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Sample records for acid iaa levels

  1. Solanum lycopersicum IAA15 functions in the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide mechanism of action by mediating abscisic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Yanling; Liu, Xin; Gao, Song; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2015-07-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an important plant growth regulator, is the herbicide most commonly used worldwide to control weeds. However, broad-leaf fruits and vegetables are extremely sensitive to herbicides, which can cause damage and result in lost crops when applied in a manner inconsistent with the directions. Despite detailed knowledge of the mechanism of 2,4-D, the regulation of auxin signalling is still unclear. For example, although the major mediators of auxin signalling, including auxin/indole acetic acid (AUX/IAA) proteins and auxin response factors (ARFs), are known to mediate auxinic herbicides, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, the effects of 2,4-D on AUX/IAA gene expression in tomato were investigated, and the two most notably up-regulated genes, SlIAA15 and SlIAA29, were selected for further study. Western blotting revealed the substantial accumulation of both SlIAA15 and SlIAA29, and the expression levels of the corresponding genes were increased following abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene treatment. Overexpressing SlIAA15, but not SlIAA29, induced a 2,4-D herbicide damage phenotype. The 35S::SlIAA15 line exhibited a strong reduction in leaf stomatal density and altered expression of some R2R3 MYB genes that are putatively involved in the regulation of stomatal differentiation. Further study revealed that root elongation in 35S::SlIAA15 was sensitive to ABA treatment, and was most probably due to the altered expression of an ABA signal transduction gene. In addition, the altered auxin sensitivities of SlIAA15 transformants were also explored. These results suggested that SlIAA15 plays an important role in determining the effects of the herbicide 2,4-D.

  2. Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    PubMed

    Tatsuki, Miho; Nakajima, Naoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takehiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Hayama, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hirohito; Nakamura, Yuri

    2013-02-01

    The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-inducible genes (Aux/IAA, SAUR). That is, expression of IAA-inducible genes increased at the late-ripening stage in melting flesh peaches; however, these transcripts were low in mature fruit of stony hard peaches. The IAA concentration increased suddenly just before harvest time in melting flesh peaches exactly coinciding with system 2 ethylene production. In contrast, the IAA concentration did not increase in stony hard peaches. Application of 1-naphthalene acetic acid, a synthetic auxin, to stony hard peaches induced a high level of PpACS1 expression, a large amount of ethylene production and softening. Application of an anti-auxin, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, to melting flesh peaches reduced levels of PpACS1 expression and ethylene production. These observations indicate that suppression of PpACS1 expression at the late-ripening stage of stony hard peach may result from a low level of IAA and that a high concentration of IAA is required to generate a large amount of system 2 ethylene in peaches.

  3. Demonstrations at School Level of the Effects of IAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Describes demonstrations suitable for secondary school biology classes relating to the effects of the hormone IAA on plant growth. Demonstrations illustrate how hormone treatments affect stem elongation, callus formation, inhibition of axillary buds, stimulation of secondary growth and initiation of adventitious root development, root elongation,…

  4. Lysine Residues Are Not Required for Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of the Auxin/Indole Acidic Acid Protein IAA1.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Kelley, Dior R; Tam, Raymond; Estelle, Mark; Callis, Judy

    2015-06-01

    Although many ubiquitin-proteasome substrates have been characterized in plants, very little is known about the corresponding ubiquitin attachment(s) underlying regulated proteolysis. Current dogma asserts that ubiquitin is typically covalently attached to a substrate through an isopeptide bond between the ubiquitin carboxy terminus and a substrate lysyl amino group. However, nonlysine (non-Lys) ubiquitin attachment has been observed in other eukaryotes, including the N terminus, cysteine, and serine/threonine modification. Here, we investigate site(s) of ubiquitin attachment on indole-3-acetic acid1 (IAA1), a short-lived Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family member. Most Aux/IAA proteins function as negative regulators of auxin responses and are targeted for degradation after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1, Cullin, F-box [SCF] with Transport Inhibitor Response1 [TIR1]/Auxin Signaling F-box [AFB]) by an interaction directly facilitated by auxin. Surprisingly, using a Histidine-Hemaglutinin (HIS(6x)-HA(3x)) epitope-tagged version expressed in vivo, Lys-less IAA1 was ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded in vivo. Lys-substituted versions of IAA1 localized to the nucleus as Yellow Fluorescent Protein fusions and interacted with both TIR1 and IAA7 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid experiments, indicating that these proteins were functional. Ubiquitination on both HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1 and Lys-less HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1 proteins was sensitive to sodium hydroxide treatment, indicative of ubiquitin oxyester formation on serine or threonine residues. Additionally, base-resistant forms of ubiquitinated IAA1 were observed for HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1, suggesting additional lysyl-linked ubiquitin on this protein. Characterization of other Aux/IAA proteins showed that they have diverse degradation rates, adding additional complexity to auxin signaling. Altogether, these data

  5. Lysine Residues Are Not Required for Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of the Auxin/Indole Acidic Acid Protein IAA1.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Kelley, Dior R; Tam, Raymond; Estelle, Mark; Callis, Judy

    2015-06-01

    Although many ubiquitin-proteasome substrates have been characterized in plants, very little is known about the corresponding ubiquitin attachment(s) underlying regulated proteolysis. Current dogma asserts that ubiquitin is typically covalently attached to a substrate through an isopeptide bond between the ubiquitin carboxy terminus and a substrate lysyl amino group. However, nonlysine (non-Lys) ubiquitin attachment has been observed in other eukaryotes, including the N terminus, cysteine, and serine/threonine modification. Here, we investigate site(s) of ubiquitin attachment on indole-3-acetic acid1 (IAA1), a short-lived Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family member. Most Aux/IAA proteins function as negative regulators of auxin responses and are targeted for degradation after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1, Cullin, F-box [SCF] with Transport Inhibitor Response1 [TIR1]/Auxin Signaling F-box [AFB]) by an interaction directly facilitated by auxin. Surprisingly, using a Histidine-Hemaglutinin (HIS(6x)-HA(3x)) epitope-tagged version expressed in vivo, Lys-less IAA1 was ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded in vivo. Lys-substituted versions of IAA1 localized to the nucleus as Yellow Fluorescent Protein fusions and interacted with both TIR1 and IAA7 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid experiments, indicating that these proteins were functional. Ubiquitination on both HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1 and Lys-less HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1 proteins was sensitive to sodium hydroxide treatment, indicative of ubiquitin oxyester formation on serine or threonine residues. Additionally, base-resistant forms of ubiquitinated IAA1 were observed for HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1, suggesting additional lysyl-linked ubiquitin on this protein. Characterization of other Aux/IAA proteins showed that they have diverse degradation rates, adding additional complexity to auxin signaling. Altogether, these data

  6. [Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an Aux/IAA gene (RgIAA1) from Rehmannia glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Qing; Tian, Yun-He; Li, Ming-Jie; Yang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Bao; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Chen, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-12-01

    To clone and analyze a member of the Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family, RgIAA1, from Rehmannia glutinosa. The transcriptional EST database of R. glutinosa was used to clone the new Aux/IAA gene by cDNA probe of AtIAA14. Bioinformatics was applied to analyze the sequence characteristics of RgIAA1 protein and construct phylogenetiC trees. Quantitative RT-PCR has been applied to detect the transcription level of RgIAA1 in seven tissues as well as in leaves under three stresses. The results showed that, the cDNA sequence of RgIAA1 contains 903 bp was obtained. The open reading frame (ORF) of RgIAA1 was 681 bp encoding 226 amino acids, which has typical structural domains and characteristic sequence of Aux/IAA family proteins. RgIAA1 showed the highest expression level in unfolded leaf, followed by the stem. And the expression of RglAA1 was quickly decreased with leaf growing up. The transcription level increased under continuous cropping conditions while it reduced both in salinity and waterlogging stresses. RgIAA1, an Aux/IAA gene from R. glutinosa has been obtained for the first time, which can lay the foundation for further studies about its molecular function in development and responses to stress.

  7. Effect of surface and membrane potentials on IAA (indoleactic acid) uptake and binding by zucchini membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, K.A.; Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1986-08-01

    The polar transport of the endogenous hormone controlling extension growth of plant cells, indoleacetic acid (IAA), is thought to depend on transmembrane pH and electrical gradients resulting in part from the action of proton ATPases in the plasma membrane. Elements of this transport process are permeation of the membrane by the undissociated lipophilic indoleacetic acid (IAAH) from the acidic apoplast, followed by dissociation of the weak acid and accumulation of the IAA anion (IAA/sup -/) in the alkaline cytoplasm; a saturable symport of IAA/sup -/ with one or more protons; a carrier-mediated efflux of IAA/sup -/ down a considerable electrochemical gradient. The efflux is greater from the basal than the apical end of cells and is thought to be responsible for the overall polarity of the process. This step is also the site of action of napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and herbicides that inhibit polar transport but stimulate net accumulation of auxin by tissues and cells. We are using membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying the mechanisms involved in the transport and accumulation of auxin. In particular, we are interested in determining the involvement of the transmembrane pH (pH/sub o/ < pH/sub i/) and voltage gradients (K/sup +/ diffusion potential, (K/sup +/)/sub in/ > (K/sup +/)/sub out/) in IAA uptake. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Alternative mechanism for the evaluation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production by Azospirillum brasilense strains and its effects on the germination and growth of maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Masciarelli, Oscar; Urbani, Lucia; Reinoso, Herminda; Luna, Virginia

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by Azospirillum brasilense strains in vitro (cell culture supernatants) and in vivo (stems and roots of maize seedlings) to clarify the role of this phytohormone as a signaling and effector molecule in the symbiotic interaction between maize and A. brasilense. The three strains all showed IAA production when cultured in NFb medium supplemented with 100 μg/ml L-tryptophan. The level of IAA production was 41.5 μg/ml for Yu62, 12.9 μg/ml for Az39, and 0.15 μg/ml for ipdC-. The release of IAA into culture medium by the bacteria appeared to be the main activator of the early growth promotion observed in the inoculated maize seedlings. The application of supernatants with different IAA contents caused significant differences in the seedling growth. This observation provides the basis for novel technological tools for effective quality control procedures on inoculants. The approach described can be incorporated into different inoculation methods, including line sowing, downspout, and foliar techniques, and increase the sustainability of symbiotic plant-bacteria systems.

  9. Knockout of GH3 genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens leads to increased IAA levels at elevated temperature and in darkness.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jennifer; Gabrielyan, Anastasia; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-12-01

    Two proteins of the GRETCHEN HAGEN3 (GH3) family of acyl acid amido synthetases from the moss Physcomitrella patens conjugate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to a series of amino acids. The possible function of altered auxin levels in the moss in response to two different growth perturbations, elevated temperatures and darkness, was analyzed using a) the recently described double knockout lines in both P. patens GH3 genes (GH3-doKO) and b) a previously characterized line harboring an auxin-inducible soybean GH3 promoter::reporter fused to β-glucuronidase (G1-GUS). The GUS activity as marker of the auxin response increased at higher temperatures and after cultivation in the darkness for a period of up to four weeks. Generally, the double knockout plants grew more slowly than the wild type (WT). The altered growth conditions influenced the phenotypes of the double knockout lines differently from that of WT moss. Higher temperatures negatively affected GH3-doKO plants compared to WT which was shown by stronger loss of chlorophyll. On the other hand, a positive effect was found on the concentrations of free IAA which increased at 28 °C in the GH3-doKO lines compared to WT plants. A different factor, namely darkness vs. a light/dark cycle caused the adverse phenotype concerning chlorophyll concentrations. Mutant moss plants showed higher chlorophyll concentrations than WT and these correlated with higher free IAA in the plant population that was classified as green. Our data show that growth perturbations result in higher free IAA levels in the GH3-doKO mutants, but in one case - growth in darkness - the mutants could cope better with the condition, whereas at elevated temperatures the mutants were more sensitive than WT. Thus, GH3 function in P. patens WT could lie in the regulation of IAA concentrations under unfavorable environmental conditions.

  10. The optimal design of service level agreement in IAAS based on BDIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaochen; Zhan, Zhiqiang

    2013-03-01

    Cloud Computing has become more and more prevalent over the past few years, and we have seen the importance of Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS). This kind of service enables scaling of bandwidth, memory, computing power and storage. But the SLA in IaaS also faces complexity and variety. Users also consider the business of the service. To meet the most users requirements, a methodology for designing optimal SLA in IaaS from the business perspectives is proposed. This method is different from the conventional SLA design method, It not only focuses on service provider perspective, also from the customer to carry on the design. This methodology better captures the linkage between service provider and service client by considering minimizing the business loss originated from performance degradation and IT infrastructure failures and maximizing profits for service provider and clients. An optimal design in an IaaS model is provided and an example are analyzed to show this approach obtain higher profit.

  11. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced changes in oil content, fatty acid profiles and expression of four fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris at early stationary growth phase.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Malinna; Loh, Saw Hong; Chuah, Tse Seng; Aziz, Ahmad; Cha, Thye San

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.

  12. Recognition of the folded conformation of plant hormone (auxin, IAA) conjugates with glutamic and aspartic acids and their amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolić, S.; Kveder, M.; Klaić, B.; Magnus, V.; Kojić-Prodić, B.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular structure of the endogenous plant hormone (auxin) conjugate, N-(indol-3-ylacetyl)- L-glutamic acid, is deduced by comparison with N2-(indol-3-ylacetyl)glutamine (IAA-Gln), N2-(indol-3-ylacetyl)asparagine (IAA-Asn) and N-(indol-3-ylacetyl)- L-aspartic acid using X-ray structure analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy (NOE measurements) and molecular modelling. The significance of the overall molecular shape, and of the resulting amphiphilic properties, of the compounds studied are discussed in terms of possible implications for trafficking between cell compartments. Both in the solid state and in solution, the molecules are in the hair-pin (folded) conformation in which the side chain is folded over the indole ring. While extended conformations can be detected by molecular dynamics simulations, they are so short-lived that any major influence on the biological properties of the compounds studied is unlikely.

  13. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Gan, Defang; Zhuang, Dan; Ding, Fei; Yu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01-CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  14. Indole-3-acetic Acid Levels of Plant Tissue as Determined by a New High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method 1

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, Philip B.; Swartzfager, Dennis G.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the analysis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in plant extracts has been developed based on high performance liquid chromatography separation of IAA on a microparticulate strong anion exchange column followed by quantitation with two selective detectors: an electrochemical, carbon paste amperometric detector and/or a fluorescence detector. The detection limit for IAA is less than 1 nanogram with the fluorescence detector and less than 50 picograms with the electrochemical detector. The IAA levels are reported for various tissues of wheat, pinto beans, soybeans, cotton, and corn. PMID:16660271

  15. Dioxygenase-encoding AtDAO1 gene controls IAA oxidation and homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Porco, Silvana; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rashed, Afaf; Voß, Ute; Casanova-Sáez, Rubén; Bishopp, Anthony; Golebiowska, Agata; Bhosale, Rahul; Swarup, Ranjan; Swarup, Kamal; Peňáková, Pavlína; Novák, Ondřej; Staswick, Paul; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L; Vissenberg, Kris; Bennett, Malcolm J; Ljung, Karin

    2016-09-27

    Auxin represents a key signal in plants, regulating almost every aspect of their growth and development. Major breakthroughs have been made dissecting the molecular basis of auxin transport, perception, and response. In contrast, how plants control the metabolism and homeostasis of the major form of auxin in plants, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), remains unclear. In this paper, we initially describe the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana gene DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1 (AtDAO1). Transcriptional and translational reporter lines revealed that AtDAO1 encodes a highly root-expressed, cytoplasmically localized IAA oxidase. Stable isotope-labeled IAA feeding studies of loss and gain of function AtDAO1 lines showed that this oxidase represents the major regulator of auxin degradation to 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) in Arabidopsis Surprisingly, AtDAO1 loss and gain of function lines exhibited relatively subtle auxin-related phenotypes, such as altered root hair length. Metabolite profiling of mutant lines revealed that disrupting AtDAO1 regulation resulted in major changes in steady-state levels of oxIAA and IAA conjugates but not IAA. Hence, IAA conjugation and catabolism seem to regulate auxin levels in Arabidopsis in a highly redundant manner. We observed that transcripts of AtDOA1 IAA oxidase and GH3 IAA-conjugating enzymes are auxin-inducible, providing a molecular basis for their observed functional redundancy. We conclude that the AtDAO1 gene plays a key role regulating auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis, acting in concert with GH3 genes, to maintain auxin concentration at optimal levels for plant growth and development. PMID:27651491

  16. Dioxygenase-encoding AtDAO1 gene controls IAA oxidation and homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Porco, Silvana; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rashed, Afaf; Voß, Ute; Casanova-Sáez, Rubén; Bishopp, Anthony; Golebiowska, Agata; Swarup, Ranjan; Swarup, Kamal; Peňáková, Pavlína; Novák, Ondřej; Staswick, Paul; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L.; Vissenberg, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Auxin represents a key signal in plants, regulating almost every aspect of their growth and development. Major breakthroughs have been made dissecting the molecular basis of auxin transport, perception, and response. In contrast, how plants control the metabolism and homeostasis of the major form of auxin in plants, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), remains unclear. In this paper, we initially describe the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana gene DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1 (AtDAO1). Transcriptional and translational reporter lines revealed that AtDAO1 encodes a highly root-expressed, cytoplasmically localized IAA oxidase. Stable isotope-labeled IAA feeding studies of loss and gain of function AtDAO1 lines showed that this oxidase represents the major regulator of auxin degradation to 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) in Arabidopsis. Surprisingly, AtDAO1 loss and gain of function lines exhibited relatively subtle auxin-related phenotypes, such as altered root hair length. Metabolite profiling of mutant lines revealed that disrupting AtDAO1 regulation resulted in major changes in steady-state levels of oxIAA and IAA conjugates but not IAA. Hence, IAA conjugation and catabolism seem to regulate auxin levels in Arabidopsis in a highly redundant manner. We observed that transcripts of AtDOA1 IAA oxidase and GH3 IAA-conjugating enzymes are auxin-inducible, providing a molecular basis for their observed functional redundancy. We conclude that the AtDAO1 gene plays a key role regulating auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis, acting in concert with GH3 genes, to maintain auxin concentration at optimal levels for plant growth and development. PMID:27651491

  17. Changes in the level of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid and ( sup 14 C)indoleacetylaspartic acid during root formation in mung bean cuttings. [Vigna radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Norcini, J.G.; Heuser, C.W. )

    1988-04-01

    Changes in the levels of ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ({sup 14}C)indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAAsp) were examined during adventitious root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz. Berken) stem cuttings. IAAsp was identified by GC-MS as the primary conjugate in IAA-treated cuttings. During root formation in IAA-treated cuttings, the level of ({sup 14}C)IAAsp increased rapidly the first day and then declined; ({sup 14}C)IAA was rapidly metabolized and not detected after 12 hours.

  18. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212

  19. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie; Novak, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212

  20. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  1. Role of IAA-Oxidase in Abscission Control in Cotton 123

    PubMed Central

    Schwertner, Harvey A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1966-01-01

    The potential role of indoleactic acid (IAA)-oxidase as an in vivo abscission regulating system in the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cotyledonary explant was investigated. Phenols (usually monophenols), which are cofactors of cotton IAA-oxidase in vitro, accelerated abscission. Phenols (usually orthodihydroxyphenols), which inhibit cotton IAA-oxidase in vitro, inhibited abscission. Inhibition or stimulation of abscission was accomplished by phenols both with and without IAA. Results were similar when treatments were applied as lanolin pastes to the cut petiole ends or as solutions in which explants were submerged. An abscission accelerating phenol stimulated the decarboxylation of IAA-1-14C by explants and an abscission inhibiting phenol inhibited the decarboxylation of IAA-1-14C. The mechanism of abscission regulation by the phenolic compounds was concluded to involve auxin destruction via IAA-oxidase. In addition to the direct relationship of this study to abscission, the results support the more general hypothesis that IAA-oxidase acts in vivo to regulate auxin levels. PMID:16656432

  2. IAA Correlator Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkis, Igor; Ken, Voitsekh; Melnikov, Alexey; Mishin, Vladimir; Sokolova, Nadezda; Shantyr, Violet; Zimovsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The activities of the six-station IAA RAS correlator include regular processing of national geodetic VLBI programs Ru-E, Ru-U, and Ru-F. The Ru-U sessions have been transferred in e-VLBI mode and correlated in the IAA Correlator Center automatically since 2011. The DiFX software correlator is used at the IAA in some astrophysical experiments.

  3. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Nordström, A C; Jacobs, F A; Eliasson, L

    1991-07-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  4. Identification of IAA transport inhibitors including compounds affecting cellular PIN trafficking by two chemical screening approaches using maize coleoptile systems.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Matano, Naoyuki; Morishima, Taichi; Kakinuma, Chieko; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Komano, Teruya; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2012-10-01

    The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants. PMID:22875609

  5. UGT74D1 Catalyzes the Glucosylation of 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid in the Auxin Metabolic Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Keita; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Natsume, Masahiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    IAA is a naturally occurring auxin that plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The endogenous concentration of IAA is spatiotemporally regulated by biosynthesis, transport and its inactivation in plants. Previous studies have shown that the metabolism of IAA to 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA) and OxIAA-glucoside (OxIAA-Glc) may play an important role in IAA homeostasis, but the genes involved in this metabolic pathway are still unknown. In this study, we show that UGT74D1 catalyzes the glucosylation of OxIAA in Arabidopsis. By screening yeasts transformed with Arabidopsis UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, we found that OxIAA-Glc accumulates in the culture media of yeasts expressing UGT74D1 in the presence of OxIAA. Further, we showed that UGT74D1 expressed in Escherichia coli converts OxIAA to OxIAA-Glc. The endogenous concentration of OxIAA-Glc decreased by 85% while that of OxIAA increased 2.5-fold in ugt74d1-deficient mutants, indicating the major role of UGT74D1 in OxIAA metabolism. Moreover, the induction of UGT74D1 markedly increased the level of OxIAA-Glc and loss of root gravitropism. These results indicate that UGT74D1 catalyzes a committed step in the OxIAA-dependent IAA metabolic pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:24285754

  6. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Reinecke, D. )

    1989-04-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

  7. How phytohormone IAA and chelator EDTA affect lead uptake by Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui-Jun; He, Er-Kai; Tang, Ye-Tao; Hu, Peng-Jie; Ying, Rong-Rong; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and/or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on lead uptake by a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata were studied. P. divaricata responded to Pb by better root system and increased biomass in presence of phytohormone IAA, which was able to reduce the inhibiting effects of Pb on transpiration without reducing the uptake of Pb The application of 100 microM IAA increased plant transpiration rate by about 20% and Pb concentration in leaves by about 37.3% as compared to treatment exposed to Pb alone. The enhanced phytoextraction efficiency could be attributed to the mechanisms played by IAA through alleviating Pb toxicity, creating better root system and plant biomass, promoting a higher transpiration rate as well as regulating the level of nutrient elements. On the contrary, inefficiency of phytoextraction was found with EDTA or the combination of IAA and EDTA probably because most Pb was in the form of Pb-EDTA complex which blocked the uptake by P. divaricata. The present study demonstrated that IAA was able to enhance the phytoextraction of Pb by Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator P. divaricata, providing a feasible method for the phytoremediation of polymetallic contaminated soils. PMID:21972569

  8. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  9. The tomato Aux/IAA transcription factor IAA9 is involved in fruit development and leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-10-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose-response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  10. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Su, L Y; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, J P; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology.

  11. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  12. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the synthesis of essential oils and the isomerization of methyl chavicol and trans-anethole in Ocimum gratissimum L.

    PubMed

    Hazzoumi, Zakaria; Moustakime, Youssef; Amrani Joutei, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Basil (O. gratissimum L) is a aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine in Morocco. The aim of this work was to study the effect of three plant growth regulators gibberellic acid (GA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the content and composition of essential oils of this plant, especially on the main compound (methyl chavicol) and its isomer (the trans-anethole). The results showed a wide variation on yield, content and range of the molecule constituent of oil, with a balance of appearances and/or disappearances of a few molecules. GA caused a slight decrease in the oil yield (0.2%), but it increased the diversity of compounds (17 molecules) with the appearance of four new compounds (naphthalene, camphor, germacrene-D, and ledene) and disappearance of (β cedrene, azulene). This variation also caused a very important decrease in the main compound (methyl chavicol) and increases its isomer (trans-anethole). IAA and BAP caused an increase in the yield of essential oil (0.30% and 0.32% respectively) without much influence on the main compounds, but with some change in the composition such as the appearance of (germacrene-D) and the disappearance of (aristolene). PMID:25045609

  13. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the synthesis of essential oils and the isomerization of methyl chavicol and trans-anethole in Ocimum gratissimum L.

    PubMed

    Hazzoumi, Zakaria; Moustakime, Youssef; Amrani Joutei, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Basil (O. gratissimum L) is a aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine in Morocco. The aim of this work was to study the effect of three plant growth regulators gibberellic acid (GA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the content and composition of essential oils of this plant, especially on the main compound (methyl chavicol) and its isomer (the trans-anethole). The results showed a wide variation on yield, content and range of the molecule constituent of oil, with a balance of appearances and/or disappearances of a few molecules. GA caused a slight decrease in the oil yield (0.2%), but it increased the diversity of compounds (17 molecules) with the appearance of four new compounds (naphthalene, camphor, germacrene-D, and ledene) and disappearance of (β cedrene, azulene). This variation also caused a very important decrease in the main compound (methyl chavicol) and increases its isomer (trans-anethole). IAA and BAP caused an increase in the yield of essential oil (0.30% and 0.32% respectively) without much influence on the main compounds, but with some change in the composition such as the appearance of (germacrene-D) and the disappearance of (aristolene).

  14. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyong; Xu, Xiaoyang; Fang, David D; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2012-07-15

    Members of the Aux/IAA gene family encode proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-regulated gene expression and regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. Here, we provide the first identification and characterization of nine cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame (ORF) of the Aux/IAA family in cotton. These were designated GhAux1 to GhAux9 (Gossypiumhirsutum Aux/IAA). The proteins encoded by these nine genes had either whole or partially conserved domains of the Aux/IAA superfamily, with sequence identity ranging from 14% to 69%. A pair of homeologs exists for each Aux/IAA in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 with high identity both in ORF sequences and amino acid level. Tissue- and organ-specific analysis showed that transcripts of GhAux1, GhAux2, and GhAux3 were abundant in vegetative organs, whereas GhAux4, GhAux5, GhAux6, and GhAux7 were preferentially expressed in ovules on the day of anthesis. GhAux8 and GhIAA16 (previously reported) were also preferentially expressed during fiber developmental stages, especially GhAux8 in fiber early elongation stages, and GhIAA16 in fiber initiation and secondary cell wall thickening stage. GhAux9 was specifically expressed in developing fibers. During the fiber initiation stage, except for GhAux3 and GhAux6, the expression of the other eight GhAuxs in various lintless-fuzzless and linted-fuzzless mutants demonstrated that they were significantly up-regulated compared with linted-fuzzy TM-1. PMID:22575728

  15. Monitoring of IaaS and scientific applications on the Cloud using the Elasticsearch ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnasco, S.; Berzano, D.; Guarise, A.; Lusso, S.; Masera, M.; Vallero, S.

    2015-05-01

    The private Cloud at the Torino INFN computing centre offers IaaS services to different scientific computing applications. The infrastructure is managed with the OpenNebula cloud controller. The main stakeholders of the facility are a grid Tier-2 site for the ALICE collaboration at LHC, an interactive analysis facility for the same experiment and a grid Tier-2 site for the BES-III collaboration, plus an increasing number of other small tenants. Besides keeping track of the usage, the automation of dynamic allocation of resources to tenants requires detailed monitoring and accounting of the resource usage. As a first investigation towards this, we set up a monitoring system to inspect the site activities both in terms of IaaS and applications running on the hosted virtual instances. For this purpose we used the Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana stack. In the current implementation, the heterogeneous accounting information is fed to different MySQL databases and sent to Elasticsearch via a custom Logstash plugin. For the IaaS metering, we developed sensors for the OpenNebula API. The IaaS level information gathered through the API is sent to the MySQL database through an ad-hoc developed RESTful web service, which is also used for other accounting purposes. Concerning the application level, we used the Root plugin TProofMonSenderSQL to collect accounting data from the interactive analysis facility. The BES-III virtual instances used to be monitored with Zabbix, as a proof of concept we also retrieve the information contained in the Zabbix database. Each of these three cases is indexed separately in Elasticsearch. We are now starting to consider dismissing the intermediate level provided by the SQL database and evaluating a NoSQL option as a unique central database for all the monitoring information. We setup a set of Kibana dashboards with pre-defined queries in order to monitor the relevant information in each case. In this way we have achieved a uniform monitoring

  16. The auxin Sl-IAA17 transcriptional repressor controls fruit size via the regulation of endoreduplication-related cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Su, Liyan; Bassa, Carole; Audran, Corinne; Mila, Isabelle; Cheniclet, Catherine; Chevalier, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Chervin, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Auxin is known to regulate cell division and cell elongation, thus controlling plant growth and development. Part of the auxin signaling pathway depends on the fine-tuned degradation of the auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressors. Recent evidence indicates that Aux/IAA proteins play a role in fruit development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), a model species for fleshy fruit development. We report here on the functional characterization of Sl-IAA17 during tomato fruit development. Silencing of Sl-IAA17 by an RNA interference (RNAi) strategy resulted in the production of larger fruit than the wild type. Histological analyses of the fruit organ and tissues demonstrated that this phenotype was associated with a thicker pericarp, rather than larger locules and/or a larger number of seeds. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that the higher pericarp thickness in Sl-IAA17 RNAi fruits was not due to a larger number of cells, but to the increase in cell size. Finally, we observed that the cell expansion in the transgenic fruits is tightly coupled with higher ploidy levels than in the wild type, suggesting a stimulation of the endoreduplication process. In conclusion, this work provides new insights into the function of the Aux/IAA pathway in fleshy fruit development, especially fruit size and cell size determination in tomato.

  17. Branching Mutant rms-2 in Pisum sativum (Grafting Studies and Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels).

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, C. A.; Ross, J. J.; Murfet, I. C.

    1994-01-01

    Isogenic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were used to determine the physiological site of action of the Rms-2 gene, which maintains apical dominance, and its effect on endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. In mutant rms-2 scions, which normally produce lateral branches below node 3 and above node 7, apical dominance was almost fully restored by grafting to Rms-2 (wild-type) stocks. In the reciprocal grafts, rms-2 stocks did not promote branching in wild-type shoots. Together, these results suggest that the Rms-2 gene inhibits branching in the shoot of pea by controlling the synthesis of a translocatable (hormone-like) substance that is produced in the roots and/or cotyledons and in the shoot. At all stages, including the stage at which aerial lateral buds commence outgrowth, the level of IAA in rms-2 shoots was elevated (up to 5-fold) in comparison with that in wild-type shoots. The internode length of rms-2 plants was 40% less than in wild-type plants, and the mutant plants allocated significantly more dry weight to the shoot than to the root in comparison with wild-type plants. Grafting to wild-type stocks did not normalize IAA levels or internode length in rms-2 scions, even though it inhibited branching, suggesting that the involvement of Rms-2 in the control of IAA level and internode length may be confined to processes in the shoot. PMID:12232140

  18. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  19. Effect of IAA on in vitro growth and colonization of Nostoc in plant roots

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Anwar; Shah, Syed T.; Rahman, Hazir; Irshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Nostoc is widely known for its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and the establishment of symbiotic relationship with a wide range of plants from various taxonomic groups. Several strains of Nostoc produce phytohormones that promote growth of its plant partners. Nostoc OS-1 was therefore selected for study because of the presence of putative ipdC gene that encodes a key enzyme to produce Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The results indicated that both cellular and released IAA was found high with increasing incubation time and reached to a peak value (i.e., 21 pmol mg-1ch-a) on the third week as determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Also the Nostoc OS-1 strain efficiently colonized the roots and promoted the growth of rice as well as wheat under axenic conditions and induced ipdC gene that suggested the possible involvement of IAA in these phenotypes. To confirm the impact of IAA on root colonization efficiency and plant promoting phenotypes of Nostoc OS-1, an ipdC knockout mutant was generated by homologous recombinant method. The amount of releasing IAA, in vitro growth, root colonization, and plant promoting efficiency of the ipdC knockout mutant was observed significantly lower than wild type strain under axenic conditions. Importantly, these phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels when the ipdC knockout mutant was complemented with wild type ipdC gene. These results together suggested that ipdC and/or synthesized IAA of Nostoc OS-1 is required for its efficient root colonization and plant promoting activity. PMID:25699072

  20. FTIR spectroscopic study of the phytohormone auxin (Indol-3-ylacetic Acid, IAA) and its n-alkylated and monohalogenated derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Bert T. G.; van der Windt, Erik; Kanters, Jan; Klämbt, Dieter; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Ramek, Michael

    1996-09-01

    In the framework of structure/activity correlation studies the plant growth hormone auxin and its natural analogue 4-Cl-IAA, as well as their synthetic congeners, were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis was focused on the NH and CO stretching vibrations which can be the most sensitive probes of intra- and intermolecular interactions, particularly to hydrogen bonds. However, it emerged that vC = O vibrations of both monomer and dimer are not affected by substitution. The aliphatic CH 2 group acts as an insulator between the conjugated π-system of indole and the carboxylic group, thus prohibiting a direct effect on the vibration CO. On the contrary, the stretching vibrations NH are influenced by halogenation and hydrogen bonding. The experimental data are in good agreement with the results of quantum chemical ab initio calculations of NH vibrations for IAA and several chlorine substituted IAAs. However, a simple correlation between substitution and spectral properties of indole NH cannot be found. The measurements were performed in the solid state (KBr pellets) and in polar (diethylether) and nonpolar (CDCI 3) solutions. From the measurements in diethylether, it follows that in dilute solution IAA and derivatives are predominantly present as monomer, whereas in CDCl 3 the equilibrium is in favour of the dimer form. In aqueous solution at the concentrations used in growth experiments solvated monomer will be the active component. Bioactivity of auxin and analogues with their NH stretching frequency shifts cannot be correlated in a simple way.

  1. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  2. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  3. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  4. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed.

  5. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Luo, Sha; Li, Qianqian; Yang, Xiyu; Wang, Xianling; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with auxin response factors (ARFs). So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutations in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa) homolog of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein–protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein–protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene 8) was reduced in transgenic plants. PMID:26082787

  6. IAA-producing rhizobacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) induce changes in root architecture and increase root biomass.

    PubMed

    Fierro-Coronado, Rosario Alicia; Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco Roberto; García-Pérez, Luz María; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobacteria promote and have beneficial effects on plant growth, making them useful to agriculture. Nevertheless, the rhizosphere of the chickpea plant has not been extensively examined. The aim of the present study was to select indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing rhizobacteria from the rhizosphere of chickpea plants for their potential use as biofertilizers. After obtaining a collection of 864 bacterial isolates, we performed a screen using the Salkowski reaction for the presence of auxin compounds (such as IAA) in bacterial Luria-Bertani supernatant (BLBS). Our results demonstrate that the Salkowski reaction has a greater specificity for detecting IAA than other tested auxins. Ten bacterial isolates displaying a wide range of auxin accumulation were selected, producing IAA levels of 5 to 90 μmol/L (according to the Salkowski reaction). Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of 16S rDNA partial sequences: 9 isolates belonged to Enterobacter, and 1 isolate was classified as Serratia. The effect of BLBS on root morphology was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana. IAA production by rhizobacteria was confirmed by means of a DR5::GFP construct that is responsive to IAA, and also by HPLC-GC/MS. Finally, we observed that IAA secreted by rhizobacteria (i) modified the root architecture of A. thaliana, (ii) caused an increase in chickpea root biomass, and (iii) activated the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by the DR5 promoter. These findings provide evidence that these novel bacterial isolates may be considered as putative plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria modifying root architecture and increasing root biomass.

  7. Assessing the effects of heavy metals in ACC deaminase and IAA production on plant growth-promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Mendoza-Hernández José; Stefani, Perea-Vélez Yazmin; Janette, Arriola-Morales; Melani, Martínez-Simón Sara; Gabriela, Pérez-Osorio

    2016-01-01

    This study poses a methodology in order to simultaneously quantify ACC deaminase and IAA levels in the same culture medium. Ten bacterial strains isolated from plant rhizosphere naturally settled in mining residues were chosen. These bacterial strains were characterized as PGPB, and all of them showed at least three characteristics (indole-3 acetic acid and siderophore production, ACC deaminase enzyme activity, and inorganic phosphate solubilization). Taxonomic identification showed that the strains belong to Enterobacter, Serratia, Klebsiella, and Escherichia genera. Similarly, both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA synthesis in the presence of Cu, As, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured. The results showed that both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA synthesis were higher with the Pb, As, and Cu treatments than with the Escherichia N16, Enterobacter K131, Enterobacter N9, and Serratia K120 control treatments. On the other hand, Ni, Cd, and Mn negatively affected both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA production on every bacterium except on the Klebsiella Mc173 strain. Serratia K120 bacterium got a positive correlation between ACC deaminase and IAA in the presence of every heavy metal, and it also promoted Helianthus annuus plant growth, showing a potential use in phytoremediation systems.

  8. Assessing the effects of heavy metals in ACC deaminase and IAA production on plant growth-promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Mendoza-Hernández José; Stefani, Perea-Vélez Yazmin; Janette, Arriola-Morales; Melani, Martínez-Simón Sara; Gabriela, Pérez-Osorio

    2016-01-01

    This study poses a methodology in order to simultaneously quantify ACC deaminase and IAA levels in the same culture medium. Ten bacterial strains isolated from plant rhizosphere naturally settled in mining residues were chosen. These bacterial strains were characterized as PGPB, and all of them showed at least three characteristics (indole-3 acetic acid and siderophore production, ACC deaminase enzyme activity, and inorganic phosphate solubilization). Taxonomic identification showed that the strains belong to Enterobacter, Serratia, Klebsiella, and Escherichia genera. Similarly, both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA synthesis in the presence of Cu, As, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured. The results showed that both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA synthesis were higher with the Pb, As, and Cu treatments than with the Escherichia N16, Enterobacter K131, Enterobacter N9, and Serratia K120 control treatments. On the other hand, Ni, Cd, and Mn negatively affected both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA production on every bacterium except on the Klebsiella Mc173 strain. Serratia K120 bacterium got a positive correlation between ACC deaminase and IAA in the presence of every heavy metal, and it also promoted Helianthus annuus plant growth, showing a potential use in phytoremediation systems. PMID:27296962

  9. Aberrant synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae triggers morphogenic transition, a virulence trait of pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Rao, Reeta Prusty; Hunter, Ally; Kashpur, Olga; Normanly, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    Many plant-associated microbes synthesize the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and several IAA biosynthetic pathways have been identified in microbes and plants. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been shown to respond to IAA by inducing pseudohyphal growth. We observed that IAA also induced hyphal growth in the human pathogen Candida albicans and thus may function as a secondary metabolite signal that regulates virulence traits such as hyphal transition in pathogenic fungi. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald) is required for IAA synthesis from a tryptophan (Trp) precursor in Ustilago maydis. Mutant S. cerevisiae with deletions in two ALD genes are unable to convert radiolabeled Trp to IAA, yet produce IAA in the absence of exogenous Trp and at levels higher than wild type. These data suggest that yeast may have multiple pathways for IAA synthesis, one of which is not dependent on Trp. PMID:20233857

  10. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  11. GA4 and IAA were involved in the morphogenesis and development of flowers in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-huan; Shen, Xiao-hui

    2014-07-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth represents a major phase change in angiosperms. Hormones play important roles in this process. In this study, gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinins (CKs), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during the flowering in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Eleven types of endogenous gibberellins in addition to GA1 were detected in various organs. GA9 was detected with the highest concentrations, followed by GA5, GA8, and GA19. However, GA4 was the main bioactive GA that was involved in the regulation of flowering. Eight types of endogenous cytokinins were detected in A. praecox ssp. orientalis, and zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, and N(6)-isopentenyladenosine-5-monophosphate were present at higher levels throughout the study, of which zeatin plays an important role in the development of various organs. IAA increased by 581% in the shoot tips from the vegetative to inflorescence bud stages and had the most significant changes during flowering. Phytohormone immunolocalization analysis suggested that IAA involved in differentiation and development of each floral organs, GA and zeatin play important roles in floret primordia differentiation and ovule development. Using exogenous plant growth regulators proved that GA signaling regulate the scape elongation and stimulate early-flowering, and IAA signaling is involved in the pedicel and corolla elongation and delay flowering slightly. PMID:24913054

  12. Effect of IAA produced by Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton growth under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Zaiqiang; Yao, Lixia; Yue, Haitao; Li, Hui; Li, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 isolated with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase activity as the sole nitrogen source could obviously promote cotton seedling growth under salt stress and produce phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The amount of IAA produced by the strain Rs-5 was measured, and the effect of IAA on cotton growth under salt stress was studied. Different treatments were set to treat cotton seeds with fermentation broth containing strain Rs-5 (FB), strain Rs-5, fermentation broth with bacteria removed (FB-NB), fermentation broth without bacteria or IAA (FB-NB-NI) and single IAA solutions (SI) according to the IAA concentration after strain Rs-5 culturing of 48, 72 and 120 h. The germination rate, dry weight, plant height, root length and malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and endogenous IAA content in roots were determined. The results showed that both IAA produced by strain Rs-5 and the strain were effective in promoting cotton growth under salt stress. The growth and ability to resist salt stress of cotton seedlings were increased with the enhancement of IAA concentration. The treatment of FB containing bacteria and IAA at 120 h obtained the best state of cotton growth, when the IAA content was the highest in the fermentation broth (42.14 μg·L(-1)). The germination rate, dry weight, plant height and root length were increased by 29.4%, 24.3%, 27.2% and 27.2% , respectively, compared to the saline control. The strain Rs-5 and/or IAA could obviously reduce the MDA and proline content and increase the endogenous IAA content in cotton seedlings. However, the efficacy of other components in the fermentation broth was inconspicuous.

