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Sample records for acid injection rate

  1. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  4. Injection Rhinoplasty with Hyaluronic Acid and Calcium Hydroxyapatite: A Retrospective Survey Investigating Outcome and Complication Rates.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Injection rhinoplasty offers an attractive, reversible alternative to surgery. Here we assessed outcome, longevity of benefits, adverse effects, and patient assessment of injection rhinoplasty, using degradable synthetic fillers. Forty-six patients who underwent injection rhinoplasty using degradable fillers over the past 3 years were assessed (calcium hydroxyapatite: 26 patients, hyaluronic acid: 20 patients). Comparison of pre- and postoperative images indicated realistically achievable treatment results. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 5-point questionnaire at 3 weeks and 9 months posttreatment. Forty-six patients (88 areas) were treated. At 3 weeks posttreatment, 85% of patients were satisfied with treatment results. At 9 months or later posttreatment, 87% of patients were very/completely satisfied with treatment results, regardless of filler used. Treatment longevity varied between 6 and 30 months (mean: 13.5 months). Positive evaluation was mainly due to accurate prediction of achievable results to meet patient expectations. There were one moderate and two severe complications, all following calcium hydroxyapatite treatment. Two resolved completely following treatment and one patient was lost to follow-up. This resulted in subsequent exclusive use of hyaluronic acid filler. Injectable biodegradable fillers are effective for correction of minor nasal deformities or irregularities. Attention must be given to injection technique and adverse effect management.

  5. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  6. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  7. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  8. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  9. [Injection treatment with hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the spectrum of indications for the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) based on the recommendations of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI), the International Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) taking the reality of patient care in Europe into account.

  10. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area.

  11. Diesel engine fuel injection system with a rate-of-injection control arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Izawa, A.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump for delivering a controlled quantity of high pressure fuel cyclically at a timing synchronized with the operation of the engine; (b) a fuel injection nozzle hydraulically connected to the injection pump for receiving high pressure fuel therefrom and injecting the fuel into an engine cylinder; (c) means for controlling a rate of injection of the system in response to operating conditions of the engine; and (d) passage means for providing, during each delivery stroke of the pump plunger, fluid communication between the pumping chamber and the variable volume chamber only for a predetermined initial phase of the delivery stroke. The variable volume chamber is hydraulically isolated from the pumping chamber during subsequent phases of the delivery stroke.

  12. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: steam rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, I. G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton's and Avogadro's laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  13. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: Steam rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, I.G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton`s and Avogadro`s laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  14. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-20

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  15. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  16. Density, phase behavior keys to acid gas injection

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.J.; Lui, D.W.

    1997-06-23

    Acid gas injection requires an understanding of the complexities of gas phase behavior and physical properties. Injected acid gas streams typically come from the top of the regenerator reflux accumulator of an amine unit. Thus, they are composed mainly of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with significant amounts of methane and lesser amounts of other hydrocarbons. The stream is also saturated with water. The stream from the amine plant has a low pressure and must be compressed to a higher pressure for injection into a disposal well. This article summarizes the available research on acid gas phase behavior and density calculations.

  17. Rate and state dependent seismicity during fluid injection in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Dieterich (1994) developed a theoretical frame of seismicity evolution from a background seismicity due to stress changes in a medium. The theory assumes a volume density of seismic faults with a specific initial slip velocity distribution upon which the stress changes act. Each fault then follows the rate and state dependent frictional law where instabilities develop, but not as Coulomb failure. The evolution is expressed in the form of a differntial equation, which can be adapted for the case of fluid pressure changes resulting from injection and even linearized to allow for analytic insight into the properties of the solution. For a constant injection rate the seismic activity increases at a given distance from the injection point once the pressure exceeds a threshold value. If the presusure rate is high enough the seismic activity becomes proportional to the pressure rate in accordance with criticality theory of Shapiro (2002). Once the rate drops the seismicity reduced to lower levels. Shut off and variable injection rates must be evaluated numerically but lead to results comparable to the criticality theory. The presentation outlines the physical concept of the rate and state approach in comparison to the criticality approach and shows the main analytic and numerical results.

  18. Determination of Acidity Constants by Gradient Flow-Injection Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceicao, Antonio C. L.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2006-01-01

    A three-hour laboratory experiment, designed for an advanced undergraduate course in instrumental analysis that illustrates the application of the gradient chamber flow-injection titration (GCFIT) method with spectrophotometric detection to determine acidity constants is presented. The procedure involves the use of an acid-base indicator to obtain…

  19. [Management of complications after aesthetic hyaluronic acid injections].

    PubMed

    Jahn, K; Homey, B; Gerber, P A

    2014-10-01

    The use of hyaluronic acid fillers for treatment of rhytides (wrinkles) is widespread in aesthetic dermatology and is considered a safe procedure; however, complications can occur especially if the injections are carried out by an inexperienced person and/or with a lack of anatomical knowledge. The two cases presented here exemplify this problem. In conclusion, both cases demonstrate complications after uncritical injection of hyaluronic acid fillers into "risk" or "expert" regions. While the patients in these two cases recovered completely, the injection of filler substances can also lead to the risk of potentially permanent side effects, such as granuloma, necrosis with scar tissue formation and even blindness. The frequency and severity of complications often show a direct correlation with the qualification or expertise of the person treating and hence injection treatments should be performed solely by physicians.

  20. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  1. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  2. A single-injection method for measuring glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Hall, J E; Guyton, A C; Farr, B M

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been developed that is based on an analysis of the total area under the plasma radioactivity-time curve after a single intravenous injection of [125I]iothalamate. Glomerular filtration rates obtained by this method (method A) and those obtained with two widely used single-injection techniques, the slope-intercept method (method B), and the two-compartment method (method C), were compared with GFRs obtained by standard inulin clearance techniques in 14 dogs. Method B consistently over. estimated inulin clearances more than 30%. Method C also overestimated inulin clearance considerably in dogs with an increased extracellular fluid volume, but was fairly reliable in normal dogs. Glomerular filtration rates obtained by the new method (method A) were in excellent agreement with inulin clearances in all dogs, regardless of the state of body hydration. The mean inulin clearance for all 14 experiments was 72.7+/-6.0 SE ml/min, while GFRs obtained by method A averaged 75.1+/-6.0 ml/min. The data from this study suggest that method A is a reliable means for estimating GFR that is especially useful in chronic experiments.

  3. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis.

  4. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  5. Knee arthroscopy after yttrium or osmic acid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Guaydier-Souquieres, C.; Beguin, J.; Ollivier, D.; Loyau, G.

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the macroscopic and histologic results of 35 knee arthroscopies performed on patients with rheumatoid arthritis, some months after an yttrium or osmic acid intraarticular injection. The procedure was most often performed after a failure of the injection or a relapse of synovitis. Arthroscopy provides an understanding of the cause of synoviorthesis failure--insufficient action of the product on the synovitis or its poor diffusion, fibri-nonecrotic deposits, or cartilaginous lesions--and may be used both diagnostically and therapeutically.

  6. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  7. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid-base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for (1)H, and (31)P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3-40min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤6.7kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100-800μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering.

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  9. [Simultaneous determination of five organic acids in Kudiezi injection by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Sun, Lu; Zhao, Wen; Li, Yu-Bo; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to develop a high performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of five organic acids in Kudiezi injection. The Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm) was adopted with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase at a gradient mode program. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min-1 , detection wavelength was 325 nm, and column temperature was 35 degree C. The linear range of monocaffeyltartaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chicoric acid were 0. 64-81.60 (r =0. 999 9),0.09-11. 10 (r =0.999 8) ,0.09-11.30 (r =0. 999 8),0.10-12.80 (r =0.999 9),0.43-55. 50 mg L-1 (r = 0.999 8) , respectively. The average recoveries were 101.8% ,100. 9% ,99. 24% ,99. 83% ,101.9%, respectively, with RSD of less than 2.0%. The developed HPLC method was simple, sensitive and accurate with good repeatability. This work provided helpful information for comprehensive quality control of Kudiezi injection. [Key words] Kudiezi injection; organic acids; content determination; HPLC

  10. Injecting alone among young adult IDUs in five U.S. cities: Evidence of low rates of injection risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Holly; Campbell, Jennifer V.; Thiede, Hanne; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Ouellet, Lawrence; Latka, Mary; Hudson, Sharon; Garfein, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Illicit drug injection typically occurs in private or semi-public settings where two or more injectors are present. In a large sample of young adult injectors (aged 15–30) in five US cities, we describe those who reported consistently injecting by themselves in a recent period. Among 3,199 eligible subjects, 85% were male, median age was 24 years, and median number of years injecting was four. Fifteen percent (n=467) who reported always injecting alone in the previous three months were compared to other IDUs to understand the relationship between this practice and injection risk behavior. IDUs who reported injecting alone were substantially less likely to report injection with a syringe (AOR=0.16, 95% CI 0.1–0.2) or other drug preparation equipment (AOR=0.17, 95% CI 0.13–0.2) previously used by another injector. Markedly low rates of injection risk behavior were observed in IDUs who reported injecting alone; this practice may facilitate safe injection by granting the individual greater control over the injection setting. However, risks may include accidental overdose with severe consequences. PMID:17363193

  11. The association between radiographic embrasure morphology and interdental papilla reconstruction using injectable hyaluronic acid gel

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of enhancing deficient interdental papilla with hyaluronic acid gel injection by assessing the radiographic anatomical factors affecting the reconstruction of the interdental papilla. Methods Fifty-seven treated sites from 13 patients (6 males and 7 females) were included. Patients had papillary deficiency in the upper anterior area. Prior to treatment, photographic and periapical radiographic standardization devices were designed for each patient. A 30-gauge needle was used with an injection-assistance device to inject a hyaluronic acid gel to the involved papilla. This treatment was repeated up to 5 times every 3 weeks. Patients were followed up for 6 months after the initial gel application. Clinical photographic measurements of the black triangle area (BTA), height (BTH), and width (BTW) and periapical radiographic measurements of the contact point and the bone crest (CP-BC) and the interproximal distance between roots (IDR) were undertaken using computer software. The interdental papilla reconstruction rate (IPRR) was calculated to determine the percentage change of BTA between the initial and final examination and the association between radiographic factors and the reconstruction of the interdental papilla by means of injectable hyaluronic acid gel were evaluated. Results All sites showed improvement between treatment examinations. Thirty-six sites had complete interdental papilla reconstruction and 21 sites showed improvement ranging from 19% to 96%. The CP-BC correlated with the IPRR. More specifically, when the CP-BC reached 6 mm, virtually complete interdental papilla reconstruction via injectable hyaluronic acid gel was achieved. Conclusions These results suggest that the CP-BC is closely related to the efficacy of hyaluronic acid gel injection for interdental papilla reconstruction. PMID:27588217

  12. [A case of nasal tip necrosis after hyaluronic acid injection].

    PubMed

    Honart, J-F; Duron, J-B; Mazouz Dorval, S; Rausky, J; Revol, M

    2013-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most used dermal filler. Some complications associated with its use have been described, but most of them are rare and benign. We report an exceptional case of skin necrosis of the tip of the nose, in a 22-year-old patient, after HA injection. The initial appearance may occurred subsequent aesthetic sequels. After necrotic tissue excision, patient was followed in rapid succession. Daily local care has led to wound healing, without any important sequel. This rare complication reminds us that HA injections are not without risk, despite their apparent simplicity of use. Moreover, the case presented confirms the potential healing of the nasal tip, allowing treatment with wound healing, rather than other early invasive procedure.

  13. Liquid-Phase Heat-Release Rates of the Systems Hydrazine-Nitric Acid and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine-Nitric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somogyi, Dezso; Feiler, Charles E.

    1960-01-01

    The initial rates of heat release produced by the reactions of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine with nitric acid were determined in a bomb calorimeter under conditions of forced mixing. Fuel-oxidant weight ratio and injection velocity were varied. The rate of heat release apparently depended on the interfacial area between the propellants. Above a narrow range of injection velocities representing a critical amount of interfacial area, the rates reached a maximum and were almost constant with injection velocity. The maximum rate for hydrazine was about 70 percent greater than that for unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. The total heat released did not vary with mixture ratio over the range studied.

  14. Proper Technique for Administration of ATX-101 (Deoxycholic Acid Injection): Insights From an Injection Practicum and Roundtable Discussion.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek H; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Fagien, Steven; Glaser, Dee Anna; Monheit, Gary D; Stauffer, Karen; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) is the first aesthetic injectable approved for reduction of submental fat. In February 2014, an injection practicum was conducted in the anatomy laboratory at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center to explore the proper injection technique for ATX-101 and the importance of its appropriate, safe anatomical placement within the submental area. Subsequent to the injection practicum, a structured roundtable discussion was conducted in which potential implications of the various injection protocols evaluated during the practicum were reviewed. Furthermore, the faculty had the opportunity to provide additional perspectives based on their clinical experience with facial injectables and ATX-101 specifically. In this article, the findings from the injection practicum and roundtable discussion are reported.

  15. Managing knee ostheoarthritis: efficacy of hyaluronic acid injections.

    PubMed

    Roque, V; Agre, M; Barroso, J; Brito, I

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis worldwide. The etiology of pain in osteoarthritis is multifactoral, and includes mechanical and inflammatory processes. The use of intra-articular viscosupplementation in the nonoperative management of patients with osteoarthritis has become quite popular. Recent clinical data have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions of hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation reduce pain, from 4 to 14 weeks after injection, while improving patient function. Viscosupplements are comparable in efficacy to systemic forms of active intervention, with more local reactions but fewer systemic adverse events, and hyaluronic acid has more prolonged effects than IA corticosteroids. Although several randomized controlled trials have established the efficacy of this treatment modality, additional high quality randomized control studies with appropriate comparison are still required to clearly define the role of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. We review the basic science and development of viscosupplementation and discuss the mounting evidence in support of its efficacy and safety profile.

  16. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  17. Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for 19F magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Sun, Yi; Kootala, Sujit; Hilborn, Jöns; Heerschap, Arend; Ossipov, Dmitri

    2014-09-22

    We report on a 19F labeled injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel that can be monitored by both 1H and 19F MR imaging. The HA based hydrogel formed via carbazone reaction can be obtained within a minute by simple mixing of HA-carbazate and HA-aldehyde derivatized polymers. 19F contrast agent was linked to with carbazate and thiol dually functionalized HA via orthogonal Michael addition reaction which afforded cross-linkable and 19F labeled HA. The 19F labeling of HA polymer did not affect the mechanical properties of the formed hydrogel. As a result, the shape of a hydrogel sample could be imaged very well by both 1H MRI and high resolution 19F MRI. This hydrogel has high potential in clinical applications since it is injectable, biocompatible, and can be tracked in a minimally invasive manner. The present approach can be applied in preparation of injectable 19F labeled hydrogel biomaterials from other natural biomacromolecules.

  18. Subureteral Injection with Small-Size Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer: Is It Really Efficient?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Özgür; Farahvash, Amirali; Senol, Cem; Gümüstas, Hüseyin; Atay, Irfan; Deniz, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of patients with vesicoureteral reflux, which were treated with subureteral injection of small-size (80–120 μm) dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA). Data of 75 children (105 renal units) who underwent STING procedure with small-size Dx/HA for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in our clinic between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative reflux grade and side, injection indication, postoperative urinary infections and urinary symptoms, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal scintigraphy results were evaluated. The success rate of the procedure was 100% in patients with grades 1 and 2 reflux, 91% in patients with grade 3 reflux, and 82.6% in patients with grade 4. Overall success rate of the treated patients was 97%. Endoscopic subureteric injection with Dx/HA procedure has become a reasonable minimally invasive alternative technique to open surgery, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, and surveillance modalities in treatment of VUR in terms of easy application, low costs and complication rates, and high success rates. Injection material composed of small-size dextranomer microspheres seems superior to normal size Dx/HA, together with offering similar success with low cost. PMID:28105412

  19. Correlation between Changes in Seismicity Rates and Well Injection Volumes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Walsh, R.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a statistical approach to establish correlations between locations with seismicity increase in Oklahoma and nearby well injection volumes. Seismicity rates in the state have significantly increased since approximately 2008. Fluid injection into deep wells has been theorized to be the cause of this seismicity, but the increase occurred significantly after the start of injection activities in the region. Further, injection-induced earthquakes depend on the presence and orientation of basement faults and the stress state in the region. Because of these complexities, it has been difficult to directly correlate fluid injection with seismicity. Here we show that a statistical correlation between increase in seismicity and injection volumes can be established in Oklahoma. We first employ a change point method to locate the regions where a change in seismicity rates has occurred. We then use a logistic regression model to relate the injection volumes in a region with the presence or absence of seismicity change in the region. This model is further used to evaluate the relative contribution of cumulative injection volumes and monthly injection rates to seismicity. The model can be used to identify "seismically sensitive regions" where seismicity increase has been observed with little fluid injection, and "seismically stable regions" where seismicity changes have not been observed even with high fluid injection. This information can be combined with geological information in a region, and used to make decisions about acceptable volumes for injection and to identify lower-risk regions for injection.

  20. Migration rates and formation injectivity to determine containment time scales of sequestered carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Additionally, this research establishes a methodology to calculate the injectivity of a target formation. Because injectivity describes the pressure increase due to the introduction of fluids into a formation, the relevant application of injectivity is to determine the pressure increase, due to an injection volume and flow rate, that will induce fractures in the reservoir rocks. This quantity is defined mathematically as the maximum pressure differential between the hydrostatic gradient and the fracture gradient of the target formation. Injectivity is mathematically related to the maximum pressure differential of the formation, and can be used to determine the upper limit for the pressure increase that an injection target can withstand before fracturing.

  1. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  2. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  3. Distributor-type fuel injection pump having injection rate control function for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, S.; Ishibashi, T.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a distributor-type fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and a plurality of fuel injection valves for injecting fuel into respective ones of the cylinders. The fuel injection pump includes a plunger arranged for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion in response to rotation of the engine to perform pressure delivery and distribution of fuel into the cylinders of the engine. The plunger has a first portion and a second portion having different diameters from each other, a first pump working chamber defined by the first portion, and a second pump working chamber defined by the second portion. Fuel delivery passageways are arranged for communication with the first pump working chamber and lead to respective ones of the fuel injection valves of the engine. A communication passageway is arranged for communicating the second pump working chamber with the fuel delivery passageways and a drain passageway is arranged for communicating the communication passageway with a zone under a lower pressure of the pump.

  4. Hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis: injection therapies innovations

    PubMed Central

    Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco; Mangone, Massimiliano; Alviti, Federica; Bernetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Summary Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and progressive functional limitation. Viscosupplementation with intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) could be a treatment option in OA, however recommendations made in different international guidelines for the non-surgical management of OA are not always concordant with regard to the role of IA injection therapies. Results from a recent Italian Consensus Conference underline how IA-HA to treat OA represents a widely used therapy in Italy. Specifically high molecular weight HA, cross-linked HA, and mobile reticulum HA are considered very useful to treat the OA joints from a great number of expert in Italy. These kinds of HA could reduce the NSAIDs intake, furthermore high-molecular weight and mobile reticulum HA are considered to be able to delay or avoid a joint prosthetic implant. This mini review highlights the results obtained from the Italian Consensus Conference “Appropriateness of clinical and organizational criteria for intra-articular injection therapies in osteoarthritis” and give further indication about innovation in IA-HA therapies. PMID:27920810

  5. Does intrauterine injection of low-molecular-weight heparin improve the clinical pregnancy rate in intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed Central

    El-Faissal, Yahia; Aboulghar, Mona; Mansour, Ragaa; Serour, Gamal I; Aboulghar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective Heparin can modulate proteins, and influence processes involved in implantation and trophoblastic development. This study aimed to assess the improvement of clinical pregnancy and implantation rates after local intrauterine injection of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods A randomised case/control design was followed in women scheduled for ICSI. The study arm was injected with intrauterine LMWH during mock embryo transfer immediately following the ovum pickup procedure, while the control arm was given an intrauterine injection with a similar volume of tissue culture media. Side effects, the clinical pregnancy rate, and the implantation rate were recorded. Results The pregnancy rate was acceptable (33.9%) in the LMWH arm with no significant reported side effects, confirming the safety of the intervention. No statistically significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates between both groups (p=0.182 and p=0.096, respectively). The odds ratio of being pregnant after intrauterine injection with LMWH compared to the control group was 0.572 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27−1.22), while the risk ratio was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.46−1.13; p=0.146). No statistical significance was found between the two groups in other factors affecting implantation, such as day of transfer (p=0.726), number of embryos transferred (p=0.362), or embryo quality. Conclusion Intrauterine injection of LMWH is a safe intervention, but the dose used in this study failed to improve the outcome of ICSI. Based on its safety, further research involving modification of the dosage and/or the timing of administration could result in improved ICSI success rates. PMID:28090465

  6. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy.

  7. Pyrazinoic acid decreases peritoneal transfer rates.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, A E; Czyzewska, K; Szary, B

    1995-01-01

    It was shown elsewhere that in a peritoneally dialyzed woman with pulmonary tuberculosis, oral treatment with rifampicin and pyrazinamide (11 and 25 mg/kg/day, respectively) caused a decrease in the peritoneal transport of sodium, potassium, urea, uric acid, protein, and ultrafiltration rate by 48% to 75% compared to the pretreatment values. Pyrazinoic acid (PA), a metabolite of pyrazinamide, may account for these changes, because rifampicin was also previously used in this patient without peritoneal function impairment. Thus in the present study the influence of PA on the human peritoneum is examined using the modified Ussing-type chamber. PA (1 mg/dL) was introduced into the medium on the interstitial side of the membrane. After the introduction of PA, uric acid transfer from the interstitial to the mesothelial side decreased by about 50%. There were no significant changes in the urea and albumin transfer rates. In conclusion, PA induces changes in uric acid transfer acting directly on mesothelial cells, whereas a decrease in the peritoneal transfer of other solutes may be caused by a decrease in convective transfer rates due to impaired ultrafiltration.

  8. Convergence rates for {{\\ell }}^{1}-regularization without injectivity-type assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Existing convergence rate results for sparsity promoting regularization of Tikhonov-type rely on injectivity of the considered operator or at least on slightly weakened injectivity assumptions (finite basis injectivity or restricted isometry property). We extend such results to non-injective operators by formulating a suitable variational source condition, which then is characterized in the language of range conditions with respect to the range of the adjoint operator. As a special case we consider operator equations with uniquely determined 1-norm minimizing solutions. Based on the developed characterization of a variational source condition we also provide convergence rates for the case that solutions are not sparse.

  9. Is high-rate injection causing the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.

    2014-12-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the central and eastern US (CEUS) began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as likely induced by wastewater injection. To better understand the likelihood of an induced seismic event from a given injection well, we compare the location and timing of earthquakes and injection operational parameters across the CEUS. We compiled a database of more than 187,000 injection wells in the CEUS, both active and inactive. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System's (ANSS) comprehensive earthquake catalog from 1973 to mid-2014, we use spatial and temporal filtering methods to discriminate injection wells that may be associated with earthquakes from those that are not. Our goal was to understand whether or not well operational parameters such as injection rate, cumulative injected volume, injection pressure and injection depth affect the likelihood that a well is spatiotemporally associated with an earthquake. We found more than 14,000 injection wells (~8% of all wells) that may be associated with earthquakes in the CEUS. Our spatiotemporal filter succeeded in capturing every suspected case of induced seismicity that we are aware of. We also found that the likelihood of an injection well being associated with an earthquake increased with increasing injection rate and cumulative injected volume. This phenomenon was observed over a wide range of geologic and hydrogeologic provinces in states such as Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico and Arkansas. Operational parameters such as injection pressure and injection depth do not show a clear trend towards an increased likelihood of spatiotemporal association with an earthquake. In all, the cumulative number of CEUS earthquakes potentially associated with injection has risen sharply from 112 out of 545 in year 2000 (~19%) to more than 732 out of 1325 by May 2014 (~55%). This increase in earthquakes spatiotemporally associated with wells accounts for the vast

  10. Injectable oxidized hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-08-01

    Injectable hydrogel allows irregular surgical defects to be completely filled, lessens the risk of implant migration, and minimizes surgical defects due to the solution-gel state transformation. Here, we first propose a method for preparing oxidized hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (oxi-HA/ADH) injectable hydrogel by chemical cross-linking under physiological conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and trinitrobenzene sulfonate assay were used to confirm the oxidation of hyaluronic acid. Rheological properties were measured to evaluate the working ability of the hydrogel for further clinical application. The oxi-HA/ADH in situ forming hydrogel can transform from liquid form into a gel-like matrix within 3-8 min, depending on the operational temperature. Furthermore, hydrogel degradation and cell assessment is also a concern for clinical application. Injectable oxi-HA/ADH8 hydrogel can maintain its gel-like state for at least 5 weeks with a degradation percentage of 40%. Importantly, oxi-HA/ADH8 hydrogel can assist in nucleus pulposus cell synthesis of type II collagen and aggrecan mRNA gene expression according to the results of real-time PCR analysis, and shows good biocompatibility based on cell viability and cytotoxicity assays. Based on the results of the current study, oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel may possess several advantages for future application in nucleus pulposus regeneration.

  11. An injectable oxidated hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel as a vitreous substitute.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Tseng, Ching-Li; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Vitrectomy is a common procedure for treating ocular-related diseases. The surgery involves removing the vitreous humor from the center of the eye, and vitreous substitutes are needed to replace the vitreous humor after vitrectomy. In the present study, we developed a colorless, transparent and injectable hydrogel with appropriate refractive index as a vitreous substitute. The hydrogel is formed by oxidated hyaluronic acid (oxi-HA) cross-linked with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH). Hyaluronic acid (HA) was oxidized by sodium periodate to create aldehyde functional groups, which could be cross-linked by ADH. The refractive index of this hydrogel ranged between 1.3420 and 1.3442, which is quite similar to human vitreous humor (1.3345). The degradation tests demonstrated that the hydrogel could maintain the gel matrix over 35 days, depending on the ADH concentration. In addition, the cytotoxicity was evaluated on retina pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells cultivated following the ISO standard (tests for in vitro cytotoxicity), and the hydrogel was found to be non-toxic. In a preliminary animal study, the oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel was injected into the vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes. The evaluations of slit-lamp observation, intraocular pressure, cornea thickness and histological examination showed no significant abnormal biological reactions for 3 weeks. This study suggests that the injectable oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel should be a potential vitreous substitute.

  12. Expanding Non-solenoidal Startup with Local Helicity Injection to Increased Toroidal Field and Helicity Injection Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique under development on the Pegasus ST. Plasma currents up to 0.18 MA have been initiated by LHI in conjunction with poloidal field induction. A 0-D power balance model has been developed to predict plasma current evolution by balancing helicity input against resistive dissipation. The model is being validated against a set of experimental measurements and magnetic reconstructions with radically varied plasma geometric evolutions. Outstanding physics issues with LHI startup are the scalings of confinement and MHD activity with helicity injection rate and toroidal field strength, as well as injector behavior at high field. Preliminary results from the newly-installed Thomson scattering system suggest core temperatures of a few hundred eV during LHI startup. Measurements are being expanded to multiple spatial points for ongoing confinement studies. A set of larger-area injectors is being installed in the lower divertor region, where increased toroidal field will provide a helicity injection rate over 3 times that of outboard injectors. In this regime helicity injection will be the dominant current drive. Experiments with divertor injectors will permit experimental differentiation of several possible confinement models, and demonstrate the feasibility of LHI startup at high field. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  13. Effects of various adjuvants (lactic acid, glycerol, and chitosan) on the injectability of a calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Leroux, L; Hatim, Z; Frèche, M; Lacout, J L

    1999-08-01

    Calcium phosphate cements are well-known orthopedic materials for filling bone. Various formulations are proposed. The current challenge is to place the material in the surgical site by methods as least invasive as possible. One approach consists of making the cement injectable by incorporation of various adjuvants. However, the requirement properties of the cement must be preserved: setting times suited to a convenient delay with surgical intervention, limited disintegration in aqueous medium, and sufficient mechanical resistance. Various additives were studied: in particular, lactic acid, glycerol, chitosan, and sodium glycerophosphate. Injectability, setting time, disintegration, and toughness after 10 days were followed in vitro. Glycerol greatly improved injectability and increased setting time, but decreased mechanical properties. Lactic acid reduced setting time, increased toughness of the material, but limited the dissolution rate. After injection, the cement did not present any disintegration. The effects lactic acid were correlated with the formation of calcium complex. Its association with sodium glycerophosphate is particularly interesting. Chitosan alone improved injectability, increased setting time, and limited the evolution of the cement by maintaining the OCP phase. Only slight disintegration was observed. These first results show that is possible to transform the cement into an injectable paste by addition of adjuvants without fundamentally modifying the chemical reactions occurring during setting and hardening.

  14. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes.

  15. Mass Loss and Dust Injection rates from Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope is continuing to contribute greatly to our understanding of the mass return from evolved stars in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). I first review a number of smaller early Spitzer studies of evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These studies often built upon earlier such studies using data from prior missions, like the Midcourse Space Experiment. I discuss various Spitzer spectroscopic studies that have investigated the dust compositions of evolved stars in the lower metallicity environments of the MCs. Also, I review studies of the MCs' massive evolved stars, which have been given somewhat less attention than other populations. Excitingly, using Spitzer data, for the first time the mass-loss from the diverse evolved star MC populations is being quantified. With the advent of the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE; PI: M. Meixner) Spitzer Legacy program, tens of thousands of stars in the LMC have been classified as evolved stars using SAGE Spitzer data. I briefly review how evolved stars are classified (e.g., by using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams) using data from the SAGE surveys. Finally, I discuss work on radiative transfer (RT) modeling of evolved stars, which follows earlier work estimating their mass-loss using colors or emission in excess of stellar photosphere emission. This RT work starts by seeking acceptable dust properties for RT models of both SAGE Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) and SAGE-Spectroscopy (Spitzer Legacy program; PI: F. Kemper) spectra of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Afterwards, large grids of RT models are constructed to determine mass-loss rates for AGB stars and red supergiants in the SAGE samples of the LMC and, eventually, the SMC.

  16. 75 FR 62468 - Implantation and Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... ceftiofur crystalline free acid suspension in swine, by intramuscular injection, for the control of swine... crystalline free acid) for Swine Sterile Suspension. The supplemental NADA provides for the...

  17. 75 FR 4692 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... crystalline free acid injectable suspension for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in horses...-209 for EXCEDE (ceftiofur crystalline free acid) Sterile Suspension. The supplemental NADA...

  18. Selective dermal rejuvenation using intradermal injection of carbon dioxide and hyaluronic acid for facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Chin, Sae Hoon; Burm, Jin Sik; Kim, Youn Wha

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed selective dermal rejuvenation using sequential intradermal injections of carbon dioxide and hyaluronic acid as a treatment of facial wrinkles. An injection device was designed. After topical anesthesia, 0.1-mL carbon dioxide was gently injected intradermally so as to spread diffusely. A volume of 0.01- to 0.02-mL diluted hyaluronic acid was sequentially injected until the skin rose slightly. Overlapping injections were performed at 3 to 5 mm intervals. This process was repeated until the wrinkles were smoothened. This study included 36 cases of facial wrinkles in 34 patients. The follow-up period was 3 to 11 months. Temporary adverse effects were injection-site pain, mild edema, and redness. Most cases showed obvious improvement in skin thickness, elasticity, and smoothening. Complications included irregularities and hyperpigmentation in 3 cases, and 91% were highly satisfied with the antiwrinkle treatment. This method was a safe, economical, and clinically effective antiwrinkle treatment.

  19. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Re-Injection for Enophthalmos Correction in Silent Sinus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grusha, Yaroslav; Khovrin, Valerij; Stoyukhina, Alevtina; Sheptulin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old female with residual enophthalmos following functional endoscopic surgery (FESS) due to silent sinus syndrome (SSS) was initially successfully treated with a 2-ml intraorbital injection of hyaluronic acid gel (HAG). The enophthalmos partially recurred 22 months after the injection. HAG was re-injected with good functional and cosmetic results. Functional (kinetic) computed tomography was performed to visualize HAG distribution in the orbit.

  20. Theoretical prediction of regression rates in swirl-injection hybrid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, K.; Shimada, T.

    2016-07-01

    The authors theoretically and analytically predict what times regression rates of swirl injection hybrid rocket engines increase higher than the axial injection ones by estimating heat flux from boundary layer combustion to the fuel port. The schematic of engines is assumed as ones whose oxidizer is injected from the opposite side of the nozzle such as ones of Yuasa et al. propose. To simplify the estimation, we assume some hypotheses such as three-dimensional (3D) axisymmetric flows have been assumed. The results of this prediction method are largely consistent with Yuasa's experiments data in the range of high swirl numbers.

  1. Rate- and state-dependent seismicity during fluid injection in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Dieterich (1994) developed a theoretical frame of seismicity evolution due to stress changes in a medium based on rate- and state-theory of frictional fault motion. The theory assumes a volume density of seismic faults with a specific initial slip velocity distribution upon which the stress changes act. Each fault then follows the rate- and state-dependent frictional law where instabilities develop not as Coulomb failure. The evolution is expressed in the form of a differential equation, which can be used for aftershock generation after a shear stress change caused by a main shock but equally well for normal stress changes on faults caused by fluid pressure changes resulting from injection. For a constant injection rate the seismic activity increases at a given distance from the injection point once the pressure exceeds a threshold value. If the pressure rate is high enough the seismic activity becomes proportional to the local pressure rate in accordance with criticality theory of Shapiro (2002). Once the rate drops the seismicity reduced to lower levels. Shut off and variable injection rates must be evaluated numerically but lead to results comparable to the criticality theory. The presentation outlines the physical concept of the rate- and state-approach in comparison to the criticality approach and shows the main analytic and numerical results.

  2. Self-injection of intravenous carbolic acid and multiorgan failure

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supradip

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous self-injection of phenol resulting in multi-organ failure is reported. The case is discussed, because of the unique nature of exposure to phenol and rapid involvement of multiple organ systems including the central nervous,pulmonary, renal and hematological systems. PMID:24550614

  3. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids on cellular immune response of piglets after cyclosporin A injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y X; Zhu, K Y; Liu, Y L; Jiang, D F

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the cellular immune response of piglets after cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment. The experimental study had a 2×2 factorial design, and the main factors consisted of diets (0% or 2% CLA) and immunosuppression treatments (CsA or saline injection). CsA injection significantly increased feed : gain (F : G) of piglets (P<0.05); however, dietary CLA significantly decreased F : G of piglets (P<0.05). Dietary CLA partly ameliorated the deterioration of the feed conversion rate caused by CsA treatment (P<0.01). CsA treatment significantly decreased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.01). Dietary CLA increased the percentages of CD4+ CD8+ double-positive and CD8+ single-positive T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.05), and had the trend to inhibit the decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the thymus after CsA injection (P=0.07). CsA treatment significantly depleted the peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P<0.01). Dietary CLA significantly increased the number of peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production (P<0.05), and inhibited the decreases of peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes counts (P<0.01) as well as IL-2 production (P<0.05) after CsA treatment. Dietary CLA partly rescued the decrease of lymphocyte proliferation after CsA injection (P<0.05). In summary, dietary CLA effectively ameliorated CsA-induced cellular immunosuppression in piglets.

  4. Current injection and receptor-mediated excitation produce similar maximal firing rates in hypoglossal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Hilary E; Fregosi, Ralph F; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    The maximum firing rates of motoneurons (MNs), activated in response to synaptic drive, appear to be much lower than that elicited by current injection. It could be that the decrease in input resistance associated with increased synaptic activity (but not current injection) might blunt overall changes in membrane depolarization and thereby limit spike-frequency output. To test this idea, we recorded, in the same cells, maximal firing responses to current injection and to synaptic activation. We prepared 300 μm medullary slices in neonatal rats that contained hypoglossal MNs and used whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to record their maximum firing rates in response to triangular-ramp current injections and to glutamate receptor-mediated excitation. Brief pressure pulses of high-concentration glutamate led to significant depolarization, high firing rates, and temporary cessation of spiking due to spike inactivation. In the same cells, we applied current clamp protocols that approximated the time course of membrane potential change associated with glutamate application and with peak current levels large enough to cause spike inactivation. Means (SD) of maximum firing rates obtained in response to glutamate application were nearly identical to those obtained in response to ramp current injection [glutamate 47.1 ± 12.0 impulses (imp)/s, current injection 47.5 ± 11.2 imp/s], even though input resistance was 40% less during glutamate application compared with current injection. Therefore, these data suggest that the reduction in input resistance associated with receptor-mediated excitation does not, by itself, limit the maximal firing rate responses in MNs.

  5. A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2013-01-01

    Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes.

  6. Uptake and release of adrenal ascorbic acid in the guinea pig after injection of ACTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, D.E.; Rivers, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of a single injection of ACTH (3 IU/100 g body weight) on the distribution of ascorbic acid (AA) and radiolabeled AA in 20 tissues was studied in adult male guinea pigs consuming 500 mg AA/kg diet. Saline- or ACTH-injected animals were simultaneously injected with (1-/sup 14/C)AA, and killed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after injection. There was no significant difference between treatments in the weight of any tissue over the 6-h experimental period. As anticipated, the concentration of AA in the adrenals of animals injected with ACTH was 33% of that of animals injected with saline at 4 h. Unexpectedly, the concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenals at 0.5 h after ACTH injection was 172% of that after saline injection. The concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenal of the saline-injected animals increased slowly over time to reach a level similar to that of ACTH-injected animals by 6 h. There was no effect of ACTH on the level of AA or uptake in any of the other tissues examined. These results demonstrate that a single dose of ACTH markedly influences the retention of AA in the adrenal gland without similarly altering retention of AA in other tissues. Furthermore, ACTH treatment causes both accelerated uptake and release of AA into the adrenals.

  7. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique: High Visualization Rate and Accurate Staging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed.Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized.The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results.The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary

  8. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  18. Metabolic and cytoprotective effects of in vivo peri-patellar hyaluronic acid injections in cultured tenocytes.

    PubMed

    Salamanna, F; Frizziero, A; Pagani, S; Giavaresi, G; Curzi, D; Falcieri, E; Marini, M; Abruzzo, P M; Martini, L; Fini, M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate tenocyte mechanobiology after sudden-detraining and to examine the hypothesis that repeated peri-patellar injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) on detrained patellar tendon (PT) may reduce and limit detrained-associated damage in tenocytes. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Untrained, Trained and Detrained. In the Detrained rats, the left tendon was untreated while the right tendon received repeated peri-patellar injections of either HA or saline (NaCl). Tenocyte morphology, metabolism and synthesis of C-terminal-propeptide of type I collagen, collagen-III, fibronectin, aggrecan, tenascin-c, interleukin-1β, matrix-metalloproteinase-1 and-3 were evaluated after 1, 3, 7 and 10 days of culture. Transmission-electronic-microscopy showed a significant increase in mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum in cultured tenocytes from Detrained-HA with respect to those from Detrained-NaCl. Additionally, Detrained-HA cultures showed a significantly higher proliferation rate and viability, and increased synthesis of C-terminal-Propeptide of type I collagen, fibronectin, aggrecan, tenascin-c and matrix-metalloproteinase-3 with respect to Detrained-NaCl ones, whereas synthesis of matrix-metalloproteinase-1 and interleukin-1β was decreased. Our study demonstrates that discontinuing training activity in the short-term alters tenocyte synthetic and metabolic activity and that repeated peri-patellar infiltrations of HA during detraining allow the maintenance of tenocyte anabolic activity.

  19. A blanching technique for intradermal injection of the hyaluronic acid Belotero.

    PubMed

    Micheels, Patrick; Sarazin, Didier; Besse, Stéphanie; Sundaram, Hema; Flynn, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    With the proliferation of dermal fillers in the aesthetic workplace have come instructions from various manufacturers regarding dermal placement. Determination of injection needle location in the dermis has in large part been based on physician expertise, product and needle familiarity, and patient-specific skin characteristics. An understanding of the precise depth of dermal structures may help practitioners improve injection specificity. Unlike other dermal fillers that suggest intradermal and deep dermal injection planes, a new hyaluronic acid with a cohesive polydensified matrix may be more appropriate for the superficial dermis because of its structure and its high degree of integration into the dermis. To that end, the authors designed a small study to quantify the depth of the superficial dermis by means of ultrasound and histology. Using ultrasound resources, the authors determined the depths of the epidermis, the dermis, and the reticular dermis in the buttocks of six patients; the authors then extrapolated the depth of the superficial reticular dermis. Histologic studies of two of the patients showed full integration of the product in the reticular dermis. Following determination of injection depths and filler integration, the authors describe a technique ("blanching") for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid into the superficial dermis. At this time, blanching is appropriate only for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid known as Belotero Balance in the United States, although it may have applications for other hyaluronic acid products outside of the United States.

  20. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  1. Influence of diet or intrarectal bile acid injections on colon epithelial cell proliferation in rats previously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Glauert, H.P.; Bennink, M.R.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of varying colon bile acid concentrations on rat colon epithelial cell proliferation were studied. Bile acid concentrations were altered by intrarectally injecting either deoxycholic or lithocholic acid for 4 weeks or by increasing the dietary fat or fiber (wheat bran, agar, or carrageenan) intake for 4 weeks. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was s.c. injected into half of the rats 1 week before treatments began. Colon epithelial cell proliferation was measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography of colon crypts. Rats injected with DMH had more DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. Neither bile acid injection nor any of the diets altered the number of DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. DMH injections, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid intrarectal injections, and dietary agar and wheat bran all increased the total number of cells per crypt. High fat diets and dietary carrageenan did not affect cell number. All diets containing fiber lowered total fecal bile acid concentrations, but increasing the fat content of the diet did not affect them. These results indicate that the bile acid injections and dietary agar and wheat bran induce a slight hyperplasia in the colon.

  2. INDUCED SEISMICITY. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, M; Ge, S; Godt, J W; Bekins, B A; Rubinstein, J L

    2015-06-19

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well's cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  3. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weingarten, Matthew; Ge, Shemin; Godt, Jonathan W.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  4. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.; Godt, J. W.; Bekins, B. A.; Rubinstein, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  5. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  6. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira

    2017-03-17

    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane(®)) and Group II with HA (Go-ON(®)). Patient's evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  7. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J.; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J.; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A.; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane®) and Group II with HA (Go-ON®). Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA. PMID:28304363

  8. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  9. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  10. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  11. Flow rate dependent extra-column variance from injection in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Sharma, Sonika; Lawson, John S; Dennis Tolley, H; Lee, Milton L

    2015-02-06

    Efficiency and resolution in capillary liquid chromatography (LC) can be significantly affected by extra-column band broadening, especially for isocratic separations. This is particularly a concern in evaluating column bed structure using non-retained test compounds. The band broadening due to an injector supplied with a commercially available capillary LC system was characterized from experimental measurements. The extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to have an extra-column contribution independent of the injection volume, showing an exponential dependence on flow rate. The overall extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to vary from 34 to 23 nL. A new mathematical model was derived that explains this exponential contribution of extra-column variance on chromatographic performance. The chromatographic efficiency was compromised by ∼130% for a non-retained analyte because of injection valve dead volume. The measured chromatographic efficiency was greatly improved when a new nano-flow pumping system with integrated injection valve was used.

  12. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A

    2000-05-31

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol.

  13. Effect of rheological parameters on curing rate during NBR injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyas, Kamil; Stanek, Michal; Manas, David; Skrobak, Adam

    2013-04-01

    In this work, non-isothermal injection molding process for NBR rubber mixture considering Isayev-Deng curing kinetic model, generalized Newtonian model with Carreau-WLF viscosity was modeled by using finite element method in order to understand the effect of volume flow rate, index of non-Newtonian behavior and relaxation time on the temperature profile and curing rate. It was found that for specific geometry and processing conditions, increase in relaxation time or in the index of non-Newtonian behavior increases the curing rate due to viscous dissipation taking place at the flow domain walls.

  14. Injection of adjuvant but not acidic saline into craniofacial muscle evokes nociceptive behaviors and neuropeptide expression.

    PubMed

    Ambalavanar, R; Yallampalli, C; Yallampalli, U; Dessem, D

    2007-11-09

    Craniofacial muscle pain including muscular temporomandibular disorders accounts for a substantial portion of all pain perceived in the head and neck region. In spite of its high clinical prevalence, the mechanisms of chronic craniofacial muscle pain are not well understood. Injection of acidic saline into rodent hindlimb muscles produces pathologies which resemble muscular pathologies in chronic pain patients. Here we investigated whether analogous transformations occur following repeated injections of acidic saline into the rat masseter muscle. Injection of acidic saline (pH 4) into the masseter muscle transiently lowered i.m. pH to levels comparable to those reported for rodent hindlimb muscles. Nevertheless, repeated unilateral or bilateral injections of acidic saline (pH 4) into the masseter muscle failed to alter nociceptive behavioral responses as occurs in the hindlimb. Changing the pH of injected saline to pH 3.0 or 5.0 also did not evoke nocifensive behavior. Acid sensing ion channel 3 receptors, which are implicated in transformations following acidification of hindlimb muscles, were found on trigeminal ganglion muscle afferent neurons via combined neuronal tracing and immunocytochemistry. In contrast to the acidic saline, injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the masseter muscle induced mechanical allodynia for 3 weeks, thermal hyperalgesia for 1 week and an increase in the number of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive muscle afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion. Although pH may alter CGRP release in primary afferent neurons, the number of CGRP-muscle afferent neurons did not change following i.m. injection of acidic saline. Further, there was no change in ganglionic iCGRP levels at 1, 4 or 12 days after i.m. injection of acidic saline. While these findings extend our earlier reports that CFA-induced muscle inflammation results in behavioral and neuropeptide changes they further suggest that i.m. acidification in

  15. Pharmacokinetics, Electrophysiological, and Morphological Effects of the Intravitreal Injection of Mycophenolic Acid in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparin, Fabio; Aguiar, Renata Genaro; Ioshimoto, Gabriela Lourençon; Silva-Cunha, Armando; Fialho, Silvia Ligório; Liber, André Mauricio; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Oiwa, Nestor Norio; Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; Joselevitch, Christina; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To determine the half-life of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in the vitreous of New Zealand albino rabbits after intravitreal injection and the retinal toxicity of different doses of MPA. Methods: Ten micrograms of MPA (Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, CA) was injected in the vitreous of 16 rabbits, animals were sacrificed at different time-points, and vitreous samples underwent high-performance liquid chromatography. For functional and morphological studies, 5 doses of MPA (0.05, 0.5, 2, 10, and 100 μg) were injected in the vitreous of 20 rabbits. As control, contralateral eyes were injected with aqueous vehicle. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded before injection and at days 7, 15, and 30. Animals were sacrificed on day 30 and retinas were analyzed under light microscopy. Results: MPA half-life in the vitreous was 5.0±0.3 days. ERG revealed photoreceptor functional impairment in eyes injected with 0.5 μg and higher on day 30, while eyes injected with 100 μg presented the same changes already from day 15. No morphological change was found. Conclusions: MPA vitreous half-life is 5.0 days. Intravitreal injection of 0.5 μg MPA and higher causes dose- and time-related photoreceptor sensitivity decrease in rabbits. The MPA dose of 0.05 μg may be safe for intravitreal use in rabbits. PMID:24828287

  16. Flow injection potentiometric determination of bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M F; Fatibello-Filho, O

    2001-06-19

    A flow injection potentiometric procedure is proposed for determining bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations. In this work, a tubular electrode coated with an ion-pair formed between [Bi(EDTA)](-) and tricaprylylmethylammonium cation (Aliquat 336) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) was constructed and used in a single channel flow injection system. The effect of membrane composition, pH and flow injection parameter over the Bi(III) tubular electrode response (slope (mV/decade)) was initially evaluated in quintuplicate in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution as carrier. The best response (-59.6+/-0.9 mV/decade) was attained with the 5% m/m ion-pair; 65% m/m o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) and 30% m/m PVC in pH 6-9. The electrode showed a linear response to E (mV) versus log [Bi(EDTA)](-) in the bismuth(III) concentration range from 2.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-2) mol l(-1) and a useful lifetime of at least 5 months (more than 1000 determinations for each polymeric membrane). The detection limit was 1.2x10(-5) mol l(-1) and the R.S.D. was less than 2.0% for a solution containing 5.0x10(-4) mol l(-1) bismuth(III) (n=10). Several species such as Cd(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Cr(III) and Al(III) at 1.0x10(-3) mol l(-1) concentration in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution did not cause any interference. The frequency rate was 90 determinations per hour and the results obtained for bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations using this flow procedure and those obtained using a spectrophotometric procedure are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  18. Safety evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactic-acid) microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xianfang; Yuan, Weien; Lu, Yi; Mo, Xiaofen

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and/or poly(lactic-acid) (PLA) microspheres are important drug delivery systems. This study investigated eye biocompatibility and safety of PLGA/PLA microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits. Normal New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected and received intravitreal administration of different doses (low, medium, or high) of PLGA/PLA microspheres and erythropoietin-loaded PLGA/PLA microspheres. The animals were clinically examined and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postadministration, and retinal tissues were prepared for analysis. Retinal reactions to the microspheres were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Retinal structure changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, retinal function influences were explored by the electroretinography test. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining revealed no apoptotic cells in the injected retinas; immunohistochemistry did not detect any increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed no micro- or ultrastructure changes in the retinas at different time points postintravitreal injection. The electroretinography test showed no significant influence of scotopic or photopic amplitudes. The results demonstrated that PLGA/PLA microspheres did not cause retinal histological changes or functional damage and were biocompatible and safe enough for intravitreal injection in rabbits for controlled drug delivery.

  19. Determination of ambroxol hydrochloride, methylparaben and benzoic acid in pharmaceutical preparations based on sequential injection technique coupled with monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Satínský, Dalibor; Huclová, Jitka; Ferreira, Raquel L C; Montenegro, Maria Conceição B S M; Solich, Petr

    2006-02-13

    The porous monolithic columns show high performance at relatively low pressure. The coupling of short monoliths with sequential injection technique (SIA) results in a new approach to implementation of separation step to non-separation low-pressure method. In this contribution, a new separation method for simultaneous determination of ambroxol, methylparaben and benzoic acid was developed based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) technique with UV detection. A Chromolith SpeedROD RP-18e, 50-4.6 mm column with 10 mm precolumn and a FIAlab 3000 system with a six-port selection valve and 5 ml syringe were used for sequential injection chromatographic separations in our study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.05M acetic acid (10:10:90, v/v/v), pH 3.75 adjusted with triethylamine, flow rate 0.48 mlmin(-1), UV-detection was at 245 nm. The analysis time was <11 min. A new SIC method was validated and compared with HPLC. The method was found to be useful for the routine analysis of the active compounds ambroxol and preservatives (methylparaben or benzoic acid) in various pharmaceutical syrups and drops.

  20. Randomised controlled trial comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, and percutaneous acetic acid injection to treat hepatocellular carcinoma of 3 cm or less

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S-M; Lin, C-J; Lin, C-C; Hsu, C-W; Chen, Y-C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and methods: A total of 187 patients with HCCs of 3 cm or less were randomly assigned to RFTA (n = 62), PEI (n = 62), or PAI (n = 63). Tumour recurrence and survival rates were assessed. Results: One, two, and three year local recurrence rates were 10%, 14%, and 14% in the RFTA group, 16%, 34%, and 34% in the PEI group, and 14%, 31%, and 31% in the PAI group (RFTA v PEI, p = 0.012; RFTA v PAI, p = 0.017). One, two, and three year survival rates were 93%, 81%, and 74% in the RFTA group, 88%, 66%, and 51% in the PEI group, and 90%, 67%, and 53% in the PAI group (RFTA v PEI, p = 0.031; RFTA v PAI, p = 0.038). One, two, and three year cancer free survival rates were 74%, 60%, and 43% in the RFTA group, 70%, 41%, and 21% in the PEI group, and 71%, 43%, and 23% in the PAI group (RFTA v PEI, p = 0.038; RFTA v PAI, p = 0.041). Tumour size, tumour differentiation, and treatment methods (RFTA v PEI and PAI) were significant factors for local recurrence, overall survival, and cancer free survival. Major complications occurred in 4.8% of patients (two with haemothorax, one gastric perforation) in the RFTA group and in none in two other groups (RFTA v PEI and PAI, p = 0.035). Conclusions: RFTA was superior to PEI and PAI with respect to local recurrence, overall survival, and cancer free survival rates, but RFTA also caused more major complications. PMID:16009687

  1. 36C1 measurements and the hydrology of an acid injection site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vourvopoulos, G.; Brahana, J.V.; Nolte, E.; Korschinek, G.; Priller, A.; Dockhorn, B.

    1990-01-01

    In an area in western Tennessee (United States), an industrial firm is injecting acidic (pH = 0.1) iron chloride into permeable zones of carbonate rocks at depths ranging from 1000 to 2200 m below land surface. Overlying the injection zone at a depth of approximately 500 m below land surface is a regional fresh-water aquifer, the Knox aquifer. A study is currently underway to investigate whether the injection wells are hydraulically isolated from the fresh-water aquifer. Drilling of a test well that will reach a total depth of 2700 m has been initiated. The 36Cl content of 15 samples from the Knox aquifer, from monitor wells in the vicinity of the injection site, and from the test well have been analyzed. ?? 1990.

  2. Effective treatment of acne scars using pneumatic injection of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tapan; Tevet, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Acne scars remain a challenging condition to treat despite multiple currently available technologies. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of pneumatic injections of Hyaluronic Acid in the treatment of acne scars. Two patients (Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V) with acne scars received two sessions of pneumatic, needleless injections of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) at 4-week intervals. The treatment response was assessed by comparing pre- and 3-month posttreatment clinical photography. The patients' acne scar grade improved from 2 to 1 in the first case, and 3 to 2 in the second case, based on independent physician assessment. Patient degree of satisfaction was similar to the physicians' assessment. No significant adverse events were noted. We conclude that pneumatic injection technology to deliver HA to the tissue is an effective and safe method for improving acne scars, even in patients with dark complexion.

  3. Uncertainty quantification for the impact of injection rate fluctuation on the geomechanical response of geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Chu, Yanjun; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Fang, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the geomechanical effects of injection rate fluctuations for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Initially, we present analytical solutions for the effects of injection rate fluctuations on CO2 fluid pressure spatial distribution and temporal evolution for a typical injection scenario. Numerical calculations are performed using a finite element method to investigate the effects of injection rate fluctuations on geomechanical deformation, stresses, and potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. The numerical method was first validated by the fluid pressure distribution’s good agreement with the analytical solution. It was shown that for any Gaussian fluctuations of injection rate Q with given mean Q and variance ε_Q, the coefficients of variance for fluid pressure (ϵ_p=ε_p ), deformation (ϵ_u=ε_u ), and stresses (ϵ_σ=ε_σ ) increase linearly with the coefficient of variance for injection rate (ϵ_Q=ε_Q ). The proportional constants are identified, and the fluctuations have the most pronounced effect on the geomechanical stresses, and, therefore, on the potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. Instead of expensive computational simulation, this study provides an efficient tool to estimate the geomechanical response variance to injection rate fluctuation. A failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where probability of failure was estimated for fluctuating injection rates with different mean and variance during the entire injection period. It was found that with increasing injection rate fluctuation, the failure probability increases significantly. Therefore, the risk associated with injection rate fluctuations should be carefully evaluated.

  4. Plasma clearance, tissue distribution and metabolism of hyaluronic acid injected intravenously in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, J R; Laurent, T C; Pertoft, H; Baxter, E

    1981-01-01

    The plasma clearance, tissue distribution and metabolism of hyaluronic acid were studied with a high average molecular weight [3H]acetyl-labelled hyaluronic acid synthesized in synovial cell cultures. After intravenous injection in the rabbit the label disappeared from the plasma with a half-life of 2.5--4.5 min, which corresponds to a normal hyaluronic acid clearance of approx. 10 mg/day per kg body weight. Injection of unlabelled hyaluronic acid 15 min after the tracer failed to reverse its absorption. Clearance of labelled polymer was retarded by prior injection of excess unlabelled hyaluronic acid. The maximum clearance capacity was estimated in these circumstances to be about 30 mg/day per kg body wt. The injected material was concentrated in the liver and spleen. As much as 88% of the label was absorbed by the liver, where it was found almost entirely in non-parenchymal cells. Degradation was rapid and complete, since volatile material, presumably 3H2O, appeared in the plasma within 20 min. Undegraded [3H]hyaluronic acid, small labelled residues and 3H2O were detected in the liver, but there was little evidence of intermediate oligosaccharides. No metabolite except 3H2O was recognized in plasma or urine. Two-thirds of the radioactivity was retained in the body water 24 h later, and small amounts were found in liver lipids. Radioactivity did not decline in the spleen as rapidly as in the liver. The upper molecular weight limit for renal excretion was about 25 000. Renal excretion played a negligible part in clearance. It is concluded that hyaluronic acid is removed from the plasma and degraded quickly by an efficient extrarenal system with a high reserve capacity, sited mainly in the liver. PMID:7340841

  5. Removal rate of ( sup 3 H)hyaluronan injected subcutaneously in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.K.; Laurent, U.B.; Fraser, J.R.; Laurent, T.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Hyaluronan is an important constituent of the extracellular matrix in skin, and recent studies suggest that there is a pool of easily removable (free) hyaluronan drained by lymph. The removal rate of free hyaluronan in skin was measured from the elimination of ({sup 3}H)hyaluronan, injected subcutaneously in 13 rabbits. The removal of radioactivity was determined from appearance of {sup 3}H in plasma. During the first 24 h after injection, 10-87% of the tracer entered blood, less in injectates with high concentrations of hyaluronan. The removal was monoexponential with a half-life of 0.5-1 day when concentration of hyaluronan was 5 mg/ml or less. When hyaluronan concentration was 10 mg/ml or higher, the removal was slow for about 24 h and then became similar to that in experiments with low hyaluronan concentration. Free hyaluronan at physiological concentrations is thus turned over with the same rate as serum albumin, supporting the concept that hyaluronan is removed essentially by lymph flow to be degraded in lymph nodes and liver.

  6. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-Kang; Tang, Mu-Cyun; Su, Sheng-Chao; Horng, Tzyy-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW) radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO) and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject’s wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject’s wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO’s output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information. PMID:27792176

  7. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Kang; Tang, Mu-Cyun; Su, Sheng-Chao; Horng, Tzyy-Sheng

    2016-10-26

    To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW) radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO) and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject's wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject's wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO's output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information.

  8. Impact on Caesarean section rates following injections of sterile water (ICARIS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterile water injections have been used as an effective intervention for the management of back pain during labour. The objective of the current research is to determine if sterile water injections, as an intervention for back pain in labour, will reduce the intrapartum caesarean section rate. Methods/design Design: A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial Setting: Maternity hospitals in Australia Participants: 1866 women in labour, ≥18 years of age who have a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in a cephalic presentation at term (between 37 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation), who assess their back pain as equal to or greater than seven on a visual analogue scale when requesting analgesia and able to provide informed consent. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to receive either 0.1 to 0.3 millilitres of sterile water or a normal saline placebo via four intradermal injections into four anatomical points surrounding the Michaelis’ rhomboid over the sacral area. Two injections will be administered over the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the remaining two at two centimetres posterior, and one centimetre medial to the PSIS respectively. Main outcome measure:Proportion of women who have a caesarean section in labour. Randomisation: Permuted blocks stratified by research site. Blinding (masking):Double-blind trial in which participants, clinicians and research staff blinded to group assignment. Funding:Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council Trial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No ACTRN12611000221954). Discussion Sterile water injections, which may have a positive effect on reducing the CS rate, have been shown to be a safe and simple analgesic suitable for most maternity settings. A procedure that could reduce intervention rates without adversely affecting safety for mother and baby would benefit Australian families and taxpayers and would reduce requirements for maternal operating

  9. How will induced seismicity in Oklahoma respond to decreased saltwater injection rates?

    PubMed

    Langenbruch, Cornelius; Zoback, Mark D

    2016-11-01

    In response to the marked number of injection-induced earthquakes in north-central Oklahoma, regulators recently called for a 40% reduction in the volume of saltwater being injected in the seismically active areas. We present a calibrated statistical model that predicts that widely felt M ≥ 3 earthquakes in the affected areas, as well as the probability of potentially damaging larger events, should significantly decrease by the end of 2016 and approach historic levels within a few years. Aftershock sequences associated with relatively large magnitude earthquakes that occurred in the Fairview, Cherokee, and Pawnee areas in north-central Oklahoma in late 2015 and 2016 will delay the rate of seismicity decrease in those areas.

  10. How will induced seismicity in Oklahoma respond to decreased saltwater injection rates?

    PubMed Central

    Langenbruch, Cornelius; Zoback, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the marked number of injection-induced earthquakes in north-central Oklahoma, regulators recently called for a 40% reduction in the volume of saltwater being injected in the seismically active areas. We present a calibrated statistical model that predicts that widely felt M ≥ 3 earthquakes in the affected areas, as well as the probability of potentially damaging larger events, should significantly decrease by the end of 2016 and approach historic levels within a few years. Aftershock sequences associated with relatively large magnitude earthquakes that occurred in the Fairview, Cherokee, and Pawnee areas in north-central Oklahoma in late 2015 and 2016 will delay the rate of seismicity decrease in those areas. PMID:28138533

  11. The tower technique: a novel technique for the injection of hyaluronic acid fillers.

    PubMed

    Bartus, Cynthia L; Sattler, Gerhard; Hanke, C William

    2011-11-01

    A number of injection techniques have been described for the placement of hyaluronic acid fillers. Such techniques include, but are not limited to, linear threading, depot, fanning, and layering. The tower technique for hyaluronic acid filler injection is a novel variation of the depot and layering techniques. With this technique, the hyaluronic acid is deposited via a perpendicular approach to the deep tissue plane with a gradual tapering of product deposition as the needle is withdrawn. A series of towers or struts are thus created. These towers serve as support structures for the overlying soft tissue, thereby restoring the face to a more youthful appearance. The anatomic areas most amenable to this technique include the lateral brow, the nasolabial folds, the marionette lines, the prejowl sulcus, and the mental region. A detailed description of the tower technique for facial volume restoration with hyaluronic acid fillers is provided. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy, safety, and longevity of this technique to other commonly used techniques for the injection of hyaluronic acid fillers.

  12. Asymptotic Representation of the Temperature Field in Injection Stages During the Cyclic Acidizing of the Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. I.; Akhmetova, O. V.; Koval‧skii, A. A.; Kabirov, I. F.

    2016-11-01

    The authors have obtained an asymptotic solution to the problem on the temperature fi eld appearing during the injection of a chemically active solvent into a layered inhomogeneous orthotropic formation with account taken of temperature disturbances due to the preceding technological processes. This makes it possible to use the obtained solution for calculations under the conditions of multiple cyclic action. The sources of temperature disturbances are the liberation of heat due to the chemical reaction and the change in the temperature of the acid solution injected into the formation. Therefore, the obtained solution also covers the range of thermal-acidizing processes. The implemented method of construction of the solution is an extension of an asymptotic method accurate in the mean, which has been proposed by the authors as applied to the problems with nonzero initial conditions. The results of calculations of space-time temperature distributions under the conditions of hydrochloric acid treatment of carbonaceous formations have been given.

  13. An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-09-01

    An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method.

  14. Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion Caused by Hyaluronic Acid Injections Into the Forehead: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu Zhuo; Hu, Jun Yan; Wu, Peng Sen; Yu, Sheng Bo; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Although cosmetic facial soft tissue fillers are generally safe and effective, improper injections can lead to devastating and irreversible consequences. We represent the first known case of posterior ciliary artery occlusion caused by hyaluronic acid. A 41-year-old female presented with right visual loss 7 hours after receiving cosmetic hyaluronic acid injections into her forehead. Examination revealed no light perception in the right eye and multiple dark ischemic area of injection over the forehead and nose. The right fundus revealed a pink retina with optic nerve edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed several filling defects in the choroidal circulation and late hyperfluorescence in the choroid. A right posterior ciliary artery occlusion and embolic occlusion of facial artery braches was diagnosed. With hyaluronidase injection, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, oral aspirin, oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone venotransfuse treatment, the patient's forehead and nasal skin improved and vision recovered to hand movements. With proper technique, vascular occlusion is rare following facial filler injection. Vision consequences can be severe if filler emboli enter the ocular circulation. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect, recognize its presentation, and be knowledgeable of effective management.

  15. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Udrescu, Corina; Tanguy, Ronan; Ruffion, Alain; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Sotton, Marie-Pierre; Devonec, Marian; Colombel, Marc; Jalade, Patrice; Azria, David

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

  16. Estimation of the secondary attack rate for delta hepatitis coinfection among injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Christiane; Gyorkos, Theresa; Joseph, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    The secondary attack rate for delta hepatitis coinfection was estimated among a cluster of injection drug users (IDUs). The infections occurred during an epidemic of hepatitis B in a rural area of Nova Scotia in 1988 and 1989. Six IDUs formed a cluster of delta hepatitis coinfections, representing the first reported outbreak of delta hepatitis in Canada. Contact-tracing was used to identify a cluster of 41 IDUs potentially exposed to delta hepatitis. The index case of delta hepatitis coinfection was presumed to have led to five secondary cases. The secondary attack rate was estimated to be 13.2% (95% confidence interval 0.044 to 0.281). The estimated secondary attack rate may be a useful predictor of disease due to delta hepatitis coinfection in similar IDU populations. PMID:22346420

  17. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  18. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  19. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of ultra trace amounts of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, A A; Kazemzadeh, A

    2000-07-01

    A new simple, sensitive and rapid catalytic-spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid has been described based on its catalytic effect on the redox reaction between dichromate and Brilliant cresyl blue in acidic media by means of a flow injection analysis method. The color change of Brilliant cresyl blue due to its oxidation was monitored spectrophotometrically at 625 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.020-4.70 microg/mL oxalic acid with a limit of detection 0.005 microg/mL of oxalic acid. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of 0.020 microg/mL and 0.900 microg/mL was 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively. No serious interference was identified. Oxalic acid was determined in wastewater and in spinach by the proposed method with satisfactory results.

  20. Laminar flow at a three-dimensional stagnation point with large rates of injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Exact calculations of the titled flow are presented and compared to the predictions of an asymptotic analysis for large rates of injection. The inner layer of the boundary layer is found to involve outflow in both orthogonal directions whether the external flow along the y axis is inward or outward. As a result, the flow at a nearly two-dimensional stagnation point involves drastic changes as a weak outflow changes to a weak inflow. It is also found that the velocity profiles in the two directions in the inner layer are quite different.

  1. Investigating statistical techniques to infer interwell connectivity from production and injection rate fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yousef, Ali Abdallah

    Reservoir characterization is one of the most important factors in successful reservoir management. In water injection projects, a knowledge of reservoir heterogeneities and discontinuities is particularly important to maximize oil recovery. This research project presents a new technique to quantify communication between injection and production wells in a reservoir based on temporal fluctuations in rates. The technique combines a nonlinear signal processing model and multiple linear regression (MLR) to provide information about permeability trends and the presence of flow barriers. The method was tested in synthetic fields using rates generated by a numerical simulator and then applied to producing fields in Argentina, the North Sea, Texas, and Wyoming. Results indicate that the model coefficients (weights) between wells are consistent with the known geology and relative location between wells; they are independent of injection/production rates. The developed procedure provides parameters (time constants) that explicitly indicate the attenuation and time lag between injector and producer pairs. The new procedure allows for a better insight into the well-to-well connectivities for the fields than MLR. Complex geological conditions are often not easily identified using the weights and time constants values individually. However, combining both sets of parameters in certain representations enhances the inference about the geological features. The applications of the new representations to numerically simulated fields and then to real fields indicate that these representations are capable of identifying whether the connectivity of an injector-producer well pair is through fractures, a high-permeability layer, or through partially completed wells. The technique may produce negative weights for some well pairs. Because there is no physical explanation in waterfloods for negative weights, these are also investigated. The negative weights have at least three causes

  2. Heart Rate Detection During Sleep Using a Flexible RF Resonator and Injection-Locked PLL Sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Woo; Choi, Soo Beom; An, Yong-Jun; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Deok Won; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2015-11-01

    Novel nonintrusive technologies for wrist pulse detection have been developed and proposed as systems for sleep monitoring using three types of radio frequency (RF) sensors. The three types of RF sensors for heart rate measurement on wrist are a flexible RF single resonator, array resonators, and an injection-locked PLL resonator sensor. To verify the performance of the new RF systems, we compared heart rates between presleep time and postsleep onset time. Heart rates of ten subjects were measured using the RF systems during sleep. All three RF devices detected heart rates at 0.2 to 1 mm distance from the skin of the wrist over clothes made of cotton fabric. The wrist pulse signals of a flexible RF single resonator were consistent with the signals obtained by a portable piezoelectric transducer as a reference. Then, we confirmed that the heart rate after sleep onset time significantly decreased compared to before sleep. In conclusion, the RF system can be utilized as a noncontact nonintrusive method for measuring heart rates during sleep.

  3. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil; Nazli Demiroren

    2005-05-31

    This report details progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project is to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Jensen et al. (2005) and Yousef et al. (2005), and herein referred to as the ''capacitance model'', produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. We have focused on the following items: (1) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (2) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the capacitance model and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Initial tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (3) Spectral analysis of injection and production data to estimate interwell connectivity and to assess the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. Development of methods and analysis are ongoing. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of the capacitance method. These methods include revising the solution method to simultaneously estimate {lambda} and {tau} for each well pair. This approach allows for further constraints to be imposed during the computation, such as limiting {tau} to a range of values defined by the sampling interval and duration of the field data. This work is proceeding. Further work on this project includes the following: (1) Refinement and testing of the waterflood

  4. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  5. Constant Rate or Stepwise Injection of Cold Fluid into a Geologic Formation: A Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Operations such as CO2 geologic storage, enhanced geothermal systems, and wastewater injection are rendering fluid injection as important as fluid extraction. In particular, injecting fluid colder than the original fluid causes thermal contraction and ensuing decreases in stresses, which yield an effect opposite of what volume expansion driven by the fluid injection imposes. In this study, we conduct numerical simulations to investigate pore-pressure buildup, thermal diffusion, and stress changes for two conditions: (1) constant rate, and (2) stepwise injection of cold fluid. The numerical-simulation method—which combines fluid flow, poroelasticity, thermal diffusion, and thermal stress—is based on the single-phase flow condition to simplify a computation model and thus facilitate a focus on mechanical responses. We also examine temporal evolutions of stress states and mobilized friction angles across base, injection-zone, and caprock layers for two different stress regimes: normal-faulting and reverse-faulting. Under the normal-faulting stress regime, the maximum mobilized friction angle occurs inside of the injection zone, which may act to improve the stability of the caprock. Special attention is required, however, because the location of the maximum mobilized friction angle is close to interfaces with the caprock and base layers. The hypothetical stepwise injection of cold fluid is shown to improve the stability of the injection zone to some extent. Under the reverse-faulting stress regime, the maximum mobilized friction angle occurs near the middle of the injection zone; stability in the injection zone is enhanced while that in the caprock/base is aggravated with time. The hypothetical stepwise injection not only helps improve the stability of the injection zone but also delays the moment when the maximum friction angle is mobilized. Finally, we suggest using dimensionless parameters to determine a prevalence of the thermal-stress effect in the injection

  6. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Injection of Hyaluronic Acid to Better Preserve The Rectal Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Udrescu, Corina; Devonec, Marian; Tanguy, Ronan; Sotton, Marie-Pierre; Enachescu, Ciprian; Colombel, Marc; Azria, David; Jalade, Patrice; Ruffion, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) between the rectum and the prostate for reducing the dose to the rectal wall in a hypofractionated irradiation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In a phase 2 study, 10 cc of HA was injected between the rectum and prostate. For 16 patients, the same intensity modulated radiation therapy plan (62 Gy in 20 fractions) was optimized on 2 computed tomography scans: CT1 (before injection) and CT2 (after injection). Rectal parameters were compared: dose to 2.5 cc (D2.5), 5 cc (D5), 10 cc (D10), 15 cc (D15), and 20 cc (D20) of rectal wall and volume of rectum covered by the 90% isodose line (V90), 80% (V80), 70% (V70), 60% (V60), and 50% (V50). Results: The mean V90, V80, V70, V60, and V50 values were reduced by 73.8% (P<.0001), 55.7% (P=.0003), 43.0% (P=.007), 34% (P=.002), and 25% (P=.036), respectively. The average values of D2.5, D5, D10, D15, and D20 were reduced by 8.5 Gy (P<.0001), 12.3 Gy (P<.0001), 8.4 Gy (P=.005), 3.7 Gy (P=.026), and 1.2 Gy (P=.25), respectively. Conclusions: The injection of HA significantly limited radiation doses to the rectal wall.

  7. Association between Hyaluronic Acid Injections and Time-to-Total Knee Replacement Surgery.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy; Fredericson, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Samir K; Bisson, Brad; Abbott, Thomas; Yadalam, Sashidhar; Kim, Myoung

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the association between hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and time-to-total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients 18 to 64 years of age who had TKR surgery between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011 were identified from the MarketScan Commercial claims database. All patients had 6 years or more of continuous enrollment prior to TKR surgery. There were two cohorts (1) patients with HA injections prior to TKR surgery and (2) patients who did not have HA injections prior to TKR surgery. Time-to-TKR was defined as the total days from the date of diagnosis of knee OA on the patient's first visit to an orthopedic surgeon to the date of TKR surgery. Results included 22,555 patients who had TKR surgery: 14,132 in the non-HA and 8,423 in the HA cohort. In this retrospective analysis of patients undergoing TKR, the median Time-to-TKR surgery was 326 days for the non-HA and 908 days for the HA cohort, a difference of 582 days. Those receiving HA injections had a median 1.6-year longer Time-to-TKR surgery versus those who did not receive HA injections. These results have both clinical and economic implications.

  8. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. Methods: One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. Conclusions: CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity. PMID:28280664

  9. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Dan Weber; Ximing Liang; T.F. Edgar; Nazli Demiroren; Danial Kaviani

    2007-03-31

    This report details progress and results on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project was to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Yousef and others (2006a,b), and herein referred to as the 'capacitance model', is the primary product of this research project. The capacitance model (CM) produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. For the CM, we have focused on the following items: (1) Methods to estimate {lambda} and {tau} from simulated and field well rates. The original method uses both non-linear and linear regression and lacks the ability to include constraints on {lambda} and {tau}. The revised method uses only non-linear regression, permitting constraints to be included as well as accelerating the solution so that problems with large numbers of wells are more tractable. (2) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (3) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the CM and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of {lambda} and {tau} estimates. Human interventions, such as workovers, also cause rate fluctuations and can be misinterpreted by the model if bottom hole pressure data are not available. A revised

  10. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Thai, Van Viet; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Colloid Dispersion as a Function of Groundwater Injection Rate within Atlantic Coastal Plain Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, J.C., P.M. Bertsch and D.I. Kaplan

    2007-01-01

    A subsurface injection experiment was conducted on the USDOE's Savannah River Site (SRS) to determine the influence of pump-and-treat remediation activities on the generation and transport of groundwater colloids. The impact of colloid generation on formation permeability at injection rates ranging from 19 to 132 L min{sup -1} was monitored using a set of six sampling wells radially spaced at approximate distances of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.5 m from a central injection well. Each sampling well was further divided into three discrete sampling depths that were pumped continuously at a rate of {approx}0.1 L min{sup -1} throughout the course of the injection experiment. Discrete samples were collected for turbidity and chemical analysis. Turbidity varied greatly between sampling wells and zones within a given well, ranging from <1 to 740 NTU. The two sampling wells closest to the injection well displayed the greatest response in terms of turbidity to increases in injection rate. Transient spikes in turbidity generally corresponded to incremental increases in the injection rate that were followed by a decrease in turbidity to a stable injection rate-dependent level. Mineralogical analysis of the resulting suspensions confirmed the presence of kaolinite, goethite, and to a much lesser degree, quartz and illite, with many of the particles too large (>1 {micro}m) to be readily mobile within the formation. Turbidity measurements taken during this study indicate that colloid mobilization induced by water injection was both spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Furthermore, colloid release did not follow simple predictions based on shear force, presumably due to the complexities encountered in real heterogeneous systems. These findings have important implications to our understanding of how colloids and the co-contaminants are mobilized in the subsurface environment, as well as for the development of monitoring practices that minimize the creation of colloidal artifacts. Technical

  12. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect

    Refunjol, B.T.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  13. Flow injection analysis of picric acid explosive using a copper electrode as electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, João R C; de Araujo, William R; Salles, Maiara O; Paixão, Thiago R L C

    2013-01-30

    A simple and fast electrochemical method for quantitative analysis of picric acid explosive (nitro-explosive) based on its electrochemical reduction at copper surfaces is reported. To achieve a higher sample throughput, the electrochemical sensor was adapted in a flow injection system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the peak current response increases linearly with picric acid concentration over the range of 20-300 μmol L(-1). The repeatability of the electrode response in the flow injection analysis (FIA) configuration was evaluated as 3% (n=10), and the detection limit of the method was estimated to be 6.0 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sample throughput under optimised conditions was estimated to be 550 samples h(-1). Peroxide explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) were tested as potential interfering substances for the proposed method, and no significant interference by these explosives was noticed. The proposed method has interesting analytical parameters, environmental applications, and low cost compared with other electroanalytical methods that have been reported for the quantification of picric acid. Additionally, the possibility to develop an in situ device for the detection of picric acid using a disposable sensor was evaluated.

  14. Treatment of endometriosis with local acetylsalicylic acid injection: experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Juliana Menezes; Barreto, Adriana Beatriz; Saad-Hossne, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effects of introduction of acetylsalicylic acid solution into peritoneal implants in autologous endometrium as a method for treating endometriosis. Forty adult female rabbits were subdivided into 4 groups of 10 rabbits each, and endometriosis was induced via autotransplantation of endometrial fragments into the peritoneal cavity. At 30 days after induction of endometriosis, all animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 protocols. In protocol 1, animals were evaluated at 24 hours after treatment; group 1 (control) received physiologic solution, and group 2 received acetylsalicylic acid. In protocol 2, animals were evaluated at 10 days after treatment, group 3 (control) and group 4 received acetylsalicylic acid. After measuring the lesion, the endometriotic focus was removed and prepared for mounting on slides for histologic analysis. Imaging software was used for analysis of the total remaining area of endometrial tissue. The affected area in acetylsalicylic acid-treated animals was smaller than that in control animals at 24 hours and 10 days after treatment; a significant difference was found between control and treated groups (p < .001). Statistical analysis comparing protocols 1 and 2 demonstrated no differences between controls groups or acetylsalicylic acid groups (p = .30), and no differences between times (p = .75). Acetylsalicylic acid solution led to less growth (or higher involution) of endometrial implants. Acetylsalicylic acid injected directly into endometriotic foci was effective in their destruction. This presents new perspectives for treatment of endometriosis and for clinical applications based on further clinical studies.

  15. Flow injection fluorometric determination of ascorbic acid using perylenebisimide-linked nitroxide.

    PubMed

    Maki, Tomoharu; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-09-30

    A simple and sensitive flow injection fluorometric method for the determination of ascorbic acid is described. Perylenebisimide-linked nitroxide (PBILN) is used as a fluorescent reagent, which permits the selective determination of ascorbic acid. The fluorescence of the perylenebisimide moiety in PBILN is quenched by the nitroxide moiety, which is linked to the perylenebisimide. When a stream of a solution of ascorbic acid is merged with a stream of PBILN, the ascorbic acid reacts with the nitroxide moiety of PBILN to form hydroxylamine, and the fluorescence properties of the perylenebisimide moiety are recovered. As a result, a peak-shaped fluorescence signal is produced, which can be observed by a fluorescence detector located downstream. Under optimized conditions, a good linear relationship between the concentration of ascorbic acid and peak height in the concentration range from 0.5 to 10 μmol L(-1) was found and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 0.28 μmol L(-1). The relative standard deviation for the determination of 4.0 μmol L(-1) ascorbic acid samples was 1.0% (n=5). The proposed method was applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in several soft drink beverages and the analytical results were in good agreement with those obtained using a conventional method.

  16. Updating the M Dwarf Planet Occurrence Rate by Injecting and Detecting Transits in Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Charbonneau, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Kepler mission is to constrain the occurrence rate of planets around stars with a range of spectral types. Previously, we estimated the M dwarf planet occurrence rate by revising the stellar parameters of the Kepler M dwarfs and analyzing the first six quarters of Kepler data. We found that there are 0.90 Earth-size (0.5-1.4 Earth radius) planets with periods <50 days per small star. We also found an occurrence rate of 0.15 Earth-size planets within the habitable zone per small star, implying a most probable distance of 13 pc to the nearest transiting potentially habitable planet. Our previous estimate of the occurrence rate assumed 100% detection efficiency at SNR=7.1 sigma, but the occurrence rate would have been underestimated if the actual detection efficiency is lower. In order to more accurately model the detection efficiency, we have developed a customized transit search pipeline tailored for application to M dwarfs. We measure the detection efficiency of our pipeline by injecting known transit signals into Kepler light curves and attempting to recover the signals. We are currently conducting a search for additional transiting planets using our pipeline and will compare our list of detected candidates to the candidates found by the Kepler team. We will then combine our more sophisticated model for the detection threshold and the list of planet candidates found using an additional ten quarters of Kepler data with our revised stellar parameters to present an updated measurement of the planet occurrence rate for M dwarfs. Our revised measurement will help enable predictions of the population of planets that will be detected by ongoing and future planet surveys such as MEarth and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  17. Regression rate study of porous axial-injection, endburning hybrid fuel grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Matthew A.

    This experimental and theoretical work examines the effects of gaseous oxidizer flow rates and pressure on the regression rates of porous fuels for hybrid rocket applications. Testing was conducted using polyethylene as the porous fuel and both gaseous oxygen and nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Nominal test articles were tested using 200, 100, 50, and 15 micron fuel pore sizes. Pressures tested ranged from atmospheric to 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 207 kPa to 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests, and oxidizer injection velocities ranged from 35 m/s to 80 m/s for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 7.5 m/s to 16.8 m/s for the nitrous oxide tests. Regression rates were determined using pretest and posttest length measurements of the solid fuel. Experimental results demonstrated that the regression rate of the porous axial-injection, end-burning hybrid was a function of the chamber pressure, as opposed to the oxidizer mass flux typical in conventional hybrids. Regression rates ranged from approximately 0.75 mm/s at atmospheric pressure to 8.89 mm/s at 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and 0.21 mm/s at 207 kPa to 1.44 mm/s at 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests. The analytical model was developed based on a standard ablative model modified to include oxidizer flow through the grain. The heat transfer from the flame was primarily modeled using an empirically determined flame coefficient that included all heat transfer mechanisms in one term. An exploratory flame model based on the Granular Diffusion Flame model used for solid rocket motors was also adapted for comparison with the empirical flame coefficient. This model was then evaluated quantitatively using the experimental results of the gaseous oxygen tests as well as qualitatively using the experimental results of the nitrous oxide tests. The model showed agreement with the experimental results indicating it has potential for giving insight into the flame structure in this motor configuration

  18. Rheological characterization of hyaluronic acid derivatives as injectable materials toward nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Antonio; Borzacchiello, Assunta; Causa, Filippo; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) is the soft center of the intervertebral disc (IVD), able to resist compressive loads, while the annulus fibrosus withstands tension and gives mechanical strength. NP function may be altered as consequence of several pathologies or injury and when a damaged IVD does not properly play its role. In the past years, a great effort has been devoted to the design of injectable systems as NP substitutes. The different synthetic- and natural hydrogel-based materials proposed, present many drawbacks and, in particular, they do not seem to mimic the required behavior. In the search for natural-based systems a dodecylamide of hyaluronic acid (HA), HYADD3®, has been proved as bioactive and suitable vehicle to carry cells for NP tissue engineering, while a crosslinked HA ester, HYAFF120® showed interesting results if used as injectable acellular material. Even though these derivatives showed appropriate biological behavior up to now, data on mechanical behavior of these derivatives are still missing. In this frame, the aim of this study was to provide a rheological characterization of these HA derivatives to asses their biomechanical compatibility with the NP tissue. To this, the rheological properties of these derivatives were studied through dynamic shear tests before and after injection through needles used in the current surgical procedure. Both HA derivatives showed a 'gel-like' rheological behavior similar to the native NP tissue and this behavior was not altered by injection.

  19. Effect of Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid Injection on Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA) injection for hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) after stroke. Methods Thirty-one patients with HSP and limited range of motion (ROM) without spasticity of upper extremity were recruited. All subjects were randomly allocated to group A (n=15) for three weekly IAHA injection or group B (n=16) for a single intra-articular steroid (IAS) injection. All injections were administered by an expert physician until the 8th week using a posterior ultrasonography-guided approach. Shoulder joint pain was measured using the Wong-Baker Scale (WBS), while passive ROM was measured in the supine position by an expert physician. Results There were no significant intergroup differences in WBS or ROM at the 8th week. Improvements in forward flexion and external rotation were observed from the 4th week in the IAHA group and the 8th week in the IAS group. Subjects experienced a statistically significant improvement in pain from the 1st week in the IAS and from the 8th week in IAHA group, respectively. Conclusion IAHA seems to have a less potent ability to reduce movement pain compared to steroid in the early period. However, there was no statistically significant intergroup difference in WBS and ROM improvements at the 8th week. IAHA might be a good alternative to steroid for managing HSP when the use of steroid is limited. PMID:27847713

  20. Preoperative computed tomography-guided percutaneous localization of ground glass pulmonary opacity with polylactic acid injection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mu; Zhi, Xiuyi; Zhang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Localization of a ground glass nodule is a difficult challenge for thoracic surgeons, especially for ground glass opacities (GGOs) less than 10 mm in diameter. In this study we implement a new method for preoperative localization of pulmonary (GGOs). From October 2013 to December 2014, computed tomography-guided percutaneous polylactic acid injection localizations were performed for five pulmonary nodules in five patients (2 men and 3 women; mean age, 59.8 years; range, 54-65 years). The injection was feasible in all patients and the localization effect was excellent. The total procedure duration was 12.6 minutes (range; 10-15) and the volume of polylactic acid injected was 0.38 mL. The wedge resections were easily and successfully performed in all five cases. The cutting margin was no less than 2 cm from the lesion. This technique is promising for the determination of GGO location in thoracoscopic surgery for wedge resection.

  1. Overview of ATX-101 (Deoxycholic Acid Injection): A Nonsurgical Approach for Reduction of Submental Fat.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Steven H; Humphrey, Shannon; Jones, Derek H; Lizzul, Paul F; Gross, Todd M; Stauffer, Karen; Beddingfield, Frederick C

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved as a first-in-class injectable drug for improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe convexity or fullness associated with submental fat. ATX-101 has been evaluated in a clinical development program that included 18 Phase 1 to 3 studies supporting the current indication. Since 2007, the toxicity and safety profiles of ATX-101 have been characterized in numerous preclinical studies, its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal treatment paradigm have been defined in multiple Phase 1 and 2 studies, and its efficacy and clinical safety have been confirmed in 4 large Phase 3 trials (2 conducted in Europe and 2 in the United States and Canada [REFINE-1 and REFINE-2]). As subcutaneous injection of deoxycholic acid has been shown to cause adipocytolysis, the reduction in submental fat achieved after ATX-101 treatment is expected to be long lasting. This prediction is confirmed by data from long-term follow-up studies of up to 4 years after last treatment with ATX-101, which demonstrate that the treatment response is maintained over time in most subjects. ATX-101 offers a durable, minimally invasive alternative to liposuction and surgery for addressing submental fullness.

  2. Flow injection colorimetric method using acidic ceric nitrate as reagent for determination of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Youngvises, Napaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-05-15

    Ceric ammonium nitrate has been used for qualitative analysis of ethanol. It forms an intensely colored unstable complex with alcohol. In this work, a simple flow injection (FI) colorimetric method was developed for the determination of ethanol, based on the reaction of ethanol with ceric ion in acidic medium to produce a red colored product having maximum absorption at 415 nm. Absorbance of this complex could be precisely measured in the FI system. A standard or sample solution was injected into a deionized water donor stream and flowed to a gas diffusion unit, where the ethanol diffused through a gas permeable membrane made of plumbing PTFE tape into an acceptor stream to react with ceric ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. Color intensity of the reddish product was monitored by a laboratory made LED based colorimeter and the signal was recorded on a computer as a peak. Peak height obtained was linearly proportional to the concentration of ethanol originally presented in the injected solution in the range of 0.1-10.0% (v/v) (r(2)=0.9993), with detection limit of 0.03% (v/v). With the use of gas diffusion membrane, most of the interferences could be eliminated. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of ethanol in some alcoholic beverages, validating by gas chromatographic method.

  3. Chemiluminescence determination of ferulic acid by flow-injection analysis using cerium(IV) sensitized by rhodamine 6G.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju Peng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2008-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid based on the chemiluminescence reaction of ferulic acid with rhodamine 6G and ceric sulfate in sulphuric acid medium. Strong chemiluminescence signal was observed when ferulic acid was injected into the acidic ceric sulfate solution in a flow-cell. The present method allowed the determination of ferulic acid in the concentration range of 8.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) and the detection limit for ferulic acid was 8.7 x 10(-9) mol l(-1). The relative standard deviation was 2.4% for 10 replicate analyses of 1.0 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) ferulic acid. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ferulic acid in Taita Beauty Essence samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid following arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of the knee.

    PubMed

    Thein, Rafael; Haviv, Barak; Kidron, Amos; Bronak, Shlomo

    2010-10-11

    The short-term recovery period post-arthroscopic meniscectomy is characterized by pain and impaired function most likely related to the irrigation of synovial fluid from the knee intraoperatively. Consequently, along with removal of harmful debris, the irrigation fluid dilutes the hyaluronic acid layer covering the joint tissues. Hyaluronic acid contributes to the homeostasis of the joint environment and is an important component of synovial fluid and cartilage matrix. Hence, the instillation of hyaluronic acid after the procedure may relieve symptoms. This prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study evaluated clinical outcome after hyaluronic acid injection to patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy of the knee. Patients with ligamentous injuries or severe chondral damage were excluded. Fifty-six patients with a mean age of 34 years (range, 17-44 years) were injected with Viscoseal (TRB Chemedica International S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) or normal saline immediately post-arthroscopy and divided into the Viscoseal group or control group, respectively. Patients were evaluated for pain, swelling, and function at 1, 4, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Patients in the control group reported more pain at week 1, with a mean visual analog score (VAS) of 43, than did patients in the Viscoseal group, with a mean VAS of 28 (P=.006). At 4 weeks postoperatively, none of the Viscoseal patients had consumed analgesics, where 9 (of 28) in the control group reported acetaminophen intake (P=.039). No significant difference in knee function was found between groups. Intra-articular injection of Viscoseal after arthroscopic meniscectomy reduced pain in the short-term recovery period.

  5. INTERWELL CONNECTIVITY AND DIAGNOSIS USING CORRELATION OF PRODUCTION AND INJECTION RATE DATA IN HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Thang D. Bui; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil

    2004-08-01

    This report details much of the progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. The goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of inferring reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. We have focused on and accomplished the following items: (1) We have identified two possible causes for the source of negative weights. These are colinearity between injectors, and nonstationarity of be production data. (2) Colinearity has been addressed through ridge regression. Though there is much to be done here, such regression represents a trade-off between a minimum variance estimator and a biased estimator. (3) We have applied the ridge regression and the original Albertoni procedure to field data from the Magnus field. (4) The entire procedure (with several options) has been codified as a spreadsheet add-in. (5) Finally, we have begun, and report on, an extension of the method to predicting oil rates. Successful completion of these items will constitute the bulk of the final year's report.

  6. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed.

  7. Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux by Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Timothy W; Lacy, John M; Preston, David M

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented for evaluation after discovery of a left bladder-wall tumor. He underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) operation for treatment of low-grade, Ta urothelial cancer of the bladder. The patient developed recurrent disease and returned to the operating room for repeat TURBT, circumcision, and administration of intravesical mitomycin C. The patient developed balanitis xerotica obliterans 4 years post-circumcision, requiring self-dilation with a catheter. He subsequently developed 3 consecutive episodes of left-sided pyelonephritis. Further investigation with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) revealed Grade 3, left-sided vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Due to existing comorbidities, the patient elected treatment with endoscopic dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection. A post-operative VCUG demonstrated complete resolution of left-sided VUR. This patient has remained symptom free for 8 months post-injection, with no episodes of pyelonephritis. PMID:27162514

  8. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of lidocaine in kainic acid-injected rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan Ming; Lu, Cheng Wei; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lin, Tzu Yu; Wang, Su Jane

    2016-05-04

    Lidocaine, the most commonly used local anesthetic, inhibits glutamate release from nerve terminals. Given the involvement of glutamate neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, this study investigated the role of lidocaine in hippocampal neuronal death and inflammatory events induced by an i.p. injection of kainic acid (KA) (15 mg/kg), a glutamate analog. The results showed that KA significantly led to neuronal death in the CA3 pyramidal layers of the hippocampus and this effect was attenuated by the systemic administration of lidocaine (0.8 or 4 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before KA injection. Moreover, KA-induced microglia activation and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, namely, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the hippocampus were reduced by the lidocaine pretreatment. Altogether, the results suggest that lidocaine can effectively treat glutamate excitotoxicity-related brain disorders.

  9. Sequential injection titration with spectrophotometric detection for the assay of acidity in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Jakmunee, Jaroon; Rujiralai, Thitima; Grudpan, Kate

    2006-01-01

    A simple sequential injection analysis (SIA) with spectrophotometric detection for an assay of acidity in fruit juice was investigated. An alkaline reagent (sodium hydroxide), a sample and an indicator (phenolphthalein) were first aspirated and stacked as adjacent zones in a holding coil. With flow reversal through a reaction coil to the detector, zone penetration occurred, leading to a neutralization reaction that caused a decrease in the color intensity of the indicator being monitored for absorbance at 552 nm. The effects of various parameters were studied. Linear calibration graphs for acidities of 0.2 - 1.0 and 0.5 - 2.5% w/v citric acid as a standard, with a relative standard deviation of 1% (acidity of 0.3 - 0.6% w/v as citric acid, n=11) and a sample throughput of 30 samples h(-1), were achieved. The developed method was validated by a standard titrimetric method for assaying the acidity of fruit juice samples.

  10. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  11. Hatchability rate and embryonic growth of broiler chicks following in ovo injection royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, A A; Borji, M; Komazani, D

    2014-01-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to compare the hatchability, chick body and internal organs weights and plasma testosterone concentration of hatchlings after in ovo administration of royal jelly (RJ) on d 7 of incubation. 2. Fertile eggs (n = 150) were injected into the air sac or yolk sac with 0.5 ml normal saline solution or normal saline and pure RJ. The eggs were randomly divided into 5 groups of 30 eggs each: NC, control eggs receiving no injection; ASA, air sac-injected eggs given normal saline solution; ARJ, air sac-injected eggs injected with pure RJ; YSA, yolk sac-injected eggs receiving normal saline solution and YRJ, yolk sac-injected eggs given pure RJ. 3. Injection of RJ significantly decreased hatchability (46.7%) compared with injection of saline solution (68.3%). Hatchability was lower in ARJ (33.3 %) and YRJ (60.0%) groups than in the NC group (90.0%). Hatchability