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Sample records for acid in-bottle digestion

  1. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; comparison of a nitric acid in-bottle digestion procedure to other whole-water digestion procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, John R.; Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrochloric acid in-bottle digestion procedure is used to partially digest wholewater samples prior to determining recoverable elements by various analytical methods. The use of hydrochloric acid is problematic for some methods of analysis because of spectral interference. The inbottle digestion procedure has been modified to eliminate such interference by using nitric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in the digestion. Implications of this modification are evaluated by comparing results for a series of synthetic whole-water samples. Results are also compared with those obtained by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994) (USEPA) Method 200.2 total-recoverable digestion procedure. Percentage yields that use the nitric acid inbottle digestion procedure are within 10 percent of the hydrochloric acid in-bottle yields for 25 of the 26 elements determined in two of the three synthetic whole-water samples tested. Differences in percentage yields for the third synthetic whole-water sample were greater than 10 percent for 16 of the 26 elements determined. The USEPA method was the most rigorous for solubilizing elements from particulate matter in all three synthetic whole-water samples. Nevertheless, the variability in the percentage yield by using the USEPA digestion procedure was generally greater than the in-bottle digestion procedure, presumably because of the difficulty in controlling the digestion conditions accurately.

  2. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; in-bottle acid digestion of whole-water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, G.L.; Fishman, M. J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples for trace-metal determinations routinely have been prepared in open laboratories. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey method I-3485-85 (Extraction Procedure, for Water- Suspended Sediment) is performed in a laboratory hood on a laboratory bench without any special precautions to control airborne contamination. This method tends to be contamination prone for several trace metals primarily because the samples are transferred, acidified, digested, and filtered in an open laboratory environment. To reduce trace-metal contamination of digested water samples, procedures were established that rely on minimizing sample-transfer steps and using a class-100 clean bench during sample filtration. This new procedure involves the following steps: 1. The sample is acidified with HCl directly in the original water-sample bottle. 2. The water-sample bottle with the cap secured is heated in a laboratory oven. 3. The digestate is filtered in a class-100 laminar-flow clean bench. The exact conditions used (that is, oven temperature, time of heating, and filtration methods) for this digestion procedure are described. Comparisons between the previous U.S Geological Survey open-beaker method I-3485-85 and the new in-bottle procedure for synthetic and field-collected water samples are given. When the new procedure is used, blank concentrations for most trace metals determined are reduced significantly.

  3. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  4. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1989-08-25

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

  5. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3′-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology. PMID:26168909

  6. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-07-14

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3'-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology.

  7. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  8. Operation of the radioactive acid digestion test unit

    SciTech Connect

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the Acid Digestion Process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU with its original tray digestion vessel has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated nonglovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve hour/day, five day/week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat transfer surface, which with reduced heat loss area, is expected to provide at least three times the water boiloff rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form.

  9. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lili; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Huang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases. PMID:26579439

  10. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lili; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Huang, Wendong

    2015-03-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases. PMID:26579439

  11. Determination of Haloacetic Acids in Bottled and Tap Water Sources by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and GC-MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-shatri, Mohsen A.; Nuhu, Abdulmumin A.; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2014-01-01

    Haloacetic acids are toxic organic pollutants that can be formed as by-products of disinfection of water by chlorination. In this study, we developed a fast and efficient method for the determination of six species of these compounds in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. To be suitable for GC analysis, the acidic analytes were derivatized using n-octanol. One-factor-at-a-time optimization was carried out on several factors including temperature, extraction time, amount of catalyst, and dispersive solvent. The optimized conditions were then used to determine calibration parameters. Linearity, as demonstrated by coefficient of determination, ranged between 0.9900 and 0.9966 for the concentration range of 0.05–0.57 µg/L. The proposed method has good repeatability; intraday precision was calculated as %RSD of 2.38–9.34%, while interday precision was 4.69–8.06%. The method was applied to real samples in bottled water and tap water sources. Results indicated that the total concentrations of the analytes in these sources (2.97–5.30 µg/L) were far below the maximum contaminant levels set by both the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed method compared favorably with methods reported in the literature. PMID:25295305

  12. Determination of haloacetic acids in bottled and tap water sources by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-shatri, Mohsen A; Nuhu, Abdulmumin A; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2014-01-01

    Haloacetic acids are toxic organic pollutants that can be formed as by-products of disinfection of water by chlorination. In this study, we developed a fast and efficient method for the determination of six species of these compounds in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. To be suitable for GC analysis, the acidic analytes were derivatized using n-octanol. One-factor-at-a-time optimization was carried out on several factors including temperature, extraction time, amount of catalyst, and dispersive solvent. The optimized conditions were then used to determine calibration parameters. Linearity, as demonstrated by coefficient of determination, ranged between 0.9900 and 0.9966 for the concentration range of 0.05-0.57 µg/L. The proposed method has good repeatability; intraday precision was calculated as %RSD of 2.38-9.34%, while interday precision was 4.69-8.06%. The method was applied to real samples in bottled water and tap water sources. Results indicated that the total concentrations of the analytes in these sources (2.97-5.30 µg/L) were far below the maximum contaminant levels set by both the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed method compared favorably with methods reported in the literature. PMID:25295305

  13. Determination of haloacetic acids in bottled and tap water sources by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-shatri, Mohsen A; Nuhu, Abdulmumin A; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2014-01-01

    Haloacetic acids are toxic organic pollutants that can be formed as by-products of disinfection of water by chlorination. In this study, we developed a fast and efficient method for the determination of six species of these compounds in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. To be suitable for GC analysis, the acidic analytes were derivatized using n-octanol. One-factor-at-a-time optimization was carried out on several factors including temperature, extraction time, amount of catalyst, and dispersive solvent. The optimized conditions were then used to determine calibration parameters. Linearity, as demonstrated by coefficient of determination, ranged between 0.9900 and 0.9966 for the concentration range of 0.05-0.57 µg/L. The proposed method has good repeatability; intraday precision was calculated as %RSD of 2.38-9.34%, while interday precision was 4.69-8.06%. The method was applied to real samples in bottled water and tap water sources. Results indicated that the total concentrations of the analytes in these sources (2.97-5.30 µg/L) were far below the maximum contaminant levels set by both the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed method compared favorably with methods reported in the literature.

  14. Acid digestion of geological and environmental samples using open-vessel focused microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Vivien F; Toms, Andrew; Longerich, Henry P

    2002-01-01

    The application of open vessel focused microwave acid digestion is described for the preparation of geological and environmental samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is compared to conventional closed-vessel high pressure methods which are limited in the use of HF to break down silicates. Open-vessel acid digestion more conveniently enables the use of HF to remove Si from geological and plant samples as volatile SiF4, as well as evaporation-to-dryness and sequential acid addition during the procedure. Rock reference materials (G-2 granite, MRG-1 gabbros, SY-2 syenite, JA-1 andesite, and JB-2 and SRM-688 basalts) and plant reference materials (BCR and IAEA lichens, peach leaves, apple leaves, Durham wheat flour, and pine needles) were digested with results comparable to conventional hotplate digestion. The microwave digestion method gave poor results for granitic samples containing refractory minerals, however fusion was the preferred method of preparation for these samples. Sample preparation time was reduced from several days, using conventional hotplate digestion method, to one hour per sample using our microwave method. PMID:11936112

  15. Acid digestion of geological and environmental samples using open-vessel focused microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Vivien F; Toms, Andrew; Longerich, Henry P

    2002-01-01

    The application of open vessel focused microwave acid digestion is described for the preparation of geological and environmental samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is compared to conventional closed-vessel high pressure methods which are limited in the use of HF to break down silicates. Open-vessel acid digestion more conveniently enables the use of HF to remove Si from geological and plant samples as volatile SiF4, as well as evaporation-to-dryness and sequential acid addition during the procedure. Rock reference materials (G-2 granite, MRG-1 gabbros, SY-2 syenite, JA-1 andesite, and JB-2 and SRM-688 basalts) and plant reference materials (BCR and IAEA lichens, peach leaves, apple leaves, Durham wheat flour, and pine needles) were digested with results comparable to conventional hotplate digestion. The microwave digestion method gave poor results for granitic samples containing refractory minerals, however fusion was the preferred method of preparation for these samples. Sample preparation time was reduced from several days, using conventional hotplate digestion method, to one hour per sample using our microwave method.

  16. Nucleotide `maps' of digests of deoxyribonucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Murray, K.

    1970-01-01

    Various digests of 32P-labelled DNA were examined by two-dimensional ionophoresis on cellulose acetate and DEAE-cellulose paper. The products from digestion with pancreatic deoxyribonuclease and Neurospora crassa endonuclease were qualitatively closely similar, but very complex, and were used to investigate the mapping behaviour of nucleotides in various ionophoretic systems. Ionophoresis on DEAE-cellulose paper in triethylamine carbonate, pH 9.7, followed by ionophoresis in the second dimension at pH1.9 gave high resolution of nucleotides in very complex mixtures and permitted the fractionation of larger quantities than is possible on cellulose acetate. High resolution of nucleotides in compact spots was obtained with two-dimensional ionophoresis on cellulose acetate and AE-cellulose paper, a system that is a useful supplement to those based on DEAE-cellulose paper. ImagesPLATE 7PLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3PLATE 4PLATE 5PLATE 6 PMID:5476726

  17. Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

  18. Digestion and the distribution of acid phosphatase in Blepharisma.

    PubMed

    Dembitzer, H M

    1968-05-01

    Suspensions of Blepharisma intermedium were fed latex particles for 5 min and then were separated from the particles by filtration. Samples were fixed at intervals after separation and incubated to demonstrate acid phosphatase activity. They were subsequently embedded and sectioned for electron microscopy. During formation of the food vacuole, the vacuolar membrane is acid phosphatase-negative. Within 5 min, dumbbell-shaped acid phosphatase-positive bodies, possibly derived from the the acid phosphatase-positive Golgi apparatus, apparently fuse with the food vacuole and render it acid phosphatase-positive. A larger type of acid phosphatase-positive, vacuolated body may also fuse with the food vacuole at later stages. At about 20 min after formation, acid phosphatase-positive secondary pinocytotic vesicles pinch off from the food vacuoles and approach a separate system of membrane-bounded spaces. By 1 hr after formation, the food vacuole becomes acid phosphatase-negative, and the undigested latex particles are voided into the membrane-bounded spaces. The membrane-bounded spaces are closely associated with the food vacuole at all stages of digestion and are generally acid phosphatase-negative. Within the membrane-bounded spaces, dense, pleomorphic, granular bodies are found, in which are embedded mitochondria, paraglycogen granules, membrane-limited acid phosphatase-containing structures, and Golgi apparatuses. The granular bodies may serve as vehicles for the transport of organelles through the extensive, ramifying membrane-bounded spaces.

  19. DIGESTION AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ACID PHOSPHATASE IN BLEPHARISMA

    PubMed Central

    Dembitzer, Herbert M.

    1968-01-01

    Suspensions of Blepharisma intermedium were fed latex particles for 5 min and then were separated from the particles by filtration. Samples were fixed at intervals after separation and incubated to demonstrate acid phosphatase activity. They were subsequently embedded and sectioned for electron microscopy. During formation of the food vacuole, the vacuolar membrane is acid phosphatase-negative. Within 5 min, dumbbell-shaped acid phosphatase-positive bodies, possibly derived from the the acid phosphatase-positive Golgi apparatus, apparently fuse with the food vacuole and render it acid phosphatase-positive. A larger type of acid phosphatase-positive, vacuolated body may also fuse with the food vacuole at later stages. At about 20 min after formation, acid phosphatase-positive secondary pinocytotic vesicles pinch off from the food vacuoles and approach a separate system of membrane-bounded spaces. By 1 hr after formation, the food vacuole becomes acid phosphatase-negative, and the undigested latex particles are voided into the membrane-bounded spaces. The membrane-bounded spaces are closely associated with the food vacuole at all stages of digestion and are generally acid phosphatase-negative. Within the membrane-bounded spaces, dense, pleomorphic, granular bodies are found, in which are embedded mitochondria, paraglycogen granules, membrane-limited acid phosphatase-containing structures, and Golgi apparatuses. The granular bodies may serve as vehicles for the transport of organelles through the extensive, ramifying membrane-bounded spaces. PMID:4968524

  20. Inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on digestion of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Karim, Zida; Holmes, Melvin; Orfila, Caroline

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the chlorogenic acid isomer 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) on digestion of potato starch by porcine pancreatic alpha amylase (PPAA) was investigated using isolated starch and cooked potato tuber as substrates. In vitro digestion was performed on five varieties of potato with varying phenolic content. Co- and pre-incubation of PPAA with 5-CQA significantly reduced PPAA activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of about 2mgmL(-1). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that 5-CQA exerts a mixed type inhibition as km increased and Vmax decreased. The total polyphenol content (TPC) of peeled tuber tissue ranged from 320.59 to 528.94mg 100g(-1)dry weight (DW) in raw tubers and 282.03-543.96mg 100g(-1)DW in cooked tubers. With the exception of Désirée, TPC and 5-CQA levels decreased after cooking. Principle component analysis indicated that digestibility is affected by multiple factors including phenolic, dry matter and starch content. PMID:27664664

  1. Phenylacetic acid stimulation of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, R.J.; Hungate, R.E.; Opsahl, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The rate of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8 grown on a defined medium could be increased by adding a minimum of 6.6% (vol/vol) rumen fluid. Strain 8 was grown on half this concentration, and the culture medium before and after growth was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine which components of the rumen fluid were used. Phenylacetic acid was identified as the component needed to make the defined medium nutritionally equivalent to one supplemented with rumen fluid. (/sup 14/C)phenylacetic acid fed to cultures of strain 8 was primarily incorporated into protein. Hydrolysis of protein samples and separation of the resulting amino acids showed that only phenylalanine was labeled. The results indicate that cellulose digestion by strain 8 was probably limited by phenylalanine biosynthesis in our previously reported medium. The data obtained on the utilization of other rumen fluid components, as well as on the production of metabolites, illustrate the potential usefulness of this method in formulating defined media to simulate those in nature. 14 references.

  2. Determination of the Efficiency of Mixed-Acid Digestions of Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta Vazquez, Alejandra I.; Gill, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-acid digestion is a method often used for the determination of elemental analysis of sediment samples. It is crucial that efficiency details associated with the digestion method be well understood on an element by element basis. Battelle’s Marine Sciences Laboratory Standard Operating Procedure for Sediment Mixed-Acid Digestions was modified to identify conditions which produce optimal recovery of elements. The parameters that were adjusted for testing were mass of sediment, mixed-acid volume, mixed-acid composition and digestion time. Digestion involves treatment of the sediment sample with mixed-acid mixtures at 135º C ± 10º in a Teflon® digestion bomb. Typical analytical methods include Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Initial experiments involved determining the optimal ratio of acid volume to mass of sediment. Experiments were designed to identify the point at which insufficient acid was used to effectively digest a given mass of sediment. When the mass of sediment was varied between 0.2 and 1.0 gram using a 4 mL aqua regia acid mixture (3 mL hydrochloric acid and 1 mL nitric acid), there was no effect on the recovery of the elements Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. The next experiments focused on a time study to resolve the shortest digestive time for optimal elemental recovery. Two masses of sediment were investigated, 0.25 and 0.7 g, again utilizing aqua regia digestion (4 mL). Maximum recovery was reached after 4 hours of digestion; additional digestion time released no or only minimal amounts of elements from the sediments. The final set of experiments was designed to identify optimal conditions for the total digestion of sediment using a mixture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and boric acid. These experiments were designed to determine the optimal volume of hydrofluoric acid

  3. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palma, M. N. N.; Rocha, G. C.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Detmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p<0.01) interaction between sample type and nitric to perchloric acid ratio. Digestion solution of 2:1 v/v provided greater (p<0.01) recovery of calcium and phosphorus from bone samples than 3:1 and 4:1 v/v ratio. Different acid ratios did not affect (p>0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. PMID:26333671

  4. Microbial Electrochemical Monitoring of Volatile Fatty Acids during Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA concentrations was first evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities and VFA levels from 1 to 30 mM (0.04 to 8.50 mA/m(2), R(2) = 0.97) and then from 30 to 200 mM (8.50 to 10.80 mA/m(2), R(2) = 0.95). The detection range was much broader than that of other existing VFA biosensors. The biosensor had no response to protein and lipid which are frequently found along with VFAs in organic waste streams from AD, suggesting the selective detection of VFAs. The current displayed different responses to VFA levels when different ionic strengths and external resistances were applied, though linear relationships were always observed. Finally, the biosensor was further explored with real AD effluents and the results did not show significance differences with those measured by GC. The simple and efficient biosensor showed promising potential for online, inexpensive, and reliable measurement of VFA levels during AD and other anaerobic processes.

  5. Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion. PMID:25353947

  6. Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion.

  7. Influence of lactic acid on the two-phase anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Cai, Wei-min; He, Pin-jing

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of lactic acid on the methanogenesis, anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes was firstly conducted in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process, and performance of two digesters fed with lactic acid and glucose was subsequently compared. The results showed that the lactic acid was the main fermentation products of hydrolysis-acidification stage in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process for kitchen wastes. The lactic acid concentration constituted approximately 50% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the hydrolysis-acidification liquid. The maximum organic loading rate was lower in the digester fed with lactic acid than that fed with glucose. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and COD removal were deteriorated in the methanogenic reactor fed with lactic acid compared to that fed with glucose. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) declined to 0.343 g COD/(gVSSxd) when the COD loading were designated as 18.8 g/(Lxd) in the digester fed with lactic acid. The propionic acid accumulation occurred due to the high concentration of lactic acid fed. It could be concluded that avoiding the presence of the lactic acid is necessary in the hydrolysis-acidification process for the improvement of the two-phase anaerobic digestion process of kitchen wastes.

  8. Elemental composition of dog foods using nitric acid and simulated gastric digestions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David G; White, Steven D; Weir, Ron D

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen dry dog foods obtained commercially in the United States were digested using microwave assisted nitric acid digestion and a simulated gastric digestion. Digests were analysed for 23 elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Data, expressed as dry matter concentrations, were compared to published nitric acid digestion results. Nitric acid data obtained in the present study were not statistically different from published data, with the exception of Mo, Sn, Sb, Tl and Th. However, significant differences in individual intra-sample results were observed between published studies and the present work. Simulated gastric digestions demonstrated lower extraction efficiencies (<50% nitric acid digestions) that were statistically significant. Much lower bioavailability was observed for Al, Ba and Pb. In general, elemental concentrations were determined to be lower than the appropriate Mineral Tolerance Limit or consistent with background concentrations in foodstuffs. Evaluation against Reference Doses (RfDs) showed concentrations for many elements obtained by nitric acid digestion to be above RfD levels. However, the respective simulated gastric digestion data were below or only moderately elevated above RfDs. Only arsenic displayed median and maximum concentrations at factors of five and ten above the relevant RfD. PMID:23402861

  9. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

    2005-01-01

    Digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala, and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94%). The presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fiber, and high concentrations of antinutritional factors in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, are responsible for poor digestibility of protein. The effects of the presence of some of the important antinutritional factors on protein and amino digestibilities of food and feed products are reviewed in this chapter. Food and feed products may contain a number of antinutritional factors that may adversely affect protein digestibility and amino acid availability. Antinutritional factors may occur naturally, such as glucosinolates in mustard and rapeseed protein products, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, phytates in cereals and oilseeds, and gossypol in cottonseed protein products. Antinutritional factors may also be formed during heat/alkaline processing of protein products, yielding Maillard compounds, oxidized forms of sulfur amino acids, D-amino acids, and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative). The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soybeans, kidney beans, or other grain legumes can cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 50%) in rats and pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in cereals, such as sorghum, and grain legumes, such as fababean (Vicia faba L.), can result in significantly reduced protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 23%) in rats, poultry, and pigs. Studies involving phytase supplementation of production rations for swine or poultry have provided indirect evidence that normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes

  10. Comparison of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients measured with broilers, layers, and roosters.

    PubMed

    Huang, K H; Li, X; Ravindran, V; Bryden, W L

    2006-04-01

    The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in 7 feed ingredients was determined using broilers, layers, and roosters. The ingredients included 3 cereals (wheat, sorghum, and corn), 3 oilseed meals (canola, cottonseed, and soybean meals), and 1 animal protein meal (meat and bone meal). Dietary protein in the assay diets was supplied solely by the test ingredient. All diets contained 20 g/kg of acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker, and each diet was offered ad libitum in mash form to 5 replicate pens of broilers and layers, and 4 replicate pens of roosters. The digestibility coefficients of individual amino acids for wheat, corn, and sorghum were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in layers and roosters. The digestibility of most amino acids for corn and sorghum was higher (P < 0.05) in roosters compared with those in layers, whereas the digestibility for wheat in layers and roosters was similar. In general, the digestibility of amino acids in canola meal, cottonseed meal, and meat and bone meal was similar among the 3 classes of chickens. The digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal was higher (P < 0.05) for layers compared with those for broilers and roosters but similar between broilers and roosters. These results suggest that the class of chickens significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in some feed ingredients.

  11. Bioavailability of hydroxycinnamic acids from Crepidiastrum denticulatum using simulated digestion and Caco-2 intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Ju; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Chul Young; Nho, Chu Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2014-06-11

    Hydroxycinnamic acids have antioxidant properties and potentially beneficial effects on human health. This study investigated the digestive stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of hydroxycinnamic acids from Crepidiastrum denticulatum using simulated digestion and Caco-2 intestinal cells. The major compounds of C. denticulatum were determined to be four hydroxycinnamic acids [caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-DCQA)] and one flavonoid (luteolin-7-O-glucuronide) by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Hydroxycinnamic acids from C. denticulatum were rapidly released in the stomach and duodenum phase, maximizing the possibility of absorption in the intestinal Caco-2 cells. The digestive stability and bioaccessibility of hydroxycinnamic acids from C. denticulatum were markedly low after simulated digestion and remained minimal in the soluble fraction of the ileum phase. Unlike the four hydroxycinnamic acids, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was stable in terms of digestive stability and bioaccessibility during simulated digestion. The cell permeabilities (P(app A to B)/P(app B to A)) of caftaric acid (0.054) and chlorogenic acid (0.055) were higher than those of chicoric acid (0.011) and 3,5-DCQA (0.006) in general. That of luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was not detectable, showing its low absorption in Caco-2 cells. These results indicate that the rapid release of hydroxycinnamic acids in the stomach and duodenum phase may increase the potential for absorption in Caco-2 cells, and that luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, which was stable in terms of digestive stability and bioaccessibility, has relatively low absorption compared with hydroxycinnamic acids.

  12. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal digestion of OM and NDF, and increased (linear, P < 0.05) ruminal N efficiency. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P < 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal starch digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation increased postruminal digestion of starch in heavier steers but did not affect starch digestion in lighter steers. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal fatty acid digestion, which was due to a decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of C16:0 and C18:0. Supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) total-tract digestion of OM and NDF. The estimated NEm (Mcal/kg) of yellow grease averaged (linear, P < 0.01) 6.02, 5.70, and 5.06 for the 3, 6, and 9% of level supplementation, respectively. We conclude that intestinal fatty acid digestion (FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) of total fatty acid intake per unit body weight (FAI, g/kg BW): FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes

  13. Effect of citric acid deamidation on in vitro digestibility and antioxidant properties of wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Sun, Weizheng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-12-01

    The effects of citric acid deamidation on the physiochemical properties of wheat gluten were investigated. In vitro digestion was carried out to determine changes of molecular weight distribution, amino acids composition and antioxidant efficacy of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Results indicated that citric acid deamidation significantly increased gluten solubility and surface hydrophobicity, at a neutral pH. Deamidation induced molecular weight distribution change of gluten with little proteolysis. Results from FTIR indicated that the α-helix and β-turn of deamidated gluten increased accompanied by a decrease of the β-sheet structure. After deamidation, in vitro pepsin digestibility of wheat gluten decreased, while in vitro pancreatin digestibility increased. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activity of the in vitro digests decreased with increase of deamidation time. The high Lys and total essential AAs amounts in the final digests suggested that the nutritional values of wheat gluten after deamidation might be enhanced.

  14. Micro-quantity tissue digestion for metal measurements by use of a microwave acid-digestion bomb.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J R; Savory, M G; Savory, J; Wills, M R

    1989-03-01

    We describe a simple and convenient method for processing small amounts of tissue samples for trace-metal measurements by atomic absorption spectrometry, by use of a modified Parr microwave digestion bomb. Digestion proceeds rapidly (less than or equal to 90 s) in a sealed Teflon-lined vessel that eliminates contamination or loss from volatilization. Small quantities of tissue (5-100 mg dry weight) are digested in high-purity nitric acid, yielding concentrations of analyte that can be measured directly without further sample manipulation. We analyzed National Institute of Standards and Technology bovine liver Standard Reference Material to verify the accuracy of the technique. We assessed the applicability of the technique to analysis for aluminum in bone by comparison with a dry ashing procedure. PMID:2537690

  15. Micro-quantity tissue digestion for metal measurements by use of a microwave acid-digestion bomb.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J R; Savory, M G; Savory, J; Wills, M R

    1989-03-01

    We describe a simple and convenient method for processing small amounts of tissue samples for trace-metal measurements by atomic absorption spectrometry, by use of a modified Parr microwave digestion bomb. Digestion proceeds rapidly (less than or equal to 90 s) in a sealed Teflon-lined vessel that eliminates contamination or loss from volatilization. Small quantities of tissue (5-100 mg dry weight) are digested in high-purity nitric acid, yielding concentrations of analyte that can be measured directly without further sample manipulation. We analyzed National Institute of Standards and Technology bovine liver Standard Reference Material to verify the accuracy of the technique. We assessed the applicability of the technique to analysis for aluminum in bone by comparison with a dry ashing procedure.

  16. Evaluation of oxygen pressurized microwave-assisted digestion of botanical materials using diluted nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Barin, Juliano Smanioto; Müller, Edson Irineu; Schmidt, Lucas; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2011-02-15

    The feasibility of diluted nitric acid solutions for microwave-assisted decomposition of botanical samples in closed vessels was evaluated. Oxygen pressurized atmosphere was used to improve the digestion efficiency and Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg and Na were determined in digests by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Efficiency of digestion was evaluated taking into account the residual carbon content (RCC) and residual acidity in digests. Samples were digested using nitric acid solutions (2, 3, 7, and 14 mol L(-1) HNO(3)) and the effect of gas phase composition inside the reaction vessels by purging the vessel with Ar (inert atmosphere, 1 bar), air (20% of oxygen, 1 bar) and pure O(2) (100% of oxygen, 1 bar) was evaluated. The influence of oxygen pressure was studied using pressures of 5, 10, 15 and 20 bar. It was demonstrated that a diluted nitric acid solution as low as 3 mol L(-1) was suitable for an efficient digestion of sample masses up to 500 mg of botanical samples using 5 bar of oxygen pressure. The residual acidities in final digests were lower than 45% in relation to the initial amount of acid used for digestion (equivalent to 1.3 mol L(-1) HNO(3)). The accuracy of the proposed procedure was evaluated using certified reference materials of olive leaves, apple leaves, peach leaves and pine needles. Using the optimized conditions for sample digestion, the results obtained were in agreement with certified values. The limit of quantification was improved up to a factor of 14.5 times for the analytes evaluated. In addition, the proposed procedure was in agreement with the recommendations of the green chemistry once it was possible to obtain relatively high digestion efficiency (RCC<5%) using only diluted HNO(3), which is important to minimize the generation of laboratory residues. PMID:21238716

  17. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Cabrol, Léa; Urra, Johana; Rosenkranz, Francisca; Kroff, Pablo Araya; Plugge, Caroline M; Lesty, Yves; Chamy, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale municipal WWTP in Santiago de Chile, and fed with either primary or mixed sewage sludge. AD performance was evaluated by volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production monitoring. Archaeal community structure was characterized by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing. In the primary sludge digester, a single PAA pulse at 200 mg L(-1) was sufficient to affect AD performance and archaeal community structure, resulting in long-term VFA accumulation, reduced biogas production and community shift from dominant acetoclastic (Methanosaeta concilii) to hydrogenotrophic (Methanospirillum hungatei) methanogens. By contrast, AD performance and archaeal community structure in the mixed sludge digester were stable and resistant to repeated PAA pulses at 200 and 600 mg L(-1). This work demonstrated that the effect of PAA pulses on methanogenic activity and archaeal community structure differed according to AD substrate, and suggests that better insights of the correlations between archaeal population dynamics and functional performance could help to better face toxic shocks in AD.

  18. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  19. Effect of acid concentration on closed-vessel microwave-assisted digestion of plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Geórgia C. L.; Gonzalez, Mário H.; Ferreira, Antônio G.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2002-12-01

    The efficiency of microwave-assisted acid digestion of plants using different concentrations of nitric acid (2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 14 mol l -1) with hydrogen peroxide (30% v/v) was evaluated by measuring the residual carbon content (RCC) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with axial viewing. Certified reference materials were used for evaluating the accuracy attained when 2 mol l -1 HNO 3 was employed for digestion. Under all experimental conditions RCC values were always lower than 13% w/v, and even the highest concentration did not cause any interference with element recovery. It seems that the high pressure reached for closed-vessel operation improved the oxidative action of nitric acid due to consequent temperature increase, even when this reagent was not used at high concentrations. According to acid-base titration data, residual acid in the digestates varied from 1.2 to 4.0 mol l -1, depending on the acid concentration initially added. It can be concluded that for plant materials, microwave-assisted acid digestion can be carried out under mild conditions, which implies that digestates do not need extensive dilution before introduction by pneumatic nebulization to ICP-OES. An additional advantage is the lower amount of residue generated when working with less concentrated acid solutions.

  20. Binding of bile acids by pastry products containing bioactive substances during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Szwengiel, Artur; Smoczyńska, Paulina; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Komolka, Patrycja

    2015-03-01

    The modern day consumer tends to choose products with health enhancing properties, enriched in bioactive substances. One such bioactive food component is dietary fibre, which shows a number of physiological properties including the binding of bile acids. Dietary fibre should be contained in everyday, easily accessible food products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine sorption capacities of primary bile acid (cholic acid - CA) and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic - DCA and lithocholic acids - LCA) by muffins (BM) and cookies (BC) with bioactive substances and control muffins (CM) and cookies (CC) in two sections of the in vitro gastrointestinal tract. Variations in gut flora were also analysed in the process of in vitro digestion of pastry products in a bioreactor. Enzymes: pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts: cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were added to the culture. Faecal bacteria, isolated from human large intestine, were added in the section of large intestine. The influence of dietary fibre content in cookies and concentration of bile acids in two stages of digestion were analysed. Generally, pastry goods with bioactive substances were characterized by a higher content of total fibre compared with the control samples. These products also differ in the profile of dietary fibre fractions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the bile acid profile after two stages of digestion depends on the quality and quantity of fibre. The bile acid profile after digestion of BM and BC forms one cluster, and with the CM and CC forms a separate cluster. High concentration of H (hemicellulose) is positively correlated with LCA (low binding effect) and negatively correlated with CA and DCA contents. The relative content of bile acids in the second stage of digestion was in some cases above the content in the control sample, particularly LCA. This means that the bacteria introduced in the 2nd stage of digestion synthesize the LCA.

  1. Antioxidant and bile acid binding activity of buckwheat protein in vitro digests.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Youling L

    2009-05-27

    The objective of the study was to assess the antioxidant and bile acid removing potential of buckwheat protein (BWP) during a two-stage in vitro digestion (1 h of pepsin followed by 2 h of pancreatin). Antioxidant activity of the digests was analyzed by determining: (1) Fe(2+) chelation, (2) reducing power, (3) 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiszoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+•)) radical scavenging capacity, and (4) TBARS formation in a liposome system. The initial pepsin digestion decreased the BWP antioxidant activity; however, subsequent pancreatin digestion fully recovered the reducing power and increased (P < 0.05) the ability to chelate Fe(2+) (45%), scavenge ABTS(+•) (87%), and curtail lipid peroxidation (45%) when compared with intact BWP. The final BWP digest exhibited a 67% increase (P < 0.05) in cholic acid binding capability over that of the nondigested BWP control but was comparable to the control in binding chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids. Digestion-resistant peptides were largely responsible for bile acid elimination. PMID:19320435

  2. Digestibility and effects of three forms of mostly saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J P; Overton, T R; Drackley, J K

    1994-03-01

    Four nonlactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were 1) control, no added fat; 2) 5.0% prilled fatty acids (iodine value = 14); 3) 5.6% prilled hydrogenated tallow (iodine value = 8); and 4) 5.0% flaked fatty acids (iodine value = 14). Diets consisted of alfalfa haylage, corn silage, and concentrate (40:20:40, DM basis). Intake of the TMR (16.4% CP and 25.4% ADF) was restricted to 1.5% of BW so that DMI was similar among diets (9.2 kg/d). Total fatty acid intakes averaged 293, 749, 747, and 686 g/d for treatments 1 to 4, respectively. Digestibilities of total C16, total C18, and total fatty acids were greater for prilled fatty acids than for prilled hydrogenated tallow. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, ADF, and NDF did not differ among treatments. Treatments did not affect concentration of total VFA or acetate:propionate ratio in ruminal fluid. Concentration of cholesterol in plasma was lowest when cows were fed the control diet and was greater when cows were fed prilled fatty acids than when they were fed prilled hydrogenated tallow or flaked fatty acids. The three forms of saturated fatty acids did not affect nutrient digestibilities or ruminal fermentation characteristics, but the digestibility of fatty acids in prilled hydrogenated tallow was lower than in prilled fatty acids. Digestibilities of fatty acids and other nutrient fractions and characteristics of ruminal fluid generally were similar between flaked and prilled fatty acids, despite the larger particle size of flaked fatty acids.

  3. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate. PMID:25274086

  4. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  5. A new microwave acid digestion bomb method for the determination of total fluorine.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J

    1998-01-01

    A new microwave acid digestion method for total fluorine analysis was compared to the reliable reverse-extraction technique. The commercially available Parr bombs which are compatible with microwave heating were modified for this purpose. The Mann-Whitney statistical test did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) in the determinations of total fluorine in various samples between the two above-mentioned methods. The microwave method also gave high fluorine recoveries (> 97%) when fluoride was added to different samples. The great advantage of the microwave acid digestion bomb method is that the digestion under pressure is so aggressive that only a few minutes is needed for complete digestion (also of covalently bonded fluorine), which reduces the time for fluorine analysis dramatically, while no loss of fluorine or contamination from extraneous sources could take place during the ashing procedure. The digestion solution was made up of 300 microliter of concentrated nitric acid plus 537 microliter of water. After digestion 675 microliter of approximately 8.5 M sodium hydroxide plus 643 microliter of citrate/TISAB buffer was added resulting in an alkaline solution (pH approximately 12) which was finally adjusted to a pH of approximately 5.3 for fluoride determination. PMID:9701663

  6. A new microwave acid digestion bomb method for the determination of total fluorine.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J

    1998-01-01

    A new microwave acid digestion method for total fluorine analysis was compared to the reliable reverse-extraction technique. The commercially available Parr bombs which are compatible with microwave heating were modified for this purpose. The Mann-Whitney statistical test did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) in the determinations of total fluorine in various samples between the two above-mentioned methods. The microwave method also gave high fluorine recoveries (> 97%) when fluoride was added to different samples. The great advantage of the microwave acid digestion bomb method is that the digestion under pressure is so aggressive that only a few minutes is needed for complete digestion (also of covalently bonded fluorine), which reduces the time for fluorine analysis dramatically, while no loss of fluorine or contamination from extraneous sources could take place during the ashing procedure. The digestion solution was made up of 300 microliter of concentrated nitric acid plus 537 microliter of water. After digestion 675 microliter of approximately 8.5 M sodium hydroxide plus 643 microliter of citrate/TISAB buffer was added resulting in an alkaline solution (pH approximately 12) which was finally adjusted to a pH of approximately 5.3 for fluoride determination.

  7. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Vázquez-Ortiz, Francisco A; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54), and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47), boiled beef (score = 75) and hamburger (score = 82). The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91) and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%). Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%). Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  8. Subcellular distribution of okadaic acid in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis: first evidences of lipoprotein binding to okadaic acid.

    PubMed

    Rossignoli, Araceli E; Blanco, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of okadaic acid, the main diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin, in the cells of the digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied. By means of differential centrifugation, ultrafiltration and extraction with methanol, it was found that most okadaic acid was stored in the cytosol. Notwithstanding only a small proportion of the total toxin was found to be in free form, being most of it bound to a soluble cellular compound with a molecular mass which ranged from 30 to 300 kDa. A series of fractionations of samples digested with a protease, a lipase, and amylase suggested that the component to which okadaic acid is bound is a high density lipoprotein. A new fractionation after digestion with a protein lipase additionally supports the previous conclusion.

  9. In situ volatile fatty acids influence biogas generation from kitchen wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyang; Zhao, Mingxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Huang, Zhenxing; Gao, Shumei; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered to be an efficient way of disposing kitchen wastes, which can not only reduce waste amounts, but also produce biogas. However, the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) caused by high organic loads will inhibit anaerobic digestion intensively. Effects of the VFA composition on biogas generation and microbial community are still required for the investigation under various organic loads of kitchen wastes. Our results showed that the maximum specific methane production was 328.3 ml g TS(-1), and acetic acid was the main inhibitor in methanogenesis. With the increase of organic load, aceticlastic methanogenesis was more sensitive to acetic acid than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Meanwhile, methanogenic microbial community changed significantly, and few species grew well under excessive organic loads. This study provides an attempt to reveal the mechanism of VFA inhibition in anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

  10. Feeding oleamide to lactating Jersey cows. 2. Effects on nutrient digestibility, plasma fatty acids, and hormones.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, D D; Jenkins, T C

    2000-03-01

    Six lactating Jersey cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 14-d periods to evaluate different ratios of canola oil and oleamide on nutrient digestibility, plasma fatty acids, and plasma hormones. The control diet contained no added fat. All other diets contained 3.5% added fat consisting of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% as oleamide and the remainder as canola oil. Data were collected during the final 4 d of each period. Dry matter intake was reduced by the addition of canola oil to the diet, and further reduced by replacing canola oil with oleamide. Milk yield was not affected by diet but increasing oleamide proportion in the fat supplement caused linear increases in cis-C18:1 and linear decreases in C4 to C16 fatty acids in milk. Adding canola oil reduced total tract digestibilities of fiber and fatty acids, but had no effect on the digestibilities of dry matter or protein. Replacing canola oil with oleamide increased protein digestibility linearly, and increased digestibility of fiber (quartic relationship) and fatty acids (quadratic relationship). Oleic acid concentration in plasma increased by adding canola oil to the diet, and was further increased by replacing canola oil with oleamide. Diet had no effect on plasma concentrations of insulin or IGF-I. Oleamide fed to Jersey cows in this study was highly digestible and had no deleterious effects on total tract digestility of fiber or protein. Increasing oleic acid concentration in plasma lipids while maintaining a constant level of added fat in the ration had no effect on circulating concentrations of insulin or IGF-I in Jerseys.

  11. Assessment of the effects of iodine value on fatty acid digestibility, feed intake, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1994-08-01

    Data were pooled from 11 studies evaluating supplemental fat sources differing primarily in degree of saturation (tallow, animal-vegetable fat, vegetable oil, and hydrogenated fats). Data were standardized as proportions of the respective controls to reduce variation among individual studies and were subjected to stepwise multiple regression against the iodine value of fats, the percentage increases of total fatty acids in diets above the respective controls, or the ratio of total C16 to C18 fatty acids in fats (only for hydrogenated fats). Increased iodine value (increasing unsaturation) of fats increased apparent fatty acid digestibility, especially as iodine value increased from 11 to 27. For partially hydrogenated fat sources, as the ratio of C16 to C18 fatty acids increased, digestibility also increased, especially with increasing iodine value (positive interaction). Beneficial effects of higher C16:C18 ratio were reduced as amount of added fat increased (negative interaction). Dry matter intake and FCM production decreased as iodine value increased, perhaps because of inhibition of fiber digestion or metabolic regulation of DMI. Milk protein percentage depression averaged .2 percentage units for most fats. However, as partially hydrogenated fat sources became more saturated, milk protein depression appeared to be less evident; increased ratio of C16:C18 of fatty acids appeared to increase milk protein percentage. Despite the lower apparent digestibility of fatty acids of hydrogenated fats, increased milk production and percentages of fat and protein appeared to make them more economical than more unsaturated fats.

  12. Comparative amino acid digestibility for broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2013-09-01

    A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d. On d 19 posthatch, birds were asphyxiated with CO(2), and digesta from the distal section of ileum was collected. The ileal digestibility of AA from the test ingredients was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis using data on daily apparent ileal digestible AA and total AA intakes. The basal endogenous losses of N and all AA for ducks were significantly higher than those for broilers. For ileal AA digestibility by regression of apparent digestible AA intake against AA intake, there was a higher (P < 0.05) digestibility for Cys and Pro in ducks compared with broilers (P < 0.05). Within species, digestibility was not different between SBM and CM except for Lys of ducks, and Lys and Pro of broilers (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that ducks have higher basal endogenous AA losses compared with broiler chickens as well as higher ileal Cys and Pro digestibility estimates derived from regression approach, indicating that data obtained from broilers should not be used to formulate diets for ducks.

  13. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  14. Effect of pressure processing on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal for poultry.

    PubMed

    Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M

    2000-12-01

    In the future, it may become desirable or required to process meat and bone meal (MBM) under pressure to reduce human health concerns associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, three experiments evaluated the effects of different processing pressures on the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in MBM when the pressure processing was done after typical rendering (Experiments 1 and 2) or during the initial rendering process of raw materials (Experiment 3). Processing pressures varied from 0 to 60 psi in experimental or commercial feather meal cookers. Increasing pressure during processing reduced MBM Cys concentrations in Experiments 1 and 2. True digestibilities of most AA were significantly decreased by increasing pressures in Experiments 1 and 2, and reductions were generally largest for Cys and Lys, particularly Cys, and increased with severity as pressure increased. For example, in Experiment 1, Cys digestibility decreased from 65 to 50 to 15%, and Lys digestibility decreased from 76 to 68 to 41% as the MBM was processed at 0, 30, and 60 psi, respectively, for 20 min. When the pressure processing occurred during the initial rendering of the MBM raw material (Experiment 3), a significant reduction in digestibility of most AA was observed only at 60 psi, and the decrease was much less than that observed in Experiments 1 and 2. Our results indicate that pressure processing of MBM decreases the digestibility of AA for poultry. Thus, pressure processing of MBM to reduce potential BSE infectivity will likely decrease the nutritional value of the MBM.

  15. Polymorph-dependent titanium dioxide nanoparticle dissolution in acidic and alkali digestions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple polymorphs (anatase, brookite and rutile) of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) with variable structures were quantified in environmental matrices via microwave-based hydrofluoric (HF) and nitric (HNO3) mixed acid digestion and muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium ...

  16. Amino acid digestibility of different rye genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Tobias; Miedaner, Thomas; Rosenfelder, Pia; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the variability of amino acid (AA) digestibility of rye grains in laying hens. Relationships between AA digestibility and physical properties (thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number, and extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, and inositol phosphates), gross energy concentration, and in vitro solubility of nitrogen (N) of the grains were also examined. Twenty rye genotypes were grown under standardised agronomic and environmental conditions as part of a collaborative research project known as "GrainUp". Each genotype was added to a basal diet at 500 g/kg at the expense of maize starch to produce 20 rye diets. The experimental design comprised four Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed over two runs, resulting in 12 experimental periods. Caecectomised laying hens (LSL-Classic) were individually kept in metabolism cages. Excreta were collected quantitatively for 4 d, and AA digestibility of the rye genotypes was determined using a regression approach. The digestibility of AA was generally low but varied significantly among the 20 rye genotypes, especially for Lys (digestibility range 35-59%), Met (57-75%), Thr (34-54%), and Trp (36-71%). Nevertheless, physical and chemical characteristics as well as the in vitro solubility of N correlated in only a few cases with AA digestibility. Multiple linear regression was used to calculate equations to predict AA digestibility based on the analysed characteristics. However, their explanatory power, as judged by the adjusted R(2), was not sufficiently precise for practical application (below 0.6 for most AA). In conclusion, the AA digestibility of rye grain is generally low and varies significantly between crop genotypes. Equations based on its physical and chemical characteristics are not sufficiently precise to be useful for feed formulation. PMID:27618757

  17. Amino acid digestibility of different rye genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Tobias; Miedaner, Thomas; Rosenfelder, Pia; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the variability of amino acid (AA) digestibility of rye grains in laying hens. Relationships between AA digestibility and physical properties (thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number, and extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, and inositol phosphates), gross energy concentration, and in vitro solubility of nitrogen (N) of the grains were also examined. Twenty rye genotypes were grown under standardised agronomic and environmental conditions as part of a collaborative research project known as "GrainUp". Each genotype was added to a basal diet at 500 g/kg at the expense of maize starch to produce 20 rye diets. The experimental design comprised four Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed over two runs, resulting in 12 experimental periods. Caecectomised laying hens (LSL-Classic) were individually kept in metabolism cages. Excreta were collected quantitatively for 4 d, and AA digestibility of the rye genotypes was determined using a regression approach. The digestibility of AA was generally low but varied significantly among the 20 rye genotypes, especially for Lys (digestibility range 35-59%), Met (57-75%), Thr (34-54%), and Trp (36-71%). Nevertheless, physical and chemical characteristics as well as the in vitro solubility of N correlated in only a few cases with AA digestibility. Multiple linear regression was used to calculate equations to predict AA digestibility based on the analysed characteristics. However, their explanatory power, as judged by the adjusted R(2), was not sufficiently precise for practical application (below 0.6 for most AA). In conclusion, the AA digestibility of rye grain is generally low and varies significantly between crop genotypes. Equations based on its physical and chemical characteristics are not sufficiently precise to be useful for feed formulation.

