for the period September 1997 to August 1998 was markedly higher in Harrogate than in five other local areas where increases in (FusR) S. aureus have not been observed.

  3. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-Zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-Zhen; Su, Xiang-Ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using (14)C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  4. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-zhen; Su, Xiang-ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  5. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  6. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine): Based biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Hasanah, Aliya Nur; Gozali, Dolih; Wahyuni, Yeni; Fauziah, Lia Layusa

    2014-01-01

    The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI) and poly (allylamine) (PAA) respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm). The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H2O2-selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of correlation (r) analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 ± 1.13% and 3.27 ± 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor. PMID:24696812

  7. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine): Based biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Hasanah, Aliya Nur; Gozali, Dolih; Wahyuni, Yeni; Fauziah, Lia Layusa

    2014-01-01

    The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI) and poly (allylamine) (PAA) respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm). The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H2O2-selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of correlation (r) analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 ± 1.13% and 3.27 ± 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor. PMID:24696812

  8. DNA curtains: novel tools for imaging protein-nucleic acid interactions at the single-molecule level.

    PubMed

    Collins, Bridget E; Ye, Ling F; Duzdevich, Daniel; Greene, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between proteins and nucleic acids are at the molecular foundations of most key biological processes, including DNA replication, genome maintenance, the regulation of gene expression, and chromosome segregation. A complete understanding of these types of biological processes requires tackling questions with a range of different techniques, such as genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and structural biology. Here, we describe a novel experimental approach called "DNA curtains" that can be used to complement and extend these more traditional techniques by providing real-time information about protein-nucleic acid interactions at the level of single molecules. We describe general features of the DNA curtain technology and its application to the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions in vitro. We also discuss some future developments that will help address crucial challenges to the field of single-molecule biology.

  9. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva as a possible risk factor for early laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sereg-Bahar, Maja; Jerin, Ales; Hocevar-Boltezar, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is suspected to be an etiological factor in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish, using a non-invasive method, whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) appears more often in patients with early laryngeal cancer than in a control group. Patients and methods We compared the pH, the level of bile acids, the total pepsin and the pepsin enzymatic activity in saliva in a group of 30 patients with T1 laryngeal carcinoma and a group of 34 healthy volunteers. Results The groups differed significantly in terms of levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva sample. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids were detected in the group of cancer patients. No significant impact of other known factors influencing laryngeal mucosa (e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption, and the presence of irritating substances in the workplace) on the results of saliva analysis was found. Conclusions A higher level of typical components of LPR in the saliva of patients with early laryngeal cancer than in the controls suggests the possibility that LPR, especially biliary reflux, has a role in the development of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25810702

  10. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions.

  11. Serum and muscle levels of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol are normal in chronic alcoholic myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solà, J; Villegas, E; Nicolàs, J M; Deulofeu, R; Antúnez, E; Sacanella, E; Estruch, R; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1998-04-01

    Some authors have suggested a possible loss of antioxidant factors in alcoholic skeletal myopathy. To assess the relationship between ethanol consumption and serum and muscle levels of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol in chronic alcoholics with and without skeletal myopathy, a prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Alcohol Unit of a 1000-bed university hospital. Twenty-five chronic male alcoholic patients (10 with skeletal myopathy) and 15 male controls of similar age were included. Evaluation of daily and lifetime ethanol consumption, assessment of anthropometric and protein nutritional parameters, and open biopsy of the left deltoid muscle were performed, as well as determinations of serum and muscle levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid by HPLC analysis. Ten of the 25 chronic alcoholic patients presented histological criteria of skeletal myopathy. Four alcoholics presented caloric malnutrition and three protein malnutrition. All of the muscle biopsies of the control group were entirely normal, as were their nutritional studies. The serum and muscular levels of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol were normal and were similar in both alcoholics and controls. Except for serum retinol, these values were also similar in alcoholic patients with or without skeletal myopathy. In the univariate analysis, we identified the total lifetime dose of ethanol (p < 0.003), the muscle arm area (p < 0.05), and serum levels of prealbumin (p < 0.03) and retinol-binding protein (p < 0.05) as factors influencing the development of alcoholic myopathy. However, in multivariate analysis, the total lifetime dose of ethanol was the only independent factor in relation to alcoholic myopathy (p < 0.003). Serum and muscle levels of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol do not influence the presence of skeletal myopathy in chronic alcoholic patients.

  12. Effects of graded levels of arachidonic acid on the reproductive physiology of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): Fatty acid composition, prostaglandins and steroid levels in the blood of broodstock bred in captivity.

    PubMed

    Norambuena, Fernando; Estévez, Alicia; Mañanós, Evaristo; Bell, J Gordon; Carazo, Ignacio; Duncan, Neil

    2013-09-15

    Previous studies on Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) indicated that cultured broodstock (first generation, G1) have lower tissue levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) than wild counterparts. ARA is metabolized to form prostaglandins (PGs) that are involved in steroid production and follicle maturation in fish. In the present study the effects of different dietary levels of ARA on blood lipid and fatty acid composition, prostaglandin (PGF2α, PGF3α, PGE2 and PGE3) levels and plasmatic steroid levels (11-ketotestosterone, 11-KT, testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) in G1 Senegalese sole were studied. For this purpose, 12 groups of ten fish (1:1 male and female), were fed six diets (each diets was fed to two groups) with different dietary ARA levels over nine months (diets A=0.7, B=1.6, C=2.3, D=3.2, E=5.0, F=6.0% ARA). ARA and CHOL levels in blood showed a significant increase in an ARA dose related manner (P<0.05) whereas EPA and EPA/ARA ratio were reduced. In males, steroid (11-KT and T) levels increased significantly with increasing dietary ARA in a dose dependent manner, whereas in females E2 did not show any change related to dietary ARA content. Plasma concentration of 3-series PGs (i.e., PGE3 and PGF3α) were reduced in parallel to increased ARA levels in blood (P<0.05) and levels of PGs 3-series were always higher than 2-series PGs (PGE2 and PGF2α). In conclusion there is an effect of dietary ARA on steroid production of Senegalese sole males, which might have important consequences in the reproduction of cultured fish.

  13. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  14. Increased glutamate and homocysteine and decreased glutamine levels in autism: a review and strategies for future studies of amino acids in autism.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  15. Liver function parameters, cholesterol, and phospholipid α-linoleic acid are associated with adipokine levels in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Gray, Belinda; Steyn, Frederik; Davies, Peter Stephen Wynford; Vitetta, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipose hormones in obesity has been associated with the hastened development of metabolic syndrome and associated chronic disease sequalae including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aims to identify common biochemical and anthropometric markers that impact adipose hormones, including adiponectin and leptin. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized that these would be adversely impacted by liver function parameters, and adiponectin levels would be positively correlated with phospholipid Ω-3 fatty acids. Forty nondiabetic adult subjects (body mass index, ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2)) were recruited. Fasting plasma samples were taken to assess adipokine levels, glucose metabolism, electrolytes, liver enzymes, and blood lipids. Basic anthropometric measurements were also recorded. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and negatively correlated with anthropometric measures, insulin, liver enzymes, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not body mass index. Conversely, plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with anthropometric measures, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma phospholipid proportions of Ω-3 α linoleic acid but inversely correlated with creatinine levels. These results support other data regarding correlations between adiponectin and relative adipose distribution. Correlations with specific liver enzymes may indicate that adiponectin levels are tied to fatty acid deposition in the liver; however, liver/kidney damage though further mechanistic clarification is required. Leptin levels were associated with measures of adiposity but not liver enzymes. Each of these variables, along with blood lipids, may serve as potential future therapeutic targets for the prevention and management of obesity and related comorbidities. PMID:24916550

  16. Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles.

    PubMed

    Yokogoshi, H; Roberts, C H; Caballero, B; Wurtman, R J

    1984-07-01

    Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanylmethyl ester; 200 mg/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and tyrosine, and enhanced the increments caused by the aspartame, nearly doubling the rise in brain phenylalanine. Each animal's brain phenylalanine or tyrosine levels were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.99, respectively) with its plasma phenylalanine or tyrosine ratios, affirming that aspartame's effects on the brain amino acids result from the changes it produces in plasma composition. As described previously, glucose consumption increased brain tryptophan levels, and consequently, brain levels of the 5-hydroxyindoles serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Aspartame alone had no effect on these compounds but completely blocked the changes in 5-hydroxyindoles caused by glucose. Each animal's brain level of tryptophan (r = 0.89) and 5-hydroxyindoles (r = 0.74) was also significantly correlated with its plasma tryptophan ratio, affirming that the effects of glucose or aspartame on these brain constituents also result from the changes they produce in plasma composition. The aspartame-glucose combination also reduced brain levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to a significantly greater extent than aspartame or glucose alone. These observations indicate that high aspartame doses can generate major neurochemical changes in rats, especially when consumed along with carbohydrate-containing foods. However, they should not in any way be interpreted as demonstrating that aspartame significantly affects the human brain.

  17. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    PubMed

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (P<0.01) and in groups with α-tocopherol addition (P<0.01). The TBARS values in lean were reduced by the inclusion of HOSO (P<0.05) and α-tocopherol supplementation (P<0.10). Compared to the no oil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet

  18. Computational Design of an Unnatural Amino Acid Dependent Metalloprotein with Atomic Level Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jeremy H.; Khare, Sagar D.; Bolduc, Jill M.; Forouhar, Farhad; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Lew, Scott; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Tong, Liang; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Genetically encoded unnatural amino acids could facilitate the design of proteins and enzymes of novel function, but correctly specifying sites of incorporation, and the identities and orientations of surrounding residues represents a formidable challenge. Computational design methods have been used to identify optimal locations for functional sites in proteins and design the surrounding residues, but have not incorporated unnatural amino acids in this process. We extended the Rosetta design methodology to design metalloproteins in which the amino acid (2,2’-bipyridin-5yl)alanine (Bpy-Ala) is a primary ligand of a bound metal ion. Following initial results that indicated the importance of buttressing the Bpy-Ala amino acid, we designed a buried metal binding site with octahedral coordination geometry consisting of Bpy-Ala, two protein based metal ligands, and two metal bound water molecules. Experimental characterization revealed a Bpy-Ala mediated metalloprotein with the ability to bind divalent cations including Co2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, and Ni2+, with a Kd for Zn2+ of ~40 pM. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the designed protein shows only slight deviation from the computationally designed model. PMID:23924187

  19. Computational design of an unnatural amino acid dependent metalloprotein with atomic level accuracy.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jeremy H; Khare, Sagar D; Bolduc, Jill M; Forouhar, Farhad; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Lew, Scott; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Tong, Liang; Stoddard, Barry L; Baker, David

    2013-09-11

    Genetically encoded unnatural amino acids could facilitate the design of proteins and enzymes of novel function, but correctly specifying sites of incorporation and the identities and orientations of surrounding residues represents a formidable challenge. Computational design methods have been used to identify optimal locations for functional sites in proteins and design the surrounding residues but have not incorporated unnatural amino acids in this process. We extended the Rosetta design methodology to design metalloproteins in which the amino acid (2,2'-bipyridin-5yl)alanine (Bpy-Ala) is a primary ligand of a bound metal ion. Following initial results that indicated the importance of buttressing the Bpy-Ala amino acid, we designed a buried metal binding site with octahedral coordination geometry consisting of Bpy-Ala, two protein-based metal ligands, and two metal-bound water molecules. Experimental characterization revealed a Bpy-Ala-mediated metalloprotein with the ability to bind divalent cations including Co(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Ni(2+), with a Kd for Zn(2+) of ∼40 pM. X-ray crystal structures of the designed protein bound to Co(2+) and Ni(2+) have RMSDs to the design model of 0.9 and 1.0 Å respectively over all atoms in the binding site.

  20. Effects of organic acid-surfactant mixtures on levels of bacteria and beef quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Organic acid efficacy as an antimicrobial treatment of beef carcass surfaces may be increased through the addition of surfactants. However, the effects of antimicrobial-surfactant mixtures on beef quality traits such as flavor and color stability may make their use unacceptable. Purp...

  1. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  2. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  3. Quantification of rosmarinic acid levels by near infrared spectroscopy in laboratory culture grown spearmint plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for the rapid quantization of rosmarinic acid (RA) in tissues of spearmint using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed by correlating with the results of methanol extracts analyzed on a HPLC photo-diode array (PDA) system. NIR and HPLC analyses performed on over 500 samples were u...

  4. [The level of mercapturic acids in the urine of workers in the petroleum refining industry].