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  15. The virtual machine (VM) scaler: an infrastructure manager supporting environmental modeling on IaaS clouds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) clouds provide a new medium for deployment of environmental modeling applications. Harnessing advancements in virtualization, IaaS clouds can provide dynamic scalable infrastructure to better support scientific modeling computational demands. Providing scientific m...

  16. Constitutive Expression of OsIAA9 Affects Starch Granules Accumulation and Root Gravitropic Response in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Sha; Li, Qianqian; Liu, Shanda; Pinas, Nicholaas M.; Tian, Hainan; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes are early auxin response genes ecoding short-lived transcriptional repressors, which regulate auxin signaling in plants by interplay with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs). Most of the Aux/IAA proteins contain four different domains, namely Domain I, Domain II, Domain III, and Domain IV. So far all Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes identified in both Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) are dominant gain-of-function mutants with mutations in Domain II of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins, suggest that Aux/IAA proteins in both Arabidopsis and rice are largely functional redundantly, and they may have conserved functions. We report here the functional characterization of a rice Aux/IAA gene, OsIAA9. RT-PCR results showed that expression of OsIAA9 was induced by exogenously applied auxin, suggesting that OsIAA9 is an auxin response gene. Bioinformatic analysis showed that OsIAA9 has a repressor motif in Domain I, a degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. By generating transgenic plants expressing GFP-OsIAA9 and examining florescence in the transgenic plants, we found that OsIAA9 is localized in the nucleus. When transfected into protoplasts isolated from rosette leaves of Arabidopsis, OsIAA9 repressed reporter gene expression, and the repression was partially released by exogenously IAA. These results suggest that OsIAA9 is a canonical Aux/IAA protein. Protoplast transfection assays showed that OsIAA9 interacted ARF5, but not ARF6, 7, 8 and 19. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing OsIAA9 have increased number of lateral roots, and reduced gravitropic response. Further analysis showed that OsIAA9 transgenic Arabidopsis plants accumulated fewer granules in their root tips and the distribution of granules was also affected. Taken together, our study showed that OsIAA9 is a transcriptional repressor, and it regulates gravitropic

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  18. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  19. Screening and optimization of indole-3-acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization from rhizobacteria aimed at improving plant growth.

    PubMed

    Chaiharn, Mathurot; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2011-01-01

    A total of 216 bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soils in Northern Thailand. The bacterial strains were initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, selected strains were then tested for optimized conditions for IAA production and whether these caused stimulatory effects on bean and maize seedling growth. It was found that all strains had solubilized inorganic phosphate (P), but only 18.05% produced IAA. The best IAA producer was identified by biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Klebsiella SN 1.1. In addition to being the best IAA producer, this strain was a high P-solubilizer and produced the highest amount of IAA (291.97 ± 0.19 ppm) in culture media supplemented with L-tryptophan. The maximum production of IAA was achieved after 9 days of incubation. The culture requirements were optimized for maximum IAA production. The tested of IAA production by selected isolates was studied in a medium with 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9% (v/v) L-tryptophan. Low levels (12.6 ppm) of IAA production was recorded without tryptophan addition. Production of IAA in Klebsiella SN 1.1 increased with an increase to 0.2% (v/v) tryptophan concentration. The production of IAA was further confirmed by extraction of crude IAA from this isolate and subsequent Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis. A specific spot from the extracted IAA production was found to correspond with a standard spot of IAA with the same R (f) value. The Klebsiella strain SN 1.1 also demonstrated stimulatory effects on bean seedlings in vivo. PMID:20552360

  20. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  1. Apigenin and quercetin promote. Delta. pH-dependent accumulation of IAA in membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Woolard, D.D.; Clark, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Flavonoids may act as regulators of polar auxin transport. In the presence of a pH gradient (pH 8{sub in}/6{sub out}) the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin, as well as the synthetic herbicide napthylphthalamic acid (NPA), promote the accumulation of IAA in membrane vesicles from dark-grown zucchini hypocotyls. Simultaneous accumulation of {sup 3}H-IAA (10 nM) and {sup 14}C-butyric acid (5 {mu}M; included as a pH probe) was determined by a filtration assay after incubating the vesicles with 3 nM to 100 {mu}M quercetin, apigenin, NPA or unlabeled IAA. Maximal stimulation (% of Control) was observed with 3 {mu}M NPA (130%), 1 {mu}M quercetin (120%), or 3 {mu}M apigenin (115%); {Delta}pH was not affected by these concentrations. As reported by others, IAA uptake was saturable: 1 {mu}M unlabeled IAA eliminated {Delta}pH-dependent uptake of {sup 3}H-IAA without altering {Delta}pH. However, at 30 to 100 {mu}M, every compound tested collapsed the imposed pH gradient and therefore abolished specific {sup 3}H-IAA uptake.

  2. Nitric oxide metabolism and indole acetic acid biosynthesis cross-talk in Azospirillum brasilense SM.

    PubMed

    Koul, Vatsala; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-04-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) and the presence of NO metabolism genes, nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrous oxide reductase regulator (nosR) and nitric oxide reductase (norB) were identified in the plant-associated bacterium (PAB) Azospirillum brasilense SM. NO presence was confirmed in all overexpressing strains, while improvement in the plant growth response of these strains was mediated by increased NO and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the strains. Electron microscopy showed random distribution to biofilm, with surface colonization of pleiomorphic Azospirilla. Quantitative IAA estimation highlighted a crucial role of nosR and norBC in regulating IAA biosynthesis. The NO quencher and donor reduced/blocked IAA biosynthesis by all strains, indicating their common regulatory role in IAA biosynthesis. Tryptophan (Trp) and l-Arginine (Arg) showed higher expression of NO genes tested, while in the case of ipdC, only Trp and IAA increased expression, while Arg had no significant effect. The highest nosR expression in SMnosR in the presence of IAA and Trp, along with its 2-fold IAA level, confirmed the relationship of nosR overexpression with Trp in increasing IAA. These results indicate a strong correlation between IAA and NO in A. brasilense SM and suggest the existence of cross-talk or shared signaling mechanisms in these two growth regulators.

  3. Transport of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls Using Stable Isotope Labeling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  4. Solution structure of the PsIAA4 oligomerization domain reveals interaction modes for transcription factors in early auxin response.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Dhurvas Chandrasekaran; Kovermann, Michael; Gopalswamy, Mohanraj; Hellmuth, Antje; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Lilie, Hauke; Balbach, Jochen; Abel, Steffen

    2015-05-12

    The plant hormone auxin activates primary response genes by facilitating proteolytic removal of auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA)-inducible repressors, which directly bind to transcriptional auxin response factors (ARF). Most AUX/IAA and ARF proteins share highly conserved C-termini mediating homotypic and heterotypic interactions within and between both protein families. The high-resolution NMR structure of C-terminal domains III and IV of the AUX/IAA protein PsIAA4 from pea (Pisum sativum) revealed a globular ubiquitin-like β-grasp fold with homologies to the Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domain. The PB1 domain of wild-type PsIAA4 features two distinct surface patches of oppositely charged amino acid residues, mediating front-to-back multimerization via electrostatic interactions. Mutations of conserved basic or acidic residues on either face suppressed PsIAA4 PB1 homo-oligomerization in vitro and confirmed directional interaction of full-length PsIAA4 in vivo (yeast two-hybrid system). Mixing of oppositely mutated PsIAA4 PB1 monomers enabled NMR mapping of the negatively charged interface of the reconstituted PsIAA4 PB1 homodimer variant, whose stoichiometry (1:1) and equilibrium binding constant (KD ∼ 6.4 μM) were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. In silico protein-protein docking studies based on NMR and yeast interaction data derived a model of the PsIAA4 PB1 homodimer, which is comparable with other PB1 domain dimers, but indicated considerable differences between the homodimeric interfaces of AUX/IAA and ARF PB1 domains. Our study provides an impetus for elucidating the molecular determinants that confer specificity to complex protein-protein interaction circuits between members of the two central families of transcription factors important to the regulation of auxin-responsive gene expression. PMID:25918389

  5. Solution structure of the PsIAA4 oligomerization domain reveals interaction modes for transcription factors in early auxin response.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Dhurvas Chandrasekaran; Kovermann, Michael; Gopalswamy, Mohanraj; Hellmuth, Antje; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Lilie, Hauke; Balbach, Jochen; Abel, Steffen

    2015-05-12

    The plant hormone auxin activates primary response genes by facilitating proteolytic removal of auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA)-inducible repressors, which directly bind to transcriptional auxin response factors (ARF). Most AUX/IAA and ARF proteins share highly conserved C-termini mediating homotypic and heterotypic interactions within and between both protein families. The high-resolution NMR structure of C-terminal domains III and IV of the AUX/IAA protein PsIAA4 from pea (Pisum sativum) revealed a globular ubiquitin-like β-grasp fold with homologies to the Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domain. The PB1 domain of wild-type PsIAA4 features two distinct surface patches of oppositely charged amino acid residues, mediating front-to-back multimerization via electrostatic interactions. Mutations of conserved basic or acidic residues on either face suppressed PsIAA4 PB1 homo-oligomerization in vitro and confirmed directional interaction of full-length PsIAA4 in vivo (yeast two-hybrid system). Mixing of oppositely mutated PsIAA4 PB1 monomers enabled NMR mapping of the negatively charged interface of the reconstituted PsIAA4 PB1 homodimer variant, whose stoichiometry (1:1) and equilibrium binding constant (KD ∼ 6.4 μM) were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. In silico protein-protein docking studies based on NMR and yeast interaction data derived a model of the PsIAA4 PB1 homodimer, which is comparable with other PB1 domain dimers, but indicated considerable differences between the homodimeric interfaces of AUX/IAA and ARF PB1 domains. Our study provides an impetus for elucidating the molecular determinants that confer specificity to complex protein-protein interaction circuits between members of the two central families of transcription factors important to the regulation of auxin-responsive gene expression.

  6. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  7. Synergism of VAM and Rhizobium on production and metabolism of IAA in roots and root nodules of Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Jayanta; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Sisir; Chatterjee, Narayan Chandra; Dutta, Sikha

    2010-09-01

    Mature and healthy root nodules of Vigna mungo appeared to contain higher amount of indole-acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. Dual effect of VAM fungus, Glomus fasciculatum and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Rhizobium sp. on the nodulation of roots of V. mungo was studied. It was recorded that the roots which were inoculated simultaneously with both the symbionts i.e., G. fasciculatum and Rhizobium exhibited greater amount of IAA production than the non-inoculated roots. A tryptophan pool present in the mature nodules and young leaves might serve as a precursor for IAA production in the roots and in the nodules. Activity of IAA-metabolizing enzymes, such as IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase was investigated which indicates the active metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules. The Rhizobium symbiont isolated from fresh nodules of V. mungo produced significant amount of IAA under in vitro condition when tryptophan was added to the medium as precursor. Present study represents some beneficial effects of Rhizobium and G. fasciculatum on the production and metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules of V. mungo. The important physiological implication of the study on IAA production and its metabolism in Rhizobium-Legume-VAM tripartite symbiosis is certainly representing a new approach to satisfy the hormonal balance in the host plant.

  8. Dynamic web cache publishing for IaaS clouds using Shoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gable, Ian; Chester, Michael; Armstrong, Patrick; Berghaus, Frank; Charbonneau, Andre; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Paterson, Michael; Prior, Robert; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a highly scalable application, called Shoal, for tracking and utilizing a distributed set of HTTP web caches. Our application uses the Squid HTTP cache. Squid servers advertise their existence to the Shoal server via AMQP messaging by running Shoal Agent. The Shoal server provides a simple REST interface that allows clients to determine their closest Squid cache. Our goal is to dynamically instantiate Squid caches on IaaS clouds in response to client demand. Shoal provides the VMs on IaaS clouds with the location of the nearest dynamically instantiated Squid Cache.

  9. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role.

  10. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  11. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Tamas, Imre A.; Davies, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [3H]IAA, together with [14C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis. Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K+, and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  12. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration. PMID:26945480

  13. Interactions of Phenolic Acids, Metallic Ions and Chelating Agents on Auxin-Induced Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Miroslaw; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1966-01-01

    By growth experiments in indoleacetic acid-1-14C (IAA), and determination of the 14CO2 evolved, it has been shown directly that polyphenols synergize IAA-induced growth by counteracting IAA decarboxylation. Sinapic and ferulic acids act like polyphenols. Endogenous polyphenols doubtless exert the same influence in intact plants. Monophenols stimulate the decarboxylation of IAA under conditions where they depress growth. When Mn++ is present as well, this effect is enhanced. All these growth effects are paralleled by effects on the isolated IAA oxidizing enzyme of Avena. EDTA acts like the polyphenols in depressing the decarboxylation of IAA, and not synergizing with the growth induced by naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-D. However, since EDTA synergizes with IAA for growth even at optimal IAA concentrations, its growth promotion probably involves an additional effect. DIECA inhibits powerfully the destruction of IAA, but without causing much growth promotion, apparently because its decomposition products inhibit respiration. Mn++ aloné stimulates the decarboxylation of IAA, i.e. this ion promotes the IAA oxidase in vivo as it does in vitro. Nevertheless, it does not inhibit elongation, but at relatively high concentrations even stimulates it, both at low and high IAA levels. Since Mn++ also promotes the growth induced by NAA and 2,4-D, its growth action cannot rest primarily on modifying the metabolism of the auxins. Cobalt somewhat decreases the decarboxylation of IAA, but this cannot explain its growth promotion, since Co++, like Mn++, stimulates elongation even at optimal IAA concentrations, and acts with NAA just as well as with IAA. Ferrous ion, on the other hand, acts like the polyphenols. Floating pea stem sections exude enough organic matter to support bacteria which after 7 hours cause considerable decarboxylation of IAA. Avena coleoptile sections have a comparable though smaller effect after 12 hours. The present experiments, with those of others

  14. Increased IAA transport in axillary buds upon release from apical dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Tamas, I.A.; Reimels, A.J. )

    1989-04-01

    To investigate the transport of indoleacetic acid (IAA) simultaneously in the stem and the axillary bud, bud-bearing nodal stem segments of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were excised and agar blocks containing {sup 14}C-IAA or {sup 3}H-IAA were placed on the apical cut surface and the bud stump respectively. A plain receiver block was placed on the basal end. After a period of transport, the stem segment and the attached bud stump were sectioned, and the activity of sections and agar blocks was counted. We found that the transport of {sup 3}H-IAA from the bud stump to the receiver was greatly accelerated in plants decapitated one or two days prior to the experiment, compared to the intact controls. Decapitation also caused a decrease in the ability of the stem axis to transport {sup 14}C-IAA from the apical to the basal end of the stem segment. The increased ability of the axillary bud to transport IAA, relative to that of the stem axis, may play a role int he release of the bud from apical dominance.

  15. Introduction of a novel pathway for IAA biosynthesis to rhizobia alters vetch root nodule development.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Serena; Senatore, Beatrice; Lonardo, Enza; Imperlini, Esther; Bianco, Carmen; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Campion, Bruno; Defez, Roberto

    2008-07-01

    We introduced into Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae LPR1105 a new pathway for the biosynthesis of the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), under the control of a stationary phase-activated promoter active both in free-living bacteria and bacteroids. The newly introduced genes are the iaaM gene from Pseudomonas savastanoi and the tms2 gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Free-living bacteria harbouring the promoter-iaaMtms2 construct release into the growth medium 14-fold more IAA than the wild-type parental strain. This IAA overproducing R. l. viciae, the RD20 strain, elicits the development of vetch root nodules containing up to 60-fold more IAA than nodules infected by the wild-type strain LPR1105. Vetch root nodules derived from RD20 are fewer in number per plant, heavier in terms of dry weight and show an enlarged and more active meristem. A significant increase in acetylene reduction activity was measured in nodules elicited in vetch by RD20.

  16. Participation of IAA in transduction of gravistimulus in apical cells of moss protonema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksyniuk, U. A.; Khorkavtsiv, O. Y.; Lesniak, Y. I.

    Growth movements of vascular plant axis organs -- photo-, gravi- and other tropisms -- are tightly connected with IAA transport (Hertel, 1983; Medvedev, 1996; Kiss, 2000). Moss protonema synthesizes IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and transports it basipetally favouring growth and differentiation of caulonema (Bopp, 1979; Rose, Bopp, 1983; Rose et al., 1983). We aimed at studying the role of IAA in moss protonema gravitropism using exogenous IAA, 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid), 2,4D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- phytotropins NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) and TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Six-day gravitropic protonema of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans were taken for experiments. Auxin and phytotropins solutions were laid on protonema mats the latters being kept in solutions for 30 min. Then the surplus of solutions were poured off and Petri dishes were placed vertically for 6 h. 20 μ M of IAA and of other synthetic auxins did not significantly influence the angle of protonema gravity bending, 40 μ M of the agents, howewer, reduced the per cent of apical cells bendings and their angles. The most expressed influence on the angles of bending had the inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- NPA. 0,1 -- 3,0 μ M of this phytotropin did not change the form of apical cell, did not disturb the general distribution of amyloplasts and did not significantly lower the per cent and the value of gravity bending angle, though 10 μ M of the phytotropin - inhibited gravity bending. The mixture of 1-NAA and NPA having been added into the medium the influence of NPA was lowered and gravitropic growth renewed in course of time. 10 μ M of other phytopropin TIBA also inhibited gravitropism of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans protonema. The analysis of basipetal transport of IAA in moss rhizoids and protonema may indicate the availability of special IAA transport in these structures (Bopp, Cerier, 1988). On the basis of the

  17. VM Capacity-Aware Scheduling within Budget Constraints in IaaS Clouds.

    PubMed

    Thanasias, Vasileios; Lee, Choonhwa; Hanif, Muhammad; Kim, Eunsam; Helal, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cloud computing has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia, bringing unprecedented changes to computing and information technology. The infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model offers new abilities such as the elastic provisioning and relinquishing of computing resources in response to workload fluctuations. However, because the demand for resources dynamically changes over time, the provisioning of resources in a way that a given budget is efficiently utilized while maintaining a sufficing performance remains a key challenge. This paper addresses the problem of task scheduling and resource provisioning for a set of tasks running on IaaS clouds; it presents novel provisioning and scheduling algorithms capable of executing tasks within a given budget, while minimizing the slowdown due to the budget constraint. Our simulation study demonstrates a substantial reduction up to 70% in the overall task slowdown rate by the proposed algorithms. PMID:27501046

  18. VM Capacity-Aware Scheduling within Budget Constraints in IaaS Clouds.

    PubMed

    Thanasias, Vasileios; Lee, Choonhwa; Hanif, Muhammad; Kim, Eunsam; Helal, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cloud computing has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia, bringing unprecedented changes to computing and information technology. The infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model offers new abilities such as the elastic provisioning and relinquishing of computing resources in response to workload fluctuations. However, because the demand for resources dynamically changes over time, the provisioning of resources in a way that a given budget is efficiently utilized while maintaining a sufficing performance remains a key challenge. This paper addresses the problem of task scheduling and resource provisioning for a set of tasks running on IaaS clouds; it presents novel provisioning and scheduling algorithms capable of executing tasks within a given budget, while minimizing the slowdown due to the budget constraint. Our simulation study demonstrates a substantial reduction up to 70% in the overall task slowdown rate by the proposed algorithms.

  19. VM Capacity-Aware Scheduling within Budget Constraints in IaaS Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Thanasias, Vasileios; Lee, Choonhwa; Hanif, Muhammad; Kim, Eunsam; Helal, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cloud computing has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia, bringing unprecedented changes to computing and information technology. The infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model offers new abilities such as the elastic provisioning and relinquishing of computing resources in response to workload fluctuations. However, because the demand for resources dynamically changes over time, the provisioning of resources in a way that a given budget is efficiently utilized while maintaining a sufficing performance remains a key challenge. This paper addresses the problem of task scheduling and resource provisioning for a set of tasks running on IaaS clouds; it presents novel provisioning and scheduling algorithms capable of executing tasks within a given budget, while minimizing the slowdown due to the budget constraint. Our simulation study demonstrates a substantial reduction up to 70% in the overall task slowdown rate by the proposed algorithms. PMID:27501046

  20. Identification, Expression and IAA-Amide Synthetase Activity Analysis of Gretchen Hagen 3 in Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L.) during Postharvest Process

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Feng, Shaoxian; Pan, Yaoliang; Yuan, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin plays essential roles in plant development. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) genes belong to a major auxin response gene family and GH3 proteins conjugate a range of acylsubstrates to alter the levels of hormones. Currently, the role of GH3 genes in postharvest physiological regulation of ripening and softening processes in papaya fruit is unclear. In this study, we identified seven CpGH3 genes in a papaya genome database. The CpGH3.1a, CpGH3.1b, CpGH3.5, CpGH3.6, and CpGH3.9 proteins were identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-specific amido synthetases. We analyzed the changes in IAA-amido synthetase activity using aspartate as a substrate for conjugation and found a large increase (over 5-fold) during the postharvest stages. Ascorbic acid (AsA) application can extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. Our data showed that AsA treatment regulates postharvest fruit maturation processes by promoting endogenous IAA levels. Our findings demonstrate the important role of GH3 genes in the regulation of auxin-associated postharvest physiology in papaya. PMID:27812360

  1. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an Evolutionarily Conserved Target of miR167, Mediates Arabidopsis Root Architecture Changes during High Osmotic Stress[W

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Natsuko; Wang, Huan; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Liu, Jun; MacPherson, Cameron; Machida, Yasunori; Kamiya, Yuji; Hannah, Matthew A.; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2012-01-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress–induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. PMID:22960911

  2. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Natsuko; Wang, Huan; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Liu, Jun; Macpherson, Cameron; Machida, Yasunori; Kamiya, Yuji; Hannah, Matthew A; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2012-09-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance.

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission. PMID:27695465

  4. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  5. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  6. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  7. IAA RAS Radio Telescope Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A.; Lavrov, A.

    2007-07-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAA RAS) has three identical radio telescopes, the receiving complex of which consists of five two-channel receivers of different bands, six cryogen systems, and additional devices: four local oscillators, phase calibration generators and IF commutator. The design, hardware and data communication protocol are described. The most convenient way to join the devices of the receiving complex into the common monitoring system is to use the interface which allows to connect numerous devices to the data bus. For the purpose of data communication regulation and to exclude conflicts, a data communication protocol has been designed, which operates with complex formatted data sequences. Formation of such sequences requires considerable data processing capability. That is provided by a microcontroller chip in each slave device. The test version of the software for the central computer has been developed in IAA RAS. We are developing the Mark IV FS software extension modules, which will allow us to control the receiving complex of the radio telescope by special SNAP commands from both operator input and schedule files. We are also developing procedures of automatic measurements of SEFD, system noise temperature and other parameters, available both in VLBI and single-dish modes of operation. The system described has been installed on all IAA RAS radio telescopes at "Svetloe", "Zelenchukskaya" and "Badary" observatories. It has proved to be working quite reliably and to show the perfonmance expected.

  8. The Brain’s Response to an Essential Amino Acid-Deficient Diet and the Circuitous Route to a Better Meal

    PubMed Central

    Gietzen, Dorothy W.; Aja, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential (indispensable) amino acids (IAA) are neither synthesized nor stored in metazoans, yet they are the building blocks of protein. Survival depends on availability of these protein precursors, which must be obtained in the diet; it follows that food selection is critical for IAA homeostasis. If even one of the IAA is depleted, its tRNA becomes quickly deacylated and the levels of charged tRNA fall, leading to disruption of global protein synthesis. As they have priority in the diet, second only to energy, the missing IAA must be restored promptly or protein catabolism ensues. Animals detect and reject an IAA-deficient meal in 20 min, but how? Here, we review the molecular basis for sensing IAA depletion and repletion in the brain’s IAA chemosensor, the anterior piriform cortex (APC). As animals stop eating an IAA-deficient meal, they display foraging and altered choice behaviors, to improve their chances of encountering a better food. Within 2 h, sensory cues are associated with IAA depletion or repletion, leading to learned aversions and preferences that support better food selection. We show neural projections from the APC to appetitive and consummatory motor control centers, and to hedonic, motivational brain areas that reinforce these adaptive behaviors. PMID:22674217

  9. Saturable uptake of indol-3yl-acetic Acid by maize roots.

    PubMed

    Martin, H V; Pilet, P E

    1986-07-01

    The uptake of 5-[(3)H]indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA(*)) by segments of Zea mays L. roots was measured in the presence of nonradioactive indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA degrees ) at different concentrations. IAA uptake was found to have a nonsaturable component and a saturable part with (at pH 5.0) an apparent K(m) of 0.285 micromolar and apparent V(max) 55.0 picomoles per gram fresh mass per minute. These results are consistent with those which might be expected for a saturable carrier capable of regulating IAA levels. High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that very little metabolism of IAA(*) took place during 4 minute uptake experiments. Whereas nonsaturable uptake was similar for all 2 millimeter long segments prepared within the 2 to 10 millimeter region, saturable uptake was greatest for the 2 to 4 millimeter region. High levels of uptake by stelar (as compared with cortical) segments are partly attributable to the saturable carrier, and also to a high level of uptake by nonsaturable processes. The carrier may play an essential role in controlling IAA levels in maize roots, especially the accumulation of IAA in the apical region. The increase in saturable uptake toward the root tip may also contribute to the acropetal polarity of auxin transport.

  10. Changes in starch and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels and auxin transport are interrelated in graviresponding oat (Avena sativa) shoots.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hye Sup; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kaufman, Peter B; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kirakosyan, Ara; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Kim, Seong-Ki; Chang, Soo Chul

    2006-11-01

    This study was conducted to unravel a mechanism for the gravitropic curvature response in oat (Avena sativa) shoot pulvini. For this purpose, we examined the downward movement of starch-filled chloroplast gravisensors, differential changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) levels, transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gravitropic curvature. Upon gravistimulation, the ratio for IAA levels in lower halves versus those in upper halves (L/U) increased from 1.0 at 0 h and reached a maximum value of 1.45 at 8 h. When shoots were grown in the dark for 10 d, to deplete starch in the chloroplast, the gravity-induced L/U of IAA was reduced to 1.0. N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), both auxin transport inhibitors, significantly reduced the amount of gravitropic curvature and gravity-induced lateral IAA transport, but did not reduce the gravity-induced late change in the L/U ratio of IP(3) levels. U73122, a specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, decreased gravity-induced curvature. Because U73122 reduced the ratio of L/U of IAA imposed by gravistimulation, it is clear that IAA transport is correlated with changes in IP(3) levels upon gravistimulation. These results indicate that gravistimulation-induced differential lateral IAA transport may result from the onset of graviperception in the chloroplast gravisensors coupled with gravity-induced asymmetric changes in IP(3) levels in oat shoot pulvini.

  11. NGAP: A (Brief) Update PaaS, IaaS, Onbording, and the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Brett; Pawloski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has charged the EED2 program with delivering a NASA-compliant, secure, cloud-based platform for application hosting. More than just a move to the cloud, this has forced us to examine all aspects of application hosting, from resource management to system administration, patching to monitoring, deployment to multiple environments. The result of this mandate is NGAP, the NASA General Application Platform. In this presentation, we will also discuss the various applications we are supporting and targeting, and their architectures including NGAPs move to support both PaaS and IaaS architectures.

  12. Production of the Phytohormone Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Estuarine Species of the Genus Vibrio▿

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Casandra K.; Matsui, George Y.; Lincoln, David E.; Lovell, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Strains of Vibrio spp. isolated from roots of the estuarine grasses Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The colorimetric Salkowski assay was used for initial screening of IAA production. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was then employed to confirm and quantify IAA production. The accuracy of IAA quantification by the Salkowski assay was examined by comparison to GC-MS assay values. Indole-3-acetamide, an intermediate in IAA biosynthesis by the indole-3-acetamide pathway, was also identified by GC-MS. Multilocus sequence typing of concatenated 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA genes was used for phylogenetic analysis of environmental isolates within the genus Vibrio. Eight Vibrio type strains and five additional species-level clades containing a total of 16 environmental isolates and representing five presumptive new species were identified as IAA-producing Vibrio species. Six additional environmental isolates similar to four of the Vibrio type strains were also IAA producers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IAA production by species of the genus Vibrio or by bacteria isolated from an estuarine environment. PMID:19218411

  13. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues. [Citrus sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sagee, O.; Riov, J.; Goren, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of the mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels.

  14. Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L−1 and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L−1 in order to promote the growth during the seedlings’ early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L−1, with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment. PMID

  15. Genome-wide survey and comprehensive expression profiling of Aux/IAA gene family in chickpea and soybean

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26579165

  16. The IAA RAS Correlator First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkis, Igor; Melnikov, Alexey; Shantyr, Violet; Zimovsky, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the national Russian VLBI observations were processed by the new correlator ARC (Astrometric Radiointerferometric Correlator). The ARC is a VSI-H correlator and equipped with Mark 5B playback terminals. During 2009 ARC was used to process a series of VLBI sessions, observed on stations Svetloe, Zelenchukskaya, and Badary. NGS files were formed, and EOP parameters were obtained by IAA RAS Analysis Center. The accuracies of the pole coordinates and UT1-UTC were 1-2 mas and 0.07-0.1 ms, respectively.

  17. A genetic screen for mutants defective in IAA1-LUC degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals an important requirement for TOPOISOMERASE6B in auxin physiology

    PubMed Central

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Callis, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Many plant growth and developmental processes are modulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin-modulated proteolysis of Aux/IAAs, a family of transcriptional repressors, represents a major mode of auxin action. Auxin facilitates the interaction of Aux/IAAs with TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, promoting their ubiquitination by the SCFTIR1/AFB ubiquitin E3 ligase leading to subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To identify new genes regulating Aux/IAA proteolysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we took a genetic approach, identifying individuals with altered degradation of an IAA1-luciferase fusion protein (IAA1-LUC). A mutant with 2-fold slower IAA1-LUC degradation rate compared with wild-type was isolated. Positional cloning identified the mutant as an allele of TOPOISOMERASE6B, named top6b-7. TOP6B encodes a subunit of a plant and archea-specific enzyme regulating endoreduplication, DNA damage repair and transcription in plants. T-DNA insertion alleles (top6b-8 and top6b-9) were also analyzed. top6b-7 seedlings are less sensitive to exogenous auxin than wild-type siblings in primary root growth assays, and experiments with DR5:GUS. Additionally, top6b-7 seedlings have a 40% reduction in the amount of endogenous IAA. These data suggest that increased IAA1-LUC half-life in top6b-7 probably results from a combination of both lower endogenous IAA levels and reduced sensitivity to auxin. PMID:25482814

  18. Deletion of MP/ARF5 domains III and IV reveals a requirement for Aux/IAA regulation in Arabidopsis leaf vascular patterning.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Combinatorial interactions of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins through their common domains III and IV regulate auxin responses, but insight into the functions of individual proteins is still limited. As a new tool to explore this regulatory network, we generated a gain-of-function ARF genotype by eliminating domains III and IV from the functionally well-characterized ARF MONOPTEROS(MP)/ARF5. This truncated version of MP, termed MPΔ, conferred complementing MP activity, but also displayed a number of semi-dominant traits affecting auxin signaling and organ patterning. In MPΔ, the expression levels of many auxin-inducible genes, as well as rooting properties and vascular tissue abundance, were enhanced. Lateral organs were narrow, pointed and filled with parallel veins. This effect was epistatic over the vascular hypotrophy imposed by certain Aux/IAA mutations. Further, in MPΔ leaves, failure to turn off the procambium-selecting gene PIN1 led to the early establishment of oversized central procambial domains and very limited subsequent lateral growth of the leaf lamina. We conclude that MPΔ can selectively uncouple a single ARF from regulation by Aux/IAA proteins and can be used as a genetic tool to probe auxin pathways and explore leaf development. PMID:22320407

  19. A batch system for HEP applications on a distributed IaaS cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gable, I.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Leavett-Brown, D. Harris C.; Paterson, M.; Penfold-Brown, D.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.; Charbonneau, A.; Impey, R.; Podaima, W.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of academic and commercial Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) clouds is opening access to new resources for the HEP community. In this paper we will describe a system we have developed for creating a single dynamic batch environment spanning multiple IaaS clouds of different types (e.g. Nimbus, OpenNebula, Amazon EC2). A HEP user interacting with the system submits a job description file with a pointer to their VM image. VM images can either be created by users directly or provided to the users. We have created a new software component called Cloud Scheduler that detects waiting jobs and boots the user VM required on any one of the available cloud resources. As the user VMs appear, they are attached to the job queues of a central Condor job scheduler, the job scheduler then submits the jobs to the VMs. The number of VMs available to the user is expanded and contracted dynamically depending on the number of user jobs. We present the motivation and design of the system with particular emphasis on Cloud Scheduler. We show that the system provides the ability to exploit academic and commercial cloud sites in a transparent fashion.

  20. Influence of 5-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Soybean Root Nodule Indole-3-Acetic Acid Content †

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutants resistant to 5-methyltryptophan were isolated. Some of these mutants were found to accumulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan in culture. In greenhouse studies, nodules from control plants inoculated with wild-type bradyrhizobia contained 0.04, 0.10, and 0.58 μg of free, ester-linked, and peptidyl IAA g (fresh weight) of nodules−1, respectively. Nodules from plants inoculated with 5-methyltryptophan-resistant bradyrhizobia contained 0.94, 1.30, and 10.6 μg of free, ester-linked, and peptidyl IAA g (fresh weight) of nodules−1, respectively. This manyfold increase in nodule IAA content indicates that the Bradyrhizobium inoculum can have a considerable influence on the endogenous IAA level of the nodule. Further, these data imply that much of the IAA that accumulated in the high-IAA-containing nodules was of bacterial rather than plant origin. These high-IAA-producing 5-methyltryptophan-resistant bacteria were poor symbiotic nitrogen fixers. Plants inoculated with these bacteria had a lower nodule mass and fixed less nitrogen per gram of nodule than did plants inoculated with wild-type bacteria. PMID:16347335

  1. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.

  2. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H.; Jalili, Espanta; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Crosby, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB–Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  3. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  4. Patterns of auxin and abscisic acid movement in the tips of gravistimulated primary roots of maize.

    PubMed

    Young, L M; Evans, M L

    1996-01-01

    Because both abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) have been suggested as possible chemical mediators of differential growth during root gravitropism, we compared with redistribution of label from applied 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA during maize root gravitropism and examined the relative basipetal movement of 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA applied to the caps of vertical roots. Lateral movement of 3H-ABA across the tips of vertical roots was non-polar and about 2-fold greater than lateral movement of 3H-IAA (also non-polar). The greater movement of ABA was not due to enhanced uptake since the uptake of 3H-IAA was greater than that of 3H-ABA. Basipetal movement of label from 3H-IAA or 3H-ABA applied to the root cap was determined by measuring radioactivity in successive 1 mm sections behind the tip 90 minutes after application. ABA remained largely in the first mm (point of application) whereas IAA was concentrated in the region 2-4 mm from the tip with substantial levels found 7-8 mm from the tip. Pretreatment with inhibitors of polar auxin transport decreased both gravicurvature and the basipetal movement of IAA. When roots were placed horizontally, the movement of 3H-IAA from top to bottom across the cap was enhanced relative to movement from bottom to top whereas the pattern of movement of label from 3H-ABA was unaffected. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in root gravitropism but contrary to the idea that gravi-induced asymmetric distribution of ABA contributes to the response. PMID:11540494

  5. Patterns of auxin and abscisic acid movement in the tips of gravistimulated primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Because both abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) have been suggested as possible chemical mediators of differential growth during root gravitropism, we compared with redistribution of label from applied 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA during maize root gravitropism and examined the relative basipetal movement of 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA applied to the caps of vertical roots. Lateral movement of 3H-ABA across the tips of vertical roots was non-polar and about 2-fold greater than lateral movement of 3H-IAA (also non-polar). The greater movement of ABA was not due to enhanced uptake since the uptake of 3H-IAA was greater than that of 3H-ABA. Basipetal movement of label from 3H-IAA or 3H-ABA applied to the root cap was determined by measuring radioactivity in successive 1 mm sections behind the tip 90 minutes after application. ABA remained largely in the first mm (point of application) whereas IAA was concentrated in the region 2-4 mm from the tip with substantial levels found 7-8 mm from the tip. Pretreatment with inhibitors of polar auxin transport decreased both gravicurvature and the basipetal movement of IAA. When roots were placed horizontally, the movement of 3H-IAA from top to bottom across the cap was enhanced relative to movement from bottom to top whereas the pattern of movement of label from 3H-ABA was unaffected. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in root gravitropism but contrary to the idea that gravi-induced asymmetric distribution of ABA contributes to the response.

  6. Heavy metals influence on ascorbic acid level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaldinov, E. V.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Batenyeva, E. V.; Korotkevich, O. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that heavy metals (HM) are extremely dangerous pollutants influencing to metabolism in animals' organisms. The vitamin C is one of the most important metabolites taking part in many biochemical processes. We studied the influence of main essential HM-Zn and Cu as well as the based supertoxical elements - Cd and Pd on ascorbic acid level in serum. The studies were carried out in Tulinskoe farm of Novosibirsk region. The objects of investigations were piglets (2 month after weaning) and 6-month pigs of Early Ripe Meat breed. The levels of HM in bristle were found by stripping voltammetric analysis using the TA-2 analyzer. Vitamin C content was determined by I.P. Kondrakhin (1985) method using 2,2-dipyridyl. The significant negative correlations between Pb, Cd content and vitamin C (-0.46 ± 0.18, -0.47 ± 0.19) in 6-month pigs were determined. The tendencies of negative correlation between all HM levels in hair and ascorbic acid level in plasma of piglets were revealed. Thus, the obtained correlations let us to suppose that all studied HM influence on 1-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase and other vitamin C metabolism enzymes activity.

  7. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. PMID:26076971

  8. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. PMID:26076971

  9. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins.

  10. G2LC: Resources Autoscaling for Real Time Bioinformatics Applications in IaaS

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongdong; Liu, Guangming; Jiang, Jingfei; Wang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has started to change the way how bioinformatics research is being carried out. Researchers who have taken advantage of this technology can process larger amounts of data and speed up scientific discovery. The variability in data volume results in variable computing requirements. Therefore, bioinformatics researchers are pursuing more reliable and efficient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes an automated resource provisioning method, G2LC, for bioinformatics applications in IaaS. It enables application to output the results in a real time manner. Its main purpose is to guarantee applications performance, while improving resource utilization. Real sequence searching data of BLAST is used to evaluate the effectiveness of G2LC. Experimental results show that G2LC guarantees the application performance, while resource is saved up to 20.14%. PMID:26504488

  11. G2LC: Resources Autoscaling for Real Time Bioinformatics Applications in IaaS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rongdong; Liu, Guangming; Jiang, Jingfei; Wang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has started to change the way how bioinformatics research is being carried out. Researchers who have taken advantage of this technology can process larger amounts of data and speed up scientific discovery. The variability in data volume results in variable computing requirements. Therefore, bioinformatics researchers are pursuing more reliable and efficient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes an automated resource provisioning method, G2LC, for bioinformatics applications in IaaS. It enables application to output the results in a real time manner. Its main purpose is to guarantee applications performance, while improving resource utilization. Real sequence searching data of BLAST is used to evaluate the effectiveness of G2LC. Experimental results show that G2LC guarantees the application performance, while resource is saved up to 20.14%.

  12. Dynamics of the concentration of IAA and some of its conjugates during the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Coffea canephora

    PubMed Central

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benajmín; Galaz-Ávalos, Rosa María; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo; Loyola-Vargas, Victor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most of the somatic embryogenesis (SE) process requires the presence, either before or during the embryogenic process, of at least one exogenous auxin. This exogenous auxin induces the presence of endogenous auxins, which appears to be essential for SE induction. We found that during the preincubation period of SE in Coffea canephora, there is an important increase in both free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as well as indole-3-butyric acid. This increase is accompanied by an increase in the expression of YUCCA (CcYUC), TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 (CcTAA1), and GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes. On the other hand, most of the IAA compounds decreased during the induction of SE. The results presented in this research suggest that a balance between free IAA and its amide conjugates is necessary to allow the expression of SE-related genes. PMID:24299659

  13. Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Santi; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Amit K; Das, Amit; Pati, Bikas R; Pati, Bikas; Ghosh, Ananta K; Ghosh, Ananta

    2009-04-01

    The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium).

  14. Pharmacokinetics of iso-α-acids in volunteers following the consumption of beer.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-01-01

    Hop-derived iso-α-acid (IAA) ingredient congeners are specific to beer. Concentrations of IAAs were determined in blood of five volunteers over 6 h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing relatively high (Pale Ale beer) or low (wheat beer) concentrations of IAAs. IAAs were quickly absorbed with peak trans-IAA concentrations at 0.5 h followed by a drop of generally 10-fold at 2 h and low or not detectable trans-IAA levels at 6 h. However, the qualitative monitoring showed that the cis-IAAs were detected at all time-points. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small interindividual differences and an estimated short half-life of ∼30 min. Comparison of 0.5 and 2 h blood specimens demonstrated that the trans isomers were eliminated faster than the cis counterparts. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified 'co' analytes detectable throughout the 6 h. In authentic forensic casework where typically large amounts of conventionally hopped beer are consumed, this approach may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion.