  18. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in two-phase (acid-methane) anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Morgenroth, E; Tandukar, M; Pavlostathis, S G; Smith, A; Raskin, L; Kilian, R E

    2011-01-01

    The microbial processes involved in two-phase anaerobic digestion were investigated by operating a laboratory-scale acid-phase (AP) reactor and analyzing two full-scale, two-phase anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic (35 °C) conditions. The digesters received a blend of primary sludge and waste activated sludge (WAS). Methane levels of 20% in the laboratory-scale reactor indicated the presence of methanogenic activity in the AP. A phylogenetic analysis of an archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone library of one of the full-scale AP digesters showed that 82% and 5% of the clones were affiliated with the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales, respectively. These results indicate that substantial levels of aceticlastic methanogens (order Methanosarcinales) were not maintained at the low solids retention times and acidic conditions (pH 5.2-5.5) of the AP, and that methanogenesis was carried out by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens of the order Methanobacteriales. Approximately 43, 31, and 9% of the archaeal clones from the methanogenic phase (MP) digester were affiliated with the orders Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanobacteriales, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library suggested the presence of acetate-oxidizing bacteria (close relatives of Thermacetogenium phaeum, 'Syntrophaceticus schinkii,' and Clostridium ultunense). The high abundance of hydrogen consuming methanogens and the presence of known acetate-oxidizing bacteria suggest that acetate utilization by acetate oxidizing bacteria in syntrophic interaction with hydrogen-utilizing methanogens was an important pathway in the second-stage of the two-phase digestion, which was operated at high ammonium-N concentrations (1.0 and 1.4 g/L). A modified version of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with extensions for syntrophic acetate oxidation and weak-acid inhibition adequately described the dynamic profiles of volatile acid production

  19. Comparison of four digestion procedures not requiring perchloric acid for the trace-element analysis of plant material

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M. J.

    1980-05-01

    Perchloric acid (HClO/sub 4/) is often used to destroy organic material contained in plant tissue during sample preparation for trace-element analysis. However, since perchloric acid is an extremely strong oxidizing agent that can cause fire and explosion when in contact with combustible materials, its use is best avoided when proper safety equipment and training is unavailable. A comparison was made of four digestion procedures that do not require perchloric acid: wet digestion with nitric and sulfuric acids; wet digestion with nitric acid alone; a repeated wet digestion with nitric acid; and direct dry ashing. Each procedure was used to digest National Bureau of Standards orchard leaves (SRM 1571). To investigate the effect of possible filter paper adsorption on the determination of trace elements, digested samples were either filtered or not filtered before analysis. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed to determine concentrations of As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn in each digested sample. Recoveries of each element and the relative error of each determination for each digestion procedure were then calculated. A statistical analysis of these data indicates that the direct dry ashing procedure is best suited for multi-element analysis. Dry ashing is appropriate to recover As, Be, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, and Zn. The nitric-sulfuric acids, nitric acid, and repeated nitric acid digestion procedures were deemed poor for multi-element analysis; however, each proved useful for the recovery of certain individual elements, including Cd, Pb, and Zn. Sample filtration significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) lowered the recovery of Cr, Mn, Pb, and Zn from the digested samples. Conversely, the recovery of As, Mo, and Sr was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) higher in samples filtered before analysis when compared to the recovery of these elements in unfiltered samples.

  20. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility in Wheat Shorts and Red Dog for Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Q.; Piao, X. S.; Ren, P.; Li, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  1. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  2. Interactions between amino-acid-degrading bacteria and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, M.; Matsuo, T.

    1982-10-01

    The degradation of amino acids in anaerobic digestion was examined in terms of the interactions between amino-acid-degrading bacteria and methanogenic bacteria. Certain amino acids were degraded oxidatively by dehydrogenation, with methanogenic bacteria acting as H/sub 2/ acceptors. The inhibition of methanogenesis by chloroform also inhibited the degradation of these amino acids and/or caused variations in the composition of volatile acids produced from them. The presence of glycine reduced the inhibitory effect caused by chloroform, probably because glycine acted as an H/sub 2/ acceptor in place of methanogenic bacteria. This fact suggested that the coupled oxidation-reduction reactions between two amino acids - one acting as the H/sub 2/ donor and the other acting as the H/sub 2/ acceptor - may occur in the anaerobic digestion of proteins or amino-acid mixtures. The conversion of some proteins to volatile acids was not affected when methanogensis was inhibited by chloroform. This suggested that the component amino acids of proteins may be degraded by the coupled oxidation-reduction reactions and that the degradation of proteins may not be dependent on the activity of methanogenic bacteria as H/sub 2/ acceptors.

  3. Saliva of Lygus lineolaris digests double stranded ribonucleic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prospects for development of highly specific pesticides based on double stranded ribonucleic acid have been a recent focus of scientific research. Creative applications have been proposed and demonstrated. However, not all insects are sensitive to double stranded RNA (dsRNA) gene knockdown effec...

  4. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability.

  5. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  6. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield. PMID:27570139

  7. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  8. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  9. Rapid acid digestion and simple microplate method for milk iodine determination.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Ordookhani, Arash; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-01-01

    Iodine deficiency leads to deficiency of thyroid hormones, which causes mental retardation in infant. Laboratory confirmation is important in its diagnosis. The major problems associated with the existing methods for iodine determination in milk samples are: 1) nonsafe alkaline solution; 2) harsh thermal condition; and 3) extra time required to complete various steps. In this study, a simple and rapid colorimetric method was investigated, which used acid digestion in combination with a rapid microplate reading format method to determine the total iodine content in milk. Sample digestion was done on 50 microL milk in metavanadate/perchloric, at 230 degrees C for 10 min. After digestion, iodine determination was based on the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The reaction results were read in 96-well microplates by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reader. The determination range of the assay was between 2 and 40 microg/dL. The within-run coefficient of variation percent in three levels (3, 12, and 36 microg/dL) ranged from 6.7 to 9.3 and between-run coefficients of variation ranged from 8.6 to 12.3%. The results obtained (n=70) by the optimized method have good correlation with the results of alkaline incineration as a reference method (n=70; r2=0.907; y=0.952x+1.77). Recovery tests for accuracy assessment in six levels from 6.2 to 34.2 microg/dL) were between 91.3 and 113%. This method has enabled us to achieve 0.12 microg/dL sensitivity. The results of this study show that a quick acid digestion combined with mild thermal and low sample volume with a quick reading of assay results were the main advantages of the acid digestion and microplate reading format. PMID:17847102

  10. Effect of increased methionine level on performance and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in ducks.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Lemme, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Wertelecki, T

    2009-10-01

    The experiment was conducted with 960 one-day-old ducklings fed mixtures (I control - 0.28% methionine) additionally supplemented with DL-methionine (DL-Met) at amounts: 0.03% (group II), 0.07% (III), 0.12% (IV) and 0.18% (V). The performance, carcass quality and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids as the criterions of methionine (Met) effectivity were considered. The analysis of growth and development of ducks as an effect of diversified DL-Met supplements indicate that increased content of this amino acid in the diets has not affected clearly the performance parameters. The body weight of 21-day-old ducklings was significantly affected only by the level of 0.12% of added Met in comparison to control group. On day 42, the differences among groups were negligible; only the addition of 0.12% DL-Met has increased the body weight by 2.4% when compared with control (p > 0.05). Feed conversion estimated for a period of 1-42 days has not been influenced by Met supplementation. The indistinct, however, visible tendency of better ileal amino acids' apparent digestibility (for Asp.a.,Thr, Ser, Glu, Lys) was noted in the groups fed supplemented diets. Application of 0.07% and 0.18% of DL-met, has significantly (p < 0.05) improved the coefficient of cysteine (Cys) apparent ileal digestibility; however, the improvement of Met apparent ileal digestibility has been achieved by the addition of 0.18% Met. The mortality of ducklings in the experiment was very low and varied between 3.15% (II) and 0.0% (groups I and III). In general, application of 0.12% of DL-Met to mixture containing 0.28% Met had positive effect on the productive output of birds and also improved the apparent ileal digestibility of Cys and Met.

  11. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems.

  12. The effects of environmental factors on acid-phase digestion of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, M.P.; Sajjad, A.; Ghosh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The two-phase anaerobic digestion process consists of two fermenters operated in series, wherein the acidification and gasification reactions are optimized in separate reactors to improve the overall system conversion efficiency. This paper discusses the results of tests conducted with bench-scale complete-mix acid-phase digesters to determine the effects of culture pH, temperature, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the efficiency of sewage sludge digestion. Tests were conducted at culture pH's of 5, 5.5, 6, and 7 at mesophilic (35/degree/C) and thermophilic (55/degree/C) temperatures and at HRT's of 1.3 and 2 days. Digestion efficiencies were determined on the basis of volatile acid production, gas production, and the reduction of the major particulate components of the feed sludge (crude protein, carbohydrates, and lipids). Efficiencies were highly dependent on each of the three control factors and were generally optimized at the higher extremes of pH, temperature, and HRT tested. 9 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Digestibility by lambs offered alfalfa hay treated with a propionic acid hay preservative and baled at different concentrations of moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen crossbred wether lambs (76.1 ± 8.18 lb initial BW) were used for a 2 period digestion study to evaluate the effect of hay preservative concentration (0, 0.56, or 0.98% buffered propionic acid) and hay moisture concentration at baling (19.6, 23.8, or 27.4% moisture) on digestibility of alfal...

  14. Use of homoarginine for measuring true ileal digestibility of amino acids in food protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Duan, Jielin; Zhao, Yurong; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-09-01

    A useful application of homoarginine in animal nutrition is the determination of the true ileal digestibility (TID) of amino acids (AA) in swine complete diets and feed ingredients. The homoarginine method involves the conversion of dietary lysine to homoarginine in a guanidination reaction with methylisourea. Accurate determination of TID of AA, especially in heat-treated feed ingredients, is a key prerequisite for accurate diet formulation with respect to the provision of dietary AA. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight the homoarginine methodology and its application in animal nutrition. Based on the data from published studies, the homoarginine method can be used to accurately determine the digestibility of lysine and the majority of other acid-stable AA in complete diets and feed ingredients fed to animals.

  15. Fatty acid digestibility and lactation performance by dairy cows fed fats varying in degree of saturation.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1996-03-01

    Holstein cows fed fats varying in degree of saturation were used to evaluate lactation performance (35 multiparous and 15 primiparous cows) and fatty acid digestibility (5 cows). Data from wk 2 and 3 of lactation were used for covariable adjustment of data from wk 4 through 19. Diets were a basal diet (control) with no added fat and four diets with 5% added fat from tallow, tallow plus partially hydrogenated tallow in proportions of 2:1 or 1:2, or partially hydrogenated tallow; iodine values were 45, 35, 26, and 16 for the diets with added fat, respectively. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected by fat supplementation (mean of four fat treatments vs. control) or by degree of fat saturation. Fatty acid digestibility was lower for cows fed fat than for those fed the control diet and decreased linearly with increased fat saturation. In both trials, DMI increased linearly as fat saturation increased. In the digestion trial, cows fed fat tended to have lower DMI than those fed the control diet, primarily because of the unsaturated fat. In the production trial, DMI was similar for cows fed the control diet (22.3 kg/d) or the diet with added fat from tallow (22.1 kg/d) and tended to be higher for cows fed the diet containing partially hydrogenated tallow (23.9 kg/d). Milk production was higher for cows fed fat than for cows fed the control diet, but 4% FCM was unaffected. Milk fat and protein percentages were not affected by fat supplementation but increased linearly with increased fat saturation. Mean body condition score of cows increased as fat saturation increased. The lower digestibility of the diet with added fat from partially hydrogenated tallow was offset by higher DMI and percentages of milk fat and protein as fat became more saturated.

  16. Use of near infrared spectroscopy in monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, H Fabian; Moschner, Christian R; Hartung, Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    Recently biogas production from agricultural sources has rapidly developed. Therefore the demands on biogas plants to optimise the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process have grown immensely. At present there is no online-supervision tool available to monitor the AD process, but costly and time-consuming chemical analyses are necessary. The possibility to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in order to track relevant process parameters like total volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetic acid and propionic acid was investigated in the present research project. A NIR-sensor was integrated into a full-scale 1 MW biogas plant and NIR-spectra of the fermenter contents were recorded semi-continuously for 500 days. Weekly samples were taken and analysed for the above mentioned parameters. Calibration models were calculated, capable of following these parameters: VFA (r(2)=0.94), acetic acid (r(2)=0.69), propionic acid (r(2)=0.89). PMID:19633375

  17. Effect of the duration of prefeeding on amino acid digestibility of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of prefeeding on prececal amino acid (AA) digestibility of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in broilers. The experimental diets with DDGS at levels of 0, 10, and 20% were offered ad libitum for 7, 5, and 3 d, starting on 14, 16, and 18 d of age. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Six pens of 10 birds were allocated to each treatment. Digesta was sampled on a pen basis from the distal two-thirds of the intestine section between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileo-ceca-colonic junction. Ingested and digested amounts of AA were determined for each pen. Digestibility of AA in the diets was not significantly affected by the duration of prefeeding but was significantly reduced by inclusion of DDGS. Digestibility of AA in DDGS was determined by using a linear regression approach. The digestibility of AA in DDGS ranged from 76% (Arg, 5 d of feeding) to 33% (Asp, 3 d of feeding). There was no significant effect of prefeeding time on AA digestibility of DDGS. Lysine digestibility of DDGS was 72%. The mean digestibility of the AA Arg, Cys, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, and Val of DDGS across the 3 prefeeding times was 66%. This study gave evidence that 3 d of prefeeding a diet is sufficient in studying prececal AA digestibility in broilers when low-digestible feeds are used. PMID:20308399

  18. Novel two-phase anaerobic gasification with solid-bed acid digestion in tandem with fixed-film methane fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Sajjad, A.

    1983-01-01

    The development and performance of a novel solid-bed two-phase anaerobic digestion system are described. The system consists of a bed of organic feed operated in tandem with an acid-phase slurry digester and a methane-phase upflow anaerobic filter. The bed and the acid-phase digesters liquefy and convert the organics to volatile fatty acids (VFA) without gas production, while a high methane-content product gas is collected from the methane-phase filter. With municipal refuse feeds, VFA and ethanol were the major products from acid-phase digestion. A high methane content (up to 88 mol %) gas was the major product from the methane phase filter.

  19. Failure of tannic acid to inhibit digestion or reduce digestibility of plant protein in gut fluids of insect herbivores : Implications for theories of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Martin, J S; Martin, M M; Bernays, E A

    1987-03-01

    The rate of hydrolysis of the abundant foliar protein, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPC), in enzymatically active gut fluid ofManduca sexta larvae is very rapid and is unaffected by the presence of tannic acid, even when tannic acid is present in the incubation mixture in amounts in excess of the amount of RuBPC. When this protein is dissolved in the denatured gut fluids ofM. sexta larvae orSchistocerca gregaria nymphs, large amounts of tannic acid must be added to bring about the precipitation of significant quantities of protein. The ability of insect gut fluid to prevent the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes is due to the presence of surfactants. On the basis of our results and a review of the findings of other investigators, we argue that there is no evidence that tannins reduce the nutritional value of an insect's food by inhibiting digestive enzymes or by reducing the digestibility of ingested proteins and, further, that the failure of tannins to interfere with digestion is readily explained on the basis of well-documented characteristics of the digestive systems of herbivorous insects. In challenging the currently popular notion that tannins are digestibility-reducing substances, we do not challenge the general utility of either the apparency theory or resource availability theory of plant defense. In debating the merits of these two analyses of plant-herbivore interactions, however, the demise of tannins as all-purpose, dose-dependent, digestibility-reducing defensive substances must be taken into account.

  20. Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, V; Abdollahi, M R; Bootwalla, S M

    2014-10-01

    Nutrient composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility, and AME of 55 soybean meal (SBM) samples from the United States (US; n = 16), Argentina (ARG; n = 16), Brazil (BRA; n = 10), and India (IND; n = 13), collected from commercial mills in Southeast Asia, were compared using laboratory analyses and animal studies. There were significant (P < 0.05 to 0.001) differences due to origin in CP, fat, ash, fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) contents of SBM. The average CP content of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples was determined to be 47.3, 46.9, 48.2, and 46.4% (as-fed basis), respectively. Compared with SBM from other origins, crude fiber and NSP contents were lower (P < 0.05) and sucrose content was higher (P < 0.05) in the US samples. The IND samples had the highest (P < 0.05) contents of fiber, ash, and NSP, and lowest (P < 0.05) contents of fat and sucrose. Differences (P < 0.0001) were observed among origins for in vitro protein quality measures (urease index, KOH protein solubility, and trypsin inhibitor activity). Significant (P < 0.001) effects due to origin were observed for all minerals. Soybean meal from the US and IND had higher (P < 0.05) calcium contents (0.45%) compared with those from ARG and BRA (0.28-0.31%). Phosphorus and potassium contents were lowest (P < 0.05) in SBM from IND, and no differences (P > 0.05) were observed in SBM from other origins. Iron content was markedly high (928 mg/kg) in SBM from IND compared with those from other origins (103-134 mg/kg). Major origin-related differences (P < 0.0001) were observed in the AME of SBM. The average AME content of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples was 2,375, 2,227, 2,317, and 2,000 kcal/kg (as-fed basis), respectively. Total AA contents of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples were similar (P > 0.05) for 9 of the 17 amino acids. Major differences (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) due to origin were determined for the digestibility of all AA. The IND samples had the lowest (P < 0.05) digestibility and no

  1. Linear regression approach to study amino acid digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Kapocius, M; Timmler, R; Dieckmann, A

    2004-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether a linear regression approach is a suitable tool for determining the amino acid (AA) digestibility up to the terminal ileum of broiler chickens. Solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (RSM) was used as the model ingredient. 2. Ten diets with 5 different inclusion rates of RSM (60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 g/kg, corresponding to crude protein concentrations from 170 to 250 g/kg in the diet), each without or with a supplementation of phytase (500 U/kg), were fed ad libitum to broiler chickens between 14 and 21 d of age. Seven pens of 12 chickens were allocated to each treatment. Digesta were sampled on a pen basis from the section of the gastrointestinal tract between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileo-caeco-colonic junction. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. 3. The amounts of crude protein and AAs digested up to the terminal ileum constantly increased with increasing AA intake over the entire range of intakes. When the amount of an AA digested at the terminal ileum is linearly regressed against its intake, the deviation of the slope from 1 is caused by both the unabsorbed AA from RSM and from specific endogenous losses related to RSM. These slopes varied between 0.68 and 0.88 for individual AAs, and the slopes were unaffected by phytase supplementation. 4. It is suggested that a linear regression approach be adopted to study the AA digestibility of raw materials in chickens. Digestibility determined this way does not need any correction for basal endogenous loss.

  2. Kynurenic Acid in the Digestive System—New Facts, New Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Turski, Michal P.; Turska, Monika; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Oxenkrug, Gregory F.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides information on the most recent findings concerning presence, origin, and role of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite, in the digestive system. KYNA is an antagonist of both the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptor. Since the GPR35 receptor is mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract, researchers have concentrated on the digestive system in recent years. They have found that KYNA content increases gradually and significantly along the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, the concentration of KYNA in the lumen is much higher than in the wall of intestine. It has been documented that KYNA may have a positive influence on the number of pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, in particular ulcers, colon obstruction, or colitis. Future studies might determine whether it is advisable to supplement KYNA to a human organism. PMID:24049450

  3. Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of α-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that α-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that α-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch.

  4. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P < 0.05) than in the pigs fed white or yellow maize. Energy digestibility (P < 0.001) and metabolizability (P < 0.01) were higher in the pigs fed the white and yellow maize diets than in those fed the QPM diets. The AID of lysine was higher (P < 0.01) in the QPM diets than in the white and yellow maize. The AIDs of leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and methionine were lower in the QPM diets than those of maize (white and yellow) (all P < 0.05). Maize (white and yellow) had greater SIDs of leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, tyrosine, and proline (P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, it was concluded that QPM had a lower metabolizable energy content and a higher amount of digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  5. Reconciling Empirical Carbonate Clumped Isotope Calibrations: A Comparison of Calcite Precipitation and Acid Digestion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, J.; Huntington, K. W.; Schauer, A. J.; Saenger, C.; Lechler, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    An accurate empirical calibration is necessary to confidently apply the carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometer. Previous synthetic carbonate calibrations disagree in temperature sensitivity, with one group of calibrations displaying a shallow Δ47-temperature slope (e.g., Dennis & Schrag, GCA, 2010), and the other a steep slope (e.g., Zaarur et al., EPSL, 2013). These calibrations differ in both the method of mineral precipitation and the temperature of the phosphoric acid used to digest carbonates for analysis, making it difficult to isolate the cause of the discrepancy. Here, we precipitate synthetic carbonates at temperatures of 6-80ºC using 4 different precipitation methods, and analyze the samples using both 90 and 25°C acid digestion. Precipitation experiments varied the use of salts (NaHCO3 and CaCl2) vs. dissolved CaCO3 as a starting solution, the use of carbonic anhydrase to promote isotopic equilibrium among dissolved inorganic carbon species in solution, and the method by which CO2 degasses to force carbonate precipitation. Carbonates precipitated by using salts and allowing CO2 to passively degas produce a shallow calibration slope that we hypothesize to approach isotopic equilibrium. Precipitation methods that bubble CO2 into solution then degas that CO2 (either passively or actively by bubbling N2) produce carbonates with consistently lower Δ47 and higher δ18O values for a given growth temperature. We infer that these carbonates grew in disequilibrium during rapid CO2 degassing. Varying acid digestion temperature does not change the results; acid fractionation factor is not correlated with grain size, Δ47, or d47 values. No precipitation method produces a steep calibration slope. Our large sample set of >60 carbonates lend confidence to a shallow slope calibration, and inform interpretations of Δ47 and δ18O values of natural carbonates that grow under conditions of isotopic disequilibrium.

  6. Bias in determining aluminum concentrations: Comparison of digestion methods and implications on Al management.

    PubMed

    He, Y Thomas; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum is an important aquatic contaminant due to its ubiquity, toxicity and low regulatory discharge limits. Aluminum is mobilized in mining related, acidic drainage and is commonly a regulated pollutant. However, while aquatic toxicity studies and toxicity criteria are based on dissolved aluminum(Ald), discharge levels are, for statutory reasons, based on total recoverable aluminum (Alt). The rationale for using total recoverable aluminum recognizes the potential for the release of exchangeable, toxic cations or dissolution of metastable metal flocs in the event the discharge enters an acidic receiving stream. The digestion methods used in determining total recoverable metals are not meant to dissolve aluminosilicate clay particles but we found that they do, resulting in positively biased total recoverable aluminum values. This study explored the interaction between total suspended solids (TSS) and total recoverable aluminum using three digestion methods to evaluate which method introduced the least bias. Using field collected water and sediment samples from two coal mine drainage sites in Central West Virginia, three total recoverable digestion methods (USEPA Method 200.7, M1; USGS In-Bottle method, M2; and a Modified In-Bottle method, M3) were used to determine total recoverable aluminum across a range of total suspended solids concentrations. Baseline simulation experiments were conducted at pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 at different total suspended solids concentrations. Results indicated that dissolved aluminum did not respond to increasing total suspended solids concentrations while determined total recoverable aluminum increased with total suspended solids, indicating varying degrees of clay dissolution and, thus bias in the total recoverable aluminum concentration. While all three digestion methods overestimated total recoverable aluminum, at the same total suspended solids concentration, total recoverable aluminum extracted by USEPA Method 200.7 (M1) was

  7. Herring roe protein has a high digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Robert; Maathuis, Annet; de Jong, Aard; Mancinelli, Daniele; Berger, Alvin; Bellmann, Susann

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) can be determined based on dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments as replacement for invasive animal studies. We determined the in vitro DIAAS for immature herring eggs (roe) proteins in comparison with reference proteins. The true ileal digestibility of protein and indispensable amino acids (IAA) was measured under human conditions simulated in a gastrointestinal model (tiny-TIM). The in vitro true ileal digestibility of ovalbumin, cooked and raw chicken egg white, and casein was similar to that found in humans (r(2) = 0.96), providing a casual observation to support the validity of tiny-TIM. The digestibility of the immature herring egg proteins was 71% to 92%. The highest IAA digestibility was found for immature whole herring egg protein (55%-80%) in comparison to immature herring egg membrane and immature de-membraned herring protein (50%-70%). The DIAAS as recommended by FAO for children and adults, but measured in vitro, were 91% for immature whole herring egg protein (lysine first limiting), 71% for immature herring egg membrane protein (histidine first limiting), and 88% for immature herring egg de-membraned protein (sulfur AA first limiting). True ileal protein and amino acid digestibility can be determined in a dynamic gastrointestinal model, such as tiny-TIM, which can be used for estimating the DIAAS. Immature herring egg proteins, a previously underutilized resource, were determined to be an important and valuable source of IAA for human consumption.

  8. Herring roe protein has a high digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Robert; Maathuis, Annet; de Jong, Aard; Mancinelli, Daniele; Berger, Alvin; Bellmann, Susann

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) can be determined based on dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments as replacement for invasive animal studies. We determined the in vitro DIAAS for immature herring eggs (roe) proteins in comparison with reference proteins. The true ileal digestibility of protein and indispensable amino acids (IAA) was measured under human conditions simulated in a gastrointestinal model (tiny-TIM). The in vitro true ileal digestibility of ovalbumin, cooked and raw chicken egg white, and casein was similar to that found in humans (r(2) = 0.96), providing a casual observation to support the validity of tiny-TIM. The digestibility of the immature herring egg proteins was 71% to 92%. The highest IAA digestibility was found for immature whole herring egg protein (55%-80%) in comparison to immature herring egg membrane and immature de-membraned herring protein (50%-70%). The DIAAS as recommended by FAO for children and adults, but measured in vitro, were 91% for immature whole herring egg protein (lysine first limiting), 71% for immature herring egg membrane protein (histidine first limiting), and 88% for immature herring egg de-membraned protein (sulfur AA first limiting). True ileal protein and amino acid digestibility can be determined in a dynamic gastrointestinal model, such as tiny-TIM, which can be used for estimating the DIAAS. Immature herring egg proteins, a previously underutilized resource, were determined to be an important and valuable source of IAA for human consumption. PMID:27440534

  9. Digestive Diseases A-Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Information Digestive Diseases English English Español Digestive Diseases The digestive system made up of the ... Upper GI Endoscopy Upper GI Series Virtual Colonoscopy Digestive Disease Topics Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) ...

  10. Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broken Rice Fed to Postweaned Piglets with or without Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Dadalt, J. C.; Gallardo, C.; Polycarpo, G. V.; Budiño, F. E. L.; Rogiewicz, A.; Berto, D. A.; Trindade Neto, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Most of amino acid (AA) digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR), with or without multicarbohydrase (MC) and phytase (Phy) supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine) collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age). A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein) was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (p<0.05) and SID of histidine (p = 0.05), arginine, leucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and proline (p<0.05). BR with MC had been increased digestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (p<0.05). There was no interaction between Phy and MC on the BR nutrient digestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets. PMID:27004821

  11. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein

  12. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr Un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn's amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB's SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein meals

  13. Protein utilization and amino acid digestibility of canola meal in response to phytase in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2011-07-01

    The regression method was used in a 14-d broiler chicken study to determine the true ileal digestibility of amino acid (AA) and protein utilization in canola meal (CM, 388 g of CP/kg) without or with added phytase. Experimental treatments consisted of 2 factors, phytase at 2 levels (0 or 1,500 phytase units/kg) and CM at 3 levels (125, 250, or 375 g/kg). Birds received a standard starter diet from d 1 to 8 and the assay diets from d 8 to 22 posthatch. On d 8, a total of 384 birds were allocated to 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design; excreta were collected from d 12 to 14 and d 19 to 21, and ileal digesta were collected on d 22 posthatch. True ileal indispensable AA digestibility of CM were derived from the regression of AA flow (mg/kg of DM intake) at the terminal ileum against the intake of AA (mg/kg of dietary DM) of birds fed diets without or with phytase. Body weight gain (BWG), protein gain, and protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing CM level, regardless of phytase supplementation. Effects of phytase (P < 0.05) were observed on BWG and the protein efficiency ratio from d 8 to 15, whereas effects of phytase (P < 0.05) were observed on BWG and protein gain from d 15 to 22. There was no effect of phytase on protein intake and net protein utilization from d 8 to 22. Phytase supplementation at 1,500 phytase units/kg did not affect true ileal digestibility of any AA in CM. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that phytase supplementation improved the protein efficiency ratio of birds fed diets containing CM as the sole protein source from d 8 to 15 posthatch but did not affect the true ileal digestibility of AA in CM as determined by the regression method.

  14. Diagnosis of digestive functional disease by the statistics of continuous monitoring of esophageal acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Landa, Rogelio; Cardenas Cardenas, Eduardo; Fossion, Ruben; Pérez Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-11-01

    Technological advances in the last few decennia allow the monitoring of many physiological observables in a continuous way, which in physics is called a "time series". The best studied physiological time series is that of the heart rhythm, which can be derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG). Studies have shown that a healthy heart is characterized by a complex time series and high heart rate variability (HRV). In adverse conditions, the cardiac time series degenerates towards randomness (as seen in, e.g., fibrillation) or rigidity (as seen in, e.g., ageing), both corresponding to a loss of HRV as described by, e.g., Golberger et. al [1]. Cardiac and digestive rhythms are regulated by the autonomous nervous system (ANS), that consists of two antagonistic branches, the orthosympathetic branch (ONS) that accelerates the cardiac rhythm but decelerates the digestive system, and the parasympathetic brand (PNS) that works in the opposite way. Because of this reason, one might expect that the statistics of gastro-esophageal time series, as described by Gardner et. al. [2,3], reflects the health state of the digestive system in a similar way as HRV in the cardiac case, described by Minocha et. al. In the present project, we apply statistical methods derived from HRV analysis to time series of esophageal acidity (24h pHmetry). The study is realized on data from a large patient population from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. Our focus is on patients with functional disease (symptoms but no anatomical damage). We find that traditional statistical approaches (e.g. Fourier spectral analysis) are unable to distinguish between different degenerations of the digestive system, such as gastric esophageal reflux disease (GERD) or functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID).

  15. Accurate quantification of tio2 nanoparticles collected on air filters using a microwave-assisted acid digestion method.

    PubMed

    Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Anthony, T Renée; Grassian, Vicki H; Peters, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, including nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 100 nm, are used extensively in consumer products. In a 2011 current intelligence bulletin, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended methods to assess worker exposures to fine and ultrafine TiO(2) particles and associated occupational exposure limits for these particles. However, there are several challenges and problems encountered with these recommended exposure assessment methods involving the accurate quantitation of titanium dioxide collected on air filters using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Specifically, recommended digestion methods include the use of chemicals, such as perchloric acid, which are typically unavailable in most accredited industrial hygiene laboratories due to highly corrosive and oxidizing properties. Other alternative methods that are used typically involve the use of nitric acid or combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which yield very poor recoveries for titanium dioxide. Therefore, given the current state of the science, it is clear that a new method is needed for exposure assessment. In this current study, a microwave-assisted acid digestion method has been specifically designed to improve the recovery of titanium in TiO(2) nanoparticles for quantitative analysis using ICP-OES. The optimum digestion conditions were determined by changing several variables including the acids used, digestion time, and temperature. Consequently, the optimized digestion temperature of 210°C with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid (2:1 v/v) resulted in a recovery of >90% for TiO(2). The method is expected to provide for a more accurate quantification of airborne TiO(2) particles in the workplace environment.

  16. Accurate quantification of tio2 nanoparticles collected on air filters using a microwave-assisted acid digestion method.

    PubMed

    Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Anthony, T Renée; Grassian, Vicki H; Peters, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, including nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 100 nm, are used extensively in consumer products. In a 2011 current intelligence bulletin, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended methods to assess worker exposures to fine and ultrafine TiO(2) particles and associated occupational exposure limits for these particles. However, there are several challenges and problems encountered with these recommended exposure assessment methods involving the accurate quantitation of titanium dioxide collected on air filters using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Specifically, recommended digestion methods include the use of chemicals, such as perchloric acid, which are typically unavailable in most accredited industrial hygiene laboratories due to highly corrosive and oxidizing properties. Other alternative methods that are used typically involve the use of nitric acid or combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which yield very poor recoveries for titanium dioxide. Therefore, given the current state of the science, it is clear that a new method is needed for exposure assessment. In this current study, a microwave-assisted acid digestion method has been specifically designed to improve the recovery of titanium in TiO(2) nanoparticles for quantitative analysis using ICP-OES. The optimum digestion conditions were determined by changing several variables including the acids used, digestion time, and temperature. Consequently, the optimized digestion temperature of 210°C with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid (2:1 v/v) resulted in a recovery of >90% for TiO(2). The method is expected to provide for a more accurate quantification of airborne TiO(2) particles in the workplace environment. PMID:26181824

  17. Meta-analysis of the amino acid digestibility of oilseed meal in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Messad, F; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Charbonneau, E; Sauvant, D; Guay, F

    2016-10-01

    Oilseed meal is an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) for livestock production. It is the second most important ingredient in pig feed after grains. Optimal use of these ingredients requires precise knowledge of amino acid standardized ileal digestibility (SID), which may vary depending on several factors including botanical variety or processing treatments. A meta-analysis was performed in order to derive models for predicting the SID of soybean, cotton and rapeseed meal EAA, based on chemical composition data such as CP, total concentration of each EAA and fibre (crude fibre, ADF and NDF) content. A database of 47 references (224 experimental treatments) was built. A model incorporating processing method of the meals (e.g. cold pressed, expeller pressed, solvent extracted), experimental surgical procedure (T-cannula, re-entrant cannula, post valve T-cannula and ileo-rectal anastomosis) and pig growth stage (BW⩽ or ⩾25 kg) was tested. Results indicated that neither processing nor BW affected EAA SID. NDF was the best predictor of SID (R 2=0.944, 0.836, 0.779, 0.899 and 0.814, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). The total EAA content was the best predictor of digestible content (g/kg diet) for each EAA (R 2=0.990, 0.985, 0.977, 0.985 and 0.978, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). This study shows that routine chemical analyses may be used to predict EAA digestibility with satisfactory accuracy.

  18. Meta-analysis of the amino acid digestibility of oilseed meal in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Messad, F; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Charbonneau, E; Sauvant, D; Guay, F

    2016-10-01

    Oilseed meal is an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) for livestock production. It is the second most important ingredient in pig feed after grains. Optimal use of these ingredients requires precise knowledge of amino acid standardized ileal digestibility (SID), which may vary depending on several factors including botanical variety or processing treatments. A meta-analysis was performed in order to derive models for predicting the SID of soybean, cotton and rapeseed meal EAA, based on chemical composition data such as CP, total concentration of each EAA and fibre (crude fibre, ADF and NDF) content. A database of 47 references (224 experimental treatments) was built. A model incorporating processing method of the meals (e.g. cold pressed, expeller pressed, solvent extracted), experimental surgical procedure (T-cannula, re-entrant cannula, post valve T-cannula and ileo-rectal anastomosis) and pig growth stage (BW⩽ or ⩾25 kg) was tested. Results indicated that neither processing nor BW affected EAA SID. NDF was the best predictor of SID (R 2=0.944, 0.836, 0.779, 0.899 and 0.814, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). The total EAA content was the best predictor of digestible content (g/kg diet) for each EAA (R 2=0.990, 0.985, 0.977, 0.985 and 0.978, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). This study shows that routine chemical analyses may be used to predict EAA digestibility with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:27137351

  19. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  20. Microwave acid digestion and preconcentration neutron activation analysis of biological and diet samples for iodine.

    PubMed

    Rao, R R; Chatt, A

    1991-07-01

    A simple preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method has been developed for the determination of low levels of iodine in biological and nutritional materials. The method involves dissolution of the samples by microwave digestion in the presence of acids in closed Teflon bombs and preconcentration of total iodine, after reduction to iodide with hydrazine sulfate, by coprecipitation with bismuth sulfide. The effects of different factors such as acidity, time for complete precipitation, and concentrations of bismuth, sulfide, and diverse ions on the quantitative recovery of iodide have been studied. The absolute detection limit of the PNAA method is 5 ng of iodine. Precision of measurement, expressed in terms of relative standard deviation, is about 5% at 100 ppb and 10% at 20 ppb levels of iodine. The PNAA method has been applied to several biological reference materials and total diet samples. PMID:1897721

  1. Microwave acid digestion and preconcentration neutron activation analysis of biological and diet samples for iodine.

    PubMed

    Rao, R R; Chatt, A

    1991-07-01

    A simple preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method has been developed for the determination of low levels of iodine in biological and nutritional materials. The method involves dissolution of the samples by microwave digestion in the presence of acids in closed Teflon bombs and preconcentration of total iodine, after reduction to iodide with hydrazine sulfate, by coprecipitation with bismuth sulfide. The effects of different factors such as acidity, time for complete precipitation, and concentrations of bismuth, sulfide, and diverse ions on the quantitative recovery of iodide have been studied. The absolute detection limit of the PNAA method is 5 ng of iodine. Precision of measurement, expressed in terms of relative standard deviation, is about 5% at 100 ppb and 10% at 20 ppb levels of iodine. The PNAA method has been applied to several biological reference materials and total diet samples.

  2. Effects of inhibition gastric acid secretion on arterial acid-base status during digestion in the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2003-07-01

    Digestion affects acid-base status, because the net transfer of HCl from the blood to the stomach lumen leads to an increase in HCO3(-) levels in both extra- and intracellular compartments. The increase in plasma [HCO3(-)], the alkaline tide, is particularly pronounced in amphibians and reptiles, but is not associated with an increased arterial pH, because of a concomitant rise in arterial PCO2 caused by a relative hypoventilation. In this study, we investigate whether the postprandial increase in PaCO2 of the toad Bufo marinus represents a compensatory response to the increased plasma [HCO3(-)] or a state-dependent change in the control of pulmonary ventilation. To this end, we successfully prevented the alkaline tide, by inhibiting gastric acid secretion with omeprazole, and compared the response to that of untreated toads determined in our laboratory during the same period. In addition, we used vascular infusions of bicarbonate to mimic the alkaline tide in fasting animals. Omeprazole did not affect blood gases, acid-base and haematological parameters in fasting toads, but abolished the postprandial increase in plasma [HCO3(-)] and the rise in arterial PCO2 that normally peaks 48 h into the digestive period. Vascular infusion of HCO3(-), that mimicked the postprandial rise in plasma [HCO3(-)], led to a progressive respiratory compensation of arterial pH through increased arterial PCO2. Thus, irrespective of whether the metabolic alkalosis is caused by gastric acid secretion in response to a meal or experimental infusion of bicarbonate, arterial pH is being maintained by an increased arterial PCO2. It seems, therefore, that the elevated PCO2, occuring during the postprandial period, constitutes of a regulated response to maintain pH rather than a state-dependent change in ventilatory control.

  3. Rate of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation in acidic persulfate digested sample matrix for total dissolved phosphorus determination: importance of post-digestion pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2008-10-19

    Acidic persulfate oxidation is one of the most common procedures used to digest dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in water samples for total dissolved phosphorus determination. It has been reported that the rates of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation were significantly reduced in the digested sample matrix. This study revealed that the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation, not the slight change in pH, cause the slowdown of color formation. This effect can be remedied by adjusting digested samples pH to a near neural to decompose the intermediate products. No disturbing effects of chlorine on the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation in seawater were observed. It is noted that the modification of mixed reagent recipe cannot provide near neutral pH for the decomposition of the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation. This study provides experimental evidence not only to support the recommendation made in APHA standard methods that the pH of the digested sample must be adjusted to within a narrow range of sample, but also to improve the understanding of role of residue from persulfate decomposition on the subsequent phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation.

  4. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  5. Disposition and crystallization of saturated fatty acid in mixed micelles of relevance to lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Phan, Stephanie; Salentinig, Stefan; Gilbert, Elliot; Darwish, Tamim A; Hawley, Adrian; Nixon-Luke, Reece; Bryant, Gary; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-07-01

    During lipolysis of triglyceride by lipase, monoglyceride and fatty acids are produced which combine with gastrointestinal fluids to form self-assembled structures. These solubilize hydrophobic food components to promote their absorption. The aim of this study was a detailed understanding of structure formation from triglyceride digestion products with saturated short-, medium- and long chain fatty acids. Complementary characterization methods have been applied comprising small angle X-ray and neutron scattering – the latter involving the contrast matching technique using fully deuterated fatty acids – polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering and cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy. Shape, size and solubilization capacity of the self-assembled structures was dependent on composition and lipid chain length. Crystallization of fatty acid was observed when the solubility limit in the mixed bile salt micelles was exceeded; however, increasing pH and temperature increased the fatty acid solubility. The results provide insight into structure formation and crystallization of incorporated lipolysis products; this is important for a detailed understanding of food structure and nutrition, as well as the rational design of lipid based drug delivery systems.

  6. 27 CFR 19.286 - Gauging of spirits in bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 19.286 Section 19.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Gauging of spirits in bottles. When gauging spirits in bottles, the proprietor may determine the proof and quantity from case markings and label information if the bottles are full and there is no evidence...

  7. Relationship between in vitro assays and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of animal protein meals in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Kuhlers, D L; Dozier, W A

    2013-01-01

    Two identical trials were conducted to determine the relationship of a novel digestive enzyme assay, Poultry Complete IDEA (PC IDEA), and the pepsin digestibility assay with standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 20 animal protein meals (APM) fed to broilers from 25 to 30 d of age. Animal protein meals included 10 meat and bone meals (MBM) consisting of bovine, porcine, or mixed bovine and porcine raw materials (BP), and 10 animal protein blends containing animal proteins from various species. Treatments consisted of 20 semi-purified diets containing 1 APM as the sole source of dietary amino acids (AA), and 1 N-free diet to determine endogenous ileal AA flow. With the exception of the N-free diet, diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. In each trial, 756 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were housed in battery cages and randomly assigned to 21 dietary treatments on d 25 (12 birds per cage; 3 replicate cages), and ileal digesta were collected on d 30 for determination of SIAAD. Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were determined for APM samples from each experimental diet (3 replicates per trial; 6 total replicates). Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were both correlated (P < 0.001) with SIAAD for each AA. Multiple linear regression of PC IDEA and pepsin digestibility on SIAAD resulted in the following equations: % Lys SIAAD = [-9.65 + (0.38 × % PC IDEA predicted Lys digestibility) + (0.69 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Met SIAAD = [-35.95 + (0.62 × % PC IDEA predicted Met digestibility) + (0.75 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Thr SIAAD = [-77.5 + (0.39 × % PC IDEA predicted Thr digestibility) + (1.37 × % pepsin digestibility)]. Values of R(2) were 0.46, 0.47, and 0.55 for Lys, Met, and Thr, respectively. The relatively low R(2) values may have been due to the limited range in SIAAD observed for the 20 APM, and additional data on APM varying in SIAAD are needed.

  8. Online monitoring of concentration and dynamics of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion processes with mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Falk, Harry Michael; Reichling, Peter; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

    2015-02-01

    An ATR-MIR-FTIR spectrometer was integrated into a laboratory scale anaerobic digestion setup. Automatically, a sludge sample from the digester was transferred to a measurement cell; an IR spectrum was recorded and evaluated by chemometric models to estimate the concentration of the individual volatile fatty acids (VFA). The calibration set included semi-artificial samples spiked with known concentrations of the VFA as well as original samples from a continuous fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference analysis of the samples. The models were optimized for a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). R(2) for acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid were 0.94, 0.88, 0.83, 0.75, 0.59, and 0.90, respectively. The accuracy of the models was validated in a second experiment. Considering the complex and heterogeneous sludge composition and the chemical similarity of VFA, absolute concentration and dynamic (increasing and decreasing concentration of VFA) was predicted well for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid (in their respective concentration range); Butyric acid could not be detected. The installed setup was able to gather and measure native samples from the digester (every 2 h) automatically over a period of 6 months without problems of clogging or biofouling. The instant and continuous analysis of the concentration of the VFA made it possible to evaluate the current bioprocess status and adjust the organic loading rate accordingly.

  9. Dissolution of fluoride complexes following microwave-assisted hydrofluoric acid digestion of marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Muratli, Jesse M; McManus, James; Mix, Alan; Chase, Zanna

    2012-01-30

    Microwave-assisted, hydrofluoric acid digestion is an increasingly common tool for the preparation of marine sediment samples for analysis by a variety of spectrometric techniques. Here we report that analysis of terrigenous-dominated sediment samples occasionally results in anomalously low values for several elements, including Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, and Sr. Measured concentrations of these elements increased with time between sample preparation and sample analysis, reaching stable values after 8-29 days. This lag is explained by the formation and subsequent dissolution of poorly soluble fluoride phases during digestion. Other elements, such as Fe, Mn, and Ti, showed little or no lag and were quickly measurable at a stable value. Full re-dissolution of the least soluble fluorides, which incorporate Al and Mg, requires up to four weeks at room temperature, and this duration can vary among sedimentary matrices. This waiting time can be reduced to 6 days (or shorter) if the samples are heated to ≈ 60°C for 24h.

  10. Modelling inhibitory effects of long chain fatty acids in the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Z; Alves, M M; Flotats, X; Palatsi, J

    2013-03-01

    Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion process has been used to give new insights regarding dynamics of the long chain fatty acids (LCFA) inhibition. Previously published experimental data, including batch tests with clay mineral bentonite additions, were used for parameter identification. New kinetics were considered to describe the bio-physics of the inhibitory process, including: i) adsorption of LCFA over granular biomass and ii) specific LCFA substrate (saturated/unsaturated) and LCFA-degrading populations. Furthermore, iii) a new variable was introduced to describe the state of damage of the acetoclastic methanogens in order to account for the loss of cell-functionality (inhibition) induced by the adsorbed LCFAs. The proposed model modifications are state compatible and easy to be integrated into the International Water Association's Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1 (ADM1) framework. Practical identifiability of model parameters was assessed with a global sensitivity analysis, while calibration and model structure validation were performed on independent data sets. A reliable simulation of the LCFA-inhibition process can be achieved, if the model includes the description of the adsorptive nature of the LCFAs and the LCFA-damage over specific biomass. The importance of microbial population structure (saturated/unsaturated LCFA-degraders) and the high sensitivity of acetoclastic population to LCFA are evidenced, providing a plausible explanation of experimental based hypothesis. PMID:23276428

  11. A review: factors affecting excess sludge anaerobic digestion for volatile fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiaoshuai; Jia, Shuting; Dai, Lingling; Zhao, Jianfu; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods that improve the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from excess sludge during the anaerobic digestion process. These methods are mainly divided into two approaches. The first approach is located in the pre-treatment methods, which change the properties of the substrates, such as thermal pre-treatment, alkaline pre-treatment, microwave pre-treatment and ultrasonic pre-treatment. The other approach is found in the fermentation process control methods, which influence the environment of anaerobic digestion for the production of VFA, such as pH, temperature, mixing, additives and solids retention time control. In the text recent research studies of each method are listed and analyzed in detail. Comparably, microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatment methods are considered emerging and promising technologies due to their efficiency and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, the microwave pre-treatment has high electricity demand, which might make the process economically unfeasible. In order to calculate optimal operation, further studies still need to be done. PMID:26287825

  12. A review: factors affecting excess sludge anaerobic digestion for volatile fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiaoshuai; Jia, Shuting; Dai, Lingling; Zhao, Jianfu; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods that improve the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from excess sludge during the anaerobic digestion process. These methods are mainly divided into two approaches. The first approach is located in the pre-treatment methods, which change the properties of the substrates, such as thermal pre-treatment, alkaline pre-treatment, microwave pre-treatment and ultrasonic pre-treatment. The other approach is found in the fermentation process control methods, which influence the environment of anaerobic digestion for the production of VFA, such as pH, temperature, mixing, additives and solids retention time control. In the text recent research studies of each method are listed and analyzed in detail. Comparably, microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatment methods are considered emerging and promising technologies due to their efficiency and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, the microwave pre-treatment has high electricity demand, which might make the process economically unfeasible. In order to calculate optimal operation, further studies still need to be done.

  13. The effect of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal and of exogenous enzymes on amino acid digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2003-07-01

    1. The apparent ileal nitrogen (N) and amino acid digestibilities in chaya leaf meal (CLM) (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) with added enzymes, and the same variables in diets containing different amounts of CLM were studied in chickens. 2. In the first experiment pectinase, beta-glucanase, and pectinase + beta-glucanase were added to CLM. In the second experiment, there were three diets based on maize and soybean: 0, 150 and 250 g/kg CLM. 3. Pectinase significantly increased both lysine and overall amino acid digestibilities in CLM. 4. In experiment 2, the amino acid digestibility in birds fed on CLM250 was lower than that from birds fed on either control or CLM150. Only the digestibilities of alanine, arginine and proline were lower in birds fed on CLM150 than in those fed on the control diet. Nitrogen digestibility was lower in birds fed on the CLM250 diet than on either control or CLM150 diets. These findings were attributed to the increasing concentration of fibre with increasing dietary CLM. PMID:12964630

  14. Amino acid, phosphorus, and energy digestibility of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, C; He, J; Yu, J; Yu, B; Mao, X; Zheng, P; Huang, Z; Chen, D

    2015-06-01

    Fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contains greater levels of protein and less glucosinolates, NDF, and phytic acid than rapeseed meal (RSM) and might be an attractive feedstuff for swine, but its nutritional value has been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of RSM fermented by for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (21.20 ± 1.47 kg initial BW) fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were allotted to a repeated 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 diets and 3 periods per square to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA. A N-free diet and 2 diets containing RSM or FRSM as the only source of AA were formulated. Results indicated that there was no difference in AID and SID of CP and most AA between FRSM and RSM. However, the AID of 2 indispensable AA (Lys and Met) and 3 dispensable AA (Asp, Gly, and Tyr) were greater (P < 0.05) for FRSM than for RSM. The SID of only 2 dispensable AA (Gly and Tyr) were greater (P < 0.05) for FRSM than for RSM. In Exp. 2, 16 barrows (32.57 ± 2.67 kg initial BW) were allotted to 2 diets formulated to contain RSM or FRSM as the sole source of P to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. The ATTD and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in FRSM were 72.10 and 77.31%, respectively. These values were greater (P < 0.01) than in RSM (34.79 and 41.34%, respectively). In Exp. 3, 24 growing barrows (32.23 ± 1.33 kg initial BW) were fed 3 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet to measure concentration of DE and ME of FRSM. A corn diet consisting of 98.40% corn was formulated and 2 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn with 35% RSM or FRSM. The DE and ME in FRSM (2,887 and 2,650 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than those in RSM (2,609 and 2,328 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). In summary, solid-state fermentation of RSM by has a greater nutritional value than RSM and is a promising

  15. Variation in amino acid digestibility of rapeseed meal studied in caecectomised laying hens and relationship with chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, M; Kluth, H; Bulang, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2012-01-01

    1. The objectives were to study the variation in amino acid (AA) digestibility of rapeseed meal in laying hens and to investigate whether the variation in AA digestibility can be explained by chemical constituents of the rapeseed meal. Nine rapeseed meals from different processing plants operating in Germany were used. The crude protein and crude fibre concentrations of the meals ranged from 367 to 410 and 137 to 175 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. The concentrations of total glucosinolates varied between 5.1 and 12.9 mmol/kg DM. Each meal was included in one of the experimental diets at an inclusion level of 200 g/kg at the expense of maize starch. 2. A total of 16 Lohmann Brown laying hens were used for this experiment and were surgically caecectomised. They were housed individually in metabolism cages. Each of the 10 diets was fed to at least 6 hens in 4 periods of two weeks duration. Excreta were collected during the last 5 d of each period. The digestibility coefficient of AA was calculated for each diet. The digestibility of the rapeseed meals was calculated by multiple linear regression analysis. 3. Mean essential AA digestibility of rapeseed meals varied between 0.78 and 0.84. Among the essential amino acids, the ighest level of digestibility was found for arginine (0.88) and methionine (0.87), and the lowest for lysine (0.74) and threonine (0.75). The highest variation between rapeseed meals in digestibility was found for threonine (0.68 to 0.79) and lysine (0.68 to 0.78). The concentration of neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen of the rapeseed meals was negatively correlated with the digestibility of lysine, but was not significantly correlated with digestibility of any other AA. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly correlated with valine digestibility. 4. Multiple regression analysis showed that the concentrations of crude protein and ash together were the major factors considered to explain variation in digestibility of essential AA

  16. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  17. Quantification of fluoride in food by microwave acid digestion and fluoride ion-selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Rocha, René A; Rojas, Dayana; Clemente, María Jesús; Ruiz, Antonio; Devesa, Vicenta; Vélez, Dinoraz

    2013-11-13

    To quantify fluoride in food it is necessary to extract the fluoride from the matrix. Dry ashing (alkali fusion) and facilitated diffusion are the methods most commonly used, but their application requires lengthy treatments. The present study proposes the use of a microwave oven and 7 mol/L nitric acid for simple, rapid digestion of foods for fluoride analysis. The analyte is subsequently quantified by fluoride ion-selective electrode. The various steps of the method were optimized and an in-house validation was performed. The limit of quantification (0.130 mg/kg), trueness (92%), recovery (84-101%), and precision (1-8%) were determined. These analytical characteristics are satisfactory and show the suitability of the method for analysis of fluoride in foods of various kinds. The method's ease of application and the use of equipment normally found in food analysis laboratories may help to further increase research on fluoride concentrations in foods consumed by the population.

  18. Acid phosphatase localization in the digestive glands of Dionaea muscipula Ellis flytraps.

    PubMed

    Henry, Y; Steer, M W

    1985-04-01

    The intracellular localization of acid phosphatases in stimulated digestive glands of Dionaea flytraps has been studied to provide evidence for the route taken by this enzyme during secretion. Previous studies have either included or excluded a role for the dictyosomes in this pathway. Both p-nitrophenyl phosphate and beta-glycerophosphate were used as substrates, and both gave similar localization patterns. Unstimulated glands contained little phosphatase activity in the endomembrane system, whereas 24 and 48 hr after stimulation, heavy deposits of lead were located in the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, including the nuclear envelope, the dictyosome cisternae, and secretory vesicles. Since dictyosome activation, as judged by the presence of secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm, also coincides with gland stimulation, we conclude that secretion of the hydrolase enzymes occurs via this route and not, as suggested elsewhere, via direct endoplasmic reticulum to plasma membrane connections.

  19. Computer-aided nucleic acid secondary structure modeling incorporating enzymatic digestion data.

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, G J; Gehrke, L; Roth, D A; Auron, P E

    1984-01-01

    We present a computer-aided method for determining nucleic acid secondary structure. The method utilizes a program which has the capability to filter matrix diagonal data on the basis of diagonal length, stabilization energy, and chemical and enzymatic data. The program also allows the user to assign selected regions of the structure as uniquely single-stranded or paired, and to filter out "trade-off" structures on the basis of such pairing. In order to demonstrate the utility of the program we present a preliminary secondary structure for the 3' end of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 (AMV-4 RNA). This structure is based on an analysis which includes the use of in vitro partial enzymatic digestion of the RNA. Images PMID:6320093

  20. Augmented digestion of lignocellulose by steam explosion, acid and alkaline pretreatment methods: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Joginder; Suhag, Meenakshi; Dhaka, Anil

    2015-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials can be explored as one of the sustainable substrates for bioethanol production through microbial intervention as they are abundant, cheap and renewable. But at the same time, their recalcitrant structure makes the conversion process more cumbersome owing to their chemical composition which adversely affects the efficiency of bioethanol production. Therefore, the technical approaches to overcome recalcitrance of biomass feedstock has been developed to remove the barriers with the help of pretreatment methods which make cellulose more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes, secreted by the microorganisms, for its conversion to glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in cost effective manner is a major challenge to bioethanol technology research and development. Hence, in this review, we have discussed various aspects of three commonly used pretreatment methods, viz., steam explosion, acid and alkaline, applied on various lignocellulosic biomasses to augment their digestibility alongwith the challenges associated with their processing.

  1. Heat-moisture treatment under mildly acidic conditions alters potato starch physicochemical properties and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2013-11-01

    Potato starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT; 120 °C, 3 h) under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5, 6, or 6.5 [control]) at moisture levels of 15, 20 or 25%. HMT starches exhibited significantly delayed pasting times and reduced overall paste viscosities, amylose leaching, and granular swelling characteristics relative to native starch, as well as enhanced levels of thermo-stable resistant starch (≈24%). HMT appeared to alter/enhance short-range chain associations (FT-IR) within amorphous and/or crystalline regions of starch granules. However, the extent of physicochemical change and RS enhancement during HMT was most facilitated by a mildly acidic condition (pH 6) at higher treatment moisture levels (20 or 25%). These conditions promoted limited hydrolysis of amylopectin molecules, primarily at α-(1→6) branch points, likely enhancing mobility and interaction of starch chains during HMT. Thus, a slightly acidic pH might reduce conditions and/or timeframe needed to impart physicochemical changes and reduced digestibility to potato starch. PMID:24053800

  2. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility.

  3. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Cezar A.; Barin, Juliano S.; Garcia, Edivaldo E.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2011-05-01

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO 3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO 3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L - 1 ) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L - 1 HNO 3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L - 1 . Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L - 1 ) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  4. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility. PMID:9419992

  5. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  6. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  7. Resolving the dependence of Δ47 thermometers on acid digestion temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, A. S.; Olack, G.

    2015-12-01

    Clumped isotope paleothermometry on carbonate minerals has emerged as a leading tool in paleoclimate and paleoaltimetry studies. The utility of Δ47 measurements is especially pronounced when estimating formation temperature of carbonates that precipitated from solutions with unknown water oxygen isotope composition. However, the interpretation of Δ47 values has been hindered by discrepancies among the many published thermometric calibrations. As the number of calibrations grows, it now appears that the slope of the Δ47 vs. inverse temperature relationship clusters into two distinct groupings based on whether the carbonate minerals were digested at low temperature (25°C) vs. high temperature (generally 70 - 90°C). We model the effect that small amounts of oxygen exchange between CO2 liberated to the phosphoric acid solution and trace water in that solution can have on measured Δ47. This can occur with very little shift in δ47 and δ18O of the CO2. The extent and effect of oxygen exchange following CaCO3 dissolution is a complex function of the phosphoric acid's temperature, water content, and viscosity. Conventional approaches to preparation of phosphoric acid (targeting a defined density range at room temperature) are likely inadequate for resolving the details of these dependencies. This stems in part from changes that can occur to the water content and density of phosphoric acid during heating of the acid under vacuum. Secondary effects may also arise that relate to the grain and crystallite size of the carbonate minerals, intercalation of carbonate minerals with siliciclastic matrix in sediments or paleosols, and possibly the reactivity of hydrous components of a siliciclastic rich sample.

  8. A rapid ICP-OES strategy for determination of gold and silver in blister copper by nitric acid digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gai; Tian, Min

    2014-03-01

    A rapid strategy for the analysis of gold and silver in blister copper by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was firstly proposed. Nitric acid was used to digest blister copper instead of commonly used sulfuric acid. This prevented forming the salt of copper sulfate in the filtration process when the volume of the mixture is very small. Thus, the time of filtration was saved. After filtrating, aqua regia was used to digest the residue and acidize the filter liquor. Two parts of gotten solution were directly determined by ICP-OES. The cycle of analysis was shortened compared with sulfuric acid-fire assay. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine gold and silver in blister copper, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by lead fire assay.

  9. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in Thr biomass than in fish meal. In Exp. 2, 24 pigs (initial BW: 18.1 ± 3.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 3 diets. The first diet contained 96.4% corn, the second diet contained 79.3% corn and 17.0% Thr biomass, and the third diet contained 75.3% corn and 24.0% fish meal. Total collection of feces and urine was performed for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples of ingredients, diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for GE. Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,935 vs. 3,938 and 3,939 kcal DE/kg DM, respectively), and the ME in the Thr biomass was also greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,335 vs. 3,508 and 3,839 kcal ME/kg DM, respectively). Results from these experiments

  10. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Jin, L.; Wen, Q. N.; Kopparapu, N. K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2016-01-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  11. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established.

  12. Mechanism, Kinetics and Microbiology of Inhibition Caused by Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Laurens, Lieve L.; Jarvis, Eric E.; Nagle, Nick J.; Chen, Shulin; Frear, Craig S.

    2015-09-15

    Oleaginous microalgae contain a high level of lipids, which can be extracted and converted to biofuel. The lipid-extracted residue can then be further utilized through anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) have been identified as the main inhibitory factor on microbial activity of anaerobic consortium. In this study, the mechanism of LCFA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of whole and lipid-extracted algal biomass was investigated with a range of calcium concentrations against various inoculum to substrate ratios as a means to alleviate the LCFA inhibition.

  13. Calcium soaps of olive fatty acids in the diets of Manchega dairy ewes: effects on digestibility and production.

    PubMed

    Perez Alba, L M; De Souza Cavalcanti, S; Perez Hernandez, M; Martinez Marin, A; Fernandez Marin, G

    1997-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with dairy ewes to determine the effects of supplementation of calcium soaps of olive fatty acids at 10% of the basal diet on digestibility, roughage intake, milk production and composition, and response to early induced ovulation. The addition of calcium soaps of olive fatty acids to the diets of dairy ewes significantly decreased the digestibility of dietary dry matter but not the digestibility of other components. The digestibility of crude fat was enhanced. Voluntary intake of roughage, with fixed concentrate allowances, was slightly, but not significantly, reduced for ewes fed the supplemented diet. After weaning at 35 d postpartum and during the next 5-wk period of twice daily milking, ewes fed the supplemented diet produced more total solids in milk than did ewes fed the basal diet. Ewes fed the supplemented diet also tended to produce more milk protein, and milk energy and tended to have greater milk fat percentages. The composition of milk fatty acids was changed by the calcium soaps of olive fatty acids. Fewer short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0), less C18:2, and more C18:1 and C18:0 were obtained in the milk of ewes fed the supplemented diet. Responses to ovulation induced at 60 d after lambing, while ewes were still lactating, were significantly higher for ewes fed the diet supplemented with calcium soaps of olive fatty acids than for ewes fed the basal diet. The calcium soaps of olive fatty acids appeared to be a useful source of energy for dairy ewes, and dairy ewes may be a good model for the study of the effects of nutrition during early lactation on reproductive performance of dairy ruminants.

  14. On-line amino acid-based capillary isoelectric focusing-ESI-MS/MS for protein digests analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guijie; Sun, Liangliang; Yang, Ping; Dovichi, Norman J

    2012-10-31

    Six amino acids with pIs that ranged from 3.2 to 9.7 were used as ampholytes to establish a pH gradient in capillary isoelectric focusing. This amino acid-based capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) was coupled with ESI-MS/MS using an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow interface for peptide analysis. Amino acid-based isoelectric focusing generates a two-order of magnitude lower background signal than commercial ampholytes in the important m/z range of 300-1800. Good focusing was achieved for insulin receptor, which produced ~10 s peak width. For 0.1 mg mL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA) digests, 24±1 peptides (sequence coverage 47±4%) were identified in triplicate analysis. As expected, the BSA peptides were separated according to their pI. The concentration detection limit for the BSA digests is 7 nM and the mass detection limit is 7 fmole. A solution of six bovine protein tryptic digests spanning 5 orders of magnitude in concentration was analyzed by amino acid based cIEF-ESI-MS/MS. Five proteins with a concentration range spanning 4 orders of magnitude were identified in triplicate runs. Using amino acid based cIEF-ESI-MS/MS, 112 protein groups and 303 unique peptides were identified in triplicate runs of a RAW 264.7 cell homogenate protein digest. In comparison with ampholyte based cIEF-ESI-MS/MS, amino acid based cIEF-ESI-MS/MS produces higher resolution of five acidic peptides, much cleaner mass spectra, and higher protein spectral counts.

  15. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  16. Additivity and associative effects of metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in barley and canola meal for White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Hong, D; Ragland, D; Adeola, O

    2001-11-01

    An experiment was conducted using the TMEn bioassay method to investigate the additivity and associative effects of metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in barley and canola meal for White Pekin ducks. Additivity was tested by comparing the difference between observed values determined in a complete diet and predicted values from measurements determined with individual ingredients (barley and canola meal). Six ducks each were assigned to diets of barley, canola meal, the complete diet, and dextrose. Dextrose-fed ducks were used for estimation of endogenous losses for calculation of true amino acid digestibility. The observed AME, TME, AMEn, and TMEn values in the complete diet were 0.065, 0.083, 0.016, and 0.023 (kcal/g), respectively, numerically higher than predicted values. Differences between observed and predicted values were not significant (P > 0.05), indicating that the AME, AMEn, TME, and TMEn in barley and canola meal were all additive. In general, observed values for apparent amino acid digestibility (AAAD) and true amino acid digestibility (TAAD) in the complete diet were higher than those predicted from individual ingredients. Observed AAAD for lysine, histidine, tryptophan, alanine, and aspartate were higher (P < 0.05) than predicted values, indicating that digestibilities of these amino acids were not additive. The mean of AAAD in canola meal (77.29%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the observed values of barley (52.2%) and complete diet (64.55%). For TAAD values, differences between observed and predicted values were significant for lysine, histidine, and tryptophan (P < 0.05). The mean of TAAD in canola meal, barley, and complete diet were 85.88, 80.87, and 81.33%, respectively. The average difference between observed and predicted values for TAAD (1.18 %) was smaller than that of AAAD (5.41%). These results indicated that ME values for barley and canola meal were additive in the complete diet but that digestibilities of some amino acids

  17. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.

    PubMed

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-01-30

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen.

  18. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina dose. With the exception of Trp and Gly, AID values decreased (P < 0.05) linearly or quadratically for all amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Plasma concentrations of Arg and Tyr decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina inoculation dose and plasma Gln and Asn decreased quadratically (P < 0.01). Linear increases (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma Lys, Leu, Ile, Val, Pro, and Orn as E. acervulina inoculation dose increased. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations

  19. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina dose. With the exception of Trp and Gly, AID values decreased (P < 0.05) linearly or quadratically for all amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Plasma concentrations of Arg and Tyr decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina inoculation dose and plasma Gln and Asn decreased quadratically (P < 0.01). Linear increases (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma Lys, Leu, Ile, Val, Pro, and Orn as E. acervulina inoculation dose increased. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations

  20. Nutritional value of 15 corn gluten meals for growing pigs: chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Zuo, Lei; Wang, Fengli; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility for corn gluten meals (CGM) and to develop prediction equations for estimating energy content and amino acid digestibility for growing pigs based on the chemical characteristics of these meals. The 15 CGM tested were obtained from seven Chinese companies. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) of the 15 CGM. The 18 growing barrows (38 +/- 4 kg) were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 CGM test diets were formulated to contain 19.20% CGM, which replaced 20% of the energy supplied by corn and crystalline amino acid in the basal diet. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility of the crude protein (CP) and amino acids in the 15 CGM using chromic oxide as an inert marker. The 18 growing barrows (25 +/- 2 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 test diets contained 35% of one of the 15 CGM as the sole source of amino acids in the diet. The results showed a considerable variation in the chemical composition of CGM within and among plants. On dry matter basis, the DE and ME content of the CGM ranged from 18.8 to 21.0 MJ/kg and from 18.0 to 19.9 MJ/kg, respectively. There were no significant differences in the AID and SID for CP, arginine, lysine, glycine and proline among the 15 CGM, however, for all the other amino acids, significant differences were found for their AID and SID. With R2 values exceeding 0.50, the DE of CGM can be predicted accurately from CP and fibre content and ME from starch and fibre content. Suitable prediction equations for SID of methionine were also developed.

  1. [Determination of epoxidized soybean oil in bottled foods].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoko; Kanno, Shinji; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-12-01

    A determination method for epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) in bottled foods was developed and used to survey bottled foods on the Japanese market. The amount of sample required was decreased to 20 g and the standard addition method was adopted for the quantification, because lipid in foods interrupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries were 87.1 and 98.9% and the determination limit was 5.0 microg/g for a 20 g sample, be cause lipid in foods interupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries using the internal standard method varied widely, because hydrolysis of the internal standard, cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid ethyl ester, was affected more than that of ESBO by coexisting lipid in the sample. ESBO was not detected in any of the bottled baby food samples examined (14 samples), though it had been frequently detected in previous European surveys. This difference may be related to the low fat content and low fluidity of the bottled baby foods retailed in Japan. On the other hand, ESBO was detected at levels of 25.7-494.0 microg/g in liver paste, pasta sauce, Sungan in spicy oil, and spicy oil. These foods had higher fat content and higher fluidity. However, ESBO intake from these foods appears unlikely to exceed the TDI in the EU (1 mg/kg bw/day). PMID:17228787

  2. Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals.

    PubMed

    Bugaut, M

    1987-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) also named volatile fatty acids, mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the major end-products of the microbial digestion of carbohydrates in the alimentary canal. The highest concentrations are observed in the forestomach of the ruminants and in the large intestine (caecum and colon) of all the mammals. Butyrate and caproate released by action of gastric lipase on bovine milk triacylglycerols ingested by preruminants or infants are of nutritional importance too. Both squamous stratified mucosa of rumen and columnar simple epithelium of intestine absorb readily SCFA. The mechanisms of SCFA absorption are incompletely known. Passive diffusion of the unionized form across the cell membrane is currently admitted. In the lumen, the necessary protonation of SCFA anions could come first from the hydration of CO2. The ubiquitous cell membrane process of Na+-H+ exchange can also supply luminal protons. Evidence for an acid microclimate (pH = 5.8-6.8) suitable for SCFA-protonation on the surface of the intestinal lining has been provided recently. This microclimate would be generated by an epithelial secretion of H+ ions and would be protected by the mucus coating from the variable pH of luminal contents. Part of the absorbed SCFA does not reach plasma because it is metabolized in the gastrointestinal wall. Acetate incorporation in mucosal higher lipids is well-known. However, the preponderant metabolic pathway for all the SCFA is catabolism to CO2 except in the rumen wall where about 80% of butyrate is converted to ketone bodies which afterwards flow into bloodstream. Thus, SCFA are an important energy source for the gut mucosa itself.

  3. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  4. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers.

  5. Pancreatic ribonucleases of mammals with ruminant-like digestion. Amino-acid sequences of hippopotamus and sloth ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Havinga, J; Beintema, J J

    1980-09-01

    High levels of pancreatic ribonucleases are found in ruminants, species that have a ruminant-like digestion and several species with coecal digestion. Pancreatic ribonucleases from several independently evolved species with ruminant-like digestion were investigated to test a hypothesis that glycosylation of ribonucleases may have some function in species with coecal digestion and that glycosylation of the enzyme may not be advantageous for ruminants. Ribonucleases from the hippopotamus, two-toed sloth and three-toed sloth were isolated by extraction with sulfuric acid and affinity chromatography. Complete amino acid sequences were determined for the ribonucleases from the hippopotamus and two-toed sloth and a partial sequence for the enzyme from the three-toed sloth. The amino acids 75-78 of hippopotamus ribonuclease were positioned by homology with other artiodactyl ribonucleases. In hippopotamus ribonuclease a heterogeneity was found at position 37, half of the molecules containing glutamine acid the other half lysine. Hippopotamus ribonuclease differs less from pig and bovine ribonuclease than these differ from each other, because more ancestral characteristics have been retained. Although hippopotamus ribonuclease contains all four Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequences previously found to be glycosylation sites in one or more pancreatic ribonucleases, only the sequence Ans-Met-Thr (34-36) is glycosylated in the variant with glutamine at position 37, while the variant with lysine at this position is carbohydrate-free. Both sloth ribonucleases are completely glycosylated at the sequence Ans-Met-Thr (34-36) with a simple type of carbohydrate chain. The amino acid sequence of two-toed sloth ribonuclease shows some interesting coupled replacements.

  6. Dynamic modeling of in vitro lipid digestion: individual fatty acid release and bioaccessibility kinetics.

    PubMed

    Giang, T M; Gaucel, S; Brestaz, P; Anton, M; Meynier, A; Trelea, I C; Le Feunteun, S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the role of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition in fatty acids (FA) of o/w emulsions on both the pancreatic lipolysis kinetics and the bioaccessibility of released products (i.e. contained within the bile salt micellar phase). A mathematical model was developed and its predictions were compared to a set of experimental data obtained during an in vitro digestion of a whey protein stabilized emulsion. Modeling results show that FA residues of TAG were hydrolyzed at specific rates, inducing different bioaccessibility kinetics. The estimated lipolysis rate constants of the studied FA (C8:0, C10:0≫C18:1 n-9≫C12:0>C14:0>C16:0≈C16:1 n-7>C22:6 n-3) were in close agreement with the available literature on the substrate specificity of pancreatic lipase. Results also suggest that lipolysis products are very rapidly solubilized in the bile salt mixed micelles with no fractionation according to the FA carbon chain.

  7. Bioelectrochemical reduction of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion effluent for the production of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Kondaveeti, Sanath; Min, Booki

    2015-12-15

    This study proves for the first time the feasibility of biofuel production from anaerobic digestion effluent via bioelectrochemical cell operation at various applied cell voltages (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 V). An increase in cell voltage from 1 to 2 V resulted in more reduction current generation (-0.48 to -0.78 mA) at a lowered cathode potential (-0.45 to -0.84 mV vs Ag/AgCl). Various alcohols were produced depending on applied cell voltages, and the main products were butanol, ethanol, and propanol. Hydrogen and methane production were also observed in the headspace of the cell. A large amount of lactic acid was unexpectedly formed at all conditions, which might be the primary cause of the limited biofuel production. The addition of neutral red (NR) to the system could increase the cathodic reduction current, and thus more biofuels were produced with an enhanced alcohol formation compared to without a mediator.

  8. Dynamic modeling of in vitro lipid digestion: individual fatty acid release and bioaccessibility kinetics.

    PubMed

    Giang, T M; Gaucel, S; Brestaz, P; Anton, M; Meynier, A; Trelea, I C; Le Feunteun, S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the role of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition in fatty acids (FA) of o/w emulsions on both the pancreatic lipolysis kinetics and the bioaccessibility of released products (i.e. contained within the bile salt micellar phase). A mathematical model was developed and its predictions were compared to a set of experimental data obtained during an in vitro digestion of a whey protein stabilized emulsion. Modeling results show that FA residues of TAG were hydrolyzed at specific rates, inducing different bioaccessibility kinetics. The estimated lipolysis rate constants of the studied FA (C8:0, C10:0≫C18:1 n-9≫C12:0>C14:0>C16:0≈C16:1 n-7>C22:6 n-3) were in close agreement with the available literature on the substrate specificity of pancreatic lipase. Results also suggest that lipolysis products are very rapidly solubilized in the bile salt mixed micelles with no fractionation according to the FA carbon chain. PMID:26471670

  9. Tissue specific response of Miscanthus×giganteus to dilute acid pretreatment for enhancing cellulose digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Zhang, Xun; Ling, Zhe; Sun, Run-Cang; Xu, Feng

    2016-12-10

    The recalcitrance in grasses varies according to cell type and tissue. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment was performed on Miscanthus×giganteus internodes that include rind and pith regions which showing heterogeneous structural and chemical changes. Pretreatment on pith effectively hydrolyzed 73.33% hemicelluloses and separated cohesive cell walls from the compound middle lamella due to lignin migration. Lignin droplets with an average diameter of 49.5±29.3nm were concurrently coalesced on wall surface, that in turn exposed more microfibrils deep in walls to be enzymatically hydrolyzed reaching 82.55%. By contrast, the rind with a relatively intergrated cell structure was covered by larger lignin droplets (101.2±44.1nm) and filled with inaccessible microfibrils limiting enzymatic sacchrification (31.50%). Taken together, the cellulose digestibility of biomass was not majorly influenced by cellulose crystallinity, while it was strongly correlated with the positive effects of hemicelluloses degradation, lignin redistribution, cellulose exposure and loosening cell wall structure. PMID:27577916

  10. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  11. Effect of Wheat Dietary Fiber Particle Size during Digestion In Vitro on Bile Acid, Faecal Bacteria and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Szwengiel, Artur; Górecka, Danuta; Gujska, Elżbieta; Kaczkowska, Joanna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    The influence of bile acid concentration on the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria was demonstrated. Exposing these bacteria to the environment containing bile acid salts, and very poor in nutrients, leads to the disappearance of these microorganisms due to the toxic effect of bile acids. A multidimensional analysis of data in the form of principal component analysis indicated that lactic acid bacteria bind bile acids and show antagonistic effect on E. coli spp. bacteria. The growth in E. coli spp. population was accompanied by a decline in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. with a simultaneous reduction in the concentration of bile acids. This is direct proof of acid binding ability of the tested lactic acid bacteria with respect to cholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. This research demonstrated that the degree of fineness of wheat dietary fibre does not affect the sorption of bile acids and growth of some bacteria species; however, it has an impact on the profile of synthesized short-chained fatty acids. During the digestion of a very fine wheat fibre fraction (WF 90), an increase in the concentration of propionic and butyric acids, as compared with the wheat fiber fraction of larger particles - WF 500, was observed. Our study suggested that wheat fibre did not affect faecal bacteria growth, however, we observed binding of bile acids by Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.

  12. Effect of Wheat Dietary Fiber Particle Size during Digestion In Vitro on Bile Acid, Faecal Bacteria and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Szwengiel, Artur; Górecka, Danuta; Gujska, Elżbieta; Kaczkowska, Joanna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    The influence of bile acid concentration on the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria was demonstrated. Exposing these bacteria to the environment containing bile acid salts, and very poor in nutrients, leads to the disappearance of these microorganisms due to the toxic effect of bile acids. A multidimensional analysis of data in the form of principal component analysis indicated that lactic acid bacteria bind bile acids and show antagonistic effect on E. coli spp. bacteria. The growth in E. coli spp. population was accompanied by a decline in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. with a simultaneous reduction in the concentration of bile acids. This is direct proof of acid binding ability of the tested lactic acid bacteria with respect to cholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. This research demonstrated that the degree of fineness of wheat dietary fibre does not affect the sorption of bile acids and growth of some bacteria species; however, it has an impact on the profile of synthesized short-chained fatty acids. During the digestion of a very fine wheat fibre fraction (WF 90), an increase in the concentration of propionic and butyric acids, as compared with the wheat fiber fraction of larger particles - WF 500, was observed. Our study suggested that wheat fibre did not affect faecal bacteria growth, however, we observed binding of bile acids by Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. PMID:26924312

  13. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of unheated and autoclaved pea protein concentrate in broilers.

    PubMed

    Frikha, M; Valencia, D G; de Coca-Sinova, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2013-07-01

    The effects of autoclaving 2 varieties of micronized (fine grinding) pea protein concentrate (PPC) on the ileal digestibility (ID) of CP and amino acids (AA) were studied in broilers. There was a control diet based on fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and 4 extra diets in which the FSBM was substituted on a CP basis by PPC from 2 different pea cultivars (PPC-1 and PPC-2), either unheated or autoclaved. Chicks were fed a common diet from 1 to 17 d of age and, then, their respective experimental diets from 18 to 21 d of age. Each treatment was replicated 6 times. Autoclaving reduced trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) but had little effect on the saponin content of the PPC. The apparent ID (AID) of CP was similar for the FSBM and the unheated PPC and lower for both than for the autoclaved PPC. Autoclaving improved (P < 0.001) the AID of CP (87.6 vs. 82.2%) and most indispensable AA (e.g., 92.1 vs. 88.8% for Lys and 83.6 vs. 76.5% for Thr) of the PPC. The improvement in CP and AA digestibility with autoclaving varied with the PPC used and was consistent with the reduction in TIA observed (9.4 to 2.8 mg/g for PPC-1 vs. 9.1 to 5.3 mg/g for PPC-2). The standardized ID (SID) of most indispensable AA was similar for the FSBM and the PPC-2 and higher for both than for the PPC-1 (P < 0.05). For Lys, the lowest SID value was observed for the FSBM and the highest for the PPC-2 either unheated or autoclaved. It is concluded that the ID of the AA of the PPC improved with heating and was in general higher for the autoclaved PPC than for the FSBM. Consequently, heat processed PPC is a good alternative to FSBM and unheated PPC in starter diets for broilers.

  14. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of unheated and autoclaved pea protein concentrate in broilers.

    PubMed

    Frikha, M; Valencia, D G; de Coca-Sinova, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2013-07-01

    The effects of autoclaving 2 varieties of micronized (fine grinding) pea protein concentrate (PPC) on the ileal digestibility (ID) of CP and amino acids (AA) were studied in broilers. There was a control diet based on fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and 4 extra diets in which the FSBM was substituted on a CP basis by PPC from 2 different pea cultivars (PPC-1 and PPC-2), either unheated or autoclaved. Chicks were fed a common diet from 1 to 17 d of age and, then, their respective experimental diets from 18 to 21 d of age. Each treatment was replicated 6 times. Autoclaving reduced trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) but had little effect on the saponin content of the PPC. The apparent ID (AID) of CP was similar for the FSBM and the unheated PPC and lower for both than for the autoclaved PPC. Autoclaving improved (P < 0.001) the AID of CP (87.6 vs. 82.2%) and most indispensable AA (e.g., 92.1 vs. 88.8% for Lys and 83.6 vs. 76.5% for Thr) of the PPC. The improvement in CP and AA digestibility with autoclaving varied with the PPC used and was consistent with the reduction in TIA observed (9.4 to 2.8 mg/g for PPC-1 vs. 9.1 to 5.3 mg/g for PPC-2). The standardized ID (SID) of most indispensable AA was similar for the FSBM and the PPC-2 and higher for both than for the PPC-1 (P < 0.05). For Lys, the lowest SID value was observed for the FSBM and the highest for the PPC-2 either unheated or autoclaved. It is concluded that the ID of the AA of the PPC improved with heating and was in general higher for the autoclaved PPC than for the FSBM. Consequently, heat processed PPC is a good alternative to FSBM and unheated PPC in starter diets for broilers. PMID:23776273

  15. [Rumen fermentation and digestibility of nutrients studied by the addition of Ca soaps of palm oil fatty acids and their analogous fatty acids in the sheep model].

    PubMed

    Drochner, W; Yildiz, G

    1999-12-01

    The ruminally fistulated sheep was used as a model to study the effects of fat supplementation (Ca-soaps and free long chain fatty acids from palm oil) on rumen physiology and digestibility of the nutrients. The animals were fed with a typical ration of hay and concentrate supplying nutrients according to maintenance levels. The following results should be pointed out: The addition of free fatty acids and their Ca-soaps induced a retarded recovery of postprandially decreased pH-values in ruminal fluid. This retardation was more pronounced after addition of free long chain fatty acids than with their Ca-soap-analogous acids. Compared to the control, the concentration of short chain fatty acids was depressed by fat addition in the period 2 hours after feed intake. The release of ammonia in the first period after feed intake was reduced by fat addition. A lack of synchronity could be observed in this post-prandial period in ruminal fluid between concentration of short chain fatty acids and ammonia. This effect was most obvious with supplementation of unprotected fatty acids. This might be one reason for the better tolerance of Ca soaps from palm oil fatty acids. Formation of hydrides, branched chains and transforms proceeds more effectively with free fatty acids than with their analogous forms of Ca-soaps. The well-known effect of depression of digestibility of nutrients due to fat supplementation was--under present conditions--quite low. This might be different in lactating dairy cows with higher levels of feed intake. With high feed intake, passage time is reduced. This will affect digestibility and interactions with fat supplementation.

  16. [Determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhao-chu; Gao, Shan; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yuan, Hong-lin; Liu, Ye; Diwu, Chun-rong

    2007-12-01

    The authors studied in detail the memory effect of Bi, Sb, As and Te in ICP-MS. The produced memory effects of these element were in the order of Bi>Sb>Te>As. Bi was seriously adsorbed by the polypropylene sample storing bottle and the sample introduction system in the low nitric acid medium (0.01%-1% HNO3). The washout effect of 0.1% HF was found to be better than those of 6% HNO3 and 0.1% HClO4. Under the given experiment conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.001 and 0.0001 ng x mL(-1) for Sb and Bi, respectively. The authors report the determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS (including AGV-2, BHVO-2, BCR-2, etc.). Most of the results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported values in the literature. The authors' determined values of Sb for GSR-1 (granite; 0.30 microg x g(-1)) and JP-1 (peridotite; 0.045 microg x g(-1)) are obviously higher than those reported values. This is attributed to the efficient pressurized acid digestion, which is generally much more efficient than conventional wet digestions for insoluble minerals. PMID:18330312

  17. Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A

    2008-05-01

    The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

  18. [Determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhao-chu; Gao, Shan; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yuan, Hong-lin; Liu, Ye; Diwu, Chun-rong

    2007-12-01

    The authors studied in detail the memory effect of Bi, Sb, As and Te in ICP-MS. The produced memory effects of these element were in the order of Bi>Sb>Te>As. Bi was seriously adsorbed by the polypropylene sample storing bottle and the sample introduction system in the low nitric acid medium (0.01%-1% HNO3). The washout effect of 0.1% HF was found to be better than those of 6% HNO3 and 0.1% HClO4. Under the given experiment conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.001 and 0.0001 ng x mL(-1) for Sb and Bi, respectively. The authors report the determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS (including AGV-2, BHVO-2, BCR-2, etc.). Most of the results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported values in the literature. The authors' determined values of Sb for GSR-1 (granite; 0.30 microg x g(-1)) and JP-1 (peridotite; 0.045 microg x g(-1)) are obviously higher than those reported values. This is attributed to the efficient pressurized acid digestion, which is generally much more efficient than conventional wet digestions for insoluble minerals.

  19. Metabolizable energy and standardized ileal digestible amino acid contents of expeller-extracted canola meal fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible amino acid (AA) and AMEn contents of expeller-extracted canola meal (EECM) fed to broiler chicks. One hundred forty-four broiler chicks were divided into 24 groups of 6 birds balanced for BW and fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups per diet) from d 14 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet formulated to meet NRC nutrient requirements, the basal diet with energy- and AA-yielding ingredients replaced by 30% of either solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) or EECM, and a low-protein casein-cornstarch-based diet. The SECM, which is commonly used in formulating poultry diets, was fed for comparison with EECM, whereas the casein-cornstarch-based diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous AA losses for determining standardized ileal digestibility of AA. All 4 diets contained titanium oxide (0.3%) as an indigestible marker, and nutrient digestibility and retention were determined by the substitution method. From d 19 to 21, excreta samples were collected for AMEn determination. On d 21, the birds were killed by cervical dislocation, and contents of the whole ileum were obtained for determination of AA digestibility. Expeller-extracted canola meal had greater (P<0.05) standardized ileal digestible contents of Gly, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, and Glu and tended to have greater (P<0.10) standardized ileal digestible contents of Ile, Lys, Phe, Ala, and Tyr than SECM. Compared with SECM, EECM had greater (P<0.001) AMEn (2,694 vs. 1,801 kcal/kg). The results show that the EECM evaluated in the current study had greater standardized ileal digestible AA and AMEn contents than SECM, and hence, it may be a better source of protein and energy for broiler chicks than SECM. The standardized ileal digestible AA and AMEn values of EECM used in the current study could be used when formulating broiler chicken diets using the same to minimize the N excretion and feeding cost.

  20. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    PubMed Central

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Walter, Andreas; Ebner, Christian; Insam, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array. PMID:25164858

  1. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    SciTech Connect

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Walter, Andreas; Ebner, Christian; Insam, Heribert

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Different methanogenic communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. • High VFA levels do not cause major changes in archaeal communities. • Real-time PCR indicated greater diversity than ANAEROCHIP microarray. - Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array.

  2. The impact of meal composition on the release of fatty acids from salmon during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Aarak, Kristi Ekrann; Rigby, Neil Marcus; Kirkhus, Bente; Salt, Louise Jane; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Bengtsson, Gunnar Bengt; Vegarud, Gerd Elisabeth; Mackie, Alan Robert

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesize that the rate of release of lipids from salmon muscle during in vitro digestion is altered by additional meal components. In vitro digestion of salmon was performed using a mixture of porcine gastrointestinal enzymes and bile salts. Broccoli and barley were also added to the digestion simulating a meal. The extent of lipolysis was determined by measuring the release of fatty acids (FAs) during sampling at the simulated gastric phase endpoint (60 minutes) and 20, 40, 60, 80, 110 and 140 minutes simulated small intestinal phase, using solid phase extraction and GC-FID. Adding barley resulted in a lower overall release of FA from salmon, whereas broccoli caused an initial delay followed by increased release from 80-140 min when lipid digestion of salmon alone plateaued. The impact of broccoli and barley on the release of peptides and digesta viscosity were also measured. The effect of different components in the meal shown by this in vitro study suggests that it would be possible to make dietary changes affecting the lipolysis, further triggering specific responses in the gastrointestinal tract. However, these observations need to be validated in vivo, and the mechanisms need to be further examined.

  3. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

  4. Apparent digestibility of wheat bran and extruded flax in horses determined from the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker.

    PubMed

    De Marco, M; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G; Bergero, D

    2012-02-01

    Several studies have reported data on comparisons between two methods: the total collection of feces and the internal markers method. The aim of this study was to assess the apparent digestibility of two concentrates and to compare the apparent digestion coefficients using the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as the internal marker method. In 2009, six adult geldings aged between 3 and 11 years, with an average weight per trial of 543, 540 and 542 kg, respectively, were used to determine the apparent digestibility by means of three in vivo digestibility trials on hay, hay plus wheat bran (60 : 40) and hay plus extruded flax (80 : 20). Feces were collected over a 6-day period with a previous 14-day adaptation period. The three digestibility trials were carried out to determine the digestion coefficients of the three diets and, indirectly, of the two concentrates. The digestion coefficients of the diets were determined for the dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy, whereas the apparent digestion coefficients of the same parameters were calculated for wheat bran and extruded flax, by calculating the difference from the previous results. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for paired samples. The digestion coefficients obtained were similar when the total collection of feces and the AIA method were used. Higher data variability, confirmed by a greater standard deviation, was observed using the AIA method to estimate the apparent digestion coefficients. It can be concluded that the use of AIA as an internal marker in digestibility trials on average leads to values similar to those obtained with the total collection of feces and can therefore be considered a less-expensive method to determine apparent digestion coefficients. Nevertheless, the total collection of feces should still be considered the best choice to determine the digestibility of some specific feedstuffs.

  5. Impact of antinutritional factors in food proteins on the digestibility of protein and the bioavailability of amino acids and on protein quality.

    PubMed

    Sarwar Gilani, G; Wu Xiao, Chao; Cockell, Kevin A

    2012-08-01

    Dietary antinutritional factors have been reported to adversely affect the digestibility of protein, bioavailability of amino acids and protein quality of foods. Published data on these negative effects of major dietary antinutritional factors are summarized in this manuscript. Digestibility and the quality of mixed diets in developing countries are considerably lower than of those in developed regions. For example, the digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94 %). Poor digestibility of protein in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, is due to the presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fibre, and/or high concentrations of antinutritional factors present endogenously or formed during processing. Examples of naturally occurring antinutritional factors include glucosinolates in mustard and canola protein products, trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, gossypol in cottonseed protein products, and uricogenic nucleobases in yeast protein products. Heat/alkaline treatments of protein products may yield Maillard reaction compounds, oxidized forms of sulphur amino acids, D-amino acids and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural nephrotoxic amino acid derivative). Among common food and feed protein products, soyabeans are the most concentrated source of trypsin inhibitors. The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soyabeans, kidney beans or other grain legumes have been reported to cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibility (up to 50 %) and protein quality (up to 100 %) in rats and/or pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in sorghum and other cereals, fababean and other grain legumes can cause

  6. Determination of Beryllium in Soil and Sediment by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption with a Microwave-Acid Digestion Method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai-lan; Gan, Jie; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Ri-long; Tian, Yun; Luo, Yue-ping

    2015-11-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in soils and sediments by microwave-acid digestion/graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) is described. In this paper, the working conditions of the instrument are optimized, the drawing of calibration curve is expounded, the pretreatment process of soil and sediments (including microwave heating process and the selection of digestion system) is discussed, and the interference of coexisting elements is examined. The sample was pretreated by microwave digestion parameters using HNO₃/ HCl/HF mixed acid system. The method is fast and simple without matrix modifier, and has no interference by coexisting ions, and has high repeatability and reproducibility. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.004 9 mg · kg⁻¹ (sample quantity 0.200 0 g, sample volume 25 mL), and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.20 mg · kg⁻¹. This method is used to measure the standard samples and actual samples, whether in the laboratory, or between laboratories, has good accuracy and precision.

  7. Determination of Beryllium in Soil and Sediment by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption with a Microwave-Acid Digestion Method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai-lan; Gan, Jie; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Ri-long; Tian, Yun; Luo, Yue-ping

    2015-11-01

    A method for determination of beryllium in soils and sediments by microwave-acid digestion/graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) is described. In this paper, the working conditions of the instrument are optimized, the drawing of calibration curve is expounded, the pretreatment process of soil and sediments (including microwave heating process and the selection of digestion system) is discussed, and the interference of coexisting elements is examined. The sample was pretreated by microwave digestion parameters using HNO₃/ HCl/HF mixed acid system. The method is fast and simple without matrix modifier, and has no interference by coexisting ions, and has high repeatability and reproducibility. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.004 9 mg · kg⁻¹ (sample quantity 0.200 0 g, sample volume 25 mL), and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.20 mg · kg⁻¹. This method is used to measure the standard samples and actual samples, whether in the laboratory, or between laboratories, has good accuracy and precision. PMID:26978948

  8. Synergism and effect of high initial volatile fatty acid concentrations during food waste and pig manure anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Croize, Thomas; Jiang, Yan; Morrison, Liam; Gardiner, Gillian E; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and pig manure (PM) was undertaken in batch mode at 37°C in order to identify and quantify the synergistic effects of co-digestion on the specific methane yield (SMY) and reaction kinetics. The effects of the high initial volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in PM on synergy observed during co-digestion, and on kinetic modelling were investigated. PM to FW mixing ratios of 1/0, 4/1, 3/2, 2/3, 1/4 and 0/1 (VS basis) were examined. No VFA or ammonia inhibition was observed. The highest SMY of 521±29ml CH4/gVS was achieved at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. Synergy in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY occurred at PM/FW mixing ratios of 3/2, 2/3 and 1/4. Initial VFA concentrations did not explain the synergy observed. Throughout the study the conversion of butyric acid was inhibited. Due to the high initial VFA content of PM, conventional first order and Gompertz models were inappropriate for determining reaction kinetics. A dual pooled first order model was found to provide the best fit for the data generated in this study. The optimal mixing ratio in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY was found at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4.

  9. Synergism and effect of high initial volatile fatty acid concentrations during food waste and pig manure anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Croize, Thomas; Jiang, Yan; Morrison, Liam; Gardiner, Gillian E; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and pig manure (PM) was undertaken in batch mode at 37°C in order to identify and quantify the synergistic effects of co-digestion on the specific methane yield (SMY) and reaction kinetics. The effects of the high initial volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in PM on synergy observed during co-digestion, and on kinetic modelling were investigated. PM to FW mixing ratios of 1/0, 4/1, 3/2, 2/3, 1/4 and 0/1 (VS basis) were examined. No VFA or ammonia inhibition was observed. The highest SMY of 521±29ml CH4/gVS was achieved at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. Synergy in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY occurred at PM/FW mixing ratios of 3/2, 2/3 and 1/4. Initial VFA concentrations did not explain the synergy observed. Throughout the study the conversion of butyric acid was inhibited. Due to the high initial VFA content of PM, conventional first order and Gompertz models were inappropriate for determining reaction kinetics. A dual pooled first order model was found to provide the best fit for the data generated in this study. The optimal mixing ratio in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY was found at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. PMID:27389859

  10. Effect of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal microflora and parameters of microbial metabolism in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H; Broz, J; Eder, K

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and gastrointestinal microflora of piglets, we conducted a performance experiment and a separate balance study. The performance experiment involved four different dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (negative control); (2) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 g/kg; (3) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg; (4) basal diet supplemented with potassium diformate at 12 g/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to nine replicate groups, each consisting of two piglets. Live weight, daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored as performance parameters over a 35-day period. Supplementation of the diet with benzoic acid resulted in a dose-dependent increase in feed intake and body weight gain and an improved feed conversion ratio. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg outperformed the control piglets in mean feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 9%, 15% and 6% respectively. Growth performance of the piglets fed the diet with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg was similar to that of piglets fed the diet supplemented with potassium diformate. In the balance experiment three groups of six piglets each were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg respectively. Benzoic acid did not significantly affect nutrient digestibility but increased nitrogen retention. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg retained 5% and 6% more nitrogen, respectively, than control piglets. Supplementation of benzoic acid did not influence the pH value or the concentration of ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract but reduced the number of bacteria in the digesta. In the stomach the number of total aerobic, total anaerobic, lactic acid forming and gram-negative bacteria was reduced; in the duodenum the presence of benzoic acid reduced

  11. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  12. Removal of volatile fatty acids and ammonia recovery from unstable anaerobic digesters with a microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-11-01

    Continuous assays with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) fed with digested pig slurry were performed to evaluate its stability and robustness to malfunction periods of an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor and its feasibility as a strategy to recover ammonia. When performing punctual pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the anode compartment of the MEC, simulating a malfunction of the AD process, an increase in the current density was produced (up to 14 times, reaching values of 3500mAm(-2)) as a result of the added chemical oxygen demand (COD), especially when acetate was used. Furthermore, ammonium diffusion from the anode to the cathode compartment was enhanced and the removal efficiency achieved up to 60% during daily basis VFA pulses. An AD-MEC combined system has proven to be a robust and stable configuration to obtain a high quality effluent, with a lower organic and ammonium content. PMID:27501031

  13. [Simultaneous Determination of Sn and S in Methyltin Mercaptide by Microwave-Assisted Acid Digestion and ICP-OES].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Wu, Xi; Hou, Xian-deng; Xu, Kai-lai

    2015-09-01

    Methyltin mercaptide is widely used as one of the best heat stabilizer in the polyvinylchloride (PVC) thermal processing due to its excellent stability, good transparency, high compatibility and weather resistance. The content of sulfur and tin significantly affects its quality and performance, so it is of great significance to develop an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of sulfur and tin. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been a powerful analytical tool for a myriad of complex samples owing to its advantages of the low detection limits, rapid and precise determinations over wide dynamic ranges, freedom from chemical inter-element interferences, the high sample throughput and above all, simultaneous multi-elements analysis. Microwave technique as a well-developed method for sample preparation can dramatically reduce the digestion time and the loss of volatile elements compared with the traditional open digestion. Hereby, a microwave-assisted acid digestion (MW-AAD) procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis was developed for the simultaneous determination of Sn and S in methyltin mercaptide. This method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidness, good accuracy, green and less use of samples. Parameters affecting the MW-AAD such as the digestion solution and digestion time were optimized by using a chemical analyzed reference sample (DX-181) to attain tin and sulfur quantitative recoveries. HNO3-HCl-HClO4 (v/v/v=9:3:1) and 10 min were the optimum digestion solution and digestion time, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the standard addition method and the standard calibration curve method were both been used to detect Sn and S in DX-181. There was no significant difference between two methods and the relative deviations to the chemical analysis values were both less than 2%. Additionally, the accuracy of the MW-AAD method was examined by analyzing

  14. Effect of calcium chloride on abating inhibition due to volatile fatty acids during the start-up period in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Das, Avijit; Srinivas, G Lohit Kumar; Dhar, Hiya; Ojha, Vivek Kumar; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on anaerobic digestion of MSW. Three anaerobic digesters with different concentrations of CaCl2, namely sample without additives (Control), sample with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 (R1) and sample with 5 g/L CaCl2 (R2) were studied separately and the significant results are presented. From the experimental results, it was observed that pH decreased with an increase in the dosage of CaCl2. Total solids and volatile solids reduction percentage in digester R2 was considerably lower than Control and R1 digesters. The significant positive correlation with small increments in volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were observed with an increase in pH. The cumulative biogas production in all the three digesters (Control, R1 and R2) were observed to be 35.38, 46.46 and 37.56 L, respectively. It was also observed that the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) removal efficiency in digester R1 was the best among all the three digesters. A comparison of the effluent characteristics revealed improvement in the overall performance of the digester R1 amended with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 over the other two digesters. PMID:26609893

  15. Effect of calcium chloride on abating inhibition due to volatile fatty acids during the start-up period in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Das, Avijit; Srinivas, G Lohit Kumar; Dhar, Hiya; Ojha, Vivek Kumar; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on anaerobic digestion of MSW. Three anaerobic digesters with different concentrations of CaCl2, namely sample without additives (Control), sample with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 (R1) and sample with 5 g/L CaCl2 (R2) were studied separately and the significant results are presented. From the experimental results, it was observed that pH decreased with an increase in the dosage of CaCl2. Total solids and volatile solids reduction percentage in digester R2 was considerably lower than Control and R1 digesters. The significant positive correlation with small increments in volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were observed with an increase in pH. The cumulative biogas production in all the three digesters (Control, R1 and R2) were observed to be 35.38, 46.46 and 37.56 L, respectively. It was also observed that the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) removal efficiency in digester R1 was the best among all the three digesters. A comparison of the effluent characteristics revealed improvement in the overall performance of the digester R1 amended with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 over the other two digesters.

  16. Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: terminology and application.

    PubMed

    Stein, H H; Sève, B; Fuller, M F; Moughan, P J; de Lange, C F M

    2007-01-01

    In this review, the terminology that is used to describe the bioavailability and ileal digestibility of AA in pig feed ingredients is defined. Aspects of the methodology to establish bioavailability and ileal digestibility values also are discussed, and recommendations about the use of these values are provided. Two main factors can contribute to differences between bioavailability and ileal digestibility of AA. First, some AA, such as Lys, may be absorbed in chemical complexes that preclude their use for metabolism. Second, fermentation in the upper gut may result in a net loss or gain of AA to the animal. In addition, dietary effects on the efficiency of using bioavailable AA intake for tissue growth or milk production should be considered and may be attributed to endogenous AA losses in the hindgut and the metabolic costs associated with endogenous gut protein synthesis and losses. Ileal digestibility values may be expressed as apparent ileal digestibility (AID), standardized ileal digestibility (SID), or true ileal digestibility (TID). These terms are used to specify how ileal endogenous AA losses are reflected in digestibility values. Ileal endogenous AA losses may be separated into basal losses, which are not influenced by feed ingredient composition, and specific losses, which are induced by feed ingredient characteristics such as levels and types of fiber and antinutritional factors. Values for AID are established when total ileal outflow of AA (i.e., the sum of endogenous losses and nondigested dietary AA) is related to dietary AA intake. A concern with the use of AID values is that these are not additive in mixtures of feed ingredients. This concern may be overcome by correcting AID values for defined basal endogenous losses of AA, which yields SID values. Furthermore, if the AID values are corrected for basal and specific endogenous losses, then values for TID are calculated. However, reliable procedures to routinely measure specific endogenous losses

  17. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta C.; Castagnino, Pablo S.; Lage, Josiane F.; Arcuri, Pedro B.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO. PMID:26580282

  18. Evaluation of an ultrasonic acid digestion procedure for total heavy metals determination in environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Arain, Mohammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Jalbani, Nusrat; Sarfraz, Raja A; Ansari, Rehana

    2009-01-30

    In this study, a sample preparation method based on ultrasonic assisted acid digestion (UAD) has been evaluated for total heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) determination in different environmental (soil, sediment and sewage sludge), and biological (fish muscles, vegetables and grains) samples, using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The investigated parameters influencing UAD such as presonication time, sonication time, temperature of ultrasonic bath, and different acid mixtures were fully optimized, whereas power was maintained constant at 100% of nominal power of ultrasonic bath. Six different sets of above parameters were applied on six certified reference materials (CRMs) having different matrices. The accuracy of the method was also tested by comparing the results with those obtained from conventional hot plate assisted acid digestion method on same CRMs. Analytical results for HMs by both methods showed no significant difference at 95% confidence limit (p<0.05). Recoveries of HMs ranging from 96.2% to 102% and 96.3% to 98.6% were obtained from biological and environmental samples, respectively. The average relative standard deviation of UAD method varied between 3.5% and 8.2%, depending on the analyte.

  19. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein.

  20. Cysteic Acid in Dietary Keratin is Metabolized to Glutathione and Liver Taurine in a Rat Model of Human Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wolber, Frances M.; McGrath, Michelle; Jackson, Felicity; Wylie, Kim; Broomfield, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Poultry feathers, consisting largely of keratin, are a low-value product of the poultry industry. The safety and digestibility of a dietary protein produced from keratin (KER) was compared to a cysteine-supplemented casein-based diet in a growing rat model for four weeks. KER proved to be an effective substitute for casein at 50% of the total dietary protein, with no changes in the rats’ food intake, weight gain, organ weight, bone mineral density, white blood cell counts, liver glutathione, or blood glutathione. Inclusion of KER in the diet reduced total protein digestibility from 94% to 86% but significantly increased total dietary cysteine uptake and subsequent liver taurine levels. The KER diet also significantly increased caecum weight and significantly decreased fat digestibility, resulting in a lower proportion of body fat, and induced a significant increase in blood haemoglobin. KER is therefore a safe and suitable protein substitute for casein, and the cysteic acid in keratin is metabolised to maintain normal liver and blood glutathione levels. PMID:26907334

  1. Enhancement of waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion by a novel chemical free acid/alkaline pretreatment using electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Charles, W; Ng, B; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Cheng, L; Ho, G; Kayaalp, A

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is relatively poor due to hydrolysis limitations. Acid and alkaline pretreatments are effective in enhancing hydrolysis leading to higher methane yields. However, chemical costs often prohibit full-scale application. In this study, 12 V two-chamber electrolysis using an anion exchange membrane alters sludge pH without chemical dosing. pH dropped from 6.9 to 2.5 in the anode chamber and increased to 10.1 in the cathode chamber within 15 h. The volatile suspended solids solubilisation of WAS was 31.1% in the anode chamber and 34.0% in the cathode chamber. As a result, dissolved chemical oxygen demand increased from 164 to 1,787 mg/L and 1,256 mg/L in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. Remixing of sludge from the two chambers brought the pH back to 6.5, hence no chemical neutralisation was required prior to anaerobic digestion. Methane yield during anaerobic digestion at 20 d retention time was 31% higher than that of untreated sludge. An energy balance assessment indicated that the non-optimised process could approximately recover the energy (electricity) expended in the electrolysis process. With suitable optimisation of treatment time and voltages, significant energy savings would be expected in addition to the benefit of decreased sludge volume.

  2. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( < 0.05). The AID and SID of Leu and Thr were greater in potato protein concentrate than soy concentrate ( < 0.05), and AID and SID of Thr were lower in soy isolate than potato concentrate. The AID and SID of all essential AA were similar between soy isolate and soy concentrate. Linseed meal had the lowest AID and SID of N and AA digestibility among protein sources ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal were fed to 42-kg barrows to determine their AID and SID of AA. The AID and SID of N and all AA were greatest for sunflower meal ( < 0.05), and canola meal had similar AID and SID of N, Met, Thr, Leu, and Val. The AID and SID of all essential AA, except for Met and Trp, were lowest for sunflower meal ( < 0.05). Cottonseed meal had lower AID and SID for Lys, Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val compared with the other protein sources ( < 0.05). In conclusion, the digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals. PMID:27065269

  3. Temperature and solids retention time control microbial population dynamics and volatile fatty acid production in replicated anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W

    2015-02-16

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for waste stabilization and generation of biogas, and has recently emerged as a potentially important process for the production of high value volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols. Here, three reactors were seeded with inoculum from a stably performing methanogenic digester, and selective operating conditions (37°C and 55°C; 12 day and 4 day solids retention time) were applied to restrict methanogenesis while maintaining hydrolysis and fermentation. Replicated experiments performed at each set of operating conditions led to reproducible VFA production profiles which could be correlated with specific changes in microbial community composition. The mesophilic reactor at short solids retention time showed accumulation of propionate and acetate (42 ± 2% and 15 ± 6% of CODhydrolyzed, respectively), and dominance of Fibrobacter and Bacteroidales. Acetate accumulation (>50% of CODhydrolyzed) was also observed in the thermophilic reactors, which were dominated by Clostridium. Under all tested conditions, there was a shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and a reduction in methane production by >50% of CODhydrolyzed. Our results demonstrate that shortening the SRT and increasing the temperature are effective strategies for driving microbial communities towards controlled production of high levels of specific volatile fatty acids.

  4. Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-15

    The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC × GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application.

  5. Temperature and solids retention time control microbial population dynamics and volatile fatty acid production in replicated anaerobic digesters

    PubMed Central

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D.; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for waste stabilization and generation of biogas, and has recently emerged as a potentially important process for the production of high value volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols. Here, three reactors were seeded with inoculum from a stably performing methanogenic digester, and selective operating conditions (37°C and 55°C; 12 day and 4 day solids retention time) were applied to restrict methanogenesis while maintaining hydrolysis and fermentation. Replicated experiments performed at each set of operating conditions led to reproducible VFA production profiles which could be correlated with specific changes in microbial community composition. The mesophilic reactor at short solids retention time showed accumulation of propionate and acetate (42 ± 2% and 15 ± 6% of CODhydrolyzed, respectively), and dominance of Fibrobacter and Bacteroidales. Acetate accumulation (>50% of CODhydrolyzed) was also observed in the thermophilic reactors, which were dominated by Clostridium. Under all tested conditions, there was a shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and a reduction in methane production by >50% of CODhydrolyzed. Our results demonstrate that shortening the SRT and increasing the temperature are effective strategies for driving microbial communities towards controlled production of high levels of specific volatile fatty acids. PMID:25683239

  6. Analysis of the syntrophic anaerobic digestion of volatile fatty acids using enriched cultures in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Amani, T; Nosrati, M; Mousavi, S M; Kermanshahi, R K

    2012-05-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are key intermediates in anaerobic digestion. Enriched acetogenic and methanogenic cultures were used for the syntrophic anaerobic digestion of VFAs in a continuous fixed-bed reactor at mesophilic conditions. The interactive effects of propionic (HPr), butyric (HBu), and acetic (HAc) acids were analyzed. Furthermore, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and methanogen-to-acetogen ratios (M/As) were investigated as the key microbiological and operating variables of VFA anaerobic degradations. Experiments were carried out based on central composite design (CCD) and results were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). Effluent concentrations of HPr, HBu, HAc, and biogas production rate (BPR) were directly measured as responses. The optimum conditions were found to be HPr = 1122.9 mg/L, HBu = 1792.4 mg/L, HAc = 1735.4 mg/L, HRT = 21 hours, and M/A = 2.4 (corresponding to the maximum VFA removal and BPR). The results of verification experiments and predicted values from fitted correlations were in close agreement at a 95% confidence interval. PMID:22852432

  7. Temperature and solids retention time control microbial population dynamics and volatile fatty acid production in replicated anaerobic digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D.; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for waste stabilization and generation of biogas, and has recently emerged as a potentially important process for the production of high value volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols. Here, three reactors were seeded with inoculum from a stably performing methanogenic digester, and selective operating conditions (37°C and 55°C 12 day and 4 day solids retention time) were applied to restrict methanogenesis while maintaining hydrolysis and fermentation. Replicated experiments performed at each set of operating conditions led to reproducible VFA production profiles which could be correlated with specific changes in microbial community composition. The mesophilic reactor at short solids retention time showed accumulation of propionate and acetate (42 +/- 2% and 15 +/- 6% of CODhydrolyzed, respectively), and dominance of Fibrobacter and Bacteroidales. Acetate accumulation (>50% of CODhydrolyzed) was also observed in the thermophilic reactors, which were dominated by Clostridium. Under all tested conditions, there was a shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and a reduction in methane production by >50% of CODhydrolyzed. Our results demonstrate that shortening the SRT and increasing the temperature are effective strategies for driving microbial communities towards controlled production of high levels of specific volatile fatty acids.

  8. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  10. Advantages and limitations of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) as a method for evaluating protein quality in human diets.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2012-08-01

    PDCAAS is a widely used assay for evaluating protein quality. It is a chemical score, which is derived from the ratio between the first limiting amino acid in a test protein and the corresponding amino acid in a reference amino acid pattern and corrected for true faecal N digestibility. Chemical scores exceeding 100 % are truncated to 100 %. The advantages of the PDCAAS are its simplicity and direct relationship to human protein requirements. The limitations are as follows: the reference pattern is based on the minimum amino acid requirements for tissue growth and maintenance and does not necessarily reflect the optimum intake. Truncated PDCAAS of high-quality proteins do not give any information about the power of these proteins to compensate, as a supplement, for low levels of dietary essential amino acids in low-quality proteins. It is likely that faecal N digestibility does not take into account the loss from the colon of indispensable amino acids that were not absorbed in the ileum. Anti-nutritional factors, such as lectins and trypsin inhibitors, in several plant protein sources can cause heightened endogenous losses of amino acids, an issue which is particularly relevant in animal feedstuffs. The assumption that amino acid supplementation can completely restore biological efficiency of the protein source is incorrect since the kinetics of digestion and absorption between supplemented free amino acids and amino acids present in dietary proteins, are different. PMID:23107546

  11. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  12. In-vitro digestibility and amino acid composition of soy protein isolate cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase followed by heating with ribose.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chee-Yuen; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Azahari, Baharin; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    Cross-linked soy protein isolate (SPI) gels were produced via single-treatment of SPI with microbial transglutaminase (MTG) for 5 h or 24 h, or with ribose for 2 h, or via combined-treatments of SPI with MTG followed by heating with ribose. Assessment of gel strength and solubility concluded that measures which increased protein cross-links resulted in improved gel strength; however, in most cases the digestibility and amino acid content of the gels were reduced. The combined treated gel of SPI/MTG for 24 h/ribose was more easily digested by digestive enzymes and retained higher amounts of amino acids compared with the control Maillard gels of SPI with ribose. MTG consumed lysine and glutamine and reduced the availability of amino acids for the Maillard reaction with ribose. MTG was able to preserve the nutritional value of SPI against the destructive effect of the Maillard reaction and cross-links.

  13. Effect of carnosic acid, quercetin and α-tocopherol on lipid and protein oxidation in an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Doolaege, Evelyne H A; Deman, Steven; Vossen, Els; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-03-01

    Carnosic acid, quercetin and α-tocopherol are well-known antioxidants in many biological systems. However, their antioxidative effect during food digestion against lipid and protein oxidation is not well known. Therefore, in this study, an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model was used to investigate their stability during gastrointestinal conditions and their antioxidative properties during low pH digestion. In general, the stability of the antioxidants in the different steps of digestion was in the order of α-tocopherol > quercetin > carnosic acid. Salivary components, as well as the acidity of the gastric juice, were responsible for the reduction in antioxidants. Both α-tocopherol and quercetin were able to lower lipid oxidation during digestion, while the effect on protein oxidation was not clear. In contrast, carnosic acid did not have any effect on lipid oxidation and tended to stimulate protein oxidation. This study clearly demonstrated that the environmental conditions are of major importance to the properties of antioxidant compounds.

  14. Mineralogical basis for the interpretation of multi-element (ICP-AES), oxalic acid, and aqua regia partial digestions of stream sediments for reconnaissance exploration geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Mosier, E.L.; Motooka, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have applied partial digestion procedures, primarily oxalic acid and aqua regia leaches, to several regional geochemical reconnaissance studies carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analytical methods. We have chosen to use these two acids because the oxalic acid primarily attacks those compounds formed during secondary geochemical processes, whereas aqua regia will digest the primary sulfide phases as well as secondary phases. Application of the partial digestion technique has proven superior to total digestion because the concentration of metals in hydromorphic compounds and the sulfides is enhanced relative to the metals bound in the unattacked silicate phases. The aqua regia digestion attacks and leaches metals from the mafic chain silicates and the phyllosilicates (coordination number of VI or more), yielding a characteristic geochemical signature, but does not leach appreciable metal from many other silicates. In order to interpret the results from these leach studies, we have initiated an investigation of a large suite of hand-picked mineral separates. The study includes analyses of about two hundred minerals representing the common rock-forming minerals as well as end-member compositions of various silicates, oxides, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, and some vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, and phosphates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of leaching by acids of particular lattice sites in specific mineral structures. ?? 1987.

  15. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    PubMed

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH removal

  16. Similar PAH Fate in Anaerobic Digesters Inoculated with Three Microbial Communities Accumulating Either Volatile Fatty Acids or Methane

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10 % to 30 %, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH

  17. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  18. Ruminal degradation, amino acid composition, and intestinal digestibility of the residual components of five protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Schingoethe, D J; Henson, J E

    1996-09-01

    Two ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (approximately 202 DIM) were used to determine the in situ degradability of five protein supplements: blood meal, meat and bone meal, corn gluten meal, expeller soybean meal, and solvent extracted soybean meal. Dacron bags containing 4 g of each supplement in duplicate were soaked in water and then incubated in the rumen for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h for 3 d. Four extra sample bags of each supplement were incubated in the rumen for 12 h to determine the in vitro intestinal digestibility and AA analysis of the residues. Protein supplements were also analyzed for their AA content. Ruminal degradability of individual supplements varied. Solvent soybean meal was the most degradable, and blood meal was the least degradable. Specific first-limiting essential AA were isoleucine for blood meal and meat and bone meal, lysine for corn gluten meal, and methionine for the soybean meals. The RUP fraction in solvent-extracted and expeller soybean meals tended to be more intestinally digestible than did the protein in blood meal and meat and bone meal. In general, all protein supplements, except solvent-extracted soybean meal, were high in RUP and had the potential to provide good quality AA to complement microbial AA for production.

  19. Effects of dietary water-soaked barley on amino acid digestibility, growth performance, pork quality and Longissimus dorsi muscle fatty acid profiles in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian Ping; Kim, In Ho

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the feeding value of water-soaked barley (WB) as a replacement for dehulled barley (DB) in pigs. In experiment (Exp.) 1, eight barrows (body weight = 30.56 ± 0.78 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula and allotted to a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design: WB10, 100g/kg WB; WB20, 200 g/kg WB; DB10, 100 g/kg DB; and DB20, 200 g/kg DB. In Exp. 2, 80 barrows (body weight = 70.56 ± 1.29 kg) were used in a 56-day experiment: (i) WB15, 150 g/kg WB; (ii) WBD10, 100 g/kg WB and 50 g/kg DB; (iii) WBD5, 50 g/kg WB and 100 g/kg DB; and (iv) DB15, 150 g/kg DB. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibilities of total essential amino acids were higher (P < 0.05) in WB10 treatment than DB20. For Exp.2, the WB15 and WBD10 had higher pH and lower cooking loss (P < 0.05) than other two treatments. The WB15 treatment decreased (P < 0.05) the contents of palmitic acid (C16:0) in Longissimus dorsi muscle than WBD5 and DB15 treatments. In conclusion, it is suggested that water-soaked barley improved some amino acid digestibility and the cooking loss and moderate fatty acid profiles in Longissimus dorsi muscle.

  20. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  1. Volatile fatty acids platform from thermally hydrolysed secondary sewage sludge enhanced through recovered micronutrients from digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumi, Philemon J; Henley, Adam; Shana, Achame; Wilson, Victoria; Esteves, Sandra R

    2016-09-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances and microbial cytoplasmic contents seem to hold inorganic ions and organic products, such as proteins and carbohydrates that are of critical importance for the metabolism of hydrolytic and acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms. The addition of soluble microbially recovered nutrients from thermally treated digestate sludge, for the fermentation of thermally hydrolysed waste activated sludge, resulted in higher volatile fatty acids yields (VFAs). The yield of VFAs obtained from the recovered microbial nutrients was 27% higher than the no micronutrients control, and comparable to the yield obtained using a micronutrients commercial recipe. In addition, the use of a low pH resulting from a high sucrose dose to select spore forming acidogenic bacteria was effective for VFA production, and yielded 20% higher VFAs than without the pH shock and this associated with the addition of recovered microbial nutrients would overcome the need to thermally pre-treat the inoculum. PMID:27206055

  2. Effects of sulfur and acidity on performance and digestibility in feedlot lambs fed dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Morrow, L A; Felix, T L; Fluharty, F L; Daniels, K M; Loerch, S C

    2013-05-01

    Negative interactions of the acidity and S content of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) have not been quantified. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of dietary S, dietary acidity, and their interactions on growth, feed efficiency, ruminal H2S concentration, and apparent nutrient digestibility in lambs fed DDGS-based diets. To neutralize acidity, the DDGS was untreated or treated with 2% NaOH. Dietary S content was adjusted with Na2SO4 to achieve a 0.2 percentage unit difference in dietary S. Experiment 1 included 72 ewe and wether lambs (BW = 24.9 ± 0.4 kg) penned by sex in 24 pens, blocked by BW, and allotted in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments for a 60 d feeding trial. On a DM basis, diets were: i) 60% DDGS + 0% Na2SO4, ii) 60% DDGS + 0.88% Na2SO4, iii) 62% NaOH-treated DDGS + 0% Na2SO4, and iv) 62% NaOH-treated DDGS + 0.83% Na2SO4. There were no interactions (P ≥ 0.19) of dietary S concentration and NaOH treatment. Lambs fed DDGS treated with 2% NaOH had 4% greater (P = 0.05) final BW and tended (P ≤ 0.07) to have greater DMI and ADG than lambs fed untreated DDGS; however, NaOH treatment did not affect (P = 0.42) G:F. Increasing dietary S with Na2SO4 tended (P = 0.07) to reduce DMI; however, dietary S did not affect (P > 0.17) ADG, G:F, or final BW. Rumen H2S concentration in gas samples collected on d 32 and 60 were not (P > 0.17) affected by dietary S or NaOH treatment. Experiment 2 included 24 lambs (initial BW = 43.0 ± 4.4 kg) used to determine the effects of NaOH treatment of DDGS and sulfur (Na2SO4) supplementation on N retention and the apparent digestibility of NDF, ADF, and OM. Treatments were similar to those used in Exp. 1, except that dietary DDGS was reduced to 45% of DM. Intake of DM, NDF, ADF, and N was not affected (P > 0.16) by NaOH treatment of DDGS or dietary S (Na2SO4) content. Treating DDGS with 2% NaOH reduced (P = 0.05) NDF digestibility by 10% compared with lambs fed untreated DDGS

  3. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance. PMID:25656208

  4. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM.

  5. Feeding low-phytic acid corn grain to finishing wethers does not alter phosphorus digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-phytic acid (LPA) feed grains contain similar concentrations of P as do standard grains, but the majority of P exists as inorganic phosphate rather than phytic acid. Research has shown that LPA feeds can be used to improve overall efficiency of P utilization in swine, poultry and aquaculture pro...

  6. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content.

  7. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition. PMID:19841218

  8. Kinetics and methane gas yields of selected C1 to C5 organic acids in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Chen, Qian; Guo, Jialiang; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and other short-chain organic acids such as lactic and pyruvic acids are intermediates in anaerobic organic degradation. In this study, anaerobic degradation of seven organic acids in salt form was investigated, including formate (C1), acetate (C2), propionate (C3), pyruvate (C3), lactate (C3), butyrate (C4), and valerate (C5). Microbial growth kinetics on these organic acids were determined individually at 37 °C through batch anaerobic digestion tests by varying substrate concentrations from 250 to 4000 mg COD/L. The cumulative methane generation volume was determined real-time by respirometry coupled with gas chromatographic analysis while methane yield and related kinetics were calculated. The methane gas yields (fe, mg CH4 COD/mg substrate COD) from anaerobic degradation of formate, acetate, propionate, pyruvate, lactate, butyrate, and valerate were 0.44 ± 0.27, 0.58 ± 0.05, 0.53 ± 0.18, 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.43 ± 0.15, 0.49 ± 0.11, respectively. Anaerobic degradation of formate showed self-substrate inhibition at the concentrations above 3250 mg COD/L. Acetate, propionate, pyruvate, butyrate, lactate, and valerate did not inhibit methane production at the highest concentrations tested (i.e., 4000 mg COD/L). Microbes growing on acetate had the highest overall specific growth rate (0.30 d(-1)) in methane production. For comparison, the specific microbial growth rates on formate, propionate, pyruvate, butyrate, lactate, and valerate for methane production were 0.10, 0.06, 0.08, 0.07, 0.05, 0.15 d(-1), respectively.

  9. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  10. Comparison of two different fecal collection methods for protein digestibility and amino acid availability coefficients of three animal protein sources for sunshine bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for protein and individual amino acid availabilities in menhaden fish meal (MEN) and two grades of poultry by-product meal (PBM) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using two different fecal collection methods, passive netting (net) or man...

  11. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  12. The importance of acid digestion of urine prior to spontaneous deposition of 210Po.

    PubMed

    Fellman, A; Ralston, L; Hickman, D; Ayres, L; Cohen, N; Spitz, H; Robinson, B

    1989-10-01

    Historically, radiochemical analysis of 210Po in urine has used spontaneous deposition of the nuclide directly from raw urine onto a suitable metal disc. Consequently, the urinary excretion fraction for Po in some current metabolic and dosimetric models is based on studies which inherently assume that metabolized (i.e., filtered out of the blood by the kidneys) 210Po is plated with the same efficiency as tracer 210Po which has been added to urine samples. Urine samples collected after intravenous administration of 210Po citrate to two species of nonhuman primates were divided and simultaneously analyzed via two methods: the historical procedure of plating 210Po from raw urine for one sample and a method which includes the addition of 208Po tracer and sample digestion with concentrated HNO3 prior to 210Po deposition for the other sample. A more significant amount of 210Po was consistently recovered when the urine was wet ashed then when it was not wet ashed. A temporal relationship was found to describe the change in the ratio of the deposition recoveries for the two methods. Possible mechanisms for this phenomenon and its dosimetric implications are discussed. PMID:2507478

  13. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007447.htm Digestive diseases To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which ...

  14. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of cassava, sweet potato, cocoyam and erythrina foliages fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Régnier, C; Jaguelin, Y; Noblet, J; Renaudeau, D

    2012-04-01

    Ileal digestibility in growing pigs fed starch-based diets with inclusion of four tropical leaves in a meal form was studied in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Five diets were formulated with only casein as protein source in the basal diet (CAS), and casein plus dry cassava (CA) leaves, casein plus dry sweet potato (SP) leaves, casein plus dry cocoyam (CO) leaves and casein plus erythrina (ER) leaves in the other four diets. All diets contained the same amount of CP (14%), either provided by only CAS or a combination of casein and 250 g of leaf meal per kg of diet in the other diets. Leaves were separated manually from stems, and only the leaf part was used. A protein-free diet was fed during a sixth period in order to estimate the endogenous protein losses and calculate the CP- and amino-acid (AA)-standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values. The values for the foliages were calculated according to the difference method, assuming no interaction between the foliage and the casein. The ileal tract apparent digestibility of CP, organic matter and energy was higher in diet CAS than in the other diets (P < 0.05). The SID of CP and AA was close to 0.950 for casein, whereas the SID of AA was markedly lower in the foliages; the SID of indispensable and dispensable AA was highest in CO (0.500 and 0.352) and lowest in ER (0.170 and 0.195); intermediate values were obtained for SPs (0.367 and 0.349) and CA (0.232 and 0.242) leaves. Accordingly, the SID of lysine was highest (0.538) for CO leaves and lowest (0.126) in ER leaves; intermediate values were measured for CA and SP leaves. These low SID values in foliage meals must be related to the high levels of dietary fibre and the presence of secondary metabolites (tannins). These results suggest that it is only possible to replace a fraction of the conventional protein sources such as soyabean meal by tropical foliages in growing pig diets with a preference for CO leaves.

  15. Effects of dietary calcium soaps of unsaturated fatty acids on digestion, milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

    1997-05-01

    Dairy cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were utilized to investigate the effects of feeding with Ca soaps (CaS) of palm fatty acids (FA) and rapeseed FA. Diets compared were control diet based on maize silage and concentrate, and two diets with 40 g CaS of palm oil FA or rapeseed oil FA/kg diet, replacing part of the concentrates of the control diet. Total digestibilities of dry matter, fibre and fat, and ruminal fermentation were not significantly altered by giving CaS; the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation of total unsaturated C18 FA was significantly reduced by both CaS diets. Apparent intestinal digestibility of FA was not different among diets, although the amount of FA absorbed with the CaS diets was twice that with the control diet. No difference among diets was observed for milk production, or fat and protein contents. Giving CaS diets decreased the proportions of 4:0 to 14:0 FA in milk fat, and increased cis-18:1n-9, compared with control diet. The rapeseed diet lowered the content of 16:0, and increased the contents of 18:0 and trans-18:1n-7. CaS diets did not result in a marked increase of polyunsaturated FA content in milk fat. Butter from cows fed on the CaS diets contained more liquid fat at 6 and 14 degrees C than butter from the cows fed on the control diet. Incorporating CaS, particularly those from rapeseed, in dairy cows' diets increased C18 FA in milk and improved butter spreadability. PMID:9161912

  16. Microwave-assisted diluted acid digestion for trace elements analysis of edible soybean products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José Tiago P; Santos, Clarissa M M; Peralva, Vanessa N; Flores, Erico M M; Korn, Mauro; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2015-05-15

    A new method for the decomposition of soybean based edible products (soy extract, textured soy protein, transgenic soybeans, and whole soy flour) was developed to essential (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, and Sr) trace elements determination by ICP OES and ICP-MS respectively. Effects related to the concentration of HNO3 (2.1-14.5 mol L(-1)) and the use of hydrogen peroxide on the efficiency of decomposition was evaluated based on the residual carbon content (RCC). It was demonstrated that 2.1 mol L(-1) HNO3 plus 1.0 mL H2O2 was suitable for an efficient digestion, since RCC was lower than 18% and the agreement with certified values and spike recoveries were higher than 90% for all analytes. The concentrations of analytes in the samples (minimum-maximum in mgkg(-1)) were: The concentrations of analytes in the samples (minimum-maximum in mgkg(-1)) were: As (<0.007-0.040), Ba (0.064-10.6), Cd (<0.006-0.028), Co (0.012-102), Cr (0.56-5.88), Cu (6.53-13.9), Fe (24.9-126), Mn (16.4-35.2), Ni (0.74-4.78), Se (<2.90-25), Sr (2.48-20.1), Pb (<0.029-0.11), V (<0.027-20), and Zn (30.1-47.3). Soy-based foods investigated in this study presented variable composition in terms of essential and potentially toxic elements, which can be attributed to different methods of processing. PMID:25577072

  17. Microwave-assisted diluted acid digestion for trace elements analysis of edible soybean products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José Tiago P; Santos, Clarissa M M; Peralva, Vanessa N; Flores, Erico M M; Korn, Mauro; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2015-05-15

    A new method for the decomposition of soybean based edible products (soy extract, textured soy protein, transgenic soybeans, and whole soy flour) was developed to essential (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, and Sr) trace elements determination by ICP OES and ICP-MS respectively. Effects related to the concentration of HNO3 (2.1-14.5 mol L(-1)) and the use of hydrogen peroxide on the efficiency of decomposition was evaluated based on the residual carbon content (RCC). It was demonstrated that 2.1 mol L(-1) HNO3 plus 1.0 mL H2O2 was suitable for an efficient digestion, since RCC was lower than 18% and the agreement with certified values and spike recoveries were higher than 90% for all analytes. The concentrations of analytes in the samples (minimum-maximum in mgkg(-1)) were: The concentrations of analytes in the samples (minimum-maximum in mgkg(-1)) were: As (<0.007-0.040), Ba (0.064-10.6), Cd (<0.006-0.028), Co (0.012-102), Cr (0.56-5.88), Cu (6.53-13.9), Fe (24.9-126), Mn (16.4-35.2), Ni (0.74-4.78), Se (<2.90-25), Sr (2.48-20.1), Pb (<0.029-0.11), V (<0.027-20), and Zn (30.1-47.3). Soy-based foods investigated in this study presented variable composition in terms of essential and potentially toxic elements, which can be attributed to different methods of processing.

  18. Amino acid digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in soybean meal (SBM) and canola, cotton, and sunflower products fed to finishing pigs. Each of 8 barrows (average initial BW = 106.6 ± 5.5 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. The 7 protein ingredients were canola seeds (CS), canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seeds (SFS), sunflower meal (SFM), dehulled sunflower meal (SFM-DH), and SBM, with each ingredient included as the sole source of AA in the diet. A N-free diet was used to estimate basal endogenous losses of AA. Among tested ingredients, SBM had the greatest (P < 0.05) SID of Lys, and CS had the least (P < 0.05) SID of Phe, Thr, and Tyr. The SID of all indispensable AA except Trp was less (P < 0.05) in CS than SBM, and CM had a greater (P < 0.05) SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, His, Lys, and Trp than CS. However, the SID of all indispensable AA except Arg and Trp were less (P < 0.05) in CM than in SBM. The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg and Trp also were less (P < 0.05) in CSM than in SBM, and the SID of Met was less (P < 0.05) in CSM than in all other ingredients. Among sunflower products, the SID of His, Leu, Phe, and Thr were less (P < 0.05) in SFM-DH than in SFS and SFM, and the SID of Ile, Met, and Val were less (P < 0.05) in SFM-DH than in SFS; however, for CP, Arg, Lys, and Trp, no differences among SFS, SFM, and SFM-DH were observed. The SID of all indispensable AA except Trp were less (P < 0.05) in SFM-DH than SBM, and the SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val in SFM were also less (P < 0.05) than in SBM. Except for Lys, no differences between SBM and SFS were observed. In conclusion, the SID of most AA in CS, CM, CSM, SFM, and SFM-DH are less than in SBM.

  19. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p < 0.05) than ileal endogenous fluxes and total tract endogenous losses of Ca, but ileal endogenous fluxes were less (p < 0.05) than total tract endogenous losses. Standardised digestibility of Ca was not affected by the level of phytic acid, but decreased (p < 0.05) as Ca level increased in L. calcareum Ca diets, but that was not the case if calcium carbonate was the source of Ca (interaction, p < 0.05). The standardised duodenal digestibility (SDD), standardised ileal digestibility (SID) and standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca were not different if calcium carbonate was the source of dietary Ca. However, the STTD of Ca in L. calcareum Ca was greater (p < 0.05) than the SID and SDD of Ca. The SDD, SID and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate were greater (p < 0.05) than those of L. calcareum Ca. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, standardised digestibility of Ca is not affected by the level of phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly

  20. Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculant and beet pulp addition on fermentation characteristics and in vitro ruminal digestion of vegetable residue silage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Cai, Y; Takahashi, T; Yoshida, N; Tohno, M; Uegaki, R; Nonaka, K; Terada, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beet pulp (BP) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal dry matter (DM) digestion of vegetable residues, including white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, and lettuce. Silage was prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and treatments were designed as control silage without additive or with BP (30% fresh matter basis), LAB inoculant Chikuso-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, 5mg/kg, fresh matter basis), and BP+LAB. In vitro incubation was performed using rumen fluid mixed with McDougall's artificial saliva (at a ratio of 1:4, vol/vol) at 39°C for 6h to determine the ruminal fermentability of the vegetable residue silages. These vegetable residues contained high levels of crude protein (20.6-22.8% of DM) and moderate levels of neutral detergent fiber (22.7-33.6% of DM). In all silages, the pH sharply decreased and lactic acid increased, and the growth of bacilli, coliform bacteria, molds, and yeasts was inhibited by the low pH at the early stage of ensiling. The silage treated with BP or LAB had a lower pH and a higher lactic acid content than the control silage. After 6h of incubation, all silages had relatively high DM digestibility (38.6-44.9%); in particular, the LAB-inoculated silage had the highest DM digestibility and the lowest methane production. The vegetable residues had high nutritional content and high in vitro DM digestibility. Also, both the addition of a LAB inoculant and moisture adjustment with BP improved the fermentation quality of the vegetable residue silages. In addition, LAB increased DM digestibility and decreased ruminal methane production. PMID:21787927

  1. Simplified method for the determination of Ru, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt in chromitites and other geological materials by isotope dilution ICP-MS and acid digestion.

    PubMed

    Meisel, T; Moser, J; Fellner, N; Wegscheider, W; Schoenberg, R

    2001-03-01

    A method for the determination of low Ru, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt abundances in geological reference materials by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion in a high pressure asher (HPA-S) is presented. The digestion technique is similar to that using Carius tubes but easier to handle and reaches higher temperatures. Osmium can be determined as OsO4 with ICP-MS directly after digestion through a sparging technique. The remaining elements are preconcentrated by means of anion column chromatography. The resin is digested directly without elution leading to high yields but this causes problems if Zr is present at higher levels in the silicate rich materials. The analytical results for international platinum group element (PGE) reference materials, chromitite CHR-Bkg, basalt TDB-1 and gabbro WGB-1, are presented and compared with literature data, demonstrating the validity of the described method. Although higher in concentration, PGEs determined for reference material WGB-1 were worse than for TDB-1 indicating a more inhomogeneous distribution of the platinum group mineral phases. The low PGE abundance chromitite standard, CHR-Bkg, is likely to be homogeneous for Ru, Re, Os and Ir and is recommended as a reference material for the study of chromitites. Detection limits (3s x total procedure blank) range from 0.012 ng (Re and Os) to 0.77 ng (Pt), which could be further improved by applying higher quality acids.

  2. Simplified method for the determination of Ru, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt in chromitites and other geological materials by isotope dilution ICP-MS and acid digestion.

    PubMed

    Meisel, T; Moser, J; Fellner, N; Wegscheider, W; Schoenberg, R

    2001-03-01

    A method for the determination of low Ru, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt abundances in geological reference materials by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion in a high pressure asher (HPA-S) is presented. The digestion technique is similar to that using Carius tubes but easier to handle and reaches higher temperatures. Osmium can be determined as OsO4 with ICP-MS directly after digestion through a sparging technique. The remaining elements are preconcentrated by means of anion column chromatography. The resin is digested directly without elution leading to high yields but this causes problems if Zr is present at higher levels in the silicate rich materials. The analytical results for international platinum group element (PGE) reference materials, chromitite CHR-Bkg, basalt TDB-1 and gabbro WGB-1, are presented and compared with literature data, demonstrating the validity of the described method. Although higher in concentration, PGEs determined for reference material WGB-1 were worse than for TDB-1 indicating a more inhomogeneous distribution of the platinum group mineral phases. The low PGE abundance chromitite standard, CHR-Bkg, is likely to be homogeneous for Ru, Re, Os and Ir and is recommended as a reference material for the study of chromitites. Detection limits (3s x total procedure blank) range from 0.012 ng (Re and Os) to 0.77 ng (Pt), which could be further improved by applying higher quality acids. PMID:11284333

  3. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Liu, Y.; Yin, R. Q.; Yang, X. J.; Yao, J. H.; Sun, F. F.; Li, G. J.; Liu, Y. R.; Sun, Y. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g). The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = −2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p<0.01). Removing gross energy from the model obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = 57.88×ether extracts+87.62×a* (BIC = 254.3, RMSE = 223.5; p<0.01). No correlation was found between color scores and lysine true digestibility (p>0.05). These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation. PMID:25049858

  4. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Liu, Y; Yin, R Q; Yang, X J; Yao, J H; Sun, F F; Li, G J; Liu, Y R; Sun, Y J

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g). The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = -2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p<0.01). Removing gross energy from the model obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = 57.88×ether extracts+87.62×a* (BIC = 254.3, RMSE = 223.5; p<0.01). No correlation was found between color scores and lysine true digestibility (p>0.05). These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation.

  5. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  6. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  7. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  8. Reduction of non-digestible oligosaccharides in soymilk: application of engineered lactic acid bacteria that produce alpha-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Silvestroni, Aurelio; Connes, Cristelle; Juillard, Vincent; de Giori, Graciela Savoy; Piard, Jean-Christophe; Sesma, Fernando

    2004-09-30

    Human consumption of soy-derived products has been limited by the presence of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), such as the alpha-galactooligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose. Most mammals, including man, lack pancreatic alpha-galactosidase (alpha-Gal), which is necessary for the hydrolysis of these sugars. However, such NDO can be fermented by gas-producing microorganisms present in the cecum and large intestine, which in turn can induce flatulence and other gastrointestinal disorders in sensitive individuals. The use of microorganisms expressing alpha-Gal is a promising solution to the elimination of NDO before they reach the large intestine. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria engineered to degrade NDO have been constructed and are being used as a tool to evaluate this solution. The alpha-Gal structural genes from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC8014 (previously characterized in our laboratory) and from guar have been cloned and expressed in Lactococcus lactis. The gene products were directed to different bacterial compartments to optimize their possible applications. The alpha-Gal-producing strains are being evaluated for their efficiency in degrading raffinose and stachyose: i) in soymilk fermentation when used as starters and ii) in situ in the upper gastrointestinal tract when administered to animals orally, as probiotic preparations. The expected outcomes and possible complications of this project are discussed.

  9. Abomasal or ruminal administration of flax oil and hulls on milk production, digestibility, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kazama, R; Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Zeoula, L M; Santos, G T D; Petit, H V

    2010-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated primiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of the site of administration (rumen or abomasum) of flax oil and flax hulls on diet digestibility and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. The treatments were 1) oil and hulls administered in the rumen and abomasal infusion of water (RUM/RUM), 2) oil and hulls infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO), 3) oil administered in the rumen and hulls infused in the abomasum (RUM/ABO), and 4) oil infused in the abomasum and hulls placed in the rumen (ABO/RUM). Cows on the ABO/ABO and RUM/RUM treatments had the highest and lowest amounts of basal dry matter eaten, respectively. Higher dry matter digestibility was obtained when flax oil bypassed the rumen (ABO/ABO and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax oil was administered directly in the rumen (RUM/ABO and RUM/RUM). Apparent digestibility of ether extract was higher when flax hulls were administered in the rumen (RUM/RUM and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax hulls were infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO and RUM/ABO). The lowest digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber was obtained when both flax products were added in the rumen, which may be attributed to the high amount of oil present in the rumen (7.8% of total dry matter input). The lowest yield of 4% fat-corrected milk was obtained for cows on the RUM/RUM treatment, probably as a result of lower dry matter intake and digestibility of fiber. Milk concentrations of protein, fat, total solids, and lactose were similar among treatments. Administration of oil and hulls in the rumen resulted in the highest concentrations of intermediate products of biohydrogenation and total trans fatty acids in milk fat compared with the other treatments. All ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in milk fat were lower than the 4 to 1 ratio recommended to improve human health. These results suggest that the presence of both flax oil and flax hulls in

  10. The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

    2013-08-01

    The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids.

  11. Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid on ruminal fermentation, bacterial distribution, digestibility, and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Oh, J; Hristov, A N; Harvatine, K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Zanton, G I

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the effect of a Met analog, 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa), on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestibility, urinary N losses, and performance of dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 4 levels of HMTBa [0 (control), 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% (dry matter basis)] in a replicated 4×4 Latin square trial. Experimental periods were 28 d, including 21 d for adaptation. Ruminal ammonia and microbial N were labeled through a 6-d intraruminal infusion of (15)NH4Cl, and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen was estimated using the reticular sampling technique. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (28.4 to 29.8kg/d), milk yield (44.1 to 45.3kg/d), feed efficiency, and milk composition. Total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients was generally not affected by treatment, except digestibility of crude protein and starch decreased quadratically with HMTBa supplementation. Fecal, but not urinary, and total excreta N losses were increased quadratically by HMTBa. Ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, protozoal counts, and the major volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. Microbial N outflow from the rumen was linearly increased by HMTBa. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the proportion of Fecalibacterium and quadratically decreased the proportion of Eubacterium in ruminal contents. Of the individual bacterial species, HMTBa increased or tended to increase Prevotella loescheii and Prevotella oralis. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the concentration (and yield) of 15:0 in milk fat. In the conditions of this crossover experiment, HMTBa had no effect on feed intake and performance of dairy cows, decreased dietary crude protein digestibility, and increased microbial N outflow from the rumen.

  12. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    PubMed

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  13. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth

  14. Automatic control of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion using a fuzzy logic based approach.

    PubMed

    Puñal, A; Palazzotto, L; Bouvier, J C; Conte, T; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    A control law based on fuzzy logic was developed and validated for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process. The controlled variable was the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the reactor and the manipulated variable was the input flow rate. In order to use it as the input of the fuzzy sets, the controlled variable was treated using an algorithm of interpolation, extrapolation and filtering. The treatment of VFA values attempted to anticipate the behaviour of the variable and to avoid the inherent delay of the response, associated to the time constant of the system. Furthermore, the controlled variable derivative was used as a second input of the fuzzy sets to increase or decrease the speed of the control action. The control law was applied to a 0.948 m3 fixed-bed anaerobic reactor treating raw and diluted (1:2) industrial distillery vinasses. The validation was performed establishing different transient states between different set points in the range of 0.8 and 1.8 g VFA/l and different concentrations of the influent. The control law proved to be reliable supplying an adequate control action in terms of amplitude and velocity to achieve the desired set point for different types of perturbation and control purposes.

  15. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  16. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  17. GC/MS method for determining carbon isotope enrichment and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids by direct aqueous solution injection of biogas digester samples.

    PubMed

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Feilberg, Anders

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic digestion of organic matter, several metabolic pathways are involved during the simultaneous production and consumption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in general and acetate in particular. Understanding the role of each pathway requires both the determination of the concentration and isotope enrichment of intermediates in conjunction with isotope labeled substrates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and simple GC/MS method for determining the isotope enrichment of acetate and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in biogas digester samples by direct liquid injection of acidified aqueous samples. Sample preparation involves only acidification, centrifugation and filtration of the aqueous solution followed by direct injection of the aqueous supernatant solution onto a polar column. With the sample preparation and GC/MS conditions employed, well-resolved and sharp peaks of underivatized SCFA were obtained in a reasonably short time. Good recovery (96.6-102.3%) as well as low detection (4-7 µmol/L) and quantification limits (14-22 µmol/L) were obtained for all the 6 SCFA studied. Good linearity was achieved for both concentration and isotope enrichment measurement with regression coefficients higher than 0.9978 and 0.9996, respectively. The method has a good intra- and inter-day precision with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 6% for determining the tracer-to-tracee ratio (TTR) of both [2-(13)C]acetate and [U-(13)C]acetate. It has also a good intra- and inter-day precision with a RSD below 6% and 5% for determining the concentration of standard solution and biogas digester samples, respectively. Acidification of biogas digester samples with oxalic acid provided the low pH required for the protonation of SCFA and thus, allows the extraction of SCFA from the complex sample matrix. Moreover, oxalic acid was the source of formic acid which was produced in the injector set at high temperature. The produced

  18. Intravenous or luminal amino acids are insufficient to maintain pancreatic growth and digestive enzyme expression in the absence of intact dietary protein

    PubMed Central

    Baumler, Megan D.; Koopmann, Matthew C.; Thomas, Diana D. H.; Ney, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported that rats receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) undergo significant pancreatic atrophy characterized by reduced total protein and digestive enzyme expression due to a lack of intestinal stimulation by nutrients (Baumler MD, Nelson DW, Ney DM, Groblewski GE. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292: G857–G866, 2007). Essentially identical results were recently reported in mice fed protein-free diets (Crozier SJ, D'Alecy LG, Ernst SA, Ginsburg LE, Williams JA. Gastroenterology 137: 1093–1101, 2009), provoking the question of whether reductions in pancreatic protein and digestive enzyme expression could be prevented by providing amino acids orally or by intravenous (IV) infusion while maintaining intestinal stimulation with fat and carbohydrate. Controlled studies were conducted in rats with IV catheters including orally fed/saline infusion or TPN-fed control rats compared with rats fed a protein-free diet, oral amino acid, or IV amino acid feeding, all with oral carbohydrate and fat. Interestingly, neither oral nor IV amino acids were sufficient to prevent the pancreatic atrophy seen for TPN controls or protein-free diets. Oral and IV amino acids partially attenuated the 75–90% reductions in pancreatic amylase and trypsinogen expression; however, values remained 50% lower than orally fed control rats. Lipase expression was more modestly reduced by a lack of dietary protein but did respond to IV amino acids. In comparison, chymotrypsinogen expression was induced nearly twofold in TPN animals but was not altered in other experimental groups compared with oral control animals. In contrast to pancreas, protein-free diets had no detectable effects on jejunal mucosal villus height, total mass, protein, DNA, or sucrase activity. These data underscore that, in the rat, intact dietary protein is essential in maintaining pancreatic growth and digestive enzyme adaptation but has surprisingly little effect on small intestinal mucosa. PMID

  19. Determination of crude protein in animal feed, forage, grain, and oilseeds by using block digestion with a copper catalyst and steam distillation into boric acid: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Nancy J; Manson, Harold; Andersson, Shirley; Persson, Jan-Ake

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of an extension of AOAC Official Method 991.20, Nitrogen (Crude) in Milk, to animal feed, forage (plant tissue), grain, and oilseed materials. Test portions are digested in an aluminum block at 420 degrees C in sulfuric acid with potassium sulfate and a copper catalyst. Digests are cooled and diluted, and concentrated sodium hydroxide is added to neutralize the acid and make the digest basic; the liberated ammonia is distilled by using steam distillation. The liberated ammonia is trapped in a weak boric acid solution and titrated with a stronger standardized acid, hydrochloric acid; colorimetric endpoint detection is used. Fourteen blind samples were sent to 13 collaborators in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Recoveries of nitrogen from lysine, tryptophan, and acetanilide were 86.8, 98.8, and 100.1%, respectively. The within-laboratory relative standard deviation (RSDr, repeatability) ranged from 0.40 to 2.38% for crude protein. The among-laboratories (including within-) relative standard deviation (RSD(R), reproducibility) ranged from 0.44 to 2.38%. It is recommended that the method be adopted First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. A lower concentration (1% H3BO3) of trapping solution was compared with the concentration specified in the original protocol (4% H3BO3) and was found comparable for use in an automatic titration system in which titration begins automatically as soon as distillation starts. The Study Directors recommend that 1% H3BO3 as an optional alternative to 4% boric acid trapping solution be allowed for automatic titrators that titrate throughout the distillation.

  20. Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, L.; Ruiz-Moreno, M.; Stern, M. D.; Martinsson, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated) of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003) with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The 130°C treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006) and individual AA (p<0.05) and an increase in intestinal digestibility that could be explained both by a linear and a quadratic model for total AA and most individual AA (p<0.05). The 130°C treatment decreased ruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (p<0.001). It is concluded that moist heat treatment at 130°C did not overprotect the CP of HC and could be used to shift the site of CP and AA digestion from the rumen to the small intestine. This may increase the value of HC as a protein supplement for ruminants. PMID:25049517

  1. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods.

  2. Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Protein, Limiting Amino Acid Supplemented Diets Formulated Either on Total or Standardized Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Basis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Basavanta; Gloridoss, R. G.; Singh, K. C.; Prabhu, T. M.; Suresh, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present experiment was to investigate the effect of protein reduction in commercial broiler chicken rations with incorporation of de-oiled rice bran (DORB) and supplementation of limiting amino acids (valine, isoleucine, and/or tryptophan) with ration formulation either on total amino acid (TAA) or standardized ileal digestible amino acids (SIDAA). The experimental design consisted of T1, TAA control; T2 and T3, 0.75% and 1.5% protein reduction by 3% and 6% DORB incorporation, respectively by replacing soybean meal with supplemental limiting amino acids to meet TAA requirement; T4, SIDAA control, T5 and T6, 0.75% and 1.5% protein reduction by DORB incorporation (3% and 6%) with supplemental limiting amino acids on SIDAA basis. A total of 360 d-old fast growing broiler chicks (Vencobb-400) were divided into 36 homogenous groups of ten chicks each, and six dietary treatments described were allocated randomly with six replications. During 42 days trial, the feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by TAA factor compared to SIDAA factor and protein factor significantly (p<0.05) reduced the feed intake at 1.5% reduction compared to normal protein group. This was observed only during pre-starter phase but not thereafter. The cumulative body weight gain (BWG) was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in TAA formulations with protein step-down of 1.5% (T3, 1,993 g) compared to control (T1, 2,067 g), while under SIDAA formulations, BWG was not affected with protein reduction of 1.5% (T6, 2,076 g) compared to T4 (2,129 g). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in both TAA and SIDAA formulations with 1.5% protein step-down (T3, 1.741; T6, 1.704) compared to respective controls (T1, 1.696; T4, 1.663). The SIDAA formulation revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher BWG (2,095 g) and better FCR (1.684) compared to TAA formulation (2,028 g; 1.721). Intake of crude protein and all limiting amino acids (SID basis) was higher in SIDAA group than

  3. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... is about 30 feet long. continue How Digestion Works Digestion Begins in the Mouth The process of ... a noncongenital condition. Esophagitis is usually caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) , a condition in which the esophageal ...

  4. Identification and characterization of isomeric N-glycans of human alfa-acid-glycoprotein by stable isotope labelling and ZIC-HILIC-MS in combination with exoglycosidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Mancera-Arteu, Montserrat; Giménez, Estela; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victòria

    2016-10-12

    In this study, a ZIC-HILIC-MS methodology for the analysis of N-glycan isomers was optimized to obtain greater detection sensitivity and thus identify more glycan structures in hAGP. In a second step, this method was combined with glycan reductive isotope labelling (GRIL) through [(12)C6]/[(13)C6]-aniline and exoglycosidase digestion to characterize the different glycan isomers. The GRIL method allows the peak areas resulting from two different labelled samples to be compared, since neither retention time shifts nor variations in the ionization of glycans between these samples are obtained. First, sialic acid linkage assignations were performed for most hAGP glycan isomers with α2-3 sialidase digestion. Bi-, tri- and tetraantennary glycan isomers with different terminal sialic acid linkages to galactose (α2-3 or α2-6) were assigned, and the potential of this technique for the structural characterization of isobaric isomers was therefore demonstrated. Furthermore, fucose linkage isomers of hAGP glycans were also characterized using this isotope-labelling approach in combination with α1-3,4 fucosidase and β1-4 galactosidase digestion. α1-3 antennary fucoses and α1-6 core fucosylation were detected in hAGP fucosylated glycans. These established methodologies can be extremely useful for patho-glycomic studies to characterize glycoproteins of biomedical interest and find novel glycan isomers that could be used as biomarkers in cancer research. PMID:27662763

  5. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Adebiyi, A. O.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.; Olukosi, O. A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace) with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6) kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) that were either adequate (19%) or marginal (15%) in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs. PMID:26194226

  6. Quantity analysis of micro-organisms in bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Xiangyong

    2008-12-01

    Water is necessary to human being and all kinds of animals and plants. In recently years, Bottled Water become the main drinking water whatever for families or for institutions. But most of them have no conception of the water's safety or quality. To have conceptions of the count and distributing of the microorganisms in bucket pure water, we use fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I to research the microorganisms (including virus) quantity in Bottled Water for six samples produced in different place. Analyzing shows that the quantity of the microorganisms in these water are different. Some up to 11.912×106 virus/ m L. The quality of Bottled Water needs to be improved. And the quantity of microorganisms in the water is different with different ways to keep the water. At the same time, it shows that fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I method is simple and high sensitive to such low microorganisms quantity water sample. It can be used in the microorganisms dynamic quantity research in drinking water.

  7. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  8. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Ju, W S; Stein, H H

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA (Exp. 1) and the concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2) in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (BW = 34.0 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. One diet contained 30% SBM and 4 diets were formulated with 20% SBM and 30% (as-fed basis) CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, or PKM. The last diet was an N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Met, Thr, and Trp was less (P < 0.05) in CM than in SBM, and the SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Trp was less (P < 0.05) in PKE-IN than in SBM. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of CP and all indispensable AA between PKE-CR and SBM, but the SID of CP and all indispensable AA were less (P < 0.05) in PKM than in SBM. The SID of CP was less (P < 0.05) in PKM compared with CM and PKE-CR, but there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of all indispensable AA among CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM. In Exp. 2, 48 barrows (BW = 35.2 ± 3.0 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets containing 70% of the corn diet and 30% of CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM were formulated, and the DE and ME in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM were calculated using the substitution procedure. The DE (3692, 3304, 2994, and 2905 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3496, 3184, 2883, and 2766 kcal/kg DM) in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM, respectively, were less (P < 0.05) than the DE and ME in SBM (4275 and 4062 kcal/kg DM, respectively). Copra meal had greater (P < 0.05) DE than PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM and greater (P < 0.05) ME

  9. Isolation from a shea cake digester of a tannin-tolerant Escherichia coli strain decarboxylating p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acids.

    PubMed

    Chamkha, Mohamed; Record, Eric; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Asther, Marcel; Labat, Marc

    2002-05-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, mesophilic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulated bacterium, designated strain C2, was isolated from an anaerobic digester fed with shea cake rich in tannins and aromatic compounds and previously inoculated with anaerobic sludge from the pit of a slaughterhouse, after enrichment on tannic acid. The straight rods occurred singly or in pairs. Strain C2 fermented numerous carbohydrates (fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannose, maltose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, saccharose, sorbitol, trehalose, and xylose) and peptides (Biotrypcase, Casamino acids, and yeast extract), producing acid and gas, and had a G + C content of 51.6 +/- 0.1 mol %. Strain C2 was very closely related to Escherichia coli (= DSM 30083(T)) phylogenetically (similarity of 99%), genotypically (DNA homology of 79%), and phenotypically. The isolate tolerated tannic acid (hydrolyzable tannin) and decarboxylated by non-oxidative decarboxylation only p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acids to their corresponding phenol and guaicol, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions without further degradation. Adding glucose increased growth and the rate of conversion. High concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic acid or vanillic acid inhibited growth, and decarboxylation could not occur completely, suggesting phenol toxicity. In contrast, the type strain of E. coli cannot metabolize p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acids, anaerobically or aerobically, with or without glucose added. PMID:11927985

  10. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment.

  11. Effects of steam-treated rice straw feeding on growth, digestibility, and plasma volatile fatty acids of goats under different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Naeem; Nasir, Rajput; Li, Dong; Lili, Zhang; Tian, Wang

    2014-12-01

    In order to use rice straw as forage in livestock feeding, the effects of steam-treated rice straw (at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s) feeding on growth performance, plasma volatile fatty acid profile, and nutrient digestibility of goats were determined. Twenty male goats (18.69 ± 0.34 kg) were used in an 84-day trial. The goats were divided into four groups of five goats each to receive steam-treated (STRS) or untreated (UTRS) rice straw diet under closed house (CH) and open house (OH) systems. The results revealed that the goats fed with STRS had significantly higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility; similarly, the average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were higher for STRS groups under both CH and OH systems than those for UTRS. The plasma protein and insulin in STRS and cholesterol in UTRS groups was higher (P < 0.05) at 60 days but found not different (P > 0.05) at 30 days. The plasma amylase, lipase, T3, T4 and glucagon at 30 and 60 days were not different (P > 0.05) among the groups. The plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid were higher (P < 0.05) in STRS groups at 30 and 60 days. The housing conditions had no effects (P > 0.05) on these parameters. It could be concluded that steam treatment of rice straw at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s increased apparent nutrient digestibility, hence increased the growth and feed efficiency of growing goats.

  12. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production.

  13. Practical removal of radioactivity from soil in Fukushima using immobilized photosynthetic bacteria combined with anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation as pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken; Morikawa, Hiroyo; Kishibe, Takashi; Takeno, Kenji; Mikami, Ayaka; Harada, Toshihiko; Ohta, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Practical removal of radioactivity from polluted soil in Fukushima, Japan was done using a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides SSI, immobilized in alginate beads. The beads were put in a mesh bag and soaked in which soil was suspended (5 kg of soil/10 L of tap water). The radioactivity of the broth decreased by 31% after 15 d of aerobic treatment. When lactic acid bacterial culture broth was added to the suspend broth, about 50% of the radioactivity was transferred to a suspend broth fraction consisting of small particles from the soil after 3 d of fermentation and 20 s of sedimentation. The results suggest that organic matter in the soil was decomposed by anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation simultaneously, and was then transferred into the liquid as small particles. With combined treatment by anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation for 5 d and immobilized bead aerobic treatment for an additional 19 d, the radioactivity of suspend broth decreased by 66%. The radioactivity of the original soil (10.56 µSv/h) ultimately decreased by 67% (3.52 µSv/h) after the combined treatment.

  14. Structures of microbial communities found in anaerobic batch runs that produce methane from propionic acid--Seeded from full-scale anaerobic digesters above a certain threshold.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong; Shin, Seung Gu; Han, Gyuseong; Cho, Kyungjin; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2015-11-20

    The volatile fatty acid propionate inhibits anaerobic digestion during organic waste treatments. To examine potential microbial interactions that accelerate propionate oxidation, anaerobic digestion systems seeded with various types of anaerobic sludge were analyzed. Seed samples were collected from 10 different full-scale anaerobic reactors in South Korea. Propionate oxidation was estimated as the methane production rate per gram of propionate used per day. Two domestic sewage sludge showed the highest methane production rate values, 109.1 ± 4.2 and 74.5 ± 8.6 mL CH4/(g propionate ∙ d). A food waste recycling wastewater source exhibited the lowest methane production rate, 33.2 ± 2.6 mL CH4/(g propionate ∙ d). To investigate how the microbial community structure affected propionate oxidation, qualitative molecular analyses were carried out using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Methanosaeta concilii, an aceticlastic methanogen, was detected in most batch runs. Smithella propionica, a unique propionate oxidizer and simultaneous producer of acetate, was found in domestic sewage sludge sources showing the highest methane production rate; in contrast, Desulfobulbus rhabdoformis, a sulfate reducer coupled with the consumption of acetate to be used as a precursor of methane, was observed in food waste recycling wastewater sludge source showing the lowest methane production rate. Thus, we propose that S. propionica, a syntrophic acetate producer using propionate, might cooperate with aceticlastic methanogens for high methane production during anaerobic digestion that included propionate.

  15. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of expeller-extracted canola meal subjected to different processing conditions for starter and grower broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Toghyani, M; Rodgers, N; Iji, P A; Swick, R A

    2015-05-01

    Six expeller-extracted canola meal (ECM) samples produced under different seed conditioning temperatures (90, 95, or 100°C) and screw torques in the second press (low or high) were evaluated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of processing on standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SID) in 10 and 24-day-old broilers. A nitrogen-free diet was fed to determine ileal endogenous amino acid flow. Each diet was fed for 5 d to 6 replicate cages of 10 or 7 chicks, and ileal samples were collected at 10 and 24 d, respectively. The endogenous flow (mg/kg DM intake) of CP and all amino acids except Cys decreased (P < 0.01) with age. Conditioning temperature by screw torque interactions were detected (P < 0.05) for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, Arg, Ile, Lys, Phe, Thr, Ala, Asp, Glu, Pro ,and Ser at d 10, and the same trend was observed at d 24 except for Ile, Phe, Ala, and Pro (P > 0.05). Meals processed under medium conditioning temperature (95°C) at either low or high screw torque had the greatest (P < 0.05) AID of CP and total amino acids. The SID values followed a similar pattern as AID at both ages. When corrected for endogenous losses, the average AID of total amino acids improved approximately 3.5 and 2.0 units, at 10 and 24 d, respectively. The AID and SID values increased (P < 0.05) with age for most AA, but the effect of age was not consistent between ECMs. A negative correlation was detected between NDF and neutral detergent-insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) content of the meals and SID values of Lys at d 24 (r = -0.79, r = -0.76; P = 0.001, respectively). Processing conditions affected CP and amino acid digestibility, likely because of alterations to the chemical composition of ECM and formation of indigestible complexes of amino acids with fiber. The AID and SID values increased with age independent of meal processing conditions.

  16. Preparation of high efficiency and low carry-over immobilized enzymatic reactor with methacrylic acid-silica hybrid monolith as matrix for on-line protein digestion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huiming; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a novel kind of organic-silica hybrid monolith based immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER) was developed. The monolithic support was prepared by a single step "one-pot" strategy via the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane and vinyltrimethoxysilane and in situ copolymerization of methacrylic acid and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes with ammonium persulfate as the thermal initiator. Subsequently, the monolith was activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) - N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by the modification of branched polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve the hydrophilicity. Finally, after activated by EDC and NHS, trypsin was covalently immobilized onto the monolithic support. The performance of such a microreactor was evaluated by the in sequence digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin, followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Compared to those obtained by traditional in-solution digestion, not only higher sequence coverages for BSA (74±1.4% vs. 59.5±2.7%, n=6) and myoglobin (93±3% vs. 81±4.5%, n=6) were obtained, but also the digestion time was shortened from 24h to 2.5 min, demonstrating the high digestion efficiency of such an IMER. The carry-over of these two proteins on the IMER was investigated, and peptides from BSA could not be found in mass spectrum of myoglobin digests, attributed to the good hydrophilicity of our developed monolithic support. Moreover, the dynamic concentration range for protein digestion was proved to be four orders of magnitude, and the IMER could endure at least 7-day consecutive usage. Furthermore, such an IMER was coupled with nano-RPLC-ESI/MS/MS for the analysis of extracted proteins from Escherichia coli. Compared to formerly reported silica hybrid monolith based IMER and the traditional in-solution counterpart, by our developed IMER, although the identified protein number was similar, the identified distinct peptide number was improved by 7% and 25% respectively

  17. Preparation of high efficiency and low carry-over immobilized enzymatic reactor with methacrylic acid-silica hybrid monolith as matrix for on-line protein digestion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huiming; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a novel kind of organic-silica hybrid monolith based immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER) was developed. The monolithic support was prepared by a single step "one-pot" strategy via the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane and vinyltrimethoxysilane and in situ copolymerization of methacrylic acid and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes with ammonium persulfate as the thermal initiator. Subsequently, the monolith was activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) - N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by the modification of branched polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve the hydrophilicity. Finally, after activated by EDC and NHS, trypsin was covalently immobilized onto the monolithic support. The performance of such a microreactor was evaluated by the in sequence digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin, followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Compared to those obtained by traditional in-solution digestion, not only higher sequence coverages for BSA (74±1.4% vs. 59.5±2.7%, n=6) and myoglobin (93±3% vs. 81±4.5%, n=6) were obtained, but also the digestion time was shortened from 24h to 2.5 min, demonstrating the high digestion efficiency of such an IMER. The carry-over of these two proteins on the IMER was investigated, and peptides from BSA could not be found in mass spectrum of myoglobin digests, attributed to the good hydrophilicity of our developed monolithic support. Moreover, the dynamic concentration range for protein digestion was proved to be four orders of magnitude, and the IMER could endure at least 7-day consecutive usage. Furthermore, such an IMER was coupled with nano-RPLC-ESI/MS/MS for the analysis of extracted proteins from Escherichia coli. Compared to formerly reported silica hybrid monolith based IMER and the traditional in-solution counterpart, by our developed IMER, although the identified protein number was similar, the identified distinct peptide number was improved by 7% and 25% respectively

  18. [Simultaneous determination of iodate, chlorite and bromate in bottled drinking water by ion chromatography with post-column reaction and UV detection].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiqi; Wang, Zijian; Xu, Yiping; Ma, Mei

    2007-05-01

    Iodate, chlorite and bromate in bottled water are disinfectant by-products (DBPs) from ozonation. The established methods for simultaneous determination of iodate, chlorite and bromate are mostly based on pre- or post-column chemical reaction in which the target compound was converted to another easily detectable species. However, the procedure suffers from several time-consuming reaction steps that involve multiple chemicals, or where the reagents themselves are toxic. In the present study, a rapid, highly sensitive, precise and accurate method was established, and a post-column reaction with sodium nitrite and acid solution of potassium bromide was employed to enhance sensitivity and to reduce interferences. Under optimized conditions, the method limits for iodate, chlorite and bromate were 0.5, 0.4 microg/L and 0.1 microg/L, respectively. Percentage recoveries of iodate, chlorite and bromate varied from 70.8% to 98.0%, 92.4% to 100% and 93.2% to 104.1% respectively with different spiked water samples. The proposed method was demonstrated for detecting the concentrations of iodate, chlorite and bromate in bottled water produced from different water sources. Results showed that severe bromate contamination was present in bottled mineral water purchased from Beijing supermarket, which used spring water or ground water as the sources.

  19. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, H. C.; Hannas, M. I.; Albino, L. F. T.; Rostagno, H. S.; Neme, R.; Faria, B. D.; Xavier, M. L.; Rennó, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase (BM) supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels (NL) were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers (NL1); reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy (NL2); 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion (FCR) for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance, energy

  20. Acidic Digestion in a Teleost: Postprandial and Circadian Pattern of Gastric pH, Pepsin Activity, and Pepsinogen and Proton Pump mRNAs Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yúfera, Manuel; Moyano, Francisco J.; Astola, Antonio; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Two different modes for regulation of stomach acid secretion have been described in vertebrates. Some species exhibit a continuous acid secretion maintaining a low gastric pH during fasting. Others, as some teleosts, maintain a neutral gastric pH during fasting while the hydrochloric acid is released only after the ingestion of a meal. Those different patterns seem to be closely related to specific feeding habits. However, our recent observations suggest that this acidification pattern could be modified by changes in daily feeding frequency and time schedule. The aim of this study was to advance in understanding the regulation mechanisms of stomach digestion and pattern of acid secretion in teleost fish. We have examined the postprandial pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and mRNA expression for pepsinogen and proton pump in white seabream juveniles maintained under a light/dark 12/12 hours cycle and receiving only one morning meal. The pepsin activity was analyzed according to the standard protocol buffering at pH 2 and using the actual pH measured in the stomach. The results show how the enzyme precursor is permanently available while the hydrochloric acid, which activates the zymogen fraction, is secreted just after the ingestion of food. Results also reveal that analytical protocol at pH 2 notably overestimates true pepsin activity in fish stomach. The expression of the mRNA encoding pepsinogen and proton pump exhibited almost parallel patterns, with notable increases during the darkness period and sharp decreases just before the morning meal. These results indicate that white seabream uses the resting hours for recovering the mRNA stock that will be quickly used during the feeding process. Our data clearly shows that both daily illumination pattern and feeding time are involved at different level in the regulation of the secretion of digestive juices. PMID:22448266

  1. Mitigating ammonia inhibition of thermophilic anaerobic treatment of digested piggery wastewater: use of pH reduction, zeolite, biomass and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, L; Ho, G

    2012-09-15

    High free ammonia released during anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes is widely known to inhibit methanogenic microorganisms and result in low methane production. This was encountered during our earlier thermophilic semi-continuously fed continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treatment of piggery wastewater. This study explored chemical and biological means to mitigate ammonia inhibition on thermophilic anaerobic treatment of piggery wastewater with the aim to increase organic volatile carbon reduction and methane production. A series of thermophilic anaerobic batch experiments were conducted on the digested piggery effluent to investigate the effects of pH reduction (pH 8.3 to 7.5, 7.0 and 6.5) and additions of biomass (10% v/v and 19% v/v anaerobic digested piggery biomass and aerobic-anaerobic digested municipal biomass), natural zeolite (10, 15 and 20 g/L) and humic acid (1, 5 and 10 g/L) on methane production at 55 °C for 9-11 days. Reduction of the wastewater pH from its initial pH of 8.3 to 6.5 produced the greatest stimulation of methane production (3.4 fold) coupled with reductions in free ammonia (38 fold) and total volatile fatty acids (58% TVFA), particularly acetate and propionate. Addition of 10-20 g/L zeolite to piggery wastewater with and without pH reduction to 6.5 further enhanced total VFA reduction and methane production over their respective controls, with 20 g/L zeolite producing the highest enhancement effect despite the ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of the treated wastewaters remaining high. Without pH reduction, zeolite concentration up to 20 g/L was required to achieve comparable methane enhancement as the pH-reduced wastewater at pH 6.5. Although biomass (10% v/v piggery and municipal wastes) and low humic acid (1 and 5 g/L) additions enhanced total VFA reduction and methane production, they elevated the residual effluent total COD concentrations over the control wastewaters (pH-unadjusted and pH-reduced) unlike zeolite

  2. Evaluation through literature data on standardized ileal digestibility and basal ileal endogenous loss of amino acids associated with barley in pigs.

    PubMed

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Eklund, M

    2014-10-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) and the basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses (IAAend) in barley for growing pigs. In total, 38 different barley treatments published in 26 peer-reviewed papers were used for the meta-analysis containing information on dietary composition including amino acid (AA) contents of the assay diets, and (or) barley samples, as well as apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA in barley. The SID of AA was determined by either correcting AID of AA for their IAAend or by regression analysis between the apparent ileal digestible and total dietary AA contents. The SID values obtained by correcting the AID values for their IAAend amounted to 70%, 77%, 74% and 63% for Lys, Met, Thr and Trp, whereas those based on regression analysis method were 82%, 82%, 69% and 55%, respectively. Estimates of basal ileal endogenous loss of CP in ileal digesta varied considerably and averaged 11.84 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), whereas IAAend for indispensable AA ranged from 0.05 g/kg DMI for Trp to 1.90 g/kg DMI for Leu. In most cases, these estimates were considerably higher than previously reported values for IAAend. The results of the present regression analysis indicate for most AA higher SID values compared with SID of most AA that were obtained by correcting AID values for IAAend. In view of the observed high variations in IAAend and the low CP content of the barley samples, estimating SID of AA based on literature data by means of the regression method may improve accuracy of SID coefficients for barley. In contrast, transformation of AID values into their corresponding SID values by using a constant correction factor for IAAend adds an additional source of error, thereby reducing the precision in estimating SID of AA.

  3. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  4. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of reduced-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to broilers from 23 to 31 days of age.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Perryman, K R; Hess, J B

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using male Ross×Ross 708 broiler chicks to determine the effect of oil extraction from corn distillers dried grains with solubles on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility from 23 to 31 d of age. On an as-fed basis, ether extract concentrations were determined as 5.4% (L-distillers dried grains with solubles), 7.9% (M-distillers dried grains with solubles), and 10.5% (H-distillers dried grains with solubles) for the 3 experimental distillers dried grains with solubles sources. Prior to experimentation, each sample (H-distillers dried grains with solubles (control), M-distillers dried grains with solubles and L-distillers dried grains with solubles) was analyzed on an as-fed basis for crude protein (29.2, 27.6, and 27.9%), starch (4.4, 5.2, and 6.1%), neutral detergent fiber (29.5, 33.2, and 29.9%), and total dietary fiber (31.4, 36.6, and 33.6 %). Four hundred and thirty-two male chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.04 m2 per bird) were randomly assigned to 36 battery grower cages. Broilers were fed one of 3 semi-purified diets, which were comprised of 76% L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M- distillers dried grains with solubles, or H-distillers dried grains with solubles as the sole amino acid source from 23 to 31 d of age. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients were negatively affected (P<0.05) by oil extraction for Met (0.722, 0.788, and 0.791), Lys (0.504, 0.510, and 0.552), Thr (0.563, 0.566, and 0.612), Trp (0.708, 0.733, and 0.767), and Arg (0.762, 0.776, and 0.799) for L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M-distillers dried grains with solubles, and H-distillers dried grains with solubles, respectively. Conversely, no differences in apparent amino acid coefficients were reported for Ile, Leu, and Val. These results indicated that L-distillers dried grains with solubles had lower apparent amino acid digestibility coefficients for Met, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Arg compared with H-distillers dried grains with

  5. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( < 0.01). Both CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions

  6. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( < 0.01). Both CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions

  7. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences.

  8. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bandegan, A; Kiarie, E; Payne, R L; Crow, G H; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal (DESBM), co-extruded canola seed-pea blend (ECSP, 50:50 wt/wt basis), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), and feather meal (FM) were determined in broiler chicks. For each ingredient, 5 samples each collected on different occasions were evaluated. Birds (n = 180 for each sample) were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to 15 of age followed by the test diets from d 15 to 21. Dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, ECSP, PBPM, and FM were included in the test diets at 95.3, 95.3, 38.4, and 28.4%, respectively, as the sole source of AA and balanced for minerals and vitamins. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in all diets as a digestibility marker. Each diet (5 per ingredient) was randomly assigned to 6 replicate cages, each with 6 birds. On d 21, birds were killed to collect ileal digesta for determining the apparent ileal AA digestibility on cage basis. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses previously determined in our laboratory. The apparent ileal digestibility of AA ranged from 78 to 91%, 68 to 83%, 51 to 81%, and 39 to 74% for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively. The respective ranges for SID values were 83 to 96%, 72 to 85%, 58 to 86%, and 42 to 78%. Among the indispensable AA, the lowest SID was observed for Thr in all test ingredients, whereas the highest SID was observed for Phe except in ECSP in which Arg had the highest SID. The SID of Lys (CV) were 91% (2.8%), 79% (2.0%), 78% (7.4%), and 60% (10%) for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively, whereas the SID of TSAA (CV) were 88% (4.5%), 77% (2.4%), 74% (9.0%), and 55% (18%), respectively. These SID AA data will help nutritionists to formulate broiler diets that more closely match the birds' requirements and minimize nutrient excess.

  9. Supplementation of barley-based diets with β-glucanase for pigs: energy and amino acid digestibility response.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of graded levels of β-glucanase supplementation to barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diets on the digestibility of DM, GE, N, and AA for growing-finishing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW: 53.3 ± 3.2 kg) were each fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and allotted to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 diets and 4 periods in each square. Diets were based on a barley-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM) basal diet (BD) containing 199 g CP and 3286 kcal DE per kilogram of diet. Treatments consisted of the BD and the BD supplemented with 10,000 (10K), 20,000 (20K), or 30,000 (30K) units of β-glucanase per kilogram at the expense of corn (Zea mays). Chromic oxide (0.5%) was included as an indigestible marker. Each experimental period consisted of 4 d of adaptation, 1 d of feces collection, and 2 d of ileal digesta collection. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM ranged from 81.0 to 82.5% and was not affected by β-glucanase supplementation. In the BD, ATTD of GE and N was 83.1 and 83.3%, respectively, and was not different in the BD supplemented with up to 30K units of β-glucanase per kilogram at 83.4 and 83%, respectively. Increasing levels of β-glucanase supplementation to the barley-SBM-based diet did not affect the ATTD of any criteria measured. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for DM, GE, and N ranged from 60.6, 65.4, and 70.8% (10K) to 66.4, 71.0, and 74.9% (20K), respectively. For indispensable AA, AID for Lys (79.9%) and Met (78.1%) was lowest in the BD supplemented with 20K and 10K units of β-glucanase per kilogram, respectively, and was not different from the digestibility of Lys and Met in the diet with added 30K units of β-glucanase per kilogram at 80.8 and 80.4%, respectively. There were neither significant linear nor quadratic effects of β-glucanase supplementation to barley-SBM-based diets on the AID of DM, GE, N, and AA. In conclusion, β-glucanase supplementation did

  10. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  11. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  12. Variation of in situ rumen degradation of crude protein and amino acids and in vitro digestibility of undegraded feed protein in rapeseed meals.

    PubMed

    Steingass, H; Kneer, G; Wischer, G; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-07-01

    In this study, 10 samples of rapeseed meal (RSM) from 10 different oil plants in Germany were examined. In situ rumen degradation of CP was determined by incubation over 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 72 h in duplicate per time point using three rumen fistulated dry cows. Degradation kinetics were estimated by an exponential model and effective CP degradation was calculated. Degradation was corrected for small particle loss as the difference between washing loss and water-soluble fraction. Amino acid analysis was carried out in the samples and in the residues after 8 and 16 h of incubation in situ and degradation of individual amino acids was calculated for these incubation times. In vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestibility of CP (IPD) was determined in the samples as well as in the 8 and 16 h residues. Effective CP degradation for a rumen outflow rate of 8%/h (ED8) averaged 54.3% with a considerable variation among samples ranging from 44.3% to 62.7%. A multiple regression equation containing acid detergent insoluble N, total glucosinolates and petroleum ether extract as independent variables predicted ED8 with satisfying accuracy (R 2 = 0.74; RSD = 6.4%). Degradation of amino acids was different from that of CP for most amino acids studied, especially after 8 h of incubation. Compared with CP, degradation of essential amino acids was predominantly lower while degradation of non-essential amino acids was higher in most cases. However, for lysine and methionine no distinct difference with CP degradation was found. Degradation of individual amino acids was predicted from CP degradation with high accuracy using linear regression equations. Average IPD of RSM was 79.8 ± 2.6%. IPD was lower in the incubation residues and decreased with longer incubation time and increasing rumen degradation, respectively.

  13. Variation of in situ rumen degradation of crude protein and amino acids and in vitro digestibility of undegraded feed protein in rapeseed meals.

    PubMed

    Steingass, H; Kneer, G; Wischer, G; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-07-01

    In this study, 10 samples of rapeseed meal (RSM) from 10 different oil plants in Germany were examined. In situ rumen degradation of CP was determined by incubation over 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 72 h in duplicate per time point using three rumen fistulated dry cows. Degradation kinetics were estimated by an exponential model and effective CP degradation was calculated. Degradation was corrected for small particle loss as the difference between washing loss and water-soluble fraction. Amino acid analysis was carried out in the samples and in the residues after 8 and 16 h of incubation in situ and degradation of individual amino acids was calculated for these incubation times. In vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestibility of CP (IPD) was determined in the samples as well as in the 8 and 16 h residues. Effective CP degradation for a rumen outflow rate of 8%/h (ED8) averaged 54.3% with a considerable variation among samples ranging from 44.3% to 62.7%. A multiple regression equation containing acid detergent insoluble N, total glucosinolates and petroleum ether extract as independent variables predicted ED8 with satisfying accuracy (R 2 = 0.74; RSD = 6.4%). Degradation of amino acids was different from that of CP for most amino acids studied, especially after 8 h of incubation. Compared with CP, degradation of essential amino acids was predominantly lower while degradation of non-essential amino acids was higher in most cases. However, for lysine and methionine no distinct difference with CP degradation was found. Degradation of individual amino acids was predicted from CP degradation with high accuracy using linear regression equations. Average IPD of RSM was 79.8 ± 2.6%. IPD was lower in the incubation residues and decreased with longer incubation time and increasing rumen degradation, respectively. PMID:23472609

  14. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  15. A novel digestion method based on a choline chloride-oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent for determining Cu, Fe, and Zn in fish samples.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Emadaldin; Ghanemi, Kamal; Fallah-Mehrjardi, Mehdi; Dadolahi-Sohrab, Ali

    2013-01-31

    A novel and efficient digestion method based on choline chloride-oxalic acid (ChCl-Ox) deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of Cu, Zn, and Fe in biological fish samples. Key parameters that influence analyte recovery were investigated and optimized, using the fish protein certified reference material (CRM, DORM-3) throughout the procedure. In this method, 100 mg of the sample was dissolved in ChCl-Ox (1:2, molar ratio) at 100°C for 45 min. Then, 5.0 mL HNO(3) (1.0 M) was added. After centrifugation, the supernatant solution was filtered, diluted to a known volume, and analyzed by FAAS. Under optimized conditions, an excellent agreement between the obtained results and the certified values was observed, using Student's t-test (P=0.05); the extraction recovery of the all elements was greater than 95.3%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of analytes in different tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) having a broad concentration range in a marine fish sample. The reproducibility of the method was validated by analyzing all samples by our method in a different laboratory, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). For comparison, a conventional acid digestion (CAD) method was also used for the determination of analytes in all studied samples. The simplicity of the proposed experimental procedure, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, lack of concentrated acids and oxidizing agents, and the use of safe and inexpensive components demonstrate the high potential of ChCl-Ox (1:2) for routine trace metal analysis in biological samples.

  16. A novel digestion method based on a choline chloride-oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent for determining Cu, Fe, and Zn in fish samples.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Emadaldin; Ghanemi, Kamal; Fallah-Mehrjardi, Mehdi; Dadolahi-Sohrab, Ali

    2013-01-31

    A novel and efficient digestion method based on choline chloride-oxalic acid (ChCl-Ox) deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of Cu, Zn, and Fe in biological fish samples. Key parameters that influence analyte recovery were investigated and optimized, using the fish protein certified reference material (CRM, DORM-3) throughout the procedure. In this method, 100 mg of the sample was dissolved in ChCl-Ox (1:2, molar ratio) at 100°C for 45 min. Then, 5.0 mL HNO(3) (1.0 M) was added. After centrifugation, the supernatant solution was filtered, diluted to a known volume, and analyzed by FAAS. Under optimized conditions, an excellent agreement between the obtained results and the certified values was observed, using Student's t-test (P=0.05); the extraction recovery of the all elements was greater than 95.3%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of analytes in different tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) having a broad concentration range in a marine fish sample. The reproducibility of the method was validated by analyzing all samples by our method in a different laboratory, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). For comparison, a conventional acid digestion (CAD) method was also used for the determination of analytes in all studied samples. The simplicity of the proposed experimental procedure, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, lack of concentrated acids and oxidizing agents, and the use of safe and inexpensive components demonstrate the high potential of ChCl-Ox (1:2) for routine trace metal analysis in biological samples. PMID:23327946

  17. Effect of feeding frequency on the daily rhythms of acidic digestion in a teleost fish (gilthead seabream).

    PubMed

    Yúfera, Manuel; Romero, María José; Pujante, Isabel M; Astola, Antonio; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2014-11-01

    Gilthead seabream is a fish species of great importance in Mediterranean aquaculture, attracting many studies on nutrition and chronobiology, although nothing is known about the effect of feeding frequency on the daily rhythms of the gastric digestion process. In this article, we investigated daily rhythms in stomach fullness, gastric and intestine pH, as well as pepsin activity and expression of pepsinogen and proton pump in juvenile fish under three different feeding protocols: (A) one daily meal at 9:00, (B) two daily meals at 9:00 and 17:00 and (C) continuous feeding during the daytime. The results revealed that feeding protocol affected significantly the rhythm of gastric pH and the pepsin activity pattern. The gastric pH exhibited significant daily rhythms in the three cases with the acrophase located at night in the regimes A and B and during daytime, in the regime C. In the regimes A and B, the pepsin activity peaked few hours after the meals, although the afternoon meal in B produced a higher peak. In the regime C, the peak occurred in the middle of the feeding period. Lowest total pepsin activity was observed in regime A, and the highest activity with the regime C. In contrast, the pepsinogen gene expression remained low along the daily cycle, with an expression peak just before or after the morning meal in regimes A and C, respectively. The proton pump gene expression was also practically constant with a peak right after the morning meal in the regime C. On the other hand, intestinal pH showed a postprandial increase after the first morning meal in all the three treatments, recovering the resting values in the dark period. Two meals and continuous feeding allowed a better and prolonged gastric digestion and consequently the juveniles exhibited better growth with the same daily ration of food. In short, while the gastric digestion pattern is mainly driven by pH changes induced by the time of food ingestion, the regulation of the intestinal digestion seems

  18. Homogenization, lyophilization or acid-extraction of meat products improves iron uptake from cereal-meat product combinations in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2009-03-01

    The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P < 0.05). Smaller liver particles (blended for 360 s or lyophilized) significantly enhanced iron uptake compared to liver blended for 60 s (P < 0.001) in the liver-flour combination. Compared to liver blended for 60 s, acid-extraction of liver significantly enhanced iron uptake (P = 0.03) in the liver-flour combination. Homogenization of beef and homogenization, lyophilization, or acid-extraction of chicken liver increases the enhancing effect of meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.

  19. Evaluation of ultrasonic, acid, thermo-alkaline and enzymatic pre-treatments on anaerobic digestion of Ulva rigida for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Karray, Raida; Hamza, Manel; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Pre-treatment of macroalgae has received considerable research globally due to its influence on the technical, economic and environmental sustainability of algae biogas production. Some of the most promising pre-treatment methods require the application of chemicals, enzymatic, and mechanical. This study focused on these pre-treatments of Ulva rigida for biogas production. The evaluation of different pre-treatment in terms of reducing sugar yields demonstrates that 3.62, 2.88, 2.53 and 7.3g/L of reducing sugar was obtained in acid catalysis, thermoalkaline, ultrasonication and enzymatic pre-treatment, respectively. However in crude macroalgae only 0.6g/L of reducing sugar was given. After anaerobic digestion, the enzymatic hydrolysis was demonstrated the best biogas yield than other pre-treatment which reached 626.5mL/gCODint with 62.65% of biodegradability. The best demonstrated method which uses crude broth of Aspergillus niger showed an effective and environmentally friendly strategy for enhancing the biogas production yields after the anaerobic digestion.

  20. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover in pilot-scale reactor: investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids.

    PubMed

    Schell, Daniel J; Farmer, Jody; Newman, Millie; McMillan, James D

    2003-01-01

    Corn stover is a domestic feedstock that has potential to produce significant quantities of fuel ethanol and other bioenergy and biobased products. However, comprehensive yield and carbon mass balance information and validated kinetic models for dilute-sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment of corn stover have not been available. This has hindered the estimation of process economics and also limited the ability to perform technoeconomic modeling to guide research. To better characterize pretreatment and assess its kinetics, we pretreated corn stover in a continuous 1 t/d reactor. Corn stover was pretreated at 20% (w/w) solids concentration over a range of conditions encompassing residence times of 3-12 min, temperatures of 165- 195 degrees C, and H2SO4 concentrations of 0.5-1.4% (w/w). Xylan conversion yield and carbon mass balance data were collected at each run condition. Performance results were used to estimate kinetic model parameters assuming biphasic hemicellulose hydrolysis and a hydrolysis mechanism incorporating formation of intermediate xylo-oligomers. In addition, some of the pretreated solids were tested in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process to measure the reactivity of their cellulose component to enzymatic digestion by cellulase enzymes. Monomeric xylose yields of 69-71% and total xylose yields (monomers and oligomers) of 70-77% were achieved with performance level depending on pretreatment severity. Cellulose conversion yields in SSF of 80-87% were obtained for some of the most digestible pretreated solids.

  1. Evaluation of ultrasonic, acid, thermo-alkaline and enzymatic pre-treatments on anaerobic digestion of Ulva rigida for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Karray, Raida; Hamza, Manel; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Pre-treatment of macroalgae has received considerable research globally due to its influence on the technical, economic and environmental sustainability of algae biogas production. Some of the most promising pre-treatment methods require the application of chemicals, enzymatic, and mechanical. This study focused on these pre-treatments of Ulva rigida for biogas production. The evaluation of different pre-treatment in terms of reducing sugar yields demonstrates that 3.62, 2.88, 2.53 and 7.3g/L of reducing sugar was obtained in acid catalysis, thermoalkaline, ultrasonication and enzymatic pre-treatment, respectively. However in crude macroalgae only 0.6g/L of reducing sugar was given. After anaerobic digestion, the enzymatic hydrolysis was demonstrated the best biogas yield than other pre-treatment which reached 626.5mL/gCODint with 62.65% of biodegradability. The best demonstrated method which uses crude broth of Aspergillus niger showed an effective and environmentally friendly strategy for enhancing the biogas production yields after the anaerobic digestion. PMID:25855526

  2. Lack of release of bound anthocyanins and phenolic acids from carrot plant cell walls and model composites during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Anneline; Netzel, Gabriele; Netzel, Michael; Day, Li; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Separately, polyphenols and plant cell walls (PCW) are important contributors to the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables. However, interactions with PCW which occur either during food preparation or mastication may affect bioaccessibility and hence bioavailability of polyphenols. Binding interactions between anthocyanins, phenolic acids (PAs) and PCW components, were evaluated using both a bacterial cellulose-pectin model system and a black carrot puree system. The majority of available polyphenols bound to PCW material with 60-70% of available anthocyanins and PAs respectively binding to black carrot puree PCW matter. Once bound, release of polyphenols using acidified methanol is low with only ∼20% of total anthocyanins to ∼30% of PAs being released. Less than 2% of bound polyphenol was released after in vitro gastric and small intestinal (S.I.) digestion for both the model system and the black carrot puree PCW matter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows localised binding of anthocyanins to PCW. Very similar patterns of binding for anthocyanins and PAs suggest that PAs form complexes with anthocyanins and polysaccharides. Time dependent changes in extractability with acidified methanol but not the total bound fraction suggests that initial non-specific deposition on cellulose surfaces is followed by rearrangement of the bound molecules. Minimal release of anthocyanins and PAs after simulated gastric and S.I. digestion indicates that polyphenols in fruits and vegetables which bind to the PCW will be transported to the colon where they would be expected to be released by the action of cell wall degrading bacteria.

  3. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  4. Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  5. Responses of feeding prebiotics on nutrient digestibility, faecal microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prebiotics on digestibility, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and bacterial populations in the faeces and immunity in dogs were evaluated by meta-analyses. Overall, data from 15 published studies containing 65 different treatment means of 418 observations from different breeds of dogs were included in the data set. Feeding of prebiotics to dogs did not affect the nutrient intake (P > 0.10), nor did prebiotics change (P > 0.10) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and fat. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing dosages of prebiotics, although the degree of prediction was low (R(2) = 0.33). The concentration of total SCFA (P = 0.08; R(2) = 0.90) tended to increase linearly, whereas concentration of acetate (R(2) = 0.25), propionate (R(2) = 0.88) and butyrate (R(2) = 0.85) increased quadratically with increasing dosage of prebiotics in the faeces of dogs. The numbers of beneficial bifidobacteria (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.62) increased quadratically, but lactobacilli (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.66) increased linearly with increasing supplementation of prebiotics. The changes in healthy bacterial numbers were affected by the interaction of initial bacterial numbers and dose of prebiotics; bacterial numbers increased relatively more when initial bacterial numbers were low. Dietary composition did not influence the response of prebiotics on lactobacilli and bifidobacterial numbers in this study. The numbers of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were not affected by prebiotics. Prebiotics did not affect the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations such as IgG, IgA and IgM in dogs. Although prebiotics may tend to have an adverse effect on CP digestibility, prebiotics at doses up to 1.40% food intake (DM basis) might increase the beneficial bacterial populations and SCFA concentrations in the faeces of dogs. Thus, the feeding of prebiotics has a great prospective to improve the

  6. Responses of feeding prebiotics on nutrient digestibility, faecal microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prebiotics on digestibility, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and bacterial populations in the faeces and immunity in dogs were evaluated by meta-analyses. Overall, data from 15 published studies containing 65 different treatment means of 418 observations from different breeds of dogs were included in the data set. Feeding of prebiotics to dogs did not affect the nutrient intake (P > 0.10), nor did prebiotics change (P > 0.10) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and fat. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing dosages of prebiotics, although the degree of prediction was low (R(2) = 0.33). The concentration of total SCFA (P = 0.08; R(2) = 0.90) tended to increase linearly, whereas concentration of acetate (R(2) = 0.25), propionate (R(2) = 0.88) and butyrate (R(2) = 0.85) increased quadratically with increasing dosage of prebiotics in the faeces of dogs. The numbers of beneficial bifidobacteria (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.62) increased quadratically, but lactobacilli (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.66) increased linearly with increasing supplementation of prebiotics. The changes in healthy bacterial numbers were affected by the interaction of initial bacterial numbers and dose of prebiotics; bacterial numbers increased relatively more when initial bacterial numbers were low. Dietary composition did not influence the response of prebiotics on lactobacilli and bifidobacterial numbers in this study. The numbers of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were not affected by prebiotics. Prebiotics did not affect the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations such as IgG, IgA and IgM in dogs. Although prebiotics may tend to have an adverse effect on CP digestibility, prebiotics at doses up to 1.40% food intake (DM basis) might increase the beneficial bacterial populations and SCFA concentrations in the faeces of dogs. Thus, the feeding of prebiotics has a great prospective to improve the

  7. Effect of common antinutritive factors and fibrous feedstuffs in pig diets on amino acid digestibilities with special emphasis on threonine.

    PubMed

    Myrie, S B; Bertolo, R F; Sauer, W C; Ball, R O

    2008-03-01

    Most feedstuffs contain antinutritive factors (ANF) such as insoluble fibers, lignins, tannins, and lectins. Intake of these ANF has the ability to reduce nutrient digestibility and to increase endogenous protein losses, such as through increased intestinal mucus secretion. The objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of AA of 6 ANF-enriched diets to estimate endogenous protein loss associated with these ingredients in diets for young pigs. Forty-two 10-kg BW pigs fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 casein-based diets with: no supplement (control), 100 g/kg of canola meal (CM), 100 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), 150 g/kg of barley (BR), 22.5 g/kg of lignin (LG), 15 g/kg of kidney beans [as a lectin (LE) source], and 15 g/kg of tannins (TN). All diets were formulated to be similar in N, indispensable AA, and caloric contents. After a 7-d adaptation to the test diets, N balance was conducted for 5 d, followed by 24 h of collection of digesta for analyses of AA. Pigs fed BR had 17% lower ADG and 15% lower feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) compared with control and CM pigs. Pigs fed diets containing WB and BR had lower N retention as a percentage of absorbed N compared with all other groups (P = 0.03). The AID for CP was lower in BR, WB, and LE pigs compared with control. Of the AA, AID of Thr was notably lowest in BR, WB, and TN pigs (P < 0.05). The standardized ileal digestibility was lower in WB and BR pigs for most indispensable AA. Altogether, these data suggest that hemicellulose fiber, at concentrations typical in commercial swine diets, reduces AID of AA by increasing endogenous losses. Understanding the differential effects of ANF on endogenous losses of individual dietary AA will improve the accuracy of diet formulation. PMID:17998420

  8. Urea free and more efficient sample preparation method for mass spectrometry based protein identification via combining the formic acid-assisted chemical cleavage and trypsin digestion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuaibin; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-10-30

    A formic acid (FA)-assisted sample preparation method was presented for protein identification via mass spectrometry (MS). Detailedly, an aqueous solution containing 2% FA and dithiothreitol was selected to perform protein denaturation, aspartic acid (D) sites cleavage and disulfide linkages reduction simultaneously at 108°C for 2h. Subsequently, FA wiped off via vacuum concentration. Finally, iodoacetamide (IAA) alkylation and trypsin digestion could be performed ordinally. A series of model proteins (BSA, β-lactoglobulin and apo-Transferrin) were treated respectively using such method, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The identified peptide number was increased by ∼ 80% in comparison with the conventional urea-assisted sample preparation method. Moreover, BSA identification was achieved efficiently down to femtomole (25 ± 0 sequence coverage and 16 ± 1 peptides) via such method. In contrast, there were not peptides identified confidently via the urea-assisted method before desalination via the C18 zip tip. The absence of urea in this sample preparation method was an advantage for the more favorable digestion and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The performances of two methods for the real sample (rat liver proteome) were also compared, followed by a nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system analysis. As a result, 1335 ± 43 peptides were identified confidently (false discovery rate <1%) via FA-assisted method, corresponding to 295 ± 12 proteins (of top match=1 and requiring 2 unique peptides at least). In contrast, there were only 1107 ± 16 peptides (corresponding to 231 ± 10 proteins) obtained from the conventional urea-assisted method. It was serving as a more efficient protein sample preparation method for researching specific proteomes better, and providing assistance to develop other proteomics analysis methods

  9. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on digestive enzymes, absorption function, and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Xie, J; Wang, B; Tang, J

    2014-10-01

    To explore the effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on digestive enzyme activity, absorption function and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed Wenchang chicken were studied. One-day-old male Wenchang chickens were randomly divided into a control group (CK), heat stress group (HS), and GABA+HS group. The chickens from the GABA+HS group were administered with 0.2 mL of GABA solution daily. Chickens from HS and GABA+HS groups were subjected to heat stress treatment at 40 ± 0.5°C for 2 h during 1300 to 1500 h every day. Blood was drawn and 0.5 cm-long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected from the chickens on d 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 15. Results showed that the activity of Ca²⁺-Mg²⁺-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase, maltase, sucrase, and alkaline phosphatase, the contents of secretory IgA, glutathione, and d-xylose, and the number of lymphocytes in HS group were significantly lower than those in the CK group. Among them, some were rescued after the treatment of GABA as the time extension. For maltase, d-xylose, alkaline phosphatase, and Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase, it required 5 to 7 d for achieving the significant effect. For sucrase, 12 d for the alleviation effect was required. In the case of other parameters, no alleviation was observed during the whole period of the study. We have concluded that HS can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes and reduce absorption and immune functions of intestinal mucosa. γ-Aminobutyric acid can effectively alleviate these inhibitory effects.

  10. Effects of plant food potassium salts (citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) on acid-base status and digestive fermentations in rats.

    PubMed

    Sabboh, Houda; Coxam, Véronique; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Potassium (K) organic anion salts, such as potassium citrate or potassium malate in plant foods, may counteract low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by western diets, but little is known about the effect of other minor plant anions. Effects of K salts (chloride, citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) were thus studied on the mineral balance and digestive fermentations in groups of 6-week-old rats adapted to an acidogenic/5 % inulin diet. In all diet groups, substantial amounts of lactate and succinate were present in the caecum, besides SCFA. SCFA were poorly affected by K salts conditions. The KCl-supplemented diet elicited an accumulation of lactate in the caecum; whereas the lactate caecal pool was low in rats fed the potassium tartrate-supplemented (K TAR) diet. A fraction of tartrate (around 50 %) was recovered in urine of rats fed the K TAR diet. Potassium citrate and potassium galacturonate diets exerted a marked alkalinizing effect on urine pH and promoted a notable citraturia (around 0.5 micro mol/24 h). All the K organic anion salts counteracted Ca and Mg hyperexcretion in urine, especially potassium tartrate as to magnesuria. The present findings indicate that K salts of unabsorbed organic anions exert alkalinizing effects when metabolizable in the large intestine, even if K and finally available anions (likely SCFA) are not simultaneously bioavailable. Whether this observation is also relevant for a fraction of SCFA arising from dietary fibre breakdown (which represents the major organic anions absorbed in the digestive tract in man) deserves further investigation.

  11. Optimum ratio of histidine in the piglet ideal protein model and its effects on body metabolism. I. Basal diet formulation based on digestible amino acids according to the ideal protein model for 10 to 20 kg piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Li, D F; Gong, L M; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, D F

    2002-04-01

    A 4 x 4 Latin square design was used to determine ileal apparent digestibility of amino acids (AAs) in corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey in young pigs. The data were then to be used in formulating a basal diet for studies on AA metabolism in young pigs. Eight castrates T-cannulated at terminal ileum (average initial body weight 12.5 +/- 0.62 kg) were divided into 4 groups on the basis of body weight and transferred to individual metabolism crates. They were then fed four experimental diets containing the four feedstuffs to be tested (corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey). The trial lasted 20 days, which included 4 five-day periods for ileal digesta collection. It was found that the digestibility of the AAs was similar to that reported in literature. Based on the findings a basal diet for this research was formulated according to an ideal protein model for the 10 to 20 kg piglet, on the basis of digestible AAs and containing 14.13 MJ/kg digestible energy, 18.22% crude protein, 1.04% digestible lysine and 0.23% digestible histidine.

  12. A comparison of two fecal collection methods for protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients for menhaden fish meal and two grades of pultry-by-product meals in market-size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility and availability coefficients for protein and amino acids in menhaden fish meal (MEN), pet-food grade (PBM-pet,) and feed-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-feed) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using passive netting or manual stripping of feces. A refer...

  13. Assessing the Accuracy and Precision of Inorganic Geochemical Data Produced through Flux Fusion and Acid Digestions: Multiple (60+) Comprehensive Analyses of BHVO-2 and the Development of Improved "Accepted" Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Scudder, R.; Dunlea, A. G.; Anderson, C. H.; Murray, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The use of geological standard reference materials (SRMs) to assess both the accuracy and the reproducibility of geochemical data is a vital consideration in determining the major and trace element abundances of geologic, oceanographic, and environmental samples. Calibration curves commonly are generated that are predicated on accurate analyses of these SRMs. As a means to verify the robustness of these calibration curves, a SRM can also be run as an unknown item (i.e., not included as a data point in the calibration). The experimentally derived composition of the SRM can thus be compared to the certified (or otherwise accepted) value. This comparison gives a direct measure of the accuracy of the method used. Similarly, if the same SRM is analyzed as an unknown over multiple analytical sessions, the external reproducibility of the method can be evaluated. Two common bulk digestion methods used in geochemical analysis are flux fusion and acid digestion. The flux fusion technique is excellent at ensuring complete digestion of a variety of sample types, is quick, and does not involve much use of hazardous acids. However, this technique is hampered by a high amount of total dissolved solids and may be accompanied by an increased analytical blank for certain trace elements. On the other hand, acid digestion (using a cocktail of concentrated nitric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) provides an exceptionally clean digestion with very low analytical blanks. However, this technique results in a loss of Si from the system and may compromise results for a few other elements (e.g., Ge). Our lab uses flux fusion for the determination of major elements and a few key trace elements by ICP-ES, while acid digestion is used for Ti and trace element analyses by ICP-MS. Here we present major and trace element data for BHVO-2, a frequently used SRM derived from a Hawaiian basalt, gathered over a period of over two years (30+ analyses by each technique). We show that both digestion

  14. Mechanism of extraordinary DNA digestion by pepsin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Chunchuan; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xiaoqian; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2016-03-25

    Recently, the protein-specific enzyme pepsin was found be capable of digesting nucleic acids unexpectedly. In this study, the effects of DNA sequence specificity, purine content (AG content), depurination and length on the nucleic acid (NA) digestion by pepsin were investigated. The results showed that pepsin functioned similar as endonuclease, and presented a moderate sequence preference compared with restriction enzymes and non-specific nuclease. The digestion was specific (sequence dependent to some extent), and pepsin preferred to cleave purine-rich sequences. The digestion of favorable sequence was dramatically accelerated when the purine base at the cleavage site was removed (created an apurinic (AP) site). However, the AP site did not help to cleave the sequence that pepsin could not cleave originally. Moreover, the results indicated that pepsin preferred to digest longer DNA (e.g. > 59 bases) than shorter one, and sequence shorter than 30 bases was barely digested. The mechanism of DNA digestion by pepsin was also discussed.

  15. The effect of high moisture heat-acid treatment on the structure and digestion property of normal maize starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liang, Rong; Antoniou, John; Liu, Fei; Shoemaker, Charles F; Li, Yue; Zhong, Fang

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of thermal-acid treatment on the formation of resistant starch (RS). The maximum RS content in citric acid-heat treated starches (CAHT) reached 36.55%, which was 7 times higher of that in native starch. According to HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis, amylopectin was more susceptible to hydrolysis than amylose during citric acid-heat treatment (CAH). X-ray measurement revealed that even though the starch crystalline pattern was changed from A-type to a more resistant B-type after CAH, the fraction of crystalline region decreased from 21.16% to 8.37%. The hydroxyls on the starch chains were substituted by the citric acid anhydrides during CAH according to FT-IR analysis, which led to the formation of ester bond cross-linking structures in starch granules, and it could be the main contribution to the increase of RS content in CAHT samples.

  16. Effect of a carbohydrase mixture on ileal amino acid digestibility in extruded full-fat soybeans fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, D I; Kiarie, E; Woyengo, T A; Slominski, B A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-11-01

    Extrusion technology has been used successfully to improve the nutritive value of full-fat oilseeds via shear force and heat applied during passage through the extruder, exposing more peptide bonds to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the fibrous portion of the seeds is largely intact after extrusion. Therefore, application of carbohydrase mixtures targeting nonstarch polysaccharides might further improve the nutritive value of extruded full-fat oilseeds. This hypothesis was investigated in a study involving 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (average initial BW = 75.0 kg) fed extruded full-fat, soybean- (FFSB) based diets, without or with a carbohydrase mixture (CM) to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA. The CM supplement provided 500, 50, 400, 1200, 450, and 45 units of pectinase, cellulase, mannanase, xylanase, glucanase, and galactanase, respectively, per kilogram of diet. A basal diet was formulated to contain FFSB as the sole source of AA, whereas the CM diet was formulated by supplementing the basal diet with CM. Diets contained titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Diets were fed in a 2-period crossover design to give 6 observations per diet. Each experimental period lasted 7 d, including a 5-d adaptation period and 2-d ileal digesta collection period. The SID of N and AA were calculated using published values for ileal endogenous N and AA losses from our laboratory. Enzyme supplementation increased (P < 0.01) AID values of DM (68.7 vs. 65.7%), GE (74.6 vs. 70.5%), and N (64.2 vs. 58.5%). Greater (P < 0.05) AID values were recorded for Leu, Met + Cys, Thr, Cys, Ser, and Tyr in the CM diet compared with the basal diet. Compared with the basal diet, the CM diet had greater SID values for N (73.7 vs. 68.6%; P < 0.01), Met + Cys (59.9 vs. 52.2%; P < 0.05), and Thr (66.3 vs. 61.2%; P < 0.05). The average SID for indispensable and total AA increased by 3.4% and 3.8% units, respectively, after enzyme

  17. Determination of chromium in Mentha piperita L. and soil by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after sequential extraction and microwave-assisted acid digestion to assess potential bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Razić, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of chromium in Mentha piperita and the soil where it is cultivated was done. The capacity of soil for chromium immobilization and the capacity of M. piperita L., to control its uptake were analyzed by spiking the soil with standard solutions of Cr(III). For each concentration three acidity levels: natural, one unit below and one above its natural acidity (pH(2)=6, pH(1)=5 and pH(3)=7) were tested. Three-stage sequential extraction was performed (I stage: 1M ammonium-acetate, II stage: 0.1M hydroxylamine-chlorohydrate and III stage: 0.2/0.2M oxalic acid/ammonium-oxalate mixture). The chromium content in the extracts was obtained after the measurements by GFAAS. The results (expressed in mgL(-1)), at pH(1), pH(2) and pH(3), respectively, were as follows: I stage: 4.64-10.93, 0.79-5.78 and 0.26-5.26; II stage: 1.14-15.99, 0.76-20.31 and 0.67-20.64; III stage: 0.67-20.64, 19.17-100.76 and 19.17-116.05. A high potential of the soil for chromium immobilization was observed. In parallel, soil and plant samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion for total chromium determination. By analysis of SRMs (NIST SRM 2711 - Montana II Soil, NIST SRM 8433 - Corn Bran and NIST SRM 1547 - Peach Leaves) good recoveries (72.7-115.3%) were obtained. Additionally, iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides were recognized as matrix components of special importance for mobility of chromium species within a soil structures so, the determination of Mn and Fe was done too.

  18. Screening of protease producing fungi for microbial digestion of seed proteins and synthesis of amino acids-metalnutrient chelates.

    PubMed

    Deore, G B; Limaye, A S; Dushing, Y A; Dhobale, S B; Kale, S; Laware, S L

    2013-01-15

    The problem of metalnutrient deficiency is becoming more serious with the introduction of modern agricultural practices. As a result, metalnutrient deficiency is recognized as one of the critical yield limiting factors. Metalnutrients are generally offered in their sulphate or oxide forms. However, it is reported that organically bound minerals generally have a higher bioavailability than inorganic minerals. Chelation makes otherwise unavailable metalnutrients plant available. Amino acids are well known among various chelating agents. In present investigation the fungus Paecilomyces variotii PR-4 was isolated from soil and was used for production of protease and determination of its activity. Proteins from germinating seeds of chick pea, mung bean, soybean and cowpea were hydrolyzed for the production of amino acids. Amino acids were recovered, estimated and utilized for chelation of metalnutrients viz., Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, B and Mo. The resultant chelates were employed to detect with Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR) analysis. The peaks of most intensive bands in the IR spectra of ligands recorded were present in the intervals of the wave numbers 3500-3300 and 1720-1700 cm(-1). Chelation of metalnutrients led to the broadening of peak and changes of the peak position of hydroxyl groups, which indicated the binding of the carboxylic groups and primary amine groups of amino acids to the metalnutrients. The resultant amino acids-metalnutrient chelates can be utilized as organic fertilizer.

  19. Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: analysis of anaerobic digestion in acidic bog sediments. [Lactobacillus; Clostridium; Sarcina ventriculi

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S.; Zeikus, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of anaerobic digestion were examined in the low-pH sediments of Crystal Bog in Wisconsin. The sediments (pH 4.9) contained 71% organic matter and the following concentrations of dissolved gases (micromoles per liter):CO/sub 2/, 1140; CH/sub 4/, 490; and H/sub 2/, 0.01. The rate of methane production was 6.2 ..mu..mol/liter of sediment per h, which is slower than eutrophic, neutral sediments. Microbial metabolic processes displayed the following pH optima: hydrolysis reactions, between 4.2 and 5.6; aceticlastic methanogenesis, 5.2; and hydrogen-consuming reactions, 5.6. The turnover rate constants for key intermediary metabolites were (h/sup -1/): glucose, 1.10; lactate, 0.277; acetate, 0.118; and ethanol, 0.089. The populations of anaerobes were low, with hydrolytic groups (10/sup 6//ml) several orders of magnitude higher than methanogens (10/sup 2//ml). The addition of carbon electron donors to the sediment resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen, whereas the addition of hydrogen resulted in the accumulation of fatty acids and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing acetogenic reactions. Strains of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Sarcina ventriculi were isolated from the bog, and their physiological attributes were characterized in relation to hydrolytic process functions in the sediments. The present studies provide evidence that the pH present in the bog sediments alter anaerobic digestion processes s, that total biocatalytic activity is lower bu the general carbon and electron flow pathways are similar to those of neutral anoxic sediments.

  20. Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

  1. Impact of the substrate loading regime and phosphoric acid supplementation on performance of biogas reactors and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of chicken wastes.

    PubMed

    Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ziganshina, Elvira E; Siniagina, Maria; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Miluykov, Vasili A; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the effects of increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) as well as phosphoric acid addition on mesophilic reactors' performance and biogas production from chicken wastes. Furthermore, microbial community composition in reactors was characterized by a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis. Each step of increasing OLR impacted on the activity of microorganisms what caused a temporary decrease in biogas production. The addition of phosphoric acid resulted in the increased biogas production with values between 361 and 447 mL g(VS)(-1) from day 61 to day 74 compared to control reactor (309-350 mL g(VS)(-1)). With reactors' operation, Bacteroidetes phylotypes were noticeably replaced with Firmicutes representatives, and significant increase of Clostridium sp. was identified. Within Euryarchaeota, Methanosarcina sp. dominated in all analyzed samples, in which high ammonium levels were detected (3.4-4.9 NH4(+)-N g L(-1)). These results can help in better understanding the anaerobic digestion process of simultaneously ammonium/phosphate-rich substrates.

  2. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-11-01

    Lemna protein concentrate (LPC; 68.0% CP) is produced by extracting protein from de-oiled and dehydrated biomaterials from plants of the Lemnaceae family and may be used as a protein source for animals. There are, however, no published data on the nutritional value of LPC fed to pigs. Three experiments were, therefore, conducted to determine the concentration of ME, the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in LPC and to compare these values to values for fish meal and soybean meal (SBM). Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the ME of LPC, fish meal, SBM, and corn. Thirty-two barrows (initial BW: 16.8 ± 2.8 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 4 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 3 diets that contained corn and LPC, fish meal, or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples were analyzed for GE. Results indicated that the concentration of ME was not different among corn, fish meal, and SBM (3,855, 3,904, and 4,184 kcal/kg DM, respectively), but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for a reduced ME in LPC (3,804 kcal/kg DM) compared with SBM. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (initial BW: 12.5 ± 2.5 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 3 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet and used to determine the STTD of P in LPC, fish meal, and SBM. Three diets that each contained 1 of the 3 test ingredients as the sole source of P were formulated. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages, and feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in LPC (72.8%) was not different from the STTD of P in fish meal (65.6%), but tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than in SBM (62.8%). The SID of AA in LPC, SBM, and fish meal was determined in Exp. 3. Eight barrows (initial BW: 21.4 ± 4.0 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly

  3. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen; (2) to assess its effects on production and ruminal metabolism; ...

  4. Estimation of the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine requirement for primiparous lactating sows fed diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meng; Zang, Jianjun; Li, Zhongchao; Shi, Chuanxin; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Li, Defa

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) level in diets fed to primiparous sows during lactation. A total of 150 (Landrace × Large White) crossbred gilts (weighing 211.1 ± 3.5 kg with a litter size of 11.1 ± 0.2) were fed lactation diets (3325 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) containing SID Lys levels of 0.76, 0.84, 0.94, 1.04 or 1.14%, through 28 days lactation. Gilts were allocated to treatments based on their body weight and backfat thickness 48 h after farrowing. Gilt body weight loss was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by increasing dietary SID Lys levels. Fitted broken-line (P < 0.05) and quadratic plot (P < 0.05) analysis of body weight loss indicated that the optimal SID Lys for primiparous sows was 0.85 and 1.01%, respectively. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), weaning-to-estrus interval and subsequent conception rate were not affected by dietary SID Lys levels. Increasing dietary lysine had no effect on litter performances. Protein content in milk was increased by dietary SID Lys (P < 0.05). Dietary SID Lys tended to increase concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.066). These results of this experiment indicate that the optimal dietary SID Lys for lactating gilts was at least 0.85%, which approaches the recommendation of 0.84% that is estimated by the National Research Council (2012).

  5. Effect of particle size and heat treatment of soybean meal on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M; Rist, V T S; Rosenfelder, P; Spindler, H K; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2012-12-01

    A study with growing barrows was conducted to evaluate of variations in particle size and degree of heat treatment during processing on standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM). A commercial SBM batch was visually identified as being overtoasted due to its brownish color and was separated into small and large particles using a 1-mm sieve. In addition, 3 SBM were produced from 1 batch of soybean and exposed to different processing conditions (temperature and direct steam contact) referred to as mild (105°C; 34 min), medium (115°C; 45 min), and strong (139°C; 7 min). In total, 5 SBM-corn (Zea mays) starch-based diets were formulated to contain SBM as the sole protein source. This experiment was conducted according to a 6 × 6 Latin square design using 6 barrows (23 kg initial BW) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. With increasing particle size, SID of His and some dispensable AA increased (P < 0.05). Lower SID values in small compared to large SBM particles indicate more pronounced heat damage possibly due to increased surface area. The SID of CP and AA was lowest in the mild, intermediate in the strong, and highest in the medium toasted SBM (P < 0.001). These differences in SID are reflected in varying contents of trypsin inhibitors, Lys, reactive Lys, and NDF. In conclusion, both differences in particles size and variations in thermal processing conditions of SBM may affect SID of CP and AA.

  6. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  7. Mechanisms of cholesterol and saturated fatty acid lowering by Quillaja saponaria extract, studied by in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Damyanova, Borislava; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-04-01

    Quillaja saponin extracts are known to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in humans. Here we study the mechanism of this effect with Quillaja Dry saponin extract (QD). In vitro model of triglyceride lipolysis is used to quantify the effect of QD on the solubilization of cholesterol and of the lipolysis products (fatty acids and monoglycerides) in the dietary mixed micelles (DMM). We found that QD extract decreases significantly both the cholesterol (from 80% to 20%) and saturated fatty acids (SFA, from 70% to 10%) solubilised in DMM. Series of dedicated experiments prove that QD may act by two mechanisms: (1) direct precipitation of cholesterol and (2) displacement of cholesterol from the DMM. Both mechanisms lead to increased cholesterol precipitation and, thus, render cholesterol bio-inaccessible. We prove also that the saponin molecules are not the active component of QD, because highly purified Quillaja extract with very similar saponin composition does not exhibit cholesterol-lowering or SFA-lowering effect. The effect of QD extract on cholesterol solubilisation is most probably caused by the high-molecular weight polyphenol molecules, present in this extract. The reduced SFA solubilisation is caused by Ca(2+) ions of relatively high concentration (1.25 wt%), also present in QD extract, which precipitate the fatty acids into calcium soaps. PMID:25773645

  8. [Fluoride concentration in bottled water on the market in the municipality of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa; de Moura, Patrícia Garcia; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Ramires, Irene; Costa, Beatriz; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the fluoride concentration in bottled water available on the market, in comparison with the values printed on the bottle label. Two hundred and twenty-nine water samples were collected from 35 brands available in several supermarkets, grocery stores and snack bars with high turnover in different regions of the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Fluoride concentrations were determined by duplicate analysis using an ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2.04 mg/l, with significant differences between the values stipulated on labels and those found in the analyses. These results emphasize the importance of controls over fluoride levels in bottled water enforced by the sanitary surveillance agency. PMID:18200355

  9. Effect of intrajejunal acidity on lipid digestion and aqueous solubilisation of bile acids and lipids in health, using a new simple method of lipase inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Zentler-Munro, P L; Fine, D R; Fitzpatrick, W J; Northfield, T C

    1984-01-01

    We have investigated whether acid-mediated bile acid precipitation, pancreatic enzyme inactivation, and fatty acid partitioning occur in health when intraluminal pH falls below 5. In order to assess lipolysis and aqueous solubilisation of lipid, we first developed a new technique for inactivating lipase in jejunal aspirate (acid inactivation), and showed it to be more effective and simpler than the established technique (heat inactivation). We then studied 14 healthy subjects, aspirating jejunal content for three hours after a liquid meal, and pooling according to pH. Eighteen per cent of the total aspirate was collected at pH less than 5 compared with 56% at pH greater than 6 (p less than 0.01). Forty eight per cent of the bile acids were precipitated at pH less than 5 compared with 18% at pH greater than 6 (p less than 0.01), leading to a reduction in aqueous phase bile acid concentration at low pH (2.1 mmol/l at pH less than 5 vs 5.8 mmol/l at pH greater than 6, p less than 0.01). Lipase activity was reduced at low pH (133 IU/l at pH less than 5 vs 182 IU/l at pH greater than 6, p less than 0.01), leading to reduced lipolysis at low pH (14% at pH less than 5 vs 32% at pH greater than 6, p less than 0.01). Aqueous phase lipid concentration was reduced at low pH (3.5 mmol/l at pH less than 5 vs 12.5 mmol/l at pH greater than 6, p less than 0.01). This reduction was less dependent on bile acid precipitation than on lipase inactivation and fatty acid partitioning. We conclude that intraluminal acidity influences aqueous solubilisation of bile acids and lipid in health. PMID:6714793

  10. Management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in bottle gourd using different botanicals in pots.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tulika; Patel, B A

    2015-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of different botanicals in varying doses for management of root-knot nematode, M. incognita in bottle gourd. The results exhibited that madar (Calotropis procera) and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves application proved to be more effective in improving plant growth characters and reducing root-knot index and final nematode population. Among the doses tested, higher dose of 1.5 % (w/w) was more effective than lower ones. PMID:26345048

  11. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. PMID:26852288

  12. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  13. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  14. Bulgur processes increase nutrition value: possible role in in-vitro protein digestability, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor activity and mineral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Türker, Selman

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the chemical constituents and nutritive quality of chickpea bulgur process, were studied in seeds that were soaked at different time (2, 8 and 12 h), different soaking water pH (pH 4, 6 and 8). Soaking in pH 8 soaking water and 12 h soaking time significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the ash content of chickpea bulgur samples. Compared to the raw material, the protein content and in-vitro protein digestibility increased, but starch, crude fiber, fat and energy values decreased and trypsin inhibitor activity was completely eliminated by bulgur process. As the soaking time increased, the phytic acid content also decreased. The highest total phenolic content was determinated with bulgur samples soaked in pH 4 soaking water. The P, Ca, and K values decreased with increasing soaking time. The HCl-extractability of P, Ca, Mg, Fe and K present in chickpea bulgur samples were significantly higher than the raw chickpea seeds. PMID:24966437

  15. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 μg L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 μg mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance.

  16. Nitric acid-based partial-digestion method for selective determination of inorganic arsenic in hijiki and application to soaked hijiki.

    PubMed

    Hamano-Nagaoka, Megumi; Hanaoka, Ken'ichi; Usui, Masakatsu; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Maitani, Tamio

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a great difference between the toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) and organic As in food, the JECFA has set a PTWI value for inorganic As (iAs) rather than for total As. The difference in As toxicity makes it necessary to extract iAs completely from food samples for toxicological analysis, but complete extraction of As from most foods including seaweed has not been achieved to date. We developed a partial-digestion method that uses nitric acid as a solvent in order to extract almost all arsenicals from the solid matrix of hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme, a brown alga) samples. In this method, organic As species were not converted into iAs. HPLC/ICP-MS was then used to determine the concentration of iAs. Total As was measured by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. The adopted conditions for 0.1 g of ground fine powder sample were: 2 mL of 0.3 mol/L nitric acid; heating, 80 degrees C for 1 hr. Intra-laboratory validation of the method showed good precision and accuracy. The repeatability and intermediate precision for iAs were 1.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ for iAs were 0.14 and 0.46 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Recovery studies performed by spiking 0.5 mg/kg dry weight as the LOQ level and by spiking 3 mg/kg dry weight as the iAs concentration of an un-spiked hijiki sample showed good accuracy. The method was applied to hijiki samples after a water soaking process and a water soaking and simmering process. The results suggested that the As concentration in hijiki after both processes was lower than that before the treatments and that the water soaking and simmering process reduced the iAs concentration much more effectively than the water soaking process. PMID:18503244

  17. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. IV. Effects of addition of fish meal and a microbial phytase to duckling diets on bird performance and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Martin, E A; Nolan, J V; Nitsan, Z; Farrell, D J

    1998-12-01

    1. Ducklings were given diets with vegetable protein (VP) and 0 or 600 g rice bran/kg; fish meal (60 g/kg) and a phytase (+, -) were added to the diets (VP + AP). An additional 40 g soyabean meal/kg was added to the diet with rice bran (VP ++). Amino acid digestibility and mineral retention were measured in the lower ileum of ducklings killed at 23 d of age. Acid insoluble ash was used as an inert marker. Trypsin and amylase activities were also measured and weights of the pancreas and small intestine recorded at slaughter. 2. Addition of soyabean meal (VP ++) to the diet with rice bran improved growth rate and food intake compared to the diet without (VP) and gave the same food intake and growth rate as the comparable basal diet (VP) without rice bran. Fish meal improved growth rate on the diets without rice bran and improved food intake on this diet (VP + AP). Rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); protein source affected growth rate, food intake and FCR; phytase increased food intake only. There were several interactions. 3. Determined total amino acid composition of the diets appeared to meet the essential amino acid requirements of ducklings. Rice bran depressed the ileal digestibility of virtually all amino acids and phytase had no direct effect, although there were interactions. Fish meal addition to diets with rice bran improved the apparent digestibility of several essential amino acids as well as that of dry matter and crude protein. 4. Ileal retention of some minerals and tibia ash content were reduced by rice bran. Fish meal and phytase inclusion increased P retention and ash in tibia. 5. Higher intestinal trypsin activity and increased pancreas size were seen in ducklings on diets with rice bran compared to those without. Intestinal amylase activity was reduced in ducklings given rice bran, probably because of its low starch content. 6. The stimulating effect of fish meal on duckling performance was probably caused in part by

  18. Effects of supplemental chromium propionate and rumen-protected amino acids on productivity, diet digestibility, and energy balance of peak-lactation dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Yuan, K; Titgemeyer, E C; Mamedova, L K; Griswold, K E; Bradford, B J

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) feeding in early lactation increased milk production in some studies, but responses to dietary Cr during peak lactation have not been evaluated. Furthermore, interactions of essential amino acids (AA) and Cr have not been explored. Our objective was to evaluate responses to CrPr (KemTRACE chromium propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) and rumen-protected Lys (LysiPEARL, Kemin Industries Inc.) and Met (MetiPEARL, Kemin Industries Inc.) and their interaction in peak-lactation cows. Forty-eight individually fed Holstein cows (21 primiparous, 27 multiparous, 38 ± 15 d in milk) were stratified by calving date in 12 blocks and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within block. Treatments were control, CrPr (8 mg/d of Cr), RPLM (10 g/d of Lys and 5 g/d of Met, intestinally available), or CrPr plus RPLM. Treatments were premixed with ground corn and top-dressed at 200 g/d for 35 d. Diets consisted of corn silage, alfalfa hay, and concentrates, providing approximately 17% crude protein, 31% neutral detergent fiber, and 40% nonfiber carbohydrates. Dry matter intake (DMI) significantly increased with the inclusion of CrPr (22.2 vs. 20.8 ± 0.67 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield tended to increase. In addition, CrPr increased milk protein yield and tended to increase DMI in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows. A CrPr×week interaction was detected for milk lactose content, which was increased by CrPr during wk 1 only (4.99 vs. 4.88 ± 0.036%). As a proportion of plasma AA, lysine increased and methionine tended to increase in response to RPLM, but the inclusion of RPLM decreased N efficiency (milk protein N:N intake). Digestible energy intake, gross energy digestibility, and energy balance were not affected by treatments. We observed no treatment effects on feed efficiency or changes in body weight or body condition score. In summary, feeding CrPr increased DMI and tended to increase ECM in cows fed for 5 wk near peak

  19. Excess sludge and herbaceous plant co-digestion for volatile fatty acids generation improved by protein and cellulose conversion enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Fu, Xiang; Jia, Shuting; Dai, Lingling; Wu, Bing; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), the substrate for the bio-methane yield, can be generated from excess sludge or herbaceous plant waste during the anaerobic fermentation process. However, due to the high protein content and the low carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of excess sludge, the nutrient utilization of excess sludge to generate VFA and bio-methane usually becomes inefficient and uneconomical. In this study, the laboratory findings showed that both the organic conversion and VFA generation from the mixture of excess sludge and herbaceous plant waste (e.g., the tall fescue was used as model), could be significantly enhanced, especially when the C/N ratio was adjusted to 20/1. In order to get more VFA and bio-methane generation, the effects of different thermal pretreatment strategies on the excess sludge and tall fescue co-fermentation were investigated. The study of thermal pretreatment revealed that the maximal VFA generation (585.2 g COD/kg of total solids (TS)) from the mixture of sludge and tall fescue by thermal pretreatment at 100 °C was almost 9.9 and 4.1 times higher than un-pretreated sole sludge and tall fescue, respectively. Then the mechanism of enhanced VFA generation from the mixture by thermal pretreatment was investigated. It was observed that pretreating the mixture of excess sludge and tall fescue at 100 °C caused the greatest hydrolysis and acidification. The produced VFA was applied to generate the bio-methane, and it was showed that the bio-methane produced from the thermal-pretreated (100 °C) mixture was almost 9.6 and 4.9 times as high as un-pretreated sole sludge and tall fescue, respectively. In addition, the detection of enzyme activities showed that the main enzymes related to cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin degradation, and acid forming were more active when VFA was produced from the thermal-pretreated (100 °C) mixture than other cases. Class Bacteroidia, class β-Proteobateria, α-Proteobateria, and phylum Firmicutes of the reactor

  20. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  1. Determination of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in rapeseed meal and cake processed at different temperatures using the direct and difference method with growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Defa; Pengbin, Xi; Liming, Gong; Shijun, Fan; Canghai, Huang

    2002-10-01

    Studies were conducted with ten barrows, average initial body weight 34.5 +/- 2.1 kg, fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum, to study the accuracy of determination of the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) values of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal and cake and the effects of processing, using the difference method. Five corn starch-based diets in the studies were formulated to contain 17.7% CP and based on soybean meal, prepress-extraction rapeseed meal, prepress-extraction rapeseed meal plus soybean meal, high-temperature press rapeseed cake plus soybean meal, or low-temperature press rapeseed cake plus soybean meal as the sole source of dietary protein. The design was an incomplete Latin Square involving two three-week periods and five-treatments. It was found that the AID values of CP and most AA determined with the difference or direct method were significantly lower in rapeseed meal or cakes than soybean meal. The AID values of CP and most AA in prepress-extraction rapeseed meal, high-temperature press or low-temperature cakes determined with the difference method were no difference from those in prepress-extraction rapeseed meal determined with the direct method. The AID values of CP and AA in rapeseed meal and cake determined with the difference method were accurate, when the contribution of CP and AA from rapeseed was more than 50%. The AID values of CP and AA (especially lysine) were lower in the high-temperature press rapeseed cake than in the low-temperature press cake or the prepress-extraction meal.

  2. Harmonization of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and Islet Antigen-2 Autoantibody Assays for National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacio, Ezio; Yu, Liping; Williams, Alastair K.; Eisenbarth, George S.; Bingley, Polly J.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Adler, Kerstin; Ziegler, Anette G.; Mueller, Patricia W.; Schatz, Desmond A.; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Steffes, Michael W.; Akolkar, Beena

    2010-01-01

    Background/Rationale: Autoantibodies to islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) are markers for diagnosis, screening, and measuring outcomes in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) consortia studies. A harmonization program was established to increase comparability of results within and among these studies. Methods: Large volumes of six working calibrators were prepared from pooled sera with GADA 4.8–493 World Health Organization (WHO) units/ml and IA-2A 2–235 WHO units/ml. Harmonized assay protocols for IA-2A and GADA using 35S-methionine-labelled in vitro transcribed and translated antigens were developed based on methods in use in three NIDDK laboratories. Antibody thresholds were defined using sera from patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. To evaluate the impact of the harmonized assay protocol on concordance of IA-2A and GADA results, two laboratories retested stored TEDDY study sera using the harmonized assays. Results: The harmonized assays gave comparable but not identical results in the three laboratories. For IA-2A, using a common threshold of 5 DK units/ml, 549 of 550 control and patient samples were concordantly scored as positive or negative, specificity was greater than 99% with sensitivity 64% in all laboratories. For GADA, using thresholds equivalent to the 97th percentile of 974 control samples in each laboratory, 1051 (97.9%) of 1074 samples were concordant. On the retested TEDDY samples, discordance decreased from 4 to 1.8% for IA-2A (n = 604 samples; P = 0.02) and from 15.4 to 2.7% for GADA (n = 515 samples; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Harmonization of GADA and IA-2A is feasible using large volume working calibrators and common protocols and is an effective approach to ensure consistency in autoantibody measurements. PMID:20444913

  3. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Tolić, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

  4. Effect of simultaneous cooling on microwave-assisted wet digestion of biological samples with diluted nitric acid and O2 pressure.

    PubMed

    Bizzi, Cezar A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Barin, Juliano S; Oliveira, Jussiane S S; Schmidt, Lucas; Mello, Paola A; Flores, Erico M M

    2014-07-21

    The present work evaluates the influence of vessel cooling simultaneously to microwave-assisted digestion performed in a closed system with diluted HNO3 under O2 pressure. The effect of outside air flow-rates (60-190 m(3) h(-1)) used for cooling of digestion vessels was evaluated. An improvement in digestion efficiency caused by the reduction of HNO3 partial pressure was observed when using higher air flow-rate (190 m(3) h(-1)), decreasing the residual carbon content for whole milk powder from 21.7 to 9.3% (lowest and highest air flow-rate, respectively). The use of high air flow-rate outside the digestion vessel resulted in a higher temperature gradient between liquid and gas phases inside the digestion vessel and improved the efficiency of sample digestion. Since a more pronounced temperature gradient was obtained, it contributed for increasing the condensation rate and thus allowed a reduction in the HNO3 partial pressure of the digestion vessel, which improved the regeneration of HNO3. An air flow-rate of 190 m(3) h(-1) was selected for digestion of animal fat, bovine liver, ground soybean, non fat milk powder, oregano leaves, potato starch and whole milk powder samples, and a standard reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), bovine liver (NIST 1577) and whole milk powder (NIST 8435) for further metals determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results were in agreement with certified values and no interferences caused by matrix effects during the determination step were observed. PMID:25000853

  5. Effect of simultaneous cooling on microwave-assisted wet digestion of biological samples with diluted nitric acid and O2 pressure.

    PubMed

    Bizzi, Cezar A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Barin, Juliano S; Oliveira, Jussiane S S; Schmidt, Lucas; Mello, Paola A; Flores, Erico M M

    2014-07-21

    The present work evaluates the influence of vessel cooling simultaneously to microwave-assisted digestion performed in a closed system with diluted HNO3 under O2 pressure. The effect of outside air flow-rates (60-190 m(3) h(-1)) used for cooling of digestion vessels was evaluated. An improvement in digestion efficiency caused by the reduction of HNO3 partial pressure was observed when using higher air flow-rate (190 m(3) h(-1)), decreasing the residual carbon content for whole milk powder from 21.7 to 9.3% (lowest and highest air flow-rate, respectively). The use of high air flow-rate outside the digestion vessel resulted in a higher temperature gradient between liquid and gas phases inside the digestion vessel and improved the efficiency of sample digestion. Since a more pronounced temperature gradient was obtained, it contributed for increasing the condensation rate and thus allowed a reduction in the HNO3 partial pressure of the digestion vessel, which improved the regeneration of HNO3. An air flow-rate of 190 m(3) h(-1) was selected for digestion of animal fat, bovine liver, ground soybean, non fat milk powder, oregano leaves, potato starch and whole milk powder samples, and a standard reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), bovine liver (NIST 1577) and whole milk powder (NIST 8435) for further metals determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results were in agreement with certified values and no interferences caused by matrix effects during the determination step were observed.

  6. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

  7. Effect of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn-ethanol distillation origin on energy, fiber, and amino acid digestibility, hindgut degradability of fiber, and growth performance of pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Kerr, B J; Patience, J F

    2013-11-01

    Extensive use of corn coproducts in swine diets increases the concentration of dietary fiber, raising concerns on energy and nutrient digestibility and, ultimately, pig performance. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the effect of increasing levels of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn in the diet, using corn bran with solubles (CBS) from the corn-ethanol distillation industry, on digestibility of energy, fiber, and AA, and hindgut fermentation of fiber in diets fed to growing pigs. Fifteen growing pigs (BW=28.7 kg) arranged in a 3-period incomplete block design and fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were provided 5 diets (n=9) containing either a corn-casein basal or the basal diet with 10, 20, 30, or 40% CBS. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected. Two subsequent 28-d growth trials determined the effects of increasing dietary fiber from CBS in 2 sets of 7 diets formulated either with declining (growing phase: 2,387 to 2,133 kcal NE/kg; finishing phase: 2,499 to 2,209 kcal NE/kg) or constant dietary NE (growing phase≈2,390 kcal NE/kg; finishing phase≈2,500 kcal NE/kg) on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in 70 growing (BW=48.9 kg; n=10 per diet) and 70 finishing (BW=102.0 kg; n=10) pigs. Results indicated that increasing fiber from corn lowered (P<0.01) the apparent ileal digestibility of all indispensable amino acids except Arg, GE, DM, and CP but not NDF or total dietary fiber (TDF). Increased fiber from corn also reduced ATTD of GE, DM, CP, NDF, and TDF (P<0.01). Increasing fiber with declining diet NE lowered BW, ADG, and G:F (P<0.05) in growing and in finishing pigs. When NE was held constant, as fiber increased, BW and ADG were unaffected in growing and finishing pigs, and G:F was unaffected in finishing pigs but improved in growing pigs (P<0.05) with increasing dietary fiber. In both growing and finishing pigs, ADFI was unaffected by the increased fiber from corn, regardless of

  8. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... pie or thinking about how delicious that ripe tomato is going to be, you start salivating — and ... humans, protein must be broken down into amino acids, starches into simple sugars, and fats into fatty ...

  9. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 59.70% to 44.61% and 91.78% to 87.18%, respectively. Sterilization (121 °C/15 min) resulted in complete degradation of aspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 50.36% to 8.67%. Results indicated that neotame exhibited better stability than aspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk. PMID:26593524

  10. Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain.

    PubMed

    González Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y; Montero, J C; Catalá, M

    2012-02-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface and drinking water has been evidenced in numerous studies. Despite representing one of the most common consumption sources, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in bottled mineral water. Pollution of these sources not only could pose a serious human health risk, but would also warn about the quality of the water in our aquifers, a vital and vulnerable source of water, essential for the future water supply. Fifty eight pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to the 12 main therapeutic groups were analyzed in 10 bottled mineral water brands produced in Spain. Nicotine was detected in concentrations ranging from 7ngL(-1) to 15ngL(-1) in 5 of 10 bottled mineral waters. Despite the low nicotine concentration measured, the presence of this compound in bottled water still raises concern. Health risk assessment researchers have postulated that the risk to adult healthy humans from oral intake of nicotine at low levels is negligible. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the human health risk of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns. This population is the target of advertising on the purity and quality characteristics of bottled mineral water.

  11. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  12. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 59.70% to 44.61% and 91.78% to 87.18%, respectively. Sterilization (121 °C/15 min) resulted in complete degradation of aspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 50.36% to 8.67%. Results indicated that neotame exhibited better stability than aspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

  13. Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain.

    PubMed

    González Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y; Montero, J C; Catalá, M

    2012-02-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface and drinking water has been evidenced in numerous studies. Despite representing one of the most common consumption sources, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in bottled mineral water. Pollution of these sources not only could pose a serious human health risk, but would also warn about the quality of the water in our aquifers, a vital and vulnerable source of water, essential for the future water supply. Fifty eight pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to the 12 main therapeutic groups were analyzed in 10 bottled mineral water brands produced in Spain. Nicotine was detected in concentrations ranging from 7ngL(-1) to 15ngL(-1) in 5 of 10 bottled mineral waters. Despite the low nicotine concentration measured, the presence of this compound in bottled water still raises concern. Health risk assessment researchers have postulated that the risk to adult healthy humans from oral intake of nicotine at low levels is negligible. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the human health risk of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns. This population is the target of advertising on the purity and quality characteristics of bottled mineral water. PMID:22137651

  14. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the body digests into smaller molecules called amino acids. The body absorbs amino acids through the small intestine into the blood, which ... into the bloodstream. The bloodstream carries simple sugars, amino acids, glycerol, and some vitamins and salts to the ...

  15. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process.

  16. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. PMID:26799793

  17. [Postoperative digestive fistulas. Etiopathogenic considerations].

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Iulia; Stefan, S; Sirbu-Boeti, Mirela; Popescu, R; Burcoveanu, Ioana; Topală, Roxana; Burcoveanu, C

    2009-01-01

    The digestive fistula is one of the most serious complications that might appear following different types of resectional digestive surgery. This condition still carries a considerable morbidity and mortality rate and therefore all surgical and ICU staff pay a great deal of attention and intensify their care to avoid the fatalities. The postoperative digestive fistulas, through their physiopathological and clinical complexity induce the disturbance of the biological equilibrium with vital consequences. The trend of the last decades is the increasing of digestive fistulas incidence with a variable mortality rate after different authors. A therapeutic algorithm is needed. The mortality rate due to digestive fistulas, two decades ago was, around 60%; at the present there is a decrease of the mortality rate, which is around 10%. The explanation is the introduction of the new methods of treatment such as lactic acid lavage aspiration for alkaline fistulas or total parenteral nutrition, continuous enteral nutrition and antiexocrine chemotherapy. A fistula is a communication between two epithelial or endothelial surfaces, lined by granulation tissue. It can be a life-threatening condition. PMID:21495307

  18. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake).

  19. Application of microwave digestion to the analysis of peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, C.S.E.; Fischer, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    A microwave digestion technique for the dissolution of peat is described and compared with a dry ashing method and a nitric - perchloric - hydrofluoric acid wet digestion. Peat samples with different organic matter contents were used and Ca, Mg, Fe, AI, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Cu and Li were determined by atomic absoprtion spectrometry. The results obtained using the three dissolution techniques were in good agreement. The microwave method has the advantage of digesting the samples in less than 2 h and uses less acid than the conventional wet digestion method. Keeping the volume of the acid mixture as small as possible minimises contamination and leads to lower blank values.

  20. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  1. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages... other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  2. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages... other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  3. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages... other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  4. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages... other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  5. 19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages... other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers; regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The importation of distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages...

  6. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. PMID:23871080

  7. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIDDK Health Information NIDDK Home NIDDK Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, ... Materials Statistics Tip Sheets Catalog Home | Diabetes Materials | Digestive Diseases Materials | Kidney and Urologic Diseases Materials Online ...

  8. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. Data indicate that the biochemical additive increases methane yield, gas production rate, and volatile solids reduction; decreases volatile acids accumulation; enhances the digester buffer capacity; and improves the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue. Digester capacities could be potentially doubled when the feed is so treated. Results of field tests with six full-scale digesters confirm observations made with bench-scale digesters.

  9. Prebiotic digestion and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Macfarlane, G T; Englyst, H N

    2001-02-01

    Prebiotics, as currently conceived of, are all carbohydrates of relatively short chain length. To be effective they must reach the cecum. Present evidence concerning the 2 most studied prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides and inulin, is consistent with their resisting digestion by gastric acid and pancreatic enzymes in vivo. However, the wide variety of new candidate prebiotics becoming available for human use requires that a manageable set of in vitro tests be agreed on so that their nondigestibility and fermentability can be established without recourse to human studies in every case. In the large intestine, prebiotics, in addition to their selective effects on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, influence many aspects of bowel function through fermentation. Short-chain fatty acids are a major product of prebiotic breakdown, but as yet, no characteristic pattern of fermentation acids has been identified. Through stimulation of bacterial growth and fermentation, prebiotics affect bowel habit and are mildly laxative. Perhaps more importantly, some are a potent source of hydrogen in the gut. Mild flatulence is frequently observed by subjects being fed prebiotics; in a significant number of subjects it is severe enough to be unacceptable and to discourage consumption. Prebiotics are like other carbohydrates that reach the cecum, such as nonstarch polysaccharides, sugar alcohols, and resistant starch, in being substrates for fermentation. They are, however, distinctive in their selective effect on the microflora and their propensity to produce flatulence.

  10. In situ methane enrichment in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hayes, T D; Isaacson, H R; Pfeffer, J T; Liu, Y M

    1990-01-01

    A major cost consideration in the use of anaerobic digestion to convert biomass and waste to utility-grade gas is the expense of separating CO(2) from the product gas. Anaerobic digestion has a number of inherent properties that can be exploited to increase the methane content of the gas directly produced by the digester, the most important of which is the high solubility of CO(2)(40-60 times that of methane) in water under digestion conditions. The methane enrichment concept examined in this study involved the recirculation of a liquid stream from the digester through a CO(2) desorption process and the return of the liquid stream back to the digester for absorption of additional CO(2) produced by the conversion of organic materials. A steady-state equilibrium model predicted that a digester gas methane content exceeding 94% could be achieved with this scheme using modest recirculation rates provided a desorption process could be designed to achieve a 60+% CO(2) removal efficiency in the degassing of the liquid recycle stream. Using fixed-film laboratory digesters operated on synthetic feedstocks, the technique of methane enrichment was tested under pressurized and unpressurized conditions. A 93 + 2% methane gas stream was produced from a volatile-acid-fed bench-scale digester simulating the methanogenic stage of two-phase digestion under conditions of (1) a pH swing achieved without caustic addition that allowed digestion at pH 7. 5 and air stripping at pH 6. 5-7. 0, (2) digester pressurization to 30 psig, and (3) a recycle rate of 0. 33 L/L reactor/day. Significant but lower levels of methane enrichment were achieved with the single-stage digester at the low experimental recycle rate. However, the narrow range among all experiments of CO(2) desorption efficiencies achieved in air stripping the recycle stream (35-60% CO(2) removal) suggests that comparable methane enrichment-may be achieved with unpressurized single-stage digestion using greater recycle rates. A

  11. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P < 0.05) than in corn and SBM (DE: 2,854, 2,680, 2,892, and 2,883 vs. 3,324 and 3,784 kcal/kg, respectively; ME: 2,540, 2,251, 2,681, and 2,637 vs. 3,213 and 3,523 kcal/kg, respectively). No differences in the concentrations of DE and ME were observed among the 4 sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P < 0.05) than in the 4 sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys

  12. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  13. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs in coproducts from canola and 00-rapeseed may be influenced by the variety of seeds that was grown and the processing method used to extract the oil from the seeds. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 28.8 ± 2.64 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 9 × 23 Youden square design with 9 periods and 23 dietary treatments. The 23 diets included 7 diets based on the 7 samples of canola meal, 10 diets based on the 10 samples of 00-rapeseed meal, 5 diets based on the 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers, and a N-free diet. Each source of canola or rapeseed coproducts was used as the only source of CP and AA in 1 diet. The SID of CP and all AA except Val, Cys, and Glu were not different between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater (P < 0.01) SID of CP and all AA except Thr, Trp, and Gly than 00-rapeseed meal, which possibly is due to heat damage in 00-rapeseed meal. For Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, SID values of 70.6%, 84.5%, 73.0%, and 82.6%, and 71.9%, 84.6%, 72.6%, and 82.6% were obtained in canola meal and rapeseed meal, respectively, whereas values in 00-rapeseed expellers were 74.7%, 87.1%, 74.0%, and 83.4%. The SID for most AA was different (P < 0.05) among the 7 sources of canola meal, among the 10 sources of 00-rapeseed meal, and among the 5 sources of 00-rapeseed expellers. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA in canola and 00

  14. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    PubMed

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P < 0.05) compared to the CS-B line. The glucosinolate compounds differed (P < 0.05) in terms of 4-pentenyl, phenylethyl, 3-CH3-indolyl, and 3-butenyl glucosinolates (2.9 vs 1.0 μmol/g) between the CS-Y and CS-B lines. For bioactive compounds, total polyphenols tended to be different (6.3 vs 7.2 g/kg DM), but there were no differences in erucic acid and condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral

  15. Blending anaerobic co-digestates: synergism and economics.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, N; Topczewski, P; Royer, S; Zitomer, D

    2011-01-01

    Co-digestion is the process in which wastes from various sources are treated together. Therefore, more organic carbon is added to make efficient use of existing digesters. The objectives of this study were to compare potential co-digestates, determine synergistic and antagonistic co-digestion outcomes and estimate economic benefits for preliminary screening. Over 80 wastes were identified from 54 facilities within 160 km of an existing municipal digester. Synergistic, antagonistic and neutral co-digestion outcomes were observed for the various wastes. A simple economic comparison resulted in the greatest potential benefits for four co-digestates: yeast flavorings production waste, meat production dissolved air flotation float, acid whey from cheese production and thin stillage from corn ethanol production. Performance was investigated using bench-scale digesters receiving primary sludge with and without co-digestates. Methane production rates were 105 and 66% higher when co-digestates were present, but were anticipated to increase only 57 and 23% due to the additional chemical oxygen demand. Therefore, significant synergistic outcomes were observed during co-digestion. Co-digestion of the most promising wastes with primary sludge in full scale was estimated to generate enough electricity to power more than 2,500 houses.

  16. Blending anaerobic co-digestates: synergism and economics.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, N; Topczewski, P; Royer, S; Zitomer, D

    2011-01-01

    Co-digestion is the process in which wastes from various sources are treated together. Therefore, more organic carbon is added to make efficient use of existing digesters. The objectives of this study were to compare potential co-digestates, determine synergistic and antagonistic co-digestion outcomes and estimate economic benefits for preliminary screening. Over 80 wastes were identified from 54 facilities within 160 km of an existing municipal digester. Synergistic, antagonistic and neutral co-digestion outcomes were observed for the various wastes. A simple economic comparison resulted in the greatest potential benefits for four co-digestates: yeast flavorings production waste, meat production dissolved air flotation float, acid whey from cheese production and thin stillage from corn ethanol production. Performance was investigated using bench-scale digesters receiving primary sludge with and without co-digestates. Methane production rates were 105 and 66% higher when co-digestates were present, but were anticipated to increase only 57 and 23% due to the additional chemical oxygen demand. Therefore, significant synergistic outcomes were observed during co-digestion. Co-digestion of the most promising wastes with primary sludge in full scale was estimated to generate enough electricity to power more than 2,500 houses. PMID:22049719

  17. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  18. Examination of Thermophilic Methane-Producing Digesters by Analysis of Bacterial Lipids †

    PubMed Central

    Henson, J. Michael; Smith, Paul H.; White, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Thermophilic methane-producing digesters were examined by the analysis of lipids to determine the microbial biomass, community structure, and nutritional status of the microbes within the digesters. The digesters received a daily feedstock of cattle feed and Bermuda grass, with some digesters receiving additional supplements of propionate, butyrate, or nitrate. Microbial biomass, measured as total extractable lipid phosphate, was decreased in slurries from digesters receiving continuous addition of the fermentation intermediates propionate or butyrate as compared with slurries from control digesters receiving the feedstock alone. In slurries from digesters that received continuous addition of nitrate, the microbial biomass was higher than in the slurries from control digesters. The control digesters had ca. 2.5 × 1011 bacteria per g (dry weight) as determined from total extractable lipid phosphate. Shifts in microbial community structure were observed by analysis of ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids. Statistical analysis of the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids indicated that the digesters receiving different supplements could be distinguished from the control digester and from each other. Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid, an indicator of metabolic stress, was detected in slurries from all the digesters. Slurries from the nitrate-amended digester had the highest concentration of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid, whereas slurries from the propionate-amended digester had the lowest concentration. These chemical analyses offer a quantitative means to correlate shifts in microbial biomass, community structure, and nutritional status in complex fermentation systems to the production of a specific end product. PMID:16346943

  19. The function of digestive enzymes on Cu, Zn, and Pb release from soil in in vitro digestion tests.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Demisie, Walelign; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2013-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of soil heavy metals is the solubility of soil heavy metals in synthetic human digestive juice, which is usually determined using in vitro digestion test. To reveal the effects of digestive enzymes on soil heavy metals bioaccessibility, three representative in vitro digestion tests, Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET), Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET), and Simple Gastrointestinal Extraction Test (SGET), were chosen. The bioaccessibility of soil Cu, Zn, and Pb in each method were respectively evaluated with and without digestive enzymes, and the differences were compared. The results showed that the effects of digestive enzymes varied with different methods and elements. Because of digestive enzymes addition, the environmental change from acid gastric phase to neutral intestinal phase of PBET did not result in apparently decrease of the bioaccessibility of soil Cu. However, the solubility of soil Zn and Pb were pH-dependent. For SGET, when digestive enzymes were added, its results reflected more variations resulting from soil and element types. The impacts of digestive enzymes on heavy metal dissolution are mostly seen in the intestinal phase. Therefore, digestive enzyme addition is indispensable to the gastrointestinal digestion methods (PBET and SGET), while the pepsin addition is not important for the methods only comprised of gastric digestion (SBET).

  20. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MOHAGHEGHI,AMIR H.; PRESTON,ROSE; AKBARZADEH,MANSOOR; BAKHTIAR,STEVEN

    2000-04-05

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Heterotrophic Bacteria Count in Bottled Waters in Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADI KOUCHESFAHANI, Matin; ALIMOHAMMADI, Mahmood; NABIZADEH NODEHI, Ramin; ASLANI, Hassan; REZAIE, Sassan; ASADIAN, Samieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, due to increased public awareness about water pollution and water borne diseases as well as water network deficiencies, bottled water consumers have increased dramatically worldwide, including Iran. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing widespread infections in burn and immune-compromised patients. The aim of this study was to investigate, P. aeruginosa in bottled waters selling in Iranian markets. Methods: One hundred and twenty samples of five unknown (not famous) domestic bottled water brands were purchased from Tehran retailers during 2013. The samples were evaluated for the presence of P. aeruginosa. In addition, heterotrophic plate counts were determined by incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. Results: P. aeruginosa was detected in 36.7% (44 samples) of all samples examined. In addition, heterotrophic bacteria in 32.5% (39 samples) of the samples were higher than 100 CFU/mL, while in 7.5% (9 samples) of the samples HPC relied between 20 and 100 CFU/ml. Conclusion: In contrast to public believe, bottled waters are not free of microorganisms, and it is suggested that authorities should provide stricter monitoring and control plan for water resources and plants. Concerning HPC and P. aeruginosa brands B and D were not suitable for drinking. PMID:26744709

  2. Hydrocarbons derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramírez, Maria de Lourdes; Pérez, José Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two bottle sizes (1.5 and 19 L), all brought in supermarkets. The analysis was by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. -Concentrations of AHs (9.26-1.74 μg/L) were greater than PAHs (20.15-12.78 ng/L). Individual concentrations of PAHs such as fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were comparable with data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total concentrations of PAHs for all samples (BDW1: 12.78 μg/L, BDW2: 16.72 μg/L, BDW3: 14.62 μg/L, BDW4: 20.15 μg/L and BDW5: 13.23 ng/L) were below the maximum permissible European level of 100 ng/L; no regulations exist for AHs although their values were greater than PAHs (BDW1: 3.11 μg/L, BDW2: 8.45 μg/L, BDW3: 1.74 μg/L, BDW4: 4.75 μg/L and BDW5: 9.26 μg/L).

  3. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  4. Commercially available avian and mammalian whole prey diet items targeted for consumption by managed exotic and domestic pet felines: true metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    Whole prey diets are commonly used in the zoo and home setting for captive exotic and domestic cats, respectively. Despite their increase in popularity, nutrient digestibility of such diets has been poorly studied. In this study, the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay was used to determine the protein quality and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) of 17 whole prey samples (mice [1 to 2 , 10 to 13 , 21 to 25 , 30 to 40 , and 150 to 180 d old], rats [1 to 4, 10 to 13, 21 to 25, 32 to 42, and >60 d old], rabbits [stillborn, 30 to 45 d old, and >65 d old], chicken [1 to 3 d old], and quail [1 to 3, 21 to 40, and >60 d old]) and 2 ground poultry-based products (chicken and duck). Amino acid score (AAS) and protein digestibility corrected AAS (PDCAAS) were calculated using the nutrient profile recommendations for domestic cat food as a reference value (AAFCO, 2012). Average individual indispensable AA (IAA) and total IAA (TIAA) digestibility coefficients were variable anddepended on AA (84 to 94% TIAA, 85 to 95% Arg, 87 to 96% His, 82 to 92% Ile, 84 to 94% Leu, 85 to 93% Lys, 89 to 97% Met, 83 to 94% Phe, 80 to 95% Thr, 84 to 94% Trp, and 80 to 93% Val) and sample. For a majority of the whole prey items, AA concentrations were greater than the Association of American Feed Control Officials ( AAFCO: , 2012) domestic cat nutrient profile recommendations for growth and reproduction and adult maintenance; however, some whole prey had AA concentrations below the AAFCO (2012) recommendations: Met + Cys (1.10% DM) in ground duck (1.06% DM) and taurine (Tau; 0.20% DM) in 30-to-45- and >65-d-old rabbits (0.01 and 0.10% DM, respectively), 150-to-180-d-old mice (0.18% DM), and ground duck (0.15% DM). The TMEn (3.76 to 6.44 kcal/g DM) expressed as the percent of GE (i.e., TMEn/GE) ranged from 66 to 85%, demonstrating how variable the digestibility of these items may be and justifying more research in this area. Both Met and Tau are commonly added to commercial pet foods, so

  5. Anaerobic digestion of food waste for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production with different types of inoculum: effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Yin, Jun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na

    2014-06-01

    Food waste anaerobic fermentation was carried out under acidic conditions using inocula based on aerobic activated sludge (Inoculum AE) or anaerobic activated sludge (Inoculum AN) for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. The results showed that food waste hydrolysis increased obviously when Inoculum AN was used relative to Inoculum AE at any pH investigated. Hydrolysis at pH 4.0 and uncontrolled pH was higher than that at other pHs when either inoculum was used. Additionally, VFAs production at pH 6.0 was the highest, regardless of the inoculum used. The optimum VFA yields were 0.482g/gVSSremoval with Inoculum AE and 0.918g/gVSSremoval with Inoculum AN, which were observed after 4d and 20d of fermentation, respectively. VFAs composition analysis showed that butyrate acid was the prevalent acid at pH 6.0, followed by acetate acid and propionic acid.

  6. Effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestibility of lipid and cholesterol oxidation products in beef during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, beef patties were encapsulated with 3% chitosan, pectin, onion powder, or green tea powder and the beef patties were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model. The total lipid digestibility was lowest (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with chitosan and pectin after digestion in the small intestine. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were significantly lower (p<0.05) for beef patties encapsulated with chitosan and pectin, when compared with the control, after digestion in the small intestine. In contrast, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity was highest (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with onion powder and green tea powder after digestion in the small intestine. The total cholesterol oxidation product (COP) content was significantly lower (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with biopolymers than in the control after digestion in the small intestine.

  7. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion. PMID:25457225

  8. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion.

  9. Transferability of cucumber microsatellite markers used for phylogenetic analysis and population structure study in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.).

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Abdin, M Z; Arya, L; Verma, M

    2015-02-01

    Improved breeding for developing fruit quality in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) necessitates knowledge regarding its genetic diversity. To achieve this, a set of 108 locus-specific SSR markers has been developed in bottle gourd by cross-species transferability from 995 mapped Cucumis sativus SSR markers. During screening, 280 primer pairs amplified in the bottle gourd germplasm, which were further evaluated in a diverse set of 42 lines, resulting in 19 polymorphic, 89 monomorphic, 15 with multiple bands, and the rest 157 showed no or very non-specific amplification. The 19 polymorphic primer pairs produced a total of 54 alleles. Gene diversity, Shannon's information index, and Nei's coefficient of differentiation were calculated suggesting a moderate genetic variation at the species level. A model-based population structure analysis divided these germplasm into two subpopulations. This marker set will be applicable for evaluating the genetic structure for association mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and mounting linkage maps and will be a practical tool set for further genetics. This study provides one of the first quantitative views of population genetic variation in bottle gourd. PMID:25471016

  10. Determination of phthalate esters in bottled water using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Amayreh; Basheer, Chanbasha; Al-Arfaj, Abdul Rahman

    2013-06-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the determination of the amount of phthalate esters in bottled drinking water samples and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction samples were analyzed by GC-MS. Various experimental conditions influencing the extraction were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, very good linearity was observed for all analytes in a range between 0.05 and 150 μg/L with coefficient of determination (R²) between 0.995 and 0.999. The LODs based on S/N = 3 were 0.005-0.22 μg/L. The reproducibility of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was evaluated. The RSDs were 1.3-5.2% (n = 3). The concentrations of phthalates were determined in bottled samples available in half shell. To understand the leaching profile of these phthalates from bottled water, bottles were exposed to direct sunlight during summer (temperature from 34-57°C) and sampled at different intervals. Result showed that the proposed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction is suitable for rapid determination of phthalates in bottled water and di-n-butyl, butyl benzyl, and bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate compounds leaching from bottles up to 36 h. Thereafter, degradation of phthalates was observed.

  11. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Bayr, S. Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  12. Digestion of kiwifruit fiber.

    PubMed

    Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. The digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. With its naturally high nonstarch polysaccharide content, it would be expected that kiwifruit would possess the characteristics of a good source of fiber for nutrition and health. Kiwifruit contains soluble and nonsoluble fiber components, both of which would be expected to affect the physical attributes of digesta as it transits the gastrointestinal tract. This chapter summarizes fiber digestion in general and current knowledge of kiwifruit fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. (Methane digester). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waybright, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the grant was to construct and operate a methane digester for dairy manure involving the latest state-of-the-art technics. The first step taken was to empty out the existing digester to evaluate its performance and to gain ideas of how to build the next digester so it would operate more efficiently. Next, the design criteria was set up in order to eliminate some problems involved with the first digester and also new ideas as to how to build the next one without a protective building and testing simplified construction technics. After this the digester construction was started with the completion date in late January. The digester was then filled and operated at different temperatures attempting to achieve the optimum operating range.

  14. A new phytase continuously hydrolyzes phytate and improves amino acid digestibility and mineral balance in growing pigs fed phosphorous-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Z K; Li, Q Y; Zhao, P F; Xu, X; Tian, Q Y; Wang, H L; Pan, L; Yu, S; Piao, X S

    2016-02-01

    Ten ileal T-cannulated pigs (19.26 ± 1.06 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of a novel phytase on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and hindgut disappearance of DM, GE, CP, crude fiber, NDF, and ADF as well as minerals balance. Pigs were fed in a duplicated 5 × 4 incomplete Latin square design (5 diets with 4 periods). Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine and then a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The 5 diets included a P-deficient basal diet (0.43% Ca and 0.38% total P) that was supplemented with 0 (negative control [NC]), 500, 1,000, or 20,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg phytase and a positive control (PC) diet that was P adequate (0.64% Ca and 0.52% total P). The addition of phytase to the NC diet improved ( < 0.05) AID of phytate from 11.1 to 62.8, 70.6, and 90.5% at the inclusion rates of 500, 1,000, and 20,000 FTU/kg, respectively. In general, phytase supplementation at a dose of 20,000 FTU/kg further increased ( < 0.05) AID of Ca, total P, and phytate and reduced ( < 0.05) the ileal phytate concentration compared with diets with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. Pigs fed the diet with 20,000 FTU/kg phytase but not diets with 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg phytase showed improved ( < 0.05) ATTD of CP and AID of DM, GE, CP, Leu, Lys, Thr, Val, Asp, and Ser compared with pigs fed the PC or NC diet. However, hindgut disappearance of crude fiber and NDF ( < 0.05) were reduced in pigs fed the diet with 20,000 FTU/kg phytase compared with pigs fed the PC or NC diet. Pigs fed diets with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg phytase had greater ATTD and retention of Ca and P than pigs fed the NC diet but less compared with pigs fed the diet with 20,000 FTU/kg phytase. Supplementation of 20,000 FTU/kg phytase to the NC diet improved ( < 0.05) digestibility of Na, Mn, and Zn as well as retention (%) of Zn. Increasing phytase supplementation doses from 0 to 1,000 FTU/kg linearly

  15. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of DF concentration on the digestibility of energy, DF, and AA and energy value of 9 corn coproducts: corn bran (37.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP]); corn bran with solubles (17.1% NSP); cooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20.4% NSP); reduced oil DDGS (25.0% NSP); uncooked DDGS (22.0% NSP); high protein distillers dried grains (21.9% NSP); dehulled, degermed corn (1.1% NSP); corn germ meal (44.4% NSP); and corn gluten meal (4.9% NSP). A total of 20 growing pigs (initial BW: 25.9 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 10 dietary treatment groups in a 4-period incomplete block design with 8 observations per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and 9 diets obtained by mixing 70% of the basal diet with 30% of the test ingredient. In tested ingredients, 11 DF components were determined: 1) ADF, 2) NDF, 3) total dietary fiber, 4) hemicellulose, 5) total NSP, 6) NSP arabinose, 7) NSP xylose, 8) NSP mannose, 9) NSP glucose, 10) NSP galactose, and 11) arabinoxylan. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF and the AID of AA of ingredients were measured. A single best fitting DF component was assessed and ranked for each trait, showing that arabinoxylan concentration best explained variance in AID of GE (R(2) = 0.65; cubic, P < 0.01) and DM (R(2) = 0.67; cubic, P < 0.01). The NSP xylose residue best explained variance in ATTD of GE (R(2) = 0.80; cubic, P < 0.01), DM (R(2) = 0.78; cubic, P < 0.01), and NDF (R(2) = 0.63; cubic, P < 0.01); AID of Met (R(2) = 0.40; cubic, P = 0.02), Met + Cys (R(2) = 0.44; cubic, P = 0.04), and Trp (R(2) = 0.11; cubic, P = 0.04); and DE (R(2) = 0.66; linear, P = 0.02) and ME (R(2) = 0.71; cubic, P = 0.01) values. The AID of Lys was not predictable (P > 0.05) from the DF

  16. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of three- and six-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid, a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In two separate 3- and 6-wk trials, day-old straight run (N=70 per trial), chicks were assigned to 5 treatment groups ...

  17. Fast quantitative analysis of boric acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with a simple and selective derivatization reaction using triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li-Min; Wang, Hao-Yang; Guo, Yin-Long

    2010-03-01

    A fast, selective, and sensitive GC-MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of boric acid in the drinking water by derivatization with triethanolamine. This analytic strategy successfully converts the inorganic, nonvolatile boric acid B(OH)(3) present in the drinking water to a volatile triethanolamine borate B(OCH(2)CH(2))(3)N in a quantitative manner, which facilitates the GC measurement. The SIM mode was applied in the analysis and showed high accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility, as well as reducing the matrix effect effectively. The calibration curve was obtained from 0.01 microg/mL to 10.0 microg/mL with a satisfactory correlation coefficient of 0.9988. The limit of detection for boric acid was 0.04 microg/L. Then the method was applied for detection of the amount of boric acid in bottled drinking water and the results are in accordance with the reported concentration value of boric acid. This study offers a perspective into the utility of GC-MS as an alternate quantitative tool for detection of B(OH)(3), even for detection of boron in various other samples by digesting the boron compounds to boric acid.

  18. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  19. Estimation of the true ileal digestible lysine and sulfur amino acid requirement and comparison of the bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid and DL-methionine in eleven- to twenty-six-kilogram nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Yi, G F; Gaines, A M; Ratliff, B W; Srichana, P; Allee, G L; Perryman, K R; Knight, C D

    2006-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the true ileal digestible (TID) Lys and sulfur AA (SAA) requirement and to compare the bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) and dl-MET as Met sources in nursery pigs. Experiment 1 included 2 studies: 1 was 662 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 12.2 +/- 0.18 kg) allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with TID Lys concentrations ranging from 1.10 to 1.50%; and the second study was 665 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 12.3 +/- 0.18 kg) allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with TID SAA concentration ranging from 0.63 to 0.90%. In Exp. 2, 638 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 13.0 +/- 0.16 kg) were allotted to the same 5 SAA dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. In Exp. 3, 1,232 pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 11.0 +/- 0.30 kg) were allotted to 1 of 7 dietary treatments. The basal diet (diet 1) was supplemented with high concentrations of synthetic AA but no Met; this resulted in a dietary concentration of TID Lys of 1.30% and TID SAA of 0.50%. Diets 2 to 7 were the basal diet supplemented with 3 equimolar levels of HMTBA or dl-MET to provide TID SAA concentrations of 0.56, 0.62, and 0.68%, respectively. In Exp. 1, increasing TID Lys from 1.10 to 1.50% increased ADG (quadratic; P < 0.05) and improved G:F (linear; P < 0.002). The pooled data of Exp. 1 (SAA study) and Exp. 2 indicated that increasing TID SAA from 0.63 to 0.90% increased ADG (quadratic; P < 0.01) and improved G:F (quadratic; P < 0.01). Various methods of analyzing the growth response surface indicated that the optimal TID Lys concentration ranged from 1.28 to 1.32% for ADG (Exp. 1), and the optimal TID SAA concentration ranged from 0.73 to 0.77% for ADG and 0.80 to 0.83% for G:F (pooled Exp. 1 and 2), respectively. In Exp. 3, increasing TID SAA concentrations from 0.50 to 0.68% resulted in a linear improvement of ADG (P < 0.001), ADFI (P < 0.05), and G:F (P < 0.001). The best fit comparison of HMTBA

  20. Exposure assessment of endocrine disruptors in bottled drinking water of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Nassif, Rana M

    2014-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used monomer in various products including bottled water. Numerous studies have reported endocrine adverse effects and neoplasia associated with BPA exposure in animals. However, considerable discrepancies exist among these studies with respect to both the nature of the toxic effects and the threshold dose. In Lebanon, 19-L polycarbonate (PC) bottles of drinking water are widely used in urban areas. The present study aims at assessing BPA human exposure and associated health risks from drinking water in Lebanese. A total of 22 bottled water sources, packaged in PC, were identified from licensed and non-licensed sources. Water samples were analyzed following exposure to sunlight for 72 h. BPA in water was quantified by HPLC, and other potential organic pollutants were screened by GC/MS. Fifty-nine percent of samples showed BPA levels above detection limits (>0.05 ng/mL). The median BPA level was 0.1 ng/mL (range 0.05 to 1.37 ng/mL). The mean BPA level for the total number of samples was 0.169 ng/mL (±0.280). A higher mean BPA level was found in water from licensed companies compared to non-licensed sources, however, not statistically significant. Screening showed the presence of dibutyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate in only two samples. Endocrine disruptors (EDR) are ubiquitous contaminants in bottled water in Lebanon with potential health risk implications. Although estimated exposure levels are below the reference dose (RfD), further studies are needed to quantitate exposure from various sources and to investigate EDR contribution to existing epidemics in the country.

  1. Improved method for rapid detection of phthalates in bottled water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Otero, Paz; Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Moane, Siobhan; Barron, John; Clancy, Gerard; Murray, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simple, rapid and precise quantification of phthalates in drinking water is presented. This method was validated for bis (2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), bis (2-n-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and dinonyl phthalate (DINP). Linearity of 0.9984>r(2)>0.9975 in the range of 0.075-4.8μg/mL for the selected phthalates was obtained. Accuracy values were in the range of 93-114% and RSD% for the analysis of 1.2μg/mL of each phthalate was below 2.3% (n=9). This new method design has significantly improved the detection in terms of rapidity, specificity, repeatability and accuracy compared to available methods. The procedure has been applied to the analyses of three different brands of commercially available bottled mineral water and the corresponding plastic bottles. Phthalates were extracted with dichloromethane and re-constituted in cyclohexane prior to GC-MS analysis. When the validated GC-MS method was applied to the quantification of the selected phthalates in the samples, only DBP (up to 0.0675±0.0018μg/mL) and DEHP (up to 1.6848±0.1631μg/mL) were found. Furthermore, we provide specific data about the concentration of DBP and DEHP in bottled water attributable to migration of phthalates from respective plastic bottles.

  2. Improved method for rapid detection of phthalates in bottled water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Otero, Paz; Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Moane, Siobhan; Barron, John; Clancy, Gerard; Murray, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simple, rapid and precise quantification of phthalates in drinking water is presented. This method was validated for bis (2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), bis (2-n-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and dinonyl phthalate (DINP). Linearity of 0.9984>r(2)>0.9975 in the range of 0.075-4.8μg/mL for the selected phthalates was obtained. Accuracy values were in the range of 93-114% and RSD% for the analysis of 1.2μg/mL of each phthalate was below 2.3% (n=9). This new method design has significantly improved the detection in terms of rapidity, specificity, repeatability and accuracy compared to available methods. The procedure has been applied to the analyses of three different brands of commercially available bottled mineral water and the corresponding plastic bottles. Phthalates were extracted with dichloromethane and re-constituted in cyclohexane prior to GC-MS analysis. When the validated GC-MS method was applied to the quantification of the selected phthalates in the samples, only DBP (up to 0.0675±0.0018μg/mL) and DEHP (up to 1.6848±0.1631μg/mL) were found. Furthermore, we provide specific data about the concentration of DBP and DEHP in bottled water attributable to migration of phthalates from respective plastic bottles. PMID:26134297

  3. Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Yusuf, R; Hasan, I; Ashraf, W; Goonetilleke, A; Toze, S; Gardner, T

    2013-01-01

    Forty-six bottled water samples representing 16 brands from Dhaka, Bangladesh were tested for the numbers of total coliforms, fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., thermotolerant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) and potential bacterial pathogens (i.e., Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.). Among the 16 brands tested, 14 (86%), ten (63%) and seven (44%) were positive for total coliforms, E. coil and Enterococcus spp., respectively. Additionally, a further nine (56%), eight (50%), six (37%), and four (25%) brands were PCR positive for A. hydrophila lip, P. aeruginosa ETA, Salmonella spp. invA, and Shigella spp. ipaH genes, respectively. The numbers of bacterial pathogens in bottled water samples ranged from 28 ± 12 to 600 ± 45 (A. hydrophila lip gene), 180 ± 40 to 900 ± 200 (Salmonella spp. invA gene), 180 ± 40 to 1,300 ± 400 (P. aeruginosa ETA gene) genomic units per L of water. Shigella spp. ipaH gene was not quantifiable. Discrepancies were observed in terms of the occurrence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens. No correlations were observed between fecal indicators numbers and presence/absence of A. hydrophila lip (p = 0.245), Salmonella spp. invA (p = 0.433), Shigella spp. ipaH gene (p = 0.078), and P. aeruginosa ETA (p = 0.059) genes. Our results suggest that microbiological quality of bottled waters sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh is highly variable. To protect public health, stringent quality control is recommended for the bottled water industry in Bangladesh.

  4. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets. PMID:9603354

  5. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets.

  6. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Pecere, Silvia; Giorgio, Valentina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digestive enzymes are able to break down proteins and carbohydrates and lipids, and their supplementation may play a role in the management of digestive disorders, from lactose intolerance to cystic fibrosis. To date, several formulations of digestive enzymes are available on the market, being different each other in terms of enzyme type, source and origin, and dosage. Methods: This review, performed through a non-systematic search of the available literature, will provide an overview of the current knowledge of digestive enzyme supplementation in gastrointestinal disorders, discussion of the use of pancreatic enzymes, lactase (β-galactosidase) and conjugated bile acids, and also exploring the future perspective of digestive enzyme supplementation. Results: Currently, the animal-derived enzymes represent an established standard of care, however the growing study of plant-based and microbe-derived enzymes offers great promise in the advancement of digestive enzyme therapy. Conclusion: New frontiers of enzyme replacement are being evaluated also in the treatment of diseases not specifically related to enzyme deficiency, whereas the combination of different enzymes might constitute an intriguing therapeutic option in the future. PMID:26806042

  7. Halotolerant, acid-alkali stable, chelator resistant and raw starch digesting α-amylase from a marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis S8-18.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-08-01

    A halotolerant α-amylase having the ability of digesting the insoluble raw starches was characterized from Bacillus subtilis S8-18, a marine sediment isolate from Palk Bay region. The electrophoresis techniques unveiled that the α-amylase was indeed a monomer with a molecular weight of 57 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 60 °C and 6.0 respectively. The enzyme was highly stable for 24 h over a wide range of pH from 4.0 to 12.0 by showing 84-94% activity. Interestingly, by retaining 72% activity even after 24 h, the enzyme also showed tolerance towards 28% NaCl. The α-amylase retained a minimum of 93% residual activity in 1 mM concentration for the selected divalent metal ions. The enzyme was found to be chelator resistant as it remained unaffected by 1 mM of EDTA and exhibited 96% activity even at 5 mM concentration. Furthermore, though 1% SDS caused remarkable reduction (68%) in amylase activity, the enzyme showed tolerance towards other detergents (1% of Triton-X and Tween 80) with 85% activity. Additionally, the α-amylase enzyme is capable of hydrolyzing the insoluble raw starch substrates which was evident from the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and spectrophotometric analyses.

  8. VALIDATION FOR THE PERMANGANATE DIGESTION OF REILLEX HPQ ANION RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.

    2009-09-23

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex{trademark} HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}. Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex{trademark} HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount (<5%). The length of digestion time at 70 C remains unchanged at 15 hours. These parameters are not optimized but are expected to be adequate for the conditions. The flowsheet generates a significant amount of fine manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  9. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  10. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake.

  11. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507

  12. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition.

  13. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    PubMed

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety. PMID:27155428

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of livestock and vegetable processing wastes: fibre degradation and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Gómez, Xiomar; Morán, Antonio; García-González, Mari Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes (swine manure (SM) and poultry litter (PL)) and vegetable processing wastes (VPW) mixtures was evaluated in terms of methane yield, volatile solids removal and lignocellulosic material degradation. Batch experiments were performed with 2% VS (volatile solids) to ensure complete conversion of TVFAs (total volatile fatty acids) and to avoid ammonia inhibition. Experimental methane yields obtained for the mixtures resulted in higher values than those obtained from the sum of the methane yields from the individual components. VPW addition to livestock wastes before anaerobic digestion also resulted in improved VS elimination. In SM-VPW co-digestions, CH4 yield increased from 111 to 244 mL CH4 g VS added(-1), and the percentage of VS removed increased from 50% to 86%. For PL-VPW co-digestions, the corresponding values were increased from 158 to 223 mL CH4 g VS added(-1) and from 70% to 92% VS removed. Hemicelluloses and more than 50% of cellulose were degraded during anaerobic digestion. Thermal analyses indicated that the stabilization of the wastes during anaerobic digestion resulted in significantly less energy being released by digestate samples than fresh samples.

  15. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Almeida, F N; Tilton, S L; Cecava, M J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in corn and corn coproducts (high-fat corn germ [HFCG], corn bran, liquid corn extractives [LCE], and a mixture of corn germ meal and LCE [CGM-LCE]) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing barrows (initial BW: 33.4 ± 5.77 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the corn coproducts were formulated. Each diet was fed to 8 pigs. Feces and urine samples were collected using the marker to marker method with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. The DE and ME were calculated using the difference procedure. The concentrations of DE and ME in HFCG, corn bran, LCE, and CGM-LCE were less (P < 0.05) than in corn. Among corn coproducts, the concentration of DE in HFCG was greater (P < 0.05) than in corn bran, but the DE in corn bran was not different from DE values in LCE and CGM-LCE. No differences were observed in the ME concentrations among corn coproducts. In Exp. 2, 6 growing barrows (initial BW: 96.6 ± 1.16 kg) with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. A N-free diet and 5 diets that contained corn, HFCG, corn bran, LCE, or CGM-LCE as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) in corn than in all corn coproducts with the exception that the SID of Lys in corn was not different from the SID of Lys in HFCG, and the SID of Trp in corn was also not different from the SID of Trp in CGM-LCE. Among corn coproducts, the SID of CP, Arg, and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in HFCG and CGM-LCE than in corn bran, the SID of Lys and Val was greater (P < 0.05) in LCE than in

  16. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  17. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period. PMID:22991559

  18. Digestive Secretion of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's Flytrap).

    PubMed

    Scala, J; Iott, K; Schwab, D W; Semersky, F E

    1969-03-01

    The digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula has been studied with respect to its protein content as a function of time after entrapment of protein material and some enzymes of the secretion. Maximum secretion of enzyme occurs within the first 3 days of the digestive cycle and protein reaches its maximum at 4 days. Phosphatase, proteinase, nuclease and amylase have been observed in the secretion. The enzymes have acid pH optima and the proteinase has a molecular weight of about 40,000.

  19. Aiming for the complete utilization of sugar-beet pulp: Examination of the effects of mild acid and hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomass use for the production of bioethanol or platform chemicals requires efficient breakdown of biomass to fermentable monosaccharides. Lignocellulosic feedstocks often require physicochemical pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis can begin. The optimal pretreatment can be different for different feedstocks, and should not lead to biomass destruction or formation of toxic products. Methods We examined the influence of six mild sulfuric acid or water pretreatments at different temperatures on the enzymatic degradability of sugar-beet pulp (SBP). Results We found that optimal pretreatment at 140°C of 15 minutes in water was able to solubilize 60% w/w of the total carbohydrates present, mainly pectins. More severe treatments led to the destruction of the solubilized sugars, and the subsequent production of the sugar-degradation products furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, acetic acid and formic acid. The pretreated samples were successfully degraded enzymatically with an experimental cellulase preparation. Conclusions In this study, we found that pretreatment of SBP greatly facilitated the subsequent enzymatic degradation within economically feasible time ranges and enzyme levels. In addition, pretreatment of SBP can be useful to fractionate functional ingredients such as arabinans and pectins from cellulose. We found that the optimal combined severity factor to enhance the enzymatic degradation of SBP was between log R'0 = -2.0 and log R'0 = -1.5. The optimal pretreatment and enzyme treatment solubilized up to 80% of all sugars present in the SBP, including ≥90% of the cellulose. PMID:21627804

  20. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in alfalfa meal, sugar beet pulp, and wheat bran compared to wheat and protein ingredients for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Eklund, M; Rademacher, M; Sauer, W C; Blank, R; Mosenthin, R

    2014-03-01

    A total of 11 (8 + 3 for replacement) barrows with an initial BW of 23 kg and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were used in 2 consecutive experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 7 assay feed ingredients according to 2 consecutive duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square designs. In Exp. 1, 3 corn starch-based assay diets were formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), or meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and 1 assay diet that contained 136 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from wheat as commonly used feed ingredients for pigs. In Exp. 2, the pigs were fed 4 assay diets formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either the same SBM as in Exp. 1 or a combination of this SBM and alfalfa meal (AM), sugar beet pulp (SB), or wheat bran (WB) to compare the SID of AA in these feed ingredients with those used in Exp. 1. The SID of AA in CM was lower compared to SBM (P < 0.05) with intermediate values for MBM and wheat. Among fiber rich feed ingredients, SID values were lower in SB compared to WB (P < 0.05) with intermediate values for AM. In AM, SID values ranged between 29 and 45% for Lys, Cys, Thr, and Phe and between 51 and 71% for Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Met, and Val. In SB, SID values ranged between -21 and 46% for Cys, Thr, Phe, and Val and between 51 and 61% for Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, and Met. In WB, SID values were between 55 and 64% for Lys, Cys, Phe, Thr, and Val and between 68 and 80% for Arg, His, Ile, Leu, and Met. The SID values in WB, SB, and AM provided in the present study may improve diet formulation when these feed ingredients are used in diet formulation for pigs.

  1. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products. PMID:27065264

  2. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  3. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  5. Impact of different ratios of feedstock to liquid anaerobic digestion effluent on the performance and microbiome of solid-state anaerobic digesters digesting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Shi, Jian; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how the non-microbial factors of L-AD effluent affected the microbiome composition and successions in the SS-AD digesters using both Illumina sequencing and qPCR quantification of major genera of methanogens. The SS-AD digesters started with a feedstock/total effluent (F/Et) ratio 2.2 (half of the effluent was autoclaved) performed stably, while the SS-AD digesters started with a 4.4 F/Et ratio (no autoclaved effluent) suffered from digester acidification, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, and ceased biogas production two weeks after startup. Some bacteria and methanogens were affected by non-microbial factors of the L-AD fluent. Alkalinity, the main difference between the two F/Et ratios, may be the crucial factor when SS-AD digesters were started using L-AD effluent. PMID:26575616

  6. Impact of different ratios of feedstock to liquid anaerobic digestion effluent on the performance and microbiome of solid-state anaerobic digesters digesting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Shi, Jian; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how the non-microbial factors of L-AD effluent affected the microbiome composition and successions in the SS-AD digesters using both Illumina sequencing and qPCR quantification of major genera of methanogens. The SS-AD digesters started with a feedstock/total effluent (F/Et) ratio 2.2 (half of the effluent was autoclaved) performed stably, while the SS-AD digesters started with a 4.4 F/Et ratio (no autoclaved effluent) suffered from digester acidification, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, and ceased biogas production two weeks after startup. Some bacteria and methanogens were affected by non-microbial factors of the L-AD fluent. Alkalinity, the main difference between the two F/Et ratios, may be the crucial factor when SS-AD digesters were started using L-AD effluent.

  7. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p < 0.05) dressing yield and loin eye area with Ca-FA supplementation. The value of thiobarbituric reactive substances for nuggets prepared from frozen carcasses revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in T3 compared to the other dietary groups. Fatty acid profile of adipose tissue revealed higher (p < 0.001) 9-octadecanoic, 9-12-octadecadienoic, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), higher ratio of PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA), ω-6/ω-3 and lower SFA in Ca-FA-supplemented groups. It is concluded that supplementation of 40 g/kg calcium soap prepared from industrial grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40

  8. Fiber digestibility in royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Schlegel, Michael L; Galyean, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus) are among the smallest ungulate species and are browsing ruminants. To date, their capacities for fiber fermentation and nutrient digestion have not been quantified. This study compared apparent digestibilities of a typical high-fiber herbivore pellet (ADF 25) and a low-starch, high-fiber diet (WHP) in royal antelope in a crossover design (seven subjects in the first period and four in the second). Animals on ADF 25 pellets had greater intake concentrations (P < 0.05) of dry matter, crude protein, lignin, and crude fat; however, animals fed the WHP diets had greater (P < 0.05) apparent digestibility of dry matter, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and crude fat. Identifying the capacity to which these smaller ruminants can degrade fiber will help to establish more appropriate feeding guidelines for small, browsing ruminants in captivity. PMID:25632658

  9. FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

  10. Effect of processing of rapeseed under defined conditions in a pilot plant on chemical composition and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in rapeseed meal for pigs.

    PubMed

    Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Schöne, F; Messerschmidt, U; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2015-06-01

    Five rapeseed meals (RSM) were produced from a single batch of rapeseed in a large-scale pilot plant under standardized conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effect of residence time in the desolventizer/toaster (DT) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in RSM. Four RSM, with 48, 64, 76, and 93 min residence time and using unsaturated steam in the DT, referred to as RSM48, RSM64, RSM76, and RSM93, respectively, and 1 low-glucosinolate RSM, which was subjected to sequential treatment with unsaturated steam, saturated steam, and dry heat in the DT, referred to as low-GSL RSM, were assayed. Six barrows (average initial BW = 22 ± 1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to a 5 × 6 row × column design with 5 diets and 5 periods. The 5 RSM were included in a cornstarch-casein-based basal diet. In addition, basal ileal endogenous losses and SID of AA originating from casein were determined at the conclusion of the experiment in 2 additional periods by means of the regression method and using 3 graded levels of casein. The SID of AA in the 5 RSM was determined in difference to SID of AA originating from casein. The glucosinolates (GSL) were efficiently reduced, whereas NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents increased and reactive Lys (rLys) and Lys:CP ratio decreased as the residence time in the DT was increased from 48 to 93 min. The SID of most AA in RSM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) as the residence time in the DT increased from 48 to 93 min. Moreover, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in SID of AA with increasing NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents in these RSM, whereas SID of AA linearly decreased (P < 0.05) with decreasing levels of GSL and rLys and a decreasing Lys:CP ratio. The decrease (P < 0.05) in SID of AA amounted from 3 up to 6 (percentage units) for most AA, except for SID of Cys and Lys, which decreased by 10 and 11%-units (P < 0.05), respectively, as the residence time

  11. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio required for 25- to 120-kilogram pigs fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Ma, W F; Zeng, X F; Xie, C Y; Thacker, P A; Htoo, J K; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    Four 28-d experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine (Val) to lysine (Lys) ratio required for 26- to 46- (Exp. 1), 49- to 70- (Exp. 2), 71- to 92- (Exp. 3), and 94- to 119-kg (Exp. 4) pigs fed low CP diets supplemented with crystalline AA. The first 3 experiments utilized 150 pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White), while Exp. 4 utilized 90 finishing pigs. Pigs in all 4 experiments were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 diets with 6 pens per treatment (3 pens of barrows and 3 pens of gilts) and 5 pigs per pen for the first 3 experiments and 3 pigs per pen for Exp. 4. Diets for all experiments were formulated to contain SID Val to Lys ratios of 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, or 0.75. In Exp. 1 (26 to 46 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.039; quadratic, = 0.042) with an increasing dietary Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize ADG was 0.62 using a linear broken-line model and 0.71 using a quadratic model. In Exp. 2 (49 to 70 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.042) as the SID Val:Lys ratio increased. G:F improved (linear, = 0.039) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.024) with an increased SID Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.65, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.71, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 3 (71 to 92 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.007; quadratic, = 0.022) and SUN decreased (linear, = 0.011; quadratic, = 0.034) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.67, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.74, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 4 (94 to 119 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.041) and G:F was improved (linear, = 0.004; quadratic, = 0.005) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize G:F was 0

  12. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated. PMID:24695892

  13. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  14. Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov., a mesophilic, amino acid-degrading bacterium isolated from an anaerobic sludge digester, pertaining to the phylum Synergistetes.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Olfa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Postec, Anne; Bouallagui, Hassib; Hamdi, Moktar; Bonin, Patricia; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-02-01

    A new Gram-staining-positive, non-sporulating, mesophilic, amino acid-degrading anaerobic bacterium, designated strain OTA 102(T), was isolated from an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating wastewater from cooking tuna. The cells were curved rods (0.6-2.5×0.5 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. The strain was motile by means of one lateral flagellum. Strain OTA 102(T) grew at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C (optimum 40 °C), between pH 6.0 and 8.4 (optimum pH 7.2) and NaCl concentrations between 1 and 5 % (optimum 2 %, w/v). Strain OTA 102(T) required yeast extract for growth. Serine, threonine, glycine, cysteine, citrate, fumarate, α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate were fermented. When co-cultured with Methanobacterium formicicum as the hydrogen scavenger, strain OTA 102(T) oxidized alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate, tyrosine, methionine, histidine and asparagine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain OTA 102(T) was 41.7 mol%. The main fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain OTA 102(T) was related to Aminobacterium colombiense and Aminobacterium mobile (95.5 and 95.2 % similarity, respectively), of the phylum Synergistetes. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic and physiological characteristics, strain OTA 102(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Aminobacterium, Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov. The type strain is OTA 102(T) ( = DSM 27500(T) = JCM 19320(T)).

  15. High-resolution differentiation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strains by quantitative N-terminal amino acid profiling (N-TAAP) of PK-digested abnormal prion protein.

    PubMed

    Gielbert, Adriana; Davis, Linda A; Sayers, A Robin; Hope, James; Gill, Andrew C; Sauer, Maurice J

    2009-03-01

    New forms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) continue to be identified, and consequently sensitive differential diagnosis is increasingly important both for the management of disease in humans and livestock and in providing confidence in the safety of the food chain. TSE diseases are associated with accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and detection of this marker protein is central to diagnosis. Proteolysis by proteinase K (PK) generates protease-resistant products (PrP(res)) with partially variable N-termini. The conformation(s) of PrP(Sc) and thus the points of PK cleavage are thought to be dependent on the strain of prion disease. Western blot (WB) analysis of PrP(res) gives characteristic migration patterns that can be used to diagnose TSEs, but the relatively low resolution of this technique limits its ability to differentiate certain disease strains. Mass spectrometry (MS) has the capability to resolve these various PK cleavage sites to the level of individual amino acid residues. In the present study multiple selected reaction monitoring (mSRM) was used to detect and quantify PrP(res) N-terminal tryptic peptides by MS and thus to define the N-terminal amino acid profiles (N-TAAPs) of PrP(res) characteristic for various TSEs in sheep. The fragmentation behaviour of the N-terminal tryptic peptides was studied to allow selection of the transitions specific for each peptide. Different PrP(res) preparation methods were evaluated and the most effective approach applied to differentiate the N-TAAPs corresponding to various sheep TSE isolates. Marked differences were identified between the N-TAAPs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and classical scrapie, and between classical scrapie and the experimental strains SSBP/1 and CH1641, thereby validating this approach as a means of TSE-strain specific diagnosis.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  18. Digestion of hay protein in different segments of the equine digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, P G; Potter, G D; Schelling, G T; Kreider, J L; Boyd, C L

    1988-02-01

    Mature ponies fitted with permanent ileal cannulas were used in a 3 X 3 Latin square experiment to quantify prececal, postileal and total tract digestion of hay protein. Coastal Bermuda grass (CB), containing 11.7% crude protein, and two qualities of alfalfa, containing 15.0% (low-protein alfalfa; LA) and 18.1% (high-protein alfalfa; HA) crude protein, were fed in coarsely chopped form at 2% of body weight daily. Total tract apparent digestibility of the N in HA (73.8%) was higher than that in CB (57.0%; P less than .05) and was slightly higher than that in LA (66.1%; P less than .10). Nitrogen in LA was apparently more digestible than that in CB (P less than .05). Apparent prececal digestibilities of N in LA and CB were 1.3% and 9.6%, respectively, and were lower (P less than .05), or tended to be lower (P less than .10), than the 21.0% observed for HA. In relative terms, an average of 9.4% of the total N digestion occurred in the upper tract when CB and LA were fed, whereas 28.5% of total N digestion occurred in the foregut when HA was fed. There was a slightly higher concentration of total plasma free amino acids (P less than .10) at 1 h postfeeding when horses were fed alfalfa. Also, N retention was higher when ponies were fed HA (P less than .05) than when LA or CB were fed. Apparent postileal N digestibility was 52.5% for CB, 65.7% for LA and 66.9% for HA. Differences were not significant, and the large intestine appeared to compensate for the inefficiency of N digestion in the upper tract.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The enzymatic nature of C'1r. Conversion of C'1s to C'1 esterase and digestion of amino acid esters by C'1r.

    PubMed

    Naff, G B; Ratnoff, O S

    1968-10-01

    Human C'1, a macromolecular complex composed of three subunits, is the zymogen for at least two distinct enzymes. Preparations of one subunit, C'1r, functioned as a protease which converted another subunit, C'1s, to C'1 esterase. The conversion of C'1s to C'1 esterase by C'1r was blocked by Liquoid, phenyl methylsulfonyl fluoride, and calcium ions, but not by soybean trypsin inhibitor, hirudin, or heparin. Preparations of C'1r also possessed two additional functions, i.e., the ability to hydrolyze certain synthetic amino acid esters and to participate in immune hemolysis. Evidence was presented which indicates that these three functions are properties of a single entity, C'1r, but not of the same portion of its molecular structure. These observations suggest that C'1r has at least two active sites, one for its reaction with C'1q, an additional subunit of C'1, and one for its reaction with C'1s; together, the three subcomponents, C'1q, C'1r, and C'1s, form a single functional unit, the first component of complement.

  20. Microwave-assisted oxidative digestion of lignin with hydrogen peroxide for TOC and color removal.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xinping; Huang, Xiangzhen; Ruan, Tao; Qiu, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Dilute lignin solution was successfully digested into colorless and clarified liquor under microwave-assisted oxidative digestion with hydrogen peroxide. High dosage of hydrogen peroxide is needed to effectively digest lignin, but excessive hydrogen peroxide may lead to recondensation of formed fragments in digested lignin. Microwave irradiation greatly facilitates the oxidative digestion of lignin. Compared with conventional heating technique, microwave-assisted digestion achieves the same or higher digestion rate within a shorter time and/or at lower temperature. After digestion, total organic carbon content of lignin solution decreases by 93.9%, and a small amount of aliphatic alkane, alcohol, acid and ester are formed via the cleavage of aromatic rings as well as the deprivation of side chains in original lignin. This work provides an alternative way to efficiently treat spent pulping liquor. PMID:25714638

  1. Microwave-assisted oxidative digestion of lignin with hydrogen peroxide for TOC and color removal.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xinping; Huang, Xiangzhen; Ruan, Tao; Qiu, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Dilute lignin solution was successfully digested into colorless and clarified liquor under microwave-assisted oxidative digestion with hydrogen peroxide. High dosage of hydrogen peroxide is needed to effectively digest lignin, but excessive hydrogen peroxide may lead to recondensation of formed fragments in digested lignin. Microwave irradiation greatly facilitates the oxidative digestion of lignin. Compared with conventional heating technique, microwave-assisted digestion achieves the same or higher digestion rate within a shorter time and/or at lower temperature. After digestion, total organic carbon content of lignin solution decreases by 93.9%, and a small amount of aliphatic alkane, alcohol, acid and ester are formed via the cleavage of aromatic rings as well as the deprivation of side chains in original lignin. This work provides an alternative way to efficiently treat spent pulping liquor.

  2. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals.

  3. Quantitative determination of perchlorate in bottled water and tea with online solid phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Lo, Chih-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2012-07-13

    Due to the similarity in ionic radius, perchlorate has been reported to inhibit the iodide intake in the thyroid gland, which may lead to low heart rate, weight gain, and fatigue. In recent years, the presence of perchlorate in drinking water, surface water, soil, and food supplies in the United States has raised a great concern on establishing the maximum residue limit (MRL) for perchlorate to reduce its possible adverse influence on human health. US EPA currently puts perchlorate on the final third Contamination Candidate List (CCL3) and suggests a health reference level at 4.9 μg L⁻¹. The MRL of perchlorate was therefore set at 5.0 μg L⁻¹ by the authors for method validation. In this study, large volume injection (up to 1-mL) and online solid phase extraction (SPE) were utilized for pre-concentrating perchlorate ions and removing unretained matrix components prior to reversed-phase HPLC analysis using ESI-tandem MS under the negative mode. After eluting perchlorate from online SPE, 0.1% formic acid solution was utilized for isocratic HPLC analysis without any organic solvent. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the internal standard, Cl₁₈O₄⁻, were utilized for quantitatively determining perchlorate in bottled water and bottled tea samples. Two linear ranges, 0.05-0.50 μg L⁻¹ and 0.50-10.00 μg L⁻¹, were established to better estimate the residual amounts of perchlorate in bottled water samples with a method detection limit (MDL, signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 0.01 μg L⁻¹. The linear range was 1.50-10.00 μg L⁻¹ for bottled tea samples with a MDL of 0.5 μg L⁻¹. In addition, the proposed method was further validated based on the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, including within-laboratory reproducibility, decision limit (CCα), and detection capability (CCβ) for bottled water and bottled tea samples. The intra-day/inter-day precision and accuracy as well as within-laboratory reproducibility were determined by calculating

  4. Investigation of 238U content in bottled water consumed in Kuwait and estimates of annual effective doses.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2012-01-01

    A study of the 238U content in bottled water consumed in Kuwait was performed. The bottled water samples originated from 16 different countries. Of the 41 investigated samples, 238U was detected in 23 samples in which the radionuclide's activity was determined. Consequently, it was found that activity levels of all samples were several of orders of magnitude below the guidance limits. Moreover, annual effective doses were estimated for three age groups, namely adults, children, and infants. As a result, it was found that the doses received by all age groups were several of orders of magnitude below the guideline levels. Hence, consumption of bottled water sold in Kuwait is safe for the presence of 238U.

  5. Identification of putative steroid receptor antagonists in bottled water: combining bioassays and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Schlüsener, Michael P; Ternes, Thomas A; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MS(n) experiments elucidated the molecule's structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MS(n) data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably

  6. Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonists in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Martin; Schlüsener, Michael P.; Ternes, Thomas A.; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MSn experiments elucidated the molecule’s structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MSn data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably

  7. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Effects of Aging on ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  8. Electronic Networking. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Susan

    This digest discusses several aspects of electronic networking, including network functions, implementation, and applications in education. Electronic networking is defined as including the four basic services of electronic mail (E-mail), electronic "bulletin boards," teleconferencing, and online databases, and an overview of these four functions…

  9. Principal Mentoring. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This digest examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although mentoring has existed…

  10. Defining Giftedness. 1985 Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Elizabeth

    The digest examines conceptions of giftedness. A brief historical review notes L. Terman's work and impetus for increasingly broadened definitions since the 1940's. The 1969 Marland Report is cited and its definition of giftedness is presented. Current response to that definition's inclusion of six achievement areas (general academic ability,…

  11. Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    Students who are the target of bullying episodes commonly suffer serious, long-term academic, physical, and emotional consequences. Unfortunately, school personnel often minimize, underestimate, tolerate, or ignore the extent of bullying and the harm it can cause. This digest examines the problem of bullying and some of its effects, and discusses…

  12. A cysteine endopeptidase ("dionain") is involved in the digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's fly-trap).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Suzuki, Takehiro; Nishii, Wataru; Kubota, Keiko; Shibata, Chiaki; Isobe, Toshiaki; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus's flytrap) secretes proteinases into the digestive fluid to digest prey proteins. In this study, we obtained evidence that the digestive fluid contains a cysteine endopeptidase, presumably belonging to the papain family, through inhibitor studies and partial amino acid sequencing of the major SDS-PAGE band protein. The name "dionain" is proposed for the enzyme.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of yard waste with hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Wangliang; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Zhikai; Xu, Guangwen

    2014-03-01

    The digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass is limited by its high content of refractory components. The objective of this study is to investigate hydrothermal pretreatment and its effects on anaerobic digestion of sorted organic waste with submerged fermentation. Hydrothermal pretreatment (HT) was performed prior to anaerobic digestion, and three agents were examined for the HT: hot compressed water, alkaline solution, and acidic solution. The concentrations of glucose and xylose were the highest in the sample pretreated in acidic solution. Compared with that of the untreated sample, the biogas yields from digesting the samples pretreated in alkaline solution, acidic solution, and hot water increased by 364, 107, and 79%, respectively. The decrease of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in liquid phase followed the same order as for the biogas yield. The initial ammonia content of the treated samples followed the order sample treated in acidic solution > sample treated in alkaline solution > sample treated in hot water. The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were low, indicating that the anaerobic digestion process was running at continuously stable conditions.

  14. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  15. Digestive tract morphology and digestion in the wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae).

    PubMed

    Barboza, P S; Hume, I D

    1992-01-01

    Wombats consume grasses and sedges which are often highly fibrous. The morphology of the digestive tract and the sequence of digestion were studied in two species of wombats from contrasting habitats: Vombatus ursinus from mesic habitats and Lasiorhinus latifrons from xeric regions. Studies were performed on wild wombats consuming their natural winter diets, and on captive wombats fed a high-fibre pelleted straw diet. Vombatus had a shorter digestive tract (9.2 vs 12.5 times body length) of greater capacity (wet contents 17.9 vs 13.7% body weight) than Lasiorhinus. The most capacious region of the digestive tract was the proximal colon (62-79% of contents). The proportional length and surface area of the proximal colon were greater in Vombatus, but those of the distal colon were greater in Lasiorhinus. These digestive morphologies may reflect adaptations for greater capacity and longer retention of digesta in Vombatus, but greater absorption and lower faecal water loss in Lasiorhinus. Apparent digestion along the digestive tract was estimated by reference to lignin. The proximal colon was the principal site of fibre and dry matter digestion, whereas nitrogen was mainly digested in the small intestine. Depot fats in captive wombats were highly unsaturated and reflected those in the diet. Therefore, lipids, proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the plant cell contents were digested and absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Conversely, dietary fibre was probably retained and digested by microbial fermentation along the proximal colon. PMID:1430423

  16. Digestive tract morphology and digestion in the wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae).

    PubMed

    Barboza, P S; Hume, I D

    1992-01-01

    Wombats consume grasses and sedges which are often highly fibrous. The morphology of the digestive tract and the sequence of digestion were studied in two species of wombats from contrasting habitats: Vombatus ursinus from mesic habitats and Lasiorhinus latifrons from xeric regions. Studies were performed on wild wombats consuming their natural winter diets, and on captive wombats fed a high-fibre pelleted straw diet. Vombatus had a shorter digestive tract (9.2 vs 12.5 times body length) of greater capacity (wet contents 17.9 vs 13.7% body weight) than Lasiorhinus. The most capacious region of the digestive tract was the proximal colon (62-79% of contents). The proportional length and surface area of the proximal colon were greater in Vombatus, but those of the distal colon were greater in Lasiorhinus. These digestive morphologies may reflect adaptations for greater capacity and longer retention of digesta in Vombatus, but greater absorption and lower faecal water loss in Lasiorhinus. Apparent digestion along the digestive tract was estimated by reference to lignin. The proximal colon was the principal site of fibre and dry matter digestion, whereas nitrogen was mainly digested in the small intestine. Depot fats in captive wombats were highly unsaturated and reflected those in the diet. Therefore, lipids, proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the plant cell contents were digested and absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Conversely, dietary fibre was probably retained and digested by microbial fermentation along the proximal colon.

  17. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

    2006-06-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste (pulp and peel) with subsequent aerobic post-treatment of the digestate was evaluated. Methane production potential was first determined in batch assays and the effects of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR) on process performance were studied through semi-continuous digestion. In batch assays, methane production potential of about 0.49 m(3) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste) was achieved. In semi-continuous digestion, loading at 2.8 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (2.9 kg total solids (TS) m(-3) d(-1)) and HRT of 26 d produced specific methane yields of 0.6 m(3) kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63 m(3) kg(-1) VS(added waste)). Operating at a higher OLR of 4.2 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (4.4 kg TS m(-3) d(-1)) and 40 d HRT produced 0.5 m(3) of methane kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63-0.52 m(3) kg(-1) TS (added waste). Up to 70% of TS of industrial orange waste (11.6% TS) was methanised. Further increase in OLR to 5.6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) (5.9 kg TS m(-3) d(-1); HRT of 20 d) resulted in an unstable and non-functional digester process shown directly through complete cessation of methanogenesis, drop in methane content, reduced pH and increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, especially acetate and soluble chemical oxygen demand. A pH adjustment (from an initial 3.2 to ca. 8) for the low pH orange waste was necessary and was found to be a crucial factor for stable digester operation as the process showed a tendency to be inhibited due to accumulation of VFAs and decrease in digester pH. Aerobic post-treatment of digestate resulted in removal of ammonia and VFAs. PMID:16865918

  18. Optimization of microwave digestion for mercury determination in marine biological samples by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cardellicchio, Nicola; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Santoro, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of acid digestion method for mercury determination in marine biological samples (dolphin liver, fish and mussel tissues) using a closed vessel microwave sample preparation is presented. Five digestion procedures with different acid mixtures were investigated: the best results were obtained when the microwave-assisted digestion was based on sample dissolution with HNO3-H2SO4-K2Cr2O7 mixture. A comparison between microwave digestion and conventional reflux digestion shows there are considerable losses of mercury in the open digestion system. The microwave digestion method has been tested satisfactorily using two certified reference materials. Analytical results show a good agreement with certified values. The microwave digestion proved to be a reliable and rapid method for decomposition of biological samples in mercury determination.

  19. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    PubMed

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix.

  20. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    PubMed

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix. PMID:27432729

  1. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  2. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling. PMID:26709023

  3. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling.

  4. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    PubMed

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  5. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    PubMed

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  6. Biochemical, Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Digestion in the Scorpion Tityus serrulatus: Insights into Function and Evolution of Digestion in an Ancient Arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Fuzita, Felipe J.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Patane, José S. L.; Juliano, Maria A.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Lopes, Adriana R.

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  7. Comparison of Sludge Digestion Methods for High Organic Hanford Tank 241-C-204

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.; Deutsch, William J.

    2006-12-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into methods for digesting sludge in tank 241-C-204 at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The objective of this study was to compare the recovery of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium using three digestion methods: EPA Method 3052, EPA Method 3050B, and alkaline fusion. Results show that EPA Method 3052, microwave assisted acid digestion, is the most efficient digestion method with higher recoveries for both uranium and plutonium. This may also be the case for neptunium; however, the analytical results are uncertain for this element. The microwave digestion method also has the added benefits of being quicker and producing less waste, which lowers the overall cost per sample. Further testing with samples from other tanks will confirm that microwave assisted digestion is a viable method of digesting Hanford tank sludges (including those with a high organic content) for chemical analysis.

  8. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p < 0.05). For all citrus by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p < 0.16). Dry matter (DM) digestibility contents of LE and LI were the highest (p < 0.02). The NDF digestibility was the highest (p < 0.05) in LI and GP, while the lowest (p < 0.03) values of ADF digestibility were observed in LI and LE. According to the results of the present study, carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior. PMID:25992250

  9. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability.

  10. Biogas by semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Wang, Zhenbin; Tan, Tianwei; Qin, Peiyong

    2015-04-01

    The semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in 1-L and 20-L continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs), to identify the optimum operation condition and the methane production of the semi-continuous anaerobic process. Results from a 1-L digester indicated that the optimum organic loading rate (OLR) for semi-continuous digestion is 8 g VS/L/day. The corresponding methane yield and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were 385 mL/g VS and 80.2 %, respectively. Anaerobic digestion was inhibited at high OLRs (12 and 16 g VS/L/day), due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation. Results from a 20-L digester indicated that a higher methane yield of 423 mL/g VS was obtained at this larger scale. The analysis showed that the methane production at the optimum OLR fitted well with the determined kinetics equation. An obvious decrease on the methane content was observed at the initial of digestion. The increased metabolization of microbes and the activity decrease of methanogen caused by VFA accumulation explained the lower methane content at the initial of digestion.

  11. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    PubMed

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  12. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability. PMID:25840737

  13. Cysteine cathepsins as digestive enzymes in the spider Nephilengys cruentata.

    PubMed

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-05-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are widely spread on living organisms associated to protein degradation in lysosomes, but some groups of Arthropoda (Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Crustacea and Acari) present these enzymes related to digestion of the meal proteins. Although spiders combine a mechanism of extra-oral with intracellular digestion, the sporadic studies on this subject were mainly concerned with the digestive fluid (DF) analysis. Thus, a more complete scenario of the digestive process in spiders is still lacking in the literature. In this paper we describe the identification and characterization of cysteine cathepsins in the midgut diverticula (MD) and DF of the spider Nephilengys cruentata by using enzymological assays. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative data from transcriptomic followed by proteomic experiments were used together with biochemical assays for results interpretation. Five cathepsins L, one cathepsin F and one cathepsin B were identified by mass spectrometry, with cathepsins L1 (NcCTSL1) and 2 (NcCTSL2) as the most abundant enzymes. The native cysteine cathepsins presented acidic characteristics such as pH optima of 5.5, pH stability in acidic range and zymogen conversion to the mature form after in vitro acidification. NcCTSL1 seems to be a lysosomal enzyme with its recombinant form displaying acidic characteristics as the native ones and being inhibited by pepstatin. Evolutionarily, arachnid cathepsin L may have acquired different roles but its use for digestion is a common feature to studied taxa. Now a more elucidative picture of the digestive process in spiders can be depicted, with trypsins and astacins acting extra-orally under alkaline conditions whereas cysteine cathepsins will act in an acidic environment, likely in the digestive vacuoles or lysosome-like vesicles. PMID:25818482

  14. Cysteine cathepsins as digestive enzymes in the spider Nephilengys cruentata.

    PubMed

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-05-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are widely spread on living organisms associated to protein degradation in lysosomes, but some groups of Arthropoda (Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Crustacea and Acari) present these enzymes related to digestion of the meal proteins. Although spiders combine a mechanism of extra-oral with intracellular digestion, the sporadic studies on this subject were mainly concerned with the digestive fluid (DF) analysis. Thus, a more complete scenario of the digestive process in spiders is still lacking in the literature. In this paper we describe the identification and characterization of cysteine cathepsins in the midgut diverticula (MD) and DF of the spider Nephilengys cruentata by using enzymological assays. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative data from transcriptomic followed by proteomic experiments were used together with biochemical assays for results interpretation. Five cathepsins L, one cathepsin F and one cathepsin B were identified by mass spectrometry, with cathepsins L1 (NcCTSL1) and 2 (NcCTSL2) as the most abundant enzymes. The native cysteine cathepsins presented acidic characteristics such as pH optima of 5.5, pH stability in acidic range and zymogen conversion to the mature form after in vitro acidification. NcCTSL1 seems to be a lysosomal enzyme with its recombinant form displaying acidic characteristics as the native ones and being inhibited by pepstatin. Evolutionarily, arachnid cathepsin L may have acquired different roles but its use for digestion is a common feature to studied taxa. Now a more elucidative picture of the digestive process in spiders can be depicted, with trypsins and astacins acting extra-orally under alkaline conditions whereas cysteine cathepsins will act in an acidic environment, likely in the digestive vacuoles or lysosome-like vesicles.

  15. Endocrine disruptor phthalates in bottled water: daily exposure and health risk assessment in pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, the consumption of water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has considerably increased, raising concerns over water quality and packaged materials. This study aims to investigate the levels of the anti-androgenic phthalates including bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), in bottled water and its corresponding health risks in pregnant and lactating women. The phthalate levels were measured in six different brands of bottled water exposed to temperatures ranging between -18 and 40 °C and sunlight for 45 days. The phthalate was quantified using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the non-carcinogenic effects were assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) approach, and cumulative health risk assessment was performed on the basis of hazard index (HI) calculation. In order to assess the carcinogenic risk due to the possible carcinogen DEHP (group 2B), the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was used. DEHP and DBP contaminants were detected at different storage conditions in all of the bottled water samples during the storage time. BBP was only detected at high temperature (≥25 °C) and outdoor conditions. The maximum concentrations of all phthalates were observed when water samples were kept at 40 °C. In contrast, storage at freezing conditions had no significant effect on the concentration level of all phthalates. The estimated intake by women was between 0.0021 μg/kg/day for BBP and 0.07 μg/kg/day for DEHP. The highest HQ for phthalate intake via bottled water consumption was much lower than 1 (HQ < 0.004), which implies that adverse effects are very unlikely to occur. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment for combined phthalate exposure demonstrated that the HIs for anti-androgenic effect were lower than 1 in all of the conditions. Furthermore, ELCR for DEHP based on the highest detected level was found to be less than 10(-6), which is

  16. Endocrine disruptor phthalates in bottled water: daily exposure and health risk assessment in pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, the consumption of water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has considerably increased, raising concerns over water quality and packaged materials. This study aims to investigate the levels of the anti-androgenic phthalates including bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), in bottled water and its corresponding health risks in pregnant and lactating women. The phthalate levels were measured in six different brands of bottled water exposed to temperatures ranging between -18 and 40 °C and sunlight for 45 days. The phthalate was quantified using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the non-carcinogenic effects were assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) approach, and cumulative health risk assessment was performed on the basis of hazard index (HI) calculation. In order to assess the carcinogenic risk due to the possible carcinogen DEHP (group 2B), the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was used. DEHP and DBP contaminants were detected at different storage conditions in all of the bottled water samples during the storage time. BBP was only detected at high temperature (≥25 °C) and outdoor conditions. The maximum concentrations of all phthalates were observed when water samples were kept at 40 °C. In contrast, storage at freezing conditions had no significant effect on the concentration level of all phthalates. The estimated intake by women was between 0.0021 μg/kg/day for BBP and 0.07 μg/kg/day for DEHP. The highest HQ for phthalate intake via bottled water consumption was much lower than 1 (HQ < 0.004), which implies that adverse effects are very unlikely to occur. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment for combined phthalate exposure demonstrated that the HIs for anti-androgenic effect were lower than 1 in all of the conditions. Furthermore, ELCR for DEHP based on the highest detected level was found to be less than 10(-6), which is

  17. The appropriate standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio improves pig performance and regulates hormones and muscular amino acid transporters in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ma, W F; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, X T; Xie, C Y; Zhang, G J; Qiao, S Y

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of various standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp to Lys ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low-CP (9.6%) diets supplemented with crystalline AA. Ninety gilts (89.1 ± 5.1 kg) were used in a dose-response study conducted for 35 d. Crystalline Trp (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 g/kg) was added to a corn-wheat bran basal diet providing SID Trp to Lys ratios of 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, or 0.24. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 3 gilts per pen. At the end of the experiment, 30 gilts (1 pig per pen) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality (BW = 121 kg). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ADG (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also improved G:F (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased as the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased (linear and quadratic effects, < 0.05). A quadratic effect of L* light and marbling in the longissimus dorsi was observed as the dietary SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ( < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the level of serum GH (quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also increased the level of serum IGF-1 (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) in the longissimus dorsi muscle (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). The optimum SID Trp to Lys ratios to maximize ADG and G:F as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.16, 0.17, and 0.16 using a linear-breakpoint model and 0.20, 0.20, and 0.20 using a quadratic model. Tryptophan could influence serum GH and IGF-1 secretion and protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of SNAT2 in the longissimus dorsi muscle in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

  18. Defining Anaerobic Digestion Stability-Full Scale Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demitry, M. E., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and a volatile solids, VS, mass balance was conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters monitored included: pH, alkalinity, VFA, and propionic acid. The values of these parameters showed that steady state had occurred. Finally, at mesophilic temperature and at steady state performance, the anaerobic digester stability was defined as a constant ratio of methane produced per substrate of ΔVS (average ratio=0.404 l/g). This ratio can be used as universal metric to determine the anaerobic digester stability in an easy and inexpensive way.

  19. Secondary Structure and Subunit Composition of Soy Protein In Vitro Digested by Pepsin and Its Relation with Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Zhongjiang; Wang, Rui; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Han, Feifei; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro digestibility and structure of soybean protein isolates (SPIs) prepared from five soybean varieties were investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), using FT-IR microspectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. The result indicated that β-conformations were prone to be hydrolyzed by pepsin preferentially and transformed to unordered structure during in vitro digestion, followed by the digestion o