    PubMed

    Benchev, I; Khristeva, V; Mukhtarova, M

    1991-01-01

    Examination are carried out on 236 workers from three productions of oil-processing industry, who are exposed to the effect of hydrocarbons--saturated from the ethylene order, saturated (benzine), aromatic and sulphuric compounds--sulphur-containing organic, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide. The purpose of the study is to establish the risk of exposure to alkylating agents, which are potentially cancerogenic and mutagenic. Leading noxa in the production of high-octane aviation benzine (production "sulfur acidic alkylation", are the sulphur containing organic compounds, hydrogen sulphide, and in some working places--hydrocarbons (benzine and aromatic); in the production of "Ethylene" and "Polypropylene" leading noxae are the saturated hydrocarbons, and the sulphur-containing organic compounds as well as the unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene and propylene). The mercapturic acids in urine are determined after the method of Malonova and Bardoday (1983), and the creatinine by the Böringer test. Tobacco smoking and taking of drugs is also considered when data processing. A control group of 30 persons is also examined. In the workers from the 3 enterprises the average values of mercapturic acids in smokers and non-smokers are higher than that of the control group. The differences are statistically significant in the group of non-smokers. The highest per cent of workers with increased content of mercapturic acids (above 8 mumol/mmol creatinine) is established in the production of "Polypropylene".

  5. Plasma amino acid profiles are associated with insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Noguchi, Y; Shimba, N; Miyano, H; Watanabe, T; Iseki, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and glucose-related variables. Methods: Fifty-one Japanese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. The plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids; glucose-related markers including glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol; insulin-related markers including insulin, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; and adipocytokines including adiponectin and leptin were determined. The association of PFAA and other metabolic profiles were analyzed, and stratified analyses of the PFAAs and clinical characteristics were performed according to the fasting plasma insulin and HbA1c levels. In addition, the PFAA indices that correlate to visceral fat obesity were evaluated. Results: Although strong correlations between PFAAs and glucose-related markers were not observed, several amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan, alanine, tyrosine, glutamate and proline) and PFAA indices that evaluate visceral obesity were highly correlated with insulin-related markers and adiponectin (P<0.001). In the group of diabetic patients with hyperinsulinemia, the amino acid levels were significantly increased, which generally demonstrated good concordance with insulin-related markers and adiponectin levels. Conclusions: The PFAA profiles in diabetic patients were strongly associated with hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, which might become risk evaluation factors for the development of

  6. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    PubMed

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  7. A generic model for spoilage of acidic emulsified foods: combining physicochemical data, diversity and levels of specific spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Lambert, Ronald J W; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2014-01-17

    , sporadically, acetic acid levels in the spreads. The developed models were validated under real chill chain conditions and showed very good agreement with the observed data in PS and FS. The spoilage perception patterns of the different products were similar and thus, the proposed unified model may provide accurate predictions for the spoilage of a wide variety of acetic acid-acidified spreads, regardless of differences in the formulation (e.g., raw materials) and the manufacturing procedure.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis via fatty acyl elongase and Δ4-desaturase and its modulation by dietary lipid level and fatty acid composition in a marine vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sofia; Mourente, Gabriel; Martínez, Almudena; Gras, Noélia; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-05-01

    The present study presents the first "in vivo" evidence of enzymatic activity and nutritional regulation of a Δ4-desaturase-dependent DHA synthesis pathway in the teleost Solea senegalensis. Juvenile fish were fed diets containing 2 lipid levels (8 and 18%, LL and HL) with either 100% fish oil (FO) or 75% of the FO replaced by vegetable oils (VOs). Fatty acyl elongation (Elovl5) and desaturation (Δ4Fad) activities were measured in isolated enterocytes and hepatocytes incubated with radiolabeled α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Tissue distributions of elovl5 and Δ4fad transcripts were also determined, and the transcriptional regulation of these genes in liver and intestine was assessed at fasting and postprandially. DHA biosynthesis from EPA occurred in both cell types, although Elovl5 and Δ4Fad activities tended to be higher in hepatocytes. In contrast, no Δ6Fad activity was detected on (14)C-ALA, which was only elongated to 20:3n-3. Enzymatic activities and gene transcription were modulated by dietary lipid level (LL>HL) and fatty acid (FA) composition (VO>FO), more significantly in the liver than in the intestine, which was reflected in tissue FA compositions. Dietary VO induced a significant up-regulation of Δ4fad transcripts in the liver 6h after feeding, whereas in fasting conditions the effect of lipid level possibly prevailed over or interacted with FA composition in regulating the expression of elovl5 and Δ4fad, which were down-regulated in the liver of fish fed the HL diets. Results indicated functionality and biological relevance of the Δ4 LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway in S. senegalensis.

  9. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  10. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  11. Delineation of biochemical, molecular, and physiological changes accompanying bile acid pool size restoration in Cyp7a1−/− mice fed low levels of cholic acid

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan D.; Repa, Joyce J.; Russell, David W.; Dietschy, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initiating and rate-limiting enzyme in the neutral pathway that coverts cholesterol to primary bile acids (BA). CYP7A1-deficient (Cyp7a1−/−) mice have a depleted BA pool, diminished intestinal cholesterol absorption, accelerated fecal sterol loss, and increased intestinal cholesterol synthesis. To determine the molecular and physiological effects of restoring the BA pool in this model, adult female Cyp7a1−/− mice and matching Cyp7a1+/+ controls were fed diets containing cholic acid (CA) at modest levels [0.015, 0.030, and 0.060% (wt/wt)] for 15–18 days. A level of just 0.03% provided a CA intake of ∼12 μmol (4.8 mg) per day per 100 g body wt and was sufficient in the Cyp7a1−/− mice to normalize BA pool size, fecal BA excretion, fractional cholesterol absorption, and fecal sterol excretion but caused a significant rise in the cholesterol concentration in the small intestine and liver, as well as a marked inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in these organs. In parallel with these metabolic changes, there were marked shifts in intestinal and hepatic expression levels for many target genes of the BA sensor farnesoid X receptor, as well as genes involved in cholesterol transport, especially ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG8. In Cyp7a1+/+ mice, this level of CA supplementation did not significantly disrupt BA or cholesterol metabolism, except for an increase in fecal BA excretion and marginal changes in mRNA expression for some BA synthetic enzymes. These findings underscore the importance of using moderate dietary BA levels in studies with animal models. PMID:22628034

  12. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuai; Chen, Ying; Hou, Xu; Xu, Donghua; Che, Kui; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggested a possible association between serum uric acid levels and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, but no definite evidence was available. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies were performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases were searched for eligible studies. Study-specific data were combined using random-effect or fixed-effect models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twelve studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 1388 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and 4746 patients without peripheral neuropathy. Meta-analysis showed that there were obvious increased serum uric acid levels in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 50.03 μmol/L, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 22.14-77.93, P = 0.0004). Hyperuricemia was also significantly associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95%CI 2.13-3.76, P < 0.00001). Meta-analysis of two studies with adjusted risk estimates showed that hyperuricemia was independently associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients (RR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.23-3.11, P = 0.005). Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy have obvious increased serum uric acid levels, and hyperuricemia is associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to validate the impact of serum uric acid levels on peripheral neuropathy risk.

  13. Chronic low-level domoic acid exposure alters gene transcription and impairs mitochondrial function in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Hiolski, Emma M; Kendrick, Preston S; Frame, Elizabeth R; Myers, Mark S; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Farin, Federico M; Wilkerson, Hui-wen; Smith, Donald R; Marcinek, David J; Lefebvre, Kathi A

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid is an algal-derived seafood toxin that functions as a glutamate agonist and exerts excitotoxicity via overstimulation of glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA) in the central nervous system (CNS). At high (symptomatic) doses, domoic acid is well-known to cause seizures, brain lesions and memory loss; however, a significant knowledge gap exists regarding the health impacts of repeated low-level (asymptomatic) exposure. Here, we investigated the impacts of low-level repetitive domoic acid exposure on gene transcription and mitochondrial function in the vertebrate CNS using a zebrafish model in order to: 1) identify transcriptional biomarkers of exposure; and 2) examine potential pathophysiology that may occur in the absence of overt excitotoxic symptoms. We found that transcription of genes related to neurological function and development were significantly altered, and that asymptomatic exposure impaired mitochondrial function. Interestingly, the transcriptome response was highly-variable across the exposure duration (36 weeks), with little to no overlap of specific genes across the six exposure time points (2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 weeks). Moreover, there were no apparent similarities at any time point with the gene transcriptome profile exhibited by the glud1 mouse model of chronic moderate excess glutamate release. These results suggest that although the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity may be similar, gene transcriptome responses to domoic acid exposure do not extrapolate well between different exposure durations. However, the observed impairment of mitochondrial function based on respiration rates and mitochondrial protein content suggests that repetitive low-level exposure does have fundamental cellular level impacts that could contribute to chronic health consequences. PMID:25033243

  14. Metabolic engineering of seeds can achieve levels of omega-7 fatty acids comparable to the highest levels found in natural plant sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.T.; Shanklin, J.; Mishra, G.; Whittle, E.; Bevan, S. A.; Merlo, A. O.; Walsh, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Plant oils containing {omega}-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} and cis-vaccenic 18:1{Delta}{sup 11}) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of {omega}-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased {omega}-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the {beta}-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of {omega}-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased {omega}-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds.

  15. Large neutral amino acids levels in primate cerebrospinal fluid do not confirm competitive transport under baseline conditions.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Rodolfo; Mchaourab, Ali S; McClellan, Frances; Elsworth, John; Double, Manda; Jaskiw, George E

    2016-10-01

    In rodents, transport of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier is mediated by high affinity carriers. Net brain LNAA levels are thought to be determined mainly by this competitive transport from plasma. Since the affinity for LNAA transport at the BBB in primates is considerably higher than in rodents, brain influx and by extension LNAA brain levels, should be even more dependent on competitive transport. Given that LNAA levels in CSF and brain interstitial fluid are usually similar, we analyzed serum and CSF of fasted subjects (n=24) undergoing spinal anesthesia and calculated brain influx and transporter occupancy using a conventional model of transport. Despite predicted near-full transporter saturation (99.7%), correlations between CSF levels and brain influx were modest, limited to tyrosine (r=0.60, p<0.002) and tryptophan (r=0.50, p<0.01) and comparable to correlations between CSF and serum levels. We also analyzed serum and CSF in (n=5) fasted vervet monkeys. Tyrosine and phenylalanine levels in CSF were positively correlated with those in serum, but correlations with calculated brain influx, which takes competition into account, were weaker or absent. We conclude that in primates i) baseline CSF LNAA levels do not confirm competitive transport, ii) brain LNAA levels should not be estimated on the basis of serum indices alone. This has implications for amino acid challenge studies and for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated LNAA transport in which quantitative information about brain LNAA levels is needed. PMID:27521685

  16. Extracellular dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens of Fisher and Lewis rats: Basal levels and cocaine-induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, R.E.; Eberle, W.F.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Rats of the Lewis (LEW) strain show a greater preference for drugs of abuse than do Fisher 344 (F344) rats. The in vivo microdialysis procedure was used to examine basal and cocaine-evoked extracellular (EC) levels of dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and HVA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of F344 and LEW rats. The basal EC levels of the DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA in the NAc were markedly lower in LEW than in F344 rats. Although the increase in ECDA after 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, i/p. of cocaine was similar in both strains, LEW rats had a smaller peak DA elevation followed by a slower return to basal DA levels at the 30 mg/kg dose. The neurochemical differences observed may contribute to the strain differences in the behavioral response to cocaine. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Correlation Between Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Plasma Levels in Autistic Children.

    PubMed

    Russo, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    There is much support for the role of Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the etiology of autism. Recent research has shown that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. This study was designed to determine and correlate plasma levels of HGF, GABA, as well as symptom severity, in autistic children and neurotypical controls. Plasma from 48 autistic children and 29 neurotypical controls was assessed for HGF and GABA concentration using ELISAs. Symptom severity was assessed in these autistic individuals and compared to HGF and GABA concentrations. We previously reported that autistic children had significantly decreased levels of HGF. In this study, the same autistic children had significantly increased plasma levels of GABA (P = 0.002) and decreased HGF levels correlated with these increased GABA levels (r = 0.3; P = 0.05). High GABA levels correlated with increasing hyperactivity (r = 0.6; P = 0.0007) and impulsivity severity (r = 0.5; P = 0.007), tip toeing severity (r = 0.35; P = 0.03), light sensitivity (r = 0.4; P = 0.02), and tactile sensitivity (r = 0.4; P = 0.01). HGF levels did not correlate significantly with any symptom severity. These results suggest an association between HGF and GABA levels and suggest that plasma GABA levels are related to symptom severity in autistic children.