  15. [Effect of IAA on the photophosphorylation of pea isolated chloroplasts].

    PubMed

    Akulova, E A; Murzaeva, S V; Taukeleva, Sh N; Ruzieva, R Kh

    1975-01-01

    Effect of IAA (10(-10)-10(-3) M) on photophosphorylation, NADP reduction and the oxygen exchange is investigated. It is shown that low concentrations of IAA (10(-10)-10(-7) M) increase the photophosphorylation reaction and the flow of electrones to NADP under the phosphorylation conditions in the chloroplasts, and their effect on the O2 exchange is not the same in different types of photophosphorylation. It is supposed that the effect of IAA on the photophosphorylation is connected with H292 metabolism in chloroplasts and with catalase and peroxidase functions.

  16. Abscisic Acid Levels and Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, E.; Tzou, D. S.; Galson, Eva C.

    1968-01-01

    Dormant seeds from Fraxinus species require cold-temperature after-ripening prior to germination. Earlier, we found that abscisic acid (ABA) will inhibit germination of excised nondormant embryos and that this can be reversed with a combination of gibberellic acid and kinetin. Using Milborrow's quantitative “racemate dilution” method the ABA concentration in 3 types of Fraxinus seed and pericarp were determined. While ABA was present in all tissues, the highest concentration was found in the seed and pericarp of dormant F. americana. During the chilling treatment of F. americana the ABA levels decreased 37% in the pericarp and 68% in the seed. The ABA concentration of the seed of the nondormant species, F. ornus, is as low as that found in F. americana seeds after cold treatment. Experiments with exogenously added ABA solutions indicate that it is unlikely that the ABA in the pericarp functions in the regulation of seed dormancy. However, the ABA in the seed does seem to have a regulatory role in germination. Images PMID:16656935

  17. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lian; Qin, Qingqing; Wang, Yu; Pu, Yingying; Liu, Lifang; Wen, Xing; Ji, Shaoyi; Wu, Jianguo; Wei, Chunhong; Ding, Biao; Li, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB) protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant) mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis. PMID:27606959

  18. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lian; Qin, Qingqing; Wang, Yu; Pu, Yingying; Liu, Lifang; Wen, Xing; Ji, Shaoyi; Wu, Jianguo; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB) protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant) mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis. PMID:27606959

  19. Contribution of microbial amino acids to amino acid homeostasis of the host.

    PubMed

    Metges, C C

    2000-07-01

    Among the reasons suggested for the discrepancy between N balance and tracer-derived indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirement estimates is the possibility that the metabolic requirement is met not only by the diet but also by IAA synthesized de novo by the gastrointestinal microflora, which are then absorbed. It is therefore crucial to better understand and quantify the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids in the human gastrointestinal tract and its potential role in providing IAA to meet human amino acid requirement. Here, the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to the host's amino acid homeostasis, applying the (15)N labeling paradigm, is summarized. Between 1 and 20% of circulating plasma lysine, urinary lysine and body protein lysine of the host, respectively, is derived from intestinal microbial sources and corresponds to a gross microbial lysine contribution of 11-68 mg. kg(-1). d(-1) in adult humans with an adequate protein intake when fecal or ileal microbial lysine enrichment is used as precursor. Factors affecting estimates of net microbial IAA contribution are discussed. It appears that the small intestine is responsible for a large part of microbial lysine uptake, although some absorption from the large intestine cannot be excluded. Nonoxidative lysine losses from the human gastrointestinal tract, which were found to be between 3.9 to 8.5 mg. kg(-1). d(-1), are necessary to estimate the net contribution of microbial IAA. It is reasonable to assume that microbial amino acid synthesis in the human gastrointestinal tract utilizes a mixture of various nitrogen sources, i.e., endogenous amino acids, urea and ammonia. Microbes in the small intestine may rely more on endogenous amino acids. Deprivation of nutrients, the intake of certain dietary nonstarch oligosaccharides, lipids, as well as protein intake level and source and level of consumption of certain amino acids can affect the composition and metabolic activity of the

  20. Altered growth response to exogenous auxin and gibberellic acid by gravistimulation in pulvini of Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90 degrees) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90 degrees. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity.

  1. Stable isotope labeling, in vivo, of D- and L-tryptophan pools in lemna gibba and the low incorporation of label into indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, B.G. ); Maher, B.R. ); Slovin, J.P.; Cohen, J.D. Univ. of Maryland, College Park )

    1991-04-01

    The authors present evidence that the role of tryptophan and other potential intermediates in the pathways that could lead to indole derivatives needs to be reexamined. Two lines of Lemna gibba were tested for uptake of ({sup 15}N-indole)-labeled tryptophan isomers and incorporation of that label into free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Both lines required levels of L-({sup 15}N)tryptophan 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over endogenous levels in order to obtain measurable incorporation of label into IAA. Labeled L-tryptophan was extractable from plant tissue after feeding and showed no measurable isomerization into D-tryptophan. D-({sup 15}N)trytophan supplied to Lemna at rates of approximately 400 times excess of endogenous D-tryptophan levels (to yield an isotopic enrichment equal to that which allowed detection of the incorporation of L-tryptophan into IAA), did not result in measurable incorporation of label into free IAA. These results demonstrate that L-tryptophan is a more direct precursor to IAA than the D isomer and suggest (a) that the availability of tryptophan in vivo is not a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of IAA, thus implying that other regulatory mechanisms are in operation and (b) that L-tryptophan also may not be a primary precursor to IAA in plants.

  2. Cleavage of INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE28 mRNA by microRNA847 upregulates auxin signaling to modulate cell proliferation and lateral organ growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2015-03-01

    MicroRNAs function in a range of developmental processes. Here, we demonstrate that miR847 targets the mRNA of the auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressor-encoding gene IAA28 for cleavage. The rapidly increased accumulation of miR847 in Arabidopsis thaliana coincided with reduced IAA28 mRNA levels upon auxin treatment. This induction of miR847 by auxin was abolished in auxin receptor tir1-1 and auxin-resistant axr1-3 mutants. Further analysis demonstrates that miR847 functions as a positive regulator of auxin-mediated lateral organ development by cleaving IAA28 mRNA. Importantly, the ectopic expression of miR847 increases the expression of cell cycle genes as well as the neoplastic activity of leaf cells, prolonging later-stage rosette leaf growth and producing leaves with serrated margins. Moreover, both miR847 and IAA28 mRNAs are specifically expressed in marginal meristems of rosette leaves and lateral root initiation sites. Our data indicate that auxin-dependent induction of miR847 positively regulates meristematic competence by clearing IAA28 mRNA to upregulate auxin signaling, thereby determining the duration of cell proliferation and lateral organ growth in Arabidopsis. IAA28 mRNA encodes an Aux/IAA repressor protein, which is degraded through the proteasome in response to auxin. Altered signal sensitization to IAA28 mRNA levels, together with targeted IAA28 degradation, ensures a robust signal derepression.

  3. Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid via the Indole-3-Acetamide Pathway in the Plant-Beneficial Bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 Is Inhibited by ZnO Nanoparticles but Enhanced by CuO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jia; McLean, Joan E.; Britt, David W.; Zhan, Jixun; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 produces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator. However, the pathway involved in IAA production in this bacterium has not been reported. In this paper we describe the involvement of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway in IAA production in P. chlororaphis O6 and the effects of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Sublethal levels of CuO and ZnO NPs differentially affected the levels of IAA secreted in medium containing tryptophan as the precursor. After 15 h of growth, CuO NP-exposed cells had metabolized more tryptophan than the control and ZnO NP-challenged cells. The CuO NP-treated cells produced higher IAA levels than control cultures lacking NPs. In contrast, ZnO NPs inhibited IAA production. Mixing of CuO and ZnO NPs resulted in an intermediate level of IAA production relative to the levels in the separate CuO and ZnO NP treatments. The effect of CuO NPs on IAA levels could be duplicated by ions at the concentrations released from the NPs. However, ion release did not account for the inhibition caused by the ZnO NPs. The mechanism underlying changes in IAA levels cannot be accounted for by effects on transcript accumulation from genes encoding a tryptophan permease or the IAM hydrolase in 15-h cultures. These findings raise the issue of whether sublethal doses of NPs would modify the beneficial effects of association between plants and bacteria. PMID:22210218

  4. Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense in accumulating intracellular ammonium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular ammonium and activities of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were measured when the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild type strains of Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-attenuated mutants. After 48 h of immobilization, both wild types induced higher levels of intracellular ammonium in the microalgae than their respective mutants; the more IAA produced, the higher the intracellular ammonium accumulated. Accumulation of intracellular ammonium in the cells of C. vulgaris followed application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and its IAA-attenuated mutants, which had a similar pattern for the first 24 h. This effect was transient and disappeared after 48 h of incubation. Immobilization of C. vulgaris with any bacteria strain induced higher GS activity. The bacterial strains also had GS activity, comparable to the activity detected in C. vulgaris, but weaker than when immobilized with the bacteria. When net activity was calculated, the wild type always induced higher GS activity than IAA-attenuated mutants. GDH activity in most microalgae/bacteria interactions resembled GS activity. When complementing IAA-attenuated mutants with exogenous IAA, GS activity in co-immobilized cultures matched those of the wild type A. brasilense immobilized with the microalga. Similarity occurred when the net GS activity was measured, and was higher with greater quantities of exogenous IAA. It is proposed that IAA produced by A. brasilense is involved in ammonium uptake and later assimilation by C. vulgaris.

  5. Studies on the longitudinal and lateral transport of IAA in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epel, B. L.; Warmbrodt, R. P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    The auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, and the symplastic probe, carboxyfluorescein diacetate, were applied to the cut mesocotyl base or coleoptile apex of etiolated Zea mays seedlings and their transport measured and tissue distribution determined. The longitudinal transport of indole-3-acetate was strongly basipolar, while that of carboxyfluorescein was essentially apolar. The longitudinal transport of IAA, like carboxyfluorescein, was mainly in the stele. IAA exhibited a much higher lateral mobility from stele to cortex than did carboxyfluorescein. Based on the calculation of moles probe/kg fw, IAA is 4 times more concentrated in the stele than in the cortex while CF is 24 times higher in concentration in the stele than in the cortex. The structure of the node and the mesocotyl regions just below the node, regions of maximum growth, were examined and plasmodesmatal structure and frequency in these regions determined. The plasmodesmatal frequency, about 3 per micrometer2, between all cell types of the mesocotyl was found to be about 5-8 fold higher than that found for the root. Hypotheses of lateral auxin transport are discussed.

  6. Influence of zygomycete-derived D'orenone on IAA signalling in Tricholoma-spruce ectomycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katharina; Krause, Katrin; David, Anja; Kai, Marco; Jung, Elke-Martina; Sammer, Dominik; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Boland, Wilhelm; Kothe, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising interest in microbial communication, only few studies relate to mycorrhization and the pool of potential morphogenic substances produced by the surrounding soil community. Here, we investigated the effect exerted by the C18 - ketone β-apo-13-carotenone, D'orenone, on the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum and its symbiosis with the economically important host tree, spruce (Picea abies). D'orenone is an early intermediate in the biosynthesis of morphogens in sexual development of mucoromycetes, the trisporoids. In the ectomycorrhizal fungus T. vaccinum, D'orenone increased the production and/or release of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) which had been proposed to be involved in the mutual symbiosis. The induced expression of the fungal aldehyde dehydrogenase, Ald5 is associated with IAA synthesis and excretion. In the host tree, D'orenone modulated root architecture by increasing lateral root length and hypertrophy of root cortex cells, likely via changed IAA concentrations and flux. Thus, we report for the first time on carotenoid metabolites from soil fungi affecting both ectomycorrhizal partners. The data imply a complex network of functions for secondary metabolites which act in an inter-kingdom signalling in soil. PMID:26636983

  7. The Systemic Acquired Resistance Regulator OsNPR1 Attenuates Growth by Repressing Auxin Signaling through Promoting IAA-Amido Synthase Expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaozun; Yang, Dong-Lei; Sun, Li; Li, Qun; Mao, Bizeng; He, Zuhua

    2016-09-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a long-lasting and broad-spectrum disease resistance to pathogens. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (OsNPR1), a master gene for systemic acquired resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), greatly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae However, the growth and development of the OsNPR1 overexpression (OsNPR1-OX) plants were restrained, and the mechanism remained elusive. In this study, we dissected the OsNPR1-induced growth inhibition. We found that the OsNPR1-OX lines displayed phenotypes mimicking auxin-defective mutants, with decreases in root system, seed number and weight, internode elongation, and tiller number. Whole-genome expression analysis revealed that genes related to the auxin metabolism and signaling pathway were differentially expressed between the OsNPR1-OX and wild-type plants. Consistently, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was decreased and the auxin distribution pattern was altered in OsNPR1-OX plants. Importantly, we found that some GH3 family members, in particular OsGH3.8 coding IAA-amido synthetase, were constitutively up-regulated in OsNPR1-OX plants. Decreased OsGH3.8 expression by RNA interference could partially restore IAA level and largely rescue the restrained growth and development phenotypes but did not affect the disease resistance of OsNPR1-OX plants. Taken together, we revealed that OsNPR1 affects rice growth and development by disrupting the auxin pathway at least partially through indirectly up-regulating OsGH3.8 expression. PMID:27378815

  8. The Systemic Acquired Resistance Regulator OsNPR1 Attenuates Growth by Repressing Auxin Signaling through Promoting IAA-Amido Synthase Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a long-lasting and broad-spectrum disease resistance to pathogens. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (OsNPR1), a master gene for systemic acquired resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), greatly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. However, the growth and development of the OsNPR1 overexpression (OsNPR1-OX) plants were restrained, and the mechanism remained elusive. In this study, we dissected the OsNPR1-induced growth inhibition. We found that the OsNPR1-OX lines displayed phenotypes mimicking auxin-defective mutants, with decreases in root system, seed number and weight, internode elongation, and tiller number. Whole-genome expression analysis revealed that genes related to the auxin metabolism and signaling pathway were differentially expressed between the OsNPR1-OX and wild-type plants. Consistently, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was decreased and the auxin distribution pattern was altered in OsNPR1-OX plants. Importantly, we found that some GH3 family members, in particular OsGH3.8 coding IAA-amido synthetase, were constitutively up-regulated in OsNPR1-OX plants. Decreased OsGH3.8 expression by RNA interference could partially restore IAA level and largely rescue the restrained growth and development phenotypes but did not affect the disease resistance of OsNPR1-OX plants. Taken together, we revealed that OsNPR1 affects rice growth and development by disrupting the auxin pathway at least partially through indirectly up-regulating OsGH3.8 expression. PMID:27378815

  9. Genetics of Aux/IAA and ARF action in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Liscum, E; Reed, J W

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of auxin signal-response pathways have been made in recent years. Much of this new knowledge has come through the study of mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations have been identified in a wide variety of auxin-response components, including auxin transporters, protein kinases and phosphatases, components of a ubiquitin-proteosome pathway, and transcriptional regulators. This review focuses on mutations that affect auxin-modulated transcription factors, in particular those in the Aux/IAA and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes. Mutants in members of these related gene families exhibit phenotypes that indicate both unique localized functions, as well as overlapping redundant functions, throughout plant development - from embryogenesis to flowering. Effects of specific mutations on Aux/IAA and ARF protein functions at the biochemical and physiological levels will be discussed. We will also discuss potential mechanisms for interactions between auxin and light response pathways that are suggested by these mutants.

  10. Indoleacetic acid movement in the root cap.

    PubMed

    Pernet, J J; Pilet, P E

    1976-01-01

    When applied on the root cap of Zea mays L., indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) may enter the root tip and move basipetally inside the cap. From the cap to the apex (quiescent centre and meristem) the IAA transport is very slow. Polarity of IAA movement, in relation to growth, is discussed.

  11. Epibrassinolide ameliorates Cr (VI) stress via influencing the levels of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, polyamines and antioxidant system of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Gupta, B D; Gupta, R K

    2011-07-01

    The present investigation determined the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL) on the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and polyamine (PA) and antioxidant potential of 7-d old Raphanus sativus L. cv. 'Pusa chetki' seedlings grown under Cr (VI) metal stress. Reduced titers of free (0.767 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (0.545 μg g(-1) FW) IAA in Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were observed over untreated control. Supplementations of EBL to Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were able to enhance both free (2.14-5.68 μg g(-1) FW) and bound IAA (2.45-7.78 μg g(-1) FW) concentrations in comparison to Cr (VI) metal treatment alone. Significant rise in free (13.49 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (12.17 μg g(-1) FW) ABA contents were noticed for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings when compared to untreated control. No significant increase in ABA contents were recorded for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings upon supplementation with EBL over Cr (VI) treatment alone. A significant increase in Put (18.40 μg g(-1) FW) and Cad (9.08 μg g(-1) FW) contents were found for 10(-9)M EBL plus Cr (VI) metal treatments when compared to Cr (VI) treatment alone. Spermidine (Spd) contents were found to decline significantly for EBL treatment alone or when supplemented with Cr (VI) treatments over untreated controls and Cr (VI) treatment alone. Antioxidant levels were found to enhance, with glutathione (57.98 mg g(-1) FW), proline (4.97 mg g(-1) FW), glycinebetaine (39.01 μmol mL(-1)), ascorbic acid (3.17 mg g(-1) FW) and phytochelatins (65.69 μmol g(-1) FW) contents noted for EBL supplemented to Cr (VI) metal solution over Cr (VI) treatment alone. Reduced activities of guaiacol peroxidase (0.391 U mg(-1) protein) and catalase (0.221 U mg(-1) protein) and enhanced activities of glutathione reductase (7.14 U mg(-1) protein), superoxide dismutase (15.20 U mg(-1) protein) and ascorbate peroxidase (4.31 U mg(-1) protein) were observed in seedlings treated with EBL plus Cr (VI) over Cr metal treatment alone

  12. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  13. Indole-3-acetic acid improves postharvest biological control of blue mold rot of apple by Cryptococcus laurentii.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Lu, Huangping; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2009-03-01

    Cryptococcus laurentii is a well-known postharvest biocontrol yeast; however, it cannot provide satisfactory levels of decay control when used alone. Here, we evaluated the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator, on the biocontrol efficacy of the yeast antagonist C. laurentii against blue mold rot caused by Penicillium expansum in apple fruit. Results showed that the addition of IAA at 20 microg/ml to suspensions of C. laurentii greatly enhanced inhibition of mold rot in apple wounds compared with that observed with C. laurentii alone. The addition of IAA at 20 microg/ml or lower did not influence the population growth of C. laurentii in wounds, but adverse effects were seen on C. laurentii when the concentration of IAA was increased to 200 microg/ml or above in vitro and in vivo. P. expansum infection in apple wounds was not inhibited when the pathogen was inoculated into the fruit wounds within 2 h after application of IAA; however, infection was reduced when inoculated more than 12 h after IAA application. Treatment of wounds with IAA at 20 microg/ml 24 h before pathogen inoculation resulted in significant inhibition of P. expansum spore germination and host infection. Application of IAA at 20 microg/ml also reduced P. expansum infection when it was applied 48 h before pathogen inoculation in the intact fruit. Thus, IAA could reinforce the biocontrol efficacy of C. laurentii in inhibiting blue mold of apple fruit by induction of the natural resistance of the fruit.

  14. Gibberellin Application at Pre-Bloom in Grapevines Down-Regulates the Expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, Negative Regulators of Fruit Set Initiation, during Parthenocarpic Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid ‘Tamnara’ grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  15. Gibberellin application at pre-bloom in grapevines down-regulates the expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, negative regulators of fruit set initiation, during parthenocarpic fruit development.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid 'Tamnara' grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  16. Perturbation of Auxin Homeostasis by Overexpression of Wild-Type IAA15 Results in Impaired Stem Cell Differentiation and Gravitropism in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Da-Wei; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Hong, Li-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Aux/IAAs interact with auxin response factors (ARFs) to repress their transcriptional activity in the auxin signaling pathway. Previous studies have focused on gain-of-function mutations of domain II and little is known about whether the expression level of wild-type Aux/IAAs can modulate auxin homeostasis. Here we examined the perturbation of auxin homeostasis by ectopic expression of wild-type IAA15. Root gravitropism and stem cell differentiation were also analyzed. The transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenous auxin and exhibited low-auxin phenotypes including failures in gravity response and defects in stem cell differentiation. Overexpression lines also showed an increase in auxin concentration and reduced polar auxin transport. These results demonstrate that an alteration in the expression of wild-type IAA15 can disrupt auxin homeostasis. PMID:23472140

  17. Physical activity as a determinant of fecal bile acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Martínez, María Elena; Ashbeck, Erin L.; Roe, Denise J.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Alberts, David S.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. While likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has not been investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline fecal bile acid levels for 735 colorectal adenoma formers obtained from participants in a phase III ursodeoxycholic acid chemoprevention trial. Compared to the lowest quartile of recreational physical activity duration, the highest quartile was associated with a 17% lower fecal bile acid concentration, adjusted for age, sex, dietary fiber intake, and body mass index (P = 0.042). Furthermore, consistent with a previously established relationship between serum triglyceride levels and bile acid metabolism, we stratified by triglyceride level and observed a 34% lower fecal bile acid concentration (highest versus lowest quartiles of physical activity) in individuals with low triglycerides (< 136 mg/dL; P = 0.002). In contrast, no association between physical activity and fecal bile acid concentration was observed for subjects with high triglycerides (≥ 136 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the biological mechanism responsible for the protective effect of physical activity on the incidence of colon cancer may be partially mediated by decreasing colonic bile acid exposure. However, this effect may be limited to individuals with lower triglyceride levels. PMID:19383885

  18. Selection and Characterization of [alpha]-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Lines of Lemna gibba Showing a Rapid Rate of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Y. Y.; Slovin, J. P.; Cohen, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Turnover rate is an important aspect of the regulation of plant processes by plant growth substances. To study turnover of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), two [alpha]-methyltryptophan-resistant lines (MTR1 and MTR2) of Lemna gibba were generated by nitrosomethyl urea treatment of an inbred line derived from L. gibba G-3. In this report we describe: (a) the development of a selection system using this near isogenic line of L. gibba; (b) techniques for chemical mutation of the lines and selection for [alpha]-methyltryptophan resistance; and (c) the partial characterization of the selected lines. MTR lines contained 3-fold higher levels of anthranilate synthase activity. The enzyme in the MTR lines required higher levels of tryptophan for feedback inhibition. MTR lines also contained 8-fold higher levels of tryptophan, 3-fold higher levels of free IAA, and similar levels of total IAA compared to the inbred line. Turnover rates in the inbred and selected lines were calculated, using the first-order rate equation, based on the decrease over time in isotopic enrichment of I3C6-IAA introduced into L. gibba during a 1-h pulse period. Isotope enrichment in IAA was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both MTR lines had an approximately 10-fold higher rate of IAA turnover than the parent inbred line. PMID:12228344

  19. Implementation and use of a highly available and innovative IaaS solution: the Cloud Area Padovana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreetto, P.; Bertocco, S.; Biasotto, M.; Dal Pra, S.; Costa, F.; Crescente, A.; Dorigo, A.; Fantinel, S.; Fanzago, F.; Frizziero, E.; Gulmini, M.; Michelotto, M.; Sgaravatto, M.; Traldi, S.; Venaruzzo, M.; Verlato, M.; Zangrando, L.

    2015-12-01

    While in the business world the cloud paradigm is typically implemented purchasing resources and services from third party providers (e.g. Amazon), in the scientific environment there's usually the need of on-premises IaaS infrastructures which allow efficient usage of the hardware distributed among (and owned by) different scientific administrative domains. In addition, the requirement of open source adoption has led to the choice of products like OpenStack by many organizations. We describe a use case of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) which resulted in the implementation of a unique cloud service, called ’Cloud Area Padovana’, which encompasses resources spread over two different sites: the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and the INFN Padova division. We describe how this IaaS has been implemented, which technologies have been adopted and how services have been configured in high-availability (HA) mode. We also discuss how identity and authorization management were implemented, adopting a widely accepted standard architecture based on SAML2 and OpenID: by leveraging the versatility of those standards the integration with authentication federations like IDEM was implemented. We also discuss some other innovative developments, such as a pluggable scheduler, implemented as an extension of the native OpenStack scheduler, which allows the allocation of resources according to a fair-share based model and which provides a persistent queuing mechanism for handling user requests that can not be immediately served. Tools, technologies, procedures used to install, configure, monitor, operate this cloud service are also discussed. Finally we present some examples that show how this IaaS infrastructure is being used.

  20. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  1. Mutation in domain II of IAA1 confers diverse auxin-related phenotypes and represses auxin-activated expression of Aux/IAA genes in steroid regulator-inducible system.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Joung; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-12-01

    Most of Aux/IAA genes are rapidly induced by auxin. The Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins sharing the four conserved domains. Domain II is critical for rapid degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. Among these gene family members, IAA1 is one of the earliest auxin-inducible genes. We used a steroid hormone-inducible system to reveal putative roles and downstream signaling of IAA1 in auxin response. Arabidopsis transgenic plants were generated expressing fusion protein of IAA1 (IAA1-GR) or IAA1 with a mutation in domain II (iaa1-GR) and the glucocorticoid hormone-binding domain (GR). IAA1-GR transgenic plants did not exhibit any discernable phenotypic differences by DEX treatment that allows nuclear translocation of the fusion protein. In contrast, diverse auxin-related physiological processes including gravitropism and phototropism were impaired by DEX treatment in roots, hypocotyls, stems, and leaves in iaa1-GR transgenic plants. Auxin induction of seven Aux/IAA mRNAs including IAA1 itself was repressed by DEX treatment, suggesting that IAA1 functions in the nucleus by mediating auxin response and might act as a negative feedback regulator for the expression of Aux/IAA genes including IAA1 itself. Auxin induction of Aux/IAA genes in the presence of cycloheximide can be repressed by DEX treatment, showing that the repression of transcription of the Aux/IAAs by the iaa1 mutant protein is primary. Wild-type IAA1-GR could not suppress auxin induction of IAA1 and IAA2. These results indicate that inhibition of auxin-activated transcription of Aux/IAA genes by the iaa1 mutant protein might be responsible for alteration of various auxin responses.

  2. Serum Uric Acid Level among Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, M; Das, S N; Haque, M F; Shikha, S S; Bhuiyan, A S; Saha, P L; Das, B R; Chowdhury, M; Jahan, M K; Rahman, M M

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed as well as developing countries like Bangladesh. Elevated serum uric acid levels may predict an increased risk for cerebro-vascular (CV) events including stroke. Aim of the study was to measure the serum uric acid level among stroke patients and determine the relationship between serum uric acid level and stroke. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to measure serum uric acid level among 102 stroke patients in a period of one year by using non-probability sampling procedure. Finally, collected data were analyzed using SPSS software Version 17.0. It was observed that the mean age of patients was 60.87±8.05 years, of them 80(78.43%) patients were male and the rest 22(21.57%) were female. About 66(64.70%) of respondents were in age group 60 years and above, while 36(35.30%) were in age group 59 years and below. At least 23(22.55%) of stroke patients had elevated serum uric acid with a mean serum uric acid level of 5.18mg/dl and standard deviation 1.26mg/dl. About 23(27.38%) patients in ischemic stroke had elevated serum uric acid whereas 18(100%) patients in hemorrhagic stroke had normal uric acid level. Uric acid level was elevated in ischemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke patients (p<0.001). High uric acid level may be considered as a risk factor in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27277350

  3. The improved phytoextraction of lead (Pb) and the growth of maize (Zeamays L.): the role of plant growth regulators (GA3 and IAA) and EDTA alone and in combinations.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Fazal; Bano, Asghari; Fuller, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    This investigation was made to examine the role of gibberellic acid (GA(3)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and EDTA in improving phytoextraction of the Pb and plant growth on Pb added soil. GA(3), IAA and EDTA were applied separately and in combinations. GA(3) and IAA were applied as foliar spray and seed soaking. EDTA was applied in single and split doses. Analysis of the Pb in different parts of plant was carried out using atomic absorption/flame spectrophotometer. EDTA significantly reduced the plant growth and dry biomass, whereas GA(3) and IAA foliar spray increased it significantly when compared with control (only Pb added soil). In combined treatments of EDTA+GA(3) and EDTA+IAA, the growth and biomass was restored, which shows that GA(3) and IAA did compensate the negative effect of EDTA on plant growth. The separate treatments of EDTA, GA(3) and IAA increased the Pb uptake and translocation significantly moreover in combine treatments, synergistic effect was found and remarkable increase in Pb uptake and translocation into shoot was observed. EDTA increased the Pb uptake but declined the biomass; subsequently the total Pb accumulation was decreased in plant. The maximum total Pb was found in combined treatment of EDTA+GA(3). These findings suggest more investigation to find a combination of GA(3) with a very low concentration of EDTA, as in high concentration it causes soil and ground water pollution.

  4. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research. PMID:21766417

  5. The studies on the toxicity mechanism of environmentally hazardous natural (IAA) and synthetic (NAA) auxin--The experiments on model Arabidopsis thaliana and rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał

    2015-06-01

    This paper concerns the studies towards membrane-damage effect of two auxins: indole-3-acetic acid - IAA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid - NAA on plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and animal (rat liver) model membranes. The foregoing auxins are plant growth regulators widely used in agriculture to control the quality of the crop. However, their accumulation in the environment makes them hazardous for the living organisms. The aim of our investigations was to compare the effect of natural (IAA) vs. synthetic (NAA) auxin on the organization of plant and animal model membranes and find a possible correlation between membrane-disturbing effect of these compounds and their toxicity. The collected data evidenced that auxins cause destabilization of membranes, decrease their condensation and weakens interactions of molecules. The alterations in the morphology of model systems were also noticed. The foregoing effects of auxins are concentration-dependent and additionally NAA was found to act on animal vs. plant membranes more selectively than IAA. Interestingly, both IAA and NAA induce the strongest disordering in model lipid system at the concentration, which is frequently reported as toxic to animal and plants. Based on the above findings it was proposed that membrane-damage effect induced by IAA and NAA may be important from the point of view of the mechanism of toxicity of these compounds and cannot be ignored in further investigations in this area.

  6. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition.

  7. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  8. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  9. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants. PMID:26630288

  10. Effects of Kinetin, IAA, and Gibberellin on Ethylene Production, and Their Interactions in Growth of Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Y; Lieberman, M

    1968-12-01

    Kinetin in concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-4)m, stimulated ethylene production in 3 and 4-day old etiolated seedlings of Alaska pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska). Seedlings of other species responded similarly. The response to kinetin depended on the age of the seedlings.Kinetin alone did not influence ethylene production in 6-day old stem sections, but it greatly increased the enhancing effect of IAA.Gibberellic acid had no effect on ethylene production by pea seedlings during the first 6 days of growth. Ethylene and gibberellic acid are antagonistic in their effects on growth of the seedlings; ethylene interfered severely with the action of gibberellic acid but did not completely suppress it.The inhibitors cycloheximide, cupferron, and N-ethylmaleimide, caused considerable inhibition of kinetin-induced ethylene production but were much less effective in the endogenous ethylene-forming system. PMID:16657004

  11. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography.

  12. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography. PMID:12843960

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the auxin-responsive transcriptome downstream of iaa1 and its expression analysis reveal the diversity and complexity of auxin-regulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ju; Park, Jong Wha; Lee, Han Woo; Kim, Jungmook

    2009-01-01

    The AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and the Aux/IAA proteins regulate various auxin responses through auxin perception mediated by the F-box proteins TIR1/AFBs. ARFs are transcription factors that modulate expression of auxin response genes and are negatively regulated by the Aux/IAA proteins. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of Aux/IAA-ARF action at the genome level, the transcriptome regulated downstream of iaa1, a stabilized IAA1 mutant protein, was identified using dexamethasone (DEX)-controlled nuclear translocation of iaa1 during the auxin response. The expression of the iaa1-regulated auxin-responsive genes selected from microarray data was analysed with RNA-gel blot analysis and it was shown that auxin-regulated expression of these genes was significantly inhibited by DEX treatment. While cycloheximide-inducible expression of a majority of these genes was also DEX-suppressible, expression of some genes could not be suppressed by treatment with DEX. Expression analysis in a variety of arf mutant backgrounds suggested that all iaa1-regulated auxin-response genes examined are controlled by ARFs to different extents and that the same ARF protein can regulate the expression of these genes in response to auxin in a positive or a negative manner. However, arf mutations did not affect auxin-mediated down-regulation, indicating that ARFs might not play a critical role in down-regulation. The decrease in auxin-responsive gene expression in arf7 arf19 mutants was more severe than that of tir1/afb quadruple mutants. These results show the diversity and complexity of mechanisms of Aux/IAA-ARF- and auxin-regulated gene expression. These data also provide the opportunity for functional analysis of genes mediating the auxin-response downstream of Aux/IAA-ARFs.

  14. The Lunar Farside Radio Lab Study of the IAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    The "Lunar Farside Radio Lab" Study of the IAA, started in 1998 by late French astronomer Jean Heidmann (1923-2000), underwent substantial extensions and revisions since its coordination was taken up by this author. These modifications can be summarized as follows: 1) The goal of the Study was enlarged so as to encompass the whole of radio astronomy, rather 2) It was stressed that, from the Lunar Farside, one can detect radio frequencies lower than 15 3) Lunar Farside Crater Saha, initially selected by Heidmann to host a radiotelescope, was 4) Four different scenarios were envisaged for the relevant space mission, dubbed RadioMoon: Finally, legal protection of Daedalus from radio-pollution was sought, initially by virtue of the IISL. The "Lunar Farside Radio Lab" Study of the IAA should be completed by October 2003 with a number of distinguished contributions. Its present status and prospects are explained and motivated in this paper.

  15. Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA methane profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeng, A.; Plieninger, J.; von Clarmann, T.; Grabowski, U.; Stiller, G.; Eckert, E.; Glatthor, N.; Haenel, F.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Deaver, L.; Engel, A.; Hervig, M.; Levin, I.; McHugh, M.; Noël, S.; Toon, G.; Walker, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) was an infra-red (IR) limb emission spectrometer on the Envisat platform. It measured during day and night, pole-to-pole, over an altitude range from 6 to 70 km in nominal mode and up to 170 km in special modes, depending on the measurement mode, producing more than 1000 profiles day-1. We present the results of a validation study of methane version V5R_CH4_222 retrieved with the IMK/IAA MIPAS scientific level 2 processor. The level 1 spectra are provided by ESA, the version 5 was used. The time period covered corresponds to the period when MIPAS measured at reduced spectral resolution, i.e. 2005-2012. The comparison with satellite instruments includes the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). Furthermore, comparisons with MkIV balloon-borne solar occultation measurements and with air sampling measurements performed by the University of Frankfurt are presented. The validation activities include bias determination, in selected cases, assessment of histograms and comparison of corresponding climatologies. Above 50 km altitude, MIPAS methane mixing ratios agree within 3% with ACE-FTS and SOFIE. Between 30 and 40 km an agreement within 3% with SCIAMACHY has been found. In the middle stratosphere, there is no clear indication of a MIPAS bias since comparisons with various instruments contradict each other. In the lower stratosphere (below about 25-30 km) MIPAS CH4 is biased high with respect to satellite instruments, and the most likely estimate of this bias is 14%. However, in the comparison with CH4 data obtained from cryosampler measurements, there is no evidence of a MIPAS high bias between 20 and 25 km altitude. Precision validation is performed on collocated MIPAS-MIPAS pairs

  16. Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA methane profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeng, A.; Plieninger, J.; von Clarmann, T.; Grabowski, U.; Stiller, G.; Eckert, E.; Glatthor, N.; Haenel, F.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Deaver, L.; Engel, A.; Hervig, M.; Levin, I.; McHugh, M.; Noël, S.; Toon, G.; Walker, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is an infrared (IR) limb emission spectrometer on the Envisat platform. It measures trace gas distributions during day and night, pole-to-pole, over an altitude range from 6 to 70 km in nominal mode and up to 170 km in special modes, depending on the measurement mode, producing more than 1000 profiles day-1. We present the results of a validation study of methane, version V5R_CH4_222, retrieved with the IMK/IAA (Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe/Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Grenada) MIPAS scientific level 2 processor. The level 1 spectra are provided by the ESA (European Space Agency) and version 5 was used. The time period covered is 2005-2012, which corresponds to the period when MIPAS measured trace gas distributions at a reduced spectral resolution of 0.0625 cm-1. The comparison with satellite instruments includes the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). Furthermore, comparisons with MkIV balloon-borne solar occultation measurements and with air sampling measurements performed by the University of Frankfurt are presented. The validation activities include bias determination, assessment of stability, precision validation, analysis of histograms and comparison of corresponding climatologies. Above 50 km altitude, MIPAS methane mixing ratios agree within 3 % with ACE-FTS and SOFIE. Between 30 and 40 km an agreement within 3 % with SCIAMACHY has been found. In the middle stratosphere, there is no clear indication of a MIPAS bias since comparisons with various instruments contradict each other. In the lower stratosphere (below 25 km) MIPAS CH4 is biased high with respect to satellite instruments, and the most likely estimate of this bias is 14

  17. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  18. Stability of free amino acid levels in stressed Abarenicola pacifica

    SciTech Connect

    Augenfeld, J.M.; Anderson, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A change in the composition of the free amino acid (FAA) pool of pelecypod molluscs under stress has been described. This response consists of a significant decrease in the level of glycine, while the taurine level remains constant, leading to a decrease in the total free amino acid level and a decrease in the glycine:taurine ratio. It has been suggested that this alteration in FAA composition may be useful as an indicator of physiological stress in a wide variety of invertebrates. This suggestion has been tested by exposing a burrowing polychaete, Abarenicola pacifica, to sediment artificially contaminated with Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC).

  19. Indole-3-acetic acid: A widespread physiological code in interactions of fungi with other organisms

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Chen, Hung-Wei; Liu, Yen-Yu; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Plants as well as microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IAA is the most common plant hormone of the auxin class and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development. Thus, research is underway globally to exploit the potential for developing IAA-producing fungi for promoting plant growth and protection for sustainable agriculture. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that IAA biosynthesis evolved independently in bacteria, microalgae, fungi, and plants. Present studies show that IAA regulates the physiological response and gene expression in these microorganisms. The convergent evolution of IAA production leads to the hypothesis that natural selection might have favored IAA as a widespread physiological code in these microorganisms and their interactions. We summarize recent studies of IAA biosynthetic pathways and discuss the role of IAA in fungal ecology. PMID:26179718

  20. Conserved and unique features of the homeologous maize Aux/IAA proteins ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 and RUM1-like 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Marcon, Caroline; Tai, Huanhuan; von Behrens, Inga; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1) is a key regulator of lateral and seminal root formation. An ancient maize genome duplication resulted in the emergence of its homeolog rum1-like1 (rul1), which displays 92% amino acid sequence identity with RUM1. Both, RUL1 and RUM1 exhibit the canonical four domain structure of Aux/IAA proteins. Moreover, both are localized to the nucleus, are instable and have similar short half-lives of ~23min. Moreover, RUL1 and RUM1 can be stabilized by specific mutations in the five amino acid degron sequence of domain II. In addition, proteins encoded by both genes interact in vivo with auxin response factors (ARFs) such as ZmARF25 and ZmARF34 in protoplasts. Although it was demonstrated that RUL1 and RUM1 can homo and heterodimerize in vivo, rul1 expression is independent of rum1. Moreover, on average rul1 expression is ~84-fold higher than rum1 in the 12 tested tissues and developmental stages, although the relative expression levels in different root tissues are very similar. While RUM1 and RUL1 display conserved biochemical properties, yeast-two-hybrid in combination with BiFC experiments identified a RUM1-associated protein 1 (RAP1) that specifically interacts with RUM1 but not with RUL1. This suggests that RUM1 and RUL1 are at least in part interwoven into different molecular networks. PMID:26672614

  1. Indole acetic acid production by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. and their variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sethia, Bedhya; Mustafa, Mariam; Manohar, Sneha; Patil, Savita V; Jayamohan, Nellickal Subramanian; Kumudini, Belur Satyan

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) is a heterogenous group of growth promoting rhizobacteria that regulate plant growth by releasing secondary metabolic compounds viz., indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In the present study, IAA producing FPs from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus were characterized morphologically, biochemically and at the molecular level. Molecular identification of the isolates were carried out using Pseudomonas specific primers. The effect of varying time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), Trp concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg x ml(-1)), temperature (10, 26, 37 and 50 ± 2 degrees C) and pH (6, 7 and 8) on IAA production by 10 best isolates were studied. Results showed higher IAA production at 72 h incubation, at 300 μg x ml(-1) Trp concentration, temperature 26 ± 2 degrees C and pH 7. TLC with acidified ethyl acetate extract showed that the IAA produced has a similar Rf value to that of the standard IAA. Results of TLC were confirmed by HPLC analysis. Genetic diversity of the isolates was also studied using 40 RAPD and 4 Rep primers. Genetic diversity parameters such as dominance, Shannon index and Simpson index were calculated. Out of 40 RAPD primers tested, 9 (2 OP-D series and 7 OP-E series) were shortlisted for further analysis. Studies using RAPD, ERIC, BOX, REP and GTG5 primers revealed that isolates exhibit significant diversity in repetitive DNA sequences irrespective of the rhizosphere. PMID:26155673

  2. Influence of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid on starch accumulation in the synthetic mutualistic Chlorella sorokiniana-Azospirillum brasilense system under heterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the relations between tryptophan production, the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the metabolism and accumulation of starch during synthetic mutualism between the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and the microalgae growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense, created by co-immobilization in alginate beads. Experiments used two wild-type A. brasilense strains (Cd and Sp6) and an IAA-attenuated mutant (SpM7918) grown under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-starved conditions tested under dark, heterotrophic and aerobic growth conditions. Under all incubating conditions, C. sorokiniana, but not A. brasilense, produced tryptophan. A significant correlation between IAA-production by A. brasilense and starch accumulation in C. sorokiniana was found, since the IAA-attenuated mutant was not producing increased starch levels. The highest ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity, starch content and glucose uptake were found during the interaction of A. brasilense wild type strains with the microalgae. When the microalgae were grown alone, they produced only small amounts of starch. Supplementation with synthetic IAA to C. sorokiniana grown alone enhanced the above parameters, but only transiently. Activity of α-amylase decreased under nitrogen-replete conditions, but increased under nitrogen-starved conditions. In summary, this study demonstrated that, during synthetic mutualism, the exchange of tryptophan and IAA between the partners is a mechanism that governs several changes in starch metabolism of C. sorokiniana, yielding an increase in starch content.

  3. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Psd and plant growth regulation by hormone overexpression.

    PubMed

    Kochar, Mandira; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Srivastava, Sheela

    2011-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is an important biological component of agricultural soils that bestows a number of direct and indirect beneficial attributes to the plants. We analyzed the biocontrol strain P. fluorescens Psd for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis and studied the effect of its consequent manipulation on its plant-growth-promoting (PGP) potential. While the indole pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway commonly associated with PGP bacteria was lacking, the indole acetamide (IAM) pathway generally observed in phytopathogens was expressed in strain Psd. Overexpression of IAM pathway genes iaaM-iaaH, from Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi drastically increased IAA levels and showed a detrimental effect on sorghum root development. On the other hand, heterologous expression of the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase/phenylpyruvate decarboxylase gene (ipdC/ppdC) of the IPyA pathway from the PGP bacterium Azospirillum brasilense SM led to enhancement of the IAA level. A more favorable effect of this recombinant strain on sorghum root growth and development suggests that metabolic engineering could be used to generate strains with improved PGP function.

  4. Early postnatal docosahexaenoic acid levels and improved preterm brain development

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Chau, Vann; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Miller, Steven P.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Synnes, Anne R.; Xu, Duan; Foong, Justin; Brant, Rollin; Innis, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth has a dramatic impact on polyunsaturated fatty acid exposures for the developing brain. This study examined the association between postnatal fatty acid levels and measures of brain injury and development, as well as outcomes. Methods A cohort of 60 preterm newborns (24–32 weeks GA) was assessed using early and near-term MRI studies. Red blood cell fatty acid composition was analyzed coordinated with each scan. Outcome at a mean of 33 months corrected age was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition. Results Adjusting for confounders, a 1% increase in postnatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at early MRI was associated with 4.3-fold decreased odds of intraventricular hemorrhage, but was not associated with white matter injury or cerebellar haemorrhage. Higher DHA and lower linoleic acid (LA) levels at early MRI were associated with lower diffusivity in white matter tracts, and corresponding improved developmental scores in follow-up. Conclusion Higher DHA and lower LA levels in the first few weeks of life are associated with decreased IVH, improved microstructural brain development, and improved outcomes in preterm born children. Early, and possibly antenatal, intervention in high-risk pregnancies needs to be studied for potential benefits in preterm developmental outcomes. PMID:26761122

  5. Association of Renal Manifestations with Serum Uric Acid in Korean Adults with Normal Uric Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that hyperuricemia is associated with the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidences also suggest that hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in the progression of renal disease. Paradoxically, uric acid is also widely accepted to have antioxidant activity in experimental studies. We aimed to investigate the association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and uric acid in healthy individuals with a normal serum level of uric acid. We examined renal function determined by GFR and uric acid in 3,376 subjects (1,896 men; 1,480 women; aged 20-80 yr) who underwent medical examinations at Gangnam Severance Hospital from November 2006 to June 2007. Determinants for renal function and uric acid levels were also investigated. In both men and women, GFR was negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid, log transformed C reactive protein, and log transformed triglycerides. In multivariate regression analysis, total uric acid was found to be an independent factor associated with estimated GFR in both men and women. This result suggests that uric acid appears to contribute to renal impairment in subjects with normal serum level of uric acid. PMID:21165292

  6. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  7. Influence of educational level on determinants of folic acid use.

    PubMed

    van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M; de Walle, Hermien E K; de Rover, Carolien M; Jeeninga, Wendy; Cornel, Martina C; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Buitendijk, Simone E; Paulussen, Theo G W M

    2003-07-01

    In The Netherlands, periconceptional folic acid use to prevent neural tube defects was promoted through a national 'Folic Acid Campaign'. In two regions, a local campaign supplemented the national campaign to increase the chances of reaching women with low socio-economic status (SES). A framework of outcome criteria, defined as awareness knowledge, perceived safety, attitudes and subjective norms, was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the two local campaigns. Data were gathered by means of two cross-sectional studies conducted just before and 1 year after the campaigns took place. Before the campaigns were conducted, there were already differences in all effect criteria and folic acid use between women of different educational levels, mostly in favour of women with a high level of education. Although both educational campaigns appeared to have a positive impact on all outcome criteria, they failed to reduce the existing differences in these outcome criteria between women of different educational levels. Folic acid use can be promoted effectively by mass media campaigns, certainly in a large group of women with no prior knowledge of the health benefits associated with periconceptional folic acid use. However, in order to achieve more equal health outcomes among women of low and high SES, it seems that more tailored interventions for women of low SES are needed.

  8. Stimulatory effect of cytokinins and interaction with IAA on the release of lateral buds of pea plants from apical dominance.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2003-09-01

    Lateral buds of pea plants can be released from apical dominance and even be transformed into dominant shoots when repeatedly treated with synthetic exogenous cytokinins (CKs). The mechanism of the effect of CKs, however, is not clear. The results in this work showed that the stimulatory effects of CKs on the growth of lateral buds and the increase in their fresh weights in pea plants depended on the structure and concentration of the CKs used. The effect of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) was stronger than that of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA). Indoleacetic acid (IAA) concentration in shoot, IAA export out of the treated apex and basipetal transport in stems were markedly increased after the application of CPPU or 6-BA to the apex or the second node of pea plant. This increase was positively correlated with the increased concentration of the applied CKs. These results suggest that the increased IAA synthesis and export induced by CKs application might be responsible for the growth of lateral shoots in intact pea plants. PMID:14593807

  9. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  10. Red light-regulated growth. I. Changes in the abundance of indoleacetic acid and a 22-kilodalton auxin-binding protein in the maize mesocotyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. M.; Cochran, D. S.; Lamerson, P. M.; Evans, M. L.; Cohen, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the changes in the levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA), IAA esters, and a 22-kilodalton subunit auxin-binding protein (ABP1) in apical mesocotyl tissue of maize (Zea mays L.) during continuous red light (R) irradiation. These changes were compared with the kinetics of R-induced growth inhibition in the same tissue. Upon the onset of continuous irradiation, growth decreased in a continuous manner following a brief lag period. The decrease in growth continued for 5 hours, then remained constant at 25% of the dark rate. The abundance of ABP1 and the level of free IAA both decreased in the mesocotyl. Only the kinetics of the decrease in IAA within the apical mesocotyl correlated with the initial change in growth, although growth continued to decrease even after IAA content reached its final level, 50% of the dark control. This decrease in IAA within the mesocotyl probably occurs primarily by a change in its transport within the shoot since auxin applied as a pulse move basipetally in R-irradiated tissue at the same rate but with half the area as dark control tissue. In situ localization of auxin in etiolated maize shoots revealed that R-irradiated shoots contained less auxin in the epidermis than the dark controls. Irradiated mesocotyl grew 50% less than the dark controls even when incubated in an optimal level of auxin. However, irradiated and dark tissue contained essentially the same amount of radioactivity after incubation in [14C]IAA indicating that the light treatment does not affect the uptake into the tissue through the cut end, although it is possible that a small subset of cells within the mesocotyl is affected. These observations support the hypothesis that R causes a decrease in the level of auxin in epidermal cells of the mesocotyl, consequently constraining the growth of the entire mesocotyl.

  11. Global effect of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis on multiple virulence factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O; Glick, Bernard R; Ibekwe, A Mark; Cooksey, Donald A; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2007-02-01

    Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

  12. Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid via the indole-3-acetamide pathway in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Manulis, S; Shafrir, H; Epstein, E; Lichter, A; Barash, I

    1994-05-01

    Various Streptomyces spp. including S. violaceus, S. scabies, S. griseus, S. exfoliatus, S. coelicolor and S. lividans secrete indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when fed with L-tryptophan (Trp). Production of IAA was detected in Streptomyces strains causing potato scab as well as in non-pathogenic strains. The pathways for IAA synthesis from Trp were investigated in S. violaceus and S. exfoliatus. Indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-lactic acid (ILA), indole-3-ethanol (IEt) and IAA were identified by HPLC and GC-MS. Streptomyces cells were capable of catabolizing IAM, ILA, IEt and indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAId) into IAA. Incorporation of radioactivity into IAM, IAA and ILA but not IEt was detected when cells were fed with L-[3-14C]tryptophan. Results indicate the presence of the IAM pathway (Trp-->IAM-->IAA) and the possible presence of additional pathways for IAA biosynthesis in Streptomyces. PMID:8025670

  13. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  14. Uptake and incorporation of labeled tryptophan isomers into IAA in the jsR sub 1 mutant of Lemna gibba

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, B.G.; Maher, B.R.; Cohen, J.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Analyses of the IAA-overproducing mutant of Lemna have been initiated in order to study in vivo biosynthesis of IAA. Using radiolabelled tryptophan isomers prepared from commercial sources of {sup 14}C-D,L tryptophan by chiral separation kinetics of uptake of L and D tryptophan were determined for sterile cultures of individual jsR{sub 1} four-frond colonies. Over a 24 h period, about 50% of the radioactivity from {sup 14}C-L-TRP in media, or about 25% from {sup 14}C-D-TRP, was found in the plant tissue. Maximal rates of uptake were seen in the first six hors for both isomers. Endogenous levels of tryptophan determined in jsR{sub 1} as measures of pool sizes in vivo show 5 to 10 ug/g FW total tryptophan with less than 1% in the D isomer form. Information on uptake and endogenous pool sizes of tryptophan isomers is being used for feeding of stable isotope labeled tryptophan ({sup 13}C, {sup 14}N) to jsR{sub 1} at physiological levels. Analyses of incorporation of label into IAA using GC-MS and high resolution mass spectrometry are currently underway.

  15. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenstein, K.H. )

    1989-04-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing {sup 3}H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 {mu}1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 {mu}1 of sorbitol or the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap.

  16. Puget Sound acidity levels drop after ASARCO shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The levels of acidity in Puget Sound region rainfall have decreased significantly since the shutdown of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, according to a study funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results indicate that sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations obtained from samples taken before the closure were significantly different than those collected after the shutdown. Rainwater samples collected downwind during smelter operation were also significantly different from those collected upwind. Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the principal contributors to acid rain. The smelter was a major source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the Puget Sound region before it shut down in March 1985.

  17. Sugar Levels Regulate Tryptophan-Dependent Auxin Biosynthesis in Developing Maize Kernels[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    LeClere, Sherry; Schmelz, Eric A.; Chourey, Prem S.

    2010-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) Miniature1 (Mn1) locus encodes the cell wall invertase INCW2, which is localized predominantly in the basal endosperm transfer layer of developing kernels and catalyzes the conversion of sucrose into glucose and fructose. Mutations in Mn1 result in pleiotropic changes, including a reduction in kernel mass and a recently reported decrease in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels throughout kernel development. Here, we show that mn1-1 basal kernel regions (pedicels and basal endosperm transfer layer) accumulate higher levels of sucrose and lower levels of glucose and fructose between 8 and 28 d after pollination when compared with the wild type, whereas upper regions of mn1 accumulate similar or increased concentrations of sugars. To determine the cause of the reduction in IAA accumulation, we investigated transcript levels of several potential IAA biosynthetic enzymes. We demonstrate that reduced IAA levels most closely correspond to reduced transcript levels of ZmYUCCA (ZmYUC), a newly identified homolog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene YUCCA. We further demonstrate that ZmYUC catalyzes the N-hydroxylation of tryptamine and that sugar levels regulate transcript levels of ZmYUC, both in in vitro-cultured kernels and in a promoter-reporter fusion in Arabidopsis. These results indicate that developing seeds may modulate growth by altering auxin biosynthesis in response to sugar concentrations. PMID:20237017

  18. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  19. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  20. A mutation affecting the synthesis of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ross, John J; Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Reid, James B; Davies, Noel W; Quittenden, Laura J; Smith, Jason A

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, schemes depicting auxin biosynthesis in plants have been notoriously complex. They have involved up to four possible pathways by which the amino acid tryptophan might be converted to the main active auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), while another pathway was suggested to bypass tryptophan altogether. It was also postulated that different plants use different pathways, further adding to the complexity. In 2011, however, it was suggested that one of the four tryptophan-dependent pathways, via indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), is the main pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, although concurrent operation of one or more other pathways has not been excluded. We recently showed that, for seeds of Pisum sativum (pea), it is possible to go one step further. Our new evidence indicates that the IPyA pathway is the only tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis pathway operating in pea seeds. We also demonstrated that the main auxin in developing pea seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), which accumulates to levels far exceeding those of IAA, is synthesized via a chlorinated version of the IPyA pathway. PMID:23073010

  1. Global Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis on Multiple Virulence Factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937▿

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O.; Glick, Bernard R.; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Cooksey, Donald A.; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

  2. Identification of Genes Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 Strain Using Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisete P.; Soares, Cleiton de Paula; Galvão, Patrícia G.; Imada, Eddie L.; Simões-Araújo, Jean L.; Rouws, Luc F. M.; de Oliveira, André L. M.; Vidal, Márcia S.; Baldani, José I.

    2016-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5T strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5T. In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5T. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5T produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan and

  3. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  4. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Uric Acid Levels in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Zhi-Chao; Lu, Tao-Sheng; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The importance and function of serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with cardiovascular disease or stroke are unclear. We sought to evaluate the appropriate UA levels for stroke patients and the association between endogenous UA levels and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, particularly regarding the possible interaction between gender and UA levels with respect to AIS prognosis. We examined 303 patients who had an onset of ischemic stroke within 48 h. Of those, 101 patients received thrombolytic treatment. Serum UA (μmol/L) levels were measured the second morning after admission. Patient prognosis was evaluated 90 days after clinical onset by modified Rankin Scale. Patients were divided into four groups according to serum UA quartiles. A binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess clinical relevance in regard to functional outcome and endogenous UA levels. Analysis of subgroups by gender and normal glomerular filtration rate were also been done. Poor functional outcome was associated with older age, history of atrial fibrillation, or higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with higher UA levels (>380 μmol/L) or lower UA levels (≤250 μmol/L) were 2-3 times more likely to have a poor outcome (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.14-7.61; OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02-7.58, respectively) compared to the baseline group (UA level 316-380 μmol/L). The same results were observed in thrombolyzed patients. Patients with high and low UA levels were 9-18 times more likely to having poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 316-380 μmol/L; OR 18.50, 95% CI: 2.041-167.67; OR 9.66, 95% CI 1.42-65.88, respectively). In men, patients with high UA levels were 6 times more likely to have poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 279-334 μmol/L; OR 6.10, 95% CI 1.62-22.93). However, female patients with UA level 271-337 μmol/L were seven times more

  6. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown).

    PubMed

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona Jm; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to "light on." The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The "dark" IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways. PMID:26382914

  7. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown).

    PubMed

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona Jm; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to "light on." The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The "dark" IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways.

  8. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  9. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  10. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  11. Estimation of Free, Conjugated, and Diffusible Indole-3-acetic Acid in Etiolated Maize Shoots by the Indolo-α-pyrone Fluorescence Method

    PubMed Central

    Iino, Moritoshi; Carr, Denis J.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for estimating free indoleacetic acid (IAA extracted from tissue homogenates by aqueous acetone), conjugated IAA (extracted by aqueous acetone and hydrolyzed by 1 n KOH), and diffusible IAA (diffused from the excised tissue into water), in shoots of etiolated 3-day-old maize (Zea mays L. cv. GH 390) seedlings are described, the indolo-α-pyrone fluorescence method being used to assay IAA. The reliability of the procedure is shown by comparative IAA determinations of the extracts using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in which the methyl ester, heptafluorobutyryl derivative of IAA is assayed using the selected-ion-monitoring technique with deuterated IAA as an internal standard. A 3-millimeter-long coleoptile tip, a coleoptile with its included leaves and nodal region (whole coleoptile), and a mesocotyl each contains 0.2, 1.7, and 1.5 nanograms of free IAA, respectively. The whole coleoptile and the mesocotyl contain slightly less conjugated IAA than their content of free IAA. IAA diffuses from the coleoptile tip at the rate of 1.0 nanograms per tip per hour; from the base of the whole coleoptile and a set of leaves excised from a coleoptile, IAA diffuses at the rate of 0.62 and 0.17 nanogram per plant part per hour, respectively. The data obtained support the classical assumption that the coleoptile tip produces IAA. It is also suggested that some IAA is decomposed during its downward transport in the coleoptile. PMID:16662325

  12. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.

  13. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  14. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K.; Fuiman, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  15. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs.

  16. What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels?

    PubMed

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-09-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency.

  17. What is the Relationship between Gestational Age and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (ARA) Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. PMID:26205427

  18. Indoleacetic Acid and the Synthesis of Glucanases and Pectic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Datko, Anne Harmon; Maclachlan, G. A.

    1968-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA) and/or inhibitors of DNA, RNA or protein synthesis were added to the apex of decapitated seedlings of Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska. At various times up to 4 days, enzymic protein was extracted from a segment of epicotyl immediately below the apex and assayed for its ability to hydrolyse polysaccharides or their derivatives. With the exception of amylase, the total amounts per segment of all of the tested enzymes increased due to IAA treatment. The development of β-1,4-glucanase (cellulase) activity per unit of protein or fresh weight proceeded according to a typical sigmoid induction curve. Pectinase was formed for about 2 days in control segments and IAA treatment resulted in continued synthesis for at least another 2 days provided cell division took place. β-1,3-glucanase and pectinesterase activities were only enhanced by IAA to the extent that total protein levels increased. Reaction mechanisms for these effects and functions for the enzymes during growth are discussed. PMID:16656834

  19. The IAA Cosmic Study 'Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Petra; Hofmann, Mahulena; Williamson, Mark

    The study group tasked with producing this International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) `Cosmic Study' on Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies was formed under the aus-pices of IAA Commission V (Space Policy, Law Economy). The members of the international, multidisciplinary team assembled to undertake the Study accept, as a premise, the Planetary Protection Policy guidelines developed by COSPAR, which differentiate the degree of protec-tion according to the type of space activity and the celestial body under investigation (such that fly-by missions have less stringent requirements than lander missions, while Mars is `better protected' than the Moon). However, this Study goes deliberately beyond the interpretation of `Planetary Protection' as a set of methods for protecting the planets from biological con-tamination and extends consideration to the geophysical, industrial and cultural realms. The Study concludes that, from the perspective of current and future activities in outer space, present measures aimed at protecting the space environment are insufficient. Deficiencies in-clude a lack of suitable in-situ methods of chemical and biological detection and the absence of a systematic record of radioactive contaminants. Other issues identified by the Study include an insufficient legal framework, a shortage of effective economic tools and a lack of political will to address these concerns. It is expected that new detection methods under development, and the resultant increase in microbiological knowledge of the planetary surfaces, will lead to changes in the COSPAR planetary protection guidelines and bioburden limits. It is important, however, that any new approaches should not hamper future exploration and exploitation of celestial bodies more than absolutely necessary. The Study addresses the need to find a balance between protection and freedom of action. From a legal perspective, the Study concludes that a general consensus on protection of the

  20. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  1. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  2. Amide-conjugated indole-3-acetic acid and adventitious root formation in mung bean cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Norcini, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate further the relationship between amide-conjugated auxin and adventitious root formation. Indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAA-aspartate) was positively identified as the predominant conjugate isolated from mung bean cuttings after the cuttings has been treated with 10/sup -3/ M IAA. In cuttings treated with (1-/sup 14/C)IAA immediately after excision (0 hr), the percent of extractable /sup 14/C in IAA-aspartate in the hypocotyl sharply increased until 36 hr, then steadily declined. (/sup 14/C)IAA was completely metabolized between 12 and 24 hr. The rooting activities of IAA-L-aspartate, IAA-L-alanine, and IAA-glycine were determined at various stages of root formation; some cuttings were pretreated with 10/sup -3/ M IAA at 0 hr. Pretreated cuttings that were treated with IAA-glycine at 12, 24, 36 hr exhibited the greatest consistency between replications, the greatest number of long roots, and the longest roots. The conjugates did not stimulate rooting as effectively as IAA, yet like IAA, generally enhanced rooting the greatest when applied before the first cell division (24 hr).

  3. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  4. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  5. Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and γ-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-α-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid and L-α-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

  6. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  7. IAA8 Involved in Lateral Root Formation Interacts with the TIR1 Auxin Receptor and ARF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Nishimoto, Nami; Sakurai, Sumiko; Sakamoto, Naho; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2012-01-01

    The expression of auxin-responsive genes is regulated by the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor-dependent degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, which interact with auxin-responsive factors (ARFs). Most of the 29 Aux/IAA genes present in Arabidopsis have not been functionally characterized to date. IAA8 appears to have a distinct function from the other Aux/IAA genes, due to its unique transcriptional response to auxin and the stability of its encoded protein. In this study, we characterized the function of Arabidopsis IAA8 in various developmental processes governed by auxin and in the transcriptional regulation of the auxin response. Transgenic plants expressing estrogen-inducible IAA8 (XVE::IAA8) exhibited significantly fewer lateral roots than the wild type, and an IAA8 loss-of-function mutant exhibited significantly more. Ectopic overexpression of IAA8 resulted in abnormal gravitropism. The strong induction of early auxin-responsive marker genes by auxin treatment was delayed by IAA8 overexpression. GFP-fusion analysis revealed that IAA8 localized not only to the nucleus, but, in contrast to other Aux/IAAs, also to the cytosol. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IAA8 interacts with TIR1, in an auxin-dependent fashion, and with ARF proteins, both in yeast and in planta. Taken together, our results show that IAA8 is involved in lateral root formation, and that this process is regulated through the interaction with the TIR1 auxin receptor and ARF transcription factors in the nucleus. PMID:22912871

  8. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  9. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants.

  10. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants. PMID:17043314

  11. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  12. Monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products inhibit follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Clara H; Gao, Liying; Dettro, Tyler; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Ricke, William A; Plewa, Michael J; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-07-01

    Water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases, but the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in water leads to the formation of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs have been shown to be toxic, but their effects on the ovary are not well defined. This study tested the hypothesis that monohalogenated DBPs (chloroacetic acid, CAA; bromoacetic acid, BAA; iodoacetic acid, IAA) inhibit antral follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian follicles. Antral follicles were isolated and cultured with either vehicle or DBPs (0.25-1.00mM of CAA; 2-15μM of BAA or IAA) for 48 and 96h. Follicle growth was measured every 24h and the media were analyzed for estradiol levels at 96h. Exposure to DBPs significantly inhibited antral follicle growth and reduced estradiol levels compared to controls. These data demonstrate that DBP exposure caused ovarian toxicity in vitro. PMID:27151372

  13. Endogenous Abscisic Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Somatic Embryogenesis in Cultured Leaf Explants of Pennisetum purpureum Schum. 1

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Hein, Mich B.; Vasil, Indra K.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of application in vivo of glyphosate, fluridone, and paclobutrazol to glasshouse-grown donor plants of Pennisetum purpureum Schum. on endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in young leaves and on somatic embryogenesis in cultured leaf explants were studied. Treatment of plants with glyphosate (100 milligrams per liter) resulted in elevated levels of endogenous ABA and IAA in young leaves. In contrast, paclobutrazol (50% active ingredient; 200 milligrams per liter) did not alter the endogenous levels of ABA and IAA. Fluridone (100 milligrams per liter) markedly inhibited synthesis of ABA and leaf explants from fluridone-treated plants lost the capacity for somatic embryogenesis. Explants from glyphosate- or paclobutrazol-treated plants did not show any reduction in embryogenic capacity when compared with untreated control plants. Glyphosate and fluridone were also incorporated into the culture media at various concentrations (0 to 20 milligrams per liter) to study their effects in vitro on somatic embryogenesis in leaf explants from untreated, field-grown plants. Glyphosate was inhibitory to somatic embryogenesis but only at concentrations above 5 milligrams per liter. Fluridone inhibited somatic embryogenesis at all concentrations tested. Inhibition of somatic embryogenesis by fluridone, by either in vivo or in vitro application, could be overcome partially by (±)-ABA added to the culture medium. Exogenous application of (±)-ABA enhanced somatic embryogenesis and reduced the formation of nonembryogenic callus. Application of IAA or gibberellic acid (GA3; >5 milligrams per liter) was inhibitory to somatic embryogenesis. These results indicate that endogenous ABA is one of the important factors controlling the embryogenic capacity of leaf explants in Napier grass. PMID:16665403

  14. Heavy metal levels and delta-amino-levulinic acid dehydrase levels in peripheral polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, B; Clausen, J; Rastogi, S C

    1976-04-01

    On the basis of assay of heavy metals in whole blood (lead, cadimum, chromium, copper, nickel and manganese) and delta-amino-levulinic-acid dehydrase (ALA-D) and ALA in urine in a normal Danish population, the levels of these clinco-chemical factors were assayed in 23 patients with peripheral neuropathy of unknown etiology. All patients studied showed electro-physiological sign of denervation and/or reduced motor or sensoric nerve conduction velocity. Cadmium and manganese were never found to be increased. In all but four patients, an increase of one or more heavy metals was found. Ten patients showed raised levels of two or more metals, the dominant metal being lead (10 cases), nine patients showed increased in chromium. A significant corrleation was found between increasing lead levels and decreasing ALA-D activity. Although normal concentrations of manganese were found, correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between increased manganese and decreased ALA-D. The raised values of heavy metals could not be traced to occupational or other exposure to heavy metals and the increased values were not related to tobacco consumption. The findings are discussed in relation to known data on neuropathy and the results seem to indicate a multifactorial patholgenesis of the disease. Among factors contributing to the precipitation of the syndrome may be raised levels of heavy metals.

  15. Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA V5R_O3_224 ozone profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeng, A.; Grabowski, U.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Sofieva, V.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Hubert, D.; Bathgate, T.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C. D.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.; Damadeo, R.; Degenstein, D.; Frith, S.; Froidevaux, L.; Gille, J.; Hoppel, K.; McHugh, M.; Kasai, Y.; Lumpe, J.; Rapoe, N.; Toon, G.; Sano, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tamminen, J.; Urban, J.; Walker, K.; Weber, M.; Zawodny, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of an extensive validation program of the most recent version of ozone vertical profiles retrieved with the IMK/IAA MIPAS research level 2 processor from version 5 spectral Level 1 data. The time period covered corresponds to the reduced spectral resolution period of the MIPAS instrument, i.e. January 2005-April 2012. The comparison with satellite instruments includes all post-2005 satellite limb and occultation sensors having measured the vertical profiles of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone: ACE-FTS, GOMOS, HALOE, HIRDLS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM, SAGE II, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. In addition, balloon-borne MkIV solar occultation measurements and groundbased Umkehr measurements have been included, as well as two nadir sensors: IASI and SBUV. For each reference dataset, bias determination and precision assessment are performed. Better agreement with reference instruments than for the previous data version, V5R_O3_220 (Laeng et al., 2013), is found: the known high bias around the ozone vmr peak is significantly reduced and the vertical resolution at 35 km has been improved. The agreement with limb and solar occultation reference instruments that have a known small bias vs. ozone sondes is within 7% in the lower and middle stratosphere and 5% in the upper troposphere. Around the ozone vmr peak, the agreement with most of satellite reference instruments is within 5%; this bias is as low as 3% for ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM and SBUV.

  16. Space Weather Research at IAA/NOA: Solar Energetic Particle Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O.; Tylka, A. J.; Ng, C. K.; Marsden, R. G.; Tranquille, C.; Klein, K. L.; Patterson, J. D.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Papaioannou, A.; Marhavilas, P. K.; Tziotziou, K.; Crosby, N.; Vainio, R.

    2012-01-01

    During an eleven year cycle the Sun goes from quiet conditions at minimum to levels of high activity at maximum. In the latter case, energetic phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares (SFs) accompanied by explosive releases of mass, magnetic flux and solar energetic particles (SEPs) are common. Damaging effects, as a result of these phenomena, have been recorded on satellites, on-board detectors and in extreme cases on ground based systems (e.g. oil and natural gas pipelines, communication systems, aircraft electronics, power-grids). Furthermore, the intense SEP radiation can damage human DNA and cause cell replications. To this end, ensuring the safety of astronauts working in the extreme conditions of space, especially the energetic particle environments, is a key goal for both ESA and NASA. The analysis, the risk assessment and management and the possible forecasting of such events constitutes the scientific field of Space Weather. The Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IAA) of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) is currently strongly involved in two collaborative projects funded by the seventh framework program of the European Union, namely: 'SEPServer' and 'COMESEP'. 'SEPServer' focuses on the implementation of a comprehensive and up to date SEP analysis service including scientific data driven analysis both for 1 AU and for > 1 AU using data from the SOHO/ ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM, ACE/SIS, WIND/3DP, Ulysses/HISCALE, Ulysses/COSPIN/LET and Ulysses/COSPIN/KET experiments. SEPServer will also provide for the first time the release of the HELIOS data set in a reasonable format and in full time resolution, thus making available data also for orbits inside 1 AU (down to 0.3 AU). Observational data-driven analysis methods such as: onset determination, velocity dispersion, and/or time-shifting analysis, direct comparison of observed SEP fluxes, spectra and abundance ratios with the associated electromagnetic emission data will be

  17. Chicoric Acid Levels in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...

  18. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  19. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach ‘Goldhoney 3’ and the stony hard flesh peach ‘Yumyeong’ during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach. PMID:26307136

  20. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach.

  1. Effect of supplemental folic acid on valproic acid-induced embryotoxicity and tissue zinc levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D K; Grafton, T F; Dial, S L; Gehring, T A; Siitonen, P H

    1995-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-convulsant drug known to cause spina bifida in humans. Administration of the vitamin, folic acid, has been shown to decrease the recurrence and possibly also the occurrence of neural tube defects, primarily spina bifida, in humans. Additionally, treatment with a derivative (folinic acid) of folic acid has been reported to decrease the frequency of VPA-induced exencephaly in mice treated with the drug in vivo. A protective effect by folinic acid has not been observed in vitro. The purpose of this investigation was to reexamine the ability of folinic acid to decrease the incidence of VPA-induced neural tube defects in vivo. We also examined the effect of increased intake of folic acid on zinc levels in various maternal and embryonic tissues. Folinic acid, whether administered by intraperitoneal injection or in osmotic mini-pumps, did not decrease the number of mouse fetuses with VPA-induced exencephaly. Dietary supplementation with 10-20 times the daily required intake of folic acid in rodents also failed to decrease the embryotoxicity of VPA. Such dietary supplementation had no effect on zinc levels in maternal liver, brain, or kidney, nor in embryonic tissues. These results indicate that folic acid is not able to reverse the embryotoxicity induced by the anticonvulsant, that there is no apparent effect of high dietary folate intake on maternal or embryonic zinc levels and suggest that folate is probably not involved in the mechanism of VPA-induced embryotoxicity. PMID:8838251

  2. Origin and basipetal transport of the IAA responsible for rooting of carnation cuttings.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Germán; Ramón Guerrero, Juan; Angel Cano, Emilio; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2002-02-01

    The origin and transport of the IAA responsible for rooting was studied in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cuttings obtained from secondary shoots of the mother plants. The presence of mature leaves in the cuttings was essential for rooting. Removal of the apex and/or the youngest leaves did not reduce the rooting percentage as long as mature leaves remained attached. Removal of mature leaves inhibited rooting for a 24-day period during which the basal leaves grew and reached maturity. After this period rooting progressed as in intact cuttings. Auxin (NAA + IBA) applied to the stem base of defoliated cuttings was about 60% as effective as mature leaves in stimulating rooting. Application of NPA to the basal internode resulted in full inhibition of rooting. The view, deduced from these results, that auxin from mature leaves is the main factor controlling the rooting process was reinforced by the fact that mature leaves contained IAA and exported labelled IAA to the stem. The distribution of radioactivity after application of (5-3H)-IAA to mature leaves showed that auxin movement in the stem was basipetal and sensitive to NPA inhibition. The features of this transport were studied by applying 3H-IAA to the apical cut surface of stem sections excised from cuttings. The intensity of the transport was lower in the oldest node than in the basal internode, probably due to the presence of vascular traces of leaves. Irrespective of the localization of the sections and the carnation cultivar used, basipetal IAA transport was severely reduced when the temperature was lowered from 25 to 4 degrees C. The polar nature of the IAA transport in the sections was confirmed by the inhibition produced by NPA. Local application of IAA to different tissues of the sections revealed that polar auxin transport was associated with the vascular cylinder, the transport in the pith and cortex being low and apolar. The present results strongly support the conclusion that IAA originating

  3. MASSUGU2 encodes Aux/IAA19, an auxin-regulated protein that functions together with the transcriptional activator NPH4/ARF7 to regulate differential growth responses of hypocotyl and formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Kumagai, Satoshi; Muto, Hideki; Sato, Atsuko; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Harper, Reneé M; Liscum, Emmanuel; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2004-02-01

    We have isolated a dominant, auxin-insensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, massugu2 (msg2), that displays neither hypocotyl gravitropism nor phototropism, fails to maintain an apical hook as an etiolated seedling, and is defective in lateral root formation. Yet other aspects of growth and development of msg2 plants are almost normal. These characteristics of msg2 are similar to those of another auxin-insensitive mutant, non-phototropic hypocotyl4 (nph4), which is a loss-of-function mutant of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 (ARF7) (Harper et al., 2000). Map-based cloning of the MSG2 locus reveals that all four mutant alleles result in amino acid substitutions in the conserved domain II of an Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid protein, IAA19. Interestingly, auxin inducibility of MSG2/IAA19 gene expression is reduced by 65% in nph4/arf7. Moreover, MSG2/IAA19 protein binds to the C-terminal domain of NPH4/ARF7 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) two-hybrid assay and to the whole latter protein in vitro by pull-down assay. These results suggest that MSG2/IAA19 and NPH4/ARF7 may constitute a negative feedback loop to regulate differential growth responses of hypocotyls and lateral root formation.

  4. Fatty acid profiles in relation to triglyceride level in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Mohamed, Tharwat; Goto, Akiko; Oikawa, Shin; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate possible relationships between triglyceride (TG) levels and fatty acid composition in bovine liver, hepatic TG and seven individual fatty acids were measured in 23 Holstein dairy cows, of them 6 are healthy. Liver TG level was greater than 3 % in 12 cows which were ruled fatty liver. Palmitic and oleic acid proportions were significantly higher in fatty liver cows than in the healthy cows, while stearic acid was lower in fatty liver cows. With increased liver TG, stearic acid proportions decreased dramatically. Results indicate that hepatic lipidosis markedly alters the proportions of the various fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

  5. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  6. Superiority of radiobinding assay over ELISA for detection of IAAs in newly diagnosed type I diabetic children

    SciTech Connect

    Levy-Marchal, C.; Bridel, M.P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Koch, M.; Tichet, J.; Czernichow, P.; Sodoyez, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Liquid- or solid-phase assays have been used for insulin autoantibody (IAA) determination, and the method of IAA measurement has not been standardized. IAAs were determined by radiobinding assay (RBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in two large age-matched groups of nondiabetic and newly diagnosed insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic children. Positivity for IAA by RBA (greater than or equal to nondiabetic mean + 3SD) was 2 of 178 (1.1%) and 55 of 173 (32%) in nondiabetic and diabetic children, respectively. Prevalence of IAA by RBA was significantly higher in the youngest age-group (63% between 0-4 yr). Positivity for IAA by ELISA was 1 of 178 (0.6%) and 8 of 169 (4.7%) in nondiabetic and diabetic children, respectively. Concordance rates between both assays were 0 of 3 (0%) in control subjects and 5 of 58 (8.6%) in diabetic children. We conclude that RBA is more appropriate than ELISA for IAA detection at the onset of the disease. In addition, because available data suggest that IAAs detected by RBA only are high-affinity antibodies, it is tempting to speculate that IAAs reflect a mature immune reaction against endogenous insulin.

  7. Variation in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Its Effect on Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Yu; Chen, Hung-Wei; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common naturally occurring and most thoroughly studied plant growth regulator. Microbial synthesis of IAA has long been known. Microbial IAA biosynthesis has been proposed as possibly occurring through multiple pathways, as has been proven in plants. However, the biosynthetic pathways of IAA and the ecological roles of IAA in yeast have not been widely studied. In this study, we investigated the variation in IAA production and its effect on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative Saccharomyces paradoxus yeasts from diverse ecological sources. We found that almost all Saccharomyces yeasts produced IAA when cultured in medium supplemented with the primary precursor of IAA, L-tryptophan (L-Trp). However, when cultured in medium without L-Trp, IAA production was only detected in three strains. Furthermore, exogenous added IAA exerted stimulatory and inhibitory effects on yeast growth. Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed between the amount of IAA production in the yeast cultures and the IAA inhibition ratio of their growth. PMID:27483373

  8. Variation in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Its Effect on Growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Yu; Chen, Hung-Wei; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common naturally occurring and most thoroughly studied plant growth regulator. Microbial synthesis of IAA has long been known. Microbial IAA biosynthesis has been proposed as possibly occurring through multiple pathways, as has been proven in plants. However, the biosynthetic pathways of IAA and the ecological roles of IAA in yeast have not been widely studied. In this study, we investigated the variation in IAA production and its effect on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative Saccharomyces paradoxus yeasts from diverse ecological sources. We found that almost all Saccharomyces yeasts produced IAA when cultured in medium supplemented with the primary precursor of IAA, L-tryptophan (L-Trp). However, when cultured in medium without L-Trp, IAA production was only detected in three strains. Furthermore, exogenous added IAA exerted stimulatory and inhibitory effects on yeast growth. Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed between the amount of IAA production in the yeast cultures and the IAA inhibition ratio of their growth. PMID:27483373

  9. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  10. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer.

  11. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  12. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  13. The manipulation of auxin in the abscission zone cells of Arabidopsis flowers reveals that indoleacetic acid signaling is a prerequisite for organ shedding.

    PubMed

    Basu, Manojit M; González-Carranza, Zinnia H; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Tang, Shouya; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Roberts, Jeremy A

    2013-05-01

    A number of novel strategies were employed to examine the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in regulating floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of auxin influx facilitator expression in β-glucuronidase reporter plants revealed that AUXIN RESISTANT1, LIKE AUX1, and LAX3 were specifically up-regulated at the site of floral organ shedding. Flowers from mutants where individual family members were down-regulated exhibited a reduction in the force necessary to bring about petal separation; however, the effect was not additive in double or quadruple mutants. Using the promoter of a polygalacturonase (At2g41850), active primarily in cells undergoing separation, to drive expression of the bacterial genes iaaL and iaaM, we have shown that it is possible to manipulate auxin activity specifically within the floral organ abscission zone (AZ). Analysis of petal breakstrength reveals that if IAA AZ levels are reduced, shedding takes place prematurely, while if they are enhanced, organ loss is delayed. The At2g41850 promoter was also used to transactivate the gain-of-function AXR3-1 gene in order to disrupt auxin signaling specifically within the floral organ AZ cells. Flowers from transactivated lines failed to shed their sepals, petals, and anthers during pod expansion and maturity, and these organs frequently remained attached to the plant even after silique desiccation and dehiscence had taken place. These observations support a key role for IAA in the regulation of abscission in planta and reveal, to our knowledge for the first time, a requirement for a functional IAA signaling pathway in AZ cells for organ shedding to take place.

  14. Localization of IAA transporting tissue by tissue printing and autoradiography. [Coleus; maize

    SciTech Connect

    Mee-Rye Cha; Evans, M.L.; Hangarter, R.P. )

    1991-05-01

    Tissue printing on nitrocellulose membranes provides a useful technique for visualizing anatomical details of tissue morphology of cut ends of stem segments. Basal ends of Coleus stem and corn coleoptile segments that were transporting {sup 14}C-IAA were gently blotted onto DEAE-nitrocellulose for several minutes to allow {sup 14}C-IAA to efflux from the tissue. Because of the anion exchange properties of DEAE-nitrocellulose the {sup 14}C-IAA remains on the membrane at the point it leaves the transporting tissue. Autoradiography of the DEAE membrane allowed indirect visualization of the tissues preferentially involved in auxin transport. The authors observed that polar transport through the stem segments occurred primarily through or in association with vascular tissues. However, in Coleus stems, substantial amounts of the label appeared to move through the tissue by diffusion as well as by active transport.

  15. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Contains Two iaaL Paralogs, One of Which Exhibits a Variable Number of a Trinucleotide (TAC) Tandem Repeat▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Isabel M.; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Quesada, José M.; Rodríguez-Herva, José J.; Penyalver, Ramón; Ramos, Cayo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi isolates were demonstrated to contain two iaaL paralogs, which are both chromosomally located in most strains. Comparative analysis of iaaL nucleotide sequences amplified from these two paralogs revealed that one paralog, iaaLPsn, is 100% identical to iaaL from P. savastanoi pv. nerii, while the other paralog, iaaLPsv, exhibited 93% identity to iaaL from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (iaaLPto). A 3-nucleotide motif (TAC) comprised of 3 to 15 repeats, which remained stable after propagation of the strains in olive plants, was found in iaaLPsv. Based on the observed nucleotide sequence variations, a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed that allowed differentiation among iaaLPsn, iaaLPsv, and iaaLPto. In addition, reverse transcriptase PCR on total RNA from P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains demonstrated that both iaaLPsv and iaaLPsn containing 14 or fewer TAC repeats are transcribed. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments containing the TAC repeats from iaaLPsv allowed the differentiation of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi isolates. PMID:19098222

  16. Modulation of sialic acid levels among some organs during insulin resistance or hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Onojah, Alice; Sani, Lawal; Adamu, Auwal; Abdullahi, Hadiza

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a possible connection between insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia with membrane sialic acid content. In this study, the effects of high (20% ad libitum) fructose and glucose feeding on the sialic acid levels of some organs were investigated in rats. The blood glucose levels of the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats were consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the normal control throughout the experiment. Free serum sialic acid and total hepatic sialic acid levels were elevated in the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats compared to normal control, but only the data for the high glucose-fed group were significantly (P < 0.05) different from the normal control. Conversely, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the pancreatic sialic acid level was observed in high glucose-fed group compared to normal control. Also, the high fructose-fed rats had lower, but insignificant (P > 0.05), pancreatic sialic acid level than the normal control. On the other hand, high fructose and glucose feeding did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the sialic acid levels of the skeletal muscle and heart, though a tendency to increase the sialic acid level was evident in the heart. In the kidney, the sialic acid level was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in both high fructose- and glucose-fed groups. It was concluded that the liver and kidney tend to stimulate sialic acid synthesis, while the pancreas downregulate sialic acids synthesis and/or promote sialic acid release from glycoconjugates. Also, these organs may contribute to high-serum sialic acid level observed during diabetes. PMID:26468092

  17. High levels of stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and low levels of linoleic acid in serum cholesterol ester are associated with high insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Kayo; Sato, Masao; Ejima, Yuko; Nanri, Akiko; Yi, Siyan; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Akter, Shamima; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Kimura, Yasumi; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    The association of fatty acid composition with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been reported in Western populations, but there is limited evidence of this association among the Japanese, whose populace consume large amounts of fish. To test the hypothesis that high palmitic, palmitoleic, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids and low levels of linoleic and n-3 fatty acids are associated with higher insulin resistance among the Japanese, the authors investigated the relationship between serum fatty acid composition and serum C-peptide concentrations in 437 Japanese employees aged 21 to 67 years who participated in a workplace health examination. Serum cholesterol ester and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Desaturase activity was estimated by fatty acid product-to-precursor ratios. A multiple regression was used to assess the association between fatty acid and C-peptide concentrations. C-peptide concentrations were associated inversely with linoleic acid levels in cholesterol ester and phospholipid (P for trend = .01 and .02, respectively) and positively with stearic and palmitoleic acids in cholesterol ester (P for trend =.02 and .006, respectively) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in cholesterol ester and phospholipid (P for trend < .0001 for both). C-peptide concentrations were not associated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. C-peptide concentrations significantly increased as δ-9-desaturase (16:1 n-7/16:0) and δ-6-desaturase (18:3 n-6/18:2 n-6) increased (P for trend = .01 and .03, respectively) and δ-5-desaturase (20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6) decreased (P for trend = .004). In conclusion, a fatty acid pattern with high levels of serum stearic, palmitoleic, or dihomo-γ-linolenic acids; δ-9-desaturase (16:1 n-7/16:0) or δ-6-desaturase (18:3 n-6/18:2 n-6) activities; and low levels of serum linoleic acid or δ-5-desaturase (20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6) activity might be associated with higher insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

  18. Myo-Inositol Esters of Indole-3-acetic Acid as Seed Auxin Precursors of Zea mays L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Janusz; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1980-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters constitute 30% of the low molecular weight derivatives of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in seeds of Zea mays. [14C]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to a cut in the endosperm of the seed and found to be transported from endosperm to shoot at 400 times the rate of transport of free IAA. The rate of transport of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from endosperm to shoot was 6.3 picomoles per shoot per hour and thus adequate to serve as the seed auxin precursor for the free IAA diffusing downward from the shoot tip. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol is the first seed auxin precursor to be identified. Application of either [14C]IAA or 14C-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol ester to the endosperm results in both free and esterified [14C]IAA in the seedling shoot. Esterification of free IAA and hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurred in the shoot and not the endosperm yielding ratios of ester to free IAA which approximate the ratios of ester to free IAA normally found in corn shoot tissue. This proves, for the first time, that esterified IAA and free IAA are interconvertible in the growing shoot. Since free IAA may be limiting for plant growth, knowledge that the free hormone is in “equilibrium” with its conjugates suggests new methods for the control of plant growth. PMID:16661205

  19. Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA V5R_O3_224 ozone profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeng, A.; Grabowski, U.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Sofieva, V.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Hubert, D.; Bathgate, T.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C. D.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.; Damadeo, R.; Degenstein, D.; Frith, S.; Froidevaux, L.; Gille, J.; Hoppel, K.; McHugh, M.; Kasai, Y.; Lumpe, J.; Rahpoe, N.; Toon, G.; Sano, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tamminen, J.; Urban, J.; Walker, K.; Weber, M.; Zawodny, J.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an extensive validation program of the most recent version of ozone vertical profiles retrieved with the IMK/IAA (Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research/Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía) MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) research level 2 processor from version 5 spectral level 1 data. The time period covered corresponds to the reduced spectral resolution period of the MIPAS instrument, i.e., January 2005-April 2012. The comparison with satellite instruments includes all post-2005 satellite limb and occultation sensors that have measured the vertical profiles of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone: ACE-FTS, GOMOS, HALOE, HIRDLS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM, SAGE II, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. In addition, balloon-borne MkIV solar occultation measurements and ground-based Umkehr measurements have been included, as well as two nadir sensors: IASI and SBUV. For each reference data set, bias determination and precision assessment are performed. Better agreement with reference instruments than for the previous data version, V5R_O3_220 (Laeng et al., 2014), is found: the known high bias around the ozone vmr (volume mixing ratio) peak is significantly reduced and the vertical resolution at 35 km has been improved. The agreement with limb and solar occultation reference instruments that have a known small bias vs. ozonesondes is within 7% in the lower and middle stratosphere and 5% in the upper troposphere. Around the ozone vmr peak, the agreement with most of the satellite reference instruments is within 5%; this bias is as low as 3% for ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM and SBUV.

  20. Determination of Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Plagiochila arctica (Hepaticae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Basile, Dominick V.; Basile, Margaret R.

    1985-01-01

    Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was found in axenically cultured gametophytes of the leafy liverwort, Plagiochila arctica Bryhn and Kaal., by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Identification of the methylated auxin was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Addition of 57 micromolar IAA to cultures increased relative production of ethylene. This is the first definitive (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) demonstration of the natural occurrence of IAA in a bryophyte. PMID:16664164

  1. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  2. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  3. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes. PMID:26201386

  4. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes.

  5. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  6. Serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Korean patients with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Kim, S M; Kim, Y K; Hann, S K

    1999-06-01

    The association of vitiligo and pernicious anemia has been previously documented. The low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were thought to be related to vitiligo. To date, there have been very few reports about the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo. Using radioimmunoassay, we measured the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in 100 Korean patients with vitiligo. The mean serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were 6.31 +/- 2.82 ng/ml and 630.25 +/- 230.94 pg/ml, respectively, in patients with vitiligo. These levels showed no significant difference compared to the normal control group, suggesting that folic acid and vitamin B12 do not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

  7. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Is Produced by Emiliania huxleyi Coccolith-Bearing Cells and Triggers a Physiological Response in Bald Cells

    PubMed Central

    Labeeuw, Leen; Khey, Joleen; Bramucci, Anna R.; Atwal, Harjot; de la Mata, A. Paulina; Harynuk, James; Case, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an auxin produced by terrestrial plants which influences development through a variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altering cell orientation, organ development, fertility, and cell elongation. IAA is also produced by bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and algae, allowing them to manipulate growth and development of their host. They do so by either producing excess exogenous IAA or hijacking the IAA biosynthesis pathway of their host. The endogenous production of IAA by algae remains contentious. Using Emiliania huxleyi, a globally abundant marine haptophyte, we investigated the presence and potential role of IAA in algae. Homologs of genes involved in several tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathways were identified in E. huxleyi. This suggests that this haptophyte can synthesize IAA using various precursors derived from tryptophan. Addition of L-tryptophan to E. huxleyi stimulated IAA production, which could be detected using Salkowski's reagent and GC × GC-TOFMS in the C cell type (coccolith bearing), but not in the N cell type (bald). Various concentrations of IAA were exogenously added to these two cell types to identify a physiological response in E. huxleyi. The N cell type, which did not produce IAA, was more sensitive to it, showing an increased variation in cell size, membrane permeability, and a corresponding increase in the photosynthetic potential quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII). A roseobacter (bacteria commonly associated with E. huxleyi) Ruegeria sp. R11, previously shown to produce IAA, was co-cultured with E. huxleyi C and N cells. IAA could not be detected from these co-cultures, and even when stimulated by addition of L-tryptophan, they produced less IAA than axenic C type culture similarly induced. This suggests that IAA plays a novel role signaling between different E. huxleyi cell types, rather than between a bacteria and its algal host. PMID:27375567

  8. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Is Produced by Emiliania huxleyi Coccolith-Bearing Cells and Triggers a Physiological Response in Bald Cells.

    PubMed

    Labeeuw, Leen; Khey, Joleen; Bramucci, Anna R; Atwal, Harjot; de la Mata, A Paulina; Harynuk, James; Case, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an auxin produced by terrestrial plants which influences development through a variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altering cell orientation, organ development, fertility, and cell elongation. IAA is also produced by bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and algae, allowing them to manipulate growth and development of their host. They do so by either producing excess exogenous IAA or hijacking the IAA biosynthesis pathway of their host. The endogenous production of IAA by algae remains contentious. Using Emiliania huxleyi, a globally abundant marine haptophyte, we investigated the presence and potential role of IAA in algae. Homologs of genes involved in several tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathways were identified in E. huxleyi. This suggests that this haptophyte can synthesize IAA using various precursors derived from tryptophan. Addition of L-tryptophan to E. huxleyi stimulated IAA production, which could be detected using Salkowski's reagent and GC × GC-TOFMS in the C cell type (coccolith bearing), but not in the N cell type (bald). Various concentrations of IAA were exogenously added to these two cell types to identify a physiological response in E. huxleyi. The N cell type, which did not produce IAA, was more sensitive to it, showing an increased variation in cell size, membrane permeability, and a corresponding increase in the photosynthetic potential quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII). A roseobacter (bacteria commonly associated with E. huxleyi) Ruegeria sp. R11, previously shown to produce IAA, was co-cultured with E. huxleyi C and N cells. IAA could not be detected from these co-cultures, and even when stimulated by addition of L-tryptophan, they produced less IAA than axenic C type culture similarly induced. This suggests that IAA plays a novel role signaling between different E. huxleyi cell types, rather than between a bacteria and its algal host. PMID:27375567

  9. Nutrient salts promote light-induced degradation of indole-3-acetic Acid in tissue culture media.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, J R; Robacker, K M

    1988-10-01

    The disappearance of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from cell-free liquid culture medium was followed in response to nutrient salts found in Murashige-Skoog salt base, light, and pH range of 4 to 7. The loss of IAA was accelerated by light or Murashige-Skoog salts. However, the combination of both light and Murashige-Skoog salts acted synergistically to catalyze the destruction of over 80% of the original IAA within 7 days of continuous incubation. Under these same conditions, the loss of IAA was decreased to approximately 50% by adjusting the initial pH of the medium to 7. Iron was identified as the single major contributor to light-catalyzed destruction of IAA. Removal of nitrates, which represented 87% of the molar salt composition, also reduced the light-catalyzed loss of IAA. Treatments that protected IAA from degradation, such as darkness or removal of iron from the medium, suppressed the growth of muskmelon (Cucumis melo. Naud., var. reticulatus) callus tissue cultured for 30 days. Treatments in the light that rapidly degraded IAA resulted in maximum growth. Consequently, the brief exposure to IAA prior to degradation was apparently sufficient to initiate physiological changes required for growth. Possible approaches to the preservation of IAA during incubation are discussed. PMID:16666312

  10. Auxin Biosynthesis: Are the Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid Biosynthesis Pathways Mirror Images?

    PubMed

    Cook, Sam D; Nichols, David S; Smith, Jason; Chourey, Prem S; McAdam, Erin L; Quittenden, Laura; Ross, John J

    2016-06-01

    The biosynthesis of the main auxin in plants (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) has been elucidated recently and is thought to involve the sequential conversion of Trp to indole-3-pyruvic acid to IAA However, the pathway leading to a less well studied auxin, phenylacetic acid (PAA), remains unclear. Here, we present evidence from metabolism experiments that PAA is synthesized from the amino acid Phe, via phenylpyruvate. In pea (Pisum sativum), the reverse reaction, phenylpyruvate to Phe, is also demonstrated. However, despite similarities between the pathways leading to IAA and PAA, evidence from mutants in pea and maize (Zea mays) indicate that IAA biosynthetic enzymes are not the main enzymes for PAA biosynthesis. Instead, we identified a putative aromatic aminotransferase (PsArAT) from pea that may function in the PAA synthesis pathway. PMID:27208245

  11. Hydrogen bonding in phytohormone-auxin (IAA) and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Kroon, Jan; Puntarec, Vitomir

    1994-06-01

    The significant importance of hydrogen bonds in biological structures and enzymatic reactions has been demonstrated in many examples. As a part of the molecular recognition study of auxins (plant growth hormones) the influence of hydrogen bonding on molecular conformation, particularly of the carboxyl group, which is one of the biologically active ligand sites, has been studied by X-ray diffraction and computational chemistry methods. The survey includes about 40 crystal structures of free auxins such as indol-3-ylacetic acid and its n-alkylated and halogenated derivatives but also bound auxins such as N-(indol-3-ylacetyl)- L-amino acids, and carbohydrate conjugates. The study includes hydrogen bonds of the NH⋯O and OH⋯O types. The classification of hydrogen bond patterns based on the discrimination between the centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric space groups and several examples of hydrogen bond systematics on graph set analysis are also shown.

  12. Hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid inhibit histone deacetylase at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela I; Kim, Dong Hoon; Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Cho, Yoon Sun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA, 1), an inhibitor of IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and a latent PPARgamma agonist, is used as an effective immunosuppressant for clinical transplantation and recently entered clinical trials in advanced multiple myeloma patients. On the other hand, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a non-specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. MPA seemed to bear a cap, a linker, and a weak metal-binding site as a latent inhibitor of HDAC. Therefore, the hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid having an effective metal-binding site, mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (MPHA, 2), 7-O-acetyl mycophenolic acid (7-O-Ac MPHA, 3), and 7-O-lauroyl mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (7-O-L MPHA, 4) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds inhibited histone deacetylase with IC50 values of 1, 0.9 and 0.5 microM, and cell proliferation at concentrations of 2, 1.5 and 1 microM, respectively. PMID:18838793

  13. Hippuric Acid Levels in Paint Workers at Steel Furniture Manufacturers in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine hippuric acid levels in urine samples, airborne toluene levels, acute and chronic neurological symptoms, and to describe any correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene. Methods The hippuric acid concentration in the urine of 87 paint workers exposed to toluene at work (exposed group), and 87 nonexposed people (control group) was studied. Study participants were selected from similar factories in the same region. Urine samples were collected at the end of a shift and analyzed for hippuric acid by high performance liquid chromatography. Air samples for the estimation of toluene exposure were collected with diffusive personal samplers and the toluene quantified using gas–liquid chromatography. The two groups were also interviewed and observed about their work practices and health. Results The median of the 87 airborne toluene levels was 55 ppm (range, 12–198 ppm). The median urinary hippuric acid level was 800 mg/g creatinine (range, 90–2547 mg/g creatinine). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between airborne toluene exposure and urine hippuric acid levels (r = 0.548, p < 0.01). Workers with acute symptoms had significantly higher hippuric acid levels than those who did not (p < 0.05). It was concluded that there was a significant correlation between toluene exposure, hippuric acid levels, and health (p < 0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a significant correlation between workers exposure to toluene at work, their urine hippuric acid levels, and resulting symptoms of poor health. Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required at these workplaces. There was good correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene levels. PMID:25516817

  14. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  15. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown)

    PubMed Central

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona JM; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to “light on.” The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The “dark” IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways. PMID:26382914

  16. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  17. Polar transport and accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid during root regeneration by Pinus lambertiana embryos.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M S; Goldsmith, M H

    1970-12-01

    The relation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) transport to accumulation of auxin at the base of cuttings and to polar root formation was investigated with small cuttings from germinating embryos of Pinus lambertiana.The transport of endogenous auxin participates in regeneration of roots. This is shown by the facts that (1) more than 40% of the cuttings rooted without addition of exogenous indoleacetic acid; (2) the first regeneration always occurred at the basal tip of a slanting cut; and (3) 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), a specific inhibitor of auxin transport, totally inhibited rooting. Addition of IAA to the medium increased the number of roots formed per rooting hypocotyl.Sections of hypocotyls excised from dormant embryos and tested immediately after 2 h hydration were capable of polar transport of IAA. This polarity increased during the first 3 days of culture because of a marked increase in basipetal transport. Culturing the cuttings in 1 μM IAA for 3-5 days doubled both the basipetal transport of 1-(14)C-IAA by hypocotyl segments and the accumulation of radioactivity at the base of cuttings.The extent of the accumulation at the base of cuttings was similar at early (2 days, first mitoses) and late stages (5 days, organized meristem) of regeneration and was not affected by removal of the regenerating region immediately prior to uptake and transport of (14)C-IAA. The accumulation was inhibited by TIBA. In terms of increase in wet and dry weight and mitotic activity, the cotyledons rather than the regenerating root meristems were the most actively growing region of the cuttings. The upper part of the hypocotyl elongated more than the region of the slanting cut where regeneration was occurring.These results provide no support for the idea that the regenerating root controls the direction of polar transport by acting as a sink. The results are consistent with the view that polar auxin transport delivers auxin to the base of the cutting and raises the local

  18. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    López-Climent, María F.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain”) subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress. PMID:24977208

  19. The involvement of indole-3-acetic acid in the control of stem elongation in dark- and light-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sorce, Carlo; Picciarelli, Piero; Calistri, Gianni; Lercari, Bartolomeo; Ceccarelli, Nello

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of auxin on stem elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) grown for 10d in continuous darkness or under low-irradiance blue, red, far red and white light. The third internode of treated seedlings was peeled and the tissues (epidermis and cortex+central cylinder) were separately analyzed for the concentration of free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Under red, far red and white light internode elongation was linearly related with the free IAA content of all internode tissues, suggesting that phytochrome-dependent inhibition of stem growth may be mediated by a decrease of free IAA levels in pea seedlings. The correlation between IAA and internode elongation, however, did not hold for blue light-grown seedlings. The hypothesis that the growth response under low-irradiance blue light might be correlated with the lack of phytochrome B signalling and changes in gibberellin metabolism is discussed in view of current knowledge on hormonal control of stem growth. PMID:17706834

  20. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

  1. Effects of toxic work environments on sperm quality and ascorbic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )

    1990-02-26

    Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.

  2. Indole-3-acetic acid in Fusarium graminearum: Identification of biosynthetic pathways and characterization of physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Rocheleau, Hélène; Qi, Peng-Fei; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a devastating pathogenic fungus causing fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat. This fungus can produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a very large amount of IAA accumulates in wheat head tissues during the first few days of infection by F. graminearum. Using liquid culture conditions, we have determined that F. graminearum can use tryptamine (TAM) and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as biosynthetic intermediates to produce IAA. It is the first time that F. graminearum is shown to use the l-tryptophan-dependent TAM and IAN pathways rather than the indole-3-acetamide or indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways to produce IAA. Our experiments also showed that exogenous IAA was metabolized by F. graminearum. Exogenous IAA, TAM, and IAN inhibited mycelial growth; IAA and IAN also affected the hyphae branching pattern and delayed macroconidium germination. IAA and TAM had a small positive effect on the production of the mycotoxin 15-ADON while IAN inhibited its production. Our results showed that IAA and biosynthetic intermediates had a significant effect on F. graminearum physiology and suggested a new area of exploration for fungicidal compounds. PMID:27567719

  3. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  4. Identification and Analyses of AUX-IAA target genes controlling multiple pathways in developing fiber cells of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Deepti; Sawant, Samir V

    2013-01-01

    Technological development led to an increased interest in systems biological approaches in plants to characterize developmental mechanism and candidate genes relevant to specific tissue or cell morphology. AUX-IAA proteins are important plant-specific putative transcription factors. There are several reports on physiological response of this family in Arabidopsis but in cotton fiber the transcriptional network through which AUX-IAA regulated its target genes is still unknown. in-silico modelling of cotton fiber development specific gene expression data (108 microarrays and 22,737 genes) using Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe) reveals 3690 putative AUX-IAA target genes of which 139 genes were known to be AUX-IAA co-regulated within Arabidopsis. Further AUX-IAA targeted gene regulatory network (GRN) had substantial impact on the transcriptional dynamics of cotton fiber, as showed by, altered TF networks, and Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and metabolic pathway associated with its target genes. Analysis of the AUX-IAA-correlated gene network reveals multiple functions for AUX-IAA target genes such as unidimensional cell growth, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, nucleosome organization, DNA-protein complex and process related to cell wall. These candidate networks/pathways have a variety of profound impacts on such cellular functions as stress response, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. While these functions are fairly broad, their underlying TF networks may provide a global view of AUX-IAA regulated gene expression and a GRN that guides future studies in understanding role of AUX-IAA box protein and its targets regulating fiber development.

  5. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    sludge solids. We recommend that these results be evaluated further to determine if these solutions contain sufficient neutron poisons. We observed low general corrosion rates in tests in which carbon steel coupons were contacted with solutions of oxalic acid, citric acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acids. Wall thinning can be minimized by maintaining short contact times with these acid solutions. We recommend additional testing with oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures to measure dissolution performance of sludges that have not been previously dried. This testing should include tests to clearly ascertain the effects of total acid strength and metal complexation on dissolution performance. Further work should also evaluate the downstream impacts of citric acid on the SRS High-Level Waste System (e.g., radiochemical separations in the Salt Waste Processing Facility and addition of organic carbon in the Saltstone and Defense Waste Processing facilities).

  6. The tryptophan conjugates of jasmonic and indole-3-acetic acids are endogenous auxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Staswick, Paul E

    2009-07-01

    Most conjugates of plant hormones are inactive, and some function to reduce the active hormone pool. This study characterized the activity of the tryptophan (Trp) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Trp) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Unexpectedly, JA-Trp caused agravitropic root growth in seedlings, unlike JA or nine other JA-amino acid conjugates. The response was dose dependent from 1 to 100 microm, was independent of the COI1 jasmonate signaling locus, and unlike the jasmonate signal JA-isoleucine, JA-Trp minimally inhibited root growth. The Trp conjugate with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-Trp) produced a similar response, while Trp alone and conjugates with benzoic and cinnamic acids did not. JA-Trp and IAA-Trp at 25 microm nearly eliminated seedling root inhibition caused by 2 microm IAA. The TIR1 auxin receptor is required for activity because roots of tir1-1 grew only approximately 60% of wild-type length on IAA plus JA-Trp, even though tir1-1 is auxin resistant. However, neither JA-Trp nor IAA-Trp interfered with IAA-dependent interaction between TIR1 and Aux/IAA7 in cell-free assays. Trp conjugates inhibited IAA-stimulated lateral root production and DR5-beta-glucuronidase gene expression. JA-deficient mutants were hypersensitive to IAA and a Trp-overaccumulating mutant was less sensitive, suggesting endogenous conjugates affect auxin sensitivity. Conjugates were present at 5.8 pmol g(-1) fresh weight or less in roots, seedlings, leaves, and flowers, and the values increased approximately 10-fold in roots incubated in 25 microm Trp and IAA or JA at 2 microm. These results show that JA-Trp and IAA-Trp constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism to regulate auxin action.

  7. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    PubMed

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  8. Analysis of methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid at low microgram per liter levels in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1997-11-28

    A method is described for determining methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, which are hydrolysis products of the nerve agents VX (S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothiolate) and GB (sarin, isopropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate). The analytes are extracted from 50 ml groundwater using a solid-phase extraction column packed with 500 mg of silica with a bonded quaternary amine phase, and are eluted and derivatized with methanolic trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Separation and quantitation are achieved using a capillary column gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector operated in its phosphorus-selective mode. Two independent statistically-unbiased procedures were employed to determine the detection limits, which ranged between 3 and 9 micrograms/l, for the three analytes. PMID:9435117

  9. Effects of cochlear ablation on amino acid levels in the rat cochlear nucleus and superior olive.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Donald A; Jin, Yong-Ming; Liu, Xiaochen; Godfrey, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids have important roles in the chemistry of the auditory system, including communication among neurons. There is much evidence for glutamate as a neurotransmitter from auditory nerve fibers to cochlear nucleus neurons. Previous studies in rodents have examined effects of removal of auditory nerve input by cochlear ablation on levels, uptake and release of glutamate in cochlear nucleus subdivisions, as well as on glutamate receptors. Effects have also been reported on uptake and release of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glycine, two other amino acids strongly implicated in cochlear nucleus synaptic transmission. We mapped the effects of cochlear ablation on the levels of amino acids, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, aspartate, glutamine, taurine, serine, threonine, and arginine, in microscopic subregions of the rat cochlear nucleus. Submicrogram-size samples microdissected from freeze-dried brainstem sections were assayed for amino acid levels by high performance liquid chromatography. After cochlear ablation, glutamate and aspartate levels decreased by 2 days in regions receiving relatively dense innervation from the auditory nerve, whereas the levels of most other amino acids increased. The results are consistent with a close association of glutamate and aspartate with auditory nerve fibers and of other amino acids with other neurons and glia in the cochlear nucleus. A consistent decrease of GABA level in the lateral superior olive could be consistent with a role in some lateral olivocochlear neurons. The results are compared with those obtained with the same methods for the rat vestibular nerve root and nuclei after vestibular ganglionectomy.

  10. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ameliorate amyloid-beta and tau pathology via a mechanism involving presenilin 1 levels.

    PubMed

    Green, Kim N; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Khashwji, Hasan; Hall, Eileen B; Yurko-Mauro, Karin A; Ellis, Lorie; LaFerla, Frank M

    2007-04-18

    The underlying cause of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is unknown, but a number of environmental and genetic factors are likely to be involved. One environmental factor that is increasingly being recognized as contributing to brain aging is diet, which has evolved markedly over modern history. Here we show that dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD reduced the intraneuronal accumulation of both amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau. In contrast, combining DHA with n-6 fatty acids, either arachidonic acid or docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6), diminished the efficacy of DHA over a 12 month period. Here we report the novel finding that the mechanism accounting for the reduction in soluble Abeta was attributable to a decrease in steady-state levels of presenilin 1, and not to altered processing of the amyloid precursor protein by either the alpha- or beta-secretase. Furthermore, the presence of DPAn-6 in the diet reduced levels of early-stage phospho-tau epitopes, which correlated with a reduction in phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a putative tau kinase. Collectively, these results suggest that DHA and DPAn-6 supplementations could be a beneficial natural therapy for AD.

  11. Estimated quantitative amino acid requirements for Florida pompano reared in low-salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with most marine carnivores, Florida pompano require relatively high crude protein diets to obtain optimal growth. Precision formulations to match the dietary indispensable amino acid (IAA) pattern to a species’ requirements can be used to lower the overall dietary protein. However IAA requirem...

  12. Amino acid limitation induces down-regulation of WNT5a at transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zuguang; Chen Hong

    2009-01-23

    An aberrant WNT signaling contributes to the development and progression of multiple cancers. WNT5a is one of the WNT signaling molecules. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that amino acid deprivation induces changes in the WNT signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Results showed that targets of the amino acid response pathway, ATF3 and p21, were induced in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 during amino acid limitation. There was a significant decrease in the WNT5a mRNA level following amino acid deprivation. The down-regulation of WNT5a mRNA by amino acid deprivation is not due to mRNA destabilization. There is a reduction of nuclear {beta}-catenin protein level by amino acid limitation. Under amino acid limitation, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased and the blockage of ERK1/2 by the inhibitor U0126 partially restored WNT5a mRNA level. In conclusion, amino acid limitation in colon cancer cells induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which then down-regulates WNT5a expression.

  13. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  15. Genetic loci associated with circulating levels of very long-chain saturated fatty acids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wu, Jason H. Y.; McKnight, Barbara; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Sun, Qi; Chasman, Daniel I.; Foy, Millennia; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwen; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Arnett, Donna K.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Djousse, Luc; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wu, Hongyu; Jensen, Majken K.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Jacobs, David R.; Rich, Stephen S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Steffen, Lyn; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Ridker, Paul M.; Fornage, Myriam; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFAs is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher arachidic acid (20:0 , P = 5.81 × 10−13). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (P = 2.65 × 10−40) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of behenic acid (P = 4.22 × 10−26) and lignoceric acid (P = 3.20 × 10−21). These novel associations suggest an inter-relationship of circulating VLSFAs and sphingolipid synthesis. PMID:25378659

  16. Comparative Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in the Slender Pea and Other Pea Phenotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Free indole-3-acetic acid levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three ultra-tall `slender' Pisum sativum L. lines differing in gibberellin content. Measurements were made for apices and stem elongation zones of light-grown plants and values were compared with wild-type, dwarf, and nana phenotypes in which internode length is genetically regulated, purportedly via the gibberellin level. Indole-3-acetic acid levels of growing stems paralleled growth rates in all lines, and were high in all three slender genotypes. Growth was inhibited by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, demonstrating the requirement of auxin activity for stem elongation, and also by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. It is concluded that the slender phenotype may arise from constant activation of a gibberellin receptor or transduction chain event leading directly or indirectly to elevated levels of indole-3-acetic acid, and that increased indole-3-acetic acid levels are a significant factor in the promotion of stem elongation. PMID:16667653

  17. Cloning and biochemical characterization of indole-3-acetic acid-amino acid synthetase PsGH3 from pea.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Mierek-Adamska, Agnieszka; Porowińska, Dorota; Goc, Anna; Jakubowska, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormone conjugation is one of the mechanisms that maintains a proper hormonal homeostasis and that is necessary for the realization of physiological responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases convert indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to IAA-amino acid conjugates by ATP-dependent reactions. IAA-aspartate (IAA-Asp) exists as a predominant amide conjugate of auxin in pea tissues and acts as an intermediate during IAA catabolism. Here we report a novel recombinant indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase in Pisum sativum. In silico analysis shows that amino acid sequence of PsGH3 has the highest homology to Medicago truncatula GH3.3. The recombinant His-tag-PsGH3 fusion protein has been obtained in E. coli cells and is a soluble monomeric polypeptide with molecular mass of 69.18 kDa. The PsGH3 was purified using Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography and native PAGE. Kinetic analysis indicates that the enzyme strongly prefers IAA and L-aspartate as substrates for conjugation revealing Km(ATP) = 0.49 mM, Km(L-Asp) = 2.2 mM, and Km(IAA) = 0.28 mM. Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) competes with ATP for catalytic site and diminishes the PsGH3 affinity toward ATP approximately 1.11-fold indicating Ki = 8.5 μM. L-Tryptophan acts as an inhibitor of IAA-amido synthesizing activity by competition with L-aspartate. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) hydrolyzing pyrophosphate to two phosphate ions, potentiates IAA-Asp synthetase activity of PsGH3. Our results demonstrate that PsGH3 is a novel enzyme that is involved in auxin metabolism in pea seeds.

  18. Uric Acid Level and Erectile Dysfunction In Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Covic, Adrian; McFann, Kim; Johnson, Richard J.; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects, and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict erectile dysfunction in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease. Aim To evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED. Main Outcome Measures The short version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ≤21). Serum Uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an exercise stress test. Results 149 of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes, and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, CRP, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (OR = 1.36, p = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for eGFR. Conclusion Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels. PMID:24433559

  19. Effects of aspartame and carbohydrate administration on human and rat plasma large neutral amino acid levels and rat brain amino acid and monoamine levels.

    PubMed

    Romano, M; Casacci, F; De Marchi, F; Pacei, T; Esteve, A; Lomuscio, G; Mennini, T; Salmona, M

    1989-01-01

    Thirty fasted human volunteers were given 0.83 and 8.3 mg aspartame/kg body weight alone, as part of a basal low carbohydrate meal (648 kcal, 10% carbohydrate) or as part of a high energy carbohydrate-rich meal (1290 kcal, 34% carbohydrate). Amino acid concentrations in plasma were determined before and 30, 60 and 180 min after the consumption of aspartame. Under these conditions, which mimic realistic aspartame consumption, aspartame had no significant effect on plasma concentration of any amino acid. In addition, the effect of aspartame alone or with carbohydrates on plasma and brain amino acid levels was studied in rats after acute or subacute (14 d) oral treatment. In subacute dosing experiments aspartame was included in the diet. Brain monoamine concentrations were also measured in the same animals. Plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids were modified under acute conditions. In contrast, after subacute treatment no significant differences in plasma or brain amino acid concentrations or in brain monoamine concentrations were observed.

  20. Auxin Biosynthesis: Are the Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid Biosynthesis Pathways Mirror Images?1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, David S.; Smith, Jason; Chourey, Prem S.; McAdam, Erin L.; Quittenden, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the main auxin in plants (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) has been elucidated recently and is thought to involve the sequential conversion of Trp to indole-3-pyruvic acid to IAA. However, the pathway leading to a less well studied auxin, phenylacetic acid (PAA), remains unclear. Here, we present evidence from metabolism experiments that PAA is synthesized from the amino acid Phe, via phenylpyruvate. In pea (Pisum sativum), the reverse reaction, phenylpyruvate to Phe, is also demonstrated. However, despite similarities between the pathways leading to IAA and PAA, evidence from mutants in pea and maize (Zea mays) indicate that IAA biosynthetic enzymes are not the main enzymes for PAA biosynthesis. Instead, we identified a putative aromatic aminotransferase (PsArAT) from pea that may function in the PAA synthesis pathway. PMID:27208245

  1. Preterm Birth is Associated with Higher Uric Acid Levels in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Lisa K.; Nixon, Patricia A.; Russell, Gregory B.; Snively, Beverly M.; O’Shea, T. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare serum uric acid levels in adolescents born prematurely and adolescents born at term and to assess the correlation between serum uric acid and blood pressure in those born prematurely. Study design In this observational cohort study, 124 adolescents born prematurely and 44 adolescents born at term were studied at 14 years of age. Multivariate analyses were used to describe the relationship of premature birth to serum uric acid, while adjusting for confounding variables. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between uric acid and systolic blood pressure among those born prematurely. Results Adjusting for race, sex, maternal hypertension and fetal growth, preterm adolescents had higher serum uric acid levels than adolescents born at term [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval: 0.46 (0.10, 0.81) mg/dL, 27.4 (6, 48.2) μmol/L, p=0.012]. Among those born prematurely, uric acid was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure [Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.29 (0.12, 0.44; p= 0.0013). Conclusions Serum uric acid levels are higher in adolescents born prematurely than in those born at term and this difference could contribute to higher blood pressure among individuals born prematurely. PMID:25868431

  2. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. PMID:25157461

  3. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  4. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  5. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal digestion of OM and NDF, and increased (linear, P < 0.05) ruminal N efficiency. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P < 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal starch digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation increased postruminal digestion of starch in heavier steers but did not affect starch digestion in lighter steers. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal fatty acid digestion, which was due to a decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of C16:0 and C18:0. Supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) total-tract digestion of OM and NDF. The estimated NEm (Mcal/kg) of yellow grease averaged (linear, P < 0.01) 6.02, 5.70, and 5.06 for the 3, 6, and 9% of level supplementation, respectively. We conclude that intestinal fatty acid digestion (FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) of total fatty acid intake per unit body weight (FAI, g/kg BW): FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes

  6. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  7. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  8. Magnesium deficiency effects on IAA-1-/sup 14/C decarboxylation in Alaska and Little Marvel pea tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, E.W.; Haduck, P.; Haduck, W.; Joyner, M.

    1987-04-01

    This investigation seeks to determine the effects of magnesium deficiency on light and dark exposed Alaska (normal) and Little Marvel (dwarf) pea tissue, with respect to IAA-1-/sup 14/C decarboxylation, in root, stem, and leaf tissues. There is both a higher rate of IAA-1-/sup 14/C decarboxylation and enhanced stem growth in Alaska, vs. Little Marvel pea tissue. The decarboxylation of IAA-1-/sup 14/C is highest in roots, slightly lower in leaves, followed by the proximal and distal designated stem tissues. With respect to light effects, the absence of light causes a decrease in IAA-1-/sup 14/C decarboxylation, the effect being most prominent in the leaves, with the least effect being exhibited in the root tissue. In summary, magnesium deficiency causes a decrease in IAA-1-/sup 14/C decarboxylation in both Alaska and Little Marvel pea tissues. It is suggested that the lack of available magnesium causes general physiological stress, with the plant attempting to redistribute any of the still available endogenous ion. The rate and pathway of IAA metabolism may vary significant between different types of cells in magnesium deficient tissues.

  9. Light inhibits gravity-regulated peg formation and asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible CsIAA1 in the cortex of the transition zone in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Saito, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    When cucumber seedlings are grown horizontally, a specialized protuberance, termed the peg, develops on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Gravimorphogenesis regulates the lateral positioning of the peg in the transition zone and it has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in peg formation in cucumber seedlings. Here, we found that light inhibited auxin-regulated peg formation. In the transition zone of horizontally positioned cucumber seedlings grown in the dark, we detected an asymmetric accumulation of mRNA from the auxin-inducible gene CsIAA1 in the epidermis and cortex. However, in seedlings grown under illumination, this asymmetry was greatly reduced. In dark- and light-grown seedlings, application of 10 -3 M indole-3-acetic acid induced peg formation on both the lower and upper sides of the transition zone. These results suggest that light inhibits peg formation via modification of auxin distribution and/or levels in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  10. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  11. Childrens' learning and behaviour and the association with cheek cell polyunsaturated fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Kirby, A; Woodward, A; Jackson, S; Wang, Y; Crawford, M A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3, in their red blood cells and plasma, and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate behavioural symptoms in this population. However, in order to compare levels it seems appropriate to establish fatty acid levels in a mainstream school aged population and if levels relate to learning and behaviour. To date no study has established this. For this study, cheek cell samples from 411 typically developing school children were collected and analysed for PUFA content, in order to establish the range in this population. In addition, measures of general classroom attention and behaviour were assessed in these children by teachers and parents. Cognitive performance tests were also administered in order to explore whether an association between behaviour and/or cognitive performance and PUFA levels exists. Relationships between PUFA levels and socio-economic status were also explored. Measures of reading, spelling and intelligence did not show any association with PUFA levels, but some associations were noted with the level of omega-3 fatty acids and teacher and parental reports of behaviour, with some evidence that higher omega-3 levels were associated with decreased levels of inattention, hyperactivity, emotional and conduct difficulties and increased levels of prosocial behaviour. These findings are discussed in relation to previous findings from omega-3 supplementation studies with children. PMID:20172688

  12. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were {minus}180 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to {minus}1,150 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} J/Kg supernate ({minus}1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate.

  13. Inverse Association Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Du, Na; Xu, Donghua; Hou, Xu; Song, Xuejia; Liu, Cancan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Yangang; Li, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The association between Alzheimer's disease and uric acid levels had gained great interest in recent years, but there was still lack of definite evidence. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Relevant studies published before October 26, 2014, were searched in PubMed, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases. Study-specific data were combined using random-effects or fixed-effects models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-four studies (21 case-control and 3 cohort studies) were finally included into the meta-analysis. Those 21 case-control studies included a total of 1128 cases of Alzheimer's disease and 2498 controls without Alzheimer's disease. Those 3 cohort studies included a total of 7327 participants. Meta-analysis showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease had lower levels of uric acid than healthy controls (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.77 mg/dl, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.36, P = 0.0002). High serum uric acid levels were significantly associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.85, P = 0.001). There was low risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. There is an inverse association between serum uric acid levels and Alzheimer's disease. High serum uric acid level is a protective factor of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L = cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF = N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu3 + in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu3 + ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of 5D0 and triplet state contracts.

  15. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts.

  16. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts. PMID:26802538

  17. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brigandi, Sarah A.; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (p < 0.001). In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20) compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism. PMID:25946342

  18. Uric acid levels predict future blood pressure and new onset hypertension in the general Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Takase, H; Kimura, G; Dohi, Y

    2014-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that uric acid levels predict new-onset hypertension in the Japanese general population. Normotensive individuals who visited our hospital for a yearly health checkup (n=8157, men=61.0% and age=50.7±12.2 years) were enrolled in the present study. After baseline evaluation, participants were followed up for a median of 48.3 months (range 4.9-101.0 months), with the endpoint being the development of hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) > or = 140 mm Hg, diastolic BP > or = 90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medication. The impact of uric acid and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline on future BP and development of hypertension was assessed. During follow-up, 19.0% of women (n=605) and 29.5% of men (n=1469) participants developed hypertension. Incident hypertension was increased across the quartiles for baseline uric acid levels (P<0.0001), and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significant and independent association between the uric acid level and the onset of hypertension in both men and women participants (P<0.05). Furthermore, uric acid was independently and positively correlated with future BP (P<0.05). Thus, uric acid is an independent predictor of new-onset hypertension in both women and men.

  19. The mechanism of low levels of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gallon, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is a toxic air pollutant that exists at less than 0.5 ppm in the atmosphere. This toxic compound is known to initiate autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids both in vivo and in vitro. When autoxidation occurs in vivo, membrane damage that can lead to cell death can occur. Low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were shown to react with the polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, methyl linoleate and methyl linoleate, by a H-abstraction mechanism. However, methyl oleate, an unsaturated fatty acid ester, was demonstrated to react with a low concentration of nitrogen dioxide by only an addition mechanism. Although methyl oleate reacts by an addition mechanism, a 50:50 molar solution of methyl oleate and methyl linoleate reacted with a low level of nitrogen dioxide exclusively by a H-abstraction mechanism. Therefore, low levels of nitrogen dioxide will probably react with polyunsaturated fatty acid components of pulmonary lipids by a H-abstraction mechanism forming nitrous acid directly in the cell membrane. Vitamin E was demonstrated to be able to act as a preventative antioxidant in the nitrogen dioxide and methyl linoleate reactions; but vitamin C could not prevent nitrogen dioxide from reacting with methyl linoleate by a H-abstraction mechanism. These results suggest that low levels of nitrogen dioxide will react with polyunsaturated fatty acids by a H-abstraction mechanism and that vitamin E can be used to prevent the reaction from occurring.

  20. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  1. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  2. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  3. Enhanced level of n-3 fatty acid in membrane phospholipids induces lipid peroxidation in rats fed dietary docosahexaenoic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Miyazawa, T

    2001-03-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) oil with different lipid types on lipid peroxidation was studied in rats. Each group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was pair fed 15% (w/w) of either DHA-triglycerides (DHA-TG), DHA-ethyl esters (DHA-EE) or DHA-phospholipids (DHA-PL) for up to 3 weeks. The palm oil (supplemented with 20% soybean oil) diet without DHA was fed as the control. Dietary DHA oils lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats fed DHA-TG (by 30%), DHA-EE (by 45%) and DHA-PL (by 27%), compared to control. The incorporation of dietary DHA into plasma and liver phospholipids was more pronounced in the DHA-TG and DHA-EE group than in the DHA-PL group. However, DHA oil intake negatively influenced lipid peroxidation in both plasma and liver. Phospholipid peroxidation in plasma and liver was significantly higher than control in rats fed DHA-TG or DHA-EE, but not DHA-PL. These results are consistent with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased alpha-tocopherol levels in plasma and liver. In addition, liver microsomes from rats of each group were exposed to a mixture of chelated iron (Fe(3+)/ADP) and NADPH to determine the rate of peroxidative damage. During NADPH-dependent peroxidation of microsomes, the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, as well as TBARS, were elevated and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly exhausted in DHA-TG and DHA-EE groups. During microsomal lipid peroxidation, there was a greater loss of n-3 fatty acids (mainly DHA) than of n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). These results indicate that polyunsaturation of n-3 fatty acids is the most important target for lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the ingestion of large amounts of DHA oil enhances lipid peroxidation in the target membranes where greater amounts of n-3 fatty acids are incorporated, thereby increasing the peroxidizability and possibly accelerating the atherosclerotic process.

  4. Decreased docosahexaenoic acid levels in retina and pigment epithelium of frogs fed crickets.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Wiegand, R D; Anderson, R E

    1992-06-01

    Whole retina, rod outer segments, and retinal pigment epithelium of frogs (Rana pipiens) fed crickets for more than 1 year had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6n-3) than the same tissues of frogs fed crickets for less than 1 month. Decreases in 22:6n-3 levels in these tissues were compensated for by increases in the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily 22:5n-6. There were no changes in the levels of saturated, monoenoic, or dienoic acids. Analysis of diacyl phospholipid molecular species (PLMS) revealed decreases in both the 22:6(n-3)-containing dipolyenoic molecular species in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine, and the monopolyenoic molecular species in phosphatidylcholine. These PLMS were replaced by species containing 22:5n-6 or other n-6 PUFAs. Examination of fatty acid methyl esters of total lipids extracted from crickets revealed that less than 1 mol% fatty acids were of the n-3 family, while more than 30 mol% were of the n-6 family. Thus, frogs raised on an n-3-deficient diet have reduced levels of n-3 PUFA in their retinas, rod outer segments, and retinal pigment epithelium. Although such changes have been reported for mammals, this is the first report of the effects of n-3 deficiency on the lipids of amphibians.

  5. Uric acid levels in subjects with bipolar disorder: A comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has hypothesised increased uric acid levels, possibly because of an amplified purinergic metabolism and a reduced adenosine activity, in subjects with bipolar disorder. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating if individuals with bipolar disorder had uric acid levels higher than both healthy controls and subjects with major depression (trait marker hypothesis). It also tested if uric acid levels could differ in different phases of bipolar disorder (state marker hypothesis). Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs), using random-effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the I(2) index. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying twelve studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed increased uric acid levels in individuals with bipolar disorder as compared with both healthy controls (SMD = 0.65, p < 0.001, I(2) = 82.9%) and those with major depression (SMD = 0.46, p < 0.001; I(2) = 68.7%). However, meta-regression analyses confirmed this association only as compared with healthy controls. Finally, though uric acid levels were higher in manic/mixed phases as compared with depressive ones (SMD = 0.34; p = 0.04, I(2) = 58.8%), a sensitivity analysis did not confirm the association. In sum, our meta-analysis shows that subjects with bipolar disorder have uric acid levels higher than healthy controls. The potential role of factors that might clarify the nature of this association deserves additional research.

  6. Plasma levels of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid after oral ingestion of plain and buffered acetylsalicylic acid in relation to bleeding time and thrombocyte function.

    PubMed

    Proost, J H; Van Imhoff, G W; Wesseling, H

    1983-02-25

    Buffered acetylsalicylic acid (Alka Seltzer, B-ASA) and plain aspirin (P-ASA) tablets were compared as to their effects on bleeding time and platelet function in eight healthy male volunteers. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg) of each preparation were investigated in a cross-over design, each volunteer being his own control in each dose group (n=4). Both preparations disturbed platelet aggregation to the same extent. Bleeding time increased after both preparations, though significantly more after the buffered preparation than after plain acetylsalicylic acid, irrespective of the dosage. The 1000 mg dose prolonged bleeding time significantly more than the 500 mg dose, irrespective of the preparation. Kinetic analysis showed that B-ASA gave higher peak plasma levels of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and accordingly salicylic acid peak levels were also higher after the buffered preparation. It is concluded that B-ASA in equi-analgesic doses prolongs bleeding time more than the plain preparation. Since it is less agressive on the gastro-intestinal mucosa, its use may be advantageous in situations where acetylsalicylic acid induced loss of platelet aggregation is desired. However, the risk of prolonged bleeding--e.g. after tooth extractions--is probably higher after the buffered preparation. PMID:6844122

  7. Differential effects of prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid on activity level throughout day and night.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Tilak, J P

    1996-12-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with disrupted state control and lowered activity levels. Prenatal retinoic acid excess also influences activity levels in laboratory rats. Activity level is usually monitored during a brief period in young offspring. The effects of these drugs on pup activity levels throughout the day is unknown. There is also little information on the long-lasting effects of these teratogens in adult animals. We compared the daily activity of rats which were prenatally exposed to cocaine or retinoic acid (RA). Appropriate control groups were also used. The offspring were evaluated for activity levels in a neophobic situation and for a 22-h period in same-sex groups of 3 littermates. As both pups and adults, the cocaine groups were hypoactive while the RA group was hyperactive when first placed into the testing cage (neophobic situation). Similarly, during the remainder of the 22-h testing period, the pup and adult cocaine animals exhibited reduced activity levels while the RA animals exhibited elevated activity levels. Thus, prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid exposures affected offspring activity levels differently, both drugs have long-lasting neurobehavioral effects that persist into adulthood, and effects are influenced by time-of-day. Strain-dependent differences and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  8. Association of the folic acid consumption and its serum levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-PourMehr, Hanieh; Mohamad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Malakouti, Jamileh; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal mortality. Despite numerous studies, its etiology is unknown. Recently there has been attention towards Folic acid. This study examined the association of Folic acid consumption and its serum levels with Preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A case-control study conducted in Tabriz- Alzahra hospital. 52 preeclamptic women in 34-42 weeks and 52 normotensive pregnant women were studied from Jun to Nov 2009. Data was gathered through interview with the women and review of their medical records. Folic acid serum levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence method on Elecsys-2010 system using the Roche brand kit. Data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square, exact fisher and logistic regression. Results: 46% of women in the case group and 71% in the control group regularly consumed Folic acid supplements before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. Frequency of correct pattern of Folic acid consumption in the case group were significantly lower than control group (P = 0.02). Findings about frequency of main food groups’ consumption containing folic acid indicated that the only mean difference between two groups was in relation to fruits (P = 0.002). The mean of Folic Acid serum levels in preeclamptic group was significantly lower than non- preeclamptic group [10.9 (3.9) vs. 13.6 (4.0) ng/ml, P = 0.001]. Conclusion: it is recommended all health care providers educate clients especially high risk women about regular and timely consumption of supplements as well as food groups containing Folic acid specially fruits and its possible role in prevention of preeclampsia. PMID:23922590

  9. Serum phytanic and pristanic acid levels and prostate cancer risk in Finnish smokers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret E; Albanes, Demetrius; Moser, Ann B; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Snyder, Kirk; Männistö, Satu; Gann, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products, and may contribute to the elevated risks of prostate cancer associated with higher consumption of these foods. Pristanic acid is formed during peroxisomal oxidation of phytanic acid, and is the direct substrate of α-Methyl-CoA-Racemase (AMACR)--an enzyme that is consistently overexpressed in prostate tumors relative to benign tissue. We measured phytanic and pristanic acids as percentages of total fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in prediagnostic blood samples from 300 prostate cancer cases and 300 matched controls, all of whom were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study supplementation trial and follow-up cohort. In addition to providing a fasting blood sample at baseline, all men completed extensive diet, lifestyle, and medical history questionnaires. Among controls, the strongest dietary correlates of serum phytanic and pristanic acids were saturated fat, dairy fat, and butter (r = 0.50 and 0.40, 0.46 and 0.38, and 0.40 and 0.37, respectively; all P-values <0.001). There was no association between serum phytanic acid and risk of total or aggressive prostate cancer in multivariate logistic regression models (for increasing quartiles, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for aggressive cancer were 1.0 (referent), 1.62 (0.97-2.68), 1.12 (0.66-1.90), and 1.14 (0.67-1.94), P(trend) = 0.87). Pristanic acid was strongly correlated with phytanic acid levels (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001), and was similarly unrelated to prostate cancer risk. Significant interactions between phytanic and pristanic acids and baseline circulating β-carotene concentrations were noted in relation to total and aggressive disease among participants who did not receive β-carotene supplements as part of the original ATBC intervention trial. In summary, we observed no overall association between serum phytanic and

  10. Reversal learning enhanced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): concomitant rise in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels.

    PubMed

    King, A R; Martin, I L; Melville, K A

    1974-11-01

    1 Small doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (12.5-50 mug/kg) consistently facilitated learning of a brightness discrimination reversal.2 2-Bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148), a structural analogue of LSD, with similar peripheral anti-5-hydroxytrypamine activity but no psychotomimetic properties, had no effect in this learning situation at a similar dose (25 mug/kg).3 LSD, but not BOL-148, caused a small but significant increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, but had no effect on the levels of catecholamines in the brain at 25 mug/kg.

  11. The effect of erythropoietin on serum uric acid levels during renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to assess the effect of erythropoietin on a rat model, particularly under a renal ischemia reperfusion protocol. The beneficial or lack of effects of that molecule on the excreted renal product of serum uric acid were studied biochemically. Material and methods: Forty rats were used with a mean weight of 247.7 gr. Serum uric acid levels were measured measured at 60 min after reperfusion (Groups A and C) and at 120 min after reperfusion (groups B and D). Results: 1) Erythropoietin administration non-significantly decreased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.02 mg/dL [−0.2415423 mg/dL-0.2015423 mg/dL] (p=0.8560), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.8438). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.17 mg/dL [−0.0444933 mg/dL-0.3844933 mg/dL] (p=0.1169), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.1648). 3) The interaction of erythropoietin administration and reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.1 mg/dL [−0.0295564 mg/dL-0.2295564 mg/dL] (p=0.1264). Conclusion: Erythropoietin administration, reperfusion time and their interaction have no significant short-term alterations on serum uric acid levels. Conclusions cannot be extracted by non-significant p-values within 2 hours. Obviously, longer study times may permit safer results. PMID:26328161

  12. Serum uric acid levels and long-term outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Tokiko; Mochizuki, Toshio; Takei, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2014-07-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but data regarding the relationship between serum uric acid levels and the long-term outcomes of CKD patients have been limited. The present study evaluated the associations between baseline serum uric acid levels with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The subjects of this study were 551 stage 2-4 CKD patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid tertiles and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and development of ESRD, initially without adjustment, and then after adjusting for several groups of covariates. The mean age of the study subjects was 58.5 years, 59.3 % were men, and 10.0 % had diabetes. The mean eGFR was 42.02 ± 18.52 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In all subjects, the mean serum uric acid level was 6.57 ± 1.35 mg/dl, and 52.2 % of study subjects were on hypouricemic therapy (allopurinol; 48.3 %) at baseline. Thirty-one patients (6.1 %) died during a follow-up period of approximately 6 years. There was no significant association between serum uric acid level and all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR in the unadjusted Cox models. In the adjusted models, hyperuricemia was found to be associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality after adjustment with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol, but not associated with development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR. The results of this study showed that hyperuricemia but not serum uric acid levels were associated with all-cause mortality, CVD mortality after adjustments with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol in stage 2-4 CKD patients.

  13. Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains.

    PubMed

    Shin, Rick S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul; McIntyre, Dan C

    2002-08-01

    A neurochemical basis for many of the epilepsies has long been suspected to result from an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter mechanisms. Data supporting changes in extrasynaptic amino acid levels during epileptogenesis, however, remain controversial. In the present study, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure the levels of extracellular GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate during seizure development in rats with a genetic predisposition for (Fast), or against (Slow), amygdala kindling. Dialysates were collected from both amygdalae before, during, and up to 12 min after a threshold-triggered amygdala afterdischarge (AD). One hour later, samples were again collected from both amygdalae in response to a hippocampal threshold AD. Daily amygdala kindling commenced the next day but without dialysis. After the rats were fully kindled, the same protocol was again employed. Amino acid levels were not consistently increased above baseline with triggered seizures in either strain. Instead, before kindling, a focal seizure in the Slow rats was associated with a large decrease in GABA in the non-stimulated amygdala, while amino acid levels in the Fast rats remained near baseline in both amygdalae. Similar results were seen after kindling. By contrast, before and after kindling, hippocampal stimulation caused large decreases in all amino acid levels in both amygdalae in both strains. These data suggest that, in response to direct stimulation, extracellular amino acid concentrations remain stable in tissues associated with either greater natural (Fast) or induced (kindled Fast/Slow) excitability, but are lowered with indirect stimulation (hippocampus) and/or low excitability.

  14. Establishing tolerable dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and razor clam (Siliqua patula) domoic acid contaminant levels.

    PubMed Central

    Mariën, K

    1996-01-01

    Domoic acid has been found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in Washington State and elsewhere on the West Coast of the United States. Due to toxic effects associated with domoic acid exposure, an effort has been made to establish tolerable domoic acid levels in crabs and clams obtained from commercial harvest and sale and from individual recreational harvesting. To accomplish this, the amount of clams and crabs consumed by populations of concern was determined, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) was developed for individuals most sensitive to effects of this compound, and the TDI was equated with consumption patterns to determine tolerable clam and crab domoic acid levels. Results indicate that the primary health effects associated with domoic acid toxicity can be averted in populations of concern and for others consuming crabs or clams less frequently (or in lesser quantity) if domoic acid contaminant concentration does not exceed 30 mg/kg in the hepatopancreas and viscera of dungeness crabs or 20 mg/kg in clams. PMID:8959413

  15. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris.

  16. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  17. A Comparative Study of Serum Uric Acid levels and Lipid Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Niranjan, G.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Amirtha, Ganesh B.; Ramesh, R.; Babu, M. Sathish; Saha, Subiman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) appears to be common in the Indian population of different geographical origins, religions and languages. Measurement of lipid fractions and ratios are widely recommended for risk assessment. A few studies have shown that serum uric acid plays a role in the development of cardiovascular morbidity. Very few reports are cited linking serum uric acid with the lipid fraction in CAD Objectives: To find the significance of non-HDL cholesterol, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, TC/HDL ratio and serum uric acid level in CAD patients Subjects and Methodology: In this study, we included fifty CAD patients as subjects and an equal number of controls. Both subjects and controls were assessed for anthropometric, physiological and biochemical parameters Results: The present study showed significant increased levels of total cholesterol (p=0.002), TAGs (p<0.001), HDL (p=0.005), LDL (p<0.006) and non-HDL cholesterol (p<0.001). LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (p<0.001) and TC/HDL ratio (p<0.001) in CAD patients (subjects) were also significant when compared to controls. Uric acid level in CAD patients was increased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios could be regarded as objective markers, in association with existing atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with CAD. PMID:25018681

  18. Effect of folic acid and zinc sulphate on endocrine parameters and seminal antioxidant level after varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Azizollahi, G H; Baneshi, M R; Safari, Z; Azizollahi, S

    2014-04-01

    Varicocele is among the most common problems which may lead to male infertility. Spermatogenesis is impaired as a consequence of this vascular defect, through mechanisms that are not well described. This study aimed to evaluate serum hormonal level (inhibin B, FSH and testosterone) and seminal plasma antioxidant defence levels after folic acid and zinc sulphate administration in varicocelectomised patients. Participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups. Our randomisation schedule was as follows: zinc sulphate/folic acid, folic acid, zinc sulphate and placebo. The patients underwent varicocelectomy, before which a blood and semen sample were obtained and also three and six months after varicocelectomy for evaluation of blood hormonal level (FSH, testosterone, inhibin B) and seminal oxidative stress status (nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity). Patients in different groups took orally one capsule per day after dinner following varicocelectomy for 6 months. A significant rise in peripheral blood inhibin B and seminal plasma activity was detected in the zinc sulphate/folic acid group after 6 months. The present clinical trial indicates a change in the hormonal status of varicocelectomised patients following long-term administration of zinc sulphate and folic acid.

  19. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  20. Low Serum Uric Acid Level Is a Risk Factor for Death in Incident Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S.M. Kurt; Lee, Andrew L.; Winters, Thomas J.; Tam, Emily; Jaleel, Mohammed; Stenvinkel, Peter; Johnson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A reverse epidemiology of classic cardiovascular risk factors was observed in hemodialysis patients with a high comorbidity burden. We hypothesized that uric acid, a novel cardiovascular risk factor, also has an altered association with survival in these patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 168 consecutive outpatient hemodialysis patients over a 6-year period. Serum uric acid, albumin levels and relevant laboratory information were recorded monthly. The disease severity was assessed using Comorbidity Index (CoI) scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups according to their serum uric acid concentrations: group I was the lowest quintile, group II was the middle 3 quintiles and group III was the highest quintile. The risks of death were calculated utilizing a Cox regression model. Results Using group II as a reference group, the hazard ratio of group I was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–4.11, p = 0.01] and group III was 0.89 (95% CI 0.47–1.71, p = 0.74). The serum uric acid levels correlated inversely with CoI scores (r = −0.31, 95% CI −0.44 to −0.17, p < 0.0001) and positively with serum albumin levels (r = 0.35, 95% CI 0.21–0.48, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Low serum uric acid is a mortality risk factor in incident hemodialysis patients with a high comorbidity burden and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:18689987

  1. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  2. Biosynthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Tryptophan-14C in Cell-free Extracts of Pea Shoot Tips 1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Thomas C.; Shaner, Coralie A.

    1967-01-01

    A 2-step, 1-dimensional thin-layer chromatographic procedure for isolating indoleacetic acid (IAA) was developed and utilized in investigations of the biosynthesis of IAA from tryptophan-14C in cell-free extracts of pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoot tips. Identification of a 14C-product as IAA was by (a) co-chromatography of authentic IAA and 14C-product on thin-layer chromatography, and (b) gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography of authentic and presumptive IAA methyl esters. Dialysis of enzyme extracts and addition of α-ketoglutaric acid and pyridoxal phosphate to reaction mixtures resulted in approximately 2- to 3-fold increases in net yields of IAA over yields in non-dialyzed reaction mixtures which did not contain additives essential to a transaminase reaction of tryptophan. Addition of thiamine pyrophosphate to reaction mixtures further enhanced net biosynthesis of IAA. It is concluded that the formation of indolepyruvic acid and its subsequent decarboxylation probably are sequential reactions in the major pathway of IAA biosynthesis from tryptophan in cell-free extracts of Pisum shoot tips. Comparison of maximum net IAA biosynthesis in extracts of shoot tips of etiolated and light-grown dwarf and tall pea seedlings revealed an order, on a unit protein N basis, of: light-grown tall > light-grown dwarf > etiolated tall ≅ etiolated dwarf. It is concluded that the different rates of stem elongation among etiolated and light-grown dwarf and tall pea seedlings are correlated, in general, with differences in net IAA biosynthesis and sensitivity of the tissues to IAA. PMID:16656720

  3. Understanding of how Propionibacterium acidipropionici respond to propionic acid stress at the level of proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ningzi; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is an important platform chemical in the food, agriculture, and pharmaceutical industries and is mainly biosynthesized by propionibacteria. Acid tolerance in PA-producing strains is crucial. In previous work, we investigated the acid tolerance mechanism of Propionibacterium acidipropionici at microenvironmental levels by analyzing physiological changes in the parental strain and three PA-tolerant mutants obtained by genome shuffling. However, the molecular mechanism of PA tolerance in P. acidipropionici remained unclear. Here, we performed a comparative proteomics study of P. acidipropionici CGMCC 1.2230 and the acid-tolerant mutant P. acidipropionici WSH1105; MALDI-TOF/MS identified 24 proteins that significantly differed between the parental and shuffled strains. The differentially expressed proteins were mainly categorized as key components of crucial biological processes and the acid stress response. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm differential expression of nine key proteins. Overexpression of the secretory protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase subunit α in Escherichia coli BL21 improved PA and acetic acid tolerance; overexpression of NADH dehydrogenase and methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase improved PA tolerance. These results provide new insights into the acid tolerance of P. acidipropionici and will facilitate the development of PA production through fermentation by propionibacteria. PMID:25377721

  4. A `Clicked' Tetrameric Hydroxamic Acid Glycopeptidomimetic Antagonizes Sugar-Lectin Interactions On The Cellular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zang, Yi; Xie, Juan; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2014-07-01

    A tetrameric N-acetyl galactosaminyl (GalNAc) peptidomimetic was constructed by N-acetylation of repeating proline-based hydroxamic acid units, followed by a convergent `click chemistry' coupling. This novel glycopeptidomimetic was determined to effectively antagonize the interaction between a transmembrane hepatic lectin and GalNAc on the cellular level.

  5. Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Le; Huang, Yue-Hui; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Peng; He, Meng-Jie; Huang, Xin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-11-15

    Urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs), such as dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), have been suggested as potential biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, variable exposure to and the short elimination half-lives of these biomarkers can result in considerable variability in urinary measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Here we examined the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among eleven men who provided urine samples on 8 days over 3 months. The urinary concentrations of DCAA and TCAA were measured by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize the within-person and between-person variances and computed the sensitivity and specificity to assess how well single or multiple urine collections accurately determined personal 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels. The within-person variance was much higher than the between-person variance for all three sample types (spot, first morning, and 24-h urine samples) for DCAA (ICC=0.08–0.37) and TCAA (ICC=0.09–0.23), regardless of the sampling interval. A single-spot urinary sample predicted high (top 33%) 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels with high specificity (0.79 and 0.78, respectively) but relatively low sensitivity (0.47 and 0.50, respectively). Collecting two or three urine samples from each participant improved the classification. The poor reproducibility of the measured urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations indicate that a single measurement may not accurately reflect individual long-term exposure. Collection of multiple urine samples from one person is an option for reducing exposure classification errors in studies exploring the effects of DBP exposure on reproductive health. - Highlights: • We evaluated the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among men. • Urinary DCAA and TCAA levels varied greatly over a 3-month

  6. A Simple Purification of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Abscisic Acid for GC-SIM-MS Analysis by Microfiltration of Aqueous Samples through Nylon

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, James R.; Guinn, Gene

    1989-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed for the partial purification of plant tissue samples to be analyzed simultaneously for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). The procedure relies on removal of contaminants by filtration through nylon and partitioning into dichloromethane. This procedure successfully purified both IAA and ABA from muskmelon, cotton, and broccoli tissue. Twenty individual samples can be purified and methylated in 8 h for analysis of free IAA and ABA with gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry. The use of microfiltration of aqueous samples through nylon offers new opportunities for improving the efficiency of existing sample purification procedures. PMID:16666735

  7. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-15

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-β-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

  8. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  9. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  10. A New Strategy of Using O18-Labeled Iodoacetic Acid for Mass Spectrometry-Based Protein Quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shunhai; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2012-07-01

    A new O18 labeling protocol is designed to assist quantitation of cysteine-containing proteins using LC/MS. Unlike other O18 labeling strategies, the labeling is carried out at the intact protein level (prior to its digestion) during reduction/alkylation of cysteine side chains using O18-labeled iodoacetic acid (IAA). The latter can be easily prepared by exchanging carboxylic oxygen atoms of commercially available IAA in O18-enriched water at low pH. Since incorporation of the O18 label in the protein occurs at the whole protein, rather than peptide level, the quantitation results are not peptide-dependent. The excellent stability of the label in mild pH conditions provides flexibility and robustness needed of sample processing steps following the labeling. In contrast to generally costly isotope labeling reagents, this approach uses only two relatively inexpensive commercially available reagents (IAA and H2O18). The feasibility of the new method is demonstrated using an 80 kDa human serum transferrin (hTf) as a model, where linear quantitation is achieved across a dynamic range spanning three orders of magnitude. The new approach can be used in quantitative proteomics applications and is particularly suitable for a variety of tasks in the biopharmaceutical sector, ranging from pharmacokinetic studies to quality control of protein therapeutics.

  11. The DefH9-iaaM-containing construct efficiently induces parthenocarpy in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhimin; Malinowski, Robert; Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Sommer, Hans; Plcader, Wojciech; Malepszy, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Parthenocarpy (seedless fruits) is a desirable trait that has been achieved in many plant cultivars. We generated parthenocarpic cucumber fruits by introducing the chimeric DefH9-iaaM construct into the cucumber genome using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated protocol. The construct consists of the DefH9 promoter from Antirrhinum majus and the iaaM coding sequence from Pseudomonas syringae. Transgenic plants were obtained from nine independent transformation events: half of these were tetraploid and did not produce seeds following self-pollination, while the remaining half were capable of displaying parthenocarpy in the subsequent reproductive generation. Of the fruits produced by the transgenic lines, 70-90% were parthenocarpic. The segregation of the marker gene in the transgenic T(1) progeny indicated single gene inheritance. The seed set in the transgenic lines and their F(1) hybrids was lower than in the non-transgenic control plants. Some of the methodological details and the practical significance of the results are discussed. PMID:16847572

  12. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  13. Down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato altered stem xylem development and production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Yan, Fang; Liu, Minchun; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Zhengguo

    2012-08-01

    The Aux/IAA family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that function as transcriptional regulators in auxin signal transduction. Aux/IAA genes have been reported to control many processes of plant development. Our recent study showed that down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato reduced apical dominance, altered pattern of axillary shoot development, increased lateral root formation and leaves thickness. The SlIAA15 suppressed lines display strong reduction of trichome density, suggesting that SlIAA15 is involved in trichome formation. Here, we reported that SlIAA15-suppressed transgenic lines display increased number of xylem cells compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, the monoterpene content in trichome exudates are significantly reduced in SlIAA15 down-regulated leaves. The results provide the roles of SlIAA15 in production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates and xylem development, clearly indicating that members of the Aux/IAA gene family can play distinct and specific functions.  PMID:22836503

  14. Interactions of Indoleacetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid in Leaf Abscission Control

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lowell N.; Bakhshi, Jagdish C.

    1968-01-01

    Debladed midribs of citrus leaves showed the typical delay of abscission in response to indoleacetic acid (IAA), and the typical acceleration of abscission in response to gibberellic acid (GA). Interaction experiments with these 2 hormones indicated that the balance of the 2 hormones may be more important in regulating abscission than the quantity of either. The often reported acceleration of abscission with low quantities of IAA did not seem to exist in citrus. IAA did accelerate abscission in this tissue when its application was delayed for at least 24 hours after deblading, which suggests the 2-stage effect is also present in citrus. When abscission was first delayed with IAA and then allowed to continue, the rate of abscission proceeded at a slower rate than was typical for this tissue. This slower rate was also typical of the effect observed when GA overcame the abscission retarding effect of IAA. The phenylurethane, Barban, blocked the GA acceleration of abscission, but it did not affect the rate of abscission of control or IAA treated midribs. Images PMID:16656770

  15. Identification of enzyme activity that conjugates indole-3-acetic acid to aspartate in immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the first identification of plant enzyme activity catalyzing the conjugation of indole-3-acetic acid to amino acids. Enzymatic synthesis of indole-3-acetylaspartate (IAA-Asp) by a crude enzyme preparation from immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) was observed. The reaction yielded a product with the same Rf as IAA-Asp standard after thin layer chromatography. The identity of IAA-Asp was verified by HPLC analysis. IAA-Asp formation was dependent on ATP and Mg2+, and was linear during a 60 min period. The enzyme preparation obtained after poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 fractionation showed optimum activity at pH 8.0, and the temperature optimum for IAA-Asp synthesis was 30 degrees C. PMID:17920159

  16. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs. PMID:22864056

  18. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities in Pantoea dispersa strain GPK.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, G B; Nayak, A S; Sajjan, S S; Oblesha, A; Karegoudar, T B

    2013-05-01

    This investigation deals with the production of IAA by a bacterial isolate Pantoea dispersa strain GPK (PDG) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. HPLC and Mass spectral analysis of metabolites from bacterial spent medium revealed that, IAA production by PDG is Trp-dependent and follows indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (AAT) showed high activities, only when tryptophan (Trp) and α-ketoglutarate (α-kg) were used as substrates. AAT is highly specific for Trp and α-kg as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. The effect of exogenous IAA on bacterial growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA induced the growth, whereas high concentration decreased the growth of bacterium. PDG treatment significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry mass of the chickpea and pigeon pea plants. PMID:23448265

  19. Fatty acid status and its relationship to cognitive decline and homocysteine levels in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baierle, Marília; Vencato, Patrícia H; Oldenburg, Luiza; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M; Duarte, Marta M M F; Veit, Juliana C; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥ 60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly. PMID:25221976

  20. IAA Space Terminological Multilingual Data Bank Towards an On- Line Dictionary with Definitions in French and in English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaid, R.

    2002-01-01

    It has been emphasized in previous papers that the bilingual "basic list" of the IAA multilingual terminological data bank (MTDB) needed improvement before beginning works on definitions. In this communication, in a first part, we report, on the works (corrections and additions) done to improve the scope of the "basic list" . These works have yet to be done by coordinators for the others twelve languages concerned by the IAA MTBD. In a second part, according to the decision of the IAA MTDB committee to complete the MTDB with definitions in French and in English, we describe the methodology adopted and the problems encountered to elaborate a mock-up of a space dictionary, including in a first step definitions in English and in French, of the English terms and expressions beginning by the letter "A" in the basic list.

  1. Functional evaluation of iodoacetic acid induced photoreceptor degeneration in the cat.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yan; Zhang, Qin; Ren, Chaoran; Huang, Xin; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaoxin; Pu, Mingliang

    2013-06-01

    Iodoacetic acid (IAA) has been applied to different species to acutely induce photoreceptor degeneration. The purpose of the present study was to use this toxin to thoroughly eliminate photoreceptors and induce complete blindness in the cat. IAA was delivered by single ear vein injection (20 mg kg(-1)). Six months after the IAA treatment, functional evaluations including pupillary light reflex (PLR), electroretinogram (ERG), visual behavior tests were performed. Morphological examinations were carried out after the functional evaluation. The present result shows that, six months after the IAA application, animals lost visual functions and became completely blind. High dose IAA application via ear vein delivery created an acute and reliable complete photoreceptor degeneration model in the cat. This model can be applied to genetic and cellular therapies for visual function restoration. PMID:23657794

  2. Bound Indoleacetic Acid in Avena Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Alan; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1966-01-01

    When C14 carboxyl indoleacetic acid (IAA) is transported through Avena coleoptile sections a fraction of the activity becomes bound. The nature of this bound IAA has been investigated. Upon extraction with solvents and chromatography a substance having the RF of IAA in 4 solvents was detected. No evidence could be found for the formation of indoleacetyl conjugates. In pea stem sections subjected to a similar experimental regime good evidence was obtained for the occurrence of conjugates. When IAA was supplied exogenously to coleoptile sections floating in solutions the occurrence of conjugates was shown to be dependent on the presence of the primary leaf. In its absence no conjugates could be detected. On grinding coleoptile sections and subsequent centrifugation at 240 × g the radioactivity was found to be in the tissue fraction as opposed to the supernatant. The radioactivity cannot be removed from the tissue by extraction with water, buffer solution or treatment with ribonuclease. It is readily removed by 10% urea, crystalline trypsin and chymotrypsin. It is therefore concluded that IAA becomes bound to a protein. Bound IAA does not appear to be able to cause growth in Avena coleoptile sections. PMID:16656259

  3. Cochlear ablation effects on amino acid levels in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D A; Chen, K; Godfrey, M A; Lee, A C; Crass, S P; Shipp, D; Simo, H; Robinson, K T

    2015-06-25

    Inner ear damage can lead to hearing disorders, including tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. We measured the effects of severe inner ear damage, produced by cochlear ablation, on the levels and distributions of amino acids in the first brain center of the auditory system, the cochlear nucleus. Measurements were also made for its projection pathways and the superior olivary nuclei. Cochlear ablation produces complete degeneration of the auditory nerve, which provides a baseline for interpreting the effects of partial damage to the inner ear, such as that from ototoxic drugs or intense sound. Amino acids play a critical role in neural function, including neurotransmission, neuromodulation, cellular metabolism, and protein construction. They include major neurotransmitters of the brain - glutamate, glycine, and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) - as well as others closely related to their metabolism and/or functions - aspartate, glutamine, and taurine. Since the effects of inner ear damage develop over time, we measured the changes in amino acid levels at various survival times after cochlear ablation. Glutamate and aspartate levels decreased by 2weeks in the ipsilateral ventral cochlear nucleus and deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, with the largest decreases in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN): 66% for glutamate and 63% for aspartate. Aspartate levels also decreased in the lateral part of the ipsilateral trapezoid body, by as much as 50%, suggesting a transneuronal effect. GABA and glycine levels showed some bilateral decreases, especially in the PVCN. These results may represent the state of amino acid metabolism in the cochlear nucleus of humans after removal of eighth nerve tumors, which may adversely result in destruction of the auditory nerve. Measurement of chemical changes following inner ear damage may increase understanding of the pathogenesis of hearing impairments and enable improvements in their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25839146

  4. Perturbation of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Homeostasis by the UDP-Glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 Modulates Arabidopsis Architecture and Water Stress Tolerance[W

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Vanesa B.; Van Aken, Olivier; Morreel, Kris; Vandenbroucke, Korneel; van de Cotte, Brigitte; De Clercq, Inge; Chiwocha, Sheila; Fenske, Ricarda; Prinsen, Els; Boerjan, Wout; Genty, Bernard; Stubbs, Keith A.; Inzé, Dirk; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and redox signaling undergo synergistic and antagonistic interactions with phytohormones to regulate protective responses of plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, molecular insight into the nature of this crosstalk remains scarce. We demonstrate that the hydrogen peroxide–responsive UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the modulation of plant architecture and water stress response through its activity toward the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Biochemical characterization of recombinant UGT74E2 demonstrated that it strongly favors IBA as a substrate. Assessment of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), IBA, and their conjugates in transgenic plants ectopically expressing UGT74E2 indicated that the catalytic specificity was maintained in planta. In these transgenic plants, not only were IBA-Glc concentrations increased, but also free IBA levels were elevated and the conjugated IAA pattern was modified. This perturbed IBA and IAA homeostasis was associated with architectural changes, including increased shoot branching and altered rosette shape, and resulted in significantly improved survival during drought and salt stress treatments. Hence, our results reveal that IBA and IBA-Glc are important regulators of morphological and physiological stress adaptation mechanisms and provide molecular evidence for the interplay between hydrogen peroxide and auxin homeostasis through the action of an IBA UGT. PMID:20798329

  5. Improvement of phosphate solubilization and Medicago plant yield by an indole-3-acetic acid-overproducing strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most limiting factors for plant growth. Some microorganisms improve the uptake and availability of N and P, minimizing chemical fertilizer dependence. It has been published that the RD64 strain, a Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 strain engineered to overproduce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), showed improved nitrogen fixation ability compared to the wild-type 1021 strain. Here, we present data showing that RD64 is also highly effective in mobilizing P from insoluble sources, such as phosphate rock (PR). Under P-limiting conditions, the higher level of P-mobilizing activity of RD64 than of the 1021 wild-type strain is connected with the upregulation of genes coding for the high-affinity P transport system, the induction of acid phosphatase activity, and the increased secretion into the growth medium of malic, succinic, and fumaric acids. Medicago truncatula plants nodulated by RD64 (Mt-RD64), when grown under P-deficient conditions, released larger amounts of another P-solubilizing organic acid, 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, than plants nodulated by the wild-type strain (Mt-1021). It has already been shown that Mt-RD64 plants exhibited higher levels of dry-weight production than Mt-1021 plants. Here, we also report that P-starved Mt-RD64 plants show significant increases in both shoot and root fresh weights when compared to P-starved Mt-1021 plants. We discuss how, in a Rhizobium-legume model system, a balanced interplay of different factors linked to bacterial IAA overproduction rather than IAA production per se stimulates plant growth under stressful environmental conditions and, in particular, under P starvation. PMID:20511434

  6. Seasonal changes in serum free fatty acid level in the migratory Canada goose.

    PubMed

    John, T M; George, J C

    1977-12-01

    The changes in the serum level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the migratory Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior) breeding in Ft. Churchill (Manitoba, Canada) and wintering in Swan Lake (Missouri, U.S.A.), were studied during the different periods of its yearly life cycle. The lowest serum FFA level was noted during the spring premigratory phase (early March) at Swan Lake, and the highest during moult (early August) at Ft. Churchill. Serum FFA level during the spring postmigratory period (early May at Ft. Churchill) was significantly higher than that during the spring premigratory period and the breeding period (early at Ft. Churchill). No signigicant difference in FFA levels was noted between the fall premigratory (early September at Ft. Churchill) and the fall postmigratory (mid-October at Swan Lake) periods. The significance of the seasonal variations in serum FFA level is discussed in relation to the cyclic physiological events taking place in the bird. PMID:79367

  7. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl mice deficient in apolipoprotein E expression.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoko; Kushiro, Masayo; Tachibana, Masayoshi; Matsushima, Yoshibumi

    2004-03-01

    N-3 fatty acids exert a potent serum lipid-lowering effect in rodents mainly by affecting hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. However, it has been observed that fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester do not lower serum lipid levels in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout (Apoetm1Unc) mice generated by gene targeting. To test the hypothesis that apoE expression is required for n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism, we examined the effect of fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the activity and gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis using an alternative apoE-deficient mouse model with the BALB/c genetic background (BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl). ApoE-deficient mice were fed diets containing 9.4% palm oil, fish oil, or 5.4% palm oil and 1% EPA plus 3% DHA ethyl esters for 15 days. In contrast to the reported data on apoE-knockout mice, fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters greatly decreased serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels in the Apoeshl mice. The decreases were greater with fish oil than with ethyl esters. The alterations by dietary n-3 fatty acids of serum lipid levels were accompanied by parallel changes in the activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. The reason for the discrepancy between the results of the current study and previous studies is unknown. However, our study at least indicates that a lack of apoE expression does not necessarily accompany deficits in the n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Lipka, Alexander E.; Deason, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Buell, Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three of the nine essential amino acids in human and animal diets and are important for numerous processes in development and growth. However, seed BCAA levels in major crops are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, making genetic improvement for increased and balanced seed BCAAs an important nutritional target. Addressing this issue requires a better understanding of the genetics underlying seed BCAA content and composition. Here, a genome-wide association study and haplotype analysis for seed BCAA traits in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a strong association with a chromosomal interval containing two BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASES, BCAT1 and BCAT2. Linkage analysis, reverse genetic approaches, and molecular complementation analysis demonstrated that allelic variation at BCAT2 is responsible for the natural variation of seed BCAAs in this interval. Complementation analysis of a bcat2 null mutant with two significantly different alleles from accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara is consistent with BCAT2 contributing to natural variation in BCAA levels, glutamate recycling, and free amino acid homeostasis in seeds in an allele-dependent manner. The seed-specific phenotype of bcat2 null alleles, its strong transcription induction during late seed development, and its subcellular localization to the mitochondria are consistent with a unique, catabolic role for BCAT2 in BCAA metabolism in seeds. PMID:24368787

  9. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  10. Blockage by gibberellic Acid of phytochrome effects on growth, auxin responses, and flavonoid synthesis in etiolated pea internodes.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Galston, A W

    1969-09-01

    Red light inhibits the growth of etiolated pea internodes, causes a shift toward higher indoleacetic acid (IAA) concentrations in the IAA dose-response curve of excised sections, and promotes the synthesis in intact internodes of kaempferol-3-triglucoside. Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) prevents all 3 effects, the first effect substantially and the last 2 completely. This suggests GA(3) blockage of an early or basic event initiated by the active form of phytochrome. The red light-induced shift in the IAA dose-response curve of excised sections is consistent with a light-induced increase in the activity of an IAA destruction system, since the magnitude of the red light inhibition varied with IAA concentration. The red light and GA(3) effects on growth and on flavonoid synthesis are consistent with the view that phytochrome may control growth by regulating the synthesis of phenolic compounds which act as cofactors in an IAA-oxidase system. GA(3) reversal of the red light-induced shift in the IAA dose-response curve involves both growth promotion and inhibition by GA(3) at different IAA concentrations and this, together with the GA(3) reversal of light-induced flavonoid synthesis, supports the suggested regulatory role of phenolic compounds in growth. PMID:16657193

  11. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease.

  12. Laboratory evaluation and analysis of advanced lead-acid load-leveling batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. F.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Christianson, C. C.; Marr, J. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by the Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of performance and accelerated life tests conducted on these batteries over a five-year period. This paper describes the operational reliability and maintenance requirements for this technology, and also includes analyses of the batteries' thermal characteristics, arsine/stibine emission rates, and cell degradation modes as determined from post-test examinations.

  13. Changes in serum uric acid levels after allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sang Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun; Lee, Eunyoung Emily; Song, Yeong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Since cell turnover in the hematopoietic system constitutes a major source of uric acid (UA) production, we investigated whether hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with significant changes in serum UA levels in patients with hematological disorders. Methods Patients who underwent HSCT at our institution between 2001 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. Serum UA levels at 3 months before, 1 week before, and 3 months and 1 year after HSCT were examined. Results Complete clinical and laboratory information including data regarding UA levels was available for 93 patients. At baseline, the mean UA level was 4.9±2.1 mg/dL, with an overall prevalence of hyperuricemia of 15% (defined as serum UA>6.8 mg/dL). Mean UA levels tended to be higher in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (4.8±2.0 mg/dL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5.1±2.3 mg/dL) and lower in patients with aplastic anemia (mean, 4.2±1.8 mg/dL). UA levels dropped during myeloablative conditioning, reaching a nadir on the day of HSCT (3.27±1.4 mg/dL). Over the 3 months following HSCT, UA levels rose sharply (5.0±2.1 mg/dL) and remained stable up to 1 year after HSCT (5.5±1.6 mg/dL). UA levels in HSCT recipients at 12 months correlated with those of their respective graft donors (Pearson r=0.406, P=0.001). Conclusion HSCT is associated with significant changes in uric acid levels in patients with hematologic disorders. PMID:27722132

  14. Exogenous IAA differentially affects growth, oxidative stress and antioxidants system in Cd stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seedlings: Toxicity alleviation by up-regulation of ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

    PubMed

    Bashri, Gausiya; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid at their different levels (i.e. low; IAAL, 10µM and high; IAAH, 100µM) were studied on growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT and GST), and metabolites (AsA and GSH) as well as enzymes (APX, GR and DHAR) of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd1, 3mgCd kg(-1) soil and Cd2, 9mgCd kg(-1) soil) stress. Cadmium (Cd) at both doses caused reduction in growth which was correlated with enhanced lipid peroxidation and damage to membrane as a result of excess accumulation of O2(•-) and H2O2. Cd also enhanced the oxidation of AsA and GSH to DHA and GSSG, respectively which give a clear sign of oxidative stress, despite of accelerated activity of enzymatic antioxidants: SOD, CAT, POD, GST as well as APX, DHAR (except in Cd2 stress) and GR. Exogenous application of IAAL resulted further rise in the activities of these enzymes, and maintained the redox status (> ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells. The maintained redox status of cells under IAAL treatment declined the level of ROS in Cd1 and Cd2 treated seedlings thereby alleviated the Cd toxicity and this effect was more pronounced under Cd1 stress. Contrary to this, exogenous IAAH suppressed the activity of DHAR and GR and disturbed the redox status (< ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells, hence excess accumulation of ROS further aggravated the Cd induced damage. Thus, overall results suggest that IAA at low (IAAL) and high (IAAH) doses affected the Cd toxicity differently by regulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as well as activity of other antioxidants in Trigonella seedlings. PMID:27344401

  15. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  16. Ascorbic acid serum levels are reduced in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Huijskens, Mirelle J.A.J.; Wodzig, Will K.W.H.; Walczak, Mateusz; Germeraad, Wilfred T.V.; Bos, Gerard M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that patients treated with chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have highly significant reduced serum ascorbic acid (AA) levels compared to healthy controls. We recently observed in in vitro experiments that growth of both T and NK cells from hematopoietic stem cells is positively influenced by AA. It might be of clinical relevance to study the function and recovery of immune cells after intensive treatment, its correlation to AA serum levels and the possible effect of AA supplementation. PMID:27014565

  17. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Uche, Ebele; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects. PMID:26989408

  18. Association between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and placental lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Sert, Selda; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Lead inhibits the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and results in neurotoxic aminolevulinic acid accumulation in the blood. During pregnancy, lead in the maternal blood can easily cross the placenta. The aim of this study was to determine whether the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism (rs1800435) was related to the placental lead levels. The study population comprised 97 blood samples taken from mothers to investigate ALAD G177C polymorphism and their placentas to measure lead levels. ALAD G177C polymorphism was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with a graphite furnace and Zeeman background correction system was used for lead determination. The median placental lead levels for ALAD1-1, ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2 genotypes were 7.54 μg/kg, 11.78 μg/kg and 18.53 μg/kg, respectively. Statistically significant association was found between the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism and placental lead levels (p<0.05). This study suggested that maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism was associated with placental lead levels.

  19. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Uche, Ebele; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects. PMID:26989408

  20. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanrong; Lin, Yanli; Wu, Xiaojie; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Xiong, Fuyin; Wang, Ning; Pan, Dengke; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-02-01

    Livestock meat is generally low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are beneficial to human health. An alternative approach to increasing the levels of n-3 PUFAs in meat is to generate transgenic livestock animals. In this study, we describe the generation of cloned pigs that express the cbr-fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Analysis of fatty acids demonstrated that the cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs produced high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs; consequently, a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was observed. We demonstrated that the n-3 desaturase gene from C. briggsae was functionally expressed, and had a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the transgenic pigs, which may allow the production of pork enriched in n-3 PUFAs.

  1. Transport of stele-associated IAA in gravistimulated roots of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemetz, C.L.; Evans, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    We tested the redistribution of label from a pulse of {sup 3}H IAA applied to the cut surface of 5 mm apical root segments. We determined the amount of label in the stele, meristematic region (MR), root cap, and cortical tissue on the lower and upper sides of gravistimulated vs control roots. Label entered the stele and moved into the MR prior to accumulating in the elongation zone (EZ). Little label moved into the cap. Gravistimulation did not increase the amount of label moving from the stele, but it increased the amount of label accumulating on the lower side of the EZ. Removal of the cap immediately following gravistimulation rendered the roots insensitive to gravity and prevented gravi-induced asymmetric redistribution of label. The results suggest that a signal originating in the root cap directs auxin redistribution in tissue behind the cap.

  2. Serum vitamin B12 and folic Acid levels in acute cerebral atherothrombotic infarction.

    PubMed

    Kocer, Abdulkadir; Ince, Nurhan; Canbulat, Cuneyt E; Sargin, Mehmet

    2004-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cerebral stroke. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important determinants of homocysteine metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the relationship, if present, between vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and acute cerebral stroke in this study. Blood aliquots drawn within 24 hours after the stroke from hospitalized patients (n=66) with the diagnosis of acute ischemic cerebrovascular episode and also blood samples from 38 healthy controls without any vascular risk factor were analyzed. With a competitive, chemoluminescence assay, serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured in blood samples taken within 24 hours after the stroke. The differences and correlations were tested using frequency test, student-t test and multivariate analysis. Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 245.40 (S.D.: 72.9) and 343.2 (S.D.: 113.0) pg/ml respectively (p=0.0001). This difference was independent from other risk factors. Likewise, mean serum folic acid levels were lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 4.62 (S.D.: 1.94) and 5.97 (S.D.: 1.19) ng/ml, respectively (p=0.003). Mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate at the convalescence phase were 253.05 (S.D.: 68.78) pg/ml and 4.48 (S.D.: 2.08) ng/ml, respectively; the values obtained at the acute phase were not significantly different from the values obtained at the convalescence phase. We conclude that low vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations are associated with an increased risk of stroke, and the relationship for vitamin B12 is independent from the other known modifiable stroke risk factors. For understanding the effects of B12 and folate in stroke patients, more detailed follow-up studies with long period are needed.

  3. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  4. Uric acid plasma level and urine pH in rats treated with ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Drewa, Tomasz; Wolski, Zbigniew; Gruszka, Marzena; Misterek, Bartosz; Lysik, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    It was a chance discovery that ambroxol parenteral administration led to urinary bladder stone formation in rats. This study was undertaken to examine the serum uric acid levels and urine pH in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. Ambroxol influence on the uric acid level was measured in 5 rats (Rattus sp.) treated with 60 mg/kg (dissolved in injection water, sc, daily) during 2 weeks. Ambroxol influence on urine pH was examined on 45 rats divided into 3 groups. Rats from the 1st and 2nd group received 30 and 60 mg/kg/24h ambroxol, respectively. Urine was collected once daily and measured with strip kit. All values were presented as the means with standard deviations. The Student t test was used to compare the means, p < 0.05 was considered as significant. Dynamics of pH changes was measured in 4 rats treated with 60 mg/kg/24h of ambroxol. Controls received 1 mL of injection water sc. Serum uric acid level increased up to 8.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL vs. 5.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL in control (p < 0.002). In the 1st and 2nd group urine pH increased up to 7.5 +/- 0.5 and 7.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.4 (p < 0.05). Ambroxol withdrawal resulted in sequential urine pH decrease. 11 days after interruption of ambroxol therapy pH reached the starting value. Urine pH changes and possible disturbances in uric acid metabolic pathway may influence on the stone formation in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. The influence of ambroxol on urinary tract GAG layer and the balance between xanthine and CaOx in the urine should be checked.

  5. Regulation of laminin and entactin mRNA levels by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, M.E.; Phillips, S.L.; Carlin, B.E.; Merlie, J.P.; Chung, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP induced F9 embryonal carcinoma cells to differentiate to parietal endoderm; the morphological changes were accompanied by the increased synthesis of the basement membrane glycoproteins laminin and entactin. cDNA clones have been isolated for the A (400 kD), B1 (220 kD), and B2 (205 kD) chains of laminin. Northern blot analysis indicated that the A, B1, and B2 chains were encoded by RNA species of 9.8, 6.0, and 8.0 kb, respectively. The kinetics of induction of the laminin mRNAs were studied by dot-blotting dilutions of RNA extracted from F9 cells cultured in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP for increasing amounts of time and hybridizing to /sup 32/P-labeled recombinant plasmids. Very low levels of the A and B chain RNAs were found in uninduced cells, and a large increase occurred between 48 and 72 hr of growth in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. A cDNA clone was also obtained for entactin, a 150 kD glycoprotein that forms a complex with laminin. Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP treatment also increased the amount of entactin RNA in F9 cells. These results suggested that a common mechanism may exist for the coordinate regulation of the 4 basement membrane protein genes during differentiation.

  6. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Total Sialic Acid Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Surekha R; Kolte, Abhay P; Gupta, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic gingivitis and periodontitis are inflammatory diseases. An important function of host sialic acid is to regulate innate immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of Total sialic acid (TSA) in saliva and serum and also to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects were clinically examined and distributed into three groups (n=30) according to the periodontal status namely healthy, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.Clinical measurements including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, oral hygeine index were recorded .TSA concentration was determined in saliva and serum of all subjects. Results: In healthy group the mean salivary TSA level was 39.05mg/dl ±6.35(p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 49.75 mg/dl ± 4.87 (p<0.0001). In the chronic gingivitis group the mean salivary TSA level was 68.23 mg/dl ± 2.71 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 65.65 mg/dl ±3.56 (p<0.0001). In the chronic periodontitis group the mean salivary TSA was 81.33 mg/dl ±3.94 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 75.98 mg/dl ±3.58 (p<0.0001). Conclusion:The present data indicates that salivary & serum TSA levels can differentiate between chronic periodontitis patients and normal individuals. Thus it can be used as an adjunct to diagnose, monitor response to therapy, to determine the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes. PMID:25386514

  7. Acid Secretion and Serum Gastrin Levels in the Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R. Edward; Longmire, William P.; Passaro, Edward

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen cases of patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome were reviewed. In two cases the diagnosis was made by incidental biopsy of small liver nodules at operation for peptic ulcer disease. Seven patients had gastric secretory tests which showed a basal acid output to maximum acid output ratio of more than 65 percent. Five patients had bao:mao ratios less than 50 percent. A 30-month interval between incidental discovery of tumor and clinically evident disease was observed in two patients. Recurrence of symptoms after excision of tumor was noted after a similar interval in another case. Serum gastrin levels, before total gastrectomy, were elevated in all cases. The lowest preoperative level in this series of patients was 550 picograms per ml (normal 100 to 150 picograms). They were diagnostic in two patients with normal gastric secretory studies. The levels fell to normal following total gastrectomy in six patients. Two patients still had elevated levels five years and 14 years after total gastrectomy. One was discovered to have a parathyroid adenoma with hypercalcemia. Total gastrectomy was curative in all the patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; lesser operations were not. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:5031740

  8. Changes in intramuscular amino acid levels in submaximally exercised horses - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, R; Bauer, A; Hackl, S; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2010-08-01

    The time-dependent changes in intramuscular amino acid (AA) levels caused by exercise and by feeding a protein/AA supplement were analysed in nine horses. Horses were submitted to a total of four standardized exercise tests (SETs). Amino acid concentrations were determined prior to, immediately after, 4 and 18 h after exercise. The experiment was subdivided into two consecutive periods of 3 weeks. In each period two SETs were performed. In the second period, horses were given a protein/AA supplement within 1 h after exercise. Significant changes in mean plasma AA levels similar to previous studies were noted to be time-dependent and to be associated with feeding the supplement. The intramuscular concentrations of the free AA in relation to pre-exercise levels showed significant time-dependent changes for alanine, asparagine, aspartate, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, serine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Feeding the supplement significantly increased the 4 h post-exercise intramuscular concentration of alanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine. At 18 h after exercise, apart from isoleucine and methionine, levels were still increased and also those of asparagine, histidine and valine in relation to none treatment. Hence, it was concluded that AA mixtures administered orally to horses within 1 h after exercise increased intramuscular AA pool. PMID:19663973

  9. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA): Quarter 4 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.

    2014-06-01

    This report includes the composite data products (CDPs) for early fuel cell market deployments in quarter 4 of 2013. Results are presented for ARRA (projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 [ARRA]) and Combined (projects funded by DOE Interagency Agreements [IAA], Department of Defense Defense Logistics Agency [DLA], and ARRA).

  10. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); Quarter 3 2012 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes early fuel cell market composite data products for the third quarter of 2012 for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA) deployment projects.

  11. Brassinosteroids regulate the differential growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls through auxin signaling components IAA19 and ARF7.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Song, Li; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2013-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important class of phytohormones which regulates a wide range of physiological processes. Genetic and physiological studies have revealed that BR responses usually depend on an intact auxin signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that high BR concentration or enhanced BR signaling induce the differential growth of etiolated hypocotyls and result in the morphological changes, while auxin-resistant mutants, msg2 (dominant mutant of IAA19) and arf7, are insensitive to the BR effect and can partially suppress the phenotype of bzr1-D (dominant mutant of BZR1 with enhanced BR signaling). Interestingly, BZR1 protein can directly bind to the promoter regions of both IAA19 and ARF7, indicating that IAA19 and ARF7 mediate the BR-induced differential growth by serving as direct targets of BZR1. Systemic microarray analysis revealed that a number of BR-responsive genes showed reduced BR response in msg2, confirming that BR employs auxin signaling components IAA19 and ARF7 to modulate the specific downstream processes. These results provide informative clues on the crosstalk of BR-auxin signaling and the mechanisms of BR-auxin effects in regulating differential growth.

  12. Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, vitreous humor, and pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid are relatively stable in postmortem serum and may, therefore, be used for diagnostic purposes when chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure are investigated as causes of death. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain in defining the best alternative to postmortem serum for the identification and assessment of significantly decreased kidney function. In this study, we investigated urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humor in a series of medico-legal cases (500 autopsies) with various causes of death. No postmortem interval-related differences were observed in any of the investigated fluids for any analyzed parameter, confirming the biochemical stability of all compounds after death. Data analysis failed to reveal statistically significant differences between postmortem serum and pericardial fluid urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations. Conversely, statistically significant differences were observed in all analyzed biomarkers between postmortem serum and vitreous humor levels, with lower concentrations of all markers measured in vitreous. The results of this study suggest that, in order to estimate as accurately as possible blood analyte concentrations at the time of death, pericardial fluid should be preferred to vitreous humor.

  13. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Methattel Raman, Shijeesh; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  14. Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Different Levels of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Lundin, Ulrika; Gayrard, Nathalie; Mischak, Harald; Aparicio, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Weinberger, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Patients with CKD display altered plasma amino acid profiles. This study estimated the association between the estimated GFR and urinary and plasma amino acid profiles in CKD patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Urine and plasma samples were taken from 52 patients with different stages of CKD, and plasma samples only were taken from 25 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Metabolic profiling was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after phenylisothiocyanate derivatization. Results Most plasma amino acid concentrations were decreased in hemodialysis patients, whereas proline, citrulline, asparagine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and hydroxykynurenine levels were increased (P<0.05). Both plasma levels and urinary excretion of citrulline were higher in the group of patients with advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3 versus CKD stages 4 and 5; in plasma: 35.9±16.3 versus 61.8±23.6 µmol/L, P<0.01; in urine: 1.0±1.2 versus 7.1±14.3 µmol/mol creatinine, P<0.001). Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were higher in advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3, 0.57±0.29; CKD stages 4 and 5, 1.02±0.48, P<0.001), whereas urinary excretion was lower (2.37±0.93 versus 1.51±1.43, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusting on estimated GFR, serum albumin, proteinuria, and other covariates revealed associations between diabetes and plasma citrulline (P=0.02) and between serum sodium and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03). Plasma tyrosine to phenylalanine and valine to glycine ratios were lower in advanced CKD stages (P<0.01). Conclusion CKD patients have altered plasma and urinary amino acid profiles that are not corrected by dialysis. Depending on solutes, elevated plasma levels were associated with increased or decreased urinary excretion, depicting situations of uremic retention (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or systemic overproduction (citrulline). These results give some insight in

  15. The inimitable kynurenic acid: the roles of different ionotropic receptors in the action of kynurenic acid at a spinal level.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gabor; Tar, Lilla; Bohar, Zsuzsanna; Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Vecsei, Laszlo; Pardutz, Arpad; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-03-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite that interacts with NMDA, AMPA/kainate and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. The goal of this study was to clarify the roles of these receptors in the action of KYNA at a spinal level by using highly specific receptor antagonists alone or in triple combinations. Chronic osteoarthritis-like joint pain was induced with monosodium-iodoacetate in male Wistar rats. Mechanical allodynia and motor function were quantified. In the first series we determined the dose-response and time course effects of intrathecally administered KYNA (10-100 μg), D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; an NMDA receptor antagonist; 10-200 μg), methyllycaconitine (MLA; an alpha 7 nicotinic receptor antagonist; 100-200 μg) and 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzoquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX; an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist; 1-20 μg). In the second series, four different triple combinations of MLA, AP5 and NBQX were investigated. Intrathecal administration of KYNA caused a dose-dependent motor impairment and antinociception. The highly specific NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 caused a motor impairment and antinociception with lower potency. High doses of NBQX resulted in significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment, while only the highest dose of MLA gave rise to significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment. After the coadministration of these ligands as combinations, no potentiation was observed. It may be supposed that the effects of KYNA are primarily due to the inhibition of NMDA receptors at both glycine and phencyclidine (PCP) binding sites, and not to the interactions at the different ionotropic receptors, but the mechanisms behind its high bio-efficiency are still unknown.

  16. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Feneberg, Emily; Steinacker, Petra; Lehnert, Stefan; Böhm, Bernhard; Mayer, Geert; Otto, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an established indicator of astrogliosis. Therefore, variable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of this protein might reflect disease-specific pathologic profiles. In patients with narcolepsy, a loss of hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) neurons in the brain and low concentrations of hcrt-1 in CSF have been reported. We performed a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate if GFAP also is altered in the CSF of these patients. Here we detected significantly higher CSF levels of GFAP in patients with low hcrt-1 levels, of which the majority had a diagnosis of narcolepsy and cataplexy (NC); however, this finding was not observed in patients with hcrt-1 levels that were within reference range. In conclusion, GFAP may be useful as an additional disease biomarker in patients with narcolepsy, and this hypothesis should be investigated in larger studies.

  17. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    PubMed

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  18. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  19. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  20. Membrane-directed effects of the plant hormones abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Schauf, C L; Bringle, B; Stillwell, W

    1987-03-30

    This study examines two ways plant hormones might influence membrane processes, effects on overall permeability and modifications of specific ion channels. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) greatly enhanced erythritol permeability in mixed egg lecithin bilayers. In single component dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers ABA was less effective than IAA, while 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) did not affect either system or alter their ABA response. In Myxicola axons ABA and IAA had no effect, while 2,4-D (10 uM) caused a depolarizing shift of voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ activation by 25 +/- 4 mV and 15 +/- 3 mV, consistent with internal negative surface charge changes of -0.002 e-/A2 and -0.0007 e-/A2. We conclude that both generalized and ion channel-directed effects may link plant hormones and intracellular regulation.

  1. Ascorbic acid levels of aqueous humor of dogs after experimental phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    De Biaggi, Christianni P; Barros, Paulo S M; Silva, Vanessa V; Brooks, Dennis E; Barros, Silvia B M

    2006-01-01

    Phacoemulsification has been successfully employed in humans and animals for lens extraction. This ultrasonic extracapsular surgical technique induces hydroxyl radical formation in the anterior chamber, which accumulates despite irrigation and aspiration. In this paper we determined the total antioxidant status of aqueous humor after phacoemulsification by measuring aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 11; weighing about 10 kg) with normal eyes as determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and indirect ophthalmoscopy had phacoemulsification performed in one eye with the other eye used as a control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before surgery and at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 after surgery. Total aqueous humor antioxidant status was inferred from the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis (2-amidopropane) chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by anova followed by the paired t-test. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 48 to 27 min during the first 24 h with a gradual increase thereafter, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 7 days postoperatively. Reduced levels of ascorbic acid followed this reduction in antioxidant capacity (from 211 to 99 microm after 24 h), remaining lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Protein concentration in aqueous humor increased from 0.62 mg/mL to 30.8 mg/mL 24 h after surgery, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Paracentesis alone did not significantly alter the parameters measured. These results indicate that after phacoemulsification, the aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels and antioxidant defenses in aqueous humor are reduced, indirectly corroborating free radical

  2. Comparison of plasma uric acid levels in five varieties of the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Hartman, S; Taleb, S A; Geng, T; Gyenai, K; Guan, X; Smith, E

    2006-10-01

    Plasma uric acid (PUA) is a consensus physiological biomarker for many phenotypes in vertebrates because it is a reliable indicator for processes such as oxidative stress and tubular function. In birds, it is considered a major antioxidant and is also the primary endproduct of nitrogen metabolism. Despite this importance, knowledge of baseline levels of PUA in physiologically normal birds, including the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, is limited. Here, we compared PUA levels in a total of 106 apparently normal male and female birds at 8 and 32 wk of age from 5 strains of the domestic turkey, including Bourbon Red, Narragansett, Blue Slate, Royal Palm, and Spanish Black. Though differences in PUA were not significant at 8 and 32 wk of age, BW, variety, and sex effects were highly significant. When adjusted for BW, female birds had, on average, a higher PUA per kilogram of BW than male birds. When adjusted for both sex and BW, Royal Palm birds had the lowest average PUA, and Blue Slate had the highest PUA. Results of these investigations represent the first comparative analysis of PUA in physiologically normal turkey varieties. They suggest that differences in basal plasma levels of uric acid in physiologically normal turkeys are influenced by sex, weight, and genetic background but may be independent of age.

  3. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-03-20

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  4. Effect of increasing the level of omega-3 fatty acids on rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, C D; Kisielewski, A E

    1990-09-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil as compared to corn oil on the lipid dynamics and calcium ATPase activity of rat skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum was examined. After four-week supplementation with fish oil, the levels of eicosapentaenoic (20:5 omega 3), docosapentaenoic (22:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega 3) acids in the total lipids were 5.3, 5.5 and 28.1% of the total fatty acids, respectively. In contrast, with corn oil only 22:6 was found (8.9%). The level of these fatty acids in phosphatidylethanolamine from the membranes of animals fed fish oil was 4.2 (20:5), 5.4 (22:5) and 49.1% (22:6); and for phosphatidylcholine it was 5.4 (20:5), 4.6 (22:5) and 17.4% (22:6). Again, in corn oil fed animals, only 22:6 was found in appreciable amounts, namely 28.3% in phosphatidylethanolamine and 1.8% in phosphatidylcholine. The steady state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was used to assess lipid order and was found to be only slightly less for membranes from animals supplemented with fish oil (0.120) as compared to those supplemented with corn oil (0.124). The calcium ATPase was found to be unaffected by supplementation consistent with the observed modest changes in lipid order as well as with suggestions that the enzyme is relatively insensitive to the level of unsaturation. It could be argued that if large increases in fatty acyl polyunsaturation in mammalian cell membranes would lead to marked alterations in bulk membrane lipid motional properties, this may not be in the interest of preserving physiological function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effect of gibberellic acid on growth and indole metabolism of dwarf-pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to describe the pathway of biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan (TPP) and determine the effect of gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) on this system. Treatment of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L. var Little Marvel) with 0.8 ..mu..g GA/sub 3//plant resulted in increase in plant height along with increased auxin level. A cell-free preparation of pea shoot tissue was able to convert D,L-tryptophan-3-/sup 14/C into different indole metabolites. The acidic and neutral fractions obtained after TPP incubation were subjected to thin-layer chromatography. In the neutral fraction, two peaks of radioactivity were found and these matched the Rfs for indole-acetaldehyde (IAAId) and indole-3-ethanol (IEt). One major peak of radioactivity was observed in the radiochromatograms of the acidic fraction and it corresponded with a authentic IAA. The enzymes involved in the conversion of TPP to IAA involved, in the first step, a transaminase (tryptophan aminotransferase, EC 2 x 6 x 1) reaction. The aminotransferase was purified about 82-fold by acetone precipitation and Sephadex G-200 filtration. It had a pH optimum of 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 40/sup 0/C. With ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate a co-substrate, the enzyme transaminated aromatic as well as aliphatic amino acids including D,L-tryptophan, D,L-alanine and D,L leucine. D-TPP was found to be more effective than L-TPP as a substrate. GA/sub 3/ treatment to dwarf pea plants results in increase in the specific activity of the enzyme over the observation period. In the second step of TPP conversion, IPyA is decarboxylated by an enzyme to IAAId. In plants treated with GA/sub 3/, the enzyme activity was significantly higher three days after treatment but remained unaffected at all other stages when observations were made. The final step enzyme is a dehydrogenase that can convert IAAId to IAA in the presence of MAD as a co-factor.

  6. Plastidial fatty acid levels regulate resistance gene-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Shekara, A C; Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Barman, Subhankar Roy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2007-04-24

    In Arabidopsis, resistance to Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV) depends on the resistance (R) gene, HRT, and the recessive locus rrt. Resistance also depends on salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, and PAD4. Exogenous application of SA confers resistance in RRT-containing plants by increasing HRT transcript levels in a PAD4-dependent manner. Here we report that reduction of oleic acid (18:1) can also induce HRT gene expression and confer resistance to TCV. However, the 18:1-regulated pathway is independent of SA, rrt, EDS1, and PAD4. Reducing the levels of 18:1, via a mutation in the SSI2-encoded stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase, or by exogenous application of glycerol, increased transcript levels of HRT as well as several other R genes. Second-site mutations in the ACT1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase or GLY1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase restored 18:1 levels in HRT ssi2 plants and reestablished a dependence on rrt. Resistance to TCV and HRT gene expression in HRT act1 plants was inducible by SA but not by glycerol, whereas that in HRT pad4 plants was inducible by glycerol but not by SA. The low 18:1-mediated induction of R gene expression was also dependent on ACT1 but independent of EDS1, PAD4, and RAR1. Intriguingly, TCV inoculation did not activate this 18:1-regulated pathway in HRT plants, but instead resulted in the induction of several genes that encode 18:1-synthesizing isozymes. These results suggest that the 18:1-regulated pathway may be specifically targeted during pathogen infection and that altering 18:1 levels may serve as a unique strategy for promoting disease resistance.

  7. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  8. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  9. System-level understanding of the potential acid-tolerance components of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 under extreme acid stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2015-09-01

    In previous study, two extremely acidophilic strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 (collection site: bioleaching leachate) and ZJJN-5 (collection site: bioleaching wastewater) were isolated from a typical industrial bio-heap in China. Here, we unraveled the potential acid-tolerance components of ZJJN-3 by comparing the physiological differences with ZJJN-5 under different acid stresses. The parameters used for comparison included intracellular pH (pHin), capsule morphology, fatty acid composition of cell membrane, transcription of key molecular chaperones, H(+)-ATPase activities and NAD(+)/NADH ratio. It was indicated that the acid-tolerance of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 was systematically regulated. Capsule first thickened and then shed off along with increased acid stress. Cell membrane maintained the intracellular stability by up-regulating the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acids. Meanwhile, the transcription of key repair molecular chaperones (GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ) was up-regulated by 2.2-3.5 folds for ensuring the proper folding of peptide. Moreover, low pHin promoted ZJJN-3 to biosynthesize more H(+)-ATPase for pumping H(+) out of cells. Furthermore, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio increased due to the decreased H(+) concentration. Based on the above physiological analysis, the potential acid-tolerance components of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 were first proposed and it would be useful for better understanding how these extremophiles responded to the high acid stress.

  10. Receptor-level interrelationships of amino acids and the adequate amino acid type hormones in Tetrahymena: a receptor evolution model.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1986-01-01

    Histidine stimulates the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena to the same extent as histamine, and also stimulates its division, which histamine does not. Tyrosine and diiodotyrosine equally stimulate the growth of the Tetrahymena. Both amino acids inhibit the characteristic influence of the adequate amino acid hormone when added to Tetrahymena culture 72 h in advance of it. Primary interaction with diiodotyrosine and tyrosine notably increases the cellular growth rate. Histamine has a similar, although less notable effect than histidine. In the light of these experimental observations there is reason to postulate that the receptors of the amino acid hormones have developed from amino acid receptors.

  11. Peripartum responses of dairy cows to prepartal feeding level and dietary fatty acid source.

    PubMed

    Hayirli, A; Keisler, D H; Doepel, L; Petit, Hélène

    2011-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding level and oilseed supplementation during the close-up dry period on energy balance (EB), hepatic lipidosis, metabolic status, and productivity in early lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein cows were blocked according to parity and expected calving date and then assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial allocation with 2 feeding levels: ad libitum (AL) or 30% feed restriction (FR), and 3 dietary fatty acid sources: canola seed, linola seed, or flaxseed at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM), to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acids, respectively during the last 4 wk of gestation. After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet. Cows fed AL lost less body weight (-2.9 vs. -6.0%) and body condition score (+0.67 vs. -2.30%), and consequently were in more positive EB (+4.6 vs. -0.3 Mcal) during the prepartum period than cows subjected to FR. Postpartum, FR cows lost less body weight (-9.7 vs. -12.4%) and experienced less severe negative EB (-4.5 vs. -7.0 Mcal) than AL cows. Cows fed AL had higher plasma insulin (6.8 vs. 4.4 μIU/mL) and lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations (436 vs. 570 mEq/mL) during the close-up period than cows subjected to FR. Cows fed AL tended to have lower liver glycogen content in early lactation than cows subjected to FR (4.4 vs. 2.9 % of DM) [corrected], but had similar triglyceride content (13.1 ± 1.2 μg/g of DM). Fatty acid source did not influence response variables. In conclusion, eliminating intake depression by FR during the close-up period had positive carryover effects on EB and metabolic status during early lactation, but feeding linoleic and linolenic acids via unprotected oilseeds only had negligible effects on peripartum responses.

  12. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  13. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Padgett, William T; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  14. cis-Cinnamic acid selective suppressors distinct from auxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Katsuhiro; Nishikawa, Keisuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Shindo, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA), one of the allelochemicals, in plants is very similar to that of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a natural auxin, and thus cis-CA has long been believed to be an analog of auxin. We have reported some structure-activity relationships studies by synthesizing over 250 cis-CA derivatives and estimating their inhibitory activities on root growth inhibition in lettuce. In this study, the compounds that showed low- or no-activity on root growth inhibition were recruited as candidates suppressors against cis-CA and/or auxin and tested for their activity. In the presence of cis-CA, lettuce root growth was inhibited; however, the addition of some cis-CA derivatives restored control-level root growth. Four compounds, (Z)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-(3-butoxyphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-[3-(pentyloxy)phenyl]acrylic acid, and (Z)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)acrylic acid were selected as candidates for a cis-CA selective suppressor they allowed the recovery of root growth from inhibition by cis-CA treatment without any effects on the IAA-induced effect or elongating activity by themselves. Three candidates significantly ameliorated the root shortening by the potent inhibitor derived from cis-CA. In brief, we have found some cis-CA selective suppressors which have never been reported from inactive cis-CA derivatives for root growth inhibition. cis-CA selective suppressors will play an important role in elucidating the mechanism of plant growth regulation.

  15. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids correlate with growth rate in plant cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Meï, Coline; Michaud, Morgane; Cussac, Mathilde; Albrieux, Catherine; Gros, Valérie; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A.; Jouhet, Juliette; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants, fatty acids (FAs) with 18 carbons (18C) represent about 70% of total FAs, the most abundant species being 18:2 and 18:3. These two polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) represent about 55% of total FAs in Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures, whereas 18:1 represents about 10%. The level of PUFAs may vary, depending on ill-defined factors. Here, we compared various sets of plant cell cultures and noticed a correlation between the growth rate of a cell population and the level of unsaturation of 18C FAs. These observations suggest that the final level of PUFAs might depend in part on the rate of cell division, and that FAD2 and FAD3 desaturases, which are respectively responsible for the formation of 18:2 and 18:3 on phospholipids, have limiting activities in fast-growing cultures. In plant cell culture, phosphate (Pi) deprivation is known to impair cell division and to trigger lipid remodeling. We observed that Pi starvation had no effect on the expression of FAD genes, and that the level of PUFAs in this situation was also correlated with the growth rate. Thus, the level of PUFAs appears as a hallmark in determining cell maturity and aging. PMID:26469123

  16. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  17. Insulin Resistance is Associated With Total Bile Acid Level in Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wanwan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Zhengyi; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Baihui; Chen, Ying; Ding, Lin; Huang, Xiaolin; Lv, Xiaofei; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Qinyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bile acid metabolism was reported to be involved in glucose metabolism homeostasis. However, the exact relationship between bile acid and glucose metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity is not clarified. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association between insulin sensitivity and hyperbileacidemia in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic population. This community-based cross-sectional study included 9603 residents from Jiading, Shanghai, China, who were 40 years and older. Standardized questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were conducted. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.7 was defined as insulin resistance and fasting TBA ≥ 10 mmol/L was defined as hyperbileacidemia. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that HOMA-IR, age, and male sex were positively associated with hyperbileacidemia in both nondiabetic and diabetic participants. In multivariate logistic models, participants with insulin resistance had significantly higher risk of hyperbileacidemia compared to those who have no insulin resistance, in both nondiabetic and diabetic population (nondiabetic: OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.42–2.19; P < 0.001; diabetic: OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.06 – 2.31; P = 0.025, respectively). Further adjustment for the HbA1c level in diabetic population did not change the significant association (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.06 − 2.40; P = 0.024). In nondiabetic participants, each 1-unit increment of HOMA-IR conferred an 18% higher risk of hyperbileacidemia (95% CI 1.04–1.35; P = 0.013), whereas in diabetic participants, this association was similar but not significant (95% CI 0.95–1.59; P = 0.117). Insulin resistance was positively associated with hyperbileacidemia in both nondiabetic and diabetic population. The increase in the bile acid level in insulin-resistant population regardless of status of diabetes and glucose level indicated the important role of insulin resistance

  18. Uncoupling protein 3 expression levels influence insulin sensitivity, fatty acid oxidation, and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Senese, Rosalba; Valli, Vivien; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Silvestri, Elena; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Controversy exists on whether uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) positively or negatively influences insulin sensitivity in vivo, and the underlying signaling pathways have been scarcely studied. We studied how a progressive reduction in UCP3 expression (using UCP3 +/+, UCP3 +/-, and UCP3 -/- mice) modulates insulin sensitivity and related metabolic parameters. In order to further validate our observations, we also studied animals in which insulin resistance was induced by administration of a high-fat diet (HFD). In UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice, gastrocnemius muscle Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) (serine 473) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (threonine 171) phosphorylation, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) membrane levels were reduced compared to UCP3 +/+ mice. The HOMA-IR index (insulin resistance parameter) was increased both in the UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice. In these mice, insulin administration normalized Akt/PKB phosphorylation between genotypes while AMPK phosphorylation was further reduced, and sarcolemmal GLUT4 levels were induced but did not reach control levels. Furthermore, non-insulin-stimulated muscle fatty acid oxidation and the expression of several involved genes both in muscle and in liver were reduced. HFD administration induced insulin resistance in UCP3 +/+ mice and the aforementioned parameters resulted similar to those of chow-fed UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice. In conclusion, high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance in wild-type mice mimics that of chow-fed UCP3 +/- and UCP3 -/- mice showing that progressive reduction of UCP3 levels results in insulin resistance. This is accompanied by decreased fatty acid oxidation and a less intense Akt/PKB and AMPK signaling.

  19. Effects of a low birthweight infant formula containing human milk levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, B; Edenhofer, S; Lipowsky, G; Reinhardt, D

    1995-08-01

    Long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for low birth weight infants (LBWI). Therefore, enrichment of LBWI formulae with metabolites both linoleic (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acids at levels typical for human milk has been recommended. However, previous feeding trials with LCP-enriched formulae evaluated only a dietary supplementation with omega-3 LCP from fish oils alone or with both omega-3 and omega-6 LCP at levels considerably lower than usual human milk contents. We studied the effects of an LBWI formula providing the major omega-3 and omega-6 LCP, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids, in amounts similar to those in average human milk. Twenty-seven LBWIs were enrolled in this study when they tolerated full enteral feeding (> or = 130 ml milk/kg/day). Infants either received their own mother's milk (n = 8, birthweight 1218 +/- 146 g, gestational age 30.2 +/- 1.5 weeks, mean +/- SD) fortified with protein and minerals (FM-85, Nestle Ag, Munchen, Germany; dosage 5 g/100 ml milk) or were randomly assigned to blinded batches of an LBWI formula (Prematil, Milupa AG, Friedrichsdorf, Germany) without LCP (n = 10, 1280 +/- 229 g, 31.1 +/- 3.1 weeks) or with LCP (n = 9, 1253 +/- 334 g, 30.4 +/- 3.3 wks.). During the study period of 21 days, the three feeding groups did not differ in growth and feeding tolerances as assessed by occurrence of gastric residuals, spitting, or abdominal distention; however, firms stools were noted more frequently in the two formula groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

  1. Optimal level of purple acid phosphatase5 is required for maintaining complete resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Sridhar; Stone, Sophia L.; Benkel, Bernhard; Zhang, Junzeng; Berrue, Fabrice; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Plants possess an exceedingly complex innate immune system to defend against most pathogens. However, a relative proportion of the pathogens overcome host's innate immunity and impair plant growth and productivity. We previously showed that mutation in purple acid phosphatase (PAP5) lead to enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Here, we report that an optimal level of PAP5 is crucial for mounting complete basal resistance. Overexpression of PAP5 impaired ICS1, PR1 expression and salicylic acid (SA) accumulation similar to pap5 knockout mutant plants. Moreover, plant overexpressing PAP5 was impaired in H2O2 accumulation in response to Pst DC3000. PAP5 is localized in to peroxisomes, a known site of generation of reactive oxygen species for activation of defense responses. Taken together, our results demonstrate that optimal levels of PAP5 is required for mounting resistance against Pst DC3000 as both knockout and overexpression of PAP5 lead to compromised basal resistance. PMID:26300891

  2. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  3. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. Methods We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Results The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P < 0.001). In addition, dietary EPA, C22:5 n-3 and DHA were significantly correlated with the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids and DHA, with the Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.35 (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with those in the lowest fish intake quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a significantly higher DHA level (adjusted mean difference, 0.99 ± 0.10%, test for trend, P < 0.001). Similar patterns between dietary DHA intake and plasma DHA levels were found. However, the association between dietary fish intake and plasma EPA was not significant (test for trend, P = 0.69). Conclusions The dietary intakes of fish and of long chain n-3 fatty acids, as determined by the food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PMID:23414574

  4. Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Cassandra V; Harris, Danielle M M; Patten, Cheryl L

    2015-09-01

    The soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae UW5 produces the rhizosphere signaling molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via the indolepyruvate pathway. Expression of indolepyruvate decarboxylase, a key pathway enzyme encoded by ipdC, is upregulated by the transcription factor TyrR in response to aromatic amino acids. Some members of the TyrR regulon may also be controlled by branched-chain amino acids and here we show that expression from the ipdC promoter and production of IAA are downregulated by valine, leucine and isoleucine. Regulation of the IAA synthesis pathway by both aromatic and branched-chain amino acids suggests a broader role for this pathway in bacterial physiology, beyond plant interactions.

  5. Evaluation of postmortem urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid levels in pericardial fluid in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Quan, Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-10-01

    In postmortem biochemistry, there is insufficient data available for the practical analysis of factors in the pericardial fluid. The aim of the present study was to examine postmortem pericardial fluid for urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) levels to investigate the pathophysiology of death in forensic autopsy cases (total, n = 409; within 48 h postmortem), which included blunt, sharp instrument injury, asphyxiation, drowning, fire fatalities, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine-related fatalities, other poisoning, delayed death from trauma and natural diseases. There was a significant elevation in the three markers for chronic renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine fatalities and delayed traumatic death, which was comparable with the clinical criteria for their serum levels. These postmortem findings showed azotemia due to renal failure, elevated protein catabolism and rhabdomyolysis. Although the pericardial levels were otherwise similar to the clinical serum reference ranges, only the drowning fatalities showed significantly lower levels for each marker. These observations suggested the stability of UN, Cr and UA in the pericardial fluid within 48 h postmortem and their usefulness for the pathophysiological investigation of death involving azotemia.

  6. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress. PMID:25113613

  7. The Relationship between Uric Acid Levels and Huntington’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Auinger, Peggy; Kieburtz, Karl; McDermott, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) may be associated with the progression of Parkinson’s disease and related neurodegenerative conditions; however, its association with Huntington’s disease (HD) progression has not been explored. A secondary analysis of 347 subjects from the CARE-HD clinical trial was performed to examine the relationship between baseline UA levels and the level of functional decline in HD. Outcomes included change in scores at 30 months for the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale components. There was less worsening of total functional capacity over time with increasing baseline UA levels (adjusted mean worsening in scores: 3.17, 2.99, 2.95, 2.28, 2.21, from lowest to highest UA quintile, p=0.03). These data suggest a possible association between higher UA levels and slower HD progression, particularly as measured by total functional capacity. If confirmed, UA could be an important predictor and potentially modifiable factor affecting the rate of HD progression. PMID:20063429

  8. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  9. Sulforaphane reduces the alterations induced by quinolinic acid: modulation of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Santana-Martínez, R A; Galván-Arzáte, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Avila-Chávez, E; López-Acosta, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A; Maldonado, P D

    2014-07-11

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5mg/kg, i.p.) 24h and 5min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities.

  10. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xin; Zhan, Haixian; Ma, Jian; Luo, Peigao; Zhang, Wenping; Cui, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family plays key roles in the primary auxin-response process and controls a number of important traits in plants. However, the characteristics of the Aux/IAA gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have long been unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification of the Aux/IAA gene family was performed using the latest draft genome sequence of the bread wheat “Chinese Spring.” Thirty-four Aux/IAA genes were identified, 30 of which have duplicated genes on the A, B or D sub-genome, with a total of 84 Aux/IAA sequences. These predicted Aux/IAA genes were non-randomly distributed in all the wheat chromosomes except for chromosome 2D. The information of wheat Aux/IAA proteins is also described. Based on an analysis of phylogeny, expression and adaptive evolution, we prove that the Aux/IAA family in wheat has been replicated twice in the two allopolyploidization events of bread wheat, when the tandem duplication also occurred. The duplicated genes have undergone an evolutionary process of purifying selection, resulting in the high conservation of copy genes among sub-genomes and functional redundancy among several members of the TaIAA family. However, functional divergence probably existed in most TaIAA members due to the diversity of the functional domain and expression pattern. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of Aux/IAA genes in wheat. PMID:26483801

  11. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403

  12. Urinary thiodiglycolic acid levels for vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, Y F; Ma, Y C

    2001-11-01

    Thiodiglycolic acid (TdGA) is the major metabolite of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) detected in human urine. Although urinary TdGA has been reported to be associated with ambient VCM exposure, the relationship between urinary TdGA and a low level of air VCM is not clear. Questionnaires were administered to 16 polyvinyl chloride manufacturing workers to obtain a detailed history of occupation and lifestyle. For each worker, personal air monitoring for VCM was performed and a time-weighted average for VCM exposure was calculated. The urinary TdGA levels at the end of a work shift, and at the commencement of the next shift, were also assessed for each worker. Urine analysis revealed that TdGA levels at the beginning of the next shift were higher than those at the end of that shift. Workers experiencing a VCM exposure greater than 5 ppm in air revealed a urinary TdGA level significantly greater than those experiencing a VCM exposure of less than 5 ppm (P < 0.05). The best fit of regression for urinary TdGA on air VCM was Y = 1.06 + 0.57X for urine collected at the commencement of the following work shift, where X is the air VCM concentration and Y is the urinary TdGA concentration (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.01). We conclude that the urinary TdGA level is best detected at the commencement of the next shift and that it can be used as an exposure marker for polyvinyl chloride workers when the air VCM level to which they are exposed is greater than 5 ppm.

  13. Sustained low abscisic acid levels increase seedling vigor under cold stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Mega, Ryosuke; Meguro-Maoka, Ayano; Endo, Akira; Shimosaka, Etsuo; Murayama, Seiji; Nambara, Eiji; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Abrams, Suzanne R; Sato, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) is mainly catabolized by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8ox), which also strictly regulates endogenous ABA levels. Although three members of the ABA8ox gene family are conserved in rice, it is not clear which stressors induce expression of these genes. Here, we found that OsABA8ox1 was induced by cold stress within 24 h and that OsABA8ox2 and OsABA8ox3 were not. In contrast, OsABA8ox2 and OsABA8ox3 were ABA-inducible, but OsABA8ox1 was not. OsABA8ox1, OsABA8ox2, and OsABA8ox3 restored germination of a cyp707a1/a2/a3 triple mutant of Arabidopsis to rates comparable to those of the wild type, indicating that OsABA8ox1, OsABA8ox2, and OsABA8ox3 function as ABA-catabolic genes in vivo. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing OsABA8ox1 showed decreased levels of ABA and increased seedling vigor at 15 °C. These results indicate that sustained low levels of ABA lead to increased seedling vigor during cold stress. On the other hand, excessively low endogenous ABA levels caused reduced drought and cold tolerance, although some of the transgenic rice lines expressing OsABA8ox1 at moderate levels did not show these harmful effects. Adequate regulation of endogenous ABA levels is thought to be crucial for maintaining seedling vigor under cold stress and for cold and drought tolerance in rice.

  14. Production of yogurt with enhanced levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and valuable nutrients using lactic acid bacteria and germinated soybean extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Bum; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2007-05-01

    Yogurt with high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids and isoflavones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and germinated soybean extract. Fermented soya milk (GABA soya yogurt) produced with starter and substrate had the GABA concentration of 424.67 microg/gDW, whereas fermented milk produced by a conventional method had GABA less than 1.5 microg/gDW. The GABA soya yogurt also contained significantly high levels of free amino acids and isoflavones compared with other conventional yogurts. The results suggested that the Lactobacillus brevis OPY-1 and germinated soybean possessed a prospect to be applied in dairy and other health products with high nutritive values and functional properties.

  15. The IAA cosmic dust laboratory: Experimental scattering matrices of clay particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Ramos, J. L.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results of measurements on solid particles performed at the Instituto de Astrofı´sica de Andalucı´a (IAA) cosmic dust laboratory located in Granada, Spain. The laboratory apparatus measures the complete scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle of aerosol particles. The measurements can be performed at a wavelength ( λ) of 483, 488, 520, 568, or 647 nm in the scattering angle range from 3° to 177°. Results of special test experiments are presented which show that our experimental results for scattering matrices are not significantly contaminated by multiple scattering and that the sizes/shapes of the particles do not change during the measurements. Moreover, the measured scattering matrix for a sample of green clay particles is compared with measurements previously performed in the Amsterdam light scattering setup for the same sample. New measurements on a white clay sample at 488 and 647 nm are also presented. The apparatus is devoted to experimentally studying the angle dependence of scattering matrices of dust samples of astrophysical interest. Moreover, there is a great interest in similar studies of aerosols that can affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere of the Earth and other planets such as silicates, desert dust, volcanic ashes, and carbon soot particles.

  16. The deposition of conjugated linoleic acids in eggs of laying hens fed diets varying in fat level and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Huyghebaert, Gerard; De Smet, Stefaan; Nollet, Lode; Arnouts, Sven; Demeyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into eggs and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism when layers are fed diets with different fat sources and fat levels. Layers were fed either a low fat diet (LF) or one of three high fat diets based on soybean oil (SB), animal fat (AF) or flaxseed oil (FSO). CLA was added at a concentration of 1 g/100 g feed from two different CLA premixes with a different CLA profile. For the trial, 144 laying hens were allocated to 12 treatments (4 basal fat sources x 3 CLA treatments) with 3 replicates of 4 hens each. No significant differences were observed in feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion or laying rate between chickens fed control and CLA-supplemented diets. Differences in yolk fat, cholesterol or yolk color were not clearly related to the dietary CLA. However, the supplementation of CLA to the diets had clear effects on the fatty acid composition, i.e., a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content were essentially unaffected. The results suggest that CLA may influence the activity of the desaturases to a different extent in the synthesis of (n-6) and (n-3) long-chain fatty acids. These effects of CLA depend on the level of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids available in the feed. The apparent deposition rate (%) is clearly higher for the c9, t11 isomer than for the t10, c12 isomer. Adding CLA to layers diets rich in (n-3) fatty acids produces eggs that could promote the health of the consumer in terms of a higher intake of (n-3) fatty acids and CLA. PMID:11823576

  17. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation.

  18. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  19. Erythrocyte membrane docosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with islet autoimmunity: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jill M.; Kroehl, Miranda; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Frederiksen, Brittni N.; Seifert, Jennifer; Wong, Randall; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Rewers, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses We previously reported that lower n-3 fatty acid intake and levels in erythrocyte membranes were associated with increased risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) but not progression to type 1 diabetes in children at increased risk for diabetes. We hypothesise that specific n-3 fatty acids and genetic markers contribute synergistically to this increased risk of IA in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Methods DAISY is following 2547 children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of IA, defined as being positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65, IA-2 or insulin autoantibodies on two consecutive visits. Using a case-cohort design, erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and dietary intake were measured prospectively in 58 IA-positive children and 299 IA-negative children. Results Lower membrane levels of the n-3 fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), were predictive of IA (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.09,0.55), while alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not, adjusting for HLA and diabetes family history. We examined whether the effect of dietary intake of the n-3 fatty acid ALA on IA risk was modified by fatty acid elongation and desaturation genes. Adjusting for HLA, diabetes family history, ethnicity, energy intake and questionnaire type, ALA intake was significantly more protective for IA in the presence of an increasing number of minor alleles at FADS1 rs174556 (pinteraction=0.017), at FADS2 rs174570 (pinteraction=0.016) and at FADS2 rs174583 (pinteraction=0.045). Conclusions/interpretation The putative protective effect of n-3 fatty acids on IA may result from a complex interaction between intake and genetically-controlled fatty acid desaturation. PMID:24240437

  20. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  1. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  2. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

  3. Validation of MIPAS IMK-IAA Temperature, Water Vapor, and Ozone Profiles with MOHAVE-2009 Campaign Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, Gabrielle; Kiefer, M.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kellmann, S.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Leblanc, T.; Fetzer, E.; Froidevaux, L.; Gomez, M.; Hall, E.; Hurst, D.; Jordan, A.; Kampfer, N.; Lambert, A.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T.; Miloshevich, L.; Nedoluha, G.; Read, W.; Schneider, M.; Schwartz, M.; Straub, C.; Toon, G.; Twigg, L. W.; Walker, K.; Whiteman, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    MIPAS observations of temperature, water vapor, and ozone in October 2009 as derived with the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) and CSIC, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) and retrieved from version 4.67 level-1b data have been compared to co-located field campaign observations obtained during the MOHAVE-2009 campaign at the Table Mountain Facility near Pasadena, California in October 2009. The MIPAS measurements were validated regarding any potential biases of the profiles, and with respect to their precision estimates. The MOHAVE-2009 measurement campaign provided measurements of atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor/relative humidity, and ozone from the ground to the mesosphere by a suite of instruments including radiosondes, ozonesondes, frost point hygrometers, lidars, microwave radiometers and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. For MIPAS temperatures (version V4O_T_204), no significant bias was detected in the middle stratosphere; between 22 km and the tropopause MIPAS temperatures were found to be biased low by up to 2 K, while below the tropopause, they were found to be too high by the same amount. These findings confirm earlier comparisons of MIPAS temperatures to ECMWF data which revealed similar differences. Above 12 km up to 45 km, MIPAS water vapor (version V4O_H2O_203) is well within 10% of the data of all correlative instruments. The well-known dry bias of MIPAS water vapor above 50 km due to neglect of non-LTE effects in the current retrievals has been confirmed. Some instruments indicate that MIPAS water vapor might be biased high by 20 to 40% around 10 km (or 5 km below the tropopause), but a consistent picture from all comparisons could not be derived. MIPAS ozone (version V4O_O3_202) has a high bias of up to +0.9 ppmv around 37 km which is due to a non-identified continuum like radiance contribution. No further

  4. Effects of copper on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag; Kirbag, Sevda

    2007-07-01

    The effect of copperchloride (CuCl2) on the level of chlorophyll (a+b), proline, protein and abscisic acid in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were investigated Control and copper treated (0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mM) seedlings were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Abscisic acid content was determined in root, shoot and leaf tissues of seedlings by HPLC. Copper stress caused significant increase of the abscisic acid contents in roots, shoots and leaves of seedlings. The increase was dependent on the copper salt concentration. Enhanced accumulation of proline in the leaves of seedlings exposed to copper was determined, as well as a decrease of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was observed that the level of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) remarkably decreased as copper concentration increased to 0.6 mM, although the levels of proline and abscisic acid in the leaves of plants were increased--a dose-depended behavior The same trends were also observed with the level of abscisic acid of stems and roots. Copper has dose- depended effects on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Thus, we assumed that copper levels increase above some critical points seedling growth get negative effects. This assumption is in line with previous findings.

  5. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  6. Effect of increased methionine level on performance and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in ducks.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Lemme, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Wertelecki, T

    2009-10-01

    The experiment was conducted with 960 one-day-old ducklings fed mixtures (I control - 0.28% methionine) additionally supplemented with DL-methionine (DL-Met) at amounts: 0.03% (group II), 0.07% (III), 0.12% (IV) and 0.18% (V). The performance, carcass quality and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids as the criterions of methionine (Met) effectivity were considered. The analysis of growth and development of ducks as an effect of diversified DL-Met supplements indicate that increased content of this amino acid in the diets has not affected clearly the performance parameters. The body weight of 21-day-old ducklings was significantly affected only by the level of 0.12% of added Met in comparison to control group. On day 42, the differences among groups were negligible; only the addition of 0.12% DL-Met has increased the body weight by 2.4% when compared with control (p > 0.05). Feed conversion estimated for a period of 1-42 days has not been influenced by Met supplementation. The indistinct, however, visible tendency of better ileal amino acids' apparent digestibility (for Asp.a.,Thr, Ser, Glu, Lys) was noted in the groups fed supplemented diets. Application of 0.07% and 0.18% of DL-met, has significantly (p < 0.05) improved the coefficient of cysteine (Cys) apparent ileal digestibility; however, the improvement of Met apparent ileal digestibility has been achieved by the addition of 0.18% Met. The mortality of ducklings in the experiment was very low and varied between 3.15% (II) and 0.0% (groups I and III). In general, application of 0.12% of DL-Met to mixture containing 0.28% Met had positive effect on the productive output of birds and also improved the apparent ileal digestibility of Cys and Met.

  7. LC-MS/MS quantification of N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid levels in the urine and potential relationship with dietary sialic acid intake and disease in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Pan, Lili; Liu, Ni; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-28

    Red meat and dairy products contain high sialic acid (Sia) levels, but the metabolic fate and health impact in children remain unknown. The aims of the present study were to quantify the levels of urinary Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) and to determine their relationship with dietary Sia intake. Spot urine samples were collected from 386 healthy children aged 3 (n 108), 4 (n 144) and 5 (n 134) years at 06.30-07.00, 11.30-12.00 and 16.30-17.00 hours. Food intake levels were recorded on the day of urine sample collection. Sia levels were quantified using LC-MS/MS with [13C3]Sia as an internal standard. We found that (1) total urinary Sia levels in healthy pre-school children ranged from 40 to 79 mmol Sia/mol creatinine; (2) urinary Sia levels were independent of age and consisted of conjugated Neu5Ac (approximately 70·8 %), free Neu5Ac (approximately 21·3 %), conjugated KDN (approximately 4·2 %) and free KDN (approximately 3·7 %); Neu5Gc was detected in the urine of only one 4-year-old girl; (3) total urinary Sia levels were highest in the morning and declined over time in 4- and 5-year-old children (P< 0·05), but not in 3-year-old children; (4) Sia intake levels at breakfast and lunch were approximately 2·5 and 0·16 mg Sia/kg body weight; and (5) there was no significant correlation between dietary Sia intake levels and urinary Sia levels. Urinary Sia levels varied with age and time of day, but did not correlate with Sia intake in 3- to 5-year-old children. The difference in urinary Sia levels in children of different age groups suggests that the metabolism and utilisation rates of dietary Sia are age dependent.

  8. Jasmonic acid is a downstream component in the modulation of somatic embryogenesis by Arabidopsis Class 2 phytoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Mohamed M.; Wally, Owen S. D.; Elhiti, Mohamed; El-Shanshory, Adel; Reddy, Dhadi S.; Hill, Robert D.; Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the beneficial effect of suppression of the Arabidopsis phytoglobin 2 gene, PGB2, on somatic embryogenesis occurs through the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) within the embryogenic cells originating from the cultured explant. NO activates the expression of Allene oxide synthase (AOS) and Lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2), genes encoding two key enzymes of the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway, elevating JA content within the embryogenic tissue. The number of embryos in the single aos1-1 mutant and pgb2-aos1-1 double mutant declined, and was not rescued by increasing levels of NO stimulating embryogenesis in wild-type tissue. NO also influenced JA responses by up-regulating PLANT DEFENSIN 1 (PDF1) and JASMONATE-ZIM-PROTEIN (JAZ1), as well as down-regulating MYC2. The NO and JA modulation of MYC2 and JAZ1 controlled embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of JAZ1 or suppression of MYC2 promoted the formation of somatic embryos, while repression of JAZ1 and up-regulation of MYC2 reduced the embryogenic performance. Sustained expression of JAZ1 induced the transcription of several indole acetic acid (IAA) biosynthetic genes, resulting in higher IAA levels in the embryogenic cells. Collectively these data fit a model integrating JA in the PGB2 regulation of Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Suppression of PGB2 increases JA through NO. Elevated levels of JA repress MYC2 and induce JAZ1, favoring the accumulation of IAA in the explants and the subsequent production of somatic embryos. PMID:26962208

  9. Detection of iso-α-acids to confirm beer consumption in postmortem specimens.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-01-01

    Iso-α-acids (IAAs) can be used as markers for the consumption of beer. Postmortem specimens from a range of coronial cases were analyzed for IAAs in order to determine the prevalence of beer consumption and any correlation to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). A total of 130 cases were included in this study including those where beer was mentioned in the case circumstances, cases where beer was not mentioned specifically but alcohol was detected, and cases where neither beer was mentioned nor a positive BAC was present. Available blood, serum, vitreous humour and urine specimens were analyzed. Of the 50 cases where beer was mentioned, 86% had one or more IAAs detected. In cases that only had a positive BAC (n = 60), 57% of these cases also showed the presence of these beer markers. IAAs were detected in specimens obtained from traumatized, burnt, and decomposed cases with a mention of beer consumption or where BAC was positive in blood. No IAAs were detected in cases where BAC was negative. There was little or no correlation between blood IAA concentrations and BAC. This study demonstrates the possible detection of IAAs as a marker for beer consumption.

  10. Production of indole-3-acetic acid by the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mehboob; Stal, Lucas; Hasnain, Shahida

    2010-09-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9 was isolated from a rice field. The ability of this strain to synthesize the bioactive compound indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was demonstrated. IAA was extracted from the culture A. platensis strain MMG-9 and its identity was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) as well as by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The IAA precursor L-tryptophan was required for IAA biosynthesis. Released IAA increased with the increase of the initial concentration of L-tryptophan in the medium and with the incubation time. A. platensis strain MMG-9 accumulates more IAA than it released it into the medium. The bioactivity of the secreted IAA was shown by its effect on the formation of roots by Pisum sativum. There was a significant positive effect of the supernatant of cultures of A. platensis strain MMG-9 on the number of lateral roots of P. sativum while a negative effect on root length was observed. PMID:20890089

  11. Protein nutrition of Tenebrio molitor L. XX. Growth response of larvae to graded levels of amino acids.

    PubMed

    John, A M; Davis, G R; Sosulski, F W

    1979-12-01

    Larvae of Tenebrio molitor L;, Gembloux strain, race F, having an average initial weight of 10 mg were reared for 4 weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% relative humidity on diets containing an amino-acid mixture resembling the composition of larval tissues; Each of 14 amino acids was tested individually at levels of 0, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200% of the amount found in larval tissues, while the concentration of other amino acids remained constant. Diets were maintained isonitrogenous at 1.6% nitrogen with supplementary glutamic acid, glycine, serine and tyrosine; Maximum fresh weight gains and dry weights were achieved by larvae fed reference levels of all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, threonine and tryptophan. Maximum growth was achieved by larvae fed 50% of the phenylalanine level found in larval tissues, Threonine and tryptophan were the limiting amino acids in this study and are probably required in the diet in excess of twice the concentration occuring in larval tissues, Probable ranges for quantitative amino-acid requirements of T. molitor were determined and suggestions were made for improving the nutritional adequacy of the amino-acid mixture.

  12. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Vanella, Luca; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Russo, Alessandra; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape), isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration. PMID:26904104

  13. Drought-Induced Increases in Abscisic Acid Levels in the Root Apex of Sunflower 1

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. Mason; Pharis, Richard P.; Huang, Yan Y.; Reid, David M.; Yeung, Edward C.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) levels in 3-mm apical root segments of slowly droughted sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv Russian Giant) were analyzed as the methyl ester by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using characteristic ions. An internal standard, hexadeuterated ABA (d6ABA) was used for quantitative analysis. Sunflower seedlings, grown in aeroponic chambers, were slowly droughted over a 7-day period. Drought stress increased ABA levels in the root tips at 24, 72, and 168 hour sample times. Control plants had 57 to 106 nanograms per gram ABA dry weight in the root tips (leaf water potential, −0.35 to −0.42 megapascals). The greatest increase in ABA, about 20-fold, was found after 72 hours of drought (leaf water potential, −1.34 to −1.47 megapascals). Levels of ABA also increased (about 7− to 54-fold) in 3-mm apical root segments which were excised and then allowed to dessicate for 1 hour at room temperature. PMID:16664535

  14. A new classification of the amino acid side chains based on doublet acceptor energy levels.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, S F; Morgan, R S; Brooks, C L

    1988-01-01

    We describe a new classification of the amino acid side chains based on the potential energy level at which each will accept an extra (doublet) electron. The doublet acceptor energy level, and the doublet acceptor orbital were calculated using semiempirical INDO/2-UHF molecular orbital theory. The results of these calculations show that the side chains fall into four groups. We have termed these groups repulsive, insulating, semiconducting, and attractive in accordance with where each lies on the relative energy scale. We use this classification to examine the role of residues between the donor and acceptor in modulating the rate and mechanism of electron transfer in proteins. With the calculated acceptor levels, we construct a potential barrier for those residues between the donor and acceptor. It is the area beneath this barrier that determines the decay of electronic coupling between donor and acceptor, and thus the transfer rate. We have used this schematic approach to characterize the four electron transfer pathways in myoglobin recently studied by Mayo et al. (Mayo, S.L., W.R. Ellis, R.J. Crutchley, and H.B. Gray. 1986. Science [Wash. DC]. 233:948-952). PMID:3342271

  15. Effect of different levels of supplied cobalt on the fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Karlengen, Inger J; Taugbøl, Ole; Salbu, Brit; Aastveit, Are H; Harstad, Odd M

    2013-03-14

    In previous studies, administration of high amounts of Co decreased the proportion of MUFA in bovine milk. The present study was conducted to examine the amount of Co needed to obtain this effect. High-yielding dairy cows (n 4), equipped with ruminal cannulas, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The basal diet consisted of concentrate mixture (9 kg/d) without added Co and grass silage (ad libitum). The following four levels of Co were administrated as cobalt acetate dissolved in distilled water: no Co (treatment 1, T1); 4·0 mg Co/d (T2); 380 mg Co/d (T3); 5300 mg Co/d (T4). Each period lasted for 18 d, including 11 d of treatment. During the treatment periods, the solutions were continuously infused into the rumen. Milk yield and milk concentration of fat, fatty acids (FA), protein, lactose, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu were determined. Blood plasma was analysed with respect to FA, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu. Feed intake and total tract digestibility of feed components were also determined. There was a linear effect of increasing the level of Co on milk FA composition. The effects of Co on FA composition in blood were insignificant compared with the effects on milk. In milk fat, the concentration of cis-9-18 : 1 was reduced by as much as 38 % on T4 compared with T1. Feed intake and milk yield were negatively affected by increasing the Co level.

  16. Effect of marginal ascorbic acid deficiency on saliva level of cortisol in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Enwonwu, C O; Sawiris, P; Chanaud, N

    1995-08-01

    Male guinea pigs subjected to prolonged marginal ascorbic acid deficiency developed moon facies and oedema, features of functional adrenal hypercorticism. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls fed an adequate diet for a similar period, ascorbate deficiency had no effect on submandibular gland weight but elicited a significant (p < 0.005) reduction in stimulated whole-saliva flow rate. Plasma cortisol concentration (nmol/L) was significantly increased (p < 0.005) in the deficient animals (998.21 +/- 57.19 compared to 254.66 +/- 15.62 for the controls). Associated with marked hypercortisolaemia in the deficient animals was a significant (p < 0.01) but less prominent increase in the whole-saliva cortisol level, resulting in a mean saliva/plasma cortisol ratio of 46% for this group compared to 72% for the controls. Increased corticosteroid levels suppress immunological and inflammatory responses, particularly neutrophil function, impair production of some cytokines, inhibit collagen synthesis, and impair wound healing and bone matrix formation. Numerous conditions such as ageing, stress, smoking, ionizing radiation, ingestion of drugs, protein malnutrition, diabetes, and several other pathological states, which are among the risk factors for xerostomia and periodontal/oral mucosal lesions, promote tissue depletion of ascorbate. This study suggests that increased salivary and blood levels of glucocorticoids in these conditions may be important in reducing the ability of the host to mount an effective immune response to oral pathogens. PMID:7487575

  17. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vanella, Luca; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Russo, Alessandra; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape), isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration. PMID:26904104

  18. Atomic-Level Characterization of the Chain-Flipping Mechanism in Fatty-Acids Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Francesco; Masetti, Matteo; Recanatini, Maurizio; Cavalli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    During fatty acids biosynthesis the elongating acyl chain is sequestered within the core of the highly conserved acyl carrier protein (ACP). At each catalytic step, the acyl intermediates are transiently delivered from ACP to the active site of the enzymatic counterparts and, at the same time, are protected from the solvent to prevent nonselective reactivity. Yet, the molecular determinants of such a universal transition-termed chain flipping-remain poorly understood. Here we capture the atomic-level details of the chain-flipping mechanism by using metadynamics simulations. We observe the fatty-acid chain gliding through the protein-protein interface with barely 30% of its surface exposed to water molecules. The small ACP's helix III acts as gatekeeper of the process, and we find its conformational plasticity critical for a successful substrate transfer. The results are in agreement with a wide range of experimental observations and provide unprecedented insight on the molecular determinants and driving forces of the chain-flipping process. PMID:27409360

  19. Atomic-Level Characterization of the Chain-Flipping Mechanism in Fatty-Acids Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Francesco; Masetti, Matteo; Recanatini, Maurizio; Cavalli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    During fatty acids biosynthesis the elongating acyl chain is sequestered within the core of the highly conserved acyl carrier protein (ACP). At each catalytic step, the acyl intermediates are transiently delivered from ACP to the active site of the enzymatic counterparts and, at the same time, are protected from the solvent to prevent nonselective reactivity. Yet, the molecular determinants of such a universal transition-termed chain flipping-remain poorly understood. Here we capture the atomic-level details of the chain-flipping mechanism by using metadynamics simulations. We observe the fatty-acid chain gliding through the protein-protein interface with barely 30% of its surface exposed to water molecules. The small ACP's helix III acts as gatekeeper of the process, and we find its conformational plasticity critical for a successful substrate transfer. The results are in agreement with a wide range of experimental observations and provide unprecedented insight on the molecular determinants and driving forces of the chain-flipping process.

  20. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced increases in ascorbic acid levels on tissue. beta. -glucuronidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Barrett, T.J.; Leonard, D.A.; Horton, H.M.; Kenyon, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The interrelationship between tissue ascorbic acid levels and tissue ..beta..-glucuronidase activity was examined in rats injected with 3-methylcholanthrene, an agent which induces ascorbic acid synthesis in rats. Six Fisher 344 rats were dosed intraperitoneally (IP) with 30 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene. Ascorbic acid levels and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-G) activity were determined for lung, liver and kidney tissues. In a follow-up study, rats were dosed for three consecutive days with 3-methylcholanthrene. Controls in both groups were dosed IP with Emulphor (EL-620). Animals were sacrificed one week after the final dosage and lung, liver and kidney tissues were examined.

  1. Increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid modify the plasma cholesterol level and hepatic mass of scavenger receptor BI without affecting bile acid biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Loison, Carole; Mendy, François; Serougne, Colette; Lutton, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2% of the total dietary energy) on the plasma and hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Six groups of hamsters received semi-purified diets containing 0.05% cholesterol and 12.5% lipids and differing only by the nature of the triglycerides (Safflower oil, lard, lard/coconut oil (1:1), milk fat, milk fat/coconut oil (1:1), coconut oil) for 3 weeks. A positive regression between the plasma cholesterol level and the dietary myristic acid level was observed (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001). However, it is noteworthy that the increase in plasma total cholesterol only reflects an increase in the level of HDL-cholesterol. In parallel, the mass SR-BI decreased linearly with the increased level of myristic acid in the diet, whereas the LDL-R did not change. This study shows that increasing amounts of myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2%) do not alter the cholesterol or bile acid metabolism and increase only the HDL-C. PMID:12216956

  2. Sialic acid level in maternal and neonatal lymphocytes and sera correlated to birth order and sex of the neonate.

    PubMed

    Komlos, L; Landmann, J; Notmann, J; Dulitzky, F; Kyzer, S; Hart, J; Halbrecht, I; Levinsky, H

    1992-01-01

    Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) was determined 1 h after normal term deliveries on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 42 mother-neonate pairs and in 29 maternal and neonatal sera. Results were evaluated according to maternal parity and sex of the neonate. The cases were divided into two groups: primiparae, and secundi- and multiparae. In primiparae the sialic acid level on lymphocytes from male neonates and from their mothers was by 23-30% decreased as compared to female neonatal and maternal cells. In the higher parity group, a significantly increased sialic acid level was found on lymphocytes from male as compared to female neonates, and maternal serum sialic acid concentration, unrelated to the newborns' sex, was by 17-20% increased as compared to primiparae. The results suggest that with increasing parity higher levels of sialic acid on male neonatal cells may possibly contribute to mask fetal male-specific histocompatibility antigens. Increased sialic acid levels in maternal sera from secundi- and multiparae suggest its possible contribution to an increased serum blocking effect. PMID:1472580

  3. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet.

  4. Increased plasma levels of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    About 350 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes (T2D). The major risk factor of T2D is impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) with 10% of pre-diabetes subjects develop T2D every year. Understanding of mechanisms of development of T2D from pre-diabetes is important for prevention and treatment of T2D. Chronic stress and chronic low grade inflammation are prominent risk factors for T2D development in pre-diabetic subjects. However, molecular mechanisms mediating effect of stress and inflammation on development of T2D from pre-diabetes remain unknown. One of such mechanisms might involve kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. We suggested that chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation-induced upregulation of formation of upstream KTP metabolites, KYN and 3-hydroxyKYN, combined with chronic stress or chronic low grade inflammation-induced deficiency of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, a cofactor of downstream enzymes of KTP, triggers overproduction of diabetogenic downstream KYN metabolites, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxyKYNA (also known as xanthurenic acid (XA)). As the initial assessment of our working hypothesis, we evaluated plasma levels of up- and down-stream KP metabolites in the same samples of T2D patients. KYN, XA and KYNA levels in plasma samples of T2D patients were higher than in samples of non-diabetic subjects. Our results provide further support of “kynurenine hypothesis of insulin resistance and its progression to T2D” that suggested that overproduction of diabetogenic KP metabolites, induced by chronic stress- or chronic low grade inflammation, is one of the mechanisms promoting development of T2D from pre-diabetes. Downstream metabolites of KP might serve as biomarkers of T2D and targets for clinical intervention. PMID:26055228

  5. Domain-level rocking motion within a polymerase that translocates on single-stranded nucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huiyung; Li, Changzheng; Zhou, Sufeng; Poulos, Thomas L.; Gershon, Paul David

    2013-04-01

    An X-ray crystallographic structure is described for unliganded Vaccinia virus poly(A) polymerase monomer (VP55), showing the first domain-level structural isoforms among either VP55, it’s processivity factor VP39, or the VP55-VP39 heterodimer. The occurrence of domain-level motion specifically in monomeric VP55 is consistent with the finding that the monomeric protein undergoes saltatory translocation whereas the heterodimer does not. Vaccinia virus poly(A) polymerase (VP55) is the only known polymerase that can translocate independently with respect to single-stranded nucleic acid (ssNA). Previously, its structure has only been solved in the context of the VP39 processivity factor. Here, a crystal structure of unliganded monomeric VP55 has been solved to 2.86 Å resolution, showing the first backbone structural isoforms among either VP55 or its processivity factor (VP39). Backbone differences between the two molecules of VP55 in the asymmetric unit indicated that unliganded monomeric VP55 can undergo a ‘rocking’ motion of the N-terminal domain with respect to the other two domains, which may be ‘rigidified’ upon VP39 docking. This observation is consistent with previously demonstrated experimental molecular dynamics of the monomer during translocation with respect to nucleic acid and with different mechanisms of translocation in the presence and absence of processivity factor VP39. Side-chain conformational changes in the absence of ligand were observed at a key primer contact site and at the catalytic center of VP55. The current structure completes the trio of possible structural forms for VP55 and VP39, namely the VP39 monomer, the VP39–VP55 heterodimer and the VP55 monomer.

  6. Structure of a microbial community in soil after prolonged addition of low levels of simulated acid rain

    PubMed

    Pennanen; Fritze; Vanhala; Kiikkila; Neuvonen; Baath

    1998-06-01

    Humus samples were collected 12 growing seasons after the start of a simulated acid rain experiment situated in the subarctic environment. The acid rain was simulated with H2SO4, a combination of H2SO4 and HNO3, and HNO3 at two levels of moderate acidic loads close to the natural anthropogenic pollution levels of southern Scandinavia. The higher levels of acid applications resulted in acidification, as defined by humus chemistry. The concentrations of base cations decreased, while the concentrations of exchangeable H+, Al, and Fe increased. Humus pH decreased from 3.83 to 3.65. Basal respiration decreased with decreasing humus pH, and total microbial biomass, measured by substrate-induced respiration and total amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), decreased slightly. An altered PLFA pattern indicated a change in the microbial community structure at the higher levels of acid applications. In general, branched fatty acids, typical of gram-positive bacteria, increased in the acid plots. PLFA analysis performed on the bacterial community growing on agar plates also showed that the relative amount of PLFA specific for gram-positive bacteria increased due to the acidification. The changed bacterial community was adapted to the more acidic environment in the acid-treated plots, even though bacterial growth rates, estimated by thymidine and leucine incorporation, decreased with pH. Fungal activity (measured as acetate incorporation into ergosterol) was not affected. This result indicates that bacteria were more affected than fungi by the acidification. The capacity of the bacterial community to utilize 95 different carbon sources was variable and only showed weak correlations to pH. Differences in the toxicities of H2SO4 and HNO3 for the microbial community were not found.

  7. Parenteral lipid emulsions in guinea pigs differentially influence plasma and tissue levels of fatty acids, squalene, cholesterol, and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kevin; Xu, Zhidong; Walker, Candace; Pavlina, Thomas; McGrath, Sheila; Zaloga, Gary; Siddiqui, Rafat

    2014-08-01

    Lipid emulsions are made by mixing vegetable and/or fish oils with egg yolk and contain different types and amounts of fatty acids and sterols. This study assessed the effects of oral diet, soybean oil (SO)-, fish oil (FO)-, a mixture of olive and soybean oil (OOSO)-, and a mixture of fish, olive, coconut, and soybean oil (FOCS)-based emulsions on plasma triacylglycerols and plasma and tissue fatty acid and sterol content following acute and chronic intravenous administration in the guinea pig. Upon acute administration, peak triacylglycerols were highest with SO and lowest with OOSO. Upon chronic administration, the plasma triglyceride levels did not increase in any group over that of the controls. Fatty acid levels varied greatly between organs of animals on the control diets and organs of animals following acute or chronic lipid administration. Squalene levels increased in plasma following acute administration of OOSO, but plasma squalene levels were similar to control in all emulsion groups following chronic administration. Total plasma phytosterol levels were increased in the SO, OOSO, and FOCS groups following both acute and chronic infusions, whereas phytosterols were not increased following FO infusion. Total phytosterol levels were higher in liver, lung, kidney and adipose tissue following SO and OOSO. Levels were not increased in tissues after FO and FOCS infusion. These results indicate that fatty acid and sterol contents vary greatly among organs and that no one tissue reflects the fatty acid or sterol composition of other tissues, suggesting that different organs regulate these compounds differently.

  8. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  9. Relation of Lipid Content of Coronary Plaque to Level of Serum Uric Acid.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuichi; Nakayama, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazumasa; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2015-11-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) level is known to be a prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the pathogenesis of the relation between SUA level and coronary plaque characteristics has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between SUA level and plaque composition of nonculprit lesions in patients with ACS. A total of 81 patients with ACS who underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention were included. They were classified into 3 groups according to tertiles of SUA level. Using integrated backscatter (IB)-IVUS system, tissue components were classified into 4 categories: calcium deposits, dense fibrosis, fibrosis, and lipid. Tertiles of SUA level were as follows: low tertile <5.0 mg/dl; intermediate tertile 5.0 to 6.4 mg/dl; and high tertile >6.4 mg/dl. There was a trend toward greater vessel volume in the high tertile group than in the low and intermediate tertile groups (19.4 ± 3.7 vs 17.4 ± 4.4 vs 16.7 ± 4.1 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in lumen volume between the 3 groups. Plaque volume was significantly greater in the high than in the low tertile group (8.6 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.2 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.01). IB-IVUS analysis demonstrated greater lipid (59.1 ± 9.1% vs 49.7 ± 10.9% vs 51.1 ± 9.3%, p = 0.001) and less fibrous components (36.8 ± 7.8% vs 44.3 ± 7.8% vs 43.2 ± 6.7%, p <0.001) in the high than in the low and intermediate tertile groups. Multivariate analysis showed high SUA as an independent predictor of increasing lipid volume. In conclusion, elevated SUA level is associated with greater lipid content of coronary plaque in patients with ACS than in patients with normal levels.

  10. Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C

    1985-10-15

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression.

  11. Extra virgin olive oil modulates brain docosahexaenoic acid level and oxidative damage caused by 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Amel, Nakbi; Wafa, Tayeb; Samia, Dabbou; Yousra, Belaid; Issam, Chargui; Cheraif, Imed; Attia, Nebil; Mohamed, Hammami

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathomechanism of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disorders and many others. This study sought to verify whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) exerted a brain protective effect against the oxidative stress caused by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) pesticide at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. 2,4-D, EVOO and its fractions were administered to rats by gavages for four consecutive weeks. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring brain lipid peroxide level, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidant enzyme activities and fatty acid composition. 2,4-D induced a decrease in both plasma and brain acetylcholinesterase activity and a rise in Brain TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level and antioxidant enzyme activities compared with the control group. These changes were partly reversed by either EVOO or its fractions oral administration to 2,4-D treated rats. EVOO enhanced a neuroprotective effect evaluated by the restoration of brain fatty acid composition especially the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Our results indicate that EVOO exerts a neuroprotective activity against oxidative damage in brain induced by 2,4-D, which could be attributed to its antioxidative property. PMID:27570270

  12. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid