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Sample records for acid injection rate

  1. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  4. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate(III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Flow Injection Kinetic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobrega, Joanquim A.; Rocha, Fabio R. P.

    1997-05-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) is a well recognized tool for solutions management. In spite of the use of this technique mainly for quantitative determination of analytes in solution, FIA systems can also be used for obtaining physical chemistry data. This work describes the use of a flow diagram to perform a kinetic experiment: the effect of ionic strength on the rate of reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) by ascorbic acid. The rate determining step of this reaction involves the collision between two anionic species. The increase of the ionic strength of the medium alters the ionic atmosphere and changes the charge densities around the anions. Consequently, there is an increment of the rate constants for higher ionic strengths. In the proposed system, the flow is stopped by commutation when the center of the sample zone attained the flow cell and a gradual decrease in signal, related to the redox reaction, is registered as function of time. This allowed the determination of the rate constants as a function of the ionic strength. The product of the charges of the ions involved in the rate determining step was estimated in 3.2 that is close to the expected value considering the proposed mechanism.

  5. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  6. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  7. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  8. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  9. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  10. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  11. Charge Accretion Rate and Injection Radius of Ionized-Induced Injections in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Chen, Min; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Ionization-induced injection has recently been proved to be a stable injection method with several advantages in laser wakefield accelerators. However, the controlling of this injection process aiming at producing high quality electron beams is still challenging. In this paper, we examine the ionization injection processes and estimate the injection rate with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The injection rate is shown to increase linearly with the high-Z gas density as long as its ratio is smaller than some threshold in the mix gases. It is also shown that by changing the transverse mode of the driving lasers one can control the injection rate.

  12. High strain-rate response of injectable PAA hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Ru; Wang, Shih-Han; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Juang, Yun-Ching; Yu, Fu-Ann; Tsai, Liren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials have been widely considered as potential soft tissue replacements because of their high permeability, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility, as well as their low coefficient of friction. Injectable (thermo-responsive) hydrogels can provide support and cushioning at irregularly shaped disease sites, and are thus suitable for use in treating osteoarthritis or degenerative disc disease. However, while some injectable hydrogels have been proven to sustain human body weight during daily activities, their mechanical properties under harsh dynamic conditions have not been well documented. A specified injectable polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel was prepared for this study. To simulate sudden impacts or unexpected shocks to the PAA hydrogel, the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique was utilized. The dynamic responses of various hydrogels at confined high strain rates (100-2590 s(-1)) were presented. Hydrogel specimens with 3.37, 6.75, and 13.5% acrylic acid (AAc) concentrations were tested in the following three different material conditions: raw, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) swollen, and PBS swollen with elevated temperature (37 °C). The dynamic bulk moduli of the hydrogels varied from 1.55 to 47.8 MPa depending on the given hydrogel's AAc concentration and swollen condition. PMID:25816201

  13. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. PMID:26311237

  14. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of chlorinated isocyanuric acids.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2003-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method is described for the determination of dichloro- and trichloroisocyanuric acids based on the chemiluminescence produced during their reaction with luminol in alkaline medium. The effects of analytical and flow-injection variables on these chemiluminescence systems and determination of both oxidants are discussed. The optimized method yielded 3sigma detection limits of 8x10(-8) and 5x10(-8) mol L(-1) for the sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid, respectively. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: NaOH, 1x10(-1) mol L(-1); luminol, 5x10(-3) mol L(-1); KI, 2x10(-3) mol L(-1) and flow rate, 3.5 mL min(-1). PMID:12589508

  15. Rate of intraoperative complications during cataract surgery following intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Hahn, P; Jiramongkolchai, K; Stinnett, S; Daluvoy, M; Kim, T

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the effect of prior intravitreal injections on intraoperative and postoperative complication rates associated with cataract surgery.MethodsA retrospective cohort analysis reviewed 10 105 cataract surgery procedures performed by experienced surgeons at the Duke Eye Center from 1 January 2005 to 10 December 2012. A group of 197 eyes with prior intravitreal injections was compared with an equal number of matched control eyes without prior injection using the Fisher's exact test of difference in proportions and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test of difference in means. Outcomes analyzed included baseline demographic information, preoperative clinical characteristics, prevalence of intraoperative complications, and postoperative intraocular pressure, glaucoma surgery, and glaucoma medication requirement through 1 year following cataract surgery.ResultsAn increased rate of intraoperative complications was identified during cataract surgery in eyes with prior intravitreal injections compared with control eyes (3 vs 0%, P=0.030). Injection eyes required more glaucoma medications at 1 year, but no difference was identified if steroid injections were excluded. No difference in postoperative IOP or glaucoma surgery was identified. No cases of endophthalmitis were reported.ConclusionsA history of intravitreal injections may be a risk factor for cataract surgery-related intraoperative complications. We hypothesize this may be due to unidentified iatrogenic lens trauma during intravitreal injections. Particular attention to the posterior capsule during preoperative assessment and intraoperatively is recommended in eyes undergoing cataract surgery with a prior history of intravitreal injections. PMID:27229705

  16. MRI and quantitative autoradiographic studies following bolus injections of unlabeled and (14)C-labeled gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in a rat model of stroke yield similar distribution volumes and blood-to-brain influx rate constants.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Ewing, James R; Karki, Kishor; Jacobs, Paul E; Divine, George W; Fenstermacher, Joseph D; Patlak, Clifford S; Knight, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies on a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia, the blood and brain concentrations of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) following intravenous bolus injection were repeatedly assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and blood-to-brain influx rate constants (K(i)) were calculated from Patlak plots of the data in areas with blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. For concurrent validation of these findings, after completing the DCE-MRI study, radiolabeled sucrose or α-aminoisobutyric acid was injected intravenously, and the brain disposition and K(i) values were calculated by quantitative autoradiography (QAR) assay employing the single-time equation. To overcome two of the shortcomings of this comparison, the present experiments were carried out with a radiotracer virtually identical to Gd-DTPA, Gd-[(14)C]DTPA, and K(i) was calculated from both sets of data by the single-time equation. The protocol included 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 2.5 h of reperfusion in male Wistar rats (n = 15) preceding the DCE-MRI Gd-DTPA and QAR Gd-[(14)C]DTPA measurements. In addition to K(i) , the tissue-to-blood concentration ratios, or volumes of distribution (V(R) ), were calculated. The regions of BBB opening were similar on the MRI maps and autoradiograms. Within them, V(R) was nearly identical for Gd-DTPA and Gd-[(14)C]DTPA, and K(i) was slightly, but not significantly, higher for Gd-DTPA than for Gd-[(14)C]DTPA. The K(i) values were well correlated (r = 0.67; p = 0.001). When the arterial concentration-time curve of Gd-DTPA was adjusted to match that of Gd-[(14)C]DTPA, the two sets of K(i) values were equal and statistically comparable with those obtained previously by Patlak plots (the preferred, less model-dependent, approach) of the same data (p = 0.2-0.5). These findings demonstrate that this DCE-MRI technique accurately measures the Gd-DTPA concentration in blood and brain, and that K(i) estimates

  17. MRI and quantitative autoradiographic studies following bolus injections of unlabeled and 14C-labeled gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid in a rat model of stroke yield similar distribution volumes and blood-to-brain influx rate constants

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N.; Ewing, James R.; Karki, Kishor; Jacobs, Paul E.; Divine, George W.; Fenstermacher, Joseph D.; Patlak, Clifford S.; Knight, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous studies on a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia, the blood and brain concentrations of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) following intravenous bolus injection were repeatedly assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and blood-to-brain influx rate constants (Ki) were calculated from Patlak plots of the data in areas with blood–brain barrier (BBB) opening. For concurrent validation of these findings, after completing the DCE-MRI study, radiolabeled sucrose or α-aminoisobutyric acid was injected intravenously, and the brain disposition and Ki values were calculated by quantitative autoradiography (QAR) assay employing the single-time equation. To overcome two of the shortcomings of this comparison, the present experiments were carried out with a radiotracer virtually identical to Gd-DTPA, Gd-[14C]DTPA, and Ki was calculated from both sets of data by the single-time equation. The protocol included 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 2.5 h of reperfusion in male Wistar rats (n = 15) preceding the DCE-MRI Gd-DTPA and QAR Gd-[14C]DTPA measurements. In addition to Ki, the tissue-to-blood concentration ratios, or volumes of distribution (VR), were calculated. The regions of BBB opening were similar on the MRI maps and autoradiograms. Within them, VR was nearly identical for Gd-DTPA and Gd-[14C]DTPA, and Ki was slightly, but not significantly, higher for Gd-DTPA than for Gd-[14C]DTPA. The Ki values were well correlated (r = 0.67; p = 0.001). When the arterial concentration–time curve of Gd-DTPA was adjusted to match that of Gd-[14C]DTPA, the two sets of Ki values were equal and statistically comparable with those obtained previously by Patlak plots (the preferred, less model-dependent, approach) of the same data (p = 0.2–0.5). These findings demonstrate that this DCE-MRI technique accurately measures the Gd-DTPA concentration in blood and brain, and that Ki estimates based on such data are good quantitative

  18. Blast furnace coal injection system design for high rates

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden, B.

    1994-12-31

    Coal injection into blast furnaces is now well established as a basic technology. However, high rates of coal injection between 300 and 500 lb/thm (160 to 250 kg/thm) are a rarity. Special consideration must be given to the overall concept regarding strategic coal storage, expected equipment reliability, and back-up available to prevent furnace problems, should any of the coal feeding systems fail. British Steel and Simon Macawber now have considerable operational experience at high rates for sustained periods. The paper will discuss the points to be considered and describe the ATSI-Simon Macawber approach to providing a high level of confidence in the coal injection system.

  19. Hyaluronic acid filler injections with a 31-gauge insulin syringe.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C

    2010-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid gel is a commonly used skin/soft tissue filler in cosmetic dermatology. Hyaluronic acid fillers are packaged in proprietary luer-lock syringes that can be injected via a 30-gauge, 27-gauge or larger diameter needle depending on the consistency of the gel. A method of decanting proprietary hyaluronic acid fillers into multiple 31-gauge insulin syringes for injection is described. The use of a 31-gauge insulin syringe for filler injections can potentially enhance the injection process through more accurate product delivery and placement. This has the potential to produce a more balanced and symmetrical outcome for patients. Additional benefits include less injection pain, less bleeding/bruising and higher levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:20148851

  20. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: Steam rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, I.G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton`s and Avogadro`s laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  1. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  2. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  3. Determination of Acidity Constants by Gradient Flow-Injection Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceicao, Antonio C. L.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2006-01-01

    A three-hour laboratory experiment, designed for an advanced undergraduate course in instrumental analysis that illustrates the application of the gradient chamber flow-injection titration (GCFIT) method with spectrophotometric detection to determine acidity constants is presented. The procedure involves the use of an acid-base indicator to obtain…

  4. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  5. Nicolau syndrome due to hyaluronic acid injections.

    PubMed

    Andre, Pierre; Haneke, Eckart

    2016-08-01

    Six cases of vascular compromise after hyaluronic injection are reported. Clinical symptoms realized a Nicolau syndrome, which is characterized by immediate pain, livedoid pattern and a few days later by the appearance of scabs and skin necrosis. This type of complication is rare, but may be dramatic and injectors must be aware of that. A thorough knowledge of facial anatomy is mandatory to avoid the risky facial areas. The use of a flexible cannula instead of a sharp needle has much less risk of hurting vessels and must be preferred. The support of the patient is discussed and a treatment protocol is proposed. PMID:26963701

  6. Turbulent acidic jets and plumes injected into an alkaline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulpre, Hendrik

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of a strong acidic turbulent jet or plume injected into an alkaline environment comprising of a weak/strong base are examined theoretically and experimentally. A chemistry model is developed to understand how the pH of a fluid parcel of monoprotic acid changes as it is diluted and reacts with the ambient fluid. A standard fluid model, based on a top-hat model for acid concentration and velocity is used to express how the dilution of acid varies with distance from the point of discharge. These models are applied to estimate the point of neutralisation and the travel time with distance within the jet/plume. An experimental study was undertaken to test the theoretical results. These experiments involved injecting jets or vertical plumes of dilute nitric acid into a large tank containing a variety of base salts dissolved in water. The injected fluid contained litmus indicator dye which showed a change in colour from red to blue close to the point of neutralisation. In order to obtain a range of neutralisation distances, additional basic salts were added to the water to increase its pH buffering capacity. The results are applied to discuss the environmental implications of an acidic jet/plume injected into the sea off the South East coast of Great Britain.

  7. Circling behavior following unilateral kainic acid injections into rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Reavill, C; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1981-12-01

    Unilateral injection of kainic acid (2.5-25 nmol) into rat anterior caudate putamen induced dose-related circling behaviour. Kainic acid (10 nmol) consistently caused initial weak ipsiversive circling lasting 1 h followed by prolonged strong contraversive rotation lasting in excess of 10 h. Unilateral intrastriatal administration of L-glutamic acid, or of monosodium L-glutamate, to normal rats, or administration of monosodium L-glutamate to rats with extensive decortication, did not induce circling behaviour. The simultaneous unilateral injection of monosodium L-glutamate (1 mumol) with kainic acid (10 nmol) did not modify circling behaviour induced by kainic acid. However, extensive decortication greatly reduced circling induced by unilateral intrastriatal kainic acid (10 nmol), and effect not reversed by the simultaneous administration of monosodium L-glutamate (1 mumol). Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the left nigrostriatal pathway abolished the initial ipsiversive rotation and potentiated the subsequent contraversive rotation for up to 4 h after intrastriatal injection of kainic acid (10 nmol). Peripheral administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) also abolished initial ipsiversive rotation and decreased the subsequent contraversive rotation. Electro-coagulation of the ipsilateral strio-nigral pathway prolonged the initial ipsiversive rotation produced by kainic acid, but markedly attenuated contraversive rotation. These findings suggest that circling induced by intrastriatal administration of kainic acid depends on intact corticostriate pathways, but it cannot be reproduced or modified by intrastriatal administration of glutamate. Kainic acid circling appears to be mediated via strio-nigral pathways, and to be modulated by dopaminergic function. PMID:7333356

  8. Perpendicular Strut Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Deep Wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Kinoshita, Kahori; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Although various injection techniques of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler for facial rejuvenation have been developed, correction of deep wrinkles/grooves, such as the nasolabial fold (NLF), with intradermal or subdermal injections remains difficult. We tested the intradermal HA injection method to place multiple HA struts by (1) inserting a small needle perpendicularly to the wrinkle and (2) injecting HA as intradermal struts with the skin fully stretched by the practitioner’s fingers. The results of both NLFs in 10 patients suggest that this technique improves NLFs and maintain the effects more consistently than conventional techniques, although the effects of both methods were almost lost after 6 months. Selective and/or combined application of this technique may enhance the current approach to facial rejuvenation with dermal fillers. PMID:26893992

  9. Perpendicular Strut Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Deep Wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Kinoshita, Kahori; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-11-01

    Although various injection techniques of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler for facial rejuvenation have been developed, correction of deep wrinkles/grooves, such as the nasolabial fold (NLF), with intradermal or subdermal injections remains difficult. We tested the intradermal HA injection method to place multiple HA struts by (1) inserting a small needle perpendicularly to the wrinkle and (2) injecting HA as intradermal struts with the skin fully stretched by the practitioner's fingers. The results of both NLFs in 10 patients suggest that this technique improves NLFs and maintain the effects more consistently than conventional techniques, although the effects of both methods were almost lost after 6 months. Selective and/or combined application of this technique may enhance the current approach to facial rejuvenation with dermal fillers. PMID:26893992

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  12. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis. PMID:14671664

  13. Knee arthroscopy after yttrium or osmic acid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Guaydier-Souquieres, C.; Beguin, J.; Ollivier, D.; Loyau, G.

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the macroscopic and histologic results of 35 knee arthroscopies performed on patients with rheumatoid arthritis, some months after an yttrium or osmic acid intraarticular injection. The procedure was most often performed after a failure of the injection or a relapse of synovitis. Arthroscopy provides an understanding of the cause of synoviorthesis failure--insufficient action of the product on the synovitis or its poor diffusion, fibri-nonecrotic deposits, or cartilaginous lesions--and may be used both diagnostically and therapeutically.

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  16. Liquid-Phase Heat-Release Rates of the Systems Hydrazine-Nitric Acid and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine-Nitric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somogyi, Dezso; Feiler, Charles E.

    1960-01-01

    The initial rates of heat release produced by the reactions of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine with nitric acid were determined in a bomb calorimeter under conditions of forced mixing. Fuel-oxidant weight ratio and injection velocity were varied. The rate of heat release apparently depended on the interfacial area between the propellants. Above a narrow range of injection velocities representing a critical amount of interfacial area, the rates reached a maximum and were almost constant with injection velocity. The maximum rate for hydrazine was about 70 percent greater than that for unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. The total heat released did not vary with mixture ratio over the range studied.

  17. The association between radiographic embrasure morphology and interdental papilla reconstruction using injectable hyaluronic acid gel

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of enhancing deficient interdental papilla with hyaluronic acid gel injection by assessing the radiographic anatomical factors affecting the reconstruction of the interdental papilla. Methods Fifty-seven treated sites from 13 patients (6 males and 7 females) were included. Patients had papillary deficiency in the upper anterior area. Prior to treatment, photographic and periapical radiographic standardization devices were designed for each patient. A 30-gauge needle was used with an injection-assistance device to inject a hyaluronic acid gel to the involved papilla. This treatment was repeated up to 5 times every 3 weeks. Patients were followed up for 6 months after the initial gel application. Clinical photographic measurements of the black triangle area (BTA), height (BTH), and width (BTW) and periapical radiographic measurements of the contact point and the bone crest (CP-BC) and the interproximal distance between roots (IDR) were undertaken using computer software. The interdental papilla reconstruction rate (IPRR) was calculated to determine the percentage change of BTA between the initial and final examination and the association between radiographic factors and the reconstruction of the interdental papilla by means of injectable hyaluronic acid gel were evaluated. Results All sites showed improvement between treatment examinations. Thirty-six sites had complete interdental papilla reconstruction and 21 sites showed improvement ranging from 19% to 96%. The CP-BC correlated with the IPRR. More specifically, when the CP-BC reached 6 mm, virtually complete interdental papilla reconstruction via injectable hyaluronic acid gel was achieved. Conclusions These results suggest that the CP-BC is closely related to the efficacy of hyaluronic acid gel injection for interdental papilla reconstruction. PMID:27588217

  18. Fertilization rate and its determinants in intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Shireen; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Mohammad Ashfaq; Abdullah, Umme Hani; Gul, Hina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of fertilization rate in patients of unexplained infertility after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods: Retrospective analysis of females (282) enrolled in quasi experimental design for ICSI at “Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples” was carried out from July 2013 till June 2014. Females with unexplained infertility were included, whereas well defined male and female causes of infertility were excluded. Fertilization rate (FR) was calculated as percentage transformation of micro injected oocytes into two pronuclei. Categorical variable of FR defined on the basis of 50% FR grouped females; Group I with FR ≤50% and Group II with FR >50%. The groups were compared in terms of demographic variables, base line hormones and oocyte parameters. Univariate logistic regression was executed to obtain odds ratio with 95% confidence interval to quantify the association of predictors like age, duration of infertility, oocytes parameters, hormones; Estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, prolactin and cytokines interleukin-Iβ (IL-Iβ) with the FR. Results: In our study out of 282 females, 19 (6.73%) were in group I and 263 (93.26%) comprised of Group II. Females with high FR(group II) had low Progesterone and FSH (p=0.04, p=0.02) respectively. Mature oocytes (OR: 0.35; 95% CI 1 – 2.56) and IL-Iβ in follicular phase (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.000- 1.20) were significant positive predictors of FR while peak progesterone and FSH had significant negative effect on it Conclusion: Fertilization of oocytes in females of unexplained infertility depended on maturity of oocytes and optimal amounts of ILI- β released by developing follicles in the follicular phase of stimulation cycles of ICSI. PMID:27022334

  19. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  20. Determination of gallic acid with rhodanine by reverse flow injection analysis using simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Phakthong, Wilaiwan; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2014-12-01

    A reversed flow injection (rFI) system was designed and constructed for gallic acid determination. Gallic acid was determined based on the formation of chromogen between gallic acid and rhodanine, resulting in a colored product with a λmax at 520 nm. The optimum conditions for determining gallic acid were also investigated. Optimizations of the experimental conditions were carried out based on the so-call univariate method. The conditions obtained were 0.6% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 0.9 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2.0 mL min(-1) flow rate, 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. Comparative optimizations of the experimental conditions were also carried out by multivariate or simplex optimization method. The conditions obtained were 1.2% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 1.2 mol L(-1) NaOH, flow rate 2.5 mL min(-1), 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. It was found that the optimum conditions obtained by the former optimization method were mostly similar to those obtained by the latter method. The linear relationship between peak height and the concentration of gallic acid was obtained over the range of 0.1-35.0 mg L(-1) with the detection limit 0.081 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations were found to be in the ranges 0.46-1.96% for 1, 10, 30 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (n=11). The method has the advantages of simplicity extremely high selectivity and high precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of gallic acid in longan samples without interferent effects from other common phenolic compounds that might be present in the longan samples collected in northern Thailand. PMID:25159449

  1. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  2. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  3. Thermosensitive injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaping; Ramirez, Christina M; Miljkovic, Natasa; Li, Han; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2009-12-01

    A series of thermosensitive copolymer hydrogels, aminated hyaluronic acid-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (AHA-g-PNIPAAm), were synthesized by coupling carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm (PNIPAAm-COOH) to AHA through amide bond linkages. AHA was prepared by grafting adipic dihydrazide to the HA backbone and PNIPAAm-COOH copolymer was synthesized via a facile thermo-radical polymerization technique by polymerization of NIPAAm using 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) as an initiator, respectively. The structure of AHA and AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymer was determined by (1)H NMR. Two AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymers with different weight ratios of PNIPAAm on the applicability of injectable hydrogels were characterized. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymers in PBS were measured as approximately 30 degrees C by rheological analysis, regardless of the grafting degrees. Enzymatic resistance of AHA-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels with 28% and 53% of PNIPAAm in 100U/mL hyaluronidase/PBS at 37 degrees C was 12.3% and 37.6% over 28 days, respectively. Equilibrium swelling ratios of AHA-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels with 28% of PNIPAAm were 21.5, and significantly decreased to 13.3 with 53% of PNIPAAm in PBS at 37 degrees C. Results from SEM observations confirm a porous 3D AHA-g-PNIPAAm hydrogel structure with interconnected pores after freeze-drying and the pore diameter depends on the weight ratios of PNIPAAm. Encapsulation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) within hydrogels showed the AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymers were noncytotoxic and preserved the viability of the entrapped cells. A preliminary in vivo study demonstrated the usefulness of the AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymer as an injectable hydrogel for adipose tissue engineering. This newly described thermoresponsive AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymer demonstrated attractive properties to serve as cell or pharmaceutical delivery vehicles for a variety of tissue engineering applications. PMID:19783043

  4. Thermosensitive injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for adipose tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huaping; Ramirez, Christina M.; Miljkovic, Natasa; Li, Han; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2009-01-01

    A series of thermosensitive copolymer hydrogels, aminated hyaluronic acid-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (AHA-g-PNIPAAm), were synthesized by coupling carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm (PNIPAAm-COOH) to AHA through amide bond linkages. AHA was prepared by grafting adipic dihydrazide to the HA backbone and PNIPAAm-COOH copolymer was synthesized via a facile thermo-radical polymerization technique by polymerization of NIPAAm using 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) as an initiator, respectively. The structure of AHA and AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymer was determined by 1H NMR. Two AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymers with different weight ratios of PNIPAAm on the applicability of injectable hydrogels were characterized. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymers in PBS were measured as ~30°C by rheological analysis, regardless of the grafting degrees. Enzymatic resistance of AHA-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels with 28% and 53% of PNIPAAm in 100U/mL hyaluronidase/PBS at 37°C was 12.3% and 37.6% over 28 days, respectively. Equilibrium swelling ratios of AHA-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels with 28% of PNIPAAm were 21.5, and significantly decreased to 13.3 with 53% of PNIPAAm in PBS at 37°C. Results from SEM observations confirm a porous 3D AHA-g-PNIPAAm hydrogel structure with interconnected pores after freeze-drying and the pore diameter depends on the weight ratios of PNIPAAm. Encapsulation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) within hydrogels showed the AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymers were noncytotoxic and preserved the viability of the entrapped cells. A preliminary in vivo study demonstrated the usefulness of the AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymer as an injectable hydrogel for adipose tissue engineering. This newly described thermoresponsive AHA-g-PNIPAAm copolymer demonstrated attractive properties to serve as cell or pharmaceutical delivery vehicles for a variety of tissue engineering applications. PMID:19783043

  5. 75 FR 62468 - Implantation and Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... ceftiofur crystalline free acid suspension in swine, by intramuscular injection, for the control of swine... crystalline free acid) for Swine Sterile Suspension. The supplemental NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of ceftiofur crystalline free acid suspension in swine, by intramuscular injection, for...

  6. Correlation between Changes in Seismicity Rates and Well Injection Volumes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Walsh, R.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a statistical approach to establish correlations between locations with seismicity increase in Oklahoma and nearby well injection volumes. Seismicity rates in the state have significantly increased since approximately 2008. Fluid injection into deep wells has been theorized to be the cause of this seismicity, but the increase occurred significantly after the start of injection activities in the region. Further, injection-induced earthquakes depend on the presence and orientation of basement faults and the stress state in the region. Because of these complexities, it has been difficult to directly correlate fluid injection with seismicity. Here we show that a statistical correlation between increase in seismicity and injection volumes can be established in Oklahoma. We first employ a change point method to locate the regions where a change in seismicity rates has occurred. We then use a logistic regression model to relate the injection volumes in a region with the presence or absence of seismicity change in the region. This model is further used to evaluate the relative contribution of cumulative injection volumes and monthly injection rates to seismicity. The model can be used to identify "seismically sensitive regions" where seismicity increase has been observed with little fluid injection, and "seismically stable regions" where seismicity changes have not been observed even with high fluid injection. This information can be combined with geological information in a region, and used to make decisions about acceptable volumes for injection and to identify lower-risk regions for injection.

  7. Migration rates and formation injectivity to determine containment time scales of sequestered carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Additionally, this research establishes a methodology to calculate the injectivity of a target formation. Because injectivity describes the pressure increase due to the introduction of fluids into a formation, the relevant application of injectivity is to determine the pressure increase, due to an injection volume and flow rate, that will induce fractures in the reservoir rocks. This quantity is defined mathematically as the maximum pressure differential between the hydrostatic gradient and the fracture gradient of the target formation. Injectivity is mathematically related to the maximum pressure differential of the formation, and can be used to determine the upper limit for the pressure increase that an injection target can withstand before fracturing.

  8. Individual and simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Almuaibed, A M; Townshend, A

    1992-11-01

    Flow injection methods for the individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid are proposed. A spectrophotometer and a miniamperometric detector are connected in sequence. The calibration graphs for uric acid obtained by measuring its absorbance at 293 nm and its current at +0.6 V are linear up to at least 80 and 70 mug/ml, respectively, with an rsd (n = 10) of 1 % for both methods at mid-range concentrations. The calibration graph for ascorbic acid with amperometric detection is linear up to 80 mg/l. with an rsd (n = 10) of 0.8% at 30 mg/l. The simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid is based on measurement of the absorbance of uric acid at 393 nm and amperometric determination of both analytes at +0.6 V. The average relative errors of the analysis of binary mixtures of uric acid and ascorbic acid are 2.2 and 4.2%, respectively. PMID:18965554

  9. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  10. Vasovagal Rates in Flouroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures: A Study of Over 8,000 Injections

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David J.; Schneider, Byron; Casey, Ellen; Rittenberg, Joshua; Conrad, Bryan; Smuck, Matthew; Plastaras, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the rate of vasovagal (vv) complications in fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Design Retrospective case series analysis of prospectively collected data from March 8, 2004 to January 30, 2009. Setting A single academic medical center. Subjects Four thousand one hundred eighty-three subjects undergoing 8,010 consecutive injections. Outcome Measures Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between categorical variables. Results A total of 8,010 injections, including epidural steroid injections, radiofrequency nerve ablations, medial branch blocks, hip injections, knee injections, and glenohumeral injections were performed. Overall vv reaction rate was 2.6%, with 0.8% of procedures resulting in early terminated due to vv reaction. Peripheral joint injections had a vv rate of 0.2%, all occurring in hip injections. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections had a vv rate of 3.5%. Diagnostic blocks of the medial branches had the highest rate of vv (5.1%). Other predictors of vv reactions were identified including preprocedure pain score visual analog scale <5 (P = 0.004), male gender (P < 0.001), and age less than 65 years old (P < 0.001). Conclusions vv reactions have an overall low occurrence rate (2.6%) in interventional procedures ranging from 0% in peripheral knee and shoulder injections to 5.1% in medial branch blocks. Conservative treatment of vv reaction and willingness to terminate procedures resulted in no serious adverse events related to vv reaction in 8,010 procedures. PMID:24118835

  11. An injectable oxidated hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel as a vitreous substitute.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Tseng, Ching-Li; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Vitrectomy is a common procedure for treating ocular-related diseases. The surgery involves removing the vitreous humor from the center of the eye, and vitreous substitutes are needed to replace the vitreous humor after vitrectomy. In the present study, we developed a colorless, transparent and injectable hydrogel with appropriate refractive index as a vitreous substitute. The hydrogel is formed by oxidated hyaluronic acid (oxi-HA) cross-linked with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH). Hyaluronic acid (HA) was oxidized by sodium periodate to create aldehyde functional groups, which could be cross-linked by ADH. The refractive index of this hydrogel ranged between 1.3420 and 1.3442, which is quite similar to human vitreous humor (1.3345). The degradation tests demonstrated that the hydrogel could maintain the gel matrix over 35 days, depending on the ADH concentration. In addition, the cytotoxicity was evaluated on retina pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells cultivated following the ISO standard (tests for in vitro cytotoxicity), and the hydrogel was found to be non-toxic. In a preliminary animal study, the oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel was injected into the vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes. The evaluations of slit-lamp observation, intraocular pressure, cornea thickness and histological examination showed no significant abnormal biological reactions for 3 weeks. This study suggests that the injectable oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel should be a potential vitreous substitute. PMID:20843434

  12. Injectable oxidized hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-08-01

    Injectable hydrogel allows irregular surgical defects to be completely filled, lessens the risk of implant migration, and minimizes surgical defects due to the solution-gel state transformation. Here, we first propose a method for preparing oxidized hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (oxi-HA/ADH) injectable hydrogel by chemical cross-linking under physiological conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and trinitrobenzene sulfonate assay were used to confirm the oxidation of hyaluronic acid. Rheological properties were measured to evaluate the working ability of the hydrogel for further clinical application. The oxi-HA/ADH in situ forming hydrogel can transform from liquid form into a gel-like matrix within 3-8 min, depending on the operational temperature. Furthermore, hydrogel degradation and cell assessment is also a concern for clinical application. Injectable oxi-HA/ADH8 hydrogel can maintain its gel-like state for at least 5 weeks with a degradation percentage of 40%. Importantly, oxi-HA/ADH8 hydrogel can assist in nucleus pulposus cell synthesis of type II collagen and aggrecan mRNA gene expression according to the results of real-time PCR analysis, and shows good biocompatibility based on cell viability and cytotoxicity assays. Based on the results of the current study, oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel may possess several advantages for future application in nucleus pulposus regeneration. PMID:20193782

  13. An injectable hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogel system for protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fan; Chung, Joo Eun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2009-03-19

    Previously, we reported the independent tuning of mechanical strength (crosslinking density) and gelation rate of an injectable hydrogel system composed of hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) conjugates. The hydrogels were formed through the oxidative coupling of tyramines which was catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Herein, we studied the encapsulation and release of model proteins using the HA-Tyr hydrogel. It was shown that the rapid gelation achieved by an optimal concentration of HRP could effectively encapsulate the proteins within the hydrogel network and thus prevented the undesired leakage of proteins into the surrounding tissues after injection. Hydrogels with different mechanical strengths were formed by changing the concentration of H(2)O(2) while maintaining the rapid gelation rate. The mechanical strength of the hydrogel controlled the release rate of proteins: stiff hydrogels released proteins slower compared to weak hydrogels. In phosphate buffer saline, alpha-amylase (negatively charged) was released sustainably from the hydrogel. Conversely, the release of lysozyme (positively charged) discontinued after the fourth hour due to electrostatic interactions with HA. In the presence of hyaluronidase, lysozymes were released continuously and completely from the hydrogel due to degradation of the hydrogel network. The activities of the released proteins were mostly retained which suggested that the HA-Tyr hydrogel is a suitable injectable and biodegradable system for the delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19121348

  14. Global Simulations of Radiative Forcing from Sea Salt Injections into Marine Clouds: The Effect of Injection Rate and Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterskjaer, K.; Kristjánsson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sea salt seeding of low level marine clouds is a suggested technique to counteract or slow global warming. The injected sea salt is to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and through the aerosol indirect effect increase the cloud albedo and therefore the reflection of solar radiation from the earth-atmosphere system. Using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) we investigate the global radiative forcing achieved through sea salt seeding as a function of both (i) emission rate and (ii) sea salt particle size. The injection rates are uniform and confined over ocean between 30°S and 30°N, and range from 10-9 to 10-11 kg m-2 s-1. The size of the particles ranges from a dry modal radius of 0.022 μm to 0.13 μm, with geometric standard deviations of 1.59. The study includes aerosol indirect effects both in the shortwave and the longwave and investigates the direct radiative effect of the added sea salt particles. Preliminary results show that increasing emissions of the 0.13 μm sea salt mode leads to an aerosol indirect effect of between -3.4 Wm-2 and -0.04 Wm-2, depending on emission rate. The maximum achieved forcing is close to cancelling the positive forcing resulting from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (-3.8 Wm-2). Results also show that the direct effect of the sea salt parties is much larger than previously assumed, and the total radiative effect and the cooling potential of this geo-engineering technique may therefore be much greater than what has been assumed earlier. We find that ignoring the direct effect of sea salt may lead to serious errors in determining both the effectiveness of sea salt seeding and possible side effects. The longwave forcing resulting from a change in cloud emissivity with added sea salt is found to be negligible. Results also show that the size of the added sea salt is of crucial importance for the achieved radiative forcing. While adding large sea salt particles leads to a significant negative forcing at the

  15. ASICs Do Not Play a Role in Maintaining Hyperalgesia Induced by Repeated Intramuscular Acid Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Mamta; Benson, Christopher J.; Ranier, Jon D.; Light, Alan R.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Repeated intramuscular acid injections produce long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia that depends on activation of ASICs. The present study investigated if pH-activated currents in sensory neurons innervating muscle were altered in response to repeated acid injections, and if blockade of ASICs reverses existing hyperalgesia. In muscle sensory neurons, the mean acid-evoked current amplitudes and the biophysical properties of the ASIC-like currents were unchanged following acidic saline injections when compared to neutral pH saline injections or uninjected controls. Moreover, increased mechanical sensitivity of the muscle and paw after the second acid injection was unaffected by local blockade of ASICs (A-317567) in the muscle. As a control, electron microscopic analysis showed that the tibial nerve was undamaged after acid injections. Our previous studies demonstrated that ASICs are important in the development of hyperalgesia to repeated acid injections. However, the current data suggest that ASICs are not involved in maintaining hyperalgesia to repeated intramuscular acid injections. PMID:22191025

  16. Convergence rates for {{\\ell }}^{1}-regularization without injectivity-type assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Existing convergence rate results for sparsity promoting regularization of Tikhonov-type rely on injectivity of the considered operator or at least on slightly weakened injectivity assumptions (finite basis injectivity or restricted isometry property). We extend such results to non-injective operators by formulating a suitable variational source condition, which then is characterized in the language of range conditions with respect to the range of the adjoint operator. As a special case we consider operator equations with uniquely determined 1-norm minimizing solutions. Based on the developed characterization of a variational source condition we also provide convergence rates for the case that solutions are not sparse.

  17. Modeling the effects of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate shape on diesel engine combustion and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Daniel Kelly

    1998-11-01

    The effect of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate-shaping on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied using KIVA a multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code. Auxiliary gas injection (AGI) is the injection of a gas, in addition to the fuel injection, directly into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The objective of AGI is to influence the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce emissions of pollutants (soot and NO x). In this study, the accuracy of modeling high speed gas jets on very coarse computational grids was addressed. KIVA was found to inaccurately resolve the jet flows near walls. The cause of this inaccuracy was traced to the RNG k - ɛ turbulence model with the law-of-the-wall boundary condition used by KIVA. By prescribing the lengthscale near the nozzle exit, excellent agreement between computed and theoretical jet penetration was attained for a transient gas jet into a quiescent chamber at various operating conditions. The effect of AGI on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied by incorporating the coarse grid gas jet model into a detailed multidimensional simulation of a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of AGI timing, composition, amount, orientation, and location were investigated. The effects of AGI and split fuel injection were also investigated. AGI was found to be effective at reducing soot emissions by increasing mixing within the combustion chamber. AGI of inert gas was found to be effective at reducing emissions of NOx by depressing the peak combustion temperatures. Finally, comparison of AGI simulations with experiments were conducted for a TACOM-LABECO engine. The results showed that AGI improved soot oxidation throughout the engine cycle. Simulation of fuel injection rate-shaping investigated the effects of three injection velocity profiles typical of unit-injector type, high-pressure common-rail type, and accumulator-type fuel injectors in the Caterpillar 3401 heavy

  18. Is high-rate injection causing the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.

    2014-12-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the central and eastern US (CEUS) began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as likely induced by wastewater injection. To better understand the likelihood of an induced seismic event from a given injection well, we compare the location and timing of earthquakes and injection operational parameters across the CEUS. We compiled a database of more than 187,000 injection wells in the CEUS, both active and inactive. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System's (ANSS) comprehensive earthquake catalog from 1973 to mid-2014, we use spatial and temporal filtering methods to discriminate injection wells that may be associated with earthquakes from those that are not. Our goal was to understand whether or not well operational parameters such as injection rate, cumulative injected volume, injection pressure and injection depth affect the likelihood that a well is spatiotemporally associated with an earthquake. We found more than 14,000 injection wells (~8% of all wells) that may be associated with earthquakes in the CEUS. Our spatiotemporal filter succeeded in capturing every suspected case of induced seismicity that we are aware of. We also found that the likelihood of an injection well being associated with an earthquake increased with increasing injection rate and cumulative injected volume. This phenomenon was observed over a wide range of geologic and hydrogeologic provinces in states such as Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico and Arkansas. Operational parameters such as injection pressure and injection depth do not show a clear trend towards an increased likelihood of spatiotemporal association with an earthquake. In all, the cumulative number of CEUS earthquakes potentially associated with injection has risen sharply from 112 out of 545 in year 2000 (~19%) to more than 732 out of 1325 by May 2014 (~55%). This increase in earthquakes spatiotemporally associated with wells accounts for the vast

  19. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. PMID:21641455

  20. Expanding Non-solenoidal Startup with Local Helicity Injection to Increased Toroidal Field and Helicity Injection Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique under development on the Pegasus ST. Plasma currents up to 0.18 MA have been initiated by LHI in conjunction with poloidal field induction. A 0-D power balance model has been developed to predict plasma current evolution by balancing helicity input against resistive dissipation. The model is being validated against a set of experimental measurements and magnetic reconstructions with radically varied plasma geometric evolutions. Outstanding physics issues with LHI startup are the scalings of confinement and MHD activity with helicity injection rate and toroidal field strength, as well as injector behavior at high field. Preliminary results from the newly-installed Thomson scattering system suggest core temperatures of a few hundred eV during LHI startup. Measurements are being expanded to multiple spatial points for ongoing confinement studies. A set of larger-area injectors is being installed in the lower divertor region, where increased toroidal field will provide a helicity injection rate over 3 times that of outboard injectors. In this regime helicity injection will be the dominant current drive. Experiments with divertor injectors will permit experimental differentiation of several possible confinement models, and demonstrate the feasibility of LHI startup at high field. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  1. Needle-free injection of 5-aminolevulinic acid in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of condylomata acuminata

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIULI; WANG, XIUXIU; GU, JUNYING; MA, YUE’E; LIU, ZHIYU; SHI, YULING

    2013-01-01

    The external application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) results in a shallow penetration depth in thick or extensive condylomata acuminata (CA) lesions, thus demonstrating a poor therapeutic effect for those patients. To compare the efficacy of needle-free injection with external application of ALA in PDT for the treatment of CA, 160 CA patients with thick or extensive warts received ALA-PDT by means of external application or needle-free injection of ALA, respectively. The complete response (CR) rate and recurrence rate in the two groups were analyzed. The CR rate after the first treatment in the needle-free injection group (68.8%) was significantly higher compared with that in the external application group (52.5%; P=0.035). The recurrence rates in the needle-free injection group and external application group were 4.1 and 15.4%, respectively (P=0.022). The needle-free injection of ALA increases the therapeutic effect of PDT for CA patients with thick or extensive lesions. It shortens the treatment time and reduces the recurrence rate, and has great potential in the treatment of CA. PMID:23935753

  2. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Position of the hyaluronic acid injected and the effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System were confirmed by ultrasonography in one of the cases. Results: Sonogram images demonstrated the location of the injected hyaluronic acid and pressure effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System, confirming the ability to manipulate the superficial musculoaponeurotic System by this injection technique. The lifting result of this Single injection technique was immediately visible and maintained for at least 26 weeks. Conclusion: This is a less invasive, reproducible method that provides a sustained face lifting result. The authors propose the term “supraSMAS lift” for this novel injection technique. PMID:27047633

  3. Development of a stable solution of 5-aminolaevulinic acid for intracutaneous injection in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    de Blois, A W; Grouls, R J E; Ackerman, E W; Wijdeven, W J A

    2002-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) as a photosensitiser is a new treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas. Until now ALA has been used topically as a cream. As this administration route leads sometimes to insufficient penetration in the skin, an intracutaneously injectable solution of ALA was developed. The influence of pH, concentration and temperature on the degradation of ALA in aqueous solution was investigated in order to optimise the formulation of the injection. In 0.1% ALA solutions with pH values between 4 and 8 a pH dependency of ALA degradation was shown, comprising fast decomposition at pH values higher than 7, whereas at a pH value of 6 or lower the solutions remained within the range of 90-110% of the initial concentration for at least 128 days. An increase of degradation rate with increasing concentrations became evident which is consistent with the supposed second-order degradation kinetics. After accelerated stability research at 63 degrees C and 85 degrees C a shelf life of 281 days for a 0.1% ALA solution pH 5 was calculated from an Arrhenius plot. A 2% ALA solution was proven to be isotonic. From our results a 0.1-2% ALA solution with pH 5 and an appropriate amount of sodium chloride to obtain isotonicity is recommended as an injectable solution. PMID:12181635

  4. Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

  5. Reactivity of Hontomín carbonate rocks to acidic solution injection: reactive "push-pull" tracer tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gaspari, Francesca; Cabeza, Yoar; Luquot, Linda; Rötting, Tobias; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Carrera, Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Several field tests will be carried out in order to characterize the reservoir for CO2 injection in Hontomín (Burgos, Spain) as part of the Compostilla project of "Fundación Ciudad de la Energía" (CIUDEN). Once injected, the dissolution of the CO2 in the resident brine will increase the acidity of the water and lead to the dissolution of the rocks, constituted mainly by carbonates. This mechanism will cause changes in the aquifer properties such as porosity and permeability. To reproduce the effect of the CO2 injection, a reactive solution with 2% of acetic acid is going to be injected in the reservoir and extracted from the same well (reactive "push-pull" tracer tests) to identify and quantify the geochemical reactions occurring into the aquifer. The reactivity of the rock will allow us also to evaluate the changes of its properties. Previously, theoretical calculations of Damkhöler numbers were done to determine the acid concentrations and injection flow rates needed to generate ramified-wormholes patterns, during theses "push-pull" experiments. The aim of this work is to present the results and a preliminary interpretation of the field tests.

  6. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  7. High rates of midazolam injection among drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reports from Thailand suggest that a growing number of people who inject drugs (IDU) are now injecting midazolam, a legal benzodiazepine with potent amnestic and ventilatory depressant effects. We therefore sought to examine midazolam injection among a community-recruited sample of Thai IDU. Methods We examined the prevalence and correlates of midazolam injection among 252 IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project, Bangkok, using multivariate logistic regression. We also examined the use of midazolam in combination with other drugs. Results 252 IDU participated in this study, including 66 (26.2%) women. In total, 170 (67.5%) participants reported ever having injected midazolam, and 144 (57.1%) reported daily midazolam injection in the past six months. In multivariate analyses, a history of midazolam injection was independently associated with using drugs in combination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.96-11.60), younger age (AOR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.22-0.83), having a history of methadone treatment (AOR = 3.12, 95%CI: 1.55-6.90), and binge drug use (AOR = 2.25, 95%CI: 1.09-4.63). The drugs most commonly used in combination with midazolam were heroin (72.3%) and yaba (methamphetamine) (30.5%). Conclusion We observed a high rate of midazolam injection among Thai IDU. Midazolam injection was strongly associated with polysubstance use and binge drug use, and was most commonly used in combination with both opiates and methamphetamines. Our findings suggest that midazolam injection has become increasingly common within Thailand. Evidence-based approaches for reducing harms associated with midazolam injection are needed. PMID:20338062

  8. Theoretical prediction of regression rates in swirl-injection hybrid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, K.; Shimada, T.

    2016-07-01

    The authors theoretically and analytically predict what times regression rates of swirl injection hybrid rocket engines increase higher than the axial injection ones by estimating heat flux from boundary layer combustion to the fuel port. The schematic of engines is assumed as ones whose oxidizer is injected from the opposite side of the nozzle such as ones of Yuasa et al. propose. To simplify the estimation, we assume some hypotheses such as three-dimensional (3D) axisymmetric flows have been assumed. The results of this prediction method are largely consistent with Yuasa's experiments data in the range of high swirl numbers.

  9. Rate equation analysis of frequency chirp in optically injection-locked quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Grillot, F.; Kovanis, V. I.; Bodyfelt, J. D.; Even, J.

    2014-03-01

    The frequency chirp characteristics of an optically injection-locked quantum cascade laser are theoretically investigated. The key parameter chirp-to-power ratio (CPR) is analytically derived from a full rate equation model. The CPR value can be efficiently reduced by increasing optical injection strength, especially at modulation frequencies less than 10 GHz. In contrast to interband lasers, both positive and negative frequency detuning increase the CPR. Since the frequency detuning is also predicted to enhance the intensity modulation response, a trade-off is required in the optical injection to simultaneously obtain a large modulation bandwidth and low frequency chirp.

  10. 75 FR 4692 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... crystalline free acid injectable suspension for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in horses... treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in horses caused by susceptible strains of Streptococcus... as follows: Sec. 522.313a Ceftiofur crystalline free acid. * * * * * (e) * * * (3) Horses--(i)...

  11. Uptake and release of adrenal ascorbic acid in the guinea pig after injection of ACTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, D.E.; Rivers, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of a single injection of ACTH (3 IU/100 g body weight) on the distribution of ascorbic acid (AA) and radiolabeled AA in 20 tissues was studied in adult male guinea pigs consuming 500 mg AA/kg diet. Saline- or ACTH-injected animals were simultaneously injected with (1-/sup 14/C)AA, and killed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after injection. There was no significant difference between treatments in the weight of any tissue over the 6-h experimental period. As anticipated, the concentration of AA in the adrenals of animals injected with ACTH was 33% of that of animals injected with saline at 4 h. Unexpectedly, the concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenals at 0.5 h after ACTH injection was 172% of that after saline injection. The concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenal of the saline-injected animals increased slowly over time to reach a level similar to that of ACTH-injected animals by 6 h. There was no effect of ACTH on the level of AA or uptake in any of the other tissues examined. These results demonstrate that a single dose of ACTH markedly influences the retention of AA in the adrenal gland without similarly altering retention of AA in other tissues. Furthermore, ACTH treatment causes both accelerated uptake and release of AA into the adrenals.

  12. Symposium: evidence for the use of intra-articular cortisone or hyaluronic acid injection in the hip.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Lodhia, Parth; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S Pavan; Martin, Timothy J; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this review article is to discuss the role of diagnostic, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) and femoroacetabular impingement (FIA). These treatments play an important biological role in the non-operative management of these conditions. Two independent reviewers performed an search of PubMed for articles that contained at least one of the following search terms pertaining to intra-articular hip injection-local anaesthetic, diagnostic, ultrasound, fluoroscopic, image guided, corticosteroid, HA, PRP, OA, labral tears and FAI. Seventy-two full text articles were suitable for inclusion. There were 18 articles addressing the efficacy of diagnostic intra-articular hip injections. With respect to efficacy in OA there were 25 articles pertaining to efficacy of corticosteroid, 22 of HA and 4 of PRP. There were three articles addressing the efficacy of biologics in FAI. Diagnostic intra-articular hip injections are sensitive and specific for differentiating between intra-articular, extra-articular and spinal causes of hip symptoms. Ultrasound and fluoroscopy improves the precision of intra-articular positioning of diagnostic injections. Corticosteroids are more effective than HA and PRP in alleviating pain from hip OA. A higher dose of corticosteroids produces a longer benefit but volume of injection has no significant effect. Intra-articular corticosteroids do not increase infection rates of subsequent arthroplasty. There is currently limited evidence to warrant the routine use of therapeutic injections in the management of labral tears and FIA. PMID:27026814

  13. The potpourri approach to hyaluronic acid filler injections.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C

    2010-02-01

    There is an ever-expanding range of hyaluronic acid fillers with varying physical characteristics available to cosmetic dermatologists. These fillers are commercially packaged in syringes of approximately 1 mL (range 0.5-2 mL) volume. Filler injectors are currently qualitatively and quantitatively restricted to fillers packaged in ready-to-go syringes. Patients often present for pan-facial rejuvenation requiring varying amounts of fillers as well as more than one type/subtype of filler for optimum correction. The potpourri approach allows access to a range of prepared hyaluronic acid filler subtypes that can be used on the same patient in the one session. The potpourri method centres on the use of multiple 31-gauge insulin syringes prepared with a range of different hyaluronic acid filler products that are ready for use. This increases flexibility with filler selection and has the potential to provide better filler-to-tissue match for patients. PMID:20148852

  14. Geophysical mapping and subsurface injection for treatment of post-reclamation acid drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Plocus, V.G.; Rastogi, V.

    1997-12-31

    Post-reclamation acid discharge has haunted abandoned mine lands reclamation programs and the mining industry reclamation efforts. Many mine sites have been reclaimed, as mandated by regulations, but continue to generate acid. Such sites represent perpetual treatment problems for operators and, in the case of bond forfeitures or abandoned mine reclamation projects, they represent sources of perpetual surface and groundwater degradation. Post-reclamation discharge occurs when the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria, not destroyed prior to soil cover in the reclamation process, continue to thrive, even in a supposedly anaerobic environment. A post-reclamation remediation system utilizing subsurface injection of sodium hydroxide and an anionic surfactant offers a two phase integrated technologies approach. In Phase 1, the site is characterized by geophysical mapping with (1) electromagnetic terrain conductivity meters to determine locations of subsurface aquifers, and (2) proton processing magnetometers to delineate zones of pyritic oxidation in the subsurface environment. Infiltrometers are also used to determine permeability which influences pressure requirements and distance between wells. Site conditions and water analyses help quantify requirements for injection of sodium hydroxide and bactericide. Phase 2 involves drilling two sets of injection wells; the first into the acidified water table for injection of 20% sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize existing acid water, and the second into the acid producing material for injection of a 20% sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize existing acid salts, followed by a 2% solution of bactericide. The sodium hydroxide is injected to neutralize existing acid which prevents future acid generation. Results from a site in Pennsylvania, USA, which was treated in this manner are reported.

  15. Influence of diet or intrarectal bile acid injections on colon epithelial cell proliferation in rats previously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Glauert, H.P.; Bennink, M.R.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of varying colon bile acid concentrations on rat colon epithelial cell proliferation were studied. Bile acid concentrations were altered by intrarectally injecting either deoxycholic or lithocholic acid for 4 weeks or by increasing the dietary fat or fiber (wheat bran, agar, or carrageenan) intake for 4 weeks. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was s.c. injected into half of the rats 1 week before treatments began. Colon epithelial cell proliferation was measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography of colon crypts. Rats injected with DMH had more DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. Neither bile acid injection nor any of the diets altered the number of DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. DMH injections, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid intrarectal injections, and dietary agar and wheat bran all increased the total number of cells per crypt. High fat diets and dietary carrageenan did not affect cell number. All diets containing fiber lowered total fecal bile acid concentrations, but increasing the fat content of the diet did not affect them. These results indicate that the bile acid injections and dietary agar and wheat bran induce a slight hyperplasia in the colon.

  16. Diplopia after hyaluronic acid gel injection for correction of facial tear trough deformity.

    PubMed

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Heirati, Abtin; Pakdel, Farzad; Kiavash, Victoria

    2012-10-01

    A 38 Year-old-female presented with diplopia and bilateral lower eyelid swelling 1.5 months after hyaluronic acid filler injection of tear trough deformity. Comprehensive eye examination showed an inferior oblique muscle restriction on the right eye. Diplopia and bilateral lower eyelid puffiness were treated by injection of hyaluronidase which resulted in disappearance of both diplopia and bilateral lower eyelid puffiness. PMID:22571493

  17. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  18. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A

    2000-05-31

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol. PMID:18967966

  19. Tracking and Increasing Viability of Topically Injected Fibroblasts Suspended in Hyaluronic Acid Filler.

    PubMed

    You, Hi-Jin; Namgoong, Sik; Rhee, Sung-Mi; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    A new injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue consisting of a mixture of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler and cultured human fibroblasts have been developed by the authors. To establish this method as a standard treatment, a further study was required to determine whether the injected fibroblasts could stay at the injected place or move to other sites. In addition, effective strategies were needed to increase viability of the injected fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to track the injected fibroblasts and to determine the effect of adding prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or vitamin C on the viability of fibroblasts.Human fibroblasts labeled with fluorescence dye were suspended in HA filler and injected into 4 sites on the back of nude mice. The injected bioimplants consisted of one of the 4 followings: HA filler without cells (HA group), fibroblasts suspended in HA filler (HA + FB group), PGE1-supplemented fibroblasts in HA filler (HA + FB + PGE1 group), and vitamin C-supplemented fibroblasts in HA filler (HA + FB + VC group). At 4 weeks after injection, locations and intensities of the fluorescence signals were evaluated using a live imaging system.The fluorescence signals of the fibroblast-containing groups were visible only at the injected sites without dispersing to other sites. The HA +FB + PGE1 group showed a significantly higher fluorescence signal than the HA + FB and the HA + FB +VC groups (P < 0.05, each). There was no statistical difference between the HA + FB and HA + FB +VC groups (P = 0.69).The results of the current study collectively suggest that injected fibroblasts suspended in HA filler stay at the injected place without moving to other sites. In addition, PGE1 treatment may increase the remaining rhodamine B isothiocynanate dye at the injected site of the human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:26854786

  20. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  6. Safety evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactic-acid) microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xianfang; Yuan, Weien; Lu, Yi; Mo, Xiaofen

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and/or poly(lactic-acid) (PLA) microspheres are important drug delivery systems. This study investigated eye biocompatibility and safety of PLGA/PLA microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits. Normal New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected and received intravitreal administration of different doses (low, medium, or high) of PLGA/PLA microspheres and erythropoietin-loaded PLGA/PLA microspheres. The animals were clinically examined and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postadministration, and retinal tissues were prepared for analysis. Retinal reactions to the microspheres were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Retinal structure changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, retinal function influences were explored by the electroretinography test. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining revealed no apoptotic cells in the injected retinas; immunohistochemistry did not detect any increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed no micro- or ultrastructure changes in the retinas at different time points postintravitreal injection. The electroretinography test showed no significant influence of scotopic or photopic amplitudes. The results demonstrated that PLGA/PLA microspheres did not cause retinal histological changes or functional damage and were biocompatible and safe enough for intravitreal injection in rabbits for controlled drug delivery. PMID:25028546

  7. Flow injection potentiometric determination of bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M F; Fatibello-Filho, O

    2001-06-19

    A flow injection potentiometric procedure is proposed for determining bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations. In this work, a tubular electrode coated with an ion-pair formed between [Bi(EDTA)](-) and tricaprylylmethylammonium cation (Aliquat 336) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) was constructed and used in a single channel flow injection system. The effect of membrane composition, pH and flow injection parameter over the Bi(III) tubular electrode response (slope (mV/decade)) was initially evaluated in quintuplicate in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution as carrier. The best response (-59.6+/-0.9 mV/decade) was attained with the 5% m/m ion-pair; 65% m/m o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) and 30% m/m PVC in pH 6-9. The electrode showed a linear response to E (mV) versus log [Bi(EDTA)](-) in the bismuth(III) concentration range from 2.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-2) mol l(-1) and a useful lifetime of at least 5 months (more than 1000 determinations for each polymeric membrane). The detection limit was 1.2x10(-5) mol l(-1) and the R.S.D. was less than 2.0% for a solution containing 5.0x10(-4) mol l(-1) bismuth(III) (n=10). Several species such as Cd(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Cr(III) and Al(III) at 1.0x10(-3) mol l(-1) concentration in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution did not cause any interference. The frequency rate was 90 determinations per hour and the results obtained for bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations using this flow procedure and those obtained using a spectrophotometric procedure are in agreement at the 95% confidence level. PMID:11397573

  8. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  9. Symposium: evidence for the use of intra-articular cortisone or hyaluronic acid injection in the hip

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Lodhia, Parth; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S. Pavan; Martin, Timothy J.; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this review article is to discuss the role of diagnostic, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) and femoroacetabular impingement (FIA). These treatments play an important biological role in the non-operative management of these conditions. Two independent reviewers performed an search of PubMed for articles that contained at least one of the following search terms pertaining to intra-articular hip injection—local anaesthetic, diagnostic, ultrasound, fluoroscopic, image guided, corticosteroid, HA, PRP, OA, labral tears and FAI. Seventy-two full text articles were suitable for inclusion. There were 18 articles addressing the efficacy of diagnostic intra-articular hip injections. With respect to efficacy in OA there were 25 articles pertaining to efficacy of corticosteroid, 22 of HA and 4 of PRP. There were three articles addressing the efficacy of biologics in FAI. Diagnostic intra-articular hip injections are sensitive and specific for differentiating between intra-articular, extra-articular and spinal causes of hip symptoms. Ultrasound and fluoroscopy improves the precision of intra-articular positioning of diagnostic injections. Corticosteroids are more effective than HA and PRP in alleviating pain from hip OA. A higher dose of corticosteroids produces a longer benefit but volume of injection has no significant effect. Intra-articular corticosteroids do not increase infection rates of subsequent arthroplasty. There is currently limited evidence to warrant the routine use of therapeutic injections in the management of labral tears and FIA. PMID:27026814

  10. Designing an optimized injection strategy for acid gas disposal without dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.A.; Svrcek, W.Y.; Monnery, W.D.; Jamaluddin, A.K.M.; Bennion, D.B.; Thomas, F.B.; Wichert, E.; Reed, A.E.; Johnson, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    The economics of recovering sulfur from sour natural gas have become unfavorable for small fields. Hydrocarbon producing companies require a cost effective yet environmentally sound alternative method to deal with acid gas. Compressed acid gas reinjection into producing, depleted or non-producing formations has emerged as a viable alternative to traditional sulfur recovery. Most injection schemes include dehydration facilities to remove the saturated water from the gas, preventing corrosion and hydrate formation. An alternative, less costly approach is to keep the water in the vapor phase throughout the injection circuit, eliminating the need to dehydrate. To design an optimized injection strategy, determination of thermodynamic and physical properties such as water content, dewpoint, bubble point, hydrate conditions and density of the acid gas is necessary. Experiments were conducted to determine properties of an acid gas containing a nominal 10% H{sub 2}S with remaining 90% CO{sub 2} and a minor amount of methane. Results indicate that the acid gas can be cooled between compression stages to 40 C (104 F) without entering the two phase region. For an injection pressure of 17,700 kPa (2,567 psia), dehydration is not required to cool the compressed gas to 8 C (46 F) without hydrate formation or corrosion problems. At 9,000 kPa (1,305 psia) the gas can be safely cooled to {minus}2 C (28 F).

  11. Safe relief of rest pain that eases with activity in achillodynia by intrabursal or peritendinous steroid injection: the rupture rate was not increased by these steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Read, M T

    1999-04-01

    A history of morning and rest pain that eases with activity was found to improve after anti-inflammatory injections around the paratenon or within the Achilles bursae. The reduction in pain morbidity was significant, and the peritendinous steroid injections did not increase the rupture rate. PMID:10205700

  12. Treatment of Age-related Mid-face Atrophy by Injection of Cohesive Polydensified Matrix Hyaluronic Acid Volumizer

    PubMed Central

    Micheels, Patrick; Kravtsov, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® Hyaluronic Acid Volumizer is designed to be injected subcutaneously or in deeper soft tissue layers to restore facial volumes. This post-marketing clinical follow-up was performed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of the product up to 18 months. Design: Injections were performed according to standard clinical practice and patients were followed-up at Months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and optionally at Month 18. Effectiveness measures included facial volume loss scale, global aesthetic improvement scale and patients’ satisfaction. Injection site reactions were recorded to evaluate safety. Results: Twenty patients with intermediate-to-severe volume loss in the lateral cheek hollows and/or cheekbone area were treated. Facial volume loss scale scores dropped significantly from a mean value of 3.1 at baseline to 1.3 at Day 1. Significant volume enhancement was maintained at each follow-up visit with mean scores ranging from 1.3 at Month 1 to 1.8 at Month 12. Investigators’ global aesthetic improvement scale assessment showed that up to Month 6 at least 94 percent of patients were rated as “very much improved” or “much improved.” At Month 9, all patients still showed a benefit of treatment with 81 percent rated as “very much” or “much improved” and 19 percent as “improved.” Patients’ evaluation was consistent with investigators’ results. A few expected transient injection site reactions of mild-to-moderate intensity were reported immediately after treatment. These reactions were considered related to the injection procedure, rather than the product. Conclusion: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix Hyaluronic Acid Volumizer is safe and effective for mid-face volume augmentation lasting up to Month 12 and most probably up to Month 18. The aesthetic effect was demonstrated by the effectiveness evaluations and high patient satisfaction. PMID:25852812

  13. Determination of ambroxol hydrochloride, methylparaben and benzoic acid in pharmaceutical preparations based on sequential injection technique coupled with monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Satínský, Dalibor; Huclová, Jitka; Ferreira, Raquel L C; Montenegro, Maria Conceição B S M; Solich, Petr

    2006-02-13

    The porous monolithic columns show high performance at relatively low pressure. The coupling of short monoliths with sequential injection technique (SIA) results in a new approach to implementation of separation step to non-separation low-pressure method. In this contribution, a new separation method for simultaneous determination of ambroxol, methylparaben and benzoic acid was developed based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) technique with UV detection. A Chromolith SpeedROD RP-18e, 50-4.6 mm column with 10 mm precolumn and a FIAlab 3000 system with a six-port selection valve and 5 ml syringe were used for sequential injection chromatographic separations in our study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.05M acetic acid (10:10:90, v/v/v), pH 3.75 adjusted with triethylamine, flow rate 0.48 mlmin(-1), UV-detection was at 245 nm. The analysis time was <11 min. A new SIC method was validated and compared with HPLC. The method was found to be useful for the routine analysis of the active compounds ambroxol and preservatives (methylparaben or benzoic acid) in various pharmaceutical syrups and drops. PMID:16165338

  14. INDUCED SEISMICITY. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, M; Ge, S; Godt, J W; Bekins, B A; Rubinstein, J L

    2015-06-19

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well's cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes. PMID:26089509

  15. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.; Godt, J. W.; Bekins, B. A.; Rubinstein, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  16. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weingarten, Matthew; Ge, Shemin; Godt, Jonathan W.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  17. Drug injection rates and needle-exchange use in New York City, 1991-1996.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M; Shore, R E; Titus, S; Chen, X; Des Jarlais, D C

    2000-09-01

    Objectives included (1) to develop methods for identifying injection drug users with accelerating injection habits so they might be referred to counseling and treatment and (2) to investigate behavioral correlates of accelerating injection habits, including syringe-exchange program utilization. Data on drug use, enrollment in methadone maintenance, and demographic variables were obtained from 328 subjects who were seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who attended anywhere from 4 to 11 quarterly study visits for interview, HIV pretest counseling and risk reduction counseling, and blood donation for HIV antibody testing. Subjects were recalled 2 weeks after each study visit to receive their results and post-test counseling. We characterized subjects according to their patterns of drug injection as accelerating, decelerating, or stable, using intraindividual regression analyses and categorization rules, and by syringe-exchange use as consistent users, sporadic users, or nonusers. The present subjects included 52% with decelerating, 29% with stable, and 19% with accelerating rates of drug injection. There were 128 subjects (39%) who were categorized as consistent users of syringe-exchange programs, 84 (25%) were categorized as sporadic users, and 116 (35%) were categorized as nonusers. All syringe-exchange groups showed significantly decelerating drug injection. Rates of decline were significantly less, however, among consistent syringe-exchange users than sporadic or nonusers of syringe exchanges. Categorical analysis also showed significant differences among groups, with 30% of consistent syringe-exchange program users having accelerating rates of drug injection compared to 9% of nonusers and 17% of sporadic users. That consistent syringe-exchange users included a larger proportion of individuals whose drug habits were accelerating than did sporadic users or nonusers of syringe exchanges suggests a need for improved identification and counseling of

  18. Effect of pressure on viscosity at high shear rates by using an injection molding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Valentina; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The difficulties in performing accurate measurements of the effect of pressure on the viscosity of the polymeric materials results in a shortage of relevant experimental data in the literature. In this work, an atactic polystyrene has been characterized to determine the effect of pressure on viscosity during the injection molding process. In particular, the nozzle of the injection molding machine has been modified to host a slit rheometer that allows obtaining in-line rheological measurements by means of two pressure transducers. Slits with two different geometries have been adopted, in order to obtain a wide range of shear rates (102-105 s-1). Experiments have been conducted at increasing injection flow rates, corresponding to different shear rates. By analyzing the measured pressures it has been possible to determine the coefficient β, which describes the effect of pressure on viscosity. Results show that the effect of pressure on viscosity decreases on increasing the shear rate until a plateau is reached at very high shear rates.

  19. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  20. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  1. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  2. Modeling of local co-deposition rates near Tore Supra gas injection sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loarer, Th.; Hogan, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Gunn, J.; Pegourie, B.

    2003-10-01

    Using the Tore Supra Composants Internes et Limiteurs (CIEL) configuration, long discharges (>4 mins), with high extracted energy (>0.7 GJ) have been demonstrated. Examination after periods of long duration operation has revealed a high level of retention of injected deuterium, a result which has important implications for tritium retention in ITER [1, 2]. The zone near the neutral gas injection port at the outboard midplane is a high redeposition area. To understand the retention mechanism, and to evaluate alternative injection methods which could reduce it, we have modeled this process with the neutral deuterium version of the 3-D Monte Carlo code, BBQ and the 1-D WDIFFUSE wall transport code. Transport of neutral atoms and molecules is calculated, to determine the expected codeposition rate stimulated by the charge exchange cascade process near the injection port. Retention is estimated from WDIFFUSE using the results of W. Jakob [3] for the increased range of energetic particles in soft films. The reduction in retained levels which could be achieved by using an alternative injection location (diagnostic port in the toroidal limiter) is predicted from the validated model. [1] E. Tsitrone et al, , EPS 2003, St Peterburg [2] Th. Loarer et al, EPS 2003, St Peterburg [3] W. Jakob, J. Thin Films, 1998

  3. 5,7-DIHYDROXYTRYPTAMINE INJECTIONS INCREASE GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS OF ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution and level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were determined in the adult rat hypothalamus following axotomy of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. even days after unilateral intrahypothalamic injection of the 5-HT neurotoxic, 5,7- dihydroxytryptamine, there gas a m...

  4. 36C1 measurements and the hydrology of an acid injection site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vourvopoulos, G.; Brahana, J.V.; Nolte, E.; Korschinek, G.; Priller, A.; Dockhorn, B.

    1990-01-01

    In an area in western Tennessee (United States), an industrial firm is injecting acidic (pH = 0.1) iron chloride into permeable zones of carbonate rocks at depths ranging from 1000 to 2200 m below land surface. Overlying the injection zone at a depth of approximately 500 m below land surface is a regional fresh-water aquifer, the Knox aquifer. A study is currently underway to investigate whether the injection wells are hydraulically isolated from the fresh-water aquifer. Drilling of a test well that will reach a total depth of 2700 m has been initiated. The 36Cl content of 15 samples from the Knox aquifer, from monitor wells in the vicinity of the injection site, and from the test well have been analyzed. ?? 1990.

  5. Effect of rheological parameters on curing rate during NBR injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyas, Kamil; Stanek, Michal; Manas, David; Skrobak, Adam

    2013-04-01

    In this work, non-isothermal injection molding process for NBR rubber mixture considering Isayev-Deng curing kinetic model, generalized Newtonian model with Carreau-WLF viscosity was modeled by using finite element method in order to understand the effect of volume flow rate, index of non-Newtonian behavior and relaxation time on the temperature profile and curing rate. It was found that for specific geometry and processing conditions, increase in relaxation time or in the index of non-Newtonian behavior increases the curing rate due to viscous dissipation taking place at the flow domain walls.

  6. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  7. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  8. Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion Caused by Hyaluronic Acid Injections Into the Forehead

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiu Zhuo; Hu, Jun Yan; Wu, Peng Sen; Yu, Sheng Bo; Kikkawa, Don O.; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although cosmetic facial soft tissue fillers are generally safe and effective, improper injections can lead to devastating and irreversible consequences. We represent the first known case of posterior ciliary artery occlusion caused by hyaluronic acid. A 41-year-old female presented with right visual loss 7 hours after receiving cosmetic hyaluronic acid injections into her forehead. Examination revealed no light perception in the right eye and multiple dark ischemic area of injection over the forehead and nose. The right fundus revealed a pink retina with optic nerve edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed several filling defects in the choroidal circulation and late hyperfluorescence in the choroid. A right posterior ciliary artery occlusion and embolic occlusion of facial artery braches was diagnosed. With hyaluronidase injection, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, oral aspirin, oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone venotransfuse treatment, the patient's forehead and nasal skin improved and vision recovered to hand movements. With proper technique, vascular occlusion is rare following facial filler injection. Vision consequences can be severe if filler emboli enter the ocular circulation. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect, recognize its presentation, and be knowledgeable of effective management. PMID:26986163

  9. Retinal Branch Artery Embolization Following Hyaluronic Acid Injection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Lin; Jian, Xing-Ling; Zhang, Bin; Li, Jin-Ying; Qin, Xiao-Lei; Yu, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler is a common aesthetic procedure. Impairment of vision, although rare, is a devastating complication of this procedure, which may not be reversible. We report on a patient who experienced visual acuity impairment and ischemic oculomotor nerve palsy after injection of HA into the nasal dorsum. In this case, clinical signs improved within 14 days of treatment. We also provide a review of the mechanism, clinical features, risk factors, and prevention and treatment strategies relating to embolization of ocular circulation after injection of HA. Vision loss is a rare but devastating complication of injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the face. Visual acuity seldom recovers completely. We report on a 22-year-old Asian woman who experienced obstruction of a branch of the retinal artery after injection of HA to augment her nose. The patient's visual acuity declined shortly after the procedure, and ophthalmoplegia occurred. Combination treatment was administered to restore the perfusion and oxygen supply to the retina and optic nerve. Within 14 days of rigorous treatment, the patient experienced improvement in visual acuity, extraocular movement, and visual field defects. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. PMID:27075374

  10. Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion Caused by Hyaluronic Acid Injections Into the Forehead: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu Zhuo; Hu, Jun Yan; Wu, Peng Sen; Yu, Sheng Bo; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Although cosmetic facial soft tissue fillers are generally safe and effective, improper injections can lead to devastating and irreversible consequences. We represent the first known case of posterior ciliary artery occlusion caused by hyaluronic acid. A 41-year-old female presented with right visual loss 7 hours after receiving cosmetic hyaluronic acid injections into her forehead. Examination revealed no light perception in the right eye and multiple dark ischemic area of injection over the forehead and nose. The right fundus revealed a pink retina with optic nerve edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed several filling defects in the choroidal circulation and late hyperfluorescence in the choroid. A right posterior ciliary artery occlusion and embolic occlusion of facial artery braches was diagnosed. With hyaluronidase injection, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, oral aspirin, oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone venotransfuse treatment, the patient's forehead and nasal skin improved and vision recovered to hand movements. With proper technique, vascular occlusion is rare following facial filler injection. Vision consequences can be severe if filler emboli enter the ocular circulation. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect, recognize its presentation, and be knowledgeable of effective management. PMID:26986163

  11. Refractory status epilepticus after inadvertent intrathecal injection of tranexamic acid treated by magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hatch, D M; Atito-Narh, E; Herschmiller, E J; Olufolabi, A J; Owen, M D

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of accidental injection of tranexamic acid during spinal anesthesia for an elective cesarean delivery. Immediately following intrathecal injection of 2mL of solution, the patient complained of severe back pain, followed by muscle spasm and tetany. As there was no evidence of spinal block, the medications given were checked and a 'used' ampoule of tranexamic acid was found on the spinal tray. General anesthesia was induced but muscle spasm and tetany persisted despite administration of a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant. Hemodynamic instability, ventricular tachycardia, and status epilepticus developed, which were refractory to phenytoin, diazepam, and infusions of thiopental, midazolam and amiodarone. Magnesium sulfate was administered postoperatively in the intensive care unit, following which the frequency of seizures decreased, eventually stopping. Unfortunately, on postoperative day three the patient died from cardiopulmonary arrest after an oxygen supply failure that was not associated with the initial event. This report underlines the importance of double-checking medications before injection in order to avoid a drug error. As well, it suggests that magnesium sulfate may be useful in stopping seizures caused by the intrathecal injection of tranexamic acid. PMID:26775897

  12. Advantages of core-shell particle columns in Sequential Injection Chromatography for determination of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Chocholouš, Petr; Vacková, Jana; Srámková, Ivana; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2013-01-15

    Currently, for Sequential Injection Chromatography (SIC), only reversed phase C18 columns have been used for chromatographic separations. This article presents the first use of three different stationary phases: three core-shell particle-packed reversed phase columns in flow systems. The aim of this work was to extend the chromatographic capabilities of the SIC system. Despite the particle-packed columns reaching system pressures of ≤ 610 PSI, their conditions matched those of a commercially produced and optimised SIC system (SIChrom™ (FIAlab(®), USA)) with a 8-port high-pressure selection valve and medium-pressure Sapphire™ syringe pump with a 4 mL reservoir and maximum system pressure of ≤ 1000 PSI. The selectivity of each of the tested columns, Ascentis(®) Express RP-Amide, Ascentis(®) Express Phenyl-Hexyl and Ascentis(®) Express C18 (30 mm × 4.6mm, core-shell particle size 2.7 μm), was compared by their ability to separate seven phenolic acids that are secondary metabolite substances widely distributed in plants. The separations of all of the components were performed by isocratic elution using binary mobile phases composed of acetonitrile and 0.065% phosphoric acid at pH 2.4 (a specific ratio was used for each column) at a flow-rate of 0.60 mL/min. The volume of the mobile phase was 3.8 mL for each separation. The injection volume of the sample was 10 μL for each separation. The UV detection wavelengths were set to 250, 280 and 325 nm. The RP-Amide column provided the highest chromatographic resolution and allowed for complete baseline separation of protocatechuic, syringic, vanillic, ferulic, sinapinic, p-coumaric and o-coumaric acids. The Phenyl-Hexyl and C18 columns were unable to completely separate the tested mixture, syringic and vanillic acid and ferulic and sinapinic acids could not be separated from one another. The analytical parameters were a LOD of 0.3 mg L(-1), a LOQ of 1.0 mg L(-1), a calibration range of 1.0-50.0 (100.0) mg L(-1

  13. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Udrescu, Corina; Tanguy, Ronan; Ruffion, Alain; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Sotton, Marie-Pierre; Devonec, Marian; Colombel, Marc; Jalade, Patrice; Azria, David

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

  14. Fast quantification of α-lipoic acid in biological samples and dietary supplements using batch injection analysis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Santos Pereira, Laise Nayra Dos; da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Araújo, Thaylan Pinheiro; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Angnes, Lúcio

    2016-07-01

    Batch injection analysis (BIA) with amperometric detection, using a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (PG/CoPc), was employed for determination of α-lipoic acid (ALA) in pharmaceutical product and in synthetic urine samples. The proposed BIA method is based on the application of a potential of +0.9V vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl sat, enabling quantification of ALA over a concentration range from 1.3×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-8)molL(-1). A sampling rate of 180 injections per hour was attained and measurements of the reproducibility of successive injections (100µmolL(-1) ALA on the same electrode) showed a RSD of 2.11% for 40 successive injections. The new sensor was utilised for ALA quantification in a dietary pharmaceutical supplement and in synthetic urine and the results obtained for both samples were compared with parallel analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the method recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia. The results obtained were similar (at a 95% confidence level) and in the case of the synthetic urine sample (prepared with a known amount of ALA) the recovery was situated between 98.0% and 102.6%. PMID:27154671

  15. Treatment of glabella skin necrosis following injection of hyaluronic acid filler using platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Kang, In Jung; Jeong, Ki Heon; Shin, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. However, there can be various complications following HA filler injection. Skin necrosis is rare but one of the most disastrous side effects that, if not treated promptly and effectively, can result in permanent and potentially disfiguring scarring. Thus, early proper management is important. Herein we report a patient who experienced tissue necrosis of the glabellar area after receiving filler injections that was successfully treated using platelet-rich plasma and provide full follow-up clinical photographs. PMID:26052808

  16. Uncertainty quantification for the impact of injection rate fluctuation on the geomechanical response of geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Chu, Yanjun; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Fang, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the geomechanical effects of injection rate fluctuations for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Initially, we present analytical solutions for the effects of injection rate fluctuations on CO2 fluid pressure spatial distribution and temporal evolution for a typical injection scenario. Numerical calculations are performed using a finite element method to investigate the effects of injection rate fluctuations on geomechanical deformation, stresses, and potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. The numerical method was first validated by the fluid pressure distribution’s good agreement with the analytical solution. It was shown that for any Gaussian fluctuations of injection rate Q with given mean Q and variance ε_Q, the coefficients of variance for fluid pressure (ϵ_p=ε_p ), deformation (ϵ_u=ε_u ), and stresses (ϵ_σ=ε_σ ) increase linearly with the coefficient of variance for injection rate (ϵ_Q=ε_Q ). The proportional constants are identified, and the fluctuations have the most pronounced effect on the geomechanical stresses, and, therefore, on the potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. Instead of expensive computational simulation, this study provides an efficient tool to estimate the geomechanical response variance to injection rate fluctuation. A failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where probability of failure was estimated for fluctuating injection rates with different mean and variance during the entire injection period. It was found that with increasing injection rate fluctuation, the failure probability increases significantly. Therefore, the risk associated with injection rate fluctuations should be carefully evaluated.

  17. Treatment of the aged hand with injectable poly-l-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta I; Cardona, Lina M; Pinzon-Plazas, Mariana

    2010-12-01

    We report the use of injectable poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) for volume restoration in a 45-year-old white female who was concerned about the appearance of her hands. The patient expressed a desire for long-term restoration, and selected injectable PLLA because of its known 2-year duration of effect, although she was informed that injectable PLLA is not FDA-approved for use in the hands. After reconstitution with 8 ml of diluent plus lidocaine, 0.1-0.2-ml aliquots of injectable PLLA were injected into selected sites, up to 5 ml per hand. The patient underwent three identical treatments, followed by postinjection use of moisturizing cream and massage; improvement in appearance was noted by the patient between the second and third treatments. Correction was maintained for at least 18 months, with no adverse events. We have also briefly reviewed the literature on the use of injectable PLLA for volume restoration in the hand. PMID:21142738

  18. Strong Asymmetric Coupling of Two Parallel Exclusion Processes: Effect of Unequal Injection Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Song; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Yanna

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, strong asymmetric coupling of two parallel exclusion processes: effect of unequal injection rates will be investigated. It is a generalization of the work of Xiao et al. (Phys. Lett. A 8, 374 (2009)), in which the particles only move on two lanes with rate 1 toward right. We can obtain the diverse phase diagram and density profiles of the system. The vertical cluster mean-field approach and extensively Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the system, and theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with simulation results.

  19. Removal rate of ( sup 3 H)hyaluronan injected subcutaneously in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.K.; Laurent, U.B.; Fraser, J.R.; Laurent, T.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Hyaluronan is an important constituent of the extracellular matrix in skin, and recent studies suggest that there is a pool of easily removable (free) hyaluronan drained by lymph. The removal rate of free hyaluronan in skin was measured from the elimination of ({sup 3}H)hyaluronan, injected subcutaneously in 13 rabbits. The removal of radioactivity was determined from appearance of {sup 3}H in plasma. During the first 24 h after injection, 10-87% of the tracer entered blood, less in injectates with high concentrations of hyaluronan. The removal was monoexponential with a half-life of 0.5-1 day when concentration of hyaluronan was 5 mg/ml or less. When hyaluronan concentration was 10 mg/ml or higher, the removal was slow for about 24 h and then became similar to that in experiments with low hyaluronan concentration. Free hyaluronan at physiological concentrations is thus turned over with the same rate as serum albumin, supporting the concept that hyaluronan is removed essentially by lymph flow to be degraded in lymph nodes and liver.

  20. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    PubMed

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study suggested the influence factors of adverse reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication. PMID:27245021

  1. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Injection of Hyaluronic Acid to Better Preserve The Rectal Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Udrescu, Corina; Devonec, Marian; Tanguy, Ronan; Sotton, Marie-Pierre; Enachescu, Ciprian; Colombel, Marc; Azria, David; Jalade, Patrice; Ruffion, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) between the rectum and the prostate for reducing the dose to the rectal wall in a hypofractionated irradiation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In a phase 2 study, 10 cc of HA was injected between the rectum and prostate. For 16 patients, the same intensity modulated radiation therapy plan (62 Gy in 20 fractions) was optimized on 2 computed tomography scans: CT1 (before injection) and CT2 (after injection). Rectal parameters were compared: dose to 2.5 cc (D2.5), 5 cc (D5), 10 cc (D10), 15 cc (D15), and 20 cc (D20) of rectal wall and volume of rectum covered by the 90% isodose line (V90), 80% (V80), 70% (V70), 60% (V60), and 50% (V50). Results: The mean V90, V80, V70, V60, and V50 values were reduced by 73.8% (P<.0001), 55.7% (P=.0003), 43.0% (P=.007), 34% (P=.002), and 25% (P=.036), respectively. The average values of D2.5, D5, D10, D15, and D20 were reduced by 8.5 Gy (P<.0001), 12.3 Gy (P<.0001), 8.4 Gy (P=.005), 3.7 Gy (P=.026), and 1.2 Gy (P=.25), respectively. Conclusions: The injection of HA significantly limited radiation doses to the rectal wall.

  2. The effectiveness of hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Anand, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and progressive joint disease. Treatment options for knee OA vary from simple analgesia in mild cases to knee replacement for advanced disease. Knee pain due to moderate OA can be targeted with intra-articular injections. Steroid injections have been used widely in managing acute flare-ups of the disease. In recent years, viscosupplementation has been used as a therapeutic modality for the management of knee OA. The principle of viscosupplementation is based on the physiological properties of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint. Despite a sound principle and promising in vitro studies, clinical studies have been less conclusive on the effectiveness of HA in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE®, Embase™ and CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The databases were searched for randomised controlled trials available on the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. Results The search yielded 188 studies. Of these, 14 met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed in chronological order. Conclusions HA intra-articular injections have a modest effect on early to moderate knee OA. The effect peaks at around 6–8 weeks following administration, with a doubtful effect at 6 months. PMID:24165334

  3. Amino acid metabolism in leg muscle after an endotoxin injection in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vesali, Rokhsareh F; Klaude, Maria; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2005-02-01

    Decreased plasma amino acid concentrations and increased net release of amino acids from skeletal muscle, especially for glutamine, are common features in critically ill patients. A low dose of endotoxin administered to healthy volunteers was used as a human model for the initial phase of sepsis to study the early metabolic response to sepsis. Six healthy male volunteers were studied in the postabsorptive state. Blood samples from the forearm artery and femoral vein were taken during 4 h before and 4 h after an intravenous endotoxin injection (4 ng/kg body wt). In addition, muscle biopsies from the leg muscle were taken. Plasma concentration of the total sum of amino acids decreased by 19% (P = 0.001) and of glutamine by 25% (P = 0.004) the 3rd h after endotoxin administration. At the same time, muscle concentrations of the sum of amino acids and glutamine decreased by 11% (P = 0.05) and 9% (P = 0.09), respectively. In parallel, the efflux from the leg increased by 35% (P = 0.004) for the total sum of amino acids and by 43% (P = 0.05) for glutamine. In conclusion, intravenous endotoxin administration to healthy volunteers, used as a model for the initial phase of sepsis, resulted in a decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations. At the same time, amino acid concentrations in muscle tissue decreased, whereas the efflux of amino acids from leg skeletal muscle increased. PMID:15367399

  4. Fabrication of calcium phosphate–calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Van Viet

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4·2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C. PMID:20333539

  5. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Thai, Van Viet; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C. PMID:20333539

  6. Intracerebroventricular injection of murine leptin enhances the postprandial metabolic rate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, M; Nicolaidis, S

    2000-08-18

    Energy balance is achieved by means of a concomitant control of both food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin, synthesized in the adipose tissue, acts on brain structures and lowers body weight by inhibiting food intake and in parallel by enhancing energy expenditure i.e. metabolism or one of its components. Recording distinctly these components allowed us to assess the effect of an acute intracerebroventricular injection of leptin on both feeding pattern and background metabolism (i.e. energy expenditure free from the part of locomotor activity), respiratory quotient, feeding-related metabolism and locomotor activity-related metabolism. Leptin injection to Sprague-Dawley male rats induced an inhibition of feeding that began 90 min after the treatment and lasted 1 h before to return to the control feeding pattern level. Considering this late behavioral effect, it appeared that leptin may act during the postprandial period so that we recorded the different metabolic parameters following a 3 g calibrated meal itself preceded by leptin vs. artificial cerebrospinal fluid injection. Postprandial respiratory quotient was rapidly lowered in leptin-treated animals and subsequent background metabolism increased for 6 h. Thus it appeared that leptin increased the duration of the postprandial metabolic rate via the recruitment of endogenous fat stores. Enhancement in the thermic effect of food may be the reason for feeding behavior inhibition to be delayed. PMID:10936221

  7. Heart Rate Detection During Sleep Using a Flexible RF Resonator and Injection-Locked PLL Sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Woo; Choi, Soo Beom; An, Yong-Jun; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Deok Won; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2015-11-01

    Novel nonintrusive technologies for wrist pulse detection have been developed and proposed as systems for sleep monitoring using three types of radio frequency (RF) sensors. The three types of RF sensors for heart rate measurement on wrist are a flexible RF single resonator, array resonators, and an injection-locked PLL resonator sensor. To verify the performance of the new RF systems, we compared heart rates between presleep time and postsleep onset time. Heart rates of ten subjects were measured using the RF systems during sleep. All three RF devices detected heart rates at 0.2 to 1 mm distance from the skin of the wrist over clothes made of cotton fabric. The wrist pulse signals of a flexible RF single resonator were consistent with the signals obtained by a portable piezoelectric transducer as a reference. Then, we confirmed that the heart rate after sleep onset time significantly decreased compared to before sleep. In conclusion, the RF system can be utilized as a noncontact nonintrusive method for measuring heart rates during sleep. PMID:26057527

  8. Degradation rates of glycerol polyesters at acidic and basic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyesters prepared from glycerol with mixtures of adipic and citric acids were evaluated in the laboratory to estimate degradation rates over a range of pH conditions. These renewable polymers provide a market for glycerol that is generated during biodiesel production. The polyesters were prepared...

  9. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil; Nazli Demiroren

    2005-05-31

    This report details progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project is to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Jensen et al. (2005) and Yousef et al. (2005), and herein referred to as the ''capacitance model'', produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. We have focused on the following items: (1) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (2) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the capacitance model and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Initial tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (3) Spectral analysis of injection and production data to estimate interwell connectivity and to assess the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. Development of methods and analysis are ongoing. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of the capacitance method. These methods include revising the solution method to simultaneously estimate {lambda} and {tau} for each well pair. This approach allows for further constraints to be imposed during the computation, such as limiting {tau} to a range of values defined by the sampling interval and duration of the field data. This work is proceeding. Further work on this project includes the following: (1) Refinement and testing of the waterflood

  10. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  11. Constant Rate or Stepwise Injection of Cold Fluid into a Geologic Formation: A Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Operations such as CO2 geologic storage, enhanced geothermal systems, and wastewater injection are rendering fluid injection as important as fluid extraction. In particular, injecting fluid colder than the original fluid causes thermal contraction and ensuing decreases in stresses, which yield an effect opposite of what volume expansion driven by the fluid injection imposes. In this study, we conduct numerical simulations to investigate pore-pressure buildup, thermal diffusion, and stress changes for two conditions: (1) constant rate, and (2) stepwise injection of cold fluid. The numerical-simulation method—which combines fluid flow, poroelasticity, thermal diffusion, and thermal stress—is based on the single-phase flow condition to simplify a computation model and thus facilitate a focus on mechanical responses. We also examine temporal evolutions of stress states and mobilized friction angles across base, injection-zone, and caprock layers for two different stress regimes: normal-faulting and reverse-faulting. Under the normal-faulting stress regime, the maximum mobilized friction angle occurs inside of the injection zone, which may act to improve the stability of the caprock. Special attention is required, however, because the location of the maximum mobilized friction angle is close to interfaces with the caprock and base layers. The hypothetical stepwise injection of cold fluid is shown to improve the stability of the injection zone to some extent. Under the reverse-faulting stress regime, the maximum mobilized friction angle occurs near the middle of the injection zone; stability in the injection zone is enhanced while that in the caprock/base is aggravated with time. The hypothetical stepwise injection not only helps improve the stability of the injection zone but also delays the moment when the maximum friction angle is mobilized. Finally, we suggest using dimensionless parameters to determine a prevalence of the thermal-stress effect in the injection

  12. CO2 storage in heterogeneous aquifer: A study on the effect of injection rate and CaCO3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, A.; Rezaee, R.; Bing, C. H.; Gholami, R.; Nagarajan, R.; Hamid, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Trapping mechanisms taken place during and after CO2 injection in a geologic storage medium are impacted by a number of parameters including injection rates together with rock and pore fluid compositions. There have been many studies on the factors controlling the capillary trapping and injectivity of CO2 storage sites. However, there are only few works carried out discussing on the effect of flow rate and rock and fluids compositions in controlling the trapping mechanisms. In this paper a CO2 storage site located in a heterogeneous aquifer is simulated to investigate the efficiency of structural, capillary and dissolution trappings as a function of injection rate and concentration of calcium carbonate. The results obtained from numerical analysis indicated that CO2 injection must be made within an optimum injection rate for having an effective storage in place. It was also found that concentration of CaCO3 is an important parameter to consider during the analysis as it drastically controls the fate of trapping mechanisms at high injection rates.

  13. Injecting drug users in Scotland, 2006: Listing, number, demography, and opiate-related death-rates.

    PubMed

    King, Ruth; Bird, Sheila M; Overstall, Antony; Hay, Gordon; Hutchinson, Sharon J

    2013-06-01

    Using Bayesian capture-recapture analysis, we estimated the number of current injecting drug users (IDUs) in Scotland in 2006 from the cross-counts of 5670 IDUs listed on four data-sources: social enquiry reports (901 IDUs listed), hospital records (953), drug treatment agencies (3504), and recent Hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnoses (827 listed as IDU-risk). Further, we accessed exact numbers of opiate-related drugs-related deaths (DRDs) in 2006 and 2007 to improve estimation of Scotland's DRD rates per 100 current IDUs. Using all four data-sources, and model-averaging of standard hierarchical log-linear models to allow for pairwise interactions between data-sources and/or demographic classifications, Scotland had an estimated 31700 IDUs in 2006 (95% credible interval: 24900-38700); but 25000 IDUs (95% CI: 20700-35000) by excluding recent HCV diagnoses whose IDU-risk can refer to past injecting. Only in the younger age-group (15-34 years) were Scotland's opiate-related DRD rates significantly lower for females than males. Older males' opiate-related DRD rate was 1.9 (1.24-2.40) per 100 current IDUs without or 1.3 (0.94-1.64) with inclusion of recent HCV diagnoses. If, indeed, Scotland had only 25000 current IDUs in 2006, with only 8200 of them aged 35+ years, the opiate-related DRD rate is higher among this older age group than has been appreciated hitherto. There is counter-balancing good news for the public health: the hitherto sharp increase in older current IDUs had stalled by 2006. PMID:23730265

  14. Esophageal Submucosal Injection of Capsaicin but Not Acid Induces Symptoms in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert H; Korsapati, Hariprasad; Bhalla, Vikas; Varki, Nissi; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is a candidate for mediating acid-induced symptoms in the esophagus. We conducted studies to determine if the presence of acid in the mucosa/submucosa and direct activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin elicited symptoms in normal healthy subjects. We also studied the presence of TRPV1 receptors in the esophagus. Methods Unsedated endoscopy was performed on healthy subjects with no symptoms. Using a sclerotherapy needle, normal saline (pH 2.0–7.5) was injected into the mucosa/submucosa, 5 cm above the Z line. In a separate group of healthy subjects, injection of capsaicin and vehicle was also studied. Quality of symptoms was reported using the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and symptom intensity using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry was performed on 8 surgical esophagus specimens using TRPV1 antibody. Results Acid injection either did not elicit or elicited mild symptoms in subjects at all pH solutions. Capsaicin but not the vehicle elicited severe heartburn/chest pain in all subjects. Mean VAS for capsaicin was 91 ± 3 and symptoms lasted for 25 ± 1 minutes. Immunohistochemistry revealed a linear TRPV1 staining pattern between the epithelial layer and the submucosa that extended into the papillae. Eighty-five percent of papillae stained positive for TRPV1 with a mean 1.1 positive papillae per high-powered field. Conclusions The mechanism of acid-induced heartburn and chest pain is not the simple interaction of hydrogen ions with afferents located in the esophageal mucosa and submucosa. TRPV1 receptors are present in the lamina propria and their activation induces heartburn and chest pain. PMID:26932896

  15. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed. PMID:26960615

  16. In situ injection of phenylboronic acid based low molecular weight gels for efficient chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenxia; Liang, Yan; Peng, Xinyu; Hu, Yalong; Zhang, Longgui; Wu, Huayue; He, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Injectable low molecular weight gels (LMWGs) based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid were prepared and used as substrates for efficient in situ chemotherapy. The gelators as well as LMWGs were characterized by (1)H NMR, UV-vis, FTIR, MS and SEM. Anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was encapsulated in the gels. The rheological properties and rapid recovery capability of both blank and drug-loaded gels were tested. The LMWGs were non-toxic to both 3T3 fibroblasts and 4T1 breast cancer cells. The gels were formed rapidly after injected in vivo. The in vivo anticancer activities of DOX-loaded LMWGs were investigated in breast cancer bearing mice. The intratumoral injection of DOX loaded LMWGs with dose of 30 mg/kg revealed that the gels could coat around the tumor tissues to release DOX sustainingly and maintain effective DOX concentration for chemotherapy. The systemic toxicity of DOX was reduced significantly with the in situ administration of LMWGs formulations. The injectable LMWGs exhibited excellent therapeutic efficacy and low side effects in local chemotherapy. PMID:27497056

  17. Stimulation of water injection wells, in the Los Angeles basin by using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Aseltine, R.J.; Patterson, D.E.; Young, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage of 0 to 30% to 85 to 95% after stimulation.

  18. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection: a single-centre, 7-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Biočíc, Mihovil; Todoríc, Jakov; Budimir, Dražen; Roíc, Andrea Cvitkovíc; Pogorelíc, Zenon; Juríc, Ivo; Šušnjar, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of medical intervention in patients with vesicoureteral reflux are to allow normal renal growth, prevent infections and pyelonephritis, and prevent renal failure. We present our experience with endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children by subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Methods Under cystoscopic guidance, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer underneath the intravesical portion of the ureter in a subureteral or submucosal location was injected in patients undergoing endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Results A total of 282 patients (120 boys and 162 girls) underwent the procedure. There were 396 refluxed ureters altogether. The mean age of patients was 4.9 years. The mean overall follow-up period was 44 months. Among the 396 ureters treated, 76% were cured with a single injection. A second and third injection raised the cure rate to 93% and 94%, respectively. Twenty-two (6%) ureters failed all 3 injections, and were converted to open surgery. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux can be recommended as a first-line therapy for most cases of vesicoureteral reflux, because of the short hospital stay, absence of complications and the high success rate. PMID:22854114

  19. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of lidocaine in kainic acid-injected rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan Ming; Lu, Cheng Wei; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lin, Tzu Yu; Wang, Su Jane

    2016-05-01

    Lidocaine, the most commonly used local anesthetic, inhibits glutamate release from nerve terminals. Given the involvement of glutamate neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, this study investigated the role of lidocaine in hippocampal neuronal death and inflammatory events induced by an i.p. injection of kainic acid (KA) (15 mg/kg), a glutamate analog. The results showed that KA significantly led to neuronal death in the CA3 pyramidal layers of the hippocampus and this effect was attenuated by the systemic administration of lidocaine (0.8 or 4 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before KA injection. Moreover, KA-induced microglia activation and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, namely, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the hippocampus were reduced by the lidocaine pretreatment. Altogether, the results suggest that lidocaine can effectively treat glutamate excitotoxicity-related brain disorders. PMID:26999361

  20. Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux by Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Timothy W; Lacy, John M; Preston, David M

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented for evaluation after discovery of a left bladder-wall tumor. He underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) operation for treatment of low-grade, Ta urothelial cancer of the bladder. The patient developed recurrent disease and returned to the operating room for repeat TURBT, circumcision, and administration of intravesical mitomycin C. The patient developed balanitis xerotica obliterans 4 years post-circumcision, requiring self-dilation with a catheter. He subsequently developed 3 consecutive episodes of left-sided pyelonephritis. Further investigation with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) revealed Grade 3, left-sided vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Due to existing comorbidities, the patient elected treatment with endoscopic dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection. A post-operative VCUG demonstrated complete resolution of left-sided VUR. This patient has remained symptom free for 8 months post-injection, with no episodes of pyelonephritis. PMID:27162514

  1. Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux by Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid in Adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timothy W; Lacy, John M; Preston, David M

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented for evaluation after discovery of a left bladder-wall tumor. He underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) operation for treatment of low-grade, Ta urothelial cancer of the bladder. The patient developed recurrent disease and returned to the operating room for repeat TURBT, circumcision, and administration of intravesical mitomycin C. The patient developed balanitis xerotica obliterans 4 years post-circumcision, requiring self-dilation with a catheter. He subsequently developed 3 consecutive episodes of left-sided pyelonephritis. Further investigation with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) revealed Grade 3, left-sided vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Due to existing comorbidities, the patient elected treatment with endoscopic dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection. A post-operative VCUG demonstrated complete resolution of left-sided VUR. This patient has remained symptom free for 8 months post-injection, with no episodes of pyelonephritis. PMID:27162514

  2. Effect of intraperitoneal administered ginseng total saponins on hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Joong; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Geun Joo; Shin, Hwa Yong; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Choel; Kim, Su Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hyuk

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antinociceptive activity of ginseng total saponins (GTS) on hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline in rats and to examine the mechanisms involved. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with a 0.9% saline vehicle or various doses of GTS after the development of hyperalgesia. Rats were then injected with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or naloxone 10 min before GTS injection. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments. The MWT was significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of GTS when compared with the MWT after the development of hyperalgesia. Injection of GTS with NMDA showed a significant decrease in the MWT when compared with GTS injection. GTS showed an antinociceptive activity against chronic muscle-induced pain, and the effect of GTS may be mediated by NMDA. PMID:24853193

  3. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Dan Weber; Ximing Liang; T.F. Edgar; Nazli Demiroren; Danial Kaviani

    2007-03-31

    This report details progress and results on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project was to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Yousef and others (2006a,b), and herein referred to as the 'capacitance model', is the primary product of this research project. The capacitance model (CM) produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. For the CM, we have focused on the following items: (1) Methods to estimate {lambda} and {tau} from simulated and field well rates. The original method uses both non-linear and linear regression and lacks the ability to include constraints on {lambda} and {tau}. The revised method uses only non-linear regression, permitting constraints to be included as well as accelerating the solution so that problems with large numbers of wells are more tractable. (2) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (3) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the CM and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of {lambda} and {tau} estimates. Human interventions, such as workovers, also cause rate fluctuations and can be misinterpreted by the model if bottom hole pressure data are not available. A revised

  4. Use of Follicular Output Rate to Predict Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Mustafa, Rozina; Baig, Mukhtiar; Arif, Sara; Hashmi, Muhammad Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background The measurement of follicular output rate (FORT) has been proposed as a good indicator for evaluating follicular response to the exogenous recombinant folliclestimulating hormone (rFSH). This places FORT as a promising qualitative marker for ovarian function. The objective of the study was to determine FORT as a predictor of oocyte competence, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out on a group of infer- tile females (n=282) at Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples, Islamabad, Pakistan, from June 2010 till August 2013. Downregulated females were stimulated in injection gonadotropins and on ovulation induction day, pre-ovulatory follicle count (PFC) was determined using transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVUS), and FORT was determined as a ratio of PFC to antral follicle count (AFC)×100. Group I consisted of females with a negative pregnancy test, while group II had a positive pregnancy test that was confirmed with the appearance of fetal cardiac activity. Linear regression analyses of categorical variables of clinical pregnancy along with other independent variables, including FORT, were performed using SPSS version 15.0. Results Pregnancy occurred in 101/282 women who were tested, recording a clinical pregnancy rate of about 35.8%. FORT values were higher in group II as compared to group I females (P=0.0001). In multiple regression analysis, 97.7, 87.1, 78.2, and 83.4% variations were explained based on the number of retrieved oocytes per patients, number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, number of fertilized oocytes, and number of cleaved embryos, respectively, indicating FORT as an independent predictor. Conclusion FORT is a predictor of oocyte competence in terms of a number of retrieved, mature and fertilized oocytes. It also gives information about the number of cleaved embryos and clinical pregnancy rate. PMID:27441049

  5. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J.; Keimowitz, Alison R.; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949–1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m2) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale. PMID:25598701

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Colloid Dispersion as a Function of Groundwater Injection Rate within Atlantic Coastal Plain Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, J.C., P.M. Bertsch and D.I. Kaplan

    2007-01-01

    A subsurface injection experiment was conducted on the USDOE's Savannah River Site (SRS) to determine the influence of pump-and-treat remediation activities on the generation and transport of groundwater colloids. The impact of colloid generation on formation permeability at injection rates ranging from 19 to 132 L min{sup -1} was monitored using a set of six sampling wells radially spaced at approximate distances of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.5 m from a central injection well. Each sampling well was further divided into three discrete sampling depths that were pumped continuously at a rate of {approx}0.1 L min{sup -1} throughout the course of the injection experiment. Discrete samples were collected for turbidity and chemical analysis. Turbidity varied greatly between sampling wells and zones within a given well, ranging from <1 to 740 NTU. The two sampling wells closest to the injection well displayed the greatest response in terms of turbidity to increases in injection rate. Transient spikes in turbidity generally corresponded to incremental increases in the injection rate that were followed by a decrease in turbidity to a stable injection rate-dependent level. Mineralogical analysis of the resulting suspensions confirmed the presence of kaolinite, goethite, and to a much lesser degree, quartz and illite, with many of the particles too large (>1 {micro}m) to be readily mobile within the formation. Turbidity measurements taken during this study indicate that colloid mobilization induced by water injection was both spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Furthermore, colloid release did not follow simple predictions based on shear force, presumably due to the complexities encountered in real heterogeneous systems. These findings have important implications to our understanding of how colloids and the co-contaminants are mobilized in the subsurface environment, as well as for the development of monitoring practices that minimize the creation of colloidal artifacts. Technical

  7. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler.

    PubMed

    Moon, Du Geon; Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-08-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  8. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-01-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  9. HIV Prevalence Rates among Injection Drug Users in 96 Large US Metropolitan Areas, 1992–2002

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Spencer; Cleland, Charles M.; Cooper, Hannah; Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2008-01-01

    This research presents estimates of HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users (IDUs) in large US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during 1992–2002. Trend data on HIV prevalence rates in geographic areas over time are important for research on determinants of changes in HIV among IDUs. Such data also provide a foundation for the design and implementation of structural interventions for preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs. Our estimates of HIV prevalence rates among IDUs in 96 US MSAs during 1992–2002 are derived from four independent sets of data: (1) research-based HIV prevalence rate estimates; (2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing data (CDC CTS); (3) data on the number of people living with AIDS compiled by the CDC (PLWAs); and (4) estimates of HIV prevalence in the US. From these, we calculated two independent sets of estimates: (1) calculating CTS-based Method (CBM) using regression adjustments to CDC CTS; and (2) calculating the PLWA-based Method (PBM) by taking the ratio of the number of injectors living with HIV to the numbers of injectors living in the MSA. We take the mean of CBM and PBM to calculate over all HIV prevalence rates for 1992–2002. We evaluated trends in IDU HIV prevalence rates by calculating estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) for each MSA. During 1992–2002, HIV prevalence rates declined in 85 (88.5%) of the 96 MSAs, with EAPCs ranging from −12.9% to −2.1% (mean EAPC = −6.5%; p < 0.01). Across the 96 MSAs, collectively, the annual mean HIV prevalence rate declined from 11.2% in 1992 to 6.2 in 2002 (EAPC, −6.4%; p < 0.01). Similarly, the median HIV prevalence rate declined from 8.1% to 4.4% (EAPC, −6.5%; p < 0.01). The maximum HIV prevalence rate across the 11 years declined from 43.5% to 22.8% (EAPC, −6.7%; p < 0.01). Declining HIV prevalence rates may reflect high continuing mortality among infected IDUs, as well as primary HIV

  10. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect

    Refunjol, B.T.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  11. Efficacy of methylprednisolone sodium succinate for injection (postotic injection) on the auditory threshold and speech recognition rate of sudden deafness patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Da-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of injecting the methylprednisolone in the ear for the sudden deafness and the improvement of speech discrimination test. Methods: 50 inpatients with a sudden hearing loss were recruited. Inject the methylprednisolone in the subperiosteal of the ear which is 0.5 cm distance to the ear ditch every three days. Methylprednisolone was placed for fifteen days. Simultaneously vasodilation, neurotrophic, thrombolysis and insulin hypoglycemia were administered in all patients. Pure tone test and speech discrimination test were conducted at Days 7 & 14 after intervention. Results: The outcome was as follows: cure (n = 8), efficacy (n = 9), effect (n = 18) and no effect (n = 15) respectively. The overall effective rate of 70%. The improvement of pure tone threshold and speech discrimination had significant statistical difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The therapy of postaural methylprednisolone injection can decrease pure tone threshold effectively and increased speech discrimination with a sudden hearing loss. PMID:26550378

  12. Regression rate study of porous axial-injection, endburning hybrid fuel grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Matthew A.

    This experimental and theoretical work examines the effects of gaseous oxidizer flow rates and pressure on the regression rates of porous fuels for hybrid rocket applications. Testing was conducted using polyethylene as the porous fuel and both gaseous oxygen and nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Nominal test articles were tested using 200, 100, 50, and 15 micron fuel pore sizes. Pressures tested ranged from atmospheric to 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 207 kPa to 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests, and oxidizer injection velocities ranged from 35 m/s to 80 m/s for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 7.5 m/s to 16.8 m/s for the nitrous oxide tests. Regression rates were determined using pretest and posttest length measurements of the solid fuel. Experimental results demonstrated that the regression rate of the porous axial-injection, end-burning hybrid was a function of the chamber pressure, as opposed to the oxidizer mass flux typical in conventional hybrids. Regression rates ranged from approximately 0.75 mm/s at atmospheric pressure to 8.89 mm/s at 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and 0.21 mm/s at 207 kPa to 1.44 mm/s at 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests. The analytical model was developed based on a standard ablative model modified to include oxidizer flow through the grain. The heat transfer from the flame was primarily modeled using an empirically determined flame coefficient that included all heat transfer mechanisms in one term. An exploratory flame model based on the Granular Diffusion Flame model used for solid rocket motors was also adapted for comparison with the empirical flame coefficient. This model was then evaluated quantitatively using the experimental results of the gaseous oxygen tests as well as qualitatively using the experimental results of the nitrous oxide tests. The model showed agreement with the experimental results indicating it has potential for giving insight into the flame structure in this motor configuration

  13. INTERWELL CONNECTIVITY AND DIAGNOSIS USING CORRELATION OF PRODUCTION AND INJECTION RATE DATA IN HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Thang D. Bui; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil

    2004-08-01

    This report details much of the progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. The goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of inferring reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. We have focused on and accomplished the following items: (1) We have identified two possible causes for the source of negative weights. These are colinearity between injectors, and nonstationarity of be production data. (2) Colinearity has been addressed through ridge regression. Though there is much to be done here, such regression represents a trade-off between a minimum variance estimator and a biased estimator. (3) We have applied the ridge regression and the original Albertoni procedure to field data from the Magnus field. (4) The entire procedure (with several options) has been codified as a spreadsheet add-in. (5) Finally, we have begun, and report on, an extension of the method to predicting oil rates. Successful completion of these items will constitute the bulk of the final year's report.

  14. Foam injection molding of poly(lactic acid) with physical blowing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantani, R.; Sorrentino, A.; Volpe, V.; Titomanlio, G.

    2014-05-01

    Foam injection molding uses environmental friendly blowing agents under high pressure and temperature to produce parts having a cellular core and a compact solid skin (the so-called "structural foam"). The addition of a supercritical gas reduces the part weight and at the same time improves some physical properties of the material through the promotion of a faster crystallization; it also leads to the reduction of both the viscosity and the glass transition temperature of the polymer melt, which therefore can be injection molded adopting lower temperatures and pressures. These aspects are of extreme interest for biodegradable polymers, which often present a very narrow processing window, with the suitable processing temperatures close to the degradation conditions. In this work, foam injection molding was carried out by an instrumented molding machine, able to measure the pressure evolution in different positions along the flow-path. The material adopted was a biodegradable polymer, namely the Poly(lactic acid), PLA. The effect of a physical blowing agent (PBA) on the viscosity was measured. The density reduction and the morphology of parts obtained by different molding conditions was assessed.

  15. Injectable Hyaluronic Acid-Dextran Hydrogels and Effects of Implantation in Ferret Vocal Fold

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ying; Kobler, James B.; Heaton, James T.; Jia, Xinqiao; Zeitels, Steven M.; Langer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels may potentially be used for augmentation/regeneration of the lamina propria of vocal fold tissue. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) and dextran were chemically modified and subsequently crosslinked via formation of hydrazone bonds in phosphate buffer. Swelling ratios, degradation, and compressive moduli of the resulting hydrogels were investigated. It was found that the properties of HA-dextran hydrogels were variable and the trend of variation could be correlated with the hydrogel composition. The biocompatibility of three injectable HA-dextran hydrogels with different crosslinking density was assessed in the vocal fold region using a ferret model. It was found that HA-dextran hydrogels implanted for three weeks stimulated mild foreign-body reactions. Distinct tissue-material interactions were also observed for hydrogels made from different formulations: the hydrogel 7with the lowest crosslinking density was completely degraded in vivo; while material residues were visible for other types of hydrogel injections, with or without cell penetration into the implantation depending on the hydrogel composition. The in vivo results suggest that the HA-dextran hydrogel matrices can be further developed for applications of vocal fold tissue restoration. PMID:20151459

  16. Injectable hyaluronic acid-dextran hydrogels and effects of implantation in ferret vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Kobler, James B; Heaton, James T; Jia, Xinqiao; Zeitels, Steven M; Langer, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Injectable hydrogels may potentially be used for augmentation/regeneration of the lamina propria of vocal fold tissue. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) and dextran were chemically modified and subsequently crosslinked via formation of hydrazone bonds in phosphate buffer. Swelling ratios, degradation, and compressive moduli of the resulting hydrogels were investigated. It was found that the properties of HA-dextran hydrogels were variable and the trend of variation could be correlated with the hydrogel composition. The biocompatibility of three injectable HA-dextran hydrogels with different crosslinking density was assessed in the vocal fold region using a ferret model. It was found that HA-dextran hydrogels implanted for three weeks stimulated mild foreign-body reactions. Distinct tissue-material interactions were also observed for hydrogels made from different formulations: the hydrogel with the lowest crosslinking density was completely degraded in vivo; while material residues were visible for other types of hydrogel injections, with or without cell penetration into the implantation depending on the hydrogel composition. The in vivo results suggest that the HA-dextran hydrogel matrices can be further developed for applications of vocal fold tissue restoration. PMID:20151459

  17. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  18. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  19. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  20. Development of Injectable Hyaluronic Acid/Cellulose Nanocrystals Bionanocomposite Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Rui M A; Silva, Marta; Gershovich, Pavel; Betta, Sefano; Babo, Pedro; Caridade, Sofia G; Mano, João F; Motta, Antonella; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2015-08-19

    Injectable hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels compose a promising class of materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. However, their limited mechanical properties restrict the potential range of application. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were employed as nanofillers in a fully biobased strategy for the production of reinforced HA nanocomposite hydrogels. Herein we report the development of a new class of injectable hydrogels composed of adipic acid dihydrazide-modified HA (ADH-HA) and aldehyde-modified HA (a-HA) reinforced with varying contents of aldehyde-modified CNCs (a-CNCs). The obtained hydrogels were characterized in terms of internal morphology, mechanical properties, swelling, and degradation behavior in the presence of hyaluronidase. Our findings suggest that the incorporation of a-CNCs in the hydrogel resulted in a more organized and compact network structure and led to stiffer hydrogels (maximum storage modulus, E', of 152.4 kPa for 0.25 wt % a-CNCs content) with improvements of E' up to 135% in comparison to unfilled hydrogels. In general, increased amounts of a-CNCs led to lower equilibrium swelling ratios and higher resistance to degradation. The biological performance of the developed nanocomposites was assessed toward human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs). HA-CNCs nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited preferential cell supportive properties in in vitro culture conditions due to higher structural integrity and potential interaction of microenvironmental cues with CNC's sulfate groups. hASCs encapsulated in HA-CNCs hydrogels demonstrated the ability to spread within the volume of gels and exhibited pronounced proliferative activity. Together, these results demonstrate that the proposed strategy is a valuable toolbox for fine-tuning the structural, biomechanical, and biochemical properties of injectable HA hydrogels, expanding their potential range of application in the biomedical field. PMID:26106949

  1. Kinetic flow-injection analysis of boron using 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde and H-acid.

    PubMed

    Sarenqiqige; Kodani, Takamasa; Kajiwara, Mari; Takehara, Kô; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Boric acid reacts with 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde (F-SA) and 8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid (HA) to form the boric acid-fluoroazomethine H complex (F-AzB) that is now being used for the flow-injection analysis (FIA) of boric acid. At pH 6.5, the F-AzB complexation proceeded fairly fast, whereas the fluoroazomethine H (F-AzH) formation was slow. Thus, highly sensitive measurement of F-AzB was possible if the reaction time was controlled using the FIA method to decrease the background absorbance of F-AzH at the analytical wavelength. The optimum conditions for the color developing reaction were investigated for single and dual channel systems. The former system was simple, applicable to the determination of boron in reversed osmosis (RO) desalination water with a detection limit (LOD) of 4 μg B dm(-3). For the latter system, the calibration range was 0.005 to 10 mg B dm(-3) with an LOD of 1 μg B dm(-3), which can be applicable to natural water analyses of boron. These methods could analyze 15 - 20 samples in one hour. The results of the boron concentration measurement for water samples from an RO desalination plant, industrial wastewater and river water were in fairly good agreement with those obtained by other methods. PMID:25213816

  2. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  3. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  4. Episodic barrel rotations induced by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid in rats. Inhibition by anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Marrannes, R; Wauquier, A

    1988-09-01

    Unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2,3 pyridine dicarboxylate; QUIN) in the rat produces episodic barrel rotations and tonic-clonic forepaw movements, lasting for several hours. We investigated whether intraperitoneal posttreatment with anticonvulsants could abolish this phenomenon when it is already fully developed, and whether their potency ratio was similar in models of epilepsy. All 8 tested antiepileptics, namely carbamazepine, clonazepam, diazepam, diphenylhydantoin, ethosuximide, flunarizine, phenobarbital and sodium valproate decreased this behaviour in a dose-dependent way. Six other drugs with anticonvulsant properties were also effective: DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, desipramine, etomidate, ketamine, meprobamate and sabeluzole. The ED50-values for halving the frequency of the episodes of barrel rotation correlated well with published ED50-values for inhibition of tonic hindpaw extension in the maximal metrazol seizure test (rs = .95, p less than 0.001) and with the ED50-values for halving the duration of the forepaw clonus in the rat-kindling model (rs = .93, p less than 0.001). This quinolinic acid test allows visualization of the onset of action of anticonvulsants, with each animal as its own control. In order to assess whether this test is also sensitive to drugs influencing the symptoms of Huntington's disease, the effect of the dopamine antagonists haloperidol and pimozide, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and the anticholinergics atropine and dexetimide were investigated as well. The experiments suggested that the barrel rotations and clonic forepaw movements, only 3-6 hours after intrastriatal injection of QUIN respond to anticonvulsants, but are not specifically sensitive to drugs used in the symptomatic treatment of Huntington's disease. PMID:2978064

  5. Flow injection analysis of cholic acids in pharmaceutical preparations using a polymeric membrane ISE as detector.

    PubMed

    Arias De Fuentes, O; Campanella, L; Crescentini, G; Falcioni, A; Sammartino, M P; Tomassetti, M

    2000-08-01

    The results reported in this paper regard the setting up of a polymeric membrane ISE that is selective for cholic acids (CA) and able to work in a flow system, especially in flow injection analysis (FIA), based on the exchanger (tetrakisdecylammoniumcholate, TDACh), which has proved effective, is of very simple but suitable structure and is above all easy to synthesise starting from commercially available chemicals. A complete analytical characterisation of the sensor was performed working both in batch conditions and in FIA, using in the latter case a 'wall jet' type of flow cell. The response toward different bile acid sodium salts such as the CA, deoxycholic (DCA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic (UDCA), taurocholic (TCA) sodium salts was checked. The application to the analysis of different commercial drugs by FIA was also performed to determine the UDCA or CDCA acid content of several pharmaceutical formulations. Lastly, a preliminary study is presented concerning the use of the investigated electrochemical sensor as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detector. PMID:10898158

  6. Production increase with high rates of natural gas injection at Acme Steel and National Steel`s Granite City Division

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Supplemental fuels are injected at the tuyere level of blast furnaces to reduce coke consumption and increase productivity. These fuels include natural gas, coke oven gas, oil, tar, and coal. The economic benefits derived from supplemental fuel are of two types: (1) the reduction in costs of hot metal production arising primarily from decreased coke consumption, and (2) the value of the increased production of hot metal- and steel - that can be sold. Essentially all blast furnaces in North America inject supplemental fuel. Approximately 70 percent inject natural gas in the range from 80-210 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/THM) or from 1,800 to 4,700 standard cubic feet per ton of hot metal (scf/THM). Currently, natural gas injection rates average 110 lb/THM or 2,500 scf/THM. The total amount of gas consumed in North American blast furnaces now exceeds 101 billion cubic feet per year (bcfy).

  7. Biodegradability of injection molded bioplastic pots containing polylactic acid and poultry feather fiber.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Huda, M S; Smith, M C; Mulbry, W; Schmidt, W F; Reeves, J B

    2011-04-01

    The biodegradability of three types of bioplastic pots was evaluated by measuring carbon dioxide produced from lab-scale compost reactors containing mixtures of pot fragments and compost inoculum held at 58 °C for 60 days. Biodegradability of pot type A (composed of 100% polylactic acid (PLA)) was very low (13 ± 3%) compared to literature values for other PLA materials. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) results suggest that the PLA undergoes chemical structural changes during polymer extrusion and injection molding. These changes may be the basis of the low biodegradability value. Biodegradability of pot types B (containing 5% poultry feather, 80% PLA, 15% starch), and C (containing 50% poultry feather, 25% urea, 25% glycerol), were 53 ± 2% and 39 ± 3%, respectively. More than 85% of the total biodegradation of these bioplastics occurred within 38 days. NIRS results revealed that poultry feather was not degraded during composting. PMID:21320772

  8. Injectable hyaluronic-acid-doxycycline hydrogel therapy in experimental rabbit osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease that causes disabilities in elderly adults. However, few long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agents with low side effects have been developed to treat OA. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of intra-articular injections of hydrogels containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and doxycycline (DOX) in a rabbit OA model. Results Thirteen week old New Zealand White rabbits undergone a partial meniscectomy and unilateral fibular ligament transection were administered with either normal saline (NT), HA, DOX or HA-DOX hydrogels on day 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12; animals were also examined the pain assessment in every three days. The joint samples were taken at day 14 post-surgery for further histopathological evaluation. The degree of pain was significantly attenuated after day 7 post-treatment with both HA and HA-DOX hydrogels. In macroscopic appearance, HA-DOX hydrogel group showed a smoother cartilage surface, no or minimal signs of ulceration, smaller osteophytes, and less fissure formation in compare to HA or DOX treatment alone. In the areas with slight OA changes, HA-DOX hydrogel group exhibited normal distribution of chondrocytes, indicating the existence of cartilage regeneration. In addition, HA-DOX hydrogels also ameliorated the progression of OA by protecting the injury of articular cartilage layer and restoring the elastoviscosity. Conclusion Overall, from both macroscopic and microscopic data of this study indicate the injectable HA-DOX hydrogels presented as a long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agent to apply for OA therapy. PMID:23574696

  9. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway. PMID:26767978

  10. Injectable poly-L: -lactic acid: a novel sculpting agent for the treatment of dermal fat atrophy after severe acne.

    PubMed

    Sadove, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, subsequently, collagen. The gradual improvements in cutaneous volume observed after treatment with injectable PLLA have been noted to last up to 2 years. The case studies presented describe the use of injectable PLLA to correct dermal fat loss in macular atrophic acne scarring of the cheeks. Two female patients underwent three treatment sessions with injectable PLLA over a 12-week period. At each treatment session, the reconstituted product was injected into the deep dermis under the depressed portion of the scar. Both patients were extremely pleased with their results at, respectively, 1- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Patients experienced minimal swelling and redness after injection and no product-related adverse events such as papule and/or nodule formation. The author believes these data suggest that injectable PLLA is a good treatment option for the correction of macular atropic scarring with thin dermis (off-label use), particularly compared with other injectable fillers currently used for this indication that have shorter durations of effect. PMID:18923863

  11. Optimizing injectable poly-L-lactic acid administration for soft tissue augmentation: The rationale for three treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ute; Graivier, Miles H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability and variety of different injectable modalities has led to a dramatic increase in soft tissue augmentation procedures in recent years. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a synthetic, biodegradable polymer device approved in the United States for use in immunocompetent patients as a single regimen of up to four treatment sessions for correction of shallow to deep nasolabial fold contour deficiencies and other facial wrinkles. Injectable PLLA is also approved for restoration and/or correction of signs of facial fat loss (lipoatrophy) in individuals with HIV. METHODS: The present article provides an overview of previous studies with injectable PLLA, and specifically focuses on the number of recommended treatment sessions and intervals between treatment sessions. The authors also provide two case studies to support their recommendations for an average of three treatment sessions. RESULTS: Although the specific mechanisms remain hypothetical, injections of PLLA are believed to cause a cascade of cellular events that lead to collagen repair and subsequent restoration of facial volume. Because the development of a response to injectable PLLA is gradual and its duration of effect is long lasting, sufficient time between treatment sessions should be allocated to avoid overcorrection. CONCLUSION: Studies of injectable PLLA support the hypothesized mode of operation, and the experience and clinical recommendations of the authors that suggest that three treatment sessions are an optimal regimen for use of injectable PLLA in the majority of patients. PMID:22942665

  12. High emission rate of sulfuric acid from Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, Michael; Taran, Yuri; Galle, Bo

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of primary sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in fumarolic gases and high emission rate of sulfuric acid aerosol in the plume were measured at Bezymianny volcano, an active dome-growing andesitic volcano in central Kamchatka. Using direct sampling, filter pack sampling, and differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements, we estimated an average emission of H2SO4 at 243 ± 75 t/d in addition to an average SO2 emission of 212 ± 65 t/d. The fumarolic gases of Bezymianny correspond to arc gases released by several magma bodies at different stages of degassing and contain 25-92% of entrained air. H2SO4 accounts for 6-87 mol% of the total sulfur content, 42.8 mol% on average, and SO2 is the rest. The high H2SO4 in Bezymianny fumaroles can be explained by catalytic oxidation of SO2 inside the volcanic dome. Because sulfate aerosol is impossible to measure remotely, the total sulfur content in a plume containing significant H2SO4 may be seriously underestimated.

  13. Nitrogen mineralization rates of the acidic, xeric soils of the New Jersey Pinelands: field rates

    SciTech Connect

    Poovarodom, S.; Tate, R.L. III; Bloom, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Using the buried-bag procedure, the authors quantified nitrogen mineralization rates in the xeric, acidic Lakehurst, and Atsion sands of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Average annual nitrogen yields in the upper 15 cm for the Lakehurst and the Atsion sands were 38.4 and 53.0 kg N/ha, corresponding to 4.5 and 2.5% of the total nitrogen, respectively. Net nitrogen mineralization in both soils exhibited distinct seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minimum rates in the winter. Nitrification accounted for only 5% of the total N mineralized in both soils. This is consistent with the finding of low populations of autotrophic nitrifiers in these soils.

  14. Tailoring the degradation rates of thermally responsive hydrogels designed for soft tissue injection by varying the autocatalytic potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang; Jiang, Hongbin; Ye, Sang-Ho; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Wagner, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to modulate the degradation properties of biomaterials such as thermally responsive hydrogels is desirable when exploring new therapeutic strategies that rely on the temporary presence of a placed scaffold or gel. Here we report a method of manipulating the absorption rate of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) ((poly(NIPAAm)) based hydrogel across a wide range (from 1 d to 5 mo) by small alterations in the composition. Relying upon the autocatalytic effect, the degradation of poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA), (HEMA=2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate; MAPLA=methacrylate-polylactide) was greatly accelerated by adding a fourth monomer methacrylic acid (MAA) at no more than 2 mol% to obtain poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA-co-MAA) (pNHMMj) where j reflects the MAA molar % in the reactant mixture. MAA residue introduction decreased the pH inside the hydrogels and in surrounding buffered solutions. Accelerated degradation positively correlated with MAA content in pNHMMj polymers, putatively by the accelerated cleavage of MAPLA residues to raise the transition temperature of the polymer above body temperature. Physical properties including thermal transition behavior and initial mechanical strength did not vary significantly with MAA content. A rat hindlimb injection model generally reflected the in vitro observation that higher MAA content resulted in more rapid degradation and cellular infiltration. The strategy of tuning the degradation of thermally responsive hydrogels where degradation or solubilization is determined by their polyester components might be applied to other tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications where designed biomaterial degradation behavior is needed. PMID:25890745

  15. ACID DEPOSITION STRATEGIES, THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION/MULTISTAGE BURNERS) PROGRAM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROL TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the various acid deposition bills introduced in the U.S. Congress during the past 2 years and discusses emission sources. A rapidly emerging technology called Limestone Injection/Multistage Burners (LIMB), which has the potential for simultaneous SO2 and NOx ...

  16. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  17. Evaluation of Peanut Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Sprays, Combustion, and Emissions, for Use in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper provides an analysis of 100% peanut fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and peanut FAME/ULSD#2 blends (P20, P35, and P50) in an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine (for auxiliary power unit applications) in comparison to ultralow sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) at various speeds and 100% load...

  18. A phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study of ATX-101: injectable, synthetic deoxycholic acid for submental contouring.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patricia; Fellmann, Jere; Lizzul, Paul F

    2015-03-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid [DCA] injection) is a proprietary formulation of pure synthetic DCA. When injected into subcutaneous fat, ATX-101 results in focal adipocytolysis, the targeted destruction of fat cells. ATX-101 is undergoing investigation as an injectable drug for contouring the submental area by reducing submental fat (SMF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the maximal therapeutic dose of ATX-101 (100 mg total dose). Following PK evaluation of endogenous DCA, subjects (N=24) received subcutaneous injections of ATX-101 (2 mg/cm2, with or without 0.9% benzyl alcohol) into SMF; PK evaluation was repeated periodically over 24 hours. Endogenous DCA plasma concentrations measured prior to injection were highly variable within and between subjects. Similarly, following ATX-101 injection, DCA plasma concentrations were highly variable, peaked rapidly, and returned to the range observed for endogenous values by 24 hours postdose. All subjects experienced at least 1 adverse event (AE). No death, serious AE, or AE-related discontinuations occurred. The majority of AEs were transient, associated with the area treated, and of mild or moderate severity. No clinically significant changes were reported for laboratory test results, vital signs, or Holter electrocardiograms postdosing. These data support the favorable safety and efficacy observations of ATX-101 as an injectable drug to reduce SMF. PMID:25738850

  19. Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) BaPS: Establishment of a new method to measure rates of soil respiration and gross nitrification in calcareous agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrads, Hannah; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Soil respiration and nitrification are key processes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil. An exact measurement of these two processes is a prerequisite for understanding the release of trace gases from soils. During the last decades the Barometric Process Separation (BaPS) method has become a widely used method to measure the turnover rates of these two processes. Its application, however, is currently limited to acidic to slightly acidic soils. In calcareous soils huge amounts of CO2 from soil respiration are dissolved in the soil solution, and the application of the BaPS method is hampered by the exact quantification of this flux. Small errors in this flux may result in huge errors in the calculation of the nitrification and respiration rates. In order to overcome this shortcoming and to extend the applicability of the method to a wider range of soils (especially agricultural soils) we developed a new adaptive method, the Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) method, which aims to determine the CO2 dissolution flux (CO2,aq) experimentally. Therefore, an additional measuring step is introduced in which a sterilized soil subsample is incubated in the BaPS apparatus and known amounts of a pure CO2 gas are injected into the system while CO2 partial pressure is monitored. After each injection peak CO2 partial pressure decreases until a new stable equilibrium concentration is reached. This behavior is used to compute the amount of CO2 transferred to the soil solution applying simple mass balance calculation. The paired information about CO2 and CO2,aq is used to derive a regression equation, which gives CO2,aq as a function of the CO2 partial pressure. This relation is further used within the standard BaPS method. Results of the SCI-BaPS method for gross nitrification rates will be presented and compared to data measured by the 15N pool dilution method (Kirkham and Bartholomew, 1954). Results were obtained with calcareous and acidic agricultural soil samples. It turned

  20. Kinetics of monochloroacetic acid in adult male rats after intravenous injection of a subtoxic and a toxic dose.

    PubMed

    Saghir, S A; Fried, K; Rozman, K K

    2001-02-01

    Distribution, metabolism, and excretion of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) were examined in adult male rats at a subtoxic (10 mg/kg) and a toxic (75 mg/kg) dose. Rats were injected i.v. with [14C]MCA and housed individually. Urine and feces were collected. Animals were euthanized at different time intervals after dosing and tissues procured. Radioactivity in aliquots showed very rapid distribution of MCA to tissues. Concentrations of MCA in plasma, liver, heart, lungs, and brown fat paralleled each other, whereas those in brain and thymus did not. There was no dose proportionality in tissue concentrations. Elimination of MCA from plasma required modeling by two compartments. Most of the radioactivity found in plasma was parent MCA. Elimination rate constant (K(10)) and distribution rate constant (K(12)) were greatly reduced at the toxic dose. Elimination of the toxic dose was further retarded due to increased retention of MCA in the peripheral compartment as indicated by increased mean residence times in most tissues. A very large fraction of dose was found in the gastrointestinal tract, almost all of which was reabsorbed. Attempts to reduce toxicity by blocking the enterohepatic circulation with activated charcoal or cholestyramine failed. Radioactivity found in bile was associated with one metabolite more polar than the parent compound. A very large fraction of dose (73 and 59%) was found in urine, 55 to 68% of which was parent MCA. The rate-determining step in the toxicity of MCA was identified as its detoxification by the liver. A therapeutic approach in MCA intoxications is suggested. PMID:11160650

  1. Flow injection online spectrophotometric determination of uranium after preconcentration on XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid.

    PubMed

    Shahida, Shabnam; Ali, Akbar; Khan, Muhammad Haleem; Saeed, Muhammad Mufazzal

    2013-02-01

    In this work, spectrophotometer was used as a detector for the determination of uranium from water, biological, and ore samples with a flow injection system coupled with solid phase extraction. In order to promote the online preconcentration of uranium, a minicolumn packed with XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid was utilized. The system operation was based on U(VI) ion retention at pH 6 in the minicolumn at flow rate of 15.2 mL min(-1). The uranium complex was removed from the resin by 0.1 mol dm(-3) HCl at flow rate of 3.2 mL min(-1) and was mixed with arsenazo III solution (0.05 % solution in 0.1 mol dm(-3) HCl, 3.2 mL min(-1)) and driven to flow through cell of spectrophotometer where its absorbance was measured at 651 nm. The influence of chemical (pH and HCl (as eluent and reagent medium) concentration) and flow (sample and eluent flow rate and preconcentration time) parameters that could affect the performance of the system as well as the possible interferents was investigated. At the optimum conditions for 60 s preconcentration time (15.2 mL of sample volume), the method presented a detection limit of 1.1 μg L(-1), a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.8 % at 100 μg L(-1), enrichment factor of 30, and a sample throughput of 42 h(-1), whereas for 300 s of the preconcentration time (76 mL of sample volume), a detection limit of 0.22 μg L(-1), a RSD of 1.32 % at 10 μg L(-1), enrichment factor of 150, and a sampling frequency of 11 h(-1) were reported. PMID:22580790

  2. Artificial Recharge Rates in Granites, Basalt, Sedimentary and Alluvial Formations of Andhra Pradesh, India, Using Injection Tritium Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangarajan, R.; Muralidharan, D.; Hodlur, G. K.; Banerjee, Pallavi

    2010-05-01

    Rate of groundwater artificial recharge is a very unpredictable and complex phenomenon to understand. But it is a vital parameter to be known for groundwater budgeting and management. Percolation of a portion of the rainfall through the vadoze zone is the principal source of regional artificial recharge to the aquifer system. Tritium injection method based on the piston flow model is ideally suitable for quantifying the downward flux of moisture in the vadoes zone and for the measuring the artificial recharge rate under various hydrogeological conditions. Recharge rates due to monsoon rainfall were measured using injected tritium tracer technique in 17 watersheds / basins located in granite, basalt, sedimentary and alluvium formations of Andhra Pradesh during the last two and half decades. Recharge measurement were made at several sites in each watershed or basin area. At each site, tritiated water was injected at the depth of 60 cm below ground level before the onset of monsoon and vertical soil core profiles in 10 cm section were collected after the completion of monsoon. After laboratory process to measure the moisture content and tritium concentration, the recharge values are computed. The recharge rate measurements facilitate to demarcate favorable areas for taking up artificial recharge measures.

  3. European expert recommendations on the use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Redaelli; Rzany, Berthold; Eve, Linda; Grangier, Yann; Herranz, Pedro; Olivier-Masveyraud, Frédérique; Vleggaar, Danny

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years, there have been a number of important changes in how we appreciate and understand the aging face. Volume loss is now recognized as a major component of facial aging. Treatment options that replace lost volume are increasingly used for recontouring and rejuvenation of the aging face. In this review we present and discuss the European Expert Group recommendations on the ideal use of the unique collagen stimulator, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA, Sculptra®, Sinclair Pharmaceuticals) for facial rejuvenation lasting up to 25 months. Optimal results are achieved based on a detailed knowledge of facial anatomy, correct treatment procedure, specifically the right dilution, the correct injection technique, as well as appropriate patient aftercare. PLLA is an effective and safe collagen stimulator that treats the whole face. PLLA is simple to use, provides the foundation for facial rejuvenation, is easy to combine with other treatments, and gives long-lasting effects with a high level of patient satisfaction. PMID:25226006

  4. Memory disturbances following ibotenic acid injections in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of the rat.

    PubMed

    Mayo, W; Kharouby, M; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1988-07-12

    The behavioral effects of lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on two spatial discrimination tasks (place navigation and cross maze) were examined in the rat. These tasks were designed to test reference memory. Lesions by bilateral injection of ibotenic acid into the NBM led to a severe and permanent impairment in the learning of the cross maze task. In the learning of the place navigation task, the rats with lesions showed only a transient deficit. Immediately after the removal of the platform, the rats with lesions explored the quadrant (NE) previously containing the platform as long as controls and above chance levels. The rats with lesions did not extinguish exploration like the controls, seen as a reduction both in time spent in the NE quadrant and in swimming activity. Taken together, the results showed that (1) NBM lesions impair reference memory, but (2) spare other aspects of memory. On the basis of the results in the place navigation task, procedural memory was assumed to remain intact after lesion of the NBM. Biochemical assays of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in various brain regions in the lesioned animals demonstrated a reduced ChAT activity in the neocortical projections of the NBM but not in the hippocampus. However, it cannot be decided from this work whether behavioral deficits result from the lesion of cholinergic or of non-cholinergic cells in the NBM. PMID:3401780

  5. Flow-injection determination of isoniazid using sodium dichloroisocyanurate- and trichloroisocyanuric acid-luminol chemiluminescence systems.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R

    2004-06-01

    A chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of isoniazid is described. The method is based on the CL generated during the oxidation of luminol by sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) and trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. It was found that isoniazid greatly enhances this CL intensity when present in the luminol solution. Based on this observation, a new flow-injection CL method for the determination of isoniazid has been proposed in this paper. The detection limits were 2 and 3 ng ml(-1) isoniazid for the SDCC-luminol and TCCA-luminol CL systems, respectively. The relative CL intensity was linear with the isoniazid concentration in the range of 4-100 and 100-200 ng ml(-1) for the SDCC-luminol CL system, and 6-200 and 200-1000 ng ml(-1) for the TCCA-luminol CL system. The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. PMID:15178311

  6. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  11. Ascorbic acid and rates of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Gene L; Dodge, Hiroko; Frei, Balz; Calabrese, Carlo; Oken, Barry S; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Quinn, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    The brain maintains high levels of ascorbic acid (AA) despite a concentration gradient favoring diffusion from brain to peripheral tissues. Dietary antioxidants, including AA, appear to modify the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that neurodegeneration in AD is modified by brain levels of AA. Thirty-two patients with mild to moderate AD participated in a biomarker study involving standardized clinical assessments over one year. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected at baseline for AA and albumin content. Cognitive measures were collected at baseline and one year. CSF and plasma AA failed to predict cognitive decline independently, however, CSF: plasma AA ratio did. After adding CSF Albumin Index (an established marker of blood-brain barrier integrity) to the regression models the effect of CSF: plasma AA ratio as a predictor of cognitive decline was weakened. CSF: plasma AA ratio predicts rate of decline in AD. This relationship may indicate that the CSF: plasma AA ratio is an index of AA availability to the brain or may be an artifact of a relationship between blood-brain barrier impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:19158425

  12. Can combined use of low-level lasers and hyaluronic acid injections prolong the longevity of degenerative knee joints?

    PubMed Central

    Ip, David; Fu, Nga Yue

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated whether half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection together with low-level laser therapy in addition to standard conventional physical therapy can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery in elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral tricompartmental knee arthritis were assigned at random to either one of two conservative treatment protocols to either one of the painful knees. Protocol A consisted of conventional physical therapy plus a sham light source plus saline injection, and protocol B consisted of protocol A with addition of half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection as well as low-level laser treatment instead of using saline and a sham light source. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain necessitating joint replacement. Results Among the 140 painful knees treated with either protocol A or protocol B, only one of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol B required joint replacement, whereas 15 of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol A needed joint replacement surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion We conclude that half-yearly hyaluronic acid injections together with low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into the standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis, because it may prolong the longevity of the knee joint without the need for joint replacement. PMID:26346122

  13. Synthetic modeling of a fluid injection-induced fault rupture with slip-rate dependent friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urpi, Luca; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frédéric; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Poro-elastic stress and effective stress reduction associated with deep underground fluid injection can potentially trigger shear rupture along pre-existing faults. We modeled an idealized CO2 injection scenario, to assess the effects on faults of the first phase of a generic CO2 aquifer storage operation. We used coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to evaluate the stress and pressure perturbations induced by fluid injection and the response of a nearby normal fault. Slip-rate dependent friction and inertial effects have been aken into account during rupture. Contact elements have been used to take into account the frictional behavior of the rupture plane. We investigated different scenarios of injection rate to induce rupture on the fault, employing various fault rheologies. Published laboratory data on CO2-saturated intact and crushed rock samples, representative of a potential target aquifer, sealing formation and fault gouge, have been used to define a scenario where different fault rheologies apply at different depths. Nucleation of fault rupture takes place at the bottom of the reservoir, in agreement with analytical poro-elastic stress calculations, considering injection-induced reservoir inflation and the tectonic scenario. For the stress state here considered, the first triggered rupture always produces the largest rupture length and slip magnitude, correlated with the fault rheology. Velocity weakening produces larger ruptures and generates larger magnitude seismic events. Heterogeneous faults have been considered including velocity-weakening or velocity strengthening sections inside and below the aquifer, while upper sections being velocity-neutral. Nucleation of rupture in a velocity strengthening section results in a limited rupture extension, both in terms of maximum slip and rupture length. For a heterogeneous fault with nucleation in a velocity-weakening section, the rupture may propagate into the overlying velocity

  14. Curing rate and flowing properties of silicone rubber at injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, M.; Nakamura, T. )

    1992-04-01

    Generally, silicone rubbers are mold-cured after mixing the rubber and peroxide curing agent with a two-roll mill or a kneader. Typically this is done at pressures of 5 MPa to 10 MPa and at temperatures between 120 to 200 C. Compression molding, transfer molding and injection molding are common molding ways for silicone rubbers. Recently, injection molding techniques are developing rapidly that have the advantages of molding automatically with high cycle mechanisms. To reduce the molding time and to make a precision part, both the flowing and curing properties of a particular rubber compound will be important. In this article, correlations between the curing and the flowing properties of silicone rubber are investigated by using the Rheovulkameter device.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  16. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  17. Cross-sectional comparison of first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections vs risperidone long-acting injection: patient-rated attitudes, satisfaction and tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sourabh Moti; Haddad, Peter M.; Husain, Nusrat; Heaney, Eamonn; Tomenson, Barbara; Chaudhry, Imran B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare patients’ attitudes and satisfaction with medication and patient-rated tolerability between those prescribed a first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection (FGA-LAI) and those prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of outpatients prescribed an FGA-LAI or RLAI for a minimum of 6 months and attending a depot clinic. Attitudes to medication were assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), tolerability was measured by the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) and satisfaction with antipsychotic medication was assessed by the Satisfaction with Antipsychotic Medication (SWAM) scale. Results: The RLAI (n = 28) and FGA-LAI (n = 39) groups did not differ in terms of mean age, sex, diagnosis and ethnicity. All individual LAIs were prescribed within British National Formulary limits. The most commonly prescribed FGA-LAI was flupentixol decanoate (n = 22). There was no significant difference between the RLAI and FGA-LAI groups in terms of mean total scores on the DAI-30, LUNSERS and SWAM or the tolerability subscales of the LUNSERS or the two subscales (treatment acceptability and medication insight) of the SWAM. In both LAI groups there was a low level of side effects (LUNSERS) and a generally positive attitude (DAI-30) and reasonable satisfaction (SWAM) with medication. Conclusions: Patients treated with FGA-LAI and RLAI for at least 6 months did not differ in terms of patient-rated tolerability, attitudes and satisfaction with medication. The current design cannot determine whether differences would have been evident earlier on during treatment. These results should be regarded as preliminary and are subject to prescribing bias. Randomized studies avoid prescribing bias and are a superior way to compare specific LAIs. Ideally randomized studies should include patient-rated outcome measures including

  18. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  19. Online concentration by field-amplified sample injection in acidic buffer for analysis of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in herbal medicine by flow injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-12-01

    A novel, rapid, and continuous online concentration approach based on field-amplified sample injection for the analysis of fangchinoline and tetrandrine was developed in this paper by combination of flow injection-MEKC. The BGE used was a solution composed of 75 mM H3PO4-triethylamine-2.5% v/v polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate-20% v/v methanol buffer (pH* 5.0). The analytes prepared in 50% v/v aqueous ethanol were used as the test analytes. Sample was injected electrokinetically between plugs of water. When the cations reached the boundary between the water plug and BGE, they slowed down and became concentrated. Thereafter, MEKC was initiated for the separation. This results in 6.8-8.9-fold improvement in concentration sensitivity relative to conventional CE methods. The separation could be achieved within 10 min and sample throughput rate can reach up to 50/h. The repeatability (defined as RSD) was 4.8, 4.4% with peak height evaluation and 3.6, 0.94% with peak area evaluation for TET and FAN, respectively. PMID:16259014

  20. Artificial Weathering as a Function of CO2 Injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: Investigation of Dissolution Rate in Surficial Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilavi, Madjid; Zoveidavianpoor, Mansoor; Attarhamed, Farshid; Junin, Radzuan; Mohsin, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca2+ to 17.42% for Mg2+, with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection.

  1. Artificial weathering as a function of CO2 injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: investigation of dissolution rate in surficial condition.

    PubMed

    Jalilavi, Madjid; Zoveidavianpoor, Mansoor; Attarhamed, Farshid; Junin, Radzuan; Mohsin, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca(2+) to 17.42% for Mg(2+), with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection. PMID:24413195

  2. Artificial Weathering as a Function of CO2 Injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: Investigation of Dissolution Rate in Surficial Condition

    PubMed Central

    Jalilavi, Madjid; Zoveidavianpoor, Mansoor; Attarhamed, Farshid; Junin, Radzuan; Mohsin, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca2+ to 17.42% for Mg2+, with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection. PMID:24413195

  3. Efficacy and safety evaluation of intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty operation with temporarily drainage close

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guowei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Bingchen; Lin, Yongjie; Sun, Shui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) injection during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for reducing postoperative hemorrhage. Methods: 100 cases of patients admitted to our hospital and underwent primary unilateral TKA from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled in this study and they were divided randomly into two groups. For the TXA group, 1 g TXA was dissolved in 50 ml 0.9% sodium chloride solution and injected after prosthesis implantation but before cavity close. Conventional drainage clamping was carried for 4 h and the drainage tube was removed 48 h postoperative. For the control group, similar measures were taken except for that no TXA was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Postoperative hemoglobin, blood coagulation index, total blood loss volume, drainage volume, blood transfusion rate and lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) rate in both groups were observed and the efficacy and safety of this surgical treatment were evaluated. Results: There were no significant differences in operation time, postoperative platelet and APPT, D-dimer, lower limb venous thrombosis incidence rate 1 week after operation between the two groups. Postoperative drainage volume, hemoglobin, total blood loss and blood transfusion rate in the TXA group were significantly lower than those of the control group. Ecchymosis of lower extremity peripheral incision and its surroundings was significantly milder than that of the control group. Conclusion: Intraoperative intra-articular injection of TXA in TKA can significantly reduce the initial postoperative hemorrhage and blood transfusion rate at the early stage after operation. PMID:26550418

  4. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  5. Multicommutated stepwise injection determination of ascorbic acid in medicinal plants and food samples by capillary zone electrophoresis ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina T; Bulatov, Andrey V; Pushina, Maria O; Ekimov, Aleksey A; Alekseeva, Galina M; Moskvin, Leonid N

    2015-02-01

    An automation of the extraction of analytes from solid samples into the aqueous phase based on multicommutated stepwise injection analysis concept has been suggested. The feasibility of the approach has been demonstrated by determination of ascorbic acid as model analyte. The method includes automated extraction of ascorbic acid from solid sample into borate buffer solution pH 8 in mixing chamber during vigorous mixing by nitrogen stream, and subsequent detection by capillary zone electrophoresis at 254 nm. The method has a linear range of 0.1-5.0 mg g(-1) for ascorbic acid with the LOD of 0.03 mg g(-1). The sample throughput was 7 h(-1). This method was applied for determination of ascorbic acid in various medicinal plants and food samples. PMID:25435231

  6. Desire for penile girth enhancement and the effects of the self-injection of hyaluronic Acid gel.

    PubMed

    Coskuner, Enis Rauf; Canter, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation. PMID:23112518

  7. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. PMID:26794261

  8. Oxytocin induces penile erection when injected into the ventral subiculum: role of nitric oxide and glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Melis, Maria Rosaria; Succu, Salvatora; Cocco, Cristina; Caboni, Emanuela; Sanna, Fabrizio; Boi, Antonio; Ferri, Gian Luca; Argiolas, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Oxytocin (100 ng) induces penile erection when injected unilaterally into the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus of male rats. The pro-erectile effect started mostly 30 min after treatment and occurred 15 min after an increase in both nitric oxide (NO) production, measured by the concentration of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), the main metabolites of newly formed NO, and extra-cellular glutamic acid concentration in the dialysate obtained from the ventral subiculum by intracerebral microdialysis. These responses were abolished by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2 microg), an oxytocin receptor antagonist, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC), a selective inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase (25 microg), and haemoglobin, a NO scavenger (25 microg), given into the ventral subiculum before oxytocin. Unlike d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, SMTC and haemoglobin, (+)MK-801 (5 microg), a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors abolished oxytocin-induced penile erection, but reduced only partially the increase in NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid. As NMDA (0.25-1 microg) injected into the ventral subiculum induces penile erection episodes, which also occurred with an increase of NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid, and NMDA responses were abolished by (+)MK-801 (5 microg), but not by SMTC (25 microg) or haemoglobin (25 microg), injected into the ventral subiculum, these results show that oxytocin injected into the ventral subiculum increases NO production by activating its own receptors. NO in turn increases glutamic acid neurotransmission, leading to penile erection, possibly through neural (glutamatergic) efferent projections from the ventral subiculum to extra-hippocampal brain areas (e.g., prefrontal cortex) modulating the activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. PMID:20156463

  9. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerance of a New Injection Technique for High- and Low-Molecular-Weight Hyaluronic Acid Hybrid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Coacci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Facial aging is characterized by skin laxity and loss of skin elasticity. Hyaluronic acid, a biological component of the extracellular matrix, whose level decreases during aging, plays structural, rheological, and physiological roles in the skin. Hyaluronic acid may possess different molecular weights: low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (from 50 kDa) and high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (just up to 2 million kDa). This monocentric, retrospective, observational study investigates the efficacy, security, and tolerability of a new injective low- and high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid for facial skin rejuvenation. Methods: Eleven women received once a month, for 2 months, 2 mL of the product in the subcutaneous layer of the right and left malar/submalar areas. Facial skin echography, facial skin hydration, elasticity, and transepidermal water loss were assessed before (T0), after 1 month (T1), and after 3 months of treatment (T2). The injective features of the product, physician subjective satisfaction, and patient satisfaction were also reported. Results: Facial face hydration, elasticity, and transepidermal water loss values significantly improved at T1 and T2 (P < .01). Patients were very satisfied at the end of the treatment, and the compound's profit evaluated by the physician was optimal in the absence of local side effects. Conclusions: This treatment represents a good treatment option to restore vitality and turgidity of skin presenting the signs of aging in the absence of intolerance symptoms. PMID:26491508

  10. A novel injection strategy of flurbiprofen axetil by inhibiting protein binding with 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kenji; Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Setoguchi, Nao; Tanda, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Nishio, Toyotaka; Kawai, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Flurbiprofen axetil (FPA) is an injection product and a prodrug of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). After injection, it is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active form, flurbiprofen (FP). Since frequent injections of FPA can lead to abnormal physiology, an administration strategy is necessary to ensure there is enhancement of the analgesic efficiency of FP after a single dose and to reduce the total number of doses. FP strongly binds to site II of albumin, and thus the free (unbound) FP concentration is low. This study focused on 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), the active metabolite of nabumetone (a prodrug of NSAID). We performed ultrafiltration experiments and pharmacokinetics analysis in rats to investigate whether the inhibitory effect of 6-MNA on FP binding to albumin increased the free FP concentration in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that 6-MNA inhibited the binding of FP to albumin competitively. When 6-MNA was injected in rats, there was a significant increase in the free FP concentration and the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) calculated from the free FP concentration, while there was a significant decrease in the total (bound + free) FP concentration and the AUC calculated from the total FP concentration. These findings indicate that 6-MNA inhibits the protein binding of FP in vivo. This suggests that the frequency of FPA injections can be reduced when administered with nabumetone, as there is increase in the free FP concentration associated with pharmacological effect. PMID:25537338

  11. Effect of liposomes on rheological and syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels intended for local injection of drugs.

    PubMed

    El Kechai, Naila; Bochot, Amélie; Huang, Nicolas; Nguyen, Yann; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence

    2015-06-20

    The aim of this work was to thoroughly study the effect of liposomes on the rheological and the syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels intended for the local administration of drugs by injection. Whatever the characteristics of the liposomes added (neutral, positively or negatively charged, with a corona of polyethylene glycol chains, size), the viscosity and the elasticity of HA gels increased in a lipid concentration-dependent manner. Indeed, liposomes strengthened the network formed by HA chains due to their interactions with this polymer. The nature and the resulting effects of these interactions depended on liposome composition and concentration. The highest viscosity and elasticity were observed with liposomes covered by polyethylene glycol chains while neutral liposomes displayed the lowest effect. Despite their high viscosity at rest, all the formulations remained easily injectable through needles commonly used for local injections thanks to the shear-thinning behavior of HA gels. The present study demonstrates that rheological and syringeability tests are both necessary to elucidate the behavior of such systems during and post injection. In conclusion, HA liposomal gels appear to be a promising and versatile formulation platform for a wide range of applications in local drug delivery when an injection is required. PMID:25882015

  12. Transperineal Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in Anterior Perirectal Fat to Decrease Rectal Toxicity From Radiation Delivered With Intensity Modulated Brachytherapy or EBRT for Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Prada, Pedro J. Fernandez, Jose; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Rua, Angeles de la; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Fernandez, Jose M.; Juan, German

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity remains a serious complication affecting quality of life for prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. We began an investigational trial injecting hyaluronic acid (HA) in the perirectal fat to increase the distance between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. This is the first report using HA injection in oncology. Methods and Materials: This is a trial of external beam radiation therapy with HDR brachytherapy boosts in prostate cancer. During the two high-dose-rate (HDR) fractions, thermoluminescent dosimeter dosimeters were placed in the urethra and in the rectum. Before the second HDR fraction, 3-7 mL (mean, 6 mL) of HA was injected under transrectal ultrasound guidance in the perirectal fat to systematically create a 1.5-cm space. Urethral and rectal HDR doses were calculated and measured. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess the stability of the new space. Results: Twenty-seven patients enrolled in the study. No toxicity was produced from the HA or the injection. In follow-up computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the HA injection did not migrate or change in mass/shape for close to 1 year. The mean distance between rectum and prostate was 2.0 cm along the entire length of the prostate. The median measured rectal dose, when normalized to the median urethral dose, demonstrated a decrease in dose from 47.1% to 39.2% (p < 0.001) with or without injection. For an HDR boost dose of 1150 cGy, the rectum mean Dmax reduction was from 708 cGy to 507 cGy, p < 0.001, and the rectum mean Dmean drop was from 608 to 442 cGy, p < 0.001 post-HA injection. Conclusion: The new 2-cm distance derived from the HA injection significantly decreased rectal dose in HDR brachytherapy. Because of the several-month duration of stability, the same distance was maintained during the course of external beam radiation therapy.

  13. Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-07-01

    Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation. PMID:21531547

  14. A comparison of injectable fluorescent marks in two genera of darters: Effects on survival and retention rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD marks on survival and the influences of mark type, location, and color on mark retention. Short-term (???80-d) survival was similar between marked and control specimens for both marks in both species. Over the long term (200-240 d), however, the survival rate for IPD-marked Roanoke darters P. roanoka was significantly lower than that for controls (50% versus 80%), whereas VIE-marked Roanoke darters had a survival rate (88%) similar to that of controls. Long-term survival of riverweed darters E. podostemone did not differ among groups. In Roanoke darters, the mark retention rate for IPD was significantly lower than that for VIE by day 80 of the experiment (80% versus 94%), and ventral IPD marks were retained with greater frequency than were dorsal IPD marks. In riverweed darters, retention was similar for VIE and IPD (79% versus 83%) in all body locations through day 240. In both species, yellow IPD marks exhibited higher retention rates than did green IPD marks, whereas the reverse was true for yellow and green VIE marks. Overall, VIE was a superior mark in the Percina representative but performed similarly to IPD in Etheostoma. Because of interspecific and intraspecific variability in mark performance, we recommend a pilot study before initiating field use of injectable marks in untested species.

  15. Laminar and turbulent flow solutions with radiation and ablation injection for Jovian entry. [radiative heating rates for the Galileo probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent flow-field solutions with coupled carbon-phenolic mass injection are presented for the forebody of a probe entering a nominal Jupiter atmosphere. Solutions are obtained for a 35-degree hyperboloid and for a 45-degree spherically blunted cone using a time-dependent, finite-difference method. The radiative heating rates for the coupled laminar flow are significantly reduced as compared to the corresponding no-blowing case; however, for the coupled turbulent flow, it is found that the surface radiative heating rates are substantially increased and often exceed the corresponding no-blowing values. Turbulence is found to have no effect on the surface radiative heating rates for the no-blowing solutions. The present results are compared with the other available solutions, and some additional solutions are presented.

  16. The history behind the use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid for facial and nonfacial volumization: the positive impact of evolving methodology.

    PubMed

    Vleggaar, Danny; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lorenc, Z Paul

    2014-04-01

    Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was first approved for soft tissue augmentation in Europe in 1999 for the cosmetic correction of scars and wrinkles. Due, in part, to inadequate usage recommendations that included those related to product reconstitution and hydration, injection sites, techniques, and timing, and patient selection, PLLA use was initially associated with suboptimal cosmetic benefit and a high rate of specific adverse events, such as the formation of nodules. As clinical experience with PLLA has increased, the implementation of specific methodological changes has allowed greater, more consistent cosmetic effects to be achieved, with a low rate of adverse events. This enhanced PLLA methodology, coupled with an evolving understanding of the interplay between structures in the aging face, now allows predictably favorable results across a broad range of patient types. PMID:24719075

  17. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a ... your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response ...

  18. Two-needle vs. single-needle technique for TMJ arthrocentesis plus hyaluronic acid injections: a comparative trial over a six-month follow up.

    PubMed

    Guarda-Nardini, L; Ferronato, G; Manfredini, D

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of five weekly two-needle arthrocentesis plus hyaluronic injections vs. the same protocol performed with a single-needle technique in patients with inflammatory-degenerative disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). 80 patients with TMJ osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to the two-needle or single-needle protocol and followed up for 6 months after treatment. Several outcome parameters, such as maximum pain at rest and maximum pain on chewing, subjective chewing efficiency, limitation in jaw function, jaw range of motion in mm, were recorded at baseline and multiple follow up assessments. Both treatment groups recorded significant improvement with respect to baseline levels in almost all outcome variables. The rate of improvement was not significantly different between the treatment protocols in any of the outcome variables (p-values between 0.143 and 0.970). No between-group differences emerged for the perceived subjective efficacy (p=0.321) and the treatment tolerability (p=0.783). The present investigation did not support the existence of significant differences in the treatment effectiveness for inflammatory-degenerative TMJ disorders of a cycle of five weekly injections of arthrocentesis plus hyaluronic acid injections performed according to the classical two-needle or the single-needle technique. PMID:22178274

  19. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) Versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial)

    PubMed Central

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Hassanabadi, Hossein; Fathi, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Elham; Babaee, Marzieh; Azma, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients with knee OA, including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc). New studies have focused on modern therapeutic methods that stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a complex of growth factors. Due to the high incidence of OA and its consequences, we decided to study the long-term effect of intraarticular injection of PRP and HA on clinical outcome and quality of life of patients with knee OA. METHOD This non-placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involved 160 patients affected by knee OA, grade 1–4 of Kellgren–Lawrence scale. In the PRP group (n = 87), two intra-articular injections at 4-week interval were applied, and in the HA group (n = 73), three doses of intra-articular injection at 1-week interval were applied. All patients were prospectively evaluated before and at 12 months after the treatment by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and SF-36 questionnaires. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.1 software (RCT code: IRCT2014012113442N5). RESULTS At the 12-month follow-up, WOMAC pain score and bodily pain significantly improved in both groups; however, better results were determined in the PRP group compared to the HA group (P < 0.001). Other WOMAC and SF-36 parameters improved only in the PRP group. More improvement (but not statistically significant) was achieved in patients with grade 2 OA in both the groups. CONCLUSION This study suggests that PRP injection is more efficacious than HA injection in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee OA who have not responded to conventional treatment. PMID:25624776

  20. TREATOGENIC ACTIVITY OF TRICHOLORACETIC ACID IN THE RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a by-product of the chlorine disinfection of water containing natural organic material. t is detectable in finished drinking water at levels comparable to the trihalomethanes (930-160 ug/L). CA is also formed in vivo after ingestion of hypochelorite ...

  1. Effects of coil location and injection flow rate in an inductively coupled RF plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, D.; Apelian, D.; Farouk, B.

    1985-07-01

    A numerical model has been developed to investigate the effects of central carrier gas flow rate and coil location in an inductively coupled RF plasma torch. Solution algorithm is based on the primitive variable formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations and includes a pseudo two-dimensional electromagnetic field model. Computational results have shown that with increasing carrier gas flow rate, the plasma plume is penetrated and the back flow due to the magnetic pumping effects is diminished. This facilitates the delivery of powder particles into the discharge region. However, the plasma plume is also disturbed significantly thus enhancing power loss.

  2. Water evaporation rates across hydrophobic acid monolayers at equilibrium spreading pressure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Minami; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Shibata, Osamu

    2008-02-15

    The effect of alkanoic acid [CH(3)(CH(2))(n-2)COOH; HCn] and perfluoroalkanoic acid [CF(3)(CF(2))(n-2)COOH; FCn] monolayers on the water evaporation rate was investigated by thermogravimetry tracing the decrease in amount of water with time. The evaporation rate from the surface covered by a monolayer was measured as a function of temperature and hydrophobic chain length of the acids, where the monolayer was under an equilibrium spreading pressure. From thermal behavior of the crystallized acids, their solid states are C-type in crystalline state over the temperature range from 298.2 to 323.2 K. The dry air was flowed through a furnace tube of a thermogravimetry apparatus at the flow rate of 80 mL min(-1), where the evaporation rate becomes almost constant irrespective of the flow rate. The temperature dependence of the evaporation rate was analyzed kinetically to evaluate the activation energy and thermodynamics values for the activated complex, which demonstrated that these values were almost the same for both alkanoic acids and perfluoroalkanoic acids, although the effect of perfluoroalkanoic acids on the evaporation rate was smaller than that of corresponding hydrogenated fatty acids. The difference in the evaporation rate between FCn and HCn was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), surface potential (DeltaV) at equilibrium spreading pressure, and Langmuir curve (pi-A isotherm), and their results were consistent and supported the difference. PMID:18048050

  3. Relationship between the electrochemical activity of Raney nickel and the rate of hydrogenation of maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Pervii, E.N.; Sofronkov, A.N.; Fedyshina, N.M.

    1986-02-10

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the conditions in which a direct correlation exists between the rate of hydrogenation of maleic acid and the electrochemical activity of catalysts of hydrogen ionization. The rate of maleic acid hydrogenation in presence of Raney nickel catalyst was studied by a combination of volumetric and potentiometric methods.

  4. Constraints on the rate of carbon injection across the PETM - towards a theoretical framework for hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland Turner, S.; Ridgwell, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    As an episode of rapid global warming associated with the release of massive quantities of carbon to the atmosphere and oceans, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) is considered a potential analog for modern anthropogenic carbon emissions. Although there is still some debate regarding the exact mass and isotopic composition of the carbon source responsible for this event, numerical models have been used to interpret existing records as being consistent with a total release of between 3000 and 6000 Pg C. Despite this estimate being comparable to potential future fossil fuel CO2 release, the rate of carbon release during the PETM is still a major area of uncertainty and precludes any straightforward comparisons between the paleo-record and the modern. Here we use the Earth system model cGENIE to quantify the consequences of differing carbon emissions rates on the isotopic record of different carbon reservoirs. We test a range of emissions scenarios - from years to millenia and constant versus pulsed emissions rates - and trace the resulting carbon isotope records within the atmosphere, with depth in the ocean, and in the sedimentary record. We identify the characteristic relationship between the difference in carbon isotope excursion sizes between atmospheric CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the duration of emissions. From available isotope records spanning the PETM we hence constrain the duration of carbon emissions to less than 2500 years. Our experiments also provide a general interpretive framework for assessing rates of carbon emissions for other events.

  5. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    PubMed

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. PMID:27012633

  6. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  7. Uncovering high rates of unsafe injection equipment reuse in rural Cameroon: validation of a survey instrument that probes for specific misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases. Methods All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection. Results Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could prevent an estimated 14-336 HIV

  8. The effect of organic acids on plagioclase dissolution rates and stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Susan A.; Ullman, William J.

    1993-06-01

    The rates of plagioclase dissolution in solutions containing organic acids are up to ten times greater than the rates determined in solutions containing inorganic acids at the same acidity. Initial rates of dissolution are poorly reproduced in replicate experiments. After a day, however, the rates of plagioclase dissolution calculated from the rates of silicon release are reproducible and constant for up to nineteen days. Steady-state rates of dissolution are highest (up to 1.3 × 10 -8 mol/m 2/sec) in acidic solutions (pH ≈ 3) and decrease (to 1 × 10 -11 mol/m 2/sec) as acidity decreases toward neutral pH. The polyfunctional acids, oxalate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and 2-ketoglutarate, are the most effective at promoting dissolution. Acetate and propionate are not as effective as the other organic acids but are nonetheless more effective than solutions containing only inorganic acids. The degree of ligand-promoted enhancement of dissolution rate (rate in organic-containing solution/rate in inorganic solution at the same pH) decreases as acidity increases, indicating that the ligand-promoted dissolution mechanism becomes relatively more important as the rate of proton-promoted dissolution decreases. The stoichiometry of release to solution indicates that dissolution is selective even after the rates of dissolution become constant. As in previously published studies, Na and Ca are rapidly released from the plagioclase feldspar, leaving a surface enriched in Si and/or Al. The ratio of Al/Si released to solution indicates that the stoichiometry of the residual plagioclase surface is a function of pH and the nature of the organic ligand. The ligands which remove Al in preference to Si from the dissolving mineral surface are also those which enhance overall plagioclase dissolution rates.

  9. Sex-Based Differences in Rates, Causes, and Predictors of Death Among Injection Drug Users in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Dong, Huiru; Marshall, Brandon D L; Milloy, Michael-John; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    In the present study, we sought to identify rates, causes, and predictors of death among male and female injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during a period of expanded public health interventions. Data from prospective cohorts of IDUs in Vancouver were linked to the provincial database of vital statistics to ascertain rates and causes of death between 1996 and 2011. Mortality rates were analyzed using Poisson regression and indirect standardization. Predictors of mortality were identified using multivariable Cox regression models stratified by sex. Among the 2,317 participants, 794 (34.3%) of whom were women, there were 483 deaths during follow-up, with a rate of 32.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.3, 35.0) deaths per 1,000 person-years. Standardized mortality ratios were 7.28 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.14) for men and 15.56 (95% CI: 13.31, 18.07) for women. During the study period, mortality rates related to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) declined among men but remained stable among women. In multivariable analyses, HIV seropositivity was independently associated with mortality in both sexes (all P < 0.05). The excess mortality burden among IDUs in our cohorts was primarily attributable to HIV infection; compared with men, women remained at higher risk of HIV-related mortality, indicating a need for sex-specific interventions to reduce mortality among female IDUs in this setting. PMID:26865265

  10. Effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuping Qian; Chiensong Chyang; Weishen Yen

    2009-07-15

    The effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission were investigated in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC), an integration of circular freeboard and a rectangular combustion chamber. Operating conditions, such as the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber, the bed temperature and the injecting location of acetic acid, were determined by means of response surface methodology (RSM), which enables the examination of parameters with a moderate number of experiments. In RSM, NO emission concentration after acetic acid injection and NO removal percentage at the exit of the VFBC are used as the objective function. The results show that the bed temperature has a more important effect on the NO emission than the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber have a more important effect on the NO removal percentage than the bed temperature. NO emission can be decreased by injecting the acetic acid into the combustion chamber, and NO emission decreases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location above the distributor. On the other hand, NO removal percentage increases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location, and NO emission increases with the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber and the bed temperature. NO removal percentage increases with the stoichiometric oxygen, and increases first, then decreases with the bed temperature. Also, a higher NO removal percentage could be obtained at 850{sup o}C. 26 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Endometriosis, Ovarian Reserve and Live Birth Rate Following In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    PubMed

    Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Jianini, Bruna Talita Gazeto Melo; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether women with endometriosis have different ovarian reserves and reproductive outcomes when compared with women without this diagnosis undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and to compare the reproductive outcomes between women with and without the diagnosis considering the ovarian reserve assessed by antral follicle count (AFC). Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women who underwent IVF/ICSI in a university hospital in Brazil between January 2011 and December 2012. All patients were followed up until a negative pregnancy test or until the end of the pregnancy. The primary outcomes assessed were number of retrieved oocytes and live birth. Women were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis of endometriosis, and each group was divided again into a group that had AFC ≤ 6 (poor ovarian reserve) and another that had AFC ≥ 7 (normal ovarian reserve). Continuous variables with normal distribution were compared using unpaired t-test, and those without normal distribution, using Mann-Whitney test. Binary data were compared using either Fisher's exact test or Chi-square (χ(2)) test. The significance level was set as p < 0.05. Results 787 women underwent IVF/ICSI (241 of which had endometriosis). Although the mean age has been similar between women with and without the diagnosis of endometriosis (33.8 ± 4 versus 33.7 ± 4.4 years, respectively), poor ovarian reserves were much more common in women with endometriosis (39.8 versus 22.7%). The chance of achieving live birth was similar between women with the diagnosis of endometriosis and those without it (19.1 versus 22.5%), and also when considering only women with a poor ovarian reserve (9.4 versus 8.9%) and only those with a normal ovarian reserve (25.5 versus 26.5%). Conclusions Women diagnosed with endometriosis are more likely to have a poor ovarian reserve; however, their chance of conceiving by

  12. Thermal properties of extruded/injection-molded poly(lactic acid) and biobased composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to determine the degree of compatibility between PLA and different biomaterials (fibers), PLA was compounded with sugar beet pulp and apple fibers. Fibers were added at 85:15 and 70:30 PLA:Fiber. The composites were blended by extrusion followed by injection molding. Differential Scannin...

  13. Functional and histopathological changes induced by intraparenchymal injection of kainic acid in the rat cervical spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Fabián; Zanuzzi, Carolina N; Martínez, Agustín; Barbeito, Claudio G; Portiansky, Enrique L

    2015-07-01

    Kainic acid (KA) is an analog of the neurotransmitter glutamate and is widely used as an excitotoxic agent to lesion spinal cord networks, thus, providing an interesting model to learn basic mechanisms of spinal cord injury. The present work was aimed to evaluate motor and sensory performance of rats and analyze morphometric parameters of spinal cord neurons after KA injection. Animals were injected either with 0.75, 1 or 1.25 mM of KA at the C5 segment of the cervical spinal cord. Motor and sensory performance of the rats were evaluate at day 0 (before injection) and at days 1, 2, 3 and 7 post-injection (pi) and compared with those of saline-treated and non-operated animals. Animals were sacrificed at each time point for morphometric and histopathological analysis and compared among groups. All KA-treated animals showed a significant impairment at the motor and sensory tests for the ipsilateral forelimb in a concentration-dependent manner in comparison to saline-treated and non-operated animals. Neuronal cell count showed a significant loss of neurons at C4, C5 and C6 cervical segments when compared with those of saline-treated and non-operated animals. The contralateral side of the cervical segments in KA-treated rats remained unchanged. Some improvement at the motor and sensory tests was observed in animals injected with 0.75 and 1mM KA. Moreover, a mild increase in the neuronal count of the damaged segments was also recorded. The improvement recorded in the motor and sensory tests by day 7 pi may be a consequence of a neuron repairing mechanism triggered soon after the KA excitotoxic effect. PMID:26014486

  14. Dissolution rates of carbonated hydroxyapatite in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Hankermeyer, Christine R; Ohashi, Kevin L; Delaney, David C; Ross, John; Constantz, Brent R

    2002-02-01

    Osteoclasts have been shown to dissolve efficiently and effectively the mineral phase of bone by locally controlling the environment surrounding the cell. Although this mineral phase has been identified and well characterized as carbonated hydroxyapatite, there is little understanding of the factors that affect the dissolution properties of this mineral phase. Mimicking the mechanism by which osteoclasts dissolve the mineral phase of bone may provide insight into methods for the decalcification of atherosclerotic mineral deposits in the vascular system. Accordingly, a detailed characterization of the effects of various chemical and mechanical parameters on the dissolution of carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral was investigated in this study. Increases in the mineral dissolution rate (2-10 times) were associated with increases in dissolving solution [H+], osmolality, temperature, and flow rate. Mineral dissolution rate increases (5-8 times) were associated with greater surface area of the mineral and mechanical agitation of the dissolving solution. PMID:11771694

  15. The Impact of the Flow Field Heterogeneity and of the Injection Rate on the Effective Reaction Rates in Carbonates: a Study at the Pore Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J. P. P.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate rocks are notoriously difficult to characterize. Their abrupt facies variations give rise to drastic changes in the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. Such heterogeneity, when further associated with variations in rock mineralogy due to diagenetic processes, result in a challenging scenario to model from the pore to the field scale. Micro-CT imaging is one of the most promising technologies to characterize porous rocks. The understanding at the pore scale of reactive and non-reactive transport is being pushed forward by recent developments in both imaging capability - 3D images with resolution of a few microns - and in modeling techniques - flow simulations in giga-cell models. We will present a particle-based method capable of predicting the evolution of petrophysical properties of carbonate cores subjected to CO2 injection at reservoir conditions (i.e. high pressures and temperatures). Reactive flow is simulated directly on the voxels of high resolution micro-CT images of rocks. Reactants are tracked using a semi-analytical streamline tracing algorithm and rock-fluid interaction is controlled by the diffusive flux of particles from the pores to the grains. We study the impact of the flow field heterogeneity and of the injection rate on the sample-averaged (i.e. effective) reaction rate of calcite dissolution in three rocks of increasing complexity: a beadpack, an oolitic limestone and a bioclastic limestone. We show how decreases in the overall dissolution rate depend on both the complexity of the pore space and also on the flow rate. This occurs even in chemically homogenous rocks. Our results suggest that the large differences observed between laboratory and field scale rates could, in part, be explained by the inhomogeneity in the flow field at the pore scale and the consequent transport-limited flux of reactants at the solid surface. Our results give valuable insight into the processes governing carbonate dissolution and provide a starting

  16. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2013-12-28

    Stimuli triggered polymers provide a variety of applications related with the biomedical fields. Among various stimuli triggered mechanisms, thermoresponsive mechanisms have been extensively investigated, as they are relatively more convenient and effective stimuli for biomedical applications. In a contemporary approach for achieving the sustained action of proteins, peptides and bioactives, injectable depots and implants have always remained the thrust areas of research. In the same series, Poloxamer based thermogelling copolymers have their own limitations regarding biodegradability. Thus, there is a need to have an alternative biomaterial for the formulation of injectable hydrogel, which must remain biocompatible along with safety and efficacy. In the same context, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and composition prospects of smart PEG/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. The manuscript also highlights the synthesis scheme and stability characteristics of these copolymers, which will surely help the researchers working in the same area. We have also emphasized the applied use of these smart copolymers along with their formulation problems, which could help in understanding the possible modifications related with these, to overcome their inherent associated limitations. PMID:24144918

  17. Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarjun, K. P.; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN - waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.

  18. Direct injection analysis of fatty and resin acids in papermaking process waters by HPLC/MS.

    PubMed

    Valto, Piia; Knuutinen, Juha; Alén, Raimo

    2011-04-01

    A novel HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/MS (HPLC-APCI/MS) method was developed for the rapid analysis of selected fatty and resin acids typically present in papermaking process waters. A mixture of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, and dehydroabietic acids was separated by a commercial HPLC column (a modified stationary C(18) phase) using gradient elution with methanol/0.15% formic acid (pH 2.5) as a mobile phase. The internal standard (myristic acid) method was used to calculate the correlation coefficients and in the quantitation of the results. In the thorough quality parameters measurement, a mixture of these model acids in aqueous media as well as in six different paper machine process waters was quantitatively determined. The measured quality parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy, clearly indicated that, compared with traditional gas chromatographic techniques, the simple method developed provided a faster chromatographic analysis with almost real-time monitoring of these acids. PMID:21360668

  19. A methodology for achieving high-speed rates for artificial conductance injection in electrically excitable biological cells.

    PubMed

    Butera, R J; Wilson, C G; Delnegro, C A; Smith, J C

    2001-12-01

    We present a novel approach to implementing the dynamic-clamp protocol (Sharp et al., 1993), commonly used in neurophysiology and cardiac electrophysiology experiments. Our approach is based on real-time extensions to the Linux operating system. Conventional PC-based approaches have typically utilized single-cycle computational rates of 10 kHz or slower. In thispaper, we demonstrate reliable cycle-to-cycle rates as fast as 50 kHz. Our system, which we call model reference current injection (MRCI); pronounced merci is also capable of episodic logging of internal state variables and interactive manipulation of model parameters. The limiting factor in achieving high speeds was not processor speed or model complexity, but cycle jitter inherent in the CPU/motherboard performance. We demonstrate these high speeds and flexibility with two examples: 1) adding action-potential ionic currents to a mammalian neuron under whole-cell patch-clamp and 2) altering a cell's intrinsic dynamics via MRCI while simultaneously coupling it via artificial synapses to an internal computational model cell. These higher rates greatly extend the applicability of this technique to the study of fast electrophysiological currents such fast a currents and fast excitatory/inhibitory synapses. PMID:11759927

  20. Sequential injection titration method using second-order signals: determination of acidity in plant oils and biodiesel samples.

    PubMed

    del Río, Vanessa; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

    2010-06-15

    A new concept of flow titration is proposed and demonstrated for the determination of total acidity in plant oils and biodiesel. We use sequential injection analysis (SIA) with a diode array spectrophotometric detector linked to chemometric tools such as multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). This system is based on the evolution of the basic specie of an acid-base indicator, alizarine, when it comes into contact with a sample that contains free fatty acids. The gradual pH change in the reactor coil due to diffusion and reaction phenomenona allows the sequential appearance of both species of the indicator in the detector coil, recording a data matrix for each sample. The SIA-MCR-ALS method helps to reduce the amounts of sample, the reagents and the time consumed. Each determination consumes 0.413ml of sample, 0.250ml of indicator and 3ml of carrier (ethanol) and generates 3.333ml of waste. The frequency of the analysis is high (12 samples h(-1) including all steps, i.e., cleaning, preparing and analysing). The utilized reagents are of common use in the laboratory and it is not necessary to use the reagents of perfect known concentration. The method was applied to determine acidity in plant oil and biodiesel samples. Results obtained by the proposed method compare well with those obtained by the official European Community method that is time consuming and uses large amounts of organic solvents. PMID:20441941

  1. Injectable Poly-L-Lactic Acid: Understanding Its Use in the Current Era.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Greene, Thomas; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2016-06-01

    A survey of Sculptra® Aesthetic injectors was conducted to understand how the product is being currently reconstituted and injected. Questions were asked of injectors to understand their reasons for choice and volume of diluent(s), additions, and time for the reconstitution process. These results are discussed in the context of the past history of the product over the last decade, with a focus on adverse events such as papules and nodules.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):759-762. PMID:27272085

  2. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  3. Protodeboronation of Heteroaromatic, Vinyl, and Cyclopropyl Boronic Acids: pH-Rate Profiles, Autocatalysis, and Disproportionation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Paul A; Leach, Andrew G; Campbell, Andrew D; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2016-07-27

    pH-rate profiles for aqueous-organic protodeboronation of 18 boronic acids, many widely viewed as unstable, have been studied by NMR and DFT. Rates were pH-dependent, and varied substantially between the boronic acids, with rate maxima that varied over 6 orders of magnitude. A mechanistic model containing five general pathways (k1-k5) has been developed, and together with input of [B]tot, KW, Ka, and KaH, the protodeboronation kinetics can be correlated as a function of pH (1-13) for all 18 species. Cyclopropyl and vinyl boronic acids undergo very slow protodeboronation, as do 3- and 4-pyridyl boronic acids (t0.5 > 1 week, pH 12, 70 °C). In contrast, 2-pyridyl and 5-thiazolyl boronic acids undergo rapid protodeboronation (t0.5 ≈ 25-50 s, pH 7, 70 °C), via fragmentation of zwitterionic intermediates. Lewis acid additives (e.g., Cu, Zn salts) can attenuate (2-pyridyl) or accelerate (5-thiazolyl and 5-pyrazolyl) fragmentation. Two additional processes compete when the boronic acid and the boronate are present in sufficient proportions (pH = pKa ± 1.6): (i) self-/autocatalysis and (ii) sequential disproportionations of boronic acid to borinic acid and borane. PMID:27355973

  4. Influence of stearic acid on the structure and rheological behavior of injection-molded ZTA suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cong; Wang, Bo; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Cao

    2013-01-01

    The zirconia-toughened-alumina (ZTA) composite powder was exposed to a prior ball milling treatment with a small amount of stearic acid (SA) before the traditional blending process. The effect of different amounts of stearic acid on surface properties of the powder, the particle size distribution of the powder, and the rheological properties of the suspension were systematically studied within the design of experiments. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was used to prove the chemical interaction between the stearic acid and the ZTA powder. The effects of SA content on the particle sizes and their distribution were carefully examined. Rheological properties such as viscosity, yield stress, and power law exponent of the suspensions were determined within a temperature range of 140-170 °C. The optimal content of SA to improve the properties of the suspensions was found to be 3 wt.%.

  5. Biotransformation of acrolein in rat: excretion of mercapturic acids after inhalation and intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Linhart, I; Frantík, E; Vodicková, L; Vosmanská, M; Smejkal, J; Mitera, J

    1996-01-01

    Biotransformation of acrolein (ACR) was studied in vivo in the rat following inhalation and ip administration. The major and minor urinary metabolites were 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (HPMA) and 2-carboxyethylmercapturic acid (CEMA), respectively. Male Wistar rats were exposed to ACR, 23, 42, 77 and 126 mg/m3, for 1 hr. The sum of mercapturic acids HPMA and CEMA excreted within 24 hr after the exposure amounted to 0.87 +/- 0.12, 1.34 +/- 0.5, 2.81 +/- 1.15, and 7.13 +/- 1.56 mumol/kg, i.e., 10.9 +/- 1.5, 13.3 +/- 5.0, 16.7 +/- 6.9, and 21.5 +/- 4.8% of the estimated absorbed dose, respectively. The dose estimate was based on reported values of minute respiratory volume and respiratory tract retention and was corrected for the ACR-induced changes in minute respiratory volume. In the relevant dose range (8.9 to 35.7 mumol/kg) the portion of mercapturic acids excreted was nearly constant for ip exposed rats. The sum of HPMA and CEMA amounted to 29.1 +/- 6.5% of the dose. These results indicate that the deficiency in rat lung metabolism of ACR to acrylic acid previously observed is not compensated by the other detoxication pathway in vivo, mercapturic acid formation. The health hazard arising from inhalation of ACR is likely to be higher than that from other routes of exposure. PMID:8560469

  6. Measurement of Fatty Acid Oxidation Rates in Animal Tissues and Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Frank K.; Green, Michelle F.; Koves, Timothy R.; Hirschey, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    While much oncological research has focused on metabolic shifts in glucose and amino acid oxidation, recent evidence suggests that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) may also play an important role in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. Here, we present a simple method for measuring FAO rates using radiolabeled palmitate, common laboratory reagents, and standard supplies. This protocol is broadly applicable for measuring FAO rates in cultured cancer cells as well as in both malignant and nontransformed animal tissues. PMID:24862277

  7. Lip Injection Techniques Using Small-Particle Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Filler.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Annie; Fabi, Sabrina; Dayan, Steven; Nogueira, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    The shape and fullness of the lips have a significant role in facial aesthetics and outward appearance. The corrective needs of a patient can range from a subtle enhancement to a complete recontouring including correction of perioral rhytides. A comprehensive understanding of the lower face anatomical features and injection site techniques are foundational information for injectors. Likewise, the choice of filler material contributes to the success of the injection techniques used, and facilitates a safe, effective, and natural appearing outcome. The small-particle HA 20 mg/mL with lidocaine 0.3% (SP-HAL, Restylane® Silk; Galderma Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas) is indicated for submucosal implantation for lip augmentation and dermal implantation for correction of perioral rhytides. Due to its rheological properties and smaller particle size, SP-HAL is a well-suited filler for the enhancement and correction of lip shape and volume, as well as for the correction of very fine perioral rhytides. This work is a combined overview of techniques found in the current literature and recommendations provided by contributing authors.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1076-1082. PMID:27602969

  8. Efficacy of postoperative bladder irrigation with water for injection in reducing recurrence rates of non muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Nikolaos; Hastazeris, Konstantinos; Kafarakis, Vasileios; Tsimaris, Ioannis; Aspiotis, Spiridon; Stratis, Antonios; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos Efthimios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the results of bladder irrigation with Water for Injection (WFI) after transurethral resection of bladder tumours for comparison with those for adjuvant use of BCG. A total of 239 patients (158 with single tumours, group A, and 81 with multiple tumours, group B) received continuous intravesical postoperative irrigation with WFI. Some 128 patients received intravesical irrigation with WFI, followed by weekly instillations of BCG (group C). Recurrence-free rate (RFR) and recurrence-free intervals (RFI) were recorded. RFR for those patients who received only intravesical irrigation with WFI (groups A and B) was 75.8%, 66.2% and 63.2% at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of follow up, respectively. Corresponding rates for group C were 61.7%, 55.4% and 49%. Median RFI in group B were 18, 11, 15, 15 and 12 months for Ta, T1, grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 tumours, respectively. In group C corresponding intervals were 20, 33, 8, 20 and 42 months. BCG improved RFR only in T1 (p=0.014) and grade 3 tumours (p=0.007). In conclusion, postoperative bladder irrigation with WFI could increase RFR during the first and second year of follow up. PMID:24716967

  9. Roles of Atomic Injection Rate and External Magnetic Field on Optical Properties of Elliptical Polarized Probe Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, R.; Asadpour, S. H.; Batebi, S.; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the optical properties of an open four-level tripod atomic system driven by an elliptically polarized probe field in the presence of the external magnetic field and compare its properties with the corresponding closed system. Our result reveals that absorption, dispersion and group velocity of probe field can be manipulated by adjusting the phase difference between the two circularly polarized components of a single coherent field, magnetic field and cavity parameters i.e. the atomic exit rate from cavity and atomic injection rates. We show that the system can exhibit multiple electromagnetically induced transparency windows in the presence of the external magnetic field. The numerical result shows that the probe field in the open system can be amplified by appropriate choice of cavity parameters, while in the closed system with introduce appropriate phase difference between fields the probe field can be enhanced. Also it is shown that the group velocity of light pulse can be controlled by external magnetic field, relative phase of applied fields and cavity parameters. By changing the parameters the group velocity of light pulse changes from subluminal to superluminal light propagation and vice versa.

  10. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

  11. Biodegradability of injection molded bioplastics containing polylactic acid and poultry feather fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradability of three types of bioplastic pots was evaluated by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from lab-scale compost reactors containing mixtures of pot fragments and compost inoculum held at 58 C for 60 days. Biodegradability of pot type A (composed of 100% polylactic acid (PLA)) was...

  12. Effects of varying media, temperature, and growth rates on the intracellular concentrations of yeast amino acids.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Force, E; Benítez, T

    1995-01-01

    Variations of the yeast free amino acid pool under different culture conditions were studied in two Saccharomyces strains, the laboratory haploid strain S288C and the industrial fermentative yeast IFI256. The internal amino acid pool of both strains was measured when grown in laboratory (minimal and complete) versus semiindustrial (molasses with or without added biotin and/or diammonium phosphate) media, in fermentable (glucose, fructose, sucrose) versus respirable (glycerol) carbon sources, in different temperatures (22, 30, and 37 degrees C), pHs (2.0-4.75), and growth rates (0.018-0.24 h-1) in continuous culture, and at different phases of the growth curve in batch culture (lag, exponential, early and late stationary). Results indicated that environmental conditions, particularly the presence of amino acids in the media, enormously influenced the intracellular amino acid concentration. Higher values were detected in molasses than in laboratory media and in fermentable carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose) than in glycerol. Variations in the amino acid pool along the growth curve were greater at 37 degrees C than at other temperatures; in all cases, the highest values were measured at the beginning of the exponential phase. In continuous culture and at different growth rates, intracellular free amino acid concentrations increased by 3-10-fold when the growth rate was lower than 0.05 h-1, representing 20-35% of the total (free plus protein) amino acid content and indicating that amino acid yield was a partly growth-linked parameter. PMID:7654310

  13. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  14. The management of biofilm formation after hyaluronic acid gel filler injections: a review

    PubMed Central

    DUMITRAŞCU, DINU I.; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU V.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim One of the most popular procedures of facial fillers in recent years has become the use of hyaluronic acid (HA). However, this method may be associated with local side effects of different severity. Many of them are not due to allergies, as previously believed, but to the formation of biofilm. We review the current knowledge on biofilm after HA. Methods All pertinent full text papers retrieved from PubMed under search words: “biofilm”, “hyaluronic acid”, “dermal fillers”, “hyaluronic acid complications” and “hyaluronic acid side effects” were analyzed; 29 of 60 articles were selected fro analysis. Results Local infections were reported: 13 cases are attributable to the activation of the biofilm. Clinical evolution is generally mild. Therapy should avoid NSAID and is based on the administration of antibiotics, oral corticosteroids, or 5-Flourouracil. Removal of HA with hyaluronidase has also been proposed. Conclusions The use of HA in cosmetic procedures might be accompanied by local adverse effects attributable to biofilm formation. This usually has a mild evolution, but in special cases requires specific therapy. PMID:26527945

  15. Formation rates, stability and reactivity of sulfuric acid - amine clusters predicted by computational chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtén, Theo; Ortega, Ismael; Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Loukonen, Ville; Reiman, Heidi; McGrath, Matthew; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-04-01

    Despite the importance of atmospheric particle formation for both climate and air quality, both experiments and non-empirical models using e.g. sulfuric acid, ammonia and water as condensing vapors have so far been unable to reproduce atmospheric observations using realistic trace gas concentrations. Recent experimental and theoretical evidence has shown that this mystery is likely resolved by amines. Combining first-principles evaporation rates for sulfuric acid - dimethylamine clusters with cluster kinetic modeling, we show that even sub-ppt concentrations of amines, together with atmospherically realistic concentrations of sulfuric acid, result in formation rates close to those observed in the atmosphere. Our simulated cluster formation rates are also close to, though somewhat larger than, those measured at the CLOUD experiment in CERN for both sulfuric acid - ammonia and sulfuric acid - dimethylamine systems. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the remaining discrepancy for the sulfuric acid - amine particle formation rates is likely caused by steric hindrances to cluster formation (due to alkyl groups of the amine molecules) rather than by significant errors in the evaporation rates. First-principles molecular dynamic and reaction kinetic modeling shed further light on the microscopic physics and chemistry of sulfuric acid - amine clusters. For example, while the number and type of hydrogen bonds in the clusters typically reach their equilibrium values on a picosecond timescale, and the overall bonding patterns predicted by traditional "static" quantum chemical calculations seem to be stable, the individual atoms participating in the hydrogen bonds continuously change at atmospherically realistic temperatures. From a chemical reactivity perspective, we have also discovered a surprising phenomenon: clustering with sulfuric acid molecules slightly increases the activation energy required for the abstraction of alkyl hydrogens from amine molecules. This implies

  16. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  17. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  18. Investigation of salt formation between memantine and pamoic acid: Its exploitation in nanocrystalline form as long acting injection.

    PubMed

    Mittapelly, Naresh; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Pandey, Gitu; Sharma, Shweta; Arya, Abhishek; Bhatta, Rabi Shankar; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we prepared memantine-pamoic acid (MEM-PAM) salt by counter ion exchange in the aqueous phase to reduce the water solubility of MEM hydrochloride (native form) to make it suitable for long acting injection. The ratio of MEM to PAM in salt formation was optimized to maximize the loading efficiency and complexation efficiency. The 2:1 molar ratio of MEM to PAM salt form displayed nearly 95% complexation efficiency and 50% drug loading. The solubility was decreased by a ∼1250 folds. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Powder X-ray Diffraction Analysis (PXRD) studies revealed the formation of new solid phase. Additionally, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the anhydrous nature of the salt form. Through Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) we identified the molecular interactions. Further, the microcrystals of the salt were transformed into nanocrystals (NCs) using high pressure homogenization. The particle size distribution and atomic force microscopy confirmed the monodispersed and spherical shape of the NCs. The in vitro dissolution studies were performed under sink condition in phosphate buffer saline pH 6.8. The results of MTT assay in murine fibroblast 3T3 cell line show that the NCs were less cytotoxic and more tolerable than plain MEM HCl. The in vivo performance of NCs administered as i.m. injection at three different doses in female Sprague-Dawley rats showed that the plasma levels lasted till the 24th day of the study. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-∞ and Cmax increased linearly with increasing dose. Therefore, the results suggest that injectable NCs could represent a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of AD. PMID:26850817

  19. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  20. Consensus recommendations on the use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid for facial and nonfacial volumization.

    PubMed

    Vleggaar, Danny; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lorenc, Z Paul; Andrews, J Todd; Butterwick, Kimberly; Comstock, Jody; Hanke, C William; O'Daniel, T Gerald; Palm, Melanie D; Roberts, Wendy E; Sadick, Neil; Teller, Craig F

    2014-04-01

    Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was approved for use in Europe in 1999. In the United States, it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus, and in 2009 for cosmetic indications in immune-competent patients. The need for consistent, effective PLLA usage recommendations is heightened by an increased consumer demand for soft tissue augmentation and a shift toward a younger demographic. Over the past 14 years, considerable experience has been gained with this agent, and we have come to better understand the clinical, technical, and mechanistic aspects of PLLA use that need to be considered to optimize patient outcomes. These consensus recommendations regarding patient selection, proper preparation and storage, optimal injection techniques, and other practical considerations reflect the body of evidence in the medical literature, as well as the collective experience of this author group. PMID:24719078

  1. Direct injection method for quantitation of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Kimura, H; Maekubo, T; Tomita, T; Senda, M; Urata, G; Kajiwara, M

    1992-07-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for determining delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in urine was established, using direct injection of urine into a high-performance liquid chromatographic column, with fluorometric detection after post-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The recovery of ALA was about 100% and ALA was completely separated on an ion exchange column (retention time, 38 min). The detection limit for ALA was 10 pmol (S/N = 2). The mean levels of urinary ALA of 10 healthy volunteers, 4 patients with acute intermittent porphyria, and 2 workers occupationally exposed to lead were 0.76, 5.25, and 23.54 mg/l, respectively. Because of its simplicity, the method is considered to be suitable for routine analysis of urinary ALA in the clinical laboratory. PMID:1394716

  2. Enzymatically-crosslinked injectable hydrogels based on biomimetic dextran-hyaluronic acid conjugates for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jin, R; Teixeira, L S Moreira; Dijkstra, P J; van Blitterswijk, C A; Karperien, M; Feijen, J

    2010-04-01

    Polysaccharide hybrids consisting of hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted with a dextran-tyramine conjugate (Dex-TA) were synthesized and investigated as injectable biomimetic hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. The design of these hybrids (denoted as HA-g-Dex-TA) is based on the molecular structure of proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of native cartilage. Hydrogels of HA-g-Dex-TA were rapidly formed within 2 min via enzymatic crosslinking of the tyramine residues in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. The gelation time, equilibrium swelling and storage modulus could be adjusted by varying the degree of substitution of tyramine residues and polymer concentration. Bovine chondrocytes incorporated in the HA-g-Dex-TA hydrogels remained viable, as shown by the Live-dead assay. Moreover, enhanced chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production were observed in the HA-g-Dex-TA hydrogels compared to Dex-TA hydrogels. These results suggest that HA-g-Dex-TA hydrogels have a high potential as injectable scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:20116847

  3. The effect of limestone treatments on the rate of acid generation from pyritic mine gangue.

    PubMed

    Burt, R A; Caruccio, F T

    1986-09-01

    Surface water enters the Haile Gold Mine, Lancaster County, South Carolina by means of a small stream and is ponded behind a dam and in an abandoned pit. This water is affected by acidic drainage. In spite of the large exposures of potentially acid producing pyritic rock, the flux of acid to the water is relatively low. Nevertheless, the resulting pH values of the mine water are low (around 3.5) due to negligible buffering capacity. In view of the observed low release of acidity, the potential for acid drainage abatement by limestone ameliorants appears feasible.This study investigated the effects of limestone treatment on acid generation rates of the Haile mine pyritic rocks through a series of leaching experiments. Below a critical alkalinity threshold value, solutions of dissolved limestone were found consistently to accelerate the rate of pyrite oxidation by varying degrees. The oxidation rates were further accelerated by admixing solid limestone with the pyritic rock. However, after a period of about a month, the pyrite oxidation rate of the admixed samples declined to a level lower than that of untreated pyrite. Leachates produced by the pyrite and limestone mixtures contained little if any iron. Further, in the mixtures, an alteration of the pyrite surface was apparent.The observed behaviour of the treated pyrite appears to be related to the immersion of the pyrite grains within a high alkalinity/high pH environment. The high pH increases the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron which results in a higher concentration of ferric iron at the pyrite surface. This, in turn, increases the rate of pyrite oxidation. Above a threshold alkalinity value, the precipitation of hydrous iron oxides at the pyrite surface eventually outpaces acid generation and coats the pyrite surface, retarding the rate of pyrite oxidation. PMID:24214013

  4. Flip-flop of oleic acid in a phospholipid membrane: rate and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2014-11-13

    Flip-flop of protonated oleic acid molecules dissolved at two different concentrations in membranes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations at a time scale of several microseconds. Direct, single-molecule flip-flop events are observed at this time scale, and the flip-flop rate is estimated at 0.2-0.3 μs(-1). As oleic acid molecules move toward the center of the bilayer during flip-flop, they undergo gradual, correlated translational, and rotational motion. Rare, double-flipping events of two hydrogen-bonded oleic acid molecules are also observed. A two-dimensional free energy surface is obtained for the translational and rotational degree of freedom of the oleic acid molecule, and the minimum energy path on this surface is determined. A barrier to flip-flop of ~4.2 kcal/mol is found at the center of the bilayer. A two-dimensional diffusion model is found to provide a good description of the flip-flop process. The fast flip-flop rate lends support to the proposal that fatty acids permeate membranes without assistance of transport proteins. It also suggests that desorption rather than flip-flop is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid transport through membranes. The relation of flip-flop rates to the evolution of ancestral cellular systems is discussed. PMID:25319959

  5. Influence of fatty acid oxidation rate on glycerol release from cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, T.S.; Severson, D.L.

    1986-03-05

    Quiescent cardiac myocytes are characterized by low rates of fatty acid oxidation due to the reduced energy demand compared with beating hearts. The accumulation of intracellular fatty acid metabolites may, therefore, result in feed-back inhibition of the cardiac lipase responsible for the mobilization of triacylglycerols (lipolysis). The objective of this study was to examine if interventions that increase fatty acid oxidation rates in myocytes have an effect on lipolysis. Addition of 100 ..mu..M dinitrophenol (DNP) to calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes caused an increase in the rate of /sup 14/C-oleic acid oxidation from 1.11 +/- 0.06 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 nmol /sup 14/CO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ cells/min (115% stimulation; mean +/- S.D., n = 3). In parallel incubations, DNP increased the rate of lipolysis from 4.4 +/- 1.7 to 13.6 +/- 3.2 nmol glycerol/10/sup 6/ cells/30 min (215% stimulation). The addition of 1 mM barium to a modified Ringer's incubation medium produced an increase in the contractile activity of the myocytes, and increased the rates of oleic acid oxidation from 0.62 +/- 0.16 to 0.88 +/- 0.23 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells/min (42% stimulation; n = 6) and lipolysis from 13.1 +/- 6.5 to 22.2 +/- 6.4 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells/30 min (70% stimulation). These data show that stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in myocardial myocytes is accompanied by increased lipolytic rates, the latter probably due to release of feed-back inhibition of cardiac lipases by accumulated fatty acid metabolites.

  6. Development of a real-time chemical injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical injection system is an effective method to minimize chemical waste and reduce the environmental pollution in pesticide spray applications. A microprocessor controlled injection system implementing a ceramic piston metering pump was developed to accurately dispense chemicals to be mixed wi...

  7. Effects of dose, flow rate, and bile acid on diclofenac disposition in the perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Misato; Kawase, Atsushi; Matsushima, Yuka; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    An in situ perfused rat liver system is useful for studying the hepatic disposition of drugs and their metabolites. However, the effects of the perfusion conditions on drug disposition are unclear. We examined the effects of conditions such as flow rate (13 or 26 mL/min) and bile acid on disposition of diclofenac (DF) as a model drug and DF metabolites [diclofenac-1-O-acyl glucuronide (DF-Glu) or 4'-hydroxydiclofenac (DF-4'OH)] in the absence of albumin. DF, DF-Glu, and DF-4'OH concentrations in the perfusate and cumulative amounts of DF-Glu excreted in bile were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. DF in the perfusate was rapidly eliminated as the perfusate flow rate increased. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0-60) for DF-Glu and DF-4'OH in a perfusate containing bile acid was lower at a flow rate of 26 and 13 mL/min, respectively. The bile flow rate at 26 mL/min with 24 μM of bile acid in the perfusate was significantly higher (ca. 3.5 times) compared with that at 13 mL/min without bile acid. Cumulative biliary DF-Glu excretion was also dramatically affected by the flow rate and addition of bile acid. This study indicated that the flow rate and bile acid in the perfused rat liver were key factors for bile flow rate and DF, DF-Glu, and DF-4'OH disposition in the absence of albumin. PMID:25656736

  8. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in electrolyte of lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Rocha, F R; Nóbrega, J A

    1997-12-19

    Electrolytes of lead-acid batteries can contain several impurities that reduce battery performance and lifetime. Nitrate ions are among these species because they can be reduced to ammonium in the lead electrode. In this work, an analytical method was developed to determine this anion in electrolytes of batteries used in telephone systems, in which nitrate concentration must be lower than 10 mg l(-1). The procedure consists in the reduction to nitrite in a copperized cadmium column followed by Griess's modified reaction. Due to the high sensitivity of this methodology, a large dispersion flow diagram (dispersion coefficient = 27.8) was projected. Thus, it was possible to eliminate the Schlieren effect and to obtain a NH (3)NH (+)(4) buffer in the sample zone in a suitable pH for reduction reaction (pH congruent with 8). Negative interference due to iron(III) was overcome by addition of excess iron (200 mg l(-1)). A relocatable filter was used to remove iron(III) hydroxide precipitate. This avoided adsorption on the surface of the filings and increase of back pressure. The analytical frequency is 80 measurements/h and the detection limit was estimated as 0.3 mg l(-1) in a 99.7% confidence level. A 2.2% relative standard deviation was obtained in a repeatability study (n = 10) by using a 25 mg l(-1) nitrate solution in a 3.6 mol l(-1) sulfuric acid medium. Recoveries from 95.5 to 104% were obtained by spiking 5.00 or 10.0 mg l(-1) of nitrate in samples of battery electrolyte. PMID:18967001

  9. Famotidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Famotidine injection is in a class of ...

  10. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a class of ...

  11. Glucose injections into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum of rats prior to T-maze training: Modulation of learning rates and strategy selection

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial (Pcrit) administered after rats achieved criterion (nine of 10 correct choices) varied by group. All groups predominately exhibited a response strategy on a probe trial administered after overtraining, i.e., after 90 trials. In experiment 1, rats that received intrahippocampal glucose injections showed enhanced acquisition of the T-maze and showed increased use of response solutions at Pcrit compared with that of unimplanted and artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF)-treated groups. These findings suggest that glucose enhanced hippocampal functions to accelerate the rate of learning and the early adoption of a response strategy. In experiment 2, rats that received intrastriatal glucose injections exhibited place solutions early in training and reached criterion more slowly than did aCSF controls, with learning rates comparable to those of unoperated and operated-uninjected controls. Relative to unoperated, operated-uninjected and glucose-injected rats, rats that received intrastriatal aCSF injections showed enhanced acquisition of the T-maze and increased use of response solutions at Pcrit. The unexpected enhanced acquisition seen after striatal aCSF injections suggests at least two possible interpretations: (1) aCSF impaired striatal function, thereby releasing competition with the hippocampus and ceding control over learning to the hippocampus during early training trials; and (2) aCSF enhanced striatal functioning to facilitate striatal-sensitive learning. With either interpretation, the results indicate that intrastriatal glucose injections compensated for the aCSF-induced effect. Finally, enhanced acquisition regardless

  12. Relative Reaction Rates of Sulfamic Acid and Hydroxylamine with Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-03-28

    This report describes a study of comparative reaction rates where the reductant is in excess, as in the 1B bank in the Purex process. The results of this work apply to planned plant tests to partially substitute HAN for the ferrous sulfamate reductant in the Purex 1B bank.

  13. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid reduce blood loss in cemented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Digas, G; Koutsogiannis, I; Meletiadis, G; Antonopoulou, E; Karamoulas, V; Bikos, Ch

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) versus control group for reduction in blood loss following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 90 patients were prospectively allocated to each of three groups (control, intravenous IV and intra-articular) and underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty. In the IV group, patients received one dose of TXA of 15 mg/kg before deflation of the tourniquet, while in the intra-articular group patients received 2 g TXA via the drain retrogradely after closure of the wound. The mean drained blood loss in control, IV and intra-articular groups was 415 ± 24, 192 ± 21 and 121 ± 17 ml, respectively. About 43 % (control), 23 % (IV) and 17 % (intra-articular) of each group required transfusion, and the mean transfusion was 338, 168 and 79 ml, respectively. Preoperative hemoglobin values decreased at 24 h by 2.80 ± 0.14, 2.24 ± 0.17 and 2.26 ± 0.18 mg/dl, respectively. TXA reduced blood loss and transfusion requirement. Compared with one-dose intravenous administration, intra-articular administration of TXA seems to be more effective in terms of reducing drained blood loss and transfusion frequency. We recommend administration of topical TXA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss. PMID:26169991

  14. Glucose Injections into the Dorsal Hippocampus or Dorsolateral Striatum of Rats Prior to T-Maze Training: Modulation of Learning Rates and Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial…

  15. Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

  16. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  17. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study*

    PubMed Central

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm−2) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ∽28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Results Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm−2, respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS;P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS;P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. Conclusions ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. What's already known about this topic? Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is considered aesthetically unappealing. Liposuction and face-lift are effective treatments for SMF reduction but are

  18. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  19. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  20. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids. PMID:7995200

  1. Factors influencing the rate of non-enzymatic activation of carboxylic and amino acids by ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The nonenzymatic formation of adenylate anhydrides of carboxylic and amino acids is discussed as a necessary step in the origin of the genetic code and protein biosynthesis. Results of studies are presented which have shown the rate of activation to depend on the pKa of the carboxyl group, the pH of the medium, temperature, the divalent metal ion catalyst, salt concentration, and the nature of the amino acid. In particular, it was found that of the various amino acids investigated, phenylalanine had the greatest affinity for the adenine derivatives adenosine and ATP. Results thus indicate that selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides were important during prebiotic chemical evolution, and may have played a major role in the origin of protein synthesis and genetic coding.

  2. The self-crosslinking smart hyaluronic acid hydrogels as injectable three-dimensional scaffolds for cells culture.

    PubMed

    Bian, Shaoquan; He, Mengmeng; Sui, Junhui; Cai, Hanxu; Sun, Yong; Liang, Jie; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-04-01

    Although the disulfide bond crosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels have been reported by many research groups, the major researches were focused on effectively forming hydrogels. However, few researchers paid attention to the potential significance of controlling the hydrogel formation and degradation, improving biocompatibility, reducing the toxicity of exogenous and providing convenience to the clinical operations later on. In this research, the novel controllable self-crosslinking smart hydrogels with in-situ gelation property was prepared by a single component, the thiolated hyaluronic acid derivative (HA-SH), and applied as a three-dimensional scaffold to mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM) for the culture of fibroblasts cells (L929) and chondrocytes. A series of HA-SH hydrogels were prepared depending on different degrees of thiol substitution (ranging from 10 to 60%) and molecule weights of HA (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0MDa). The gelation time, swelling property and smart degradation behavior of HA-SH hydrogel were evaluated. The results showed that the gelation and degradation time of hydrogels could be controlled by adjusting the component of HA-SH polymers. The storage modulus of HA-SH hydrogels obtained by dynamic modulus analysis (DMA) could be up to 44.6kPa. In addition, HA-SH hydrogels were investigated as a three-dimensional scaffold for the culture of fibroblasts cells (L929) and chondrocytes cells in vitro and as an injectable hydrogel for delivering chondrocytes cells in vivo. These results illustrated that HA-SH hydrogels with controllable gelation process, intelligent degradation behavior, excellent biocompatibility and convenient operational characteristics supplied potential clinical application capacity for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26780252

  3. Fundamental Study on Temperature Dependence of Deposition Rate of Silicic Acid - 13270

    SciTech Connect

    Shinmura, Hayata; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of the silicic acid is one of the key factors to estimate the condition of the repository system after the backfill. This study experimentally examined the temperature dependence of dynamic behavior of supersaturated silicic acid in the co-presence of solid phase, considering Na ions around the repository, and evaluated the deposition rate constant, k, of silicic acid by using the first-order reaction equation considering the specific surface area. The values of k were in the range of 1.0x10{sup -11} to 1.0x10{sup -9} m/s in the temperature range of 288 K to 323 K. The deposition rate became larger with increments of temperature under the Na ion free condition. Besides, in the case of Na ions 0.6 M, colloidal silicic acid decreased dramatically at a certain time. This means that the diameter of the colloidal silicic acid became larger than the pore size of filter (0.45 μm) due to bridging of colloidal silicic acid. Furthermore, this study estimated the range of altering area and the aperture of flow-path in various value of k corresponding to temperature by using advection-dispersion model. The concentration in the flow-path became lower with increments of temperature, and when the value of k is larger than 1.0x10{sup -11} m/s, the deposition range of supersaturated silicic acid was estimated to be less than 20 m around the repository. In addition, the deposition of supersaturated silicic acid led the decrement of flow-path aperture, which was remarkable under the condition of relatively high temperature. Such a clogging in flow paths is expected as a retardation effect of radionuclides. (authors)

  4. Paget’s Disease in an Omani: Long-term Improvement Following a Single Injection of Zoledronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Omayma; Alsaffi, Nooralddin; Hussain, Samir; Woodhouse, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of bone is a patchy skeletal disorder characterized by an increase in bone resorption and formation in the affected areas. It affects up to 3% of individuals of Anglo-Saxon origin over the age of 40 years but is rare in Arabs. Although most patients are asymptomatic, a variety of symptoms and complications may develop directly from bone involvement or secondarily to compression by bone expansion and increased blood flow. The disease can be treated by using medications that inhibit bone resorption, such as calcitonin and the bisphosphonates. Here we describe the case of an Omani patient with the disease, involving the skull, spine, pelvis, and tibia. He presented to the endocrine clinic in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital with a six-year history of headache, bone pain, progressive skull enlargement, and left-sided deafness. His alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was 1500 U/L. His disease responded gradually to six months of subcutaneous and nasal calcitonin followed by a single 5 mg intravenous injection of zoledronic acid. This resulted in a further progressive reduction of his bone pain, skull size, and improvement in his hearing, as well as normalization of his serum ALP levels after one-year. This effect has been sustained for 3 years. PMID:27168927

  5. Effect of methacrylic acid beads on the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and macrophage polarization in a subcutaneous injection mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lisovsky, Alexandra; Zhang, David K Y; Sefton, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (MAA) beads promote a vascular regenerative response when used in diabetic wound healing. Previous studies reported that MAA beads modulated the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and inflammation related genes in diabetic wounds. The aim of this work was to follow up on these observations in a subcutaneous injection model to study the host response in the absence of the confounding factors of diabetic wound healing. In this model, MAA beads improved vascularization in healthy mice of both sexes compared to control poly(methyl methacrylate) (MM) beads, with a stronger effect seen in males than females. MAA-induced vessels were perfusable, as evidenced from the CLARITY-processed images. In Shh-Cre-eGFP/Ptch1-LacZ non-diabetic transgenic mice, the increased vessel formation was accompanied by a higher density of cells expressing GFP (Shh) and β-Gal (patched 1, Ptch1) suggesting MAA enhanced the activation of the Shh pathway. Ptch1 is the Shh receptor and a target of the pathway. MAA beads also modulated the inflammatory cell infiltrate in CD1 mice: more neutrophils and more macrophages were noted with MAA relative to MM beads at days 1 and 7, respectively. In addition, MAA beads biased macrophages towards a MHCII-CD206+ ("M2") polarization state. This study suggests that the Shh pathway and an altered inflammatory response are two elements of the complex mechanism whereby MAA-based biomaterials effect vascular regeneration. PMID:27264502

  6. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R; Crone, Wendy C; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold's microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. PMID:24094186

  7. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R.; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R.; Crone, Wendy C.; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold’s microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. PMID:24094186

  8. The effect of random precipitation times on the scavenging rate for tropospheric nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the effective scavenging rate of a soluble species has been developed. The model takes into account the possibility of positive as well as negative correlations between departures from the mean of the scavenging rate and species concentration. The model is demonstrated for the case of late afternoon rainout of nitric acid occurring just prior to the nighttime cessation of its chemical production. The calculations give effective scavenging rates which are about a factor of 2 to 3 greater than those calculated using the models of Rodhe and Grandell (1972) and Giorgi and Chameides (1985).

  9. Comparison of parameterized nitric acid rainout rates using a coupled stochastic-photochemical tropospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Richard W.; Thompson, Anne M.; Owens, Melody A.; Herwehe, Jerold A.

    1989-01-01

    A major tropospheric loss of soluble species such as nitric acid results from scavenging by water droplets. Several theoretical formulations have been advanced which relate an effective time-independent loss rate for soluble species to statistical properties of precipitation such as the wet fraction and length of a precipitation cycle. In this paper, various 'effective' loss rates that have been proposed are compared with the results of detailed time-dependent model calculations carried out over a seasonal time scale. The model is a stochastic precipitation model coupled to a tropospheric photochemical model. The results of numerous time-dependent seasonal model runs are used to derive numerical values for the nitric acid residence time for several assumed sets of preciptation statistics. These values are then compared with the results obtained by utilizing theoretical 'effective' loss rates in time-independent models.

  10. Characterization of metabolites in rats after intravenous administration of salvianolic acid for injection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jingzhuo; Sun, Wanyang; Huang, Jingyi; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Shuming; Han, Xiaoping; Tong, Ling; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    It is an essential requirement to clarify the metabolites of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections, which contain numerous ingredients, to assess their safe and effective use in clinic. Salvianolic acid for injection (SAFI), made from hydrophilic phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been widely used for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, but information on its metabolites in vivo is still lacking. In the present study, we aimed to holistically characterize the metabolites of the main active ingredients in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces following intravenous administration of SAFI. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed. Combining information on retention behaviors, multistage mass spectra and literature data, a total of eight prototypes and 52 metabolites were tentatively characterized. Metabolites originated from rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B comprised the majority of identified compounds. Meanwhile, four metabolites derived from salvianolic acid D and five from salvianolic acid B are reported for the first time. This study revealed that methylation, sulfation and glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways of phenolic acids in SAFI in vivo. Furthermore, the developed UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method could also benefit the metabolic investigation of extracts and preparations in TCM with hydrophilic ingredients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26910272

  11. Understanding, avoiding, and treating potential adverse events following the use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid for facial and nonfacial volumization.

    PubMed

    Vleggaar, Danny; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lorenc, Z Paul

    2014-04-01

    Injection-related adverse events (AEs) may occur with the use of any injectable substance, including all commercially available fillers. The most common of these AEs include discomfort, bruising, edema, and erythema, which are generally transient and resolve spontaneously. The majority of AEs widely felt to be associated with poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) are papules, nodules, and granulomas. Papules and nodules, which are histologically distinct from granulomas, tend to arise several weeks after injection, are generally palpable, asymptomatic, and nonvisible, and will typically resolve on their own, but can be camouflaged with the use of hyaluronic acid. They generally result from suboptimal product reconstitution or placement and, as such, their incidence can be minimized by improved injection methodology. In contrast, true inflammatory granulomas are very rare (incidence 0.01%-0.1%), seem to be systemic in nature, and represent an overabundance of host reaction to PLLA. Granulomas may become apparent months or years post-injection and may persist and grow over time. Their treatment is geared toward halting the increased secretion of interstitial substances and invasion of cells, and may include the administration of steroids and antimetabolites such as 5-fluorouracil. PMID:24719076

  12. Injection of acidic industrial waste into the Floridan Aquifer near Belle Glade, Florida: upward migration and geochemical interactions, 1973-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    In 1966, a furfural plant at Belle Glade, Florida, began injecting hot, acidic liquid waste into the saline, water-filled lower part of the Floridan aquifer, between the depths of 1 ,495-1,939 feet. The beds above and below the injection zone were subjected to attack by the acid waste. By 1969, effects of the waste were detected in the water of the well monitoring the upper part of the Floridan aquifer at 1,400 feet. The disposal well was deepened late in 1971 to 2,242 feet in an attempt to stop the upward migration of waste. The results of research investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1966-73 indicated that the waste continued to move upward and laterally. This investigated, continued by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973-1975, shows that the remedial actions of repairing the disposal well liner and injecting periodically into the deep monitor well at 2,060 feet failed to contain the wastes within the lower part of the Floridan aquifer. The data collected by the Survey are supported by the owner 's chemical-oxygen-demand and pH determinations. A hydraulic connection between the injection zone and the overlying monitoring zone is implied. Plans call for injecting into deepter strata. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Activation of NMDA receptors in the brainstem, RVM and NGC, mediates mechanical hyperalgesia produced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline in rats

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, LFS; DeSantana, JM; Sluka, KA

    2010-01-01

    Repeated injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle induced both muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity. We have previously shown that microinjection of local anesthetic into either the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) or the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) reverses this muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity. Although prior studies show that NMDA receptors in the RVM play a clear role in mediating visceral and inflammatory hypersensitivity, the role of NMDA receptors in the NGC, or in non-inflammatory muscle pain is unclear. Therefore, the present study evaluated involvement of the NMDA receptors in the RVM and NGC in muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline. Repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline, 5 days apart, resulted in a bilateral decrease in the withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle in all groups 24 h after the second injection. Microinjection of NMDA receptor antagonists into the RVM reversed both the muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity. However, microinjection of NMDA receptor antagonists into the NGC only reversed cutaneous, but not muscle hypersensitivity. These results suggest that NMDA receptors in the RVM mediate both muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity, but those in the NGC mediated only cutaneous hypersensitivity after muscle insult. PMID:19853525

  14. Review and Evaluation of Treatment Procedures Using Injectable Poly-L-Lactic Acid in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus–associated Facial Lipoatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Humble, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Injectable poly-L-lactic acid is United States Food and Drug Administration–approved for the restoration and/or correction of the signs of lipoatrophy in people with human immunodeficiency virus and for use in immune-competent people for the correction of nasolabial fold contour deficiencies. Current prescribing information recommends using either a tunneling or threading technique in a grid or cross-hatched pattern or a depot technique (in thin skin areas) to administer multiple passes of injectable poly-L-lactic acid per treatment session via a 26-gauge needle. A review of the literature and the recently published guidelines from the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery provide evidence to support the use of a cross-fanning technique with a 25-gauge needle. In conclusion, the use of a cross-fanning injection technique with a 25-gauge needle to administer injectable poly-L-lactic acid provides a clinically valid, alternate delivery option for the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipoatrophy. PMID:21203355

  15. Measurement and Analysis of Extracellular Acid Production to Determine Glycolytic Rate.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Brand, Martin D

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular measurement of oxygen consumption and acid production is a simple and powerful way to monitor rates of respiration and glycolysis(1). Both mitochondrial (respiration) and non-mitochondrial (other redox) reactions consume oxygen, but these reactions can be easily distinguished by chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. However, while mitochondrial oxygen consumption is an unambiguous and direct measurement of respiration rate(2), the same is not true for extracellular acid production and its relationship to glycolytic rate (3-6). Extracellular acid produced by cells is derived from both lactate, produced by anaerobic glycolysis, and CO2, produced in the citric acid cycle during respiration. For glycolysis, the conversion of glucose to lactate(-) + H(+) and the export of products into the assay medium is the source of glycolytic acidification. For respiration, the export of CO2, hydration to H2CO3 and dissociation to HCO3(-) + H(+) is the source of respiratory acidification. The proportions of glycolytic and respiratory acidification depend on the experimental conditions, including cell type and substrate(s) provided, and can range from nearly 100% glycolytic acidification to nearly 100% respiratory acidification (6). Here, we demonstrate the data collection and calculation methods needed to determine respiratory and glycolytic contributions to total extracellular acidification by whole cells in culture using C2C12 myoblast cells as a model. PMID:26709455

  16. Computational study of interfacial charge transfer complexes of 2-anthroic acid adsorbed on a titania nanocluster for direct injection solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Kotsis, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    Adsorption and light absorption properties of interfacial charge transfer complexes of 2-anthroic acid and titania, promising for direct-injection solar cells, are studied ab initio. The formation of interfacial charge transfer bands is observed. The intensity of visible absorption is relatively low, highlighting a key challenge facing direct injection cells. We show that the popular strategy of using a lower level of theory for geometry optimization followed by single point calculations of adsorption or optical properties introduces significant errors which have been underappreciated: by up to 3 eV in adsorption energies, by up to 5 times in light absorption intensity.

  17. Quantitative analysis of highly similar salvianolic acids with (1)H qNMR for quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xialin; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-05-30

    Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection (SLI), a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) preparation which is used to treat stroke, is composed of multiple salvianolic acids from the aqueous extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and includes mainly protocatechualdehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid D, salvianolic acid E, diastereomer of salvianolic acid E, salvianolic acid Y, lithospermic acid and diastereomer of lithospermic acid. It is difficult to quantitatively control the quality of SLI using traditional high performance liquid chromatography due to the highly similar structure of these constituents including three pairs of diastereomers and the lack of commercial resources for most of these constituents as standards. Thus, a highly reproducible, fast, accurate and simple (1)H quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) method without the need for calibration curves and complex computation was established by optimizing the solvent system and acquisition parameters to simultaneously determine the nine salvianolic acids and mannitol in SLI. This method was validated and successfully used to determine 10 batches of SLI and the qNMR data were further analyzed with a vector including angle cosine and the partial least squares method for the quality control of SLI. The results indicated that qNMR can be used as a routine method for the quality control of SLI and may have potential in the quantification of diastereomers in other TCM preparations. PMID:26970983

  18. High Rates of Abscesses and Chronic Wounds in Community-Recruited Injection Drug Users and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maria Elisa; Robinowitz, Natanya; Chaulk, Patrick; Johnson, Kristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Abscesses and chronic wounds are common among injection drug users (IDUs) though chronic wounds have been understudied. We assess the risk factors associated with both acute and chronic wounds within a community-based population of IDUs frequenting the Baltimore City Needle Exchange Program (BNEP). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of BNEP clients ≥18 years who completed an in-person survey regarding active or prior wounds including abscesses (duration <8 weeks) and chronic wounds (duration ≥8 weeks), injection practices, and skin care. Factors associated with wounds were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of the 152 participants, 63.2% were men, 49.3% were Caucasian, 44.7% were African American, 34.9% had any type of current wound, 17.8% had an active abscess, and 19.7% had a current chronic wound. Abscesses were more common in women (odds ratio [OR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–5.97); and those reporting skin-popping (OR, 5.38; 95% CI, 1.85–15.67). In a multivariate model, risk factors for an abscess included injecting with a family member/partner (AOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 0.99–16.58). In a multivariable analysis of current chronic wounds, cleaning skin with alcohol prior to injection was protective (AOR, 0.061; 95% CI, 0.0064–0.58). Conclusions Abscesses and chronic wounds were prevalent among a sample of IDUs in Baltimore. Abscesses were associated with injection practices, and chronic wounds appeared linked to varying skin and tool cleaning practices. There is a pressing need for wound-related education and treatment efforts among IDUs who are at greatest risk for skin-related morbidity. PMID:25469653

  19. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... It works by slowing bone breakdown, increasing bone density (thickness), and decreasing the amount of calcium released ... sure to drink at least 2 glasses of water or another liquid within a few hours before ...

  20. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... VH, Profilnine SD, Proplex T); and anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (Feiba VH). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had blood clots or heart, liver or kidney disease.tell ...

  1. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.

    2012-08-01

    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  2. Phenylboronic Acid Appended Pyrene-Based Low-Molecular-Weight Injectable Hydrogel: Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Release.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deep; Mandal, Subhra Kanti; Ghosh, Moumita; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2015-08-17

    A pyrene-containing phenylboronic acid (PBA) functionalized low-molecular-weight hydrogelator was synthesized with the aim to develop glucose-sensitive insulin release. The gelator showed the solvent imbibing ability in aqueous buffer solutions of pH values, ranging from 8-12, whereas the sodium salt of the gelator formed a hydrogel at physiological pH 7.4 with a minimum gelation concentration (MGC) of 5 mg mL(-1) . The aggregation behavior of this thermoreversible hydrogel was studied by using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, including transmission electron microscopy, FTIR, UV/Vis, luminescence, and CD spectroscopy. These investigations revealed that hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, and van der Waals interactions are the key factors for the self-assembled gelation. The diol-sensitive PBA part and the pyrene unit in the gelator were judiciously used in fluorimetric sensing of minute amounts of glucose at physiological pH. The morphological change of the gel due to addition of glucose was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, which denoted the glucose-responsive swelling of the hydrogel. A rheological study indicated the loss of the rigidity of the native gel in the presence of glucose. Hence, the glucose-induced swelling of the hydrogel was exploited in the controlled release of insulin from the hydrogel. The insulin-loaded hydrogel showed thixotropic self-recovery property, which hoisted it as an injectable soft composite. Encouragingly, the gelator was found to be compatible with HeLa cells. PMID:26184777

  3. Injectable hybrid hydrogels of hyaluronic Acid crosslinked by well-defined synthetic polycations: preparation and characterization in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cross, Daisy; Jiang, Xiaoze; Ji, Weihang; Han, Wenqing; Wang, Chun

    2015-05-01

    An injectable hybrid hydrogel system was developed consisting of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinked by well-defined block copolymers of the cationic poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) (PAEM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Robust, shear-thinning hybrid hydrogel was produced by mixing HA and 4-arm star PEG-PAEM block copolymer at 1:1 charge ratio. The encapsulation and release of highly viable human mesenchymal stem cells in physiological media was demonstrated. After subcutaneous injection of the hybrid gel in mice, mild but resolvable inflammatory response was observed. This hybrid gel could serve as a model system for studying structure-function relationship of polyelectrolyte hydrogels and as a practical injectable biomaterial for medical applications. PMID:25630277

  4. Decomposition of phenylarsonic acid by AOP processes: degradation rate constants and by-products.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, K; Czaplicka, M; Bratek, Ł

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents results of the studies photodegradation, photooxidation, and oxidation of phenylarsonic acid (PAA) in aquatic solution. The water solutions, which consist of 2.7 g dm(-3) phenylarsonic acid, were subjected to advance oxidation process (AOP) in UV, UV/H2O2, UV/O3, H2O2, and O3 systems under two pH conditions. Kinetic rate constants and half-life of phenylarsonic acid decomposition reaction are presented. The results from the study indicate that at pH 2 and 7, PAA degradation processes takes place in accordance with the pseudo first order kinetic reaction. The highest rate constants (10.45 × 10(-3) and 20.12 × 10(-3)) and degradation efficiencies at pH 2 and 7 were obtained at UV/O3 processes. In solution, after processes, benzene, phenol, acetophenone, o-hydroxybiphenyl, p-hydroxybiphenyl, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, and biphenyl were identified. PMID:24824504

  5. Swfoldrate: predicting protein folding rates from amino acid sequence with sliding window method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Xuan; Wu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Pu; Lin, Wei-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding is the process by which a protein processes from its denatured state to its specific biologically active conformation. Understanding the relationship between sequences and the folding rates of proteins remains an important challenge. Most previous methods of predicting protein folding rate require the tertiary structure of a protein as an input. In this study, the long-range and short-range contact in protein were used to derive extended version of the pseudo amino acid composition based on sliding window method. This method is capable of predicting the protein folding rates just from the amino acid sequence without the aid of any structural class information. We systematically studied the contributions of individual features to folding rate prediction. The optimal feature selection procedures are adopted by means of combining the forward feature selection and sequential backward selection method. Using the jackknife cross validation test, the method was demonstrated on the large dataset. The predictor was achieved on the basis of multitudinous physicochemical features and statistical features from protein using nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) regression model, the method obtained an excellent agreement between predicted and experimentally observed folding rates of proteins. The correlation coefficient is 0.9313 and the standard error is 2.2692. The prediction server is freely available at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/swfrate/input.jsp. PMID:22933332

  6. Rapid Quantitation of Ascorbic and Folic Acids in SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets using Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) are water-soluble vitamins and are usually fortified in food and dietary supplements. For the safety of human health, proper intake of these vitamins is recommended. Improvement in the analysis time required for the quantitative determination of these vitamins in food and nutritional formulations is desired. METHODS: A simple and fast (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed, independently for FA and AA, by mixing extraction solvent with a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Quantitative detection was achieved by flow-injection (1 L injection volume) electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in negative ion mode using the method of standard addition. RESULTS: Method of standard addition was employed for the quantitative estimation of each vitamin in a sample extract. At least 2 spiked and 1 non-spiked sample extract were injected in triplicate for each quantitative analysis. Given an injection-to-injection interval of approximately 2 min, about 18 min was required to complete the quantitative estimation of each vitamin. The concentration values obtained for the respective vitamins in the standard reference material (SRM) 3280 using this approach were within the statistical range of the certified values provided in the NIST Certificate of Analysis. The estimated limit of detections of FA and AA were 13 and 5.9 ng/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-injection ESI-MS/MS was successfully applied for the rapid quantitation of FA and AA in SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets.

  7. Hippocampal damage and kainic acid injection induce a rapid increase in mRNA for BDNF and NGF in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ballarín, M; Ernfors, P; Lindefors, N; Persson, H

    1991-10-01

    In situ hybridization and Northern blots were used to study expression of mRNAs for members of the nerve growth factor family in the rat brain following an excitatory stimulus. One hour after a unilateral needle insertion or saline injection into the dorsal hippocampus, the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA increased markedly in granular neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the piriform cortex ipsilateral to the injection. The same treatment also increased the level of NGF mRNA in granular neurons of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus. The rapid increase in BDNF and NGF mRNA after a needle insertion or injection of saline was transient and preceded by an increase in c-fos mRNA in the same brain regions. In contrast to a needle insertion per se or a saline injection, 7 h after a unilateral injection of kainic acid into the dorsal hippocampus, the level of BDNF mRNA was dramatically increased in the ipsilateral hippocampus, as well as in the ipsilateral frontoparietal, piriform and perihinal cortex, the amygdaloid complex, claustrum, and ventromedial hypothalamus. A less pronounced increase was also seen in these brain areas on the contralateral side. Northern blots revealed that the level of BDNF mRNA increased 5- and 40-fold in the contra- and ipsilateral hippocampus, respectively, compared to sham-operated control animals. In contrast to BDNF and NGF, the level of hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrohin-3 (HDNF/NT-3) mRNA was not altered by either needle insertion or injection of saline or kainic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1915733

  8. Effect of dietary fatty acids on metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating rodents prior to winter tend to select food rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several studies found that such diet may positively affect their winter energy budget by enhancing torpor episodes. However, the effect of composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) on metabolism of normothermic heterotherms is poorly understood. Thus we tested whether diets different in FA composition affect metabolic rate (MR) and the capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in normothermic golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures from May 2010 to April 2011 and fed a diet enriched with PUFA (i.e., standard food supplemented weekly with sunflower and flax seeds) or with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA/MUFA, standard food supplemented with mealworms). Since diet rich in PUFA results in lower MR in hibernating animals, we predicted that PUFA-rich diet would have similar effect on MR of normothermic hamsters, that is, normothermic hamsters on the PUFA diet would have lower metabolic rate in cold and higher NST capacity than hamsters supplemented with SFA/MUFA. Indeed, in winter resting metabolic rate (RMR) below the lower critical temperature was higher and NST capacity was lower in SFA/MUFA-supplemented animals than in PUFA-supplemented ones. These results suggest that the increased capacity for NST in PUFA-supplemented hamsters enables them lower RMR below the lower critical temperature of the thermoneural zone. PMID:24151228

  9. Excitation of afferent fibres in the cardiac sympathetic nerves induced by coronary occlusion and injection of bradykinin. The influence of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyron.

    PubMed

    Vogt, A; Vetterlein, F; dal Ri, H; Schmidt, G

    1979-05-01

    Afferent impulse activity was recorded in single fibres of the inferior cardiac sympathetic nerve of the cat. When the descending branch of the left coronary artery was ligated for 60 sec an enhancement of afferent impulses was recorded. Elevations in discharge frequency were also induced by injecting bradykinin, epinephrine, and isoprenaline or by general hypoxia due to interruption of the artificial ventilation. When these procedures were after pretreatment with the analgesic agents, acetylsalicylic acid or dipyron a reduction in spike discharge was observed only with bradykinin after application of acetylsalicylic acid. No influence of these pretreatments on the effects of coronary occlusion, general hypoxia and injection of epinephrine and isoprenaline could be observed. These results suggest that bradykinin does not predominate as mediator substance in eliciting ischemic heart pain. PMID:485722

  10. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  11. The effect of 6-aminonicotinamide on the levels of brain amino acids and glucose, and their labeling with 14C after injection of (U-14C) glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, M.K.; Lewis, L.P.; Evans, G.; Clapp, A.

    1981-10-01

    The brains of rats paralysed at 4 hr after the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide were found to contain decreased levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyrate. The glucose content of the brain of the treated rats was several fold higher than in controls. The incorporation of 14C into brain amino acids at 30 min after the injection of (U-14C)glucose was decreased by 16%: this was attributed to mainly decreased labeling of glutamate and associated amino acids. The results are discussed in the light of previous findings that the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide resulted in the blockade of the direct oxidation of glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway.

  12. A pilot study comparing the efficacy of radiofrequency and microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Kato, Kazuo; Majima, Tokifumi; Shindo, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the efficacy of radiofrequency diathermy with that of microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid into the knee of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects] A total of 17 patients with knee OA were enrolled. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: a radiofrequency diathermy group (RF group, 9 subjects), and a microwave diathermy group (MW group, 8 subjects). [Methods] Subjects received radiofrequency or microwave thermal therapy 3 times at 1-week intervals. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid was administered 10 min before every thermal therapy session. The outcome was evaluated using the Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the Lequesne Index (LI) at baseline, at weeks 1 (1 week after the first thermal therapy) and 3 (1 week after the last thermal therapy). [Results] The JOA scale increased significantly after three sessions of thermal therapy in the RF group, while no significant increase was observed in the MW group. LI decreased significantly after 3 weeks in the RF group. In the MW group, there was no significant difference in LI between the two time points. [Conclusion] This study revealed that symptom relief in patients with knee OA was greater with radiofrequency diathermy than with microwave diathermy with concurrent use of hyaluronic acid injection, presumably due to the different heating characteristics of the two methods. PMID:27065540

  13. Determination of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric aerosols by injection-port derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Lin; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2009-12-15

    A rapid and environmental-friendly injection-port derivatization with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed to determine selected low-molecular weight (LMW) dicarboxylic acids (from C2 to C10) in atmospheric aerosol samples. The parameters related to the derivatization process (i.e., type of ion-pair reagent, injection-port temperature and concentration of ion-pair reagent) were optimized. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA-OH) 20 mM in methanol gave excellent yield for di-butyl ester dicarboxylate derivatives at injection-port temperature at 300 degrees C. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) method instead of rotary evaporation was used to concentrate analytes from filter extracts. The recovery from filter extracts ranged from 78 to 95% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 12%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 25 to 250 pg/m(3). The concentrations of di-carboxylated C2-C5 and total C6-C10 in particles of atmospheric aerosols ranged from 91.9 to 240, 11.3 to 56.7, 9.2 to 49.2, 8.7 to 35.3 and n.d. to 37.8 ng/m(3), respectively. Oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant LMW-dicarboxylic acids detected in aerosol samples. The quantitative results were comparable to the results obtained by the off-line derivatization. PMID:19836591

  14. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  15. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-04-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  16. Investigation of parameter estimation and impact of injection rate on relative permeability measurements for supercritical CO2 and water by unsteady-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2014-12-01

    CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is a promising option for mitigating climate changes. To predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a deep reservoir, relative permeability of supercritical CO2 and water of the reservoir rock is one of the most fundamental and influential properties. For determining the relative permeability, we employed the unsteady state method, in which the relative permeability is determined based on history matching of transient monitoring data with a multi-phase flow model. The unsteady-state method is relatively simple and short, but obviously its accuracy strongly depends on the flow model assumed in the history matching. In this study, we conducted relative permeability measurements of supercritical CO2-water system for Berea sandstone with the unsteady-state method under a reservoir condition at a 1km depth (P= 9.5MPa, T = 44˚C). Automatic history matching was performed with an inversion simulator iTOUGH2/ECO2N for multi-phase flow system of supercritical CO2, NaCl, and water. A sensitivity analysis of relative permeability parameters for CO2 and water was carried out to better understand the uniqueness and the uncertainty of the optimum solution estimated by the history matching. Among the parameters of the Corey-type curve employed in this study, while the end-point permeability could be optimized in a limited range, the other parameters were correlated and their combinations were not unique. However it was found that any combination of these parameters results in nearly identical shapes of the curve in the range of CO2 saturation in this study (0 to 60%). The optimally estimated curve from the unsteady-method was well comparable with those from the steady-state method acquired in the previous studies. Our experiment also focuses on the impact of injection rate on the estimates of relative permeability, as it is known that the injection rate could have a significant effect on fluid distribution such as viscous fingering with

  17. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves the implantation and live-birth rates of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) improved the developmental competence of mouse embryos by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis during preimplantation development. Here, we present a follow-up study examining whether TUDCA enhances the implantation and live-birth rate of mouse embryos. Mouse 2-cell embryos were collected by oviduct flushing and cultured in the presence or absence of 50 μM TUDCA. After culture (52 h), blastocysts were transferred to 2.5-day pseudopregnant foster mothers. It was found that the rates of pregnancy and implantation as well as the number of live pups per surrogate mouse were significantly higher in the TUDCA-treated group compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference in the mean weights of the pups or placentae. Thus, we report for the first time that TUDCA supplementation of the embryo culture medium increased the implantation and livebirth rates of transferred mouse embryos. PMID:26051458

  18. PHOSPHATED, ACID-ETCHED IMPLANTS DECREASE MINERAL APPOSITION RATES NEAR IMPLANTS IN CANINES

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Christine Hyon; Kerns, David G.; Hallmon, William W.; Rivera-Hidalgo, Francisco; Nelson, Carl J.; Spears, Robert; Dechow, Paul C.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of phosphate-coated titanium on mineral apposition rate (MAR) and new bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in canines. Materials and Methods: 2.2 mm × 4 mm electrolytically phosphated or non-phosphated titanium implants with acid-etched surfaces were placed in 48 mandibular sites in 6 foxhounds. Tetracycline and calcein dyes were administered 1 week after implant placement and 1 week before sacrifice. At twelve weeks following implant healing, animals were sacrificed. MAR and BIC were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. Light microscopic and histological evaluation was performed on undecalcified sections. Results: Microscopic evaluation showed the presence of healthy osteoblasts lining bone surfaces near implants. Similar bone-to-implant contact was observed in phosphated and non-phosphated titanium implant sites. MAR was significantly higher near non-phosphated titanium implant surfaces than the phosphated titanium samples. No significant differences were found between dogs or implant sites. Discussion and Conclusion: Acid-etched only implants showed significantly higher mineral apposition rates compared to acid-etched, phosphate-coated implants. PMID:20369085

  19. Using Optical Oxygen Sensors and Injection Experiments to Determine in situ Microbial Rate Constants for Methane Oxidation and Heterotrophic Respiration in a Boreal Bog and Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldo, N.; Moorberg, C.; Waldrop, M. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Neumann, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and play a key role in feedback cycles to climate change. In recognition of this, many researchers are developing process-based models of wetland methane emissions at various scales. In these models, the three key biogeochemical reactions are methane production, methane oxidation, and heterotrophic respiration, and they are modeled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The majority of Michaelis-Menten rate constants used in models are based on experiments involving slurries of peat incubated in vials. While these slurries provide a highly controlled setting, they are different from in situ conditions in multiple ways; notably they lack live plants and the centimeter-scale heterogeneities that exist in the field. To determine rate constants in a system more representative of in situ conditions, we extracted peat cores intact from a bog and fen located in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska and part of the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) research program. Into those cores we injected water with varying concentrations of methane and oxygen at multiple depths. We used planar oxygen sensors installed on the peat cores to collect high resolution, two dimensional oxygen concentration data during the injections and used oxygen consumption rates under various conditions to calculate rate constants. Results were compared to a similar but smaller set of injection experiments conducted against planar oxygen sensors installed in the bog. Results will inform parametrization of microbial processes in wetland models, improving estimates of methane emissions both under current climate conditions and in the future.

  20. Improving arachidonic acid fermentation by Mortierella alpina through multistage temperature and aeration rate control in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2016-05-18

    Effective production of arachidonic acid (ARA) using Mortierella alpina was conducted in a 30-L airlift bioreactor. Varying the aeration rate and temperature significantly influenced cell morphology, cell growth, and ARA production, while the optimal aeration rate and temperature for cell growth and product formation were quite different. As a result, a two-stage aeration rate control strategy was constructed based on monitoring of cell morphology and ARA production under various aeration rate control levels (0.6-1.8 vvm). Using this strategy, ARA yield reached 4.7 g/L, an increase of 38.2% compared with the control (constant aeration rate control at 1.0 vvm). Dynamic temperature-control strategy was implemented based on the fermentation performance at various temperatures (13-28°C), with ARA level in total cellular lipid increased by 37.1% comparing to a constant-temperature control (25°C). On that basis, the combinatorial fermentation strategy of two-stage aeration rate control and dynamic temperature control was applied and ARA production achieved the highest level of 5.8 g/L. PMID:26038800

  1. The efficacy of combined use of intraarticular and intravenous tranexamic acid on reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yen; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Fu, Yin-Chih; Huang, Peng-Ju; Chang, Je-Ken; Huang, Hsuan-Ti

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of preoperative intravenous (IV) and intraoperative topical administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 120 patients were and randomly allocated to either topical group, combined group, or control group. The mean total blood loss was lower in the combined and topical groups (705 mL and 579 mL, respectively) in comparison with control group (949 mL, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in transfusion rate among groups (P = 0.009). The postoperative hemoglobin drop and total drain amount were significantly less in the combined group compared to other groups. In conclusion, combining preoperative IV injection and topical administration of TXA can effectively reduce blood loss and transfusion rate. PMID:25534864

  2. Effect of time period after boric acid injection on 10B absorption in different regions of adult male rat's brain.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Behnam; Goodarzi, Samereh

    2012-06-01

    Distribution of (10)B in different regions of rat normal brain was studied. Two groups were chosen as control and trial. Trial group received 2 ml of neutral boron compound. 2, 4 and 6 h after the injection brain removed, coronal sections of forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain were sandwiched between two pieces of polycarbonate. Autoradiography plots of (10)B distribution showed significant differences in three regions with the highest (10)B concentration in the forebrain during 4 h after injection. PMID:22476013

  3. Intracellular pH Recovery Rates in Bivalve Hemocytes Following Exposure to Acidic Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croxton, A.; Wikfors, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of ocean acidification effects upon carbonate shell-forming species have caused great concern for the future of shellfisheries. Nevertheless, bivalve species inhabiting an estuarine environment have evolved in these environments with fluctuating pH levels. Previous experimental studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated the ability of oyster hemocytes to maintain intracellular homeostasis under acidic external conditions. However, little information is known of this homeostatic mechanism in other molluscan shellfish species present in these same habitats. In the current study we propose to determine if other bivalve species of aquaculture interest also possess this intracellular regulation by applying an in vitro hemocyte pH-recovery assay, previously developed for oysters, on the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the softshell clam, Mya arenaria. Preliminary results from the determination of initial intracellular pH levels, the initial step in the rate recovery assay, indicated a pH range between 7.0-7.4. This range was comparable to initial values measured in oysters, and consistent with data reported in the current literature. The second step of the hemocyte pH-recovery assay involves exposing oyster hemocytes to acidic external conditions and measuring the ability of the hemocyte intracellular pH to maintain homeostasis (i.e. recovery rate). Results from the recovery rate process will be presented.

  4. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure. PMID:26484732

  5. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution. PMID:20153577

  6. Suppression of Growth Rate of Colony-Associated Fungi by High Fructose Corn Syrup Feeding Supplement, Formic Acid, and Oxalic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Select colony-associated fungi (bee isolates). Absidia sp., Ascosphaera apis, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Penicillium glabrum, Mucor sp., showed a 40% reduction in radial growth rate with formic acid, a 28% reduction with oxalic acid, and a 15% reduction with fructose and high fructose corn sy...

  7. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-02

    In this study, an improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy(DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  8. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  9. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-07

    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V{sub 2}) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  10. Soil calcium status and the response of stream chemistry to changing acidic deposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.; Stoddard, J.L.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Porter, J.H.; Thompson, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a decreasing trend in acidic deposition rates over the past two to three decades, acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States have shown minimal changes. Depletion of soil Ca pools has been suggested as a cause, although changes in soil Ca pools have not been directly related to long-term records of stream chemistry. To investigate this problem, a comprehensive watershed study was conducted in the Neversink River Basin, in the Catskill Mountains of New York, during 1991-1996. Spatial variations of atmospheric deposition, soil chemistry, and stream chemistry were evaluated over an elevation range of 817-1234 m to determine whether these factors exhibited elevational patterns. An increase in atmospheric deposition of SO4 with increasing elevation corresponded with upslope decreases of exchangeable soil base concentrations and acid-neutralizing capacity of stream water. Exchangeable base concentrations in homogeneous soil incubated within the soil profile for one year also decreased with increasing elevation. An elevational gradient in precipitation was not observed, and effects of a temperature gradient on soil properties were not detected. Laboratory leaching experiments with soils from this watershed showed that (1) concentrations of Ca in leachate increased as the concentrations of acid anions in added solution increased, and (2) the slope of this relationship was positively correlated with base saturation. Field and laboratory soil analyses are consistent with the interpretation that decreasing trends in acid-neutralizing capacity in stream water in the Neversink Basin, dating back to 1984, are the result of decreases in soil base saturation caused by acidic deposition.

  11. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  12. Transport of sucrose-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron in saturated porous media: role of media size, injection rate and input concentration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Han, Zhan-tao; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) in the remediation of contaminated groundwater raises concerns regarding its transport in aquifers. Laboratory-scale sand-packed column experiments were conducted with bare and sucrose-modified NZVI (SM-NZVI) to improve our understanding of the transport of the nanoparticles in saturated porous media, as well as the role of media size, suspension injection rate and concentration on the nanoparticle behavior. As the main indicative parameters, the normalized effluent concentration was measured and the deposition rate coefficient (k) was calculated for different simulated conditions. Overall, compared to the high retention of bare NZVI in the saturated silica column, SM-NZVI suspension could travel through the coarse sand column easily. However, the transport of SM-NZVI particles was not very satisfactory in a smaller size granular matrix especially in fine silica sand. Furthermore, the value of k regularly decreased with the increasing injection rate of suspension but increased with suspension concentration, which could reflect the role of these factors in the SM-NZVI travel process. The calculation of k-value at the tests condition adequately described the experimental results from the point of deposition dynamics, which meant the assumption of first-order deposition kinetics for the transport of NZVI particles was reasonable and feasible. PMID:26524436

  13. Diffusion of intracerebrally injected (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid and (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol in the mouse brain. Effects of ischemia and electroconvulsive shock

    SciTech Connect

    Pediconi, M.F.; Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Bazan, N.G.

    1982-12-01

    (2-/sup 3/H)Glycerol and (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid were injected into the region of the frontal horn of the left ventricle of mice and were distributed rapidly throughout the brain. After 10 sec, most of the radioactive fatty acid was found in the hemisphere near the injection site; after 10 min, it was recovered in similar proportions in the cerebellum and brain stem. (2-/sup 3/H)Glycerol showed a heterogeneous distribution, with most of the label remaining in the left hemisphere even after 10 min. On a fresh weight basis, cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem were found to contain similar amounts of labeled glycerol. However, the amount of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonate in cerebrum was only 50% of that recovered from cerebellum or brain stem. Brain ischemia or a single electroconvulsive shock reduced the spread of the label, producing an accumulation of radioactivity in the injected hemisphere, except for an increase in (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol in the brain stem during ischemia. Despite the significant decrease in available precursor in the cerebellum and brain stem after electroshock, the amount of label incorporated into lipids was not altered in these areas and only slightly diminished in the cerebrum.

  14. Laboratory experiments and numerical modelling of CO2-rich brine injection through sandstone samples: Role of flow rate, brine composition, mixing and spreading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.; soler Sagarra, J.; Saaltink, M.; Martinez-Perez, L.; Carrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Heletz structure has been selected as a test site for a prospective CO2 reservoir and for the MUSTANG European project injection experiment based on the analysis of the available geological, geophysical and borehole data from various areas of Israel. The Heletz area is located in the Southern part of the Mediterranean Coastal Plain, about 7 km from the sea shore. The target layer is composed of sandstone, has a thickness of around 20 meters and is located at a depth of 1500 m. Flow-through laboratory experiments of CO2-rich brine were realized to evaluate the chemical processes occurring in the Heletz site.
The Heletz sandstone rock is poorly consolidated and has a high porosity (around 23%) and connectivity. We performed four flow-through experiments at in situ storage conditions (T = 60ºC, P = 15 MPa, PCO2 =1.8 MPa). The flow rates injection were 0.05 and 0.30 mL.min-1. Two different brine solutions were used, both representative of the Heletz reservoir native water. The first one was a synthetic brine of the Heletz reservoir (closed to seawater). The second one was the first one equilibrated with gypsum. The results show an increase in permeability for all the percolation experiment whatever the flow rate and the brine solution. This is explained by the dissolution of ankerite, dolomite and feldspar. We observed that the permeability increase is higher and faster for high flow rate injection than for low flow rate. Precipitation of secondary phases is characterized such as gypsum during equilibrated-gypsum brine injection. Secondary clay minerals precipitation is also observed near feldspar dissolution. Modeling these experiments is a non-trivial task, as some chemical processes are local in space. Reactive transport models have been performed in order to understand and reproduce the observed processes. We have used a water mixing approach which uses the mass mixing fraction between mobile and/or immobile zones. The approach relies in the fact of not

  15. Dose rate dependence of the speciation of neptunium in irradiated solutions of nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Precek, M.; Paulenova, A.; Mincher, B.J.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of radiation on the redox speciation of neptunium are of interest due to their impact on the performance of separation of neptunium from highly radioactive solutions of dissolved used nuclear fuel. In this study, the influence of dose rate change from 0.4 kGy/h to 6 kGy/h was examined during irradiation of solutions of initially hexavalent 2.0-2.5 mM neptunium in nitric acid of two different concentrations (0.5 and 1 M). Results indicate that the immediate radiolytic steady-state concentration of neptunium(V) were depressed and its initial radiolytic yield was up to 2-times lower (in 1 M HNO{sub 3} solutions)during irradiations with the higher dose rate. The finding is explained on the basis of the enhancement of the role of oxidizing radicals during the radiolytic process. (authors)

  16. Gas-Phase Formation Rates of Nitric Acid and Its Isomers Under Urban Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okumura, M.; Mollner, A. K.; Fry, J. L.; Feng, L.

    2005-01-01

    Ozone formation in urban smog is controlled by a complex set of reactions which includes radical production from photochemical processes, catalytic cycles which convert NO to NO2, and termination steps that tie up reactive intermediates in long-lived reservoirs. The reaction OH + NO2 + M -4 HONO2 + M (la) is a key termination step because it transforms two short-lived reactive intermediates, OH and NO2, into relatively long-lived nitric acid. Under certain conditions (low VOC/NOx), ozone production in polluted urban airsheds can be highly sensitive to this reaction, but the rate parameters are not well constrained. This report summarizes the results of new laboratory studies of the OH + NO2 + M reaction including direct determination of the overall rate constant and branching ratio for the two reaction channels under atmospherically relevant conditions.

  17. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  18. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  19. Drug-Related Arrest Rates and Spatial Access to Syringe Exchange Programs in New York City Health Districts: Combined Effects on the Risk of Injection-Related Infections among Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Jarlais, Don C Des; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian H; Ross, Zev; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-01-01

    Drug-related law enforcement activities may undermine the protective effects of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) on local injectors’ risk of injection-related infections. We explored the spatial overlap of drug-related arrest rates and access to SEPs over time (1995-2006) in New York City health districts, and used multilevel models to investigate the relationship of these two district-level exposures to the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe. Districts with better SEP access had higher arrest rates, and arrest rates undermined SEPs’ protective relationship with unsterile injecting. Drug-related enforcement strategies targeting drug users should be de-emphasized in areas surrounding SEPs. PMID:22047790

  20. Growth Rate of Bumblebee Larvae is Related to Pollen Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Romain; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Roger, Nathalie; Declèves, Sylvain; Wathelet, Bernard; Rasmont, Pierre; Fournier, Denis; Michez, Denis

    2016-02-01

    The use of Bombus terrestris L. commercial colonies for outdoor and greenhouse crop pollination is currently widespread. Colony breeding includes bumblebee feeding, mostly by using the honeybee pollen loads of diverse palynological composition. Because the chemical content of pollen is highly variable, the choice of commercial blend should not be random but has to be carefully selected to ensure the optimal development of workers and then pollination efficacy. In this work, we compared the impact of three common commercial blends on the development of bumblebee microcolonies, namely, Actinidia deliciosa L., Cistus sp., and Salix sp. We focus on amino acids (i.e., composition and amount), as they are currently used as an indicator of diet performance. Five parameters were used to determine microcolonies growth rate: 1) number of eggs, 2) number of alive larvae, 3) number of ejected larvae, 4) number of pupae, and 5) total number of offspring. Syrup collection was also monitored to estimate energetic requirement for colony growth. Results revealed that the three commercial blends chemically differed in their amino acid contents, with those displaying higher concentrations (i.e., Salix sp. and A. deliciosa) accelerating microcolony development along with an increase of syrup collection. The advantages of rearing bumblebee commercial colonies using a pollen diet with an optimal amino acid content are discussed. PMID:26385047

  1. Effects of ammonium application rate on uptake of soil adsorbed amino acids by rice*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-chuang; Ma, Qing-xu; Wu, Liang-huan; Zhu, Lian-feng; Jin, Qian-yu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, excessive use of chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizers has resulted in the accumulation of excess ammonium (NH4 +) in many agricultural soils. Though rice is known as an NH4 +-tolerant species and can directly absorb soil intact amino acids, we still know considerably less about the role of high exogenous NH4 + content on rice uptake of soil amino acids. This experiment examined the effects of the exogenous NH4 + concentration on rice uptake of soil adsorbed glycine in two different soils under sterile culture. Our data showed that the sorption capacity of glycine was closely related to soils’ physical and chemical properties, such as organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Rice biomass was significantly inhibited by the exogenous NH4 + content at different glycine adsorption concentrations. A three-way analysis of variance demonstrated that rice glycine uptake and glycine nutritional contribution were not related to its sorption capacity, but significantly related to its glycine:NH4 + concentration ratio. After 21-d sterile cultivation, the rice uptake of adsorbed glycine accounted for 8.8%‒22.6% of rice total N uptake, which indicates that soil adsorbed amino acids theoretically can serve as an important N source for plant growth in spite of a high NH4 + application rate. However, further studies are needed to investigate the extent to which this bioavailability is realized in the field using the 13C, 15N double labeling technology.

  2. Control of off-gassing rates of methyl isothiocyanate from the application of metam-sodium by chemigation and shank injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. A.; Holdsworth, M. T.; Hlinka, D. J.

    Fumigants are used to enhance the yield and quality of agricultural produce, which is critical to the maintenance of the production levels of carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries, melons, and many other crops grown in the US and throughout much of the world. With the worldwide phase-out of methyl bromide in progress, the continued availability of the remaining alternatives, such as metam-sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene, and chloropicrin, is becoming increasingly important. Metam-sodium has been used for over 40 years and is the second most widely used fumigant in the United States. Reduction in off-gassing rates of fumigants can promote health and safety benefits and an increased dose in the treatment zone, thereby increasing the potential efficacy of these products. On this basis, there is a need to evaluate off-gassing rates as a function of application and sealing methods. This paper summarizes recent research into the volatilization of the principal transformation product of metam-sodium, i.e., methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), into the atmosphere as a function of application and sealing methods. Seven field studies were conducted from 1999-2001 to evaluate the off-gassing rates of MITC from applications of metam-sodium by shank injection and chemigation using two different water sealing methods, i.e., standard water sealing and intermittent water sealing. MITC is slightly soluble in water. Irrigation of a field following an application helps to retain the compound in the soil, minimizing off-gassing while increasing the dose to the target pests. Intermittent water sealing involves applying water on an intermittent basis to minimize off-gassing rates during nighttime periods when relatively poor atmospheric dispersion conditions often occur. Research conducted by the Metam-Sodium TASK Force indicates that intermittent water sealing significantly reduces off-gassing rates both for shank injection and chemigation applications when compared with standard water

  3. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-02

    In this study, an improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy(DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capturemore » cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.« less

  4. Assessment of urea degradation rate in model wine solutions by acid urease from Lactobacillus fermentum.

    PubMed

    Fidaleo, Marcello; Esti, Marco; Moresi, Mauro

    2006-08-23

    The specific activity (piA) of a whole cell acid urease preparation was assessed in model wine solutions at different levels of malic (M) and lactic acids, metabisulfite, ethanol, and pH by performing a central composite design. M and then pH were found to be the most controlling variables, their effects being practically coincident but of opposite sign. For urea concentrations up to approximately 1 mol m(-3) the ammonium formation rate was assumed of the pseudo-first-order with respect to urea, this being confirmed by two independent validation tests performed at 20 degrees C for as long as 24 h. In the case of real wines the effective pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constants were found to be smaller than those pertaining to the model solutions having the same wine composition and pH by a factor varying from 10 to 1000, this affecting significantly the specific urease treatment costs per liter of wine treated. PMID:16910712

  5. Rate Motifs Tune Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid Degradation Dynamics1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Britney L.; Mao, Haibin; Guseman, Jessica M.; Hinds, Thomas R.; Hellmuth, Antje; Kovenock, Marlies; Noorassa, Anisa; Lanctot, Amy; Villalobos, Luz Irina A. Calderón; Zheng, Ning; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We found that rate motifs can act by enhancing interaction between repressors and the E3, but that this is not the only mechanism of action. Phenotypes of transgenic plants expressing a deletion in a rate motif in IAA28 resembled plants expressing degron mutations, underscoring the functional relevance of Aux/IAA degradation dynamics in regulating auxin responses. PMID:26149575

  6. Rate Motifs Tune Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid Degradation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Moss, Britney L; Mao, Haibin; Guseman, Jessica M; Hinds, Thomas R; Hellmuth, Antje; Kovenock, Marlies; Noorassa, Anisa; Lanctot, Amy; Villalobos, Luz Irina A Calderón; Zheng, Ning; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We found that rate motifs can act by enhancing interaction between repressors and the E3, but that this is not the only mechanism of action. Phenotypes of transgenic plants expressing a deletion in a rate motif in IAA28 resembled plants expressing degron mutations, underscoring the functional relevance of Aux/IAA degradation dynamics in regulating auxin responses. PMID:26149575

  7. Environmental Conditions, Political Economy, and Rates of Injection Drug Use in Large US Metropolitan Areas 1992 – 2002

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04 to 1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03 to 1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04 to 1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions. PMID:19748745

  8. A CCL5 Haplotype Is Associated with Low Seropositivity Rate of HCV Infection in People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huik, Kristi; Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Karki, Tõnis; Rüütel, Kristi; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Uusküla, Anneli; Carrillo, Andrew; Ahuja, Sunil K.; He, Weijing; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and its ligand CCL5 on the pathogenesis of HIV infection has been well studied but not for HCV infection. Here, we investigated whether CCL5 haplotypes influence HIV and HCV seropositivity among 373 Caucasian people who inject drugs (PWID) from Estonia. Methods Study included 373 PWID; 56% were HIV seropositive, 44% HCV seropositive and 47% co-infected. Four CCL5 haplotypes (A-D) were derived from three CCL5 polymorphisms (rs2107538/rs2280788/rs2280789) typed by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. The data of CCR5 haplotypes were used from our previous study. The association between CCL5 haplotypes with HIV and/or HCV seropositivity was determined using logistic regression analysis. Results Possessing CCL5 haplotype D (defined by rs2107538A/rs2280788G/rs2280789C) decreased the odds of HCV seropositivity compared to those not possessing it (OR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.09–0.40), which remained significant after adjustment to co-variates (OR = 0.08; 95% CI 0.02–0.29). An association of this haplotype with HIV seropositivity was not found. In step-wise logistic regression with backward elimination CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 had reduced odds for HCV seropositivity (OR = 0.28 95% CI 0.09–0.92; OR = 0.23 95% CI 0.08–0.68, respectively) compared to those who did not possess these haplotypes, respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that among PWID CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 independently protects against HCV. Our findings highlight the importance of CCL5 genetic variability and CCL5-CCR5 axis on the susceptibility to HCV. PMID:27304910

  9. Sperm Pretreatment with Dithiothreitol Increases Male Pronucleus Formation Rates After Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in Swamp Buffalo Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    CHANKITISAKUL, Vibuntita; AM-IN, Nutthee; THARASANIT, Theerawat; SOMFAI, Tamas; NAGAI, Takashi; TECHAKUMPHU, Mongkol

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Failure of male pronucleus formation has hampered the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in swamp buffalo. The aim of the present study was to improve male pronucleus formation by pretreating sperm with various chemicals before ICSI. In Experiments1 and 2, sperm were treated according to one of the following protocols: (1) 0.1% Triton-X 100 (TX) for 1 min, (2) 10 µM calcium ionophore (CaI) for 20 min, (3) freezing and thawing (FT) without any cryoprotectant, or (4) no treatment (control). These sperm treatment groups then either did or did not receive additional sperm treatment with 5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 20 min. Acrosomal integrity (Experiment 1) and DNA fragmentation (Experiment 2) were evaluated in the sperm before ICSI. In Experiment 3, oocytes matured in vitro were subjected to ICSI using pretreated sperm as described above and then were cultured either with or without activation. The TX- and CaI-treated sperm caused an increase in the number of acrosome-loss sperm, whereas the FT treatment and control increased the proportion of acrosome-reacted sperm (P<0.05). The DNA fragmentation did not differ among treatments (P>0.05). At 18 h post-ICSI, pronucleus (PN) formation was found only in activated oocytes. The majority of the activated ICSI oocytes contained intact sperm heads. Normal fertilization was observed in the CaI and FT treatment groups and control group when sperm were treated with DTT before ICSI. In conclusion, DTT treatment of sperm with reacted acrosomes before ICSI together with activation of the ICSI oocytes is important for successful male pronucleus formation. PMID:23132520

  10. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions. PMID:19748745

  11. Pre-mating injection of an analogue of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pregnancy rates to first insemination.

    PubMed

    Moller, K; Fielden, E D

    1981-11-01

    Two hundred and ninety two dairy cows received a subcutaneous injection of a 2.5 ml solution containing 10 microg GnRH-analogue (Receptal, Hoechst A.G.) 0-6 hours before insemination, while 284 cows acting as controls were injected with 2.5 ml of sterile pyrogen-free water at the same time. The two groups, the treated and the control, were formed by matching (pairing) each oestrous cow with another on the basis of interval from calving to first mating, condition score, and age on the day of first mating after calving. The cows were in 3 factory supply dairy herds, which were visited daily during the first 3 weeks of the mating season. All the cows presented for mating each day were inseminated by the same technician using 0.5 ml of ambient-temperature semen containing 2 million spermatozoa per insemination. The semen used on any particular day originated from one ejaculate of one bull (same batch number). The cows were manually examined for pregnancy 2 to 3 months after their first insemination. A similar response was seen in all three herds irrespective of the interval from calving to mating. First mating pregnancy rates were 9.3% higher in the Receptal-treated cows than in the control group (P = 0.025). It is suggested that Receptal may have a beneficial effect on the pregnancy rate of cows that have recently ovulated as well as on those having delayed ovulation. PMID:16030802

  12. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of <7.0% (n=11). The linearity range of the free nitric acid measurement is excellent up to 2.77molL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.995. The method is specific, presence of actinide ions up to 0.54molL(-1) does not interfere on the determination of free nitric acid. In addition to automation, the developed sequential injection analysis method greatly improves the standard off-line oxalate complexation and alkalimetric titration method by reducing thousand fold the required sample volume, forty times the nuclear waste per analysis as well as the analysis time by eight fold. These analytical parameters are important especially in nuclear-related applications to improve laboratory safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste. PMID:27474315

  13. Quantifying Depth of Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in the Dermis: Data from Clinical, Laboratory, and Ultrasound Settings.

    PubMed

    Micheels, Patrick; Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Vincent, Anne Grand; Portnova, Natalia; Diana, Marva Safa

    2016-04-01

    Although manufacturers' instructions for use of dermal fillers ordinarily direct injection in the superficial, mid or deep dermis, or, in some cases, the hypodermis (subcutis), the precise depth of injection may not always be for injectors. In this article, investigators report findings gathered from histopathology, ultrasound, "live" one on one training injections, as well as application of a mathematical formula for depth calculation of the various layers within the dermis. Areas of particular interest are the superficial reticular dermis and the mid dermis. Following the depth measurements detailed by Della Volpe et al in 2012, investigators compare and contrast their own depth findings of the various layers, arriving at the conclusion that the depth of the dermis is not as deep as had been previously assumed. The investigators also develop an argument for the appropriate angles of injection for placement of dermal filler into the various layers, demonstrating that the heretofore widely used angles of 30˚ and 45˚ are far more acute than required.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(4):483-490. PMID:27050704

  14. Single well field injection test of humate to enhance attenuation of uranium and other radionuclides in an acidic plume

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.

    2014-09-30

    This report documents the impact of the injected humate on targeted contaminants over a period of 4 months and suggests it is a viable attenuation-based remedy for uranium, potentially for I-129, but not for Sr-90. Future activities will focus on issues pertinent to scaling the technology to full deployment.

  15. Leucine disposal rate for assessment of amino acid metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Gerald B.; Deger, Serpil M.; Chen, Guanhua; Bian, Aihua; Sha, Feng; Booker, Cindy; Kesler, Jaclyn T.; David, Sthuthi; Ellis, Charles D.; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and closely associated with poor outcomes. Insulin resistance and associated alterations in amino acid metabolism are potential pathways leading to PEW. We hypothesized that the measurement of leucine disposal during a hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp (HEAC) procedure would accurately measure the sensitivity to insulin for its actions on concomitant carbohydrate and protein metabolism in MHD patients. Methods We examined 35 MHD patients and 17 control subjects with normal kidney function by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEGC) followed by HEAC clamp procedure to obtain leucine disposal rate (LDR) along with isotope tracer methodology to assess whole body protein turnover. Results The glucose disposal rate (GDR) by HEGC was 5.1 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 6.3 ± 3.9 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.38). The LDR during HEAC was 0.09 ± 0.03 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 0.11 ± 0.05 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.009). The LDR level was correlated with whole body protein synthesis (r = 0.25; p = 0.08), with whole body protein breakdown (r = −0.38 p = 0.01) and net protein balance (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) in the overall study population. Correlations remained significant in subgroup analysis. The GDR derived by HEGC and LDR correlated well in the controls (r = 0.79, p < 0.001), but less so in the MHD patients (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). Conclusions Leucine disposal rate reliably measures amino acid utilization in MHD patients and controls in response to high dose insulin. PMID:27413537

  16. Relationship between gastric acid secretion and the rate of recurrent ulcer after parietal cell vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, F; Valleur, P; Serra, J; Brisset, D; Chiche, L; Hautefeuille, P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of gastric secretion on the rate of recurrent ulcer after parietal cell vagotomy for duodenal ulcer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Three hundred patients who underwent parietal cell vagotomy for duodenal ulcer between 1975 and 1986 were evaluated. The mean follow-up period for 280 patients was 5 years. METHODS: The gastric secretion tests concerned basal acid output (BAO) and peak acid output stimulated by pentagastrin or insulin. Tests were preoperative for 172 patients and postoperative for 118. RESULTS: At the end of that time, the overall incidence of symptomatic recurrent ulcer was 15%. Two criteria were shown to be important predictors of recurrent ulcer: preoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr, for which the recurrence rate 5 years after vagotomy was 30% versus 11% for values below this threshold (p = 0.01), and postoperative BAO > 1.4 mmol/hr, for which the recurrence rate at 5 years was 72% versus 8% for lower values (p = 0.0001). All patients with recurrent ulcer had either a postoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr and/or a postoperative reduction in BAO < 80%. CONCLUSION: Preoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr and postoperative BAO > 1.4 mmol/hr were shown to be factors predictive of RU. All patients with RU presented either with preoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr and/or a reduction in BAO < 80%. Consequently, in our opinion, these criteria could be used either to select patients for vagotomy or to assess the effectiveness of vagotomy of different types, especially those performed by celioscopy. PMID:8452404

  17. Relationship of lipogenic enzyme activities to the rate of rat liver fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.; Kelley, D.; Schmidt, P.; Virk, S.; Serrato, C.

    1986-05-01

    The mechanism by which diet regulates liver lipogenesis is unclear. Here the authors report how dietary alterations effect the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 400-500 g, were fasted for 48h and then refed a fat-free, high carbohydrate (HC) diet (75% cal. from sucrose) for 0,3,9,24 and 48h, or refed a HC diet for 48h, then fed a high-fat (HF) diet (44% cal. from corn oil) for 3,9,24 and 48h. The FA synthesis rate and the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (AC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP citrate lyase (CL), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were determined in the livers. FA synthesis was assayed with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically except for AC which was assayed with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate. There was no change in the activity of AC during fasting or on the HC diet. Fasting decreased the rate of FA synthesis by 25% and the activities of FAS and CL by 50%; refeeding the HC diet induced parallel changes in FA synthesis and the activities of FAS, CL, and G6PDH. After 9h on the HF diet, FA synthesis had decreased sharply, AC activity increased significantly while no changes were detected in the other activities. Subsequently FA synthesis did not change while the activities of the enzymes decreased slowly. These enzymes did not appear to regulate FA synthesis during inhibition of lipogenesis, but FAS, CL or G6PDH may be rate limiting in the induction phase. Other key factors may regulate FA synthesis during dietary alterations.

  18. Specific growth rate determines the sensitivity of Escherichia coli to lactic acid stress: implications for predictive microbiology.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Roland; Barmark, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that sensitivity of Escherichia coli to lactic acid at concentrations relevant for fermented sausages (pH 4.6, 150 mM lactic acid, aw = 0.92, temperature = 20 or 27°C) increases with increasing growth rate. For E. coli strain 683 cultured in TSB in chemostat or batch, subsequent inactivation rates when exposed to lactic acid stress increased with increasing growth rate at harvest. A linear relationship between growth rate at harvest and inactivation rate was found to describe both batch and chemostat cultures. The maximum difference in T90, the estimated times for a one-log reduction, was 10 hours between bacteria harvested during the first 3 hours of batch culture, that is, at different growth rates. A 10-hour difference in T90 would correspond to measuring inactivation at 33°C or 45°C instead of 37°C based on relationships between temperature and inactivation. At similar harvest growth rates, inactivation rates were lower for bacteria cultured at 37°C than at 15-20°C. As demonstrated for E. coli 683, culture conditions leading to variable growth rates may contribute to variable lactic acid inactivation rates. Findings emphasize the use and reporting of standardised culture conditions and can have implications for the interpretation of data when developing inactivation models. PMID:25110680

  19. Specific Growth Rate Determines the Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Lactic Acid Stress: Implications for Predictive Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that sensitivity of Escherichia coli to lactic acid at concentrations relevant for fermented sausages (pH 4.6, 150 mM lactic acid, aw = 0.92, temperature = 20 or 27°C) increases with increasing growth rate. For E. coli strain 683 cultured in TSB in chemostat or batch, subsequent inactivation rates when exposed to lactic acid stress increased with increasing growth rate at harvest. A linear relationship between growth rate at harvest and inactivation rate was found to describe both batch and chemostat cultures. The maximum difference in T90, the estimated times for a one-log reduction, was 10 hours between bacteria harvested during the first 3 hours of batch culture, that is, at different growth rates. A 10-hour difference in T90 would correspond to measuring inactivation at 33°C or 45°C instead of 37°C based on relationships between temperature and inactivation. At similar harvest growth rates, inactivation rates were lower for bacteria cultured at 37°C than at 15–20°C. As demonstrated for E. coli 683, culture conditions leading to variable growth rates may contribute to variable lactic acid inactivation rates. Findings emphasize the use and reporting of standardised culture conditions and can have implications for the interpretation of data when developing inactivation models. PMID:25110680

  20. Quantifying Rates of Complete Microbial Iron Redox Cycling in Acidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Pottenger, J. W.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Large accumulations of iron oxide commonly occur in shallow outflows of acidic hot springs, and culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopy by others indicate that this iron oxide (often ferrihydrite) is largely biogenic in Yellowstone National Park. The hot springs that support iron mats have several consistent geochemical features including combinations of pH, temperature, sulfide, dissolved oxygen, depth and ferrous iron concentration appropriate to support iron oxidation. These springs nearly always have a point source leading to a large shallow outflow apron. Microbial zones often, but not always, include a small clear zone near the source, followed by a sulfide oxidation zone, iron mat, and finally photosynthesis. The yellow sulfide oxidation zone is separated from the red iron mat by a sharp transition resulting from increasing dissolved oxygen from atmospheric contact and microbial depletion of sulfide. The iron mat is typically the largest microbial zone in the feature by area. Further down the outflow, iron oxidation appears to be outcompeted by phototrophs as the temperature cools. Occasionally there is overlap in these zones, but one metabolism always appears dominant. Our experiments at diverse hot springs indicate that microbial reduction is less geochemically restricted than oxidation, requiring only organic carbon, ferric minerals and an anoxic environment. With iron oxidizers fixing carbon and producing layers of ferric minerals that become rapidly anoxic with depth, iron reduction is invariably proximal to where biogenic iron oxides are forming. To characterize the interplay of oxidation and reduction rates that permit oxide accumulation, we conducted rate experiments at geochemically diverse Yellowstone hot springs featuring visible iron oxides in thermal areas throughout the park. These experiments were performed during two summer field seasons to determine in situ and maximum rates of iron oxidation and reduction by measuring changing

  1. High Rates of Hepatitis C Virus Reinfection and Spontaneous Clearance of Reinfection in People Who Inject Drugs: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Aitken, Campbell K.; Higgs, Peter; Spelman, Tim; Pedrana, Alisa E.; Bowden, Scott; Bharadwaj, Mandvi; Nivarthi, Usha K.; Suppiah, Vijayaprakash; George, Jacob; Grebely, Jason; Drummer, Heidi E.; Hellard, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus reinfection and spontaneous clearance of reinfection were examined in a highly characterised cohort of 188 people who inject drugs over a five-year period. Nine confirmed reinfections and 17 possible reinfections were identified (confirmed reinfections were those genetically distinct from the previous infection and possible reinfections were used to define instances where genetic differences between infections could not be assessed due to lack of availability of hepatitis C virus sequence data). The incidence of confirmed reinfection was 28.8 per 100 person-years (PY), 95%CI: 15.0-55.4; the combined incidence of confirmed and possible reinfection was 24.6 per 100 PY (95%CI: 16.8-36.1). The hazard of hepatitis C reinfection was approximately double that of primary hepatitis C infection; it did not reach statistical significance in confirmed reinfections alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.45, 95%CI: 0.87-6.86, p=0.089), but did in confirmed and possible hepatitis C reinfections combined (HR: 1.93, 95%CI: 1.01-3.69, p=0.047) and after adjustment for the number of recent injecting partners and duration of injecting. In multivariable analysis, shorter duration of injection (HR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.83-0.98; p=0.019) and multiple recent injecting partners (HR: 3.12; 95%CI: 1.08-9.00, p=0.035) were independent predictors of possible and confirmed reinfection. Time to spontaneous clearance was shorter in confirmed reinfection (HR: 5.34, 95%CI: 1.67-17.03, p=0.005) and confirmed and possible reinfection (HR: 3.10, 95%CI: 1.10-8.76, p-value=0.033) than primary infection. Nonetheless, 50% of confirmed reinfections and 41% of confirmed or possible reinfections did not spontaneously clear. Conclusions: Hepatitis C reinfection and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C reinfection were observed at high rates, suggesting partial acquired natural immunity to hepatitis C virus. Public health campaigns about the risks of hepatitis C reinfection are required. PMID:24244654

  2. Effect of γ-dose rate and total dose interrelation on the polymeric hydrogel: A novel injectable male contraceptive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pradeep K.; Jha, Rakhi; Gupta, B. L.; Guha, Sujoy K.

    2010-05-01

    Functional necessity to use a particular range of dose rate and total dose of γ-initiated polymerization to manufacture a novel polymeric hydrogel RISUG ® (reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance) made of styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), for its broad biomedical application explores new dimension of research. The present work involves 16 irradiated samples. They were tested by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, etc. to see the interrelation effect of gamma dose rates (8.25, 17.29, 20.01 and 25.00 Gy/min) and four sets of doses (1.8, 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4 kGy) on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and porosity analysis of the biopolymeric drug RISUG ®. The results of randomized experiment indicated that a range of 18-24 Gy/min γ-dose rate and 2.0-2.4 kGy γ-total doses is suitable for the desirable in vivo performance of the contraceptive copolymer.

  3. Effects of injection of acetic acid and propionic acid for total phosphorus removal at high temperature in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    PubMed

    Ki, C Y; Kwon, K H; Kim, S W; Min, K S; Lee, T U; Park, D J

    2014-01-01

    In summer, wastewater treatment plant total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency is low in South Korea. The reason is because of high temperatures or significant fluctuation of inflow characteristics caused by frequent rainfall. Hence, this study tried to raise TP removal efficiency by injecting fixed external carbon sources in real sewage. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete to occupy microorganisms at high temperature. Propionate is known to restrain GAOs. Thus, acetate and propionate were chosen as the external carbon source in this study to find out the suitable volume and ratio of carbon source which ensured the dominance of PAOs. An external carbon source was supplied in the anaerobic reactor of the biological phosphorus removal process at high temperature (above 25 °C). TP removal efficiency was improved by injecting an external carbon source compared to that without an external carbon source. Also, it remained relatively stable when injecting an external carbon source, despite the variation in temperature. TP removal efficiency was the highest when injecting acetate and propionate in the proportion of 2:1 (total concentration as chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 12 mg/L in influent). PMID:24845316

  4. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids correlate with growth rate in plant cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Meï, Coline; Michaud, Morgane; Cussac, Mathilde; Albrieux, Catherine; Gros, Valérie; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A.; Jouhet, Juliette; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants, fatty acids (FAs) with 18 carbons (18C) represent about 70% of total FAs, the most abundant species being 18:2 and 18:3. These two polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) represent about 55% of total FAs in Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures, whereas 18:1 represents about 10%. The level of PUFAs may vary, depending on ill-defined factors. Here, we compared various sets of plant cell cultures and noticed a correlation between the growth rate of a cell population and the level of unsaturation of 18C FAs. These observations suggest that the final level of PUFAs might depend in part on the rate of cell division, and that FAD2 and FAD3 desaturases, which are respectively responsible for the formation of 18:2 and 18:3 on phospholipids, have limiting activities in fast-growing cultures. In plant cell culture, phosphate (Pi) deprivation is known to impair cell division and to trigger lipid remodeling. We observed that Pi starvation had no effect on the expression of FAD genes, and that the level of PUFAs in this situation was also correlated with the growth rate. Thus, the level of PUFAs appears as a hallmark in determining cell maturity and aging. PMID:26469123

  5. Application of flow injection gradient titration based on the standard addition and dilution procedure to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Kozak, Joanna; Górnacka, Dorota; Koscielniak, Pawel

    2008-12-01

    The proposed approach relies on successive dilution of a solution containing a sample with standard addition and on titration of the solutions obtained until receiving a signal lower than the signal measured for the sample alone. Equations are derived for subsequent dilution factors for the automatic flow injection system applied. The overall calibration strategy including the possibility of prediction of the number of required standard solutions and of positioning the sample signal within the calibration range is presented. The method has been tested on the spectrophotometric determination of hydrochloric acid at two concentration levels (0.193 and 1.21 mol L(-1)) with sodium hydroxide as titrant. The results of accuracy better than |3.9|% (RE) and repeatability better than 1.3% (RSD) were obtained. The method has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and soft drinks. The average time necessary to analyze one sample is about 10 min. PMID:19075470

  6. A flow injection chemiluminescence method for determination of nalidixic acid based on KMnO4-morin sensitized with CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-02-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for determination of nalidixic acid by application of CdS quantum dots (QDs) in KMnO4-morin CL system in acidic medium. Optical and structural features of L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots which were synthesized via hydrothermal approach were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential mechanism of the proposed CL method was described using the results of the kinetic curves of CL systems, the spectra of CL, PL and UV-Vis analyses. The CL intensity of the KMnO4-morin-CdS QDs system was considerably increased in the presence of nalidixic acid. Under the optimum condition, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of nalidixic acid in the range of 0.0013 to 21.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit of (3σ) 0.003 mg L- 1. Also, the proposed CL method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid in environmental water samples, and commercial pharmaceutical formulation to approve its applicability. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid and the results of real sample analysis by two proposed methods were compared. Comparison the analytical features of these methods represented that the proposed CL method is preferable to CD-IMS method for determination of nalidixic acid due to its high sensitivity and precision.

  7. Effect of Strip Velocity on Pickling Rate of Hot-Rolled Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. M.; Warning, C. J.

    1982-02-01

    The combined effect of strip velocity with other parameters on pickling rate of hot-rolled low-carbon steel in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions was determined. At temperatures from 150 to200°F(66 to 93°), the time required for pickling decreased substantially as strip velocity was increased from 0 to about 250 fpm (76 mpm); no further decrease in time resulted when velocities were increased to 800 fpm (244 mpm). Other pickling variables were studied with a velocity of 400 fpm (122 mpm). Pickling times decrease with increases in HCl concentrations, CHCl, and temperature, TF, according to prediction equations of the form log t = A + B log CHCl + D(459 + TF)-1. At 200°F, temper-mill scalebreaking decreased pickling times by about 5 sec; at lower temperatures, a larger magnitude effect was noted for one steel in the group tested.

  8. Impaired rate of microsomal fatty acid elongation in undernourished neonatal rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Y.Y.

    1986-05-01

    Hypomyelination caused by undernourishment in characterized by low concentrations of myelin lipids and marked reduction in lignocerate (C/sub 24:0/) and nervonate (C/sub 24:1/) moiety of cerebroside and sulfatide. Since microsomal elongation is the major source of long chain (22 to 24 carbons) fatty acids in the brain, the effect of neonatal undernourishment on acyl elongation was investigated. Undernourishment of suckling rats were induced after birth by restricting maternal dietary intake to 40% of that consumed by dams fed ad libitum. Neonates suckled by the normally fed dams served as controls. Microsomal elongation was measured as nmol from (2-/sup 14/C) malonyl CoA incorporated/h per mg of protein. At 19 days of age, rates of behenoyl CoA (C/sub 22:0/) and erucoyl CoA (C/sub 22:1/) elongation in whole brain of undernourished neonates were 30-40% lower than that of the control, whereas the elongation rates of acyl CoA 16, 18 and 20 carbons in length either saturated or monounsaturated were similar in both groups. Undernourishment had no effect on cytoplasmic de novo fatty acid synthesis from acetyl CoA. If there are multiple elongation factors, the results indicate that the depressed activity of elongating enzyme(s) for C/sub 22:0/ and C/sub 22:1/ is an important contributing factor in lowering S/sub 24:0/ and C/sub 24:1/ content in cerebroside and sulfatide. This impairment may be a specific lesion leading to hypomyelination in undernourished rats.

  9. Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

  10. Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

    2013-01-01

    A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

  11. Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

    2013-01-01

    A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

  12. The influence of phosphorus oxides and acids on the rate of H + OH recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Twarowski, A. )

    1993-07-01

    The addition of small amounts of phosphine combustion products (phosphorus oxides and acids) to water vapor resulted in a large increase in the relaxation rate of OH to equilibrium concentrations following H[sub 2]O photolysis. The thermochemical properties of 17 simple phosphorus species were assembled and the equilibrium densities of the phosphorus species were calculated under typical test conditions. The thermochemical properties of many of the phosphorus species have not been determined but for the purposes of this analysis they were estimated from the results of ab initio quantum chemical calculations available in the literature. Of the phosphorus species examined, eight were selected for construction of a reaction set. Thirteen species (7 HxOy species and 6 HxOyPz species) were ultimately used to assemble a set of 33 reactions which comprise all of the bimolecular reactions (including recombination reactions) likely to participate in the overall reaction chemistry. Rate constant values were estimated using standard methods for the metathesis reactions and using simplified RRKM calculations to estimate the rates of recombination reactions. The increase rate of OH recovery was well described by this reaction set at the experimental conditions of 1,970 K and 532 Torr. The two reaction mechanisms OH + PH[sub 2] [yields] HOPO[sub 2], H + HOPO[sub 2] [yields] H[sub 2]O + PO[sub 2], and H + PO[sub 2] [yields] HOPO, OH + H[sub 2] [yields] H[sub 2]O + H, H + HOPO [yields] H[sub 2] + PO[sub 2] appear to be the predominant pathways for recombination of H and OH radicals to form H[sub 2]O and for reestablishment of chemical equilibrium when phosphine combustion products are present in the reaction mixture.

  13. A Solution-Processed Heteropoly Acid Containing MoO3 Units as a Hole-Injection Material for Highly Stable Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    PubMed

    Ohisa, Satoru; Kagami, Sho; Pu, Yong-Jin; Chiba, Takayuki; Kido, Junji

    2016-08-17

    We report hole-injection layers (HILs) comprising a heteropoly acid containing MoO3 units, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). PMA possesses outstanding properties, such as high solubility in organic solvents, very low surface roughness in the film state, high transparency in the visible region, and an appropriate work function (WF), that make it suitable for HILs. We also found that these properties were dependent on the postbaking atmosphere and temperature after film formation. When the PMA film was baked in N2, the Mo in the PMA was reduced to Mo(V), whereas baking in air had no influence on the Mo valence state. Consequently, different baking atmospheres yielded different WF values. OLEDs with PMA HILs were fabricated and evaluated. OLEDs with PMA baked under appropriate conditions exhibited comparably low driving voltages and higher driving stability compared with OLEDs employing conventional hole-injection materials (HIMs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate), and evaporated MoO3, which clearly shows the high suitability of PMA HILs for OLEDs. PMA is also a commercially available and very cheap material, leading to the widespread use of PMA as a standard HIM. PMID:27456454

  14. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides and 6-chloronicotinic acid in environmental water with direct aqueous injection.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chunyan; Noestheden, Matthew R; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, David

    2016-06-21

    An efficient, high throughput and cost-effective direct aqueous injection approach for the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides and a common metabolite in environmental water has been described here. The method determines eight neonicotinoid pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam) and 6-chloronicotinic acid (a common metabolite of the first generation neonicotinoids, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and thiacloprid) without any sample enrichment/cleanup steps. The method detection limits are 2-8 ng/L for the neonicotinoids and 93 ng/L for 6-chloronicotinic acid. The performance of the QTRAP(®)5500 mass spectrometer was compared against a 4000QTRAP(®), and a QTRAP(®)6500, to provide insights for future method transfer among different generations of instrumentations. Critical mass spectrometric parameters such as collision energy were quite consistent among the three instruments evaluated. However, increased chemical background levels for some target compounds on the more sensitive instruments were observed. The application of differential ion mobility spectrometry combined with tandem mass spectrometry was demonstrated to have great potential in reducing chemical background and/or isobaric interferences inherited in sample matrices. This ISO 17025 accredited method was employed to quantitate neonicotinoids in Ontario stream water samples. Good correlation for analytical results of this direct aqueous injection approach and a previously published solid phase extraction approach warrant high confidence in data quality. PMID:27188316

  15. Subtraction CT with Low-Flow-Rate Arterial Contrast Injection to Estimate Drug Distribution During Balloon-Occluded Arterial Chemotherapy Infusion for Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Kensaku; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Kotaro; Irie, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nozawa, Kumiko; Saida, Yukihisa; Itai, Yuji; Ishikawa, Satoru; Hayashi, Hitoshi

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To simulate drug distribution during balloon-occluded arterial chemotherapy infusion (BOAI) for urinary bladder cancer using subtraction computed tomography (CT) with low-flow-rate arterial contrast injection (S-CTLA).Methods: Ten patients with bladder cancer underwent S-CTLA, and the distribution of contrast agent during BOAI into both internal iliac arteries simultaneously was evaluated in nine pairs of internal iliac arteries and one single artery. For S-CTLA, spiral CT data were acquired before and after 0.2 ml/sec intraarterial injection of contrast material. The enhancement of the urinary bladder wall, the gluteal muscles, and the pelvic bones was categorized using a 4-grade scale. The grades were compared in each of the three pelvic components and differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon test for paired groups.Results: S-CTLA revealed the distribution of the contrast agent clearly. Gluteal muscles grades were significantly higher than those of the other two assessed components.Conclusion: BOAI does not improve the concentration of contrast agent to the bladder wall over neighboring structures, suggesting that the balloon occlusion technique does not achieve its desired goal for chemotherapy targeting.

  16. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; De Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Araújo, Paulo Victor Pontes; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo de Souza; Sousa Rodrigues, Francisca Taciana; Escudeiro, Sarah Souza; Lima, Nicole Brito Cortez; Patrocínio, Manoel Claúdio Azevedo; Aguiar, Lissiana Magna Vasconcelos; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson's disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA) at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment. PMID:24023579

  17. Automated flow injection system for the preconcentration of bismuth and lead from acid solutions of alloys and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, Maria B. O.; Ganzarolli, Edgard M.; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2000-05-01

    An automated flow injection system for the preconcentration of Bi and Pb from acid solutions of alloys is proposed. The system uses three-way solenoid valves, a peristaltic pump, a mixing coil and a minicolumn filled with activated carbon. The valves are time-based controlled by a microcomputer using a program written in Turbo Pascal 4.0. Bismuth(III) and Pb(II) are preconcentrated on activated carbon after complexation with the ammonium salt of dithiophosphoric acid O, O-diethyl ester. Ethanol is used as the eluent in a reverse-flow mode, and is delivered into the autosampler cup of the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer. Four certified steel samples and a non-certified aluminum foil, spiked with the analytes, were analyzed after microwave-assisted dissolution with acids. For the steel samples, ascorbic acid was added to the sample solution to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II). Iron(II) and Al(III) do not react with the complexing agent and are separated in the preconcentration step. The obtained analyte concentrations were in agreement with the certified or recommended values. The recoveries for the spiked aluminum sample were between 88 and 110%. The relative standards deviations were reasonable for a non-commercial flow system, ranging from 4 to 19%.

  18. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system. PMID:19968099

  19. Nitrogen mineralization rates of the acidic, xeric soils of the New Jersey Pinelands: laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Poovarodom, S.; Tate, R.L. III

    1988-05-01

    In a series of laboratory incubation studies, the authors evaluated the effects of temperature, moisture, and nitrogen amendment on nitrogen mineralization rates in the acidic Lakehurst and Atsion sands of the New Jersey Pinelands. The average potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N/sub 0/) values for the Lakehurst and Atsion sands were 87 and 94 ..mu..g/g, respectively. Mineralization constants (k) were 0.0501 and 0.0756/wk at 25 and 35/degrees/C, respectively, for the Lakehurst sand and were 0.0327 and 0.0452/wk for the Atsion sand. Maximum mineralization occurred at 35/degrees/C for both soils with Q/sub 10/ values ranging from 1.8 to 2.1. Optimal soil moisture tensions for nitrogen mineralization were between /minus/0.01 and /minus/0.03 MPa. A soil moisture tension of /minus/0.01 MPa reduced nitrogen mineralization with the Lakehurst sand, but not with the Atsion sand. Amendment of the soil with ammonium sulfate increased mineralization with the Atsion sand, but had no effect on the Lakehurst soil. Conversely, ammonium chloride amendment increased the nitrogen mineralization rates in the Lakehurst, but not the Atsion sand. Urea amendment inhibited nitrogen mineralization with both soils. No nitrate accumulation was observed in any of the nitrogen-amended samples.

  20. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  1. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  2. Stability and on-off chaotic states mechanisms of semiconductor lasers with optical injection on the new modified rate equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengue, A. D.; Essimbi, B. Z.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the modified single-mode rate equations for a semiconductor laser (SCL) subjected to optical injection. In addition to the well-known control parameters of this kind of system, a new control one, namely the effective gain coefficient (EGC), interferes especially with its nonlinear dynamics. A stability analysis reveals that the unstable locking regions are drastically influenced by EGC, and this can contribute towards improving its accuracy. The generation and destruction of chaotic states through the period-doubling bifurcation route lead to the strengthening of these states. Furthermore, various phenomena such as intermittency bifurcation around the period windows, the general behavior of the SCL systems at the onset of the quasi-periodic regime near the coherence collapse regime and the nonlinear dynamic route sequences to the limit value of the EGC were studied with regard to the impact of this new control parameter.

  3. On the critical packet injection rate of a preferential next-nearest neighbor routing traffic model on Barabási-Albert networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, H. F.; Chan, H. Y.; Chow, F. K.

    2009-12-01

    Recently, Yin et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 49, 205 (2006)] introduced an efficient small-world network traffic model using preferential next-nearest neighbor routing strategy with the so-called path iteration avoidance (PIA) rule to study the jamming transition of internet. Here we study their model without PIA rule by a mean-field analysis which carefully divides the message packets into two types. Then, we argue that our mean-field analysis is also applicable in the presence of PIA rule in the limit of a large number of nodes in the network. Our analysis gives an explicit expression of the critical packet injection rate Rc as a function of a bias parameter of the routing strategy α in their model with or without PIA rule. In particular, we predict a sudden change in Rc at a certain value of α. These predictions agree quite well with our extensive computer simulations.

  4. Fluorescence endoscopy with 5-amino levulinic acid (ALA) reduces early recurrence rate in superficial bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Frank; Riedl, Claus R.; Daniltchenko, Dmitri; Schnorr, Dietmar

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: Several investigators have demonstrated an approximately 20% higher tumor detection rate by ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) based fluorescence endoscopy (AFE) compared to standard white light cystoscopy. These data suggest a reduction of residual and recurrent tumor following fluorescence guided transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder carcinoma. The present study was performed to test this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized multi-center study, 2 x 51 patients underwent TUR of bladder tumor(s) either with white light (current standard) or assisted by ALA-induced fluorescence. A 2nd look TUR with AFE was performed 6 weeks after the initial operation. Control cystoscopies were performed 3 and 6 months after initial tumor resection. Results: At 2nd look TUR (6 weeks post op) and at control cystoscopies 3 and 6 months following initial TUR in the white light group residual and/or recurrent carcinoma was detected in 20 of 51, in 24 of 48 and in 28 of 48 patients, respectively, and in the AFE group in 8 of 51, in 10 of 47 and in 17 of 47 patients, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (p=0.005, p=0.002 and p=0.01, respectively). Three patients in the white light and four patients in the AFE group were lost to follow up. Conclusions: AFE is a minimally invasive and inexpensive diagnostic procedure that significantly improves bladder tumor detection rates compared to standard white light endoscopy. In the present study AFE reduced the residual/recurrent tumor rate 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months after initial TUR by 59%, 58% and 38%, respectively.

  5. GC/MS method for determining carbon isotope enrichment and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids by direct aqueous solution injection of biogas digester samples.

    PubMed

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Feilberg, Anders

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic digestion of organic matter, several metabolic pathways are involved during the simultaneous production and consumption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in general and acetate in particular. Understanding the role of each pathway requires both the determination of the concentration and isotope enrichment of intermediates in conjunction with isotope labeled substrates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and simple GC/MS method for determining the isotope enrichment of acetate and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in biogas digester samples by direct liquid injection of acidified aqueous samples. Sample preparation involves only acidification, centrifugation and filtration of the aqueous solution followed by direct injection of the aqueous supernatant solution onto a polar column. With the sample preparation and GC/MS conditions employed, well-resolved and sharp peaks of underivatized SCFA were obtained in a reasonably short time. Good recovery (96.6-102.3%) as well as low detection (4-7 µmol/L) and quantification limits (14-22 µmol/L) were obtained for all the 6 SCFA studied. Good linearity was achieved for both concentration and isotope enrichment measurement with regression coefficients higher than 0.9978 and 0.9996, respectively. The method has a good intra- and inter-day precision with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 6% for determining the tracer-to-tracee ratio (TTR) of both [2-(13)C]acetate and [U-(13)C]acetate. It has also a good intra- and inter-day precision with a RSD below 6% and 5% for determining the concentration of standard solution and biogas digester samples, respectively. Acidification of biogas digester samples with oxalic acid provided the low pH required for the protonation of SCFA and thus, allows the extraction of SCFA from the complex sample matrix. Moreover, oxalic acid was the source of formic acid which was produced in the injector set at high temperature. The produced

  6. Female and Male Differences in AIDS Diagnosis Rates among People who Inject Drugs in Large US Metro Areas from 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Hall, H. Irene; Hu, Xiaohong; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We estimated female and male incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess whether declines in IARs varied by sex after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dissemination. Methods We compared IARs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for female and male PWID in 95 of the most populous MSAs. To stabilize estimates we aggregated data across 3-year periods, selecting a period immediately preceding cART (1993–1995) and the most recent after the introduction of cART for which data were available (2005–2007). We assessed disparities by comparing IAR 95% CIs for overlap, female-to-male risk ratios, and disparity change scores. Results IARs declined an average of 58% for female PWID and 67% for male PWID between the pre-cART and cART periods. Among female PWID, IARs were significantly lower in the later period relative to the pre-cART period in 48% of MSAs. Among male PWID, IARs were significantly lower over time in 86% of MSAs. Conclusions IARs among female PWID in large US MSAs have declined more slowly than rates among male PWID. This suggests a need for increased targeting of prevention and treatment programs, and for research on MSA level conditions that may drive differences in declining AIDS rates among female and male PWID. PMID:25724830

  7. Electrophysiological responses of Xenopus oocytes to amino acids: criteria for expression of injected mRNA coding chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Etoh, M; Yoshii, K

    1994-10-01

    Responses of endogenous transporters/receptors of Xenopus oocytes to L-alanine, L-arginine, L-leucine and L-serine were investigated under voltage clamp conditions. (a) Concentration-response relations for the amino acids followed Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. (b) The neutral amino acids required Na+ to elicit the responses, whereas L-arginine did not. (c) The responses to L-alanine decreased with decreasing pH and became undetectable at pH 5.5. The present experiments supply criteria to judge if the oocytes translate exogenous mRNA coding taste or olfactory receptor proteins for the amino acids, the best characterized stimuli, especially in fishes. PMID:7956120

  8. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10−4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10−4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

  9. HCV treatment rates and sustained viral response among people who inject drugs in seven UK sites: real world results and modelling of treatment impact.

    PubMed

    Martin, N K; Foster, G R; Vilar, J; Ryder, S; Cramp, M E; Gordon, F; Dillon, J F; Craine, N; Busse, H; Clements, A; Hutchinson, S J; Ustianowski, A; Ramsay, M; Goldberg, D J; Irving, W; Hope, V; De Angelis, D; Lyons, M; Vickerman, P; Hickman, M

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral treatment for people who inject drugs (PWID) could prevent onwards transmission and reduce chronic prevalence. We assessed current PWID treatment rates in seven UK settings and projected the potential impact of current and scaled-up treatment on HCV chronic prevalence. Data on number of PWID treated and sustained viral response rates (SVR) were collected from seven UK settings: Bristol (37-48% HCV chronic prevalence among PWID), East London (37-48%), Manchester (48-56%), Nottingham (37-44%), Plymouth (30-37%), Dundee (20-27%) and North Wales (27-33%). A model of HCV transmission among PWID projected the 10-year impact of (i) current treatment rates and SVR (ii) scale-up with interferon-free direct acting antivirals (IFN-free DAAs) with 90% SVR. Treatment rates varied from <5 to over 25 per 1000 PWID. Pooled intention-to-treat SVR for PWID were 45% genotypes 1/4 [95%CI 33-57%] and 61% genotypes 2/3 [95%CI 47-76%]. Projections of chronic HCV prevalence among PWID after 10 years of current levels of treatment overlapped substantially with current HCV prevalence estimates. Scaling-up treatment to 26/1000 PWID annually (achieved already in two sites) with IFN-free DAAs could achieve an observable absolute reduction in HCV chronic prevalence of at least 15% among PWID in all sites and greater than a halving in chronic HCV in Plymouth, Dundee and North Wales within a decade. Current treatment rates among PWID are unlikely to achieve observable reductions in HCV chronic prevalence over the next 10 years. Achievable scale-up, however, could lead to substantial reductions in HCV chronic prevalence. PMID:25288193

  10. Measurement of tissue acyl-CoAs using flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry: acyl-CoA profiles in short-chain fatty acid oxidation defects

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Andrew A.; Chen, Jie; Kallish, Staci; Stanley, Charles A.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The primary accumulating metabolites in fatty acid oxidation defects are intramitochondrial acyl-CoAs. Typically, secondary metabolites such as acylcarnitines, acylglycines and dicarboxylic acids are measured to study these disorders. Methods have not been adapted for tissue acyl-CoA measurement in defects with primarily acyl-CoA accumulation. Our objective was to develop a method to measure fatty acyl-CoA species that are present in tissues of mice with fatty acid oxidation defects using flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry. Following the addition of internal standards of [13C2] acetyl-CoA, [13C8] octanoyl-CoA, and [C17] heptadecanoic CoA, acyl-CoA’s are extracted from tissue samples and are injected directly into the mass spectrometer. Data is acquired using a 506.9 neutral loss scan and multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM). This method can identify all long, medium and short-chain acyl-CoA species in wild type mouse liver including predicted 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA species. We validated the method using liver of the short-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) knock-out mice. As expected, there is a significant increase in [C4] butyryl-CoA species in the SCAD −/− mouse liver compared to wild type. We then tested the assay in liver from the short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) deficient mice to determine the profile of acyl-CoA accumulation in this less predictable model. There was more modest accumulation of medium chain species including 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA’s consistent with the known chain-length specificity of the SCHAD enzyme. PMID:23117082

  11. A chamber study of the influence of boreal BVOC emissions and sulphuric acid on nanoparticle formation rates at ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Jülich Plant-Atmosphere Simulation Chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulphuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulphuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOC). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulphuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapor mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulphuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulphuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.

  12. A chamber study of the influence of boreal BVOC emissions and sulfuric acid on nanoparticle formation rates at ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Jülich plant-atmosphere simulation chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulfuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulfuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulfuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.

  13. Correlating multidimensional fetal heart rate variability analysis with acid-base balance at birth.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Martin G; Xu, Yawen; Stampalija, Tamara; Durosier, Lucien D; Herry, Christophe; Wang, Xiaogang; Casati, Daniela; Seely, Andrew Je; Alfirevic, Zarko; Gao, Xin; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Fetal monitoring during labour currently fails to accurately detect acidemia. We developed a method to assess the multidimensional properties of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) from trans-abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) during labour. We aimed to assess this novel bioinformatics approach for correlation between fHRV and neonatal pH or base excess (BE) at birth.We enrolled a prospective pilot cohort of uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at 38-42 weeks' gestation in Milan, Italy, and Liverpool, UK. Fetal monitoring was performed by standard cardiotocography. Simultaneously, with fECG (high sampling frequency) was recorded. To ensure clinician blinding, fECG information was not displayed. Data from the last 60 min preceding onset of second-stage labour were analyzed using clinically validated continuous individualized multiorgan variability analysis (CIMVA) software in 5 min overlapping windows. CIMVA allows simultaneous calculation of 101 fHRV measures across five fHRV signal analysis domains. We validated our mathematical prediction model internally with 80:20 cross-validation split, comparing results to cord pH and BE at birth.The cohort consisted of 60 women with neonatal pH values at birth ranging from 7.44 to 6.99 and BE from -0.3 to -18.7 mmol L(-1). Our model predicted pH from 30 fHRV measures (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.001) and BE from 21 fHRV measures (R(2) = 0.77, P < 0.001).Novel bioinformatics approach (CIMVA) applied to fHRV derived from trans-abdominal fECG during labor correlated well with acid-base balance at birth. Further refinement and validation in larger cohorts are needed. These new measurements of fHRV might offer a new opportunity to predict fetal acid-base balance at birth. PMID:25407948

  14. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  15. Thermal Properties of Extruded Injection-Molded Poly (lactic acid) and Milkweed Composites: Degradation Kinectics and Enthalpic Relaxation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid) (PLA) and different biomaterials, PLA was compounded with milkweed fiber, a new crop oil seed. After oil extraction, the remaining cake retained approximately 10% residual oil and 47% protein. The pressed seed cake (10% mo...

  16. Thermal properties of extruded injection-molded poly (lactic acid) and milkweed composites: degradation kinetics and enthalpic relaxation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  17. Thermal Properties of Extruded and Injection-Molded Poly (Lactic Acid)-Based Cuphea and Lesqueralla Bio-Composites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The degree of compatibility between poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and different bio-fillers was examined using thermal methods. The biofillers were fibers extracted from cuphea and lesquerella seeds. Bio-composites of PLA:Fiber were prepared at 85:15, 70:30 and 100:00 and blended by extrusion and then ...

  18. Hyaluronic Acid Injections Are Associated with Delay of Total Knee Replacement Surgery in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Evidence from a Large U.S. Health Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Roy; Lim, Sooyeol; Steen, R. Grant; Dasa, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and the medical costs associated with total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for end-stage OA motivate a search for agents that can delay OA progression. We test a hypothesis that hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is associated with delay of TKR in a dose-dependent manner. Methods and Findings We retrospectively evaluated records in an administrative claims database of ~79 million patients, to identify all patients with knee OA who received TKR during a 6-year period. Only patients with continuous plan enrollment from diagnosis until TKR were included, so that complete medical records were available. OA diagnosis was the index event and we evaluated time-to-TKR as a function of the number of HA injections. The database included 182,022 patients with knee OA who had TKR; 50,349 (27.7%) of these patients were classified as HA Users, receiving ≥1 courses of HA prior to TKR, while 131,673 patients (72.3%) were HA Non-users prior to TKR, receiving no HA. Cox proportional hazards modelling shows that TKR risk decreases as a function of the number of HA injection courses, if patient age, gender, and disease comorbidity are used as background covariates. Multiple HA injections are therefore associated with delay of TKR (all, P < 0.0001). Half of HA Non-users had a TKR by 114 days post-diagnosis of knee OA, whereas half of HA Users had a TKR by 484 days post-diagnosis (χ2 = 19,769; p < 0.0001). Patients who received no HA had a mean time-to-TKR of 0.7 years; with one course of HA, the mean time to TKR was 1.4 years (χ2 = 13,725; p < 0.0001); patients who received ≥5 courses delayed TKR by 3.6 years (χ2 = 19,935; p < 0.0001). Conclusions HA injection in patients with knee OA is associated with a dose-dependent increase in time-to-TKR. PMID:26694145

  19. The Effect of Hydrolysis on the Mechanical Properties of Injection-Molded Poly(L-lactic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Todo, Mitsugu

    Injection molded bulk-shape Poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) specimens were hydrolyzed in the phosphate buffered solution and the mechanical properties were evaluated after the hydrolysis tests. In order to evaluated the effect of crystallinity on the hydrolysis, specimens were annealed with 70 and 130°C for 24h. Hydrolysis tests were conducted with soaking the specimens in the phosphate buffered solution (pH 7.4) in an incubator where temperature was kept as 37°C. Vickers hardness was not influenced by hydrolysis until 30 days. Tensile tests results, however, indicated the strength reduction with hydrolysis. From the appearance inspection, whitened regions were observed at the inner of the specimen. These results indicated the bulk erosion with accelerated inside erosion occurred.

  20. Characterization of a Hierarchical Network of Hyaluronic Acid/Gelatin Composite for use as a Smart Injectable Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Heris, Hossein K.; Rahmat, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid HA/Ge hydrogel particles are embedded in a secondary HA network to improve their structural integrity. The internal microstructure of the particles is imaged through TEM. CSLM is used to identify the location of the Ge molecules in the microgels. Through indentation tests, the Young’s modulus of the individual particles is found to be 22 ± 2.5 kPa. The overall shear modulus of the composite is 75 ± 15 Pa at 1 Hz. The mechanical properties of the substrate are found to be viable for cell adhesion. The particles’ diameter at pH = 8 is twice that at pH = 5. The pH sensitivity is found to be appropriate for smart drug delivery. Based on their mechanical and structural properties, HA–Ge hierarchical materials may be well suited for use as injectable biomaterials for tissue reconstruction. PMID:22147507

  1. The gas chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater samples: evaluation of experimental biases in direct injection method against thermal desorption method.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Md Ahsan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-04-11

    The production of short-chained volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by the anaerobic bacterial digestion of sewage (wastewater) affords an excellent opportunity to alternative greener viable bio-energy fuels (i.e., microbial fuel cell). VFAs in wastewater (sewage) samples are commonly quantified through direct injection (DI) into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this study, the reliability of VFA analysis by the DI-GC method has been examined against a thermal desorption (TD-GC) method. The results indicate that the VFA concentrations determined from an aliquot from each wastewater sample by the DI-GC method were generally underestimated, e.g., reductions of 7% (acetic acid) to 93.4% (hexanoic acid) relative to the TD-GC method. The observed differences between the two methods suggest the possibly important role of the matrix effect to give rise to the negative biases in DI-GC analysis. To further explore this possibility, an ancillary experiment was performed to examine bias patterns of three DI-GC approaches. For instance, the results of the standard addition (SA) method confirm the definite role of matrix effect when analyzing wastewater samples by DI-GC. More importantly, their biases tend to increase systematically with increasing molecular weight and decreasing VFA concentrations. As such, the use of DI-GC method, if applied for the analysis of samples with a complicated matrix, needs a thorough validation to improve the reliability in data acquisition. PMID:24745750

  2. Intracerebroventricular injection of propionic acid, an enteric bacterial metabolic end-product, impairs social behavior in the rat: implications for an animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandy R; MacFabe, Derrick F; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Scratch, Shannon; Whelan, Jennifer; Taylor, Roy; Cain, Donald P

    2008-05-01

    Environmental, dietary, and gastrointestinal factors may contribute to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a short chain fatty acid, a metabolic end-product of enteric bacteria in the gut, and a common food preservative. Recent evidence indicates that PPA can cause behavioral abnormalities and a neuroinflammatory response in rats. Social behavior was examined in similarly-treated pairs of adult male Long-Evans rats placed in an open field following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of PPA (4 microl of 0.26 M solution) or control compounds. Behavior was analyzed using both the EthoVision behavior tracking system and by blind scoring of videotapes of social behaviors. Compared to controls, rats treated with PPA displayed social behavior impairments as indicated by significantly greater mean distance apart, reduced time spent in close proximity, reduced playful interaction, and altered responses to playful initiations. Treatment with another short chain fatty acid, sodium acetate, produced similar impairments, but treatment with the alcohol analog of PPA, 1-propanol, did not produce impairments. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue taken from rats treated with PPA revealed reactive astrogliosis, indicating a neuroinflammatory response. These findings suggest that PPA can change both brain and behavior in the laboratory rat in a manner that is consistent with symptoms of human ASD. PMID:18395759

  3. Amino acid epimerization implies rapid sedimentation rates in Arctic Ocean cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sejrup, H.P.; Miller, G.H.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Lovlie, R.; Hopkins, D.

    1984-01-01

    The palaeooceanography of the Arctic Ocean is less well known than any other ocean basin, due to difficulties in obtaining cores and in providing a secure chronological framework for those cores that have been raised. Most recent investigators have suggested that low sedimentation rates (0.05-0.1 cm kyr-1) have characterized the deep basins over the past 5 Myr (refs 1,2) despite the glacial-marine character of the sediment and proximity to major centres of shelf glaciation. These calculations have been primarily based on the down-core pattern in the inclination of magnetic minerals, supported by uranium-series, 14C and micropalaeontological evidence. Here we analyse amino acid diagnesis in foraminifera from two gravity cores raised from the floor of the Arctic Ocean, our results suggest that these cores span <200 kyr., conflicting with the earlier estimate of 3 Myr based on palaeomagnetic data. The chronology of other Arctic Ocean cores and previous palaeoenvironmental interpretations need re-evaluation. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Rate of Pu(IV) polymer formation in nitric acid solutions. A parametric study

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Osborne, M.M.

    1984-07-01

    The kinetics of Pu(IV) polymer formation has been examined with the intent of developing a simple mathematical equation that would predict the appearance of polymer. The fundamental polymerization rate has been found to be dependent on [Pu(IV)]{sup 1} {sup 2} and [HNO{sub 3}]{sup -6}. The activation energy for polymer formation is real temperature dependent, varying from 66.9 kJ/mol (16 kcal/mol) at 25{sup 0}C to 150.5 kJ/mol (36 kcal/mol) at 105{sup 0}C. These relationships have guided the developement of an empirical model that gives time to form 2% polymer in hours, t = [Pu/sub T/]/sup a/[HNO{sub 3}]/sup b/ Ae/sup c/T/, where a = -1.6, b = 4.6, c = 12.300 K, and A = 7.66 x 10{sup -16} h M{sup -3}; [Pu/sub T/] is the total plutonium concentration, mol/L; and [HNO{sub 3}] is the makeup nitric acid concentration, mol/L. 11 references, 26 figures, 1 table.

  5. Plasma vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid and heart rate variability in healthy young Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Sowmya, Sharma; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the Indian population is not known, however; it is considered to be higher than in the Western population. Vitamin B12 deficiency is generally diagnosed by the plasma vitamin B12 level. Metabolites of vitamin B12 such as homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered to be better markers to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency at the tissue level. Autonomic neuropathy in vitamin B12 deficiency appears to precede other neurological signs. One of the recent techniques to evaluate autonomic neuropathy is heart rate variability (HRV). We evaluated 14 healthy young adults to explore the association of plasma vitamin B12, MMA, and Hcy levels with HRV. Resting lead II ECG was recorded and power spectral analyses were performed. Plasma MMA level was significantly and negatively correlated with the log-transformed low frequency (r = - 0.74, p = 0.002) and total power spectra (r = - 0.55, p = 0.03) of HRV in absolute units. Low frequency (LF) (r = - 0.56, p = 0.03) and high frequency (HF) (r = 0.57, p = 0.03), when represented in normalized units, were also correlated significantly with plasma MMA. In summary, plasma MMA but not vitamin B12 was significantly associated with HRV indices in a young adult population, suggesting that a tissue-level marker of vitamin B12 deficiency is more closely correlated with functional changes. PMID:24846903

  6. Structural calibration of the rates of amino acid evolution in a search for Darwin in drifting biological systems.

    PubMed

    Toft, Christina; Fares, Mario A

    2010-10-01

    In the last two decades, many reports of proteins under positive selection have brought the neutral theory into question. However, the methods used to detect selection have ignored the evolvability of amino acids within proteins, which is fundamental to distinguishing positive selection from the relaxed constraints caused by genetic drift. Disentangling these two counterbalancing forces is essential to test the neutral theory. Here, we calibrate rates of amino acid divergence by using structural information from the full set of crystallized proteins in bacteria. In agreement with previous reports, we show that rates of amino acid evolution correlate negatively with the number of per-amino acid atomic interactions. Calibration of the rates of evolution allows identifying signatures of selection in biological systems that evolve under strong genetic drift, such as endosymbiotic bacteria. Application of this method identifies different rates and dynamics of evolution for highly connected amino acids in the structure compared with sparsely connected ones. We also unearth patterns of Darwinian selection in fundamental cellular proteins in endosymbiotic bacteria including the cochaperonin GroES, ribosomal proteins, proteins involved in cell cycle control, DNA-binding proteins, and proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. This is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to distinguish adaptive evolution from relaxed constraints in biological systems under genetic drift. PMID:20466746

  7. Failure of an intramuscular injection of an analogue of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 11 to 13 days after insemination to increase pregnancy rates in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jubb, T F; Abhayaratne, D; Malmo, J; Anderson, G A

    1990-10-01

    At 11 to 13 d after insemination, 1028 dairy cows on 19 farms were given an intramuscular injection of 10 micrograms of the GnRH analogue buserelin. Their reproductive performance was compared to 1022 control cows receiving a placebo. The GnRH analogue-treated cows had fewer short interoestrous intervals compared to the control cows, but there were no significant differences in pregnancy rates to either the insemination preceding or following treatment, in calving to conception interval, or to percent pregnant by the end of mating. There were no differences between treatments in herds of high, average or low pregnancy rate, in 2-year-old cows or cows greater than 2-years-old and in cows calved 40 d or less, or greater than 40 d. The use of 10 micrograms of the GnRH analogue, buserelin, 11 to 13 d after insemination, cannot be recommended as a method of improving reproductive performance in dairy herds. PMID:2126923

  8. Mortality rate and gross pathology due to tuberculosis in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) following low dose subcutaneous injection of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor; Whitford, Jackie; Cross, Martin L

    2013-04-01

    Gross pathology due to tuberculosis can be established experimentally in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) within 7 weeks of injection of virulent Mycobacterium bovis into subcutaneous connective tissues of the peripheral limbs. This pathology involves lymphadenomegaly and development of gross lesions in peripheral lymph nodes, with subsequent gross lesions in the lungs and reticuloendothelial organs. Using this artificial infection model, we here assessed the mortality rate for possums in the wild, to provide new information on the likely survival period for New Zealand's major wildlife host. Possums were trapped and inoculated with <50 CFU of M. bovis, then fitted with mortality signal emitting radio tracking collars, released and re-tracked for 6 months. Possum survival probability was 89% up to 12 weeks post-injection (p.i.), but cumulative mortality was rapid from then on. The median survival period, based on study of 38 possums, was 18 weeks p.i.; this corresponds with a predicted time interval of 11 weeks between first presentation of TB as palpable lymphadenomegaly and death for an average possum, shorter than period values currently used in possum TB epidemiological modelling. We also examined gross pathology in 11 possums by post mortem necropsy, and confirmed lymphadenomegaly and tuberculous lesions at 7 and 12 weeks p.i. Extra-peripheral gross lesions were more frequent among possums at 12 weeks p.i. than at 7 weeks, while the occurrence of lung lesions (the most likely cause of disease-induced mortality) was apparent in animals at 12 weeks but not at 7 weeks p.i. Our results suggest that the time course of TB from development of gross lesions to mortality may be shorter than previously estimated from field studies of naturally tuberculous possums. PMID:23063260

  9. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain. PMID:24212299

  10. A regime of two intravenous injections of tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C-H; Lin, P-C; Kuo, F-C; Wang, J-W

    2015-07-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, reduces blood loss after total knee arthroplasty. However, its effect on minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is not clear. We performed a prospective, randomised double-blind study to evaluate the effect of two intravenous injections of TXA on blood loss in patients undergoing minimally invasive THA. In total, 60 patients (35 women and 25 men with a mean age of 58.1 years; 17 to 84) who underwent unilateral minimally invasive uncemented THA were randomly divided into the study group (30 patients, 20 women and ten men with a mean age of 56.5 years; 17 to 79) that received two intravenous injections 1 g of TXA pre- and post-operatively (TXA group), and a placebo group (30 patients, 15 women and 15 men with a mean age of 59.5 years; 23 to 84). We compared the peri-operative blood loss of the two groups. Actual blood loss was calculated from the maximum reduction in the level of haemoglobin. All patients were followed clinically for the presence of venous thromboembolism. The TXA group had a lower mean intra-operative blood loss of 441 ml (150 to 800) versus 615 ml (50 to 1580) in the placebo (p = 0.044), lower mean post-operative blood loss (285 ml (120 to 570) versus 392 ml (126 to 660) (p = 0.002), lower mean total blood loss (1070 ml (688 to 1478) versus 1337 ml (495 to 2238) (p = 0.004) and lower requirement for transfusion (p = 0.021). No patients in either group had symptoms of venous thromboembolism or wound complications. This prospective, randomised controlled study showed that a regimen of two intravenous injections of 1 g TXA is effective for blood conservation after minimally invasive THA. PMID:26130344

  11. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra. PMID:24802238

  12. Injection port silylation of γ-hydroxybutyrate and trans-hydroxycrotonic acid: conditions optimisation and characterisation of the di-tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Elie, Mathieu Pierre; Baron, Mark G; Birkett, Jason W

    2012-01-01

    Silylation is usually carried out on γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for its analysis by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and requires potentially long incubation times before injection during which the derivatisation reagent and derivatives (such as trimethyl-silyl compounds) can hydrolyse. Moreover, alternative internal standards (IS) are often useful depending on sample matrices, extraction/purification procedures, commercial availability and price. This study evaluated the possibility of silylating GHB with an injection port derivatisation procedure using N-methyl-N-[tert-butyldimethyl-silyl]trifluoroacetimide (MTBSTFA) with 1% tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (TBCS) as the derivatisation reagent, producing di-tert-butyldimethyl-silyl derivatives as a novel means of analyzing GHB. In parallel, trans-hydroxycrotonic acid (t-HCA) was investigated as a potential IS for GHB quantification. Analyses were carried out with a temperature programmable injector and the GHB(t-BDMS)(2) and t-HCA(t-BDMS)(2) derivatives were successfully produced, characterised and derivatisation conditions optimised. t-HCA behaved very similarly to GHB through the derivatisation processes and was used as the IS for the determination of urinary endogenous GHB concentrations in human subjects where the method showed a limit of detection of 0.049 μg mL(-1), a limit of quantification of 0.162 μg mL(-1), and a limit of confirmation of 1.33 μg mL(-1), suitable for toxicological GHB concentration determination. PMID:22081086

  13. Recovery of oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2-deficient cardiomyocytes by sustained release of ferulic acid from injectable hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Feng-Huei; Wang, Chien-Ying; Hsiao, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Ching; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Aging-related oxidative stress is considered a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and could be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Cisd2 is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein and plays an important role in controlling the lifespan of mammals. Ferulic acid (FA), a natural antioxidant, is able to improve cardiovascular functions and inhibit the pathogenetic CVD process. However, directly administering therapeutics with antioxidant molecules is challenging because of stability and bioavailability issues. In the present study, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogel containing FA was used to treat Cisd2-deficient (Cisd2(-/-)) cardiomyocytes (CM) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of Cisd2(-/-) murine under oxidative stress. The results revealed that the developed hydrogel could provide a sustained release of FA and increase the cell viability. Post-treatment of FA-loaded hydrogel effectively decreased the oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2(-/-) CM via increasing catalase activity and decreasing endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The in vivo biocompatibility of FA-loaded hydrogel was confirmed in subcutaneously injected rabbits and intramyocardially injected Cisd2(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-loaded hydrogel could rescue Cisd2(-/-) CM from oxidative stress-induced damage and may have potential applications in the future treatment of CVD. PMID:27392289

  14. Direct aqueous injection LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of water for 11 chloro- and thiomethyltriazines and metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sung-Ben; Mayer, Thomas J; Yokley, Robert A

    2008-04-23

    A multianalyte method is reported for the determination of atrazine, simazine, propazine, and their respective dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites; ametryn and prometryn and their respective dealkylated thiomethyltriazine metabolites; and S-metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates in deionized, ground, surface, and finished drinking water. Water samples are analyzed using direct aqueous injection (DAI) liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). No preanalysis sample manipulation is required other than transfer of a small portion of sample to an injection vial. The lower limit of the method validation is 0.050 microg/L (ppb) for all analytes except 2,4-diamino-6-chloro- s-triazine (didealkylatrazine, DDA, or G-28273). For this compound the LLMV is 0.50 microg/L (ppb). The overall mean procedural recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) for all water types for all analytes ranged from 95 to 101% (4.5-11%). The method validation was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160. PMID:18373350

  15. Endoscopic full-thickness resection of a lateral spreading rectal tumor after unplanned injection of dilute hyaluronic acid into the subserosal layer (with video).

    PubMed

    Konuma, H; Fu, K I; Konuma, I; Ueyama, H; Takahashi, T; Ogura, K; Miyazaki, A; Watanabe, S

    2012-06-01

    A 74-year-old woman underwent colonoscopy for investigation of a liver tumor. A lateral spreading tumor of the non-granular type (LST-NG), 25 mm in diameter, was detected at the rectosigmoid junction. As magnifying image-enhanced colonoscopy suggested a tubulovillous adenoma, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was chosen for removal of the LST-NG. The lesion was effectively and evenly lifted after injection of 0.4% hyaluronic acid diluted with glycerol in the ratio of 1:1. A small amount of indigo-carmine dye was also added for coloration of the plane of resection. The lesion was completely removed en bloc. Although a blue-colored layer was identified in the resection defect, a small amount of a whitish layer was detected above the blue layer. The muscle layer was clearly located on the underside of the resected polyp. A total of 14 endoclips were used to close the defect completely. The patient was successfully treated conservatively without surgery. Histology of the resected specimen showed that it contained a tubulovillous adenoma with the submucosal layer and both layers of the muscularis propria. The surgical margin was free of neoplastic change horizontally and vertically. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of full-thickness resection associated with EMR after unplanned injection of dilute hyaluronic acid into the subserosal layer rather than the intended submucosal layer. We describe how to promptly recognize this complication during colonoscopy, in order to achieve immediate closure of the defect, with the identification of a "mirror target sign" on the colonic wall. PMID:22350267

  16. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with ( sup 3 H)PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Altar, C.A.; Baudry, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of (3H)PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in (3H)PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration.

  17. Enzymatic conjugation of a bioactive peptide into an injectable hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogel system to promote the formation of functional vasculature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Shan; Lee, Fan; Lim, Jaehong; Du, Chan; Wan, Andrew C A; Lee, Su Seong; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2014-06-01

    In this study, one-step enzyme-mediated preparation of a multi-functional injectable hyaluronic-acid-based hydrogel system is reported. Hydrogel was formed through the in situ coupling of phenol moieties by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and bioactive peptides were simultaneously conjugated into the hydrogel during the gel formation process. The preparation of this multi-functional hydrogel was made possible by synthesizing peptides containing phenols which could couple with the phenol moieties of hyaluronic-acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) during the HRP-mediated crosslinking reaction. Preliminary studies demonstrated that two phenol moieties per molecule resulted in a consistently high degree of conjugation into the HA-Tyr hydrogel network, unlike the one modified with one phenol moiety per molecule. Therefore, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide bearing two phenol moieties (phenol2-poly(ethylene glycol)-RGD) was designed for conjugation to endow the HA-Tyr hydrogel with adhesion signals and enhance its bioactivities. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured on or within the RGD-modified hydrogels showed significantly different adhesion behavior, from non-adherence on the HA-Tyr hydrogel to strong adhesion on hydrogels modified with phenol2-poly(ethylene glycol)-RGD. This altered cell adhesion behavior led to improved cell proliferation, migration and formation of capillary-like network in the hydrogel in vitro. More importantly, when HUVECs and human fibroblasts (HFF1) were encapsulated together in the RGD-modified HA-Tyr hydrogel, functional vasculature was observed inside the cell-laden gel after 2weeks in the subcutaneous tissue. Taken together, the in situ conjugation of phenol2-poly(ethylene glycol)-RGD into HA-Tyr hydrogel system, coupled with the ease of incorporating cells, offers a simple and effective means to introduce biological signals for preparation of multi-functional injectable hydrogels for tissue engineering

  18. A robust multisyringe system for process flow analysis. Part II. A multi-commuted injection system applied to the photometric determination of free acidity and iron(III) in metallurgical solutions.

    PubMed

    Albertús, F; Cladera, A; Cerda, V

    2000-12-01

    A new software-controlled volume-based system for sample introduction in process flow injection analysis was developed. By using a multi-syringe burette coupled with one or two additional commutation valves, the multi-commuted injection of precise sample volumes was accomplished. Characteristics and performance of the injection system were studied by injecting an indicator in a buffered carrier. Three configurations were implemented in order to achieve two different tasks: the single injection of a sample in a two- or three-channels manifold, and the dual injection into different streams. The two channel flow system using the single injection was applied to the determination of free acidity in diluted samples containing high levels of iron(III), by employing the single point titration methodology. The precipitation of ferric hydroxide was prevented using the ammonium and sodium salts of oxalate and acetate as buffer titrant. Methyl Red was employed as indicator. The procedure allows determination of acid concentration in solutions with a Fe(III)/H+ molar ratio up to 0.2. Samples with higher Fe(III)/H+ molar ratios were spiked with a known strong acid at dilution. The three-channel configuration was applied to the determination of ferric ions, using, as reagent, a merging mixture of sulfuric acid and potassium thiocyanate. The double injection system was implemented in series in a single (three-channel) manifold in such a way that a different injection volume and a changed reagent were used for each analyte. It was applied to the separated or sequential determination of free acidity and ferric ions. In this configuration, iron(III) was determined using 0.5-0.7% (w/v) sodium salicylate solution as reagent. The systems can operate at up to 100, 84 and 78 injections per hour, respectively. Determinations on synthetic and process samples compared well with the reference values and procedures. Recoveries of 95-102% with a maximum RSD value of 5.4% were found for acidity

  19. National Income Inequality and Declining GDP Growth Rates Are Associated with Increases in HIV Diagnoses among People Who Inject Drugs in Europe: A Panel Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kanavou, Eleftheria; Richardson, Clive; Detsis, Marios; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Semenza, Jan C.; Costa-Storti, Claudia; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Sypsa, Vana; Malliori, Melpomeni-Minerva; Friedman, Samuel R.; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Background There is sparse evidence that demonstrates the association between macro-environmental processes and drug-related HIV epidemics. The present study explores the relationship between economic, socio-economic, policy and structural indicators, and increases in reported HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the European Economic Area (EEA). Methods We used panel data (2003–2012) for 30 EEA countries. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. The dependent variable was taking value 1 if there was an outbreak (significant increase in the national rate of HIV diagnoses in PWID) and 0 otherwise. Explanatory variables included the growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the share of the population that is at risk for poverty, the unemployment rate, the Eurostat S80/S20 ratio, the Gini coefficient, the per capita government expenditure on health and social protection, and variables on drug control policy and drug-using population sizes. Lags of one to three years were investigated. Findings In multivariable analyses, using two-year lagged values, we found that a 1% increase of GDP was associated with approximately 30% reduction in the odds of an HIV outbreak. In GDP-adjusted analyses with three-year lagged values, the effect of the national income inequality on the likelihood of an HIV outbreak was significant [S80/S20 Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.89; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15 to 13.13]. Generally, the multivariable analyses produced similar results across three time lags tested. Interpretation Given the limitations of ecological research, we found that declining economic growth and increasing national income inequality were associated with an elevated probability of a large increase in the number of HIV diagnoses among PWID in EEA countries during the last decade. HIV prevention may be more effective if developed within national and European-level policy contexts that promote income equality, especially among vulnerable

  20. Aseismic and seismic slip induced by fluid injection from poroelastic and rate-state friction modeling with application to the Fox Creek, Alberta, 2013-2015 earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yajing; Deng, Kai; Clerc, Fiona; Castro, Andres; Harrington, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Stress change and pore pressure evolution caused by fluid injection has been postulated as a key factor for inducing both moderate-size earthquakes and aseismic slip on pre-existing faults. In this study, we have developed a numerical model that simulates aseismic and seismic slip in a rate-and-state friction framework with stress perturbations provided by a poroelastic model for multistage hydraulic fracturing scenarios. The coupling of external stress changes and their spatiotemporal variation to fault frictional strength in a single computational procedure provides a quantitative understanding of the source processes (i.e., slip rate, triggering threshold) of the spectrum of induced slip modes. We apply the physics-based fault slip model to the induced earthquake sequences near Fox Creek, Alberta, in the western Canada sedimentary basin, where two earthquakes of ML4.4 (2015/01/23) and Mw4.6 (2015/06/13) were potentially induced by nearby hydraulic fracturing activity. In particular, we use the relocated December 2013 seismicity sequence to approximate the fault orientation, and find the seismicity migration spatiotemporally correlate with the positive Coulomb stress changes calculated by the poroelastic model. When the poroelastic stress changes are introduced to the rate-state friction model as external perturbations, we find that the fault, previously undergoing aseismic slip, can be perturbed into seismic rupturing even after hydraulic fracturing has stopped but stress perturbations continues to evolve in the medium (Scenario 1). In an end-member case (Scenario 2) where stress perturbations are instantaneously returned to zero at shut-in, we observe aseismic slip; all other conditions unchanged from Scenario 1. Seismic slip is also more readily induced by larger stress perturbations. Our preliminary results thus suggest the design of flow-back strategy, either passively evolving in the medium or actively dropping to pre-perturbation level, is essential to

  1. Assessment of zinc loading in an acid rock drainage alpine catchment using a tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, C. M.; McKnight, D. M.; Todd, A.

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal low flow conditions in acid rock drainage (ARD) streams result in increased acidity and metal ion concentrations - changes that have been shown to become more pronounced with longer dry periods. These resulting increases in acidity and metals concentrations may pose an increasing danger to aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. For example, in many ARD-impacted mountain streams, fish populations are not self-sustaining. The study site in the Upper Snake River watershed in Colorado is an alpine catchment impacted by acid rock drainage thought to originate from the natural weathering of pyrite whereas the main stem of the Snake River and its other tributaries are impacted by accelerated ARD resulting from historic mining activities. Because concentrations toxic to aquatic life persist well downstream of the ARD inputs, dissolved zinc is the primary metal of concern in this study. A compilation of historic data from the Snake River Watershed during the low flow months of September and October indicates that zinc concentrations have increased four-fold over the past 30 years. We hypothesize that this increase is due to changes in groundwater flow patterns caused by climate change and associated earlier peak snowmelt (by 2-3 weeks), resulting in lower stream flows and drier soils in late summer. The observed increase in background metals concentrations has implications for mitigation of former mining sites. A synoptic study to identify discrete surface water sources of zinc loading indicated a significant input from a tributary on the north side of the catchment. Zinc concentrations here measured an order of magnitude higher than in the main stem of the stream, and were correlated with increases in sulfate, hardness, and total metals, supporting our contention that increasing zinc concentrations are driven by the acceleration of ARD in the watershed. The current research further investigates sources of metal-rich inflows to the tributary using a tracer

  2. Mechanical and thermal properties of conventional and microcellular injection molded poly (lactic acid)/poly (ε-caprolactone) blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haibin; Zhao, Guoqun

    2016-01-01

    In view of their complementary properties, blending polylactide (PLA) with poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) becomes a good choice to improve PLA's properties without compromising its biodegradability. A series of blends of biodegradable PLA and PCL with different mass fraction were prepared by melt mixing. Standard tensile bars were produced by both conventional and microcellular injection molding to study their mechanical and thermal properties. With the increase in PCL content, the blend showed decreased tensile strength and modulus; however, elongation was dramatically increased. With the addition of PCL, the failure mode changed from brittle fracture of the neat PLA to ductile fracture of the blend as demonstrated by tensile test. Various theoretical models based on dispersion and interface adhesion were used to predict the Young's modulus and the results shows the experimental data are consistent with the predictions of the foam model and Kerner-Uemura-Takayangi model. The thermal behavior of the blends was investigated by DSC and TGA. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PCL in the PLA/PCL did not significantly change with the PCL content increasing in the whole range of blends composition. PMID:26313249

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reaction rates with peroxy-acid treatment: prediction of reactivity using local ionization potential.

    PubMed

    Shoulder, J M; Alderman, N S; Breneman, C M; Nyman, M C

    2013-08-01

    Property-Encoded Surface Translator (PEST) descriptors were found to be correlated with the degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the peroxy-acid process. Reaction rate constants (k) in hr(-1) for nine PAHs (acenaphthene, anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) were determined by a peroxy-acid treatment method that utilized acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and a sulphuric acid catalyst to degrade the polyaromatic structures. Molecular properties of the selected nine PAHs were derived from structures optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) and HF/6-31G(d) levels of theory. Properties of adiabatic and vertical ionization potential (IP), highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), HOMO/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap energies and HOMO/singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) gap energies were not correlated with rates of peroxy-acid reaction. PEST descriptors were calculated from B3LYP/6-31G(d) optimized structures and found to have significant levels of correlation with k. PIP Min described the minimum local IP on the surface of the molecule and was found to be related to k. PEST technology appears to be an accurate method in predicting reactivity and could prove to be a valuable asset in building treatment models and in remediation design for PAHs and other organic contaminants in the environment. PMID:23734862

  4. Influence of fatty acid-free diet on mammary tumor development and growth rate in HER-2/Neu transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Anna; Zanobbio, Laura; Sfondrini, Lucia; Cavalleri, Adalberto; Secreto, Giorgio; Morelli, Daniele; Palazzo, Marco; Sommariva, Michele; Tagliabue, Elda; Rumio, Cristiano; Balsari, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Numerous investigations have found a relationship between higher risk of cancer and increased intake of fats, while results of clinical studies of fat reduction and breast cancer recurrence have been mixed. A diet completely free of fats cannot be easily administered to humans, but experimental studies in mice can be done to determine whether this extreme condition influences tumor development. Here, we examined the effects of a FA-free diet on mammary tumor development and growth rate in female FVB-neu proto-oncogene transgenic mice that develop spontaneous multifocal mammary tumors after a long latency period. Mice were fed a fatty acid-free diet beginning at 112, 35, and 30 days of age. In all these experiments, tumor appearance was delayed, tumor incidence was reduced and the mean number of palpable mammary tumors per mouse was lower, as compared to standard diet-fed mice. By contrast, tumor growth rate was unaffected in mice fed the fatty acid-free diet. Plasma of mice fed the fatty acid-free diet revealed significantly higher contents of oleic, palmitoleic and 20:3ω9 acids and lower contents of linoleic and palmitic acids. In conclusion, these findings indicate that a FA-free diet reduces tumor incidence and latency but not tumor growth rate, suggesting that a reduction in dietary FAs in humans may have a protective effect on tumorigenesis but not on tumors once they appear. PMID:22689438

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  6. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: III. tissue proximate, fatty acid, vitamin, and cholesterol content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 198; 270 kg; 8 mo) were used in a three-year study to assess the effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on LM proximate, fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin and mineral composition. During the winter months (December to April), steers were randomly allotted ...

  7. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  8. Long-chain fatty acid combustion rate is associated with unique metabolite profiles in skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA beta-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream...

  9. Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and eighty-eight Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per pen; 0.45 m2 per bird) were randomly assigne...

  10. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants control of Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of toxic baits to kill adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was made to identify effective application rates for boric acid-sugar solution baits sprayed onto plant surfaces and to ...

  11. Direct-injection screening for acidic drugs in plasma and neutral drugs in equine urine by differential-gradient LC-LC coupled MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Shawn M R; Wee, Wei Khee; Lim, Boon Huat; Foo, Hsiao Ching

    2007-04-01

    Direct-injection LC-LC hybrid tandem MS methods have been developed for undertaking broad-based screening for acidic drugs in protein-precipitated plasma and neutral doping agents in equine urine. In both analyses, analytes present in the matrix were trapped using a HLB extraction column before being refocused and separated on a Chromolith RP-18e monolithic analytical column using a controlled differential gradient generated by proportional dilution of the first column's eluent with water. Each method has been optimised by the adoption of a mobile phase and gradient that was tailored to enhance ionisation in the MS source while maintaining good chromatographic behaviour for the majority of the target drugs. The analytical column eluent was fed into the heated nebulizer (HN) part of the Duospray interface attached to a 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer. Information dependent acquisition (IDA) with dynamic background subtraction (DBS) was configured to trigger a sensitive enhanced product ion (EPI) scan when a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) survey scan signal exceeded the defined criteria. Ninety-one percent of acidic drugs in protein-precipitated plasma and 80% of the neutral compounds in equine urine were detected when spiked at 10 ng/ml. PMID:17101303

  12. The influence of plasma horizontal position on the neutron rate and flux of neutral atoms in injection heating experiment on the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, V. A.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Melnik, A. D.; Askinazi, L. G.; Wagner, F.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Zhubr, N. A.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Razumenko, D. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    Horizontal displacement of plasma along the major radius has been found to significantly influence the fluxes of 2.45 MeV DD neutrons and high-energy charge-exchange atoms from neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasma of the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An inward shift by Δ R = 1 cm causes 1.2-fold increase in the neutron flux and 1.9-fold increase in the charge-exchange atom flux. The observed increase in the neutron flux is attributed to joint action of several factors-in particular, improved high-energy ion capture and confinement and, probably, decreased impurity inflow from the walls, which leads to an increase in the density of target ions. A considerable increase in the flux of charge-exchange neutrals in inward-shifted plasma is due to the increased number of captured high-energy ions and, to some extent, the increased density of the neutral target. As a result of the increase in the content of high-energy ions, the central ion temperature T i (0) increased from 250 to 350 eV. The dependence of the neutron rate on major radius R 0 should be taken into account when designing compact tokamak-based neutron sources.

  13. Analysis of the injection force of solostar® compared with other disposable insulin pen devices at constant volume flow rates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    Insulin pen devices have greatly enhanced the portability and accessibility to insulin therapy for millions of people with diabetes. Comparison research data should be reviewed thoroughly. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, the study presented by Thomas van der Burg is balanced in number of samples tested, same tensile meter, and identical units per second delivery rate into an open beaker. Mean plateau force of SoloSTAR® and KwikPen™ were significantly lower. KwikPen and SoloSTAR utilized 5-mm length 31-gauge (G) needles vs 6-mm 31G needles for FlexPen® and Next Generation FlexPen®, perhaps skewing results in favor of shorter needles instead of device design. Individual understanding of correct insulin use, appropriate self-monitoring of blood glucose, vision and dexterity capability, and affordability of therapy must be considered first. SoloSTAR holds one unique market advantage, delivery of up to 80 units of insulin per injection. PMID:21303638

  14. RATE OF ADHERENCE TO AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH METHADONE MAINTENANCE TREATMENT PROGRAM (MMTP) COMPLIANCE AMONG INJECTING DRUG USE PATIENTS IN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Chamroonswasdi, Kanittha; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine the rate of adherence to and factors associated with compliance with a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) among injecting drug users in Nepal. We conducted face-to-face structured interviews with 165 methadone treatment patients aged 20-54 years during 5-20 April 2015. Data analysis included percentages, means, standard deviations, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Seventy-two point one percent of respondents had good adherence to a MMTP. Multiple logistic regression with 81.8% prediction showed respondents without a previous history of relapse were 2.7 times more likely to adhere to the MMTP than those with a history of relapse [Adjusted OR = 2.772; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.163-6.605]. Respondents with a good knowledge of the MMTP 9.4 times more likely to be adherent to the MMTP than those with a poor to fair knowledge of the MMTP (Adjusted OR = 9.464; 95% CI: 3.873-23.126). The likelihood of MMTP adherence was 4.5 times more likely when methadone treatment services were available than those where the availability of methadone treatment services were low to moderate (Adjusted OR = 4.553; 95% CI: 1.883-11.008). Knowledge and availability of MMTP need to be improved in the study area in Nepal. PMID:27244967

  15. Persistent Racial/Ethnic Disparities in AIDS Diagnosis Rates Among People Who Inject Drugs in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    West, Brooke S.; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Hall, H. Irene; Hu, Xiaohong; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimated race/ethnicity-specific incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess the change in disparities after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) dissemination. Methods We compared IARs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID with those of white PWID in 93 of the most populous MSAs. We selected two three-year periods from the years immediately preceding HAART (1993–1995) and the years with the most recent available data (2005–2007). To maximize stability, we aggregated data across three-year periods, and we aggregated data for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID for most comparisons with data for white PWID. We assessed disparities by comparing IAR 95% CIs for overlap. Results IARs were significantly higher for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID than for white PWID in 81% of MSAs in 1993–1995 and 77% of MSAs in 2005–2007. MSAs where disparities became non-significant over time were concentrated in the West. Significant differences were more frequent in comparisons between black/African American and white PWID (85% of MSAs in 1993–1995, 79% of MSAs in 2005–2007) than in comparisons between Hispanic/Latino and white PWID (53% of MSAs in 1993–1995, 56% of MSAs in 2005–2007). IARs declined modestly across racial/ethnic groups in most MSAs. Conclusions AIDS diagnosis rates continue to be substantially higher for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID than for white PWID in most large MSAs. This finding suggests a need for increased targeting of prevention and treatment programs, as well as research on MSA-level conditions that may serve to maintain the disparities. PMID:24791025

  16. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  17. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  18. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  19. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  20. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  1. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  2. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  3. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  4. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  5. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  6. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  7. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  8. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  9. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  10. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  11. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  13. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  14. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  16. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  17. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  18. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  19. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  20. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  1. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  2. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  3. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  5. Bile acid production in human subjects: rate of oxidation of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol compared to fecal bile acid excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, N.O.; Bradlow, H.L.; Ahrens, E.H. Jr.; Rosenfeld, R.S.; Schwartz, C.C.

    1986-02-01

    Bile acid production has been quantitated in seven subjects by methods that compare the results of two independent approaches, namely, quantitation of cholesterol side-chain oxidation and fecal bile acid excretion. Six hypertriglyceridemic (HT) subjects and one normolipidemic control were studied by both techniques. A further control subject was studied by the cholesterol side-chain oxidation method alone. Cholesterol side-chain oxidation was quantitated by measuring the appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O after intravenous administration of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol, using multicompartmental analysis of plasma cholesterol and (/sup 3/H)water specific activity. Body water kinetics were independently defined by use of oral D/sub 2/O. Two HT subjects were restudied while they were taking cholestyramine, 16 g/day. In all ten studies, multicompartmental analysis closely simulated the observed appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O. Values obtained for bile acid production suggest that cholesterol oxidation, or bile acid input, was significantly greater than fecal bile acid output in the HT subjects (P less than 0.05). Cholesterol side-chain oxidation rates in the two normal subjects were lower than those encountered in HT subjects, being similar to published values for normal subjects both for bile acid synthesis as determined by isotope dilution kinetics and fecal bile acid excretion. Studies conducted with two, synthetically different, preparations of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol indicated that, in one of the two preparations, approximately 20% of the tritium label was at positions proximal to C24. In the other preparation examined, all of the tritium was located at, or distal to, C24. Further studies revealed that 0.055-0.24% of the dose was present as labile tritium by virtue of its appearance as /sup 3/H/sub 2/O following in vitro incubation with human plasma. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Microbial degradation rates of small peptides and amino acids in the oxygen minimum zone of Chilean coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Rossel, Pamela; Castro, Rodrigo; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Daneri, Giovanni; Córdova, Candy

    2009-07-01

    We found similar microbial degradation rates of labile dissolved organic matter in oxic and suboxic waters off northern Chile. Rates of peptide hydrolysis and amino acid uptake in unconcentrated water samples were not low in the water column where oxygen concentration was depleted. Hydrolysis rates ranged from 65 to 160 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 in the top 20 m, 8-28 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 100 and 300 m (O 2-depleted zone), and 14-19 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 600 and 800 m. Dissolved free amino acid uptake rates were 9-26, 3-17, and 6 nmol L -1 h -1 at similar depth intervals. Since these findings are consistent with a model of comparable potential activity of microbes in degrading labile substrates of planktonic origin, we suggest, as do other authors, that differences in decomposition rates with high and low oxygen concentrations may be a matter of substrate lability. The comparison between hydrolysis and uptake rates indicates that microbial peptide hydrolysis occurs at similar or faster rates than amino acid uptake in the water column, and that the hydrolysis of peptides is not a rate-limiting step for the complete remineralization of labile macromolecules. Low O 2 waters process about 10 tons of peptide carbon per h, double the amount processed in surface-oxygenated water. In the oxygen minimum zone, we suggest that the C balance may be affected by the low lability of the dissolved organic matter when this is upwelled to the surface. An important fraction of dissolved organic matter is processed in the oxygen minimum layer, a prominent feature of the coastal ocean in the highly productive Humboldt Current System.

  7. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 76.8 ± 1.8% to 85.7 ± 1.2%. Analysis of covariance method followed by Tukey post-hoc test of 92 tests did not show a significant change in removal efficiency between liquid flow rates of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 L/min (p = 0.811). On the other hand, with fixed pressure loss across the tower, by increasing the liquid/gas (L/G) mass ratio, the average removal efficiency decreased significantly (p = 0.001) from 89.9% at L/G of <2 to 83.1% at L/G of 2–3 and further to 80.2% at L/G of >3, respectively. L/G of 2–3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream. PMID:23369487

  8. Kinetic method for determination of ascorbic acid on flow injection system by using its catalytic effect on the complexation reaction of an ultra sensitive colorimetric reagent of porphyrin with Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianhua; Itoh, Jun-Ichi

    2007-06-01

    A kinetic method performed on a flow injection system is described for the determination of ascorbic acid by using its catalytic effect on the complexation reaction of Cu(II) with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4- N-trimethyl-aminophenyl)porphyrin. The characteristic spectrum of porphyrin (Soret band), which shows intense absorption around 400 nm ( ɛ > 2.0 × 10 5 cm -1 M -1), was used first time for determining ascorbic acid. By incorporating the complexation reaction into a flow injection system, ascorbic acid could be determined either over a broad dynamic range of 0.1-1000 μg/ml or at a trace level below 5 ng/ml. Good repeatability was also achieved by testing a working standard of 0.1 μg/ml with 10 injections at a throughput of 35 h -1, obtaining a relative standard deviation of 0.11%. Substances like amino acids, vitamins, sugars, organic acids and metal ions, showed no or little interference even present at high concentrations. The method was validated in the determination of ascorbic acid contents of some commercially available soft drinks by comparison with the official 2,6-dichloroindophenol method with reasonable agreement.

  9. Experimental Embolization of Rabbit Renal Arteries to Compare the Effects of Poly L-Lactic Acid Microspheres With and Without Epirubicin Release Against Intraarterial Injection of Epirubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: We performed a basic investigation using white rabbits of the sustained release and embolizing effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres (PLA) to determine their usefulness for chemoembolization.Methods: Fifteen male Japanese white rabbits were used. Sustained release of an embolizing material, EPI-PLA was accomplished with 1 mg of PLA containing 0.03 mg of epirubicin hydrochloride (EPI). Embolization with 50 mg of PLA (total dose of EPI 1.5 mg) was performed after the renal artery of the rabbits was selected (Chemo-TAE group). A group in which a bolus of 1.5 mg EPI alone was injected through the renal artery (TAI group) was established as a control group. Furthermore, a group in which embolization was performed with 50 mg of PLA alone (TAE group) was also established. These three groups, each consisting of five rabbits, were compared.Results: Blood EPI levels were serially measured. The blood EPI level in the TAI group rapidly reached a peak more than 30 min after injection, then decreased to almost zero 24 hr after injection. In the Chemo-TAE group, the blood EPI level was transiently increased 30 min after embolization, but remained low thereafter until 24 hr after embolization. EPI levels in kidney tissue isolated 24 hr after embolization were measured. In the Chemo-TAE group, the tissue EPI level was significantly higher than that in the TAI group. When isolated kidneys were macroscopically and histologically examined, atrophy of the entire embolized kidney, as well as infarction and necrosis in the renal cortex, were observed in both the TAE group and the Chemo-TAE group. However, there were no such findings in the TAI group. The area of the infarction in the renal cortex did not significantly differ between the Chemo-TAE group and the TAE group; however, there was vascular injury in the Chemo-TAE group and none in the TAE group.Conclusion: It was demonstrated that EPI-PLA, a chemoembolizing material, maintained high local concentrations of the

  10. Experimental embolization of rabbit renal arteries to compare the effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres with and without epirubicin release against ntraarterial injection of epirubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2000-05-15

    Purpose: We performed a basic investigation using white rabbits of the sustained release and embolizing effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres (PLA) to determine their usefulness for chemoembolization.Methods: Fifteen male Japanese white rabbits were used. Sustained release of an embolizing material, EPI-PLA was accomplished with l m g of PLA containing 0.03 mg of epirubicin hydrochloride (EPI). Embolization with 50 mg of PLA (total dose of EPI l.5 mg) was performed after the renal artery of the rabbits was selected (Chemo-TAE group). A group in which a bolus of 1.5 mg EPI alone was injected through the renal artery (TAI group) was established as a control group. Furthermore, a group in which embolization was performed with 50 mg of PLA alone (TAE group) was also established. These three groups, each consisting of five rabbits, were compared.Results: Blood EPI levels were serially measured. The blood EPI level in the TAI group rapidly reached a peak more than 30 min after injection, then decreased to almost zero 24 hr after injection. In the Chemo-TAE group, the blood EPI level was transiently increased 30 min after embolization, but remained low thereafter until 24 hr after embolization. EPI levels in kidney tissue isolated 24 hr after embolization were measured. In the Chemo-TAE group, the tissue EPI level was significantly higher than that in the TAI group. When isolated kidneys were macroscopically and histologically examined, atrophy of the entire embolized kidney, as well as infarction and necrosis in the renal cortex, were observed in both the TAE group and the Chemo-TAE group. However, there were no such findings in the TAI group. The area of the infarction in the renal cortex did not significantly differ between the Chemo-TAE group and the TAE group; however, there was vascular injury in the Chemo-TAE group and none in the TAE group.Conclusion: It was demonstrated that EPI-PLA, a chemo-embolizing material, maintained high local concentrations of the

  11. Influence of temperature, needle gauge and injection rate on the size distribution, concentration and acoustic responses of ultrasound contrast agents at high frequency.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Panagakou, Ioanna; Sboros, Vassilis; Butler, Mairead B; Kenwright, David; Thomson, Adrian J W; Moran, Carmel M

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigated the influence of needle gauge (19G and 27G), injection rate (0.85ml·min(-1), 3ml·min(-1)) and temperature (room temperature (RT) and body temperature (BT)) on the mean diameter, concentration, acoustic attenuation, contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) and normalised subharmonic intensity (NSI) of three ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs): Definity, SonoVue and MicroMarker (untargeted). A broadband substitution technique was used to acquire the acoustic properties over the frequency range 17-31MHz with a preclinical ultrasound scanner Vevo770 (Visualsonics, Canada). Significant differences (P<0.001-P<0.05) between typical in vitro setting (19G needle, 3ml·min(-1) at RT) and typical in vivo setting (27G needle, 0.85ml·min(-1) at BT) were found for SonoVue and MicroMarker. Moreover we found that the mean volume-based diameter and concentration of both SonoVue and Definity reduced significantly when changing from typical in vitro to in vivo experimental set-ups, while those for MicroMarker did not significantly change. From our limited measurements of Definity, we found no significant change in attenuation, CTR and NSI with needle gauge. For SonoVue, all the measured acoustic properties (attenuation, CTR and NSI) reduced significantly when changing from typical in vitro to in vivo experimental conditions, while for MicroMarker, only the NSI reduced, with attenuation and CTR increasing significantly. These differences suggest that changes in physical compression and temperature are likely to alter the shell structure of the UCAs resulting in measureable and significant changes in the physical and high frequency acoustical properties of the contrast agents under typical in vitro and preclinical in vivo experimental conditions. PMID:27140502

  12. Long-Chain Fatty Acid Combustion Rate Is Associated with Unique Metabolite Profiles in Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Erin L.; Fiehn, Oliver; Bezaire, Véronic; Bickel, David R.; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Adams, Sean H.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA β-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream of the insulin receptor. Recent evidence supports a causal link between mitochondrial LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. We have used unbiased metabolite profiling of mouse muscle mitochondria with the aim of identifying candidate metabolites within or effluxed from mitochondria and that are shifted with LCFA combustion rate. Methodology/Principal Findings Large-scale unbiased metabolomics analysis was performed using GC/TOF-MS on buffer and mitochondrial matrix fractions obtained prior to and after 20 min of palmitate catabolism (n = 7 mice/condition). Three palmitate concentrations (2, 9 and 19 µM; corresponding to low, intermediate and high oxidation rates) and 9 µM palmitate plus tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and electron transport chain inhibitors were each tested and compared to zero palmitate control incubations. Paired comparisons of the 0 and 20 min samples were made by Student's t-test. False discovery rate were estimated and Type I error rates assigned. Major metabolite groups were organic acids, amines and amino acids, free fatty acids and sugar phosphates. Palmitate oxidation was associated with unique profiles of metabolites, a subset of which correlated to palmitate oxidation rate. In particular, palmitate oxidation rate was associated with distinct changes in the levels of TCA cycle intermediates within and effluxed from mitochondria. Conclusions/Significance This proof-of-principle study establishes that large-scale metabolomics methods can be applied to organelle-level models to discover metabolite patterns reflective of LCFA combustion, which may lead to identification of molecules linking muscle fat

  13. Metabolism of Nonessential N15-Labeled Amino Acids and the Measurement of Human Whole-Body Protein Synthesis Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Settle, R. G.; Albina, J. A.; Dempsey, D. T.; Melnick, G.

    1991-01-01

    Eight N-15 labeled nonessential amino acids plus (15)NH4Cl were administered over a 10 h period to four healthy adult males using a primed-constant dosage regimen. The amount of N-15 excreted in the urine and the urinary ammonia, hippuric acid, and plasma alanine N-15 enrichments were measured. There was a high degree of consistency across subjects in the ordering of the nine compounds based on the fraction of N-15 excreted (Kendall coefficient of concordance W = 0.83, P is less than 0.01). Protein synthesis rates were calculated from the urinary ammonia plateau enrichment and the cumulative excretion of N-15. Glycine was one of the few amino acids that gave similar values by both methods.

  14. Relative Rates of Amino Acid Import via the ABC Transporter GlnPQ Determine the Growth Performance of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The GlnPQ transporter from Lactococcus lactis has the remarkable feature of having two substrate-binding domains (SBDs) fused to the N terminus of the transmembrane domain (TMD), and thus four SBDs are present in the homodimeric complex. Although X-ray structures and ligand binding data are available for both SBDs, little is known of how different amino acids compete with each other for transport via GlnPQ. Here we show GlnPQ has a broader substrate specificity than previously thought, with the ability to take up asparagine, glutamine, and glutamic acid, albeit via different routes and with different affinities. Asparagine and glutamine compete with each other at the level of binding to SBD1 and SBD2 (with differences in dissociation constant), but at the same time SBD1 and SBD2 compete with each other at the level of interaction with the translocator domain (with differences in affinity constant and rate of transport). Although glutamine transport via SBD1 is outcompeted by physiological concentrations of asparagine, SBD2 ensures high rates of import of the essential amino acid glutamine. Taken together, this study demonstrates that even in the presence of competing asparagine concentrations, GlnPQ has a high capacity to transport glutamine, which matches the high needs of the cell for glutamine and glutamate. IMPORTANCE GlnPQ is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter for glutamine, glutamic acid, and asparagine. The system is essential in various Gram-positive bacteria, including L. lactis and several pathogens. Here we show how the amino acids compete with each other for binding to the multiple SBDs of GlnPQ and how these SBDs compete with each other for substrate delivery to the transporter. Overall, our results show that GlnPQ has evolved to transport diverse substrates via different paths and to optimally acquire the abundant and essential amino acid glutamine. PMID:26553850

  15. Kinetic dissolution of carbonates and Mn oxides in acidic water: Measurement of in situ field rates and reactive transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.G.; Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of carbonate and Mn oxide dissolution under acidic conditions were examined through the in situ exposure of pure phase samples to acidic ground water in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona. The average long-term calculated in situ dissolution rates for calcite and dolomite were 1.65??10-7 and 3.64??10-10 mmol/(cm2 s), respectively, which were about 3 orders of magnitude slower than rates derived in laboratory experiments by other investigators. Application of both in situ and lab-derived calcite and dolomite dissolution rates to equilibrium reactive transport simulations of a column experiment did not improve the fit to measured outflow chemistry: at the spatial and temporal scales of the column experiment, the use of an equilibrium model adequately simulated carbonate dissolution in the column. Pyrolusite (MnO2) exposed to acidic ground water for 595 days increased slightly in weight despite thermodynamic conditions that favored dissolution. This result might be related to a recent finding by another investigator that the reductive dissolution of pyrolusite is accompanied by the precipitation of a mixed Mn-Fe oxide species. In PHREEQC reactive transport simulations, the incorporation of Mn kinetics improved the fit between observed and simulated behavior at the column and field scales, although the column-fitted rate for Mn-oxide dissolution was about 4 orders of magnitude greater than the field-fitted rate. Remaining differences between observed and simulated contaminant transport trends at the Pinal Creek site were likely related to factors other than the Mn oxide dissolution rate, such as the concentration of Fe oxide surface sites available for adsorption, the effects of competition among dissolved species for available surface sites, or reactions not included in the model.

  16. Active-material additives for high-rate lead/acid batteries: have there been any positive advances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, K.

    Low positive mass utilization poses a major problem for lead/acid batteries, particularly at high discharge rates, and is one of the major factors that limits the specific energy of the battery. The reasons for the incomplete discharge at high rates are generally ascribed to a combination of various polarization phenomena including: (i) poor acid transport from the bulk of the solution in the interior of the plate, and (ii) a continuous decrease in the conductivity of the plates due to formation of non-conductive PbSO 4. One approach to alleviating these problems is to improve the positive-plate porosity and/or conductivity by the incorporation of additives into the positive active-material. The purpose of this paper is to reew recent work with such additives, and to appraise their effectiveness towards raising battery performance.

  17. Dietary fatty acid effects on T-cell-mediated immunity in mice infected with mycoplasma pulmonis or given carcinogens by injection.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, M.; Uauy, R.; Grundy, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    To test whether or not diets enriched in w-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are significantly immunosuppressive, B10.D2, DBA/2, and C3B6F1 mice were fed diets enriched for fatty acids: linoleic (POLY), oleic (MONO), palmitic (SAT), or eicosapentanoic (FISH). The B10.D2 and DBA/2 mice were given injected methylcholanthrene several weeks later, and immune studies were performed several months after carcinogen treatment. In conventional quarters, DBA/2 fed the POLY diet survived poorly, and many were infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis, even if given the vehicle, tractinoin, only. B10.D2 mice survived well unless on the POLY diet and given methylcholanthrene. Nevertheless, only mice on the POLY diet were significantly immunosuppressed, and only T-cell-mediated cutaneous sensitivity reactions were affected. Antibody, natural killer cell, and natural cytotoxic cell responses were not influenced by the diets. The C3B6F1 mice were assessed for immune functions prior to carcinogen (ethylnitrosourea) instillation into the trachea, and no immunosuppression was detected. After instillation, mice on the POLY and MONO diets were suppressed for T-cell cutaneous responses. Deliberate infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis resulted in suppressed cutaneous T-cell responses in the POLY group of C3B6F1 mice, and aspirin partially reversed the immunosuppression. Mice on the FISH diet were resistant to immunosuppression. It is tentatively concluded that diets rich in w-6 polyunsaturated diets, while not directly immunosuppressive, do predispose animals to suppression of certain T-cell-mediated immune responses. This immunosuppression can be "triggered" by infection and/or by exposure to carcinogens. PMID:3812635

  18. Rates and mechanisms of conversion of ice nanocrystals to hydrates of HCl and HBr: acid diffusion in the ionic hydrates.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J Paul; Gulluru, Dheeraj B; Buch, Victoria

    2005-03-01

    This FTIR study focuses on solid-state chemistry associated with formation and interconversion of the ionic HX (X = Cl, Br) hydrates. Kinetic data are reported for conversions of ice nanocrystal arrays exposed to the saturation pressure of the acids in the 110 approximately 125 K range. The product is amorphous acid dihydrate in the case of HBr, and amorphous monohydrate for HCl. The rate-determining step is identified as HX diffusion through the hydrate product crust toward the interfacial reaction zone, rather than diffusion through ice, as commonly believed. Slowing of the conversion process is thus observed with increasing thickness of the crust. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) and activation energy values for HX diffusion through the hydrates were evaluated with the help of the shrinking-core model. Hydrate crystallization occurs as a separate step, upon heating above 130 K. Subsequently, rates of reversible transitions between crystal di- and monohydrates were observed upon exposure to acid vapor and acid evacuation. In conversion from di- to monohydrate, the rate slows after fast formation of several layers; subsequently, diffusion through the product crust appears to be the rate-controlling step. The activation energy for HBr diffusion through crystal dihydrate is found to be significantly higher than that for the amorphous analogue. Conjecture is offered for a molecular mechanism of HX transport through the crystal hydrate, based on (i) spectroscopic/computational evidence for the presence of molecular HX bonded to X(-) in each of the ionic hydrate phases and (ii) the relative E(a) values found for HBr and HCl diffusion. Monte Carlo modeling suggests acid transport to the reaction zone along boundaries between "nanocrystallites" generated by multiple hydrate nucleation events at the particle surfaces. The reverse conversion, of crystalline monohydrate particles to the dihydrate phase, as well as dihydrate to trihydrate, displays nearly constant rate

  19. Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones altered by potassium fertilizer rates in the midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the effect of potassium fertilizer on soybean ([Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones) is still largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of potassium application on seed p...

  20. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    PubMed

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-01-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system. PMID:26867570

  1. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g-1 to 40 A g-1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g-1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  2. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-01-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g−1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g−1 to 40 A g−1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g−1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system. PMID:26867570

  3. Role of acid diffusion in matrix acidizing of carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefner, M.L.; Fogler, H.S.; Stenius, P.; Sjoblom, J.

    1987-02-01

    To increase the efficiency of matrix treatments in carbonates, a new type of retarded acid-in-oil microemulsion system has ben developed. The microemulsion is of low viscosity but can exhibit acid diffusion rates two orders of magnitude lower than aqueous HCl. Decreased acid diffusion delays spending and allows live acid to penetrate the rock matrix more uniformly and to greater distances. Coreflood results show that the microemulsion can stimulate cores in fewer PV's and under conditions of low injection rates where aqueous HCl fails completely. The microemulsion could also conceivably increase acid penetration along any natural fractures and fissures that may be present, thus increasing acidizing efficiency in this type of treatment. The relationship between the acid diffusion rate and the ability of the fluid to matrix-stimulate limestone is investigated.

  4. Enhancement of marine cloud albedo via controlled sea spray injections: a global model study of the influence of emission rates, microphysics and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Romakkaniemi, S.

    2010-05-01

    Modification of cloud albedo by controlled emission of sea spray particles into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering option to slow global warming. Previous global studies have imposed changes in cloud drop concentration in low level clouds to explore the radiative and climatic effects. Here, we use a global aerosol transport model to quantify how an imposed flux of sea spray particles affects the natural aerosol processes, the particle size distribution, and concentrations of cloud drops. We assume that the proposed fleet of vessels emits sea spray particles with a wind speed-dependent flux into four regions of persistent stratocumulus cloud off the western coasts of continents. The model results show that fractional changes in cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) vary substantially between the four regions because of differences in wind speed (which affects the spray efficiency of the vessels), transport and particle deposition rates, and because of variations in aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Using spray emission rates comparable to those implied by previous studies we find that the predicted CDNC changes are very small (maximum 20%) and in one of the four regions even negative. The weak or negative effect is because the added particles suppress the in-cloud supersaturation and prevent existing aerosol particles from forming cloud drops. A scenario with five times higher emissions (considerably higher than previously assumed) increases CDNC on average by 45-163%, but median concentrations are still below the 375 cm-3 assumed in previous studies. An inadvertent effect of the spray emissions is that sulphur dioxide concentrations are suppressed by 1-2% in the seeded regions and sulphuric acid vapour by 64-68% due to chemical reactions on the additional salt particles. The impact of this suppression on existing aerosol is negligible in the model, but should be investigated further in the real environment so that

  5. Enhancement of marine cloud albedo via controlled sea spray injections: a global model study of the influence of emission rates, microphysics and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Romakkaniemi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Modification of cloud albedo by controlled emission of sea spray particles into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering option to slow global warming. Previous global studies have imposed changes in cloud drop concentration in low level clouds to explore the radiative and climatic effects. Here, we use a global aerosol transport model to quantify how an imposed flux of sea spray particles affects the natural aerosol processes, the particle size distribution, and concentrations of cloud drops. We assume that the proposed fleet of vessels emits sea spray particles with a wind speed-dependent flux into four regions of persistent stratocumulus cloud off the western coasts of continents. The model results show that fractional changes in cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) vary substantially between the four regions because of differences in wind speed (which affects the spray efficiency of the vessels), transport and particle deposition rates, and because of variations in aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Using spray emission rates comparable to those implied by previous studies we find that the predicted CDNC changes are very small (maximum 20%) and in one of the four regions even negative. The weak or negative effect is because the added particles suppress the in-cloud supersaturation and prevent existing aerosol particles from forming cloud drops. A scenario with five times higher emissions (considerably higher than previously assumed) increases CDNC on average by 45-163%, but median concentrations are still below the 375 cm-3 assumed in previous studies. An inadvertent effect of the spray emissions is that sulphur dioxide concentrations are suppressed by 1-2% in the seeded regions and sulphuric acid vapour by 64-68% due to chemical reactions on the additional salt particles. The impact of this suppression on existing aerosol is negligible in the model, but should be investigated further in the real environment so that

  6. Use of gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid, as measured by ELISA, in the determination of glomerular filtration rates in cats.

    PubMed

    Sox, Erika M; Chiotti, Ruthanne; Goldstein, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a commercially available assay for gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for use in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats (Gd-DTPA GFR) with a wide range of GFRs. Eighteen adult cats (11 healthy and seven with chronic kidney disease) were included. Plasma concentrations of Gd-DTPA following intravenous injection were measured with an ELISA kit (FIT-GFR). Results for Gd-DTPA GFR were compared with simultaneously obtained values for plasma clearance of iohexol (iohexol GFR), plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations. A negative correlation existed between iohexol GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. A positive correlation existed between Gd-DTPA GFR and iohexol GFR. There was no correlation between Gd-DTPA GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. In this study plasma clearance of Gd-DTPA assayed by FIT-GFR did not appear to provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of GFR in cats when compared with plasma clearance of iohexol, and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. PMID:20724186

  7. Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤ 10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. PMID:24924921

  8. Collagen and injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jacqueline T; Perkins, Stephen W; Hamilton, Mark M

    2002-02-01

    Soft tissue augmentation of facial rhytids, scars, and deformities is a frequently performed office procedure. This article reviews the available biologic (collagen, Dermalogen, Autologen, Isolagen, autologous fat, Fibrel, hyaluronic acid derivatives, particulate fascia lata, micronized Alloderm) and alloplastic (silicone, Bioplastique, and Artecoll) soft tissue injectable fillers. PMID:11781208

  9. Humic acids-based hierarchical porous carbons as high-rate performance electrodes for symmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhi-jun; Chen, Ming-ming; Wang, Cheng-yang; Yuan, Yun-cai

    2014-07-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs) with specific surface areas of 2000 m(2)g(-1) were synthesized using leonardite humic acids (LHA) or biotechnology humic acids (BHA) precursors via a KOH activation process. Humic acids have a high content of oxygen-containing groups which enabled them to dissolve in aqueous KOH and facilitated the homogeneous KOH activation. The LHA-based HPC is made up of abundant micro-, meso-, and macropores and in 6M KOH it has a specific capacitance of 178 F g(-1) at 100 Ag(-1) and its capacitance retention on going from 0.05 to 100 A g(-1) is 64%. In contrast, the BHA-based HPC exhibits a lower capacitance retention of 54% and a specific capacitance of 157 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1) which is due to the excessive micropores in the BHA-HPC. Moreover, LHA-HPC is produced in a higher yield than BHA-HPC (51 vs. 17 wt%). PMID:24851713

  10. The effect of light quality and gibberellic acid (GA3) on photosynthesis and respiration rates of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Romanowska, E; Parys, E; Poskuta, J

    1984-09-01

    CO2 exchange were measured on pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var. Bördi) cultivated from seeds imbibed either in water (C-plants) or in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentration of 25 μg/1 (GA-plants), and then grown under 17 W/m(2) blue light (B-plants) or 11 W/m(2) red light (R-plants).When measured under the same light conditions as during growth the net photosynthesis (APS) rate in B-plants was about twice higher than that in R-plants. Dark respiration (DR) rate was 70% higher in B- than in R-plants. Red light retarded the development of photosynthetic activity, but GA3 suppressed this effect. The hormone enhanced net photosynthesis and dark respiration to the same extent.When measured under saturating white light net photosynthesis rate of C-plants was also two times higher in B-plants than in R-plants. Growth conditions had only a slight effect on the APS of GA-plants under white light. APS rates of GA-plants grown under red light were higher under white light than those of C-plants, but lower than those of plants grown under blue light.We assume that blue light induced formation of plants that were adapted to higher light intensity: red light had an opposite effect, whereas gibberellic acid induced formation of plants that were adapted to medium light intensity. PMID:24458696

  11. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  12. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  13. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  14. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  15. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  16. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  17. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  18. Dimensionality reduction, and function approximation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) micro- and nanoparticle dissolution rate

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Varun Kumar; Jackowski, Konrad; Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) micro- and nanoparticles’ dissolution rates plays a significant role in pharmaceutical and medical industries. The prediction of PLGA dissolution rate is crucial for drug manufacturing. Therefore, a model that predicts the PLGA dissolution rate could be beneficial. PLGA dissolution is influenced by numerous factors (features), and counting the known features leads to a dataset with 300 features. This large number of features and high redundancy within the dataset makes the prediction task very difficult and inaccurate. In this study, dimensionality reduction techniques were applied in order to simplify the task and eliminate irrelevant and redundant features. A heterogeneous pool of several regression algorithms were independently tested and evaluated. In addition, several ensemble methods were tested in order to improve the accuracy of prediction. The empirical results revealed that the proposed evolutionary weighted ensemble method offered the lowest margin of error and significantly outperformed the individual algorithms and the other ensemble techniques. PMID:25709436

  19. Acidity variations across the cloud drop size spectrum and their influence on rates of atmospheric sulfate production

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, J.L. Jr.; Bator, A.; Rao, Xin; Demoz, B.

    1994-11-01

    Measurements of pH variations within natural cloud drop populations reveal that small drops are often more acidic than large drops. Cloud samples collected from coastal stratus clouds, frontal clouds, and radiation fogs, from heavily polluted and pristine locations, had pH values ranging from below three to more than seven. Differences between small and large cloud drop acidities as large as two pH units were observed, although differences were generally below one pH unit. This chemical heterogenity can significantly enhance oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within clouds, relative to oxidation rates predicted from the average cloudwater composition. One-third of the sampled clouds were estimated to experience an increase of at least 20% in the rate of sulfur oxidation by ozone (8% of the clouds had increases exceeding 100%) as a result of acidity differences between large and small cloud drops. These findings suggest that sulfate production within clouds, a critical component of the global sulfur cycle, may be more rapid than previously though. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  20. [The injectables in urogynecology].

    PubMed

    Pifarotti, P; Gattei, U; Meschia, M

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of reports of injectable agents for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence. The real indication for injectables is intrinsic shincter deficiency (ISD) but urethral hypermobility is not a controindication. Six agents were reviewed: Teflon, autologous fat, collagen, silicone microparticles, silicone microballoons and pyrolytic carbon. Collagen was the most frequently reported agent and yielded 1 year cure/ improvement rate of 60-80%, but results de-creased significantly with longer term follow-up. Teflon has been used longer for the treatment of stress incontinence but both low long and short-term success rate and the reported complications such as particles migration have resulted in its lack of widespread acceptance. Autologous fat has been suggested as the natural injectable but yielded disappointing success rate. Injection of silicone microparticles was associated with a long-term success rate of about 70% in patients with ISD. Moreover, it is now injected without urethroscopy and this makes the procedure easier. Silicone microballoons and pyrolytic carbon have been recently introduced into clinical practice with a short-term success rate of about 70%. However, longer follow-up is needed. In conclusion, long-term durability, cost effectiveness and some safety issues still have to be addressed by further clinical trials. PMID:12711996