  18. Guanidinoacetic acid versus creatine for improved brain and muscle creatine levels: a superiority pilot trial in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan

    2016-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, we evaluated whether 4-week supplementation with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is superior to creatine in facilitating creatine levels in healthy men (n = 5). GAA (3.0 g/day) resulted in a more powerful rise (up to 16.2%) in tissue creatine levels in vastus medialis muscle, middle-cerebellar peduncle, and paracentral grey matter, as compared with creatine (P < 0.05). These results indicate that GAA as a preferred alternative to creatine for improved bioenergetics in energy-demanding tissues. PMID:27560540

  19. Testing and evaluation of an industrial lead-acid battery for utility load-leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Corp, D.; Folke, E.; Tillery, G.; Loutfy, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Constant-power/constant-voltage charging, as well as constant-current/constant-voltage charging, was investigated. Electrolyte stratification observed in the battery during cycling indicates discharge of the battery from the top down. Uneven concentration of acid during charge may be avoided by mixing. This study shows that a minimization in cycle time can be achieved by proper choice of charge/discharge parameters.

  20. Lovastatin increases arachidonic acid levels and stimulates thromboxane synthesis in human liver and monocytic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hrboticky, N; Tang, L; Zimmer, B; Lux, I; Weber, P C

    1994-01-01

    The effect of lovastatin (LOV), the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, on linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) metabolism was examined in human monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) and hepatoma Hep G2 cells. The desaturation of LA was examined after LOV (72 h, 10 microM) or dimethylsulfoxide (LOV carrier, < 0.1%) and [14C]LA (last 18 h, 0.3 microCi, 5 microM). In both cell lines, LOV reduced the percentage of 14C label associated with LA and increased the percentage of label in the 20:4n-6 and the 22:5n-6 fractions. In Hep G2 but not MM6 cells, this effect was fully reversible by means of coincubation with mevalonic acid (500 microM), but not with cholesterol or lipoproteins. In both cell lines, the LOV-mediated increase in LA desaturation resulted in dose-dependent reductions of LA and elevations of AA in cellular phospholipids. The lipids secreted by LOV-treated Hep G2 cells were also enriched in arachidonic acid (AA). In the MM6 cells, LOV increased release of thromboxane upon stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187. In summary, our findings of higher LA desaturation and AA enrichment of lipids secreted by the Hep G2 cells suggest that LOV treatment may increase the delivery of AA from the liver to extrahepatic tissues. The changes in membrane fatty acid composition can influence a variety of cellular functions, such as eicosanoid synthesis in monocytic cells. The mechanism appears to be related to the reduced availability of intermediates of cholesterogenesis. PMID:8282787

  1. Rapid adjustment of guard-cell abscisic acid levels to current leaf-water status

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.J.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Detached broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets were water stressed; within 15 minutes, guard-cell abscisic acid (ABA) concentration increased ninefold. This result eliminates the apparent discrepancy raised by reports of no correlation between initial water-stress effects on stomata and leaf ABA concentration. Six hours after stress relief, guard-cell ABA concentration was near the prestress value, which would seem to implicate other factors in stress after-effects on stomata.

  2. Effects of acute exercise on the levels of iron, magnesium, and uric acid in liver and spleen tissues.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoğlu, B; Turgut, G; Genç, O; Enli, Y; Karabulut, I; Zencir, M; Turgut, S

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on tissue levels of iron, magnesium, and uric acid of rats. Twenty adult Wistar albino rats were used for the study. They were divided into two groups: controls (n=10) and the study group (n=10). The study group was left into a small water pool and allowed to do swimming exercise for 30 min while controls rested. All of the animals were sacrificed, and their livers and spleens removed and homogenized immediately. The iron, magnesium, and uric acid levels of the homogenates were measured by an autoanalyzer (ILAB 900, Italy) with commercial kits from the same company. Results were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U-test. According to our results, the liver iron levels increased significantly with exercise, whereas spleen iron levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to controls. We found no significant differences in the levels of the other two parameters with exercise. These results show that the iron distribution in organs changes with exercise. PMID:12719612

  3. Predictors of urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and pentachlorophenol in 121 adults in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K

    2015-07-01

    Limited data exist on the driving factors that influence the non-occupational exposures of adults to pesticides using urinary biomonitoring. In this work, the objectives were to quantify the urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in 121 adults over a 48-h monitoring period and to examine the associations between selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and urinary levels of each pesticide biomarker. Adults, ages 20-49 years old, were recruited from six counties in Ohio (OH) in 2001. The participants collected 4-6 spot urine samples and completed questionnaires and diaries at home over a 48-h monitoring period. Urine samples were analyzed for 2,4-D, TCP, 3-PBA, and PCP by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multiple regression modeling was used to determine the impact of selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the log-transformed (ln) levels of each pesticide biomarker in adults. The pesticide biomarkers were detected in ≥ 89% of the urine samples, except for 3-PBA (66%). Median urinary levels of 2,4-D, TCP, 3-PBA, and PCP were 0.7, 3.4, 0.3, and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Results showed that 48-h sweet/salty snack consumption, 48-h time spend outside at home, and ln(creatinine) levels were significant predictors (p < 0.05), and race was a marginally significant predictor (p = 0.093) of the adults' ln(urinary 2,4-D) concentrations. Strong predictors (p < 0.05) of the adults' ln(urinary TCP) concentrations were urbanicity, employment status, sampling season, and ln(creatinine) levels. For 3-PBA, sampling season, pet ownership and removal of shoes before entering the home were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of the adults' ln(urinary 3-PBA) levels. Finally for PCP, removal of shoes before entering the home and ln(creatinine) levels were significant predictors (p < 0.05), and pet ownership was a marginally significant predictor (p = 0

  4. Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 inhibits rat cortical dialysate gamma-aminobutyric acid levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, L; Tomasini, M C; Cassano, T; Bebe, B W; Siniscalchi, A; O'Connor, W T; Magee, P; Tanganelli, S; Cuomo, V; Antonelli, T

    2001-10-15

    The effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (0.1-5 mg/kg i.p.) on endogenous extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the cerebral cortex of the awake rat was investigated by using microdialysis. WIN 55,212-2 (1 and 5 mg/kg i.p.) was associated with a concentration-dependent decrease in dialysate GABA levels (-16% +/- 4% and -26% +/- 4% of basal values, respectively). The WIN 55,212-2 (5 mg/kg i.p.) induced-inhibition was counteracted by a dose (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) of the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A, which by itself was without effect on cortical GABA levels. These findings suggest that cannabinoids decrease cortical GABA levels in vivo, an action that might underlie some of the cognitive and behavioral effects of acute exposure to marijuana.

  5. Impacts on microbial communities and cultivable isolates from groundwater contaminated with high levels of nitric acid-uranium waste.

    PubMed

    Fields, Matthew W; Yan, Tingfen; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Carroll, Susan L; Jardine, Phil M; Watson, David B; Criddle, Craig S; Zhou, Jizhong

    2005-08-01

    Microbial communities were characterized at contaminated sites that had elevated levels of nitrate, nickel, aluminum, and uranium (up to 690 mM, 310 microM, 42 mM, and 30 microM, respectively). The bacterial community structure based upon clonal libraries of the SSU rRNA genes (screened clones = 876) was diverse at the background site, but the three acidic samples had decreased diversity and the majority of clones were closely related to Azoarcus and Pseudomonas species. Arthrobacter and Novosphingobium sequences were recovered from the background samples but not the acidic sites, and similar pseudomonad populations were present at the background and acidic sites albeit at different relative abundances. Heterologous sequence coverage analyses indicated the microbial communities at the contaminated sites were very similar (p = 0.001) but different from the background site. Bacterial isolates (n = 67) classified as beta-or gamma-Proteobacteria, high G+C Gram-positive or low G+C Gram-positive were obtained from the background and one contaminated sample, and some of the isolates had less than 95% sequence identity with previously observed microorganisms. Despite variations in nitrate and heavy metal levels and different proximities to the source ponds, the three acidic samples had similar microbial populations. However, the least contaminated site (lowest nitrate and aluminum) had increased diversity compared to the other acidic samples. The results suggested that the combined contamination has decreased the microbial diversity, and Azoarcus populations were observed at a drastically increased frequency compared to the background site that had a more even distribution of multiple taxa.

  6. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS. PMID:27507559

  7. Increased Serum Uric Acid Levels Blunt the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Lifestyle Modifications in Children at Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Rebora, Paola; Giussani, Marco; Orlando, Antonina; Stella, Andrea; Antolini, Laura; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pontremoli, Roberto; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    Primary hypertension is a growing concern in children because of the obesity epidemic largely attributable to western lifestyles. Serum uric acid is known to be influenced by dietary habits, correlates with obesity, and could represent a risk factor for hypertension. Preliminary studies in children highlighted uric acid as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The effect of lifestyle changes (increase of physical activity and dietary modifications) on blood pressure values, weight status, and serum uric acid levels in a cohort of 248 children referred for cardiovascular risk assessment were evaluated over a mean 1.5-year follow-up. At baseline, 48% of children were obese and 50% showed blood pressure values >90th percentile. At follow-up, a significant improvement in weight class (24% obese;P<0.0001) and blood pressure category (22% >90th percentile;P<0.0001) was found. Systolic blood pressure z-score (P<0.0001), uric acid value (P=0.0056), and puberty at baseline (P=0.0048) were independently associated with higher systolic blood pressure z-score at follow-up, whereas a negative association was observed with body mass index z-score decrease during follow-up (P=0.0033). The risk of hypertension at follow-up was associated with body mass index (P=0.0025) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001) z-score at baseline and inversely related to delta body mass index (P=0.0002), whereas the risk of showing hypertension ≥99th percentile was more than doubled for each baseline 1 mg/dL increase of serum uric acid (P=0.0130). Uric acid is a powerful determinant of blood pressure over time, independent of lifestyle modifications. PMID:27021006

  8. Gene-Expression Patterns and Levels of Jasmonic Acid in Rice Treated with the Resistance Inducer 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, P.; Buchala, A.; Metraux, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Acquired disease resistance can be induced in rice (Oryza sativa) by a number of synthetic or natural compounds, but the molecular mechanisms behind the phenomenon are poorly understood. One of the synthetic inducers of resistance, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), efficiently protected rice leaves from infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr. A comparison of gene-expression patterns in plants treated with INA versus plants inoculated with the compatible pathogen M. grisea or the incompatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae revealed only a marginal overlap: 6 gene products, including pathogenesis-related proteins (PR1-PR9), accumulated in both INA-treated and pathogen-attacked leaves, whereas 26 other gene products accumulated only in INA-treated or only in pathogen-attacked leaves. Lipoxygenase enzyme activity and levels of nonconjugated jasmonic acid (JA) were enhanced in leaves of plants treated with a high dose of INA (100 ppm). Exogenously applied JA enhanced the gene induction and plant protection caused by lower doses of INA (0.1 to 10 ppm) that by themselves did not give rise to enhanced levels of endogenous (-)-JA. These data suggest that INA, aside from activating a pathogen-induced signaling pathway, also induces events that are not related to pathogenesis. JA acts as an enhancer of both types of INA-induced reactions in rice. PMID:12223792

  9. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (< 6% dietary energy), either by reducing the total fat content of the diet or by exchanging saturated fat with unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL

  10. Effects of Diaceto-Dipropyl-Disulphide on Plasma Sialic Acid and Renal Tissue Thiol Levels in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vickram; Thirumalarao, Kashinath Rattihalli; Raiker, Veena Gajana; Puttaswamy, Sandhya Hanumanthappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Plasma sialic acid levels are elevated in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with proteinuria. Renal damage is mainly caused by free radicals that are excessively generated in DM. Thiols play an important role in the cellular antioxidative defence mechanisms mainly through thiol-disulphide exchange reaction. Diallyl disulphide, a garlic oil principle component, is known for its anti-diabetic properties. Its structural analogue, Diaceto-Dipropyl Disulphide (DADPDS), is a less toxic and more palatable disulphide and possesses similar anti-diabetic actions. Aim This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of DADPDS in prevention of de-sialation of Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM) in alloxan diabetic rats and to assess effect of DADPDS on renal tissue thiol levels. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into Normal, Diabetic and DADPDS treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection (IP) of alloxan. DADPDS was fed by gastric intubation. Plasma Sialic acid was determined by Ehrlich’s method and renal tissue thiol levels by Nitroprusside reaction method. Results This study showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in plasma sialic acid, plasma glucose and renal tissue TBARS levels along with significant increase (p<0.001) in renal tissue thiol levels in DADPDS treated alloxan diabetic rats when compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion Hence it may be concluded that DADPDS helps in preventing de-sialation of GBM in alloxan diabetic rats and improves renal tissue antioxidant defence mechanisms, may be through thiol-disulphide exchange reaction and thereby exhibits a possible clinical use in prevention of renal complications like diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27504279

  11. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  12. The nutritional status in advanced emphysema associated with chronic bronchitis. A study of amino acid and catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Hofford, J M; Milakofsky, L; Vogel, W H; Sacher, R S; Savage, G J; Pell, S

    1990-04-01

    Advanced emphysema with bronchitis is associated with significant weight loss and malnutrition, the true cause of which has not been clearly identified. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare plasma amino acids and related compounds and catecholamines in a group of patients with advanced end-stage emphysema with a control group of similar age and sex in an effort to further understand this malnourished state. Fasting blood samples were obtained by venipuncture after a rest period. Plasma amino acid levels were determined by ion exchange high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. Plasma catecholamines were determined by radioenzymatic analysis. Anthropometric measurements, the usually accepted biochemical markers of nutrition, dietary analysis, pulmonary function tests, and a historical analysis of the state of health including drug use and smoking history in each subject were analyzed. Ages and heights were comparable, whereas weights were significantly decreased in the patients with emphysema. Total serum protein and serum albumin values were significantly lower in the patient group. Significant respiratory muscle weakness was indicated by reduced negative inspiratory force in these end-stage patients, contrasting with well-preserved muscle strength usually found in obstructive lung disease. The dietary caloric intake of the patients was comparable to that of the control subjects. We conclude that the fine balance of the amino acid pool in patients with bronchitis and emphysema is well preserved, except for significant elevations of aspartic acid, glutamine, and cystine, and a decreased level of leucine. In addition, norepinephrine levels were significantly increased. Weight loss in patients with emphysema and bronchitis is likely due to increased energy demands related to hypermetabolism. PMID:2327654

  13. Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Tan, Yu-Mei; Andersen, Melvin; Bevan, Christopher; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5 microg/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to a manufacturing facility; however, in most supplies, the levels were below 7.5 ng/L (usual limit of detection). PFOA has an average half-life in humans of 3.5years. From animal studies, PFOA is considered a possible hepatotoxicant and developmental toxicant for humans. Based on two chronic studies, PFOA was judged to be a possible human carcinogen, whose mode-of-action was likely to be related to receptor activation but not genotoxicity. The Benchmark Dose-Uncertainty Factor approach was selected for dose-response for noncancer and cancer. Based on internal dose of PFOA, the DWEL protective against cancer is 7.7 microgPFOA/L tap water, and the noncancer DWELs range from 0.88 to 2.4 microg/L. These DWELs can be considered a reliable, albeit conservative, basis to set a Maximum Concentration Level Goal under the US Safe Drinking Water Act. PMID:19631249

  14. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  15. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  16. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Andreea; Kemp, Belinda S; Pickering, Gary J

    2016-09-16

    Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs) are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as 'ladybug taint'. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers-one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based-applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP), sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP) in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS). The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis) and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) (SPME-MDGCMS) was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm²/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint.

  17. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  18. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages.

  19. Effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid on the risk of arsenic-associated carotid atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.-M.; Chiou, H.-Y. . E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Hong, C.-T.; Su, C.-L.; Chang, S.-F.; Huang, W.-L.; Wang, H.-T.; Wang, Y.-H.; Hsieh, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-J.

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic-contaminated well water has been shown to increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Because of involving S-adenosylmethionine, homocysteine may modify the risk by interfering with the biomethylation of ingested arsenic. In this study, we assessed the effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) on the risk of atherosclerosis associated with arsenic. In total, 163 patients with carotid atherosclerosis and 163 controls were studied. Lifetime cumulative arsenic exposure from well water for study subjects was measured as index of arsenic exposure. Homocysteine level was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Proportion of MMA{sup V} (MMA%) was calculated by dividing with total arsenic species in urine, including arsenite, arsenate, MMA{sup V}, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). Results of multiple linear regression analysis show a positive correlation of plasma homocysteine levels to the cumulative arsenic exposure after controlling for atherosclerosis status and nutritional factors (P < 0.05). This correlation, however, did not change substantially the effect of arsenic exposure on the risk of atherosclerosis as analyzed in a subsequent logistic regression model. Logistic regression analyses also show that elevated plasma homocysteine levels did not confer an independent risk for developing atherosclerosis in the study population. However, the risk of having atherosclerosis was increased to 5.4-fold (95% CI, 2.0-15.0) for the study subjects with high MMA% ({>=}16.5%) and high homocysteine levels ({>=}12.7 {mu}mol/l) as compared to those with low MMA% (<9.9%) and low homocysteine levels (<12.7 {mu}mol/l). Elevated homocysteinemia may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis related to arsenic exposure in individuals with high levels of MMA% in urine.

  20. Effect of some D-amino acids on the steady-state level of glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Berberich, M A

    1985-09-01

    D-Glutamate can elicit an increase in the specific activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) when added to cells growing in the presence of high ammonia nitrogen. This effect is independent of glutamate dehydrogenase or glutamate synthase activities and could not be provoked by the addition of the various metabolites which participate in the regulation of GS in the covalent modification system. Neither could an increase in GS level be elicited by addition of any of the D-amino acids which function as allosteric effectors or inhibitors of GS activity. The increase in GS level could also be provoked by addition of D-lysine, D-threonine, or glycine to cells growing in an ammonia-rich medium. The increase in GS level generated by a mixture of D-glutamate, D-lysine, D-threonine, and glycine approximates the increase in GS level observed during step-down of a wild-type Escherichia coli culture from ammonia-sufficient to ammonia-limited growth conditions. Studies with mutants exhibiting alterations in GS regulation indicated that the increase elicited by the addition of D-amino acids depends on the presence of the wild-type glnD allele, although no direct correlation between a positive response and the state of adenylylation of GS can be made. PMID:2863253

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  2. Untangling the Effect of Fatty Acid Addition at Species Level Revealed Different Transcriptional Responses of the Biogas Microbial Community Members.

    PubMed

    Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zhu, Xinyu; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, RNA-sequencing was used to elucidate the change of anaerobic digestion metatranscriptome after long chain fatty acids (oleate) exposure. To explore the general transcriptional behavior of the microbiome, the analysis was first performed on shotgun reads without considering a reference metagenome. As a second step, RNA reads were aligned on the genes encoded by the microbial community, revealing the expression of more than 51 000 different transcripts. The present study is the first research which was able to dissect the transcriptional behavior at a single species level by considering the 106 microbial genomes previously identified. The exploration of the metabolic pathways confirmed the importance of Syntrophomonas species in fatty acids degradation, and also highlighted the presence of protective mechanisms toward the long chain fatty acid effects in bacteria belonging to Clostridiales, Rykenellaceae, and in species of the genera Halothermothrix and Anaerobaculum. Additionally, an interesting transcriptional activation of the chemotaxis genes was evidenced in seven species belonging to Clostridia, Halothermothrix, and Tepidanaerobacter. Surprisingly, methanogens revealed a very versatile behavior different from each other, even among similar species of the Methanoculleus genus, while a strong increase of the expression level in Methanosarcina sp. was evidenced after oleate addition.

  3. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  4. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-20

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  5. Systems-level metabolic flux profiling elucidates a complete, bifurcated tricarboxylic acid cycle in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Fan, Jing; Roquet, Nathaniel; Rabitz, Herschel; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2010-09-01

    Obligatory anaerobic bacteria are major contributors to the overall metabolism of soil and the human gut. The metabolic pathways of these bacteria remain, however, poorly understood. Using isotope tracers, mass spectrometry, and quantitative flux modeling, here we directly map the metabolic pathways of Clostridium acetobutylicum, a soil bacterium whose major fermentation products include the biofuels butanol and hydrogen. While genome annotation suggests the absence of most tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, our results demonstrate that this bacterium has a complete, albeit bifurcated, TCA cycle; oxaloacetate flows to succinate both through citrate/alpha-ketoglutarate and via malate/fumarate. Our investigations also yielded insights into the pathways utilized for glucose catabolism and amino acid biosynthesis and revealed that the organism's one-carbon metabolism is distinct from that of model microbes, involving reversible pyruvate decarboxylation and the use of pyruvate as the one-carbon donor for biosynthetic reactions. This study represents the first in vivo characterization of the TCA cycle and central metabolism of C. acetobutylicum. Our results establish a role for the full TCA cycle in an obligatory anaerobic organism and demonstrate the importance of complementing genome annotation with isotope tracer studies for determining the metabolic pathways of diverse microbes.

  6. Human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors: Levels and profiles in paired maternal and cord serum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) precursors, the indirect source of PFAA exposure, have been observed in environmental and human samples. However, the maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals has not been well examined. In this study, 50 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Jiangsu province of China were analyzed for fifteen PFAA precursors. Among the detected PFAAs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), N-methyl- and N-ethyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetates had comparable detection rate in both maternal and cord sera, while the mean concentrations and detection rates of 8:2 FTS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were higher in maternal sera compared to cord sera (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance and least significant difference tests showed that the youngest maternal age group (21-24 years old) had the highest concentration of 6:2 FTS in cord sera. Maternal serum PFOSA was found significantly correlated with the cord serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (Spearman test, r = 0.361, P = 0.010), indicating that maternal serum PFOSA might be an indirect source of PFOS in fetuses. The obtained results suggested the potential prenatal exposure and human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors.

  7. N-Acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase inhibition increases colon N-palmitoylethanolamine levels and counteracts murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Alhouayek, Mireille; Bottemanne, Pauline; Subramanian, Kumar V.; Lambert, Didier M.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Cani, Patrice D.; Muccioli, Giulio G.

    2015-01-01

    N-Palmitoylethanolamine or palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an anti-inflammatory compound that was recently shown to exert peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-dependent beneficial effects on colon inflammation. The actions of PEA are terminated following hydrolysis by 2 enzymes: fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and the less-studied N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA). This study aims to investigate the effects of inhibiting the enzymes responsible for PEA hydrolysis in colon inflammation in order to propose a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Two murine models of IBD were used to assess the effects of NAAA inhibition, FAAH inhibition, and PEA on macroscopic signs of colon inflammation, macrophage/neutrophil infiltration, and the expression of proinflammatory mediators in the colon, as well as on the colitis-related systemic inflammation. NAAA inhibition increases PEA levels in the colon and reduces colon inflammation and systemic inflammation, similarly to PEA. FAAH inhibition, however, does not increase PEA levels in the colon and does not affect the macroscopic signs of colon inflammation or immune cell infiltration. This is the first report of an anti-inflammatory effect of a systemically administered NAAA inhibitor. Because NAAA is the enzyme responsible for the control of PEA levels in the colon, we put forth this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target in chronic inflammation in general and IBD in particular.—Alhouayek, M., Bottemanne, P., Subramanian, K. V., Lambert, D. M., Makriyannis, A., Cani, P. D., and Muccioli, G. G. N-Acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase inhibition increases colon N-palmitoylethanolamine levels and counteracts murine colitis. PMID:25384424

  8. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  9. Common FABP4 Genetic Variants and Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Biggs, Mary L.; Jensen, Majken K.; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Zieman, Susan J.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Psaty, Bruce M.; Siscovick, David S.; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-01-01

    We examined common variants in the fatty acid binding protein 4 gene (FABP4) and plasma levels of FABP4 in adults aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. We genotyped rs16909187, rs1054135, rs16909192, rs10808846, rs7018409, rs2290201, and rs6992708 and measured circulating FABP4 levels among 3190 European Americans and 660 African Americans. Among European Americans, the minor alleles of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were associated with lower FABP4 levels (all p ≤ 0.01). Among African Americans, the SNP with the lowest minor allele frequency was associated with lower FABP4 levels (p = 0.015). The C-A haplotype of rs16909192 and rs2290201 was associated with lower FABP4 levels in both European Americans (frequency = 16 %; p = 0.001) and African Americans (frequency = 8 %; p = 0.04). The haplotype combined a SNP in the first intron with one in the 3′untranslated region. However, the alleles associated with lower FABP4 levels were associated with higher fasting glucose in meta-analyses from the MAGIC consortium. These results demonstrate associations of common SNP and haplotypes in the FABP4 gene with lower plasma FABP4 but higher fasting glucose levels. PMID:24043587

  10. Association between serum free fatty acid levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanwen; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Chengfu; Hong, Yani; Lu, Huanle; Wu, Jianping; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    High serum free fatty acid (FFA) levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to assess the association of fasting serum FFAs with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Chinese population. A total of 840 subjects fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of NAFLD and 331 healthy control participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fasting serum FFA levels and other clinical and laboratory parameters were measured. NAFLD patients had significantly higher serum FFA levels than controls (P < 0.001). Serum FFA levels were significantly and positively correlated with parameters of MS, inflammation indexes, and markers of hepatocellular damage. Elevated serum FFA levels were found in NAFLD subjects with individual components of MS (obesity, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hyperglycaemia). Stepwise regression showed that serum FFA levels were an independent factor predicting advanced fibrosis (FIB-4 ≥ 1.3) in NAFLD patients. Serum FFA levels correlated with NAFLD and could be used as an indicator for predicting advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients. PMID:25060337

  11. Toward systems-level analysis of agricultural production from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM): scaling from cell to commercial production.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; Ming, Ray; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    Systems-level analyses have become prominent tools for assessing the yield, viability, economic consequences and environmental impacts of agricultural production. Such analyses are well-developed for many commodity crops that are used for food and biofuel, but have not been developed for agricultural production systems based on drought-tolerant plants that use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We review the components of systems-level evaluations, and identify the information available for completing such analyses for CAM cropping systems. Specific needs for developing systems-level evaluations of CAM agricultural production include: improvement of physiological models; assessment of product processing after leaving the farm gate; and application of newly available genetic tools to the optimization of CAM species for commercial production. PMID:26094655

  12. Serum levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Icelanders, Japanese, Koreans, and Americans - A descriptive epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Sekikawa, Akira; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Shin, Chol; Curb, J. David; Evans, Rhobert W.; Hauksdottir, Alda M.; Kadota, Aya; Choo, Jina; Masaki, Kamal; Thorsson, Bolli; Launer, Lenore J.; Garcia, Melisa E.; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Willcox, Bradley J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Harris, Tamara B.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the 1990’s Iceland and Japan were known as countries with high fish consumption whereas coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Iceland was high and that in Japan was low among developed countries. We described recent data fish consumption and CHD mortality from publicly available data. We also measured CHD risk factors and serum levels of marine-derived n-3 and other fatty acids from population-based samples of 1,324 men in Iceland, Japan, South Korea, and the US. CHD mortality in men in Iceland was almost 3 times as high as that in Japan and South Korea. Generally a profile of CHD risk factors in Icelanders compared to Japanese was more favorable. Serum marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Iceland were significantly lower than in Japan and South Korea but significantly higher than in the US. PMID:22658580

  13. Bile acid metabolism in rats fed two levels of corn oil and brans of oat, rye and barley and sugar beet fiber.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, D D; Locket, P L; Gallaher, C M

    1992-03-01

    High concentrations of fecal bile acids are associated with a higher incidence of colon cancer. Dietary changes that alter bile acid metabolism are therefore of interest. Here, we report the effect of feeding diets containing four fiber sources and two fat levels for 7 wk on bile acid excretion and small intestinal bile acids (an index of pool size) in rats. The fiber sources were oat bran, rye bran, barley bran and sugar beet fiber. Fiber-containing diets were 8% dietary fiber and contained either 5 or 20% corn oil. All fiber sources caused significantly greater fecal output compared with the fiber-free basal diet. All fiber sources also resulted in significantly (P less than 0.05) lower fecal bile acid concentration compared with the fiber-free basal diet. Only rye bran resulted in significantly (P less than 0.05) higher total fecal bile acid excretion. Oat bran resulted in a slightly but significantly (P less than 0.05) higher quantity of small intestine bile acids compared with the other diets. Dietary fat level had no significant effect on fecal bile acid concentration or excretion or quantity of small intestinal bile acids. We conclude that all four fiber sources tested resulted in lower fecal bile acid concentration, by effectively causing greater fecal mass. Changes in dietary fat level as corn oil had no effect on fecal bile acids.

  14. Genetic differences in the modulation of accumbal glutamate and γ-amino butyric acid levels after cocaine-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Miguéns, Miguel; Botreau, Fanny; Olías, Oscar; Del Olmo, Nuria; Coria, Santiago M; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    The Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) inbred rat strains are frequently used to study the role of genetic factors in vulnerability to drug addiction and relapse. Glutamate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transmission are significantly altered after cocaine-induced reinstatement, although whether LEW and F344 rats differ in their accumbal glutamate and GABA responsiveness to cocaine-induced reinstatement remains unknown. To investigate this, we measured by in vivo microdialysis extracellular glutamate and GABA levels in the core division of the nucleus accumbens after extinction of cocaine self-administration and during cocaine-induced reinstatement (7.5mg/kg, i.p.) in these two strains of rats. No strain differences were evident in cocaine self-administration or extinction behavior, although cocaine priming did induce a higher rate of lever pressing in LEW compared with F344 rats. After extinction, F344 rats that self-administered cocaine had less GABA than the saline controls, while the glutamate levels remained constant in both strains. There was more accumbal glutamate after cocaine priming in LEW rats that self-administered cocaine, while GABA levels were unaffected. By contrast, GABA increased transiently in F344 rats that self-administered cocaine, while glutamate levels were unaltered. In F344 saline controls, cocaine priming provoked contrasting effects in glutamate and GABA levels, inducing a delayed increase in glutamate and a delayed decrease in GABA levels. These amino acids were unaffected by cocaine priming in LEW saline rats. Together, these results suggest that genetic differences in cocaine-induced reinstatement reflect different responses of the accumbal GABA and glutamate systems to cocaine priming.

  15. Adsorption and dissociation of acidic trace gases on ice surfaces - caught in the act with core level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Ammann, Markus; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Peter, Thomas; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Chemistry and physical processes in Earth's ice and snow cover can change the composition of the atmosphere and the contaminant content of the cryosphere. They have thus direct impacts on geochemical cycles and the climate system. Our ability to predict the fate of chemicals in snow or air masses in exchange with the cryosphere on a regional scale or to model those in snow chemistry models is currently hampered by our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms on a molecular level. So far, direct experimental observations under environmentally relevant conditions of the ice surface and of the adsorption of trace gases to it are very limited. The unique approach of this study is to combine two surface sensitive spectroscopic methods to directly probe the hydrogen-bonding network at the ice surface ( ~1 nm depth) and the concentration, depth profile (~1 to 10 nm), and dissociation degree of the dopant. We present first core-electron photoemission (XPS) and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (NEXAFS) measurements of formic acid adsorbed to ice at 240 K. The analysis of oxygen NEXAFS spectra reveals information on changes in the hydrogen-bonding network of the ice surface upon adsorption of formic acid. Depth profiles based on XPS measurements indicate that the adsorbed acid stays at the ice surface. Furthermore we obtained a preliminary estimation of the degree of formic acid dissociation at the ice surface. Results are compared to earlier core-electron studies of several trace gases adsorbed to ice at 240 K and compared to results from more traditional method to and snow to reveal fundamental aspects of the ice surface and how it interacts with dopants. Even with the focus on adsorption of acidic trace gases to ice, results of this study will thus be of high relevance also for other chemical processes in ice and snow. This is of interest not only in environmental science but also in material science, cryobiology, and astrophysics.

  16. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement. [Masonry cement-boric acid waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH/sub 2/) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26307979

  18. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  19. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  20. Differences in postmortem urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid levels between blood and pericardial fluid in acute death.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Tanaka, Sayaka; Zhao, Dong; Li, Dong-Ri; Quan, Li; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies showed significant differences in postmortem urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) levels in heart blood depending on the causes of death, including acute death. In addition, the levels in pericardial fluid approximated the clinical serum reference ranges, and their elevations may be assessed based on clinical criteria. The present study investigated difference between blood and pericardial levels of these markers. Medicolegal autopsy cases (n=556, within 48h postmortem) of the following causes of death were examined: injury (n=136), asphyxiation (n=50), drowning (n=39), fire fatalities (n=99), hyperthermia (n=11), hypothermia (n=8), poisoning (n=26), delayed traumatic death (n=44) and natural diseases (n=143). When serum UN, Cr and UA levels were compared with the pericardial levels, there was an equivalency for delayed traumatic death and chronic renal failure, although each level was markedly elevated. Parallel increases in serum and pericardial UA and/or Cr levels were also observed for hypothermia and gastrointestinal bleeding. However, in drowning cases, the left cardiac and pericardial UN levels were lower than the right cardiac and peripheral levels, suggesting the influence of water aspiration. Significant elevations in serum and pericardial Cr and UA levels with a higher serum/pericardial UA ratio for fatal methamphetamine intoxication suggest progressive skeletal muscle damage due to advanced hypoxia/acidosis. Similar findings were often observed for other acute and subacute deaths. These findings suggest that a comparison between blood and pericardial nitrogenous compounds would be useful for investigating the cause and process of death.

  1. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid-induced HeLa cell death is closely correlated with oxidative stress and thioredoxin 1 levels.

    PubMed

    You, Bo Ra; Park, Woo Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor which has anticancer effects. We evaluated the growth inhibitory effects of SAHA on HeLa cervical cancer cells in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. SAHA inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with an IC(50) of approximately 10 µM at 24 h, and induced apoptosis which was accompanied by the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 activation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ∆ψ(m)). All the tested caspase inhibitors prevented HeLa cell death induced by SAHA whereas TNF-α intensified apoptotic cell death in SAHA-treated HeLa cells. With respect to ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels, SAHA increased ROS levels, especially mitochondrial O(2)•- in HeLa cells and also induced GSH depletion. Caspase inhibitors reduced the levels of ROS and GSH depletion in SAHA-treated HeLa cells whereas TNF-α enhanced the levels in these cells. The well-known antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) attenuated cell death and an increase in ROS levels was caused by SAHA. Moreover, SAHA decreased the levels of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) in HeLa cells. While the downregulation of Trx1 enhanced cell death and ROS levels in SAHA-treated HeLa cells, the overexpression of Trx1 attenuated the levels in these cells. In conclusion, SAHA inhibited the growth of HeLa cell via caspase-dependent apoptosis, which was influenced by the mitochondrial O(2)•- and Trx1 levels.

  2. Modeling fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid: the potential impact on exceeding the tolerable upper intake level for folic acid, NHANES 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Hamner, Heather C.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Berry, R.J.; Mulinare, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine set a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for usual daily total folic acid intake (1,000 µg). Less than 3% of US adults currently exceed the UL. Objective The objective of this study was to determine if folic acid fortification of corn masa flour would increase the percentage of the US population who exceed the UL. Design We used dietary intake data from NHANES 2001–2008 to estimate the percentage of adults and children who would exceed the UL if corn masa flour were fortified at 140 µg of folic acid/100 g. Results In 2001–2008, 2.5% of the US adult population (aged≥19 years) exceeded the UL, which could increase to 2.6% if fortification of corn masa flour occurred. With corn masa flour fortification, percentage point increases were small and not statistically significant for US adults exceeding the UL regardless of supplement use, sex, race/ethnicity, or age. Children aged 1–8 years, specifically supplement users, were the most likely to exceed their age-specific UL. With fortification of corn masa flour, there were no statistically significant increases in the percentage of US children who were exceeding their age-specific UL, and the percentage point increases were small. Conclusions Our results suggest that fortification of corn masa flour would not significantly increase the percentage of individuals who would exceed the UL. Supplement use was the main factor related to exceeding the UL with or without fortification of corn masa flour and within all strata of sex, race/ethnicity, and age group. PMID:23316130

  3. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Walford, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]). All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all). Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02) and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation. PMID:26781817

  4. Absence of aryl hydrocarbon receptors increases endogenous kynurenic acid levels and protects mouse brain against excitotoxic insult and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    García-Lara, Lucia; Pérez-Severiano, Francisca; González-Esquivel, Dinora; Elizondo, Guillermo; Segovia, José

    2015-09-01

    L-kynurenine (Kyn) is a key element of tryptophan metabolism; it is enzymatically converted by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist to the NMDA receptor-glycine site. Kyn is also an endogenous ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a diverse set of genes. KYNA levels are reduced in several regions of the brain of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. The present work uses an AhR-null mouse and age-matched wild-type mice to determine the effect of the absence of AhR on KYNA availability. We found that, in AhR-null mice, there is an increase of KYNA levels in specific brain areas associated with higher expression of KAT II. Moreover, we induced an excitotoxic insult by intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid, a biochemical model of HD, in both AhR-null and wild-type mice to evaluate the neurological damage as well as the oxidative stress caused by the lesion. The present work demonstrates that, in specific brain regions of AhR-null mice, the levels of KYNA are increased and that this induces a neuroprotective effect against neurotoxic insults. Moreover, AhR-null mice also show improved motor performance in the rotarod test, indicating a constitutive protection of striatal tissue.

  5. Effect of Exercise Intervention on Changes in Free Fatty Acid Levels and Metabolic Risk Factors in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of regular exercise on the improvement of free fatty acid (FFA) levels and metabolic risk factors of stroke patients. [Methods] The subjects were 20 male patients aged 47−59 years who were diagnosed as having hemiplegia resulting from stroke. Exercise was conducted using a stationary bicycle, a rehabilitative exercise machine. The exercise program utilized the heart rate reserve (HRR) method to create an exercise intensity amounting to 50−70% of the target heart rate (THR). The program lasted for 30 minutes and was conducted 5 times per week for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] In stroke patients, 12 weeks of exercise training yielded a significant interaction effect with weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). There were also significant differences in triglycerides (TG) according to the time of measurement, and an interaction effect was observed for triglycerides (TC). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), an important marker of improvement in metabolic risk factors, showed a significant interaction effect with exercise training. In addition, free fatty acids (FFA) showed a significant difference based on the time of measurement and showed a significant negative correlation with HDLC (r = −0.77). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that regular exercise by stroke patients reduces their risk of metabolic complications and stroke recurrence by reducing obesity indices, improving serum lipid and FFA levels, and increasing HDLC levels. PMID:24648648

  6. Oxidative stress and metabolic perturbations in Escherichia coli exposed to sublethal levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Supriya V; Booth, Sean C; Vantomme, Erik A N; Afroj, Shirin; Yost, Christopher K; Dahms, Tanya E S

    2015-09-01

    The chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used extensively worldwide despite its known toxicity and our limited understanding of how it affects non-target organisms. Escherichia coli is a suitable model organism to investigate toxicity and adaptation mechanisms in bacteria exposed to xenobiotic chemicals. We developed a methodical platform that uses atomic force microscopy, metabolomics and biochemical assays to quantify the response of E. coli exposed to sublethal levels of 2,4-D. This herbicide induced a filamentous phenotype in E. coli BL21 and a similar phenotype was observed in a selection of genotypically diverse E. coli strains (A0, A1, B1, and D) isolated from the environment. The filamentous phenotype was observed at concentrations 1000 times below field levels and was reversible upon supplementation with polyamines. Cells treated with 2,4-D had more compliant envelopes, significantly remodeled surfaces that were rougher and altered vital metabolic pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, the ABC transport system, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, amino acid, nucleotide and sugar metabolism. Most of the observed effects could be attributed to oxidative stress, consistent with increases in reactive oxygen species as a function of 2,4-D exposure. This study provides direct evidence that 2,4-D at sublethal levels induces oxidative stress and identifies the associated metabolic changes in E. coli.

  7. Dietary histidine increases mouse skin urocanic acid levels and enhances UVB-induced immune suppression of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, S K; De Fabo, E C

    1991-04-01

    Urocanic Acid (UCA) exists in mammalian skin primarily as the trans isomer and is photoisomerized to cis UCA upon UVB absorption. Our previous studies indicated that the photoisomerization of UCA is the initiating event in UBV-induced suppression of cell-mediated immunity (tUCA----cUCA----immune suppression). The purpose of this study was to verify the role of UCA in UV-induced immune suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in BALB/c mice. Since UCA is a metabolite of the amino acid L-histidine, we reasoned that increased dietary levels of histidine should raise skin tUCA levels. If skin tUCA is the UVB photoreceptor for immune suppression, this increase should enhance UV-induced suppression of CHS. HPLC analysis of skin from BALB/c mice given a histidine-rich diet (10%) showed that the total amount of UCA is significantly higher in these animals than in mice fed a normal diet. Further, levels of suppression of CHS of 3% and 49% in control fed mice, induced by 4.8 and 7.2 kJ/m2 UVB were significantly increased to 21% and 71% respectively in histidine-fed animals at these same UVB doses. These findings provide additional support for the UCA model for immune suppression, and provide the first evidence that UV-induced immune suppression can be enhanced by a dietary component, L-histidine. PMID:1857737

  8. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels in infants.

    PubMed

    Karademir, F; Suleymanoglu, S; Ersen, A; Aydinoz, S; Gultepe, M; Meral, C; Ozkaya, H; Gocmen, I

    2007-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and folate, and their functional markers, plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonate (uMMA) were measured in 204 healthy, term infants at birth, and at 2 and 6 months. Compared with infants receiving formula food, those fed mother's milk had lower vitamin B12 and folate at 2 and 6 months. In infants receiving mother's milk, vitamin B12 levels were similar at birth (238 pg/ml) and 2 months (243 pg/ml), whereas with formula milk the level was significantly higher at 2 months (558 pg/ml) than at birth (257 pg/ml). Vitamin B12 was negatively correlated with homocysteine at birth and 6 months. The level of uMMA (mmol/mol creatinine) was higher at 2 (mother's milk, 25.5; formula, 23.97) and 6 months (19.77; 15) than at birth (11.97; 10.88), and was not correlated with vitamin B12 levels. Homocysteine may be a reliable marker of vitamin B12 status in neonates and infants; however, uMMA is not suitable as a marker of vitamin B12 status.

  9. Association between serum free thyroxine (FT4) and uric acid levels in populations without overt thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yicong; Gai, Xiaorong; Xie, Hongzhi; Jiao, Li; Zhang, Shuyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between thyroid function and serum uric acid (UA) levels in subjects without overt thyroid dysfunction. A total of 6,085 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Free thyroxine (FT4) levels were positively and linearly associated with serum UA levels (p<0.001), even after adjusting for age, thyroid-stimulating hormone, renal function, and other metabolic components (B 37.13; 95%CI 25.99-48.28; p<0.001). Furthermore, quartile analysis indicated that the prevalence of hyperuricemia was significantly elevated with increasing FT4 levels (quartile II: OR 1.232, 95%CI 1.022-1.486, p=0.029; quartile III: OR 1.234, 95%CI 1.025-1.486, p=0.026; quartile IV: OR 1.409, 95%CI 1.168-1.701, p<0.001). In summary, FT4 is linearly associated with serum UA levels in subjects lacking clinical thyroid dysfunction, and the prevalence of hyperuricemia is elevated with increasing FT4 levels. PMID:25696010

  10. Association between serum free thyroxine (FT4) and uric acid levels in populations without overt thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yicong; Gai, Xiaorong; Xie, Hongzhi; Jiao, Li; Zhang, Shuyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between thyroid function and serum uric acid (UA) levels in subjects without overt thyroid dysfunction. A total of 6,085 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Free thyroxine (FT4) levels were positively and linearly associated with serum UA levels (p<0.001), even after adjusting for age, thyroid-stimulating hormone, renal function, and other metabolic components (B 37.13; 95%CI 25.99-48.28; p<0.001). Furthermore, quartile analysis indicated that the prevalence of hyperuricemia was significantly elevated with increasing FT4 levels (quartile II: OR 1.232, 95%CI 1.022-1.486, p=0.029; quartile III: OR 1.234, 95%CI 1.025-1.486, p=0.026; quartile IV: OR 1.409, 95%CI 1.168-1.701, p<0.001). In summary, FT4 is linearly associated with serum UA levels in subjects lacking clinical thyroid dysfunction, and the prevalence of hyperuricemia is elevated with increasing FT4 levels.

  11. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  12. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.

  13. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  14. DNA single strand breaks in peripheral lymphocytes associated with urinary thiodiglycolic acid levels in polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu-Chen; Yang, Huei-Ting; Ma, Yee-Chung; Huang, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wushou P; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2004-07-11

    The association between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure and DNA damage has been established. However, the relationship between individual exposure and DNA single strand breaks was limited. Since environmental monitoring may not reflect the actual exposure, a useful marker of exposure is needed to assess the individual exposure. In our previous study, we have found a high correlation between air VCM level and urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TdGA) at the commencement of the next shift. Here, we further used comet assay to evaluate the relationship between urinary TdGA levels and DNA single strand breaks in polyvinyl chloride monomer (PVC) workers. Urinary TdGA levels (n=26) at the commencement of the following shift were analyzed. Ten of the 26 workers also had personal air sampling for air VCM exposure. Questionnaires were administered to obtain epidemiological information including detailed history of occupation and lifestyles. Workers experiencing air VCM level greater than 5 ppm had higher tail moment and tail intensity (%) than those experiencing VCM exposure between 1 and 5, or <1 ppm, respectively (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that level of DNA single strand breaks, including tail moment and tail intensity, were increased with urinary TdGA level. The dose-response relationship of urinary TdGA level and DNA single strand breaks was particularly significant among the workers with 4 mg/g Cr of urinary TdGA level, which is equivalent to 5 ppm air VCM level. We concluded that air VCM exposure greater than 5 ppm could induce DNA damage. Further sensitive assay should be developed for the diction of DNA damage when air VCM exposure below 5 ppm.

  15. Mercury and docosahexaenoic acid levels in maternal and cord blood in relation to segmental maternal hair mercury concentrations at parturition.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing Man; Domingo, José L; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    Fish is a major source of harmful methylmercury (MeHg) and beneficial docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the developing brain. In this study, we investigated the correlations among maternal and umbilical cord (cord) MeHg and DHA levels at parturition, and mercury (Hg) concentration in 1-cm incremental segments hair samples which grew during gestation representing monthly MeHg exposure levels throughout the period. Whole blood Hg and plasma DHA levels were measured in blood sample pairs collected from 54 mothers at early gestation and parturition, and in cord blood. Maternal hair samples were collected at parturition, and Hg concentrations were measured in 1-cm incremental segments. Hg level in mothers at parturition was slightly lower than that at early gestation and the level in cord blood were approximately 1.9 times higher than that in mothers at parturition. On the other hand, DHA level in mothers at parturition was approximately 2.3 and 1.6 times higher than those in mothers at early gestation and in cord plasma, respectively. These results indicate that kinetics of these chemicals in mothers during gestation and placental transfer are completely different. However, Hg and DHA levels had significant positive correlation in fetal circulation. The cord blood Hg showed the strongest correlation with maternal hair Hg in the first 1-cm segment from the scalp at parturition (r=0.87), indicating that fetal MeHg level reflects maternal MeHg burden at late gestation. In contrast, maternal and cord plasma DHA concentrations at parturition showed the highest correlation coefficients with Hg in the fifth (r=0.43) and fourth (r=0.38) 1-cm hair segments, suggesting that maternal and fetal DHA levels reflects maternal fish intake during mid-gestation.

  16. Molecular cloning of otoconin-22 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac: effect of calcitonin on otoconin-22 messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-08-01

    Anuran amphibians have a special organ called the endolymphatic sac (ELS), containing many calcium carbonate crystals, which is believed to have a calcium storage function. The major protein of aragonitic otoconia, otoconin-22, which is considered to be involved in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, has been purified from the saccule of the Xenopus inner ear. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding otoconin-22 from the cDNA library constructed for the paravertebral lime sac (PVLS) of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and sequenced it. The bullfrog otoconin-22 encoded a protein consisting of 147 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The protein had cysteine residues identical in a number and position to those conserved among the secretory phospholipase A(2) family. The mRNA of bullfrog otoconin-22 was expressed in the ELS, including the PVLS and inner ear. This study also revealed the presence of calcitonin receptor-like protein in the ELS, with the putative seven-transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptors. The ultimobranchialectomy induced a prominent decrease in the otoconin-22 mRNA levels of the bullfrog PVLS. Supplementation of the ultimobranchialectomized bullfrogs with synthetic salmon calcitonin elicited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the sac. These findings suggest that calcitonin secreted from the ultimobranchial gland, regulates expression of bullfrog otoconin-22 mRNA via calcitonin receptor-like protein on the ELS, thereby stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS. PMID:12865304

  17. Differential vulnerability of substantia nigra and corpus striatum to oxidative insult induced by reduced dietary levels of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D.; Passos, Priscila P.; Lagranha, Claudia J.; Ferraz, Anete C.; Santos Júnior, Eraldo F.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Oliveira, Pablo E. L.; Santos, Rita de C. F.; Santana, David F.; Borba, Juliana M. C.; Rocha-de-Melo, Ana P.; Guedes, Rubem C. A.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Borner, Roseane; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W.; Beltrão, Eduardo I.; Silva, Janilson F.; Rodrigues, Marcelo C. A.; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L. S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with unbalanced levels of essential fatty acids (EFA). The response of certain brain regions to OS, however, is not uniform and a selective vulnerability or resilience can occur. In our previous study on rat brains, we observed that a two-generation EFA dietary restriction reduced the number and size of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) rostro-dorso-medial. To understand whether OS contributes to this effect, we assessed the status of lipid peroxidation (LP) and anti-oxidant markers in both SN and corpus striatum (CS) of rats submitted to this dietary treatment for one (F1) or two (F2) generations. Wistar rats were raised from conception on control or experimental diets containing adequate or reduced levels of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, respectively. LP was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction method (TBARS) and the total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities were assessed. The experimental diet significantly reduced the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of SN phospholipids in the F1 (~28%) and F2 (~50%) groups. In F1 adult animals of the experimental group there was no LP in both SN and CS. Consistently, there was a significant increase in the t-SOD activity (p < 0.01) in both regions. In EF2 young animals, degeneration in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons and a significant increase in LP (p < 0.01) and decrease in the CAT activity (p < 0.001) were detected in the SN, while no inter-group difference was found for these parameters in the CS. Conversely, a significant increase in t-SOD activity (p < 0.05) was detected in the CS of the experimental group compared to the control. The results show that unbalanced EFA dietary levels reduce the redox balance in the SN and reveal mechanisms of resilience in the CS under this stressful condition. PMID

  18. Indole-3-acetic Acid Levels of Plant Tissue as Determined by a New High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method 1

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, Philip B.; Swartzfager, Dennis G.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the analysis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in plant extracts has been developed based on high performance liquid chromatography separation of IAA on a microparticulate strong anion exchange column followed by quantitation with two selective detectors: an electrochemical, carbon paste amperometric detector and/or a fluorescence detector. The detection limit for IAA is less than 1 nanogram with the fluorescence detector and less than 50 picograms with the electrochemical detector. The IAA levels are reported for various tissues of wheat, pinto beans, soybeans, cotton, and corn. PMID:16660271

  19. Modulation of blood oxylipin levels by long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in hyper- and normolipidemic men

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schmidt, Simone; Kressel, Gaby; Willenberg, Ina; Hammock, Bruce D; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) such as EPA and DHA have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, and it is believed that many of their effects are mediated by their oxygenated products (oxylipins). Recently, we have shown that serum levels of several hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FAs are dependent on the individual status of the parent FAs in a cohort of normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects. So far, the effect of an increased dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake on hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FA levels has not been investigated in subjects with mild combined hyperlipidemia. Subjects and Methods In the present study, we compared oxylipin patterns of 10 hyperlipidemic (cholesterol >200 mg/dl; triglyceride >150 mg/ml) and 10 normolipidemic men in response to twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA intake (1.14 g DHA and 1.56 g EPA). Levels of 44 free hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs were analyzed in serum by LC-MS. Additionally, oxylipin levels were compared with their parent PUFA levels in erythrocyte membranes; a biomarker for the individual PUFA status. Results Differences in the oxylipin pattern between normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects were minor before and after treatment. In all subjects, levels of EPA-derived oxylipins (170–4,800 pM) were considerably elevated after LC n-3 PUFA intake (150–1,400 %), the increase of DHA-derived oxylipins (360–3,900 pM) was less pronounced (30–130 %). The relative change of EPA in erythrocyte membranes is strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.5; p<0.05) with the relative change of corresponding epoxy and dihydroxy FA serum levels. The effect on arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipin levels (140–27,100 pM) was inconsistent. Discussion and Conclusions The dietary LC PUFA composition has a direct influence on the endogenous oxylipin profile, including several highly biological active EPA- and DHA-derived lipid mediators. The shift in oxylipin pattern appears to be dependent on the initial LC PUFA

  20. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of korean native ducks fed diets with varying levels of limiting amino acids.

    PubMed

    Choo, Y K; Kwon, H J; Oh, S T; Kang, C W; Kim, H K; Hong, E C; Heo, K N; Lee, S K; An, B K

    2014-04-01

    There are multiple experiments conducted with male Korean native ducks (KND) to evaluate the optimal levels of limiting amino acids (AA). In Exp. 1, a total of 450 one-d-old male KNDs were divided into five groups with six replicates and fed experimental diets with varying levels of lysine, total sulfur amino acids (TSAA) and threonine (T1, 0.90/0.74/0.70%; T2, 1.00/0.82/0.77%; T3, 1.10/0.90/0.85%; T4, 1.20/0.98/0.93%; T5, 1.30/1.07/1.01%) to 21 d of age. In Exp. 2, one-d-old male KND were received and fed commercial starter diet from hatching to 21 d of age, and then divided into five groups with six replicates and fed one of five diets varying levels of lysine, TSAA, and threonine (T1, 0.73/0.62/0.54%; T2, 0.80/0.68/0.60%; T3, 0.87/0.74/0.65%; T4, 0.94/0.80/0.70%; T5, 1.01/0.86/0.75%) during 22 to 56 d of age, respectively. The BW gain was linearly increased as dietary limiting AA levels increased to 1.20% lysine, 0.98% TSAA and 0.93% threonine. There were no significant differences in feed intake, gain:feed and uniformity among groups. In Exp. 2, the BW gain and gain:feed were not affected by dietary limiting AA levels. There were no significant differences in carcass characteristics and meat quality among groups. The growth performance and carcass characteristics did not show the significant response to increasing dietary limiting AA levels in KND during 22 to 56 d of age. In conclusion, the levels of lysine, TSAA and threonine necessary to maximize growth for starter phase were at least 1.20%, 0.98%, and 0.93%, respectively. On the other hands, KND require relatively low levels of limiting AA for late growth and carcass yield. The dietary levels of 0.73% lysine, 0.62% TSAA and 0.54% threonine appear to be adequate during growing phase.

  1. [Fatty acid composition of lipids of vegetative organs of Nigella at different levels of environment salinization].

    PubMed

    Gogue, D O; Sidorov, R A; Tsydendambaev, V D; Kholodova, V P; Kuznetsov, V V

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the tolerance of two species of medicinal plants of the genus Nigella (N. damascene L. and N. sativa L.) to salt stress was performed. It is shown that growing of plants in the presence of 70 or 110 mM NaCl suppressed the growth and accumulation of dry weight of leaves and roots in both species studied and that this suppression was more pronounced at the higher NaCl concentration. It is established that the salt stress leads to the accumulation of proline in leaves and to a change in the fatty acids composition of lipids in the vegetative parts of plants. It is noted that N. sativa has a higher salt tolerance (70-100 mM NaCl) than N. damascena. It is found that the removal of NaCI from the culture medium and subsequent cultivation of plants exposed to salt stress in a salt-free medium led to a gradual recovery of both Nigella species studied. N. sativa plants showed a high ability for recovery (regeneration) after a strong salt stress.

  2. Influence of Different Levels of Lipoic Acid Synthase Gene Expression on Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longquan; Hiller, Sylvia; Simington, Stephen; Nickeleit, Volker; Maeda, Nobuyo; James, Leighton R.; Yi, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) but outcomes of many clinical trials are controversial. To define the role of antioxidants in kidney protection during the development of diabetic nephropathy, we have generated a novel genetic antioxidant mouse model with over- or under-expression of lipoic acid synthase gene (Lias). These models have been mated with Ins2Akita/+ mice, a type I diabetic mouse model. We compare the major pathologic changes and oxidative stress status in two new strains of the mice with controls. Our results show that Ins2Akita/+ mice with under-expressed Lias gene, exhibit higher oxidative stress and more severe DN features (albuminuria, glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial matrix expansion). In contrast, Ins2Akita/+ mice with highly-expressed Lias gene display lower oxidative stress and less DN pathologic changes. Our study demonstrates that strengthening endogenous antioxidant capacity could be an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of DN. PMID:27706190

  3. Comparison of seizure reduction and serum fatty acid levels after receiving the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Porta, Natacha; Vallée, Louis; Boutry, Elisabeth; Fontaine, Monique; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Joriot, Sylvie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; Auvin, Stéphane

    2009-06-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) and the modified Atkins diet are effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. We compared retrospectively the KD and modified Atkins diet in 27 children and also assessed serum long chain fatty acid profiles. After 3 months, using an intent-to-treat analysis, the KD was more successful, with >50% seizure reduction in 11/17 (65%) vs. 2/10 (20%) with the modified Atkins diet, p=0.03. After 6 months, however, the difference was no longer significant: 7/17 (41%) vs. 2/10 (20%) (p=0.24). We observed a preventive effect of both diets on the occurrence of status epilepticus. After 1 and 3 months of either diet, responders experienced a significant decrease in serum arachidonic acid concentration compared to non-responders. The KD and modified Atkins diet led to seizure reduction in this small pilot series, with slightly better results after 3 months with the KD, but not after 6 months. The decrease of serum arachidonic acid levels might be involved in the anticonvulsive effects of KD or modified Atkins diet.

  4. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (P<.05). The authors conclude that 10 weeks of consumption of fructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. PMID:25496265

  5. Characterization of endotoxin and 3-hydroxy fatty acid levels in air and settled dust from commercial aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Hines, C J; Waters, M A; Larsson, L; Petersen, M R; Saraf, A; Milton, D K

    2003-06-01

    Endotoxin was measured in air and dust samples collected during four commercial aircraft flights. Samples were analyzed for endotoxin biological activity using the Limulus assay. 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FA) of carbon chain lengths C10:0-C18:0 were determined in dust by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) endotoxin air level was 1.5 EU/m3 (1.9, n = 28); however, significant differences were found by flight within aircraft type. Mean endotoxin levels were significantly higher in carpet dust than in seat dust (140 +/- 81 vs. 51 +/- 25 EU/mg dust, n = 32 each, P < 0.001). Airborne endotoxin levels were not significantly related to either carpet or seat dust endotoxin levels. Mean 3-OH FA levels were significantly higher in carpet dust than in seat dust for C10:2, C12:0, and C14:0 (P < 0.001 for each), while the mean level of C16:0 was significantly higher in seat dust than in carpet dust (P < 0.01). Carpet dust endotoxin was significantly, but moderately, correlated with 3-OH-C12:0 and 3-OH-C14:0 (Pearson r = 0.52 and 0.48, respectively), while correlation of seat dust endotoxin with individual 3-OH FAs depended on the test statistic used. Mean endotoxin potency was significantly higher for carpet dust than for seat dust (6.3 +/- 3.0 vs. 3.0 +/- 1.4 EU/pmol LPS, P < 0.0001). Mean endotoxin levels in the air and dust of commercial aircraft cabins were generally higher than mean levels reported in homes and office buildings. These results suggest that exposure route and dust source are important considerations when relating endotoxin exposure to specific health outcomes.

  6. A Pharmacist-Staffed, Virtual Gout Management Clinic for Achieving Target Serum Uric Acid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfien, Robert; Pressman, Alice; Jacobson, Alice; Ng, Michele; Avins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: Relatively few patients with gout receive appropriate treatment. Objective: To determine whether a pharmacist-staffed gout management program is more effective than usual care in achieving target serum uric acid (sUA) levels in gout patients. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-staffed, telephone-based program for managing hyperuricemia vs usual care. Trial duration was 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was achieving sUA levels at or below 6 mg/dL at the 26-week visit. Secondary outcome was mean change in sUA levels in the control and intervention groups. Participants were adults with recurrent gout and sUA levels above 6.0 mg/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to management by a clinical pharmacist following protocol or to monitoring of sUA levels but management of their gout by their usual treating physician. Results: Of 102 patients who met eligibility criteria, 77 subjects obtained a baseline sUA measurement and were entered into the trial. Among 37 participants in the intervention group, 13 (35%) had sUA levels at or below 6.0 mg/dL at 26 weeks, compared with 5 (13%) of 40 participants in the control group (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 7.1, p = 0.03). The mean change in sUA levels among controls was +0.1 mg/dL compared with −1.5 mg/dL in the intervention group (sUA difference = −1.6, 95% CI = −0.9 to −2.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A structured pharmacist-staffed program was more effective than usual care for achieving target sUA levels. These results suggest a structured program could greatly improve gout management. PMID:27352414

  7. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  8. Systematic review of saturated fatty acids on inflammation and circulating levels of adipokines.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana; Oliveira, Andreia; Lopes, Carla

    2013-09-01

    Diet is one factor that plays a part in coronary heart disease risk through multiple biological mechanisms including subclinical inflammation. In this review, we aimed to systematically assess and summarize evidence regarding the association of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with inflammatory markers and adipokines. An electronic search of the literature was conducted up to September 2010 using Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct (updated from September 2010 to August 2011 through Medline). Original studies that were written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and addressed the effects of SFA (not dietary sources or SFA-rich diets) on inflammatory markers or adipokines in adult populations were considered eligible. Data from 15 studies providing adjusted estimates were extracted. The publication year varied from 1995 to 2010 and the sample size from 54 to 4900. Most studies were cross sectional, with 3 studies using a prospective design. Twelve studies assessed total SFA, and 3 studies considered their subtypes, which were measured through dietary assessments (11 studies) or in blood samples (4 studies). Significant positive associations were observed between SFA and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6, whereas no significant associations were observed with E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, fibrinogen, and adiponectin. For high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2 studies showed significant positive associations, whereas 3 studies reported no significant associations. One study reported a significant inverse association of SFA with leptin, although the other 3 found no significant associations. Based on this systematic review, a potential positive association of SFA with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein but not with adipokines is suggested, which should be confirmed by future research. PMID:24034567

  9. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    PubMed

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development.

  10. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition

    PubMed Central

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  11. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    PubMed

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  12. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = −0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = −0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = −0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = −0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P < 0.05). SUA level is inversely correlated with HbA1c in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c in normal-glucose subjects. The reverse transporting of uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations. PMID:27328642

  13. A modified acidic approach for DNA extraction from plant species containing high levels of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, M M; Siqueira, M V B M; Val, T M; Pavanelli, J C; Monteiro, M; Grando, C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Gimenes, M A

    2014-08-25

    Purified genomic DNA can be difficult to obtain from some plant species because of the presence of impurities such as polysaccharides, which are often co-extracted with DNA. In this study, we developed a fast, simple, and low-cost protocol for extracting DNA from plants containing high levels of secondary metabolites. This protocol does not require the use of volatile toxic reagents such as mercaptoethanol, chloroform, or phenol and allows the extraction of high-quality DNA from wild and cultivated tropical species.

  14. [Level of cytokines, abscisic and salicylic acids in the leafs of Phlox under the effect of invasion by conidia of phytopathogens].

    PubMed

    Talieva, M N; Kondrat'eva, V V; Andreev, L N

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of the invasion of Phlox paniculata L. and Ph. setacea L. by causative agents of the phlox powdery mildew (compatible combination) and lupine powdery mildew (incompatible combination) on the level of endogenous cytokinins and abscisic and salicylic acids. In all experimental variants, the level of zeatin-riboside and abscisic and salicylic acids in the leaves of invaded plants increased within 48 h. The highest level of phytohormones and salicylic acid was recorded in the absolutely resistant species Ph. setacea.

  15. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Andreea; Kemp, Belinda S; Pickering, Gary J

    2016-01-01

    Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs) are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as 'ladybug taint'. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers-one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based-applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP), sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP) in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS). The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis) and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) (SPME-MDGCMS) was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm²/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint. PMID:27649129

  16. Whole Blood Levels of the n-6 Essential Fatty Acid Linoleic Acid Are Inversely Associated with Stunting in 2-to-6 Year Old Tanzanian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jumbe, Theresia; Comstock, Sarah S.; Hahn, Samantha L.; Harris, William S.; Kinabo, Joyce; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, 35% of all children below five years of age are stunted. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth and development. However, whole blood FA levels in Tanzanian children are poorly described. Objective The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to assess 1) whole blood levels of essential fatty acids and 2) the association between whole blood FA levels and growth parameters in Tanzanian children 2–6 years of age. Methods A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by linear regression. Results Of the 334 children that participated, 30.3% were stunted. The average whole blood level of Mead acid was 0.15%. The anthropometric z-score height-for-age (HAZ) was inversely associated with Mead acid, the Mead acid to arachidonic acid (T/T) ratio, and total n-9 FA. Additionally, HAZ was positively associated with linoleic acid and total n-6 FA. BMI-for-age was positively associated with oleic acid, total n-9 FA and T/T ratio but inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FA. Weight-for-height was inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FAs and positively associated with oleic acid and total n-9 FA. Weight-for-age was not associated with any FA tested. Total n-3 FAs were not associated with any growth parameters measured. Conclusions The EFA linoleic acid and the markers of FA deficiency were associated with HAZ, an indicator for stunting in 2–6 year old Tanzanian children. Total n-6, total n-9, and a number of individual FAs were associated with growth. Increasing dietary intake of EFA and n-6 FAs may be a strategy to combat stunting in this population. PMID:27137223

  17. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  18. Ubiquitin/proteasome pathway regulates levels of retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, M; Wang, Z; Voorhees, J J; Fisher, G J

    2000-04-15

    Repeated exposure of human skin to solar UV radiation leads to premature aging (photoaging) and skin cancer. UV-induced skin damage can be ameliorated by all-trans retinoic acid treatment. The actions of retinoic acid in skin keratinocytes are mediated primarily by nuclear retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARgamma) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha). We found that exposure of cultured primary human keratinocytes to UV irradiation (30 mJ/cm2) substantially reduced (50-90%) RARgamma and RXRalpha mRNA and protein within 8 h. The rates of disappearance of RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins after UV exposure or treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide were similar. UV irradiation did not increase the rate of breakdown of RARgamma or RXRalpha but rather reduced their rate of synthesis. The addition of proteasome inhibitors MG132 and LLvL, but not the lysosomal inhibitor E64, prevented loss of RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins after exposure of keratinocytes to either UV radiation or cycloheximide. Soluble extracts from nonirradiated or UV-irradiated keratinocytes possessed similar levels of proteasome activity that degraded RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins in vitro. Furthermore, RARgamma and RXRalpha were polyubiquitinated in intact cells. RXRalpha was found to contain two proline, glutamate/aspartate, serine, and threonine (PEST) motifs, which confer rapid turnover of many short-lived regulatory proteins that are degraded by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. However, the PEST motifs in RXRalpha did not function to regulate its stability, because deletion of the PEST motifs individually or together did not alter ubiquitination or proteasome-mediated degradation of RXRalpha. These results demonstrate that loss of RARgamma and RXRalpha proteins after UV irradiation results from degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Taken together, the data here indicate that ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated breakdown is an important mechanism regulating the levels of

  19. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wijtten, P J A; Hangoor, E; Sparla, J K W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male broilers and to 6 cages with Cobb 500 male broilers with 24 birds per cage. A control treatment (100% ideal protein) was compared with a treatment with 30% extra ideal protein, a treatment with daily adjustment of the dietary amino acid level and profile, and a feed restriction treatment. The protein treatments were applied from 0 to 14 d of age. The feed restriction was applied from 4 to 21 d of age. Restriction was 15% from d 4 to 14 of age and diminished with equal daily steps thereafter to 5% at 21 d of age. Birds were weighed and dissected for evaluation of small intestine weights at 6, 9, 14, and 36 d of age. Feed intake restriction reduced leg problems in Ross and Cobb broilers. Extra dietary protein reduced leg problems in Ross broilers only. The present experiment does not show that small intestinal weight development is related to mortality. Thirty percent extra dietary ideal protein increased duodenum weight between 6 and 9 d of age. This was not further increased by the daily optimization of the dietary amino acid level and profile. The increased duodenum weights coincided with an improved BW gain. This indicates that duodenum weight may be important in facilitating BW gain in young broilers. Thus, it may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the relation between nutrition and duodenum weight and duodenum function in further studies. PMID:20548070

  20. The Influence of Manganese and Glutamine Intake on Antioxidants and Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Levels in Rats' Brain.

    PubMed

    Szpetnar, Maria; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the concentration, Mn can exert protective or toxic effect. Potential mechanism for manganese neurotoxicity is manganese-induced oxidative stress. Glutamine supplementation could reduce manganese-induced neurotoxicity and is able to influence the neurotransmission processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long term administration of manganese (alone or in combination with glutamine) in dose and time dependent manner could affect the selected parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, concentrations of vitamin C and malonic dialdehyde) and concentrations of excitatory (Asp, Glu) and inhibitory amino acids (GABA, Gly) in the brain of rats. The experiments were carried out on 2-months-old albino male rats randomly divided into 6 group: Mn300 and Mn500-received solution of MnCl2 to drink (dose 300 and 500 mg/L, respectively), Gln group-solution of glutamine (4 g/L), Mn300-Gln and Mn500-Gln groups-solution of Mn at 300 and 500 mg/L and Gln at 4 g/L dose. The control group (C) received deionized water. Half of the animals were euthanized after three and the other half-after 6 weeks of experiment. The exposure of rats to Mn in drinking water contributes to diminishing of the antioxidant enzymes activity and the increase in level of lipid peroxidation. Glutamine in the diet admittedly increases SOD and GPx activity, but it is unable to restore the intracellular redox balance. The most significant differences in the examined amino acids levels in comparison to both control and Gln group were observed in the group of rats receiving Mn at 500 mg/L dose alone or with Gln. It seems that Gln is amino acid which could improve antioxidant status and affect the concentrations of the neurotransmitters. PMID:27161372

  1. Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009.

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Víkingsson, Gísli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale liver was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) with time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006. PMID:22051347

  2. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  3. Changes in free amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma leaves in response to Asian citrus psyllid infestation and water stress.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nasir S A; Perez, Jose L; Kunta, Madhurababu; Patt, Joseph M; Mangan, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on changes in amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma orange (Citrus unshiu; cultivar Owari) leaves were investigated. Asian citrus psyllids Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (ACP) infestation was used to induce biotic stress while a water deficit was imposed to induce abiotic stress. Potted trees were infested by placing 50 psyllids on 3 citrus leaves enclosed in nylon mesh bags for 5 d. A parallel set of plants were kept water stressed by maintaining the soil at 20% water holding capacity for 5 d. Levels of total free amino acids were higher in water stressed and ACP infested leaves. Polyamine putrescine increased in infested leaves but not in water stressed leaves. Proline was the most abundant amino acid and its levels significantly increased by both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proline levels in infested leaves were significantly higher than the water stressed leaves. Histidine, methionine, asparagine, arginine, serine, and leucine levels also increased significantly in infested leaves, but in water stressed leaves only leucine, methionine, and threonine increased. Levels of amino acids, such as tyrosine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and alanine, declined in infested leaves. Under water stress asparagine, phenylalanine, serine, and histidine also declined compared to controls. This indicates that while proteolysis occurred under both stresses, metabolic conversion of amino acids was different under the two stresses. In ACP infested leaves some amino acids may be used as feeding material and/or converted into secondary metabolites for defense. PMID:24178691

  4. Changes in free amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma leaves in response to Asian citrus psyllid infestation and water stress.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nasir S A; Perez, Jose L; Kunta, Madhurababu; Patt, Joseph M; Mangan, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on changes in amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma orange (Citrus unshiu; cultivar Owari) leaves were investigated. Asian citrus psyllids Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (ACP) infestation was used to induce biotic stress while a water deficit was imposed to induce abiotic stress. Potted trees were infested by placing 50 psyllids on 3 citrus leaves enclosed in nylon mesh bags for 5 d. A parallel set of plants were kept water stressed by maintaining the soil at 20% water holding capacity for 5 d. Levels of total free amino acids were higher in water stressed and ACP infested leaves. Polyamine putrescine increased in infested leaves but not in water stressed leaves. Proline was the most abundant amino acid and its levels significantly increased by both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proline levels in infested leaves were significantly higher than the water stressed leaves. Histidine, methionine, asparagine, arginine, serine, and leucine levels also increased significantly in infested leaves, but in water stressed leaves only leucine, methionine, and threonine increased. Levels of amino acids, such as tyrosine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and alanine, declined in infested leaves. Under water stress asparagine, phenylalanine, serine, and histidine also declined compared to controls. This indicates that while proteolysis occurred under both stresses, metabolic conversion of amino acids was different under the two stresses. In ACP infested leaves some amino acids may be used as feeding material and/or converted into secondary metabolites for defense.

  5. The levels of HDAC1 and thioredoxin1 are related to the death of mesothelioma cells by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    You, Bo Ra; Park, Woo Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor which is mainly derived from the pleura of lung. In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor on human mesothelioma cells in relation to the levels of HDAC1, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thioredoxin (Trx). While 1 µM SAHA inhibited cell growth in Phi and ROB cells at 24 h, it did not affect the growth in ADA and Mill cells. Notably, the level of HDAC1 was relatively overexpressed among Phi, REN and ROB cells. SAHA induced necrosis and apoptosis, which was accompanied by the cleavages of PARP and caspase-3 in Phi cells. This agent also increased the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) in Phi cells. All the tested caspase inhibitors attenuated apoptosis in SAHA-treated Phi cells whereas HDAC1 siRNA enhanced the apoptotic cell death. SAHA increased intracellular ROS levels including O2•- in Phi cells. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and vitamin C (Vit.C) significantly reduced the growth inhibition and death of Phi cells caused by SAHA. This drug decreased the mRNA and protein levels of Trx1 in Phi and ROB cells. Furthermore, Trx1 siRNA increased cell death and O2•- level in SAHA-treated Phi cells. In conclusion, SAHA selectively inhibited the growth of Phi and ROB mesothelioma cells, which showed the higher basal level of HDAC1. SAHA-induced Phi cell death was related to oxidative stress and Trx1 levels. PMID:26936390

  6. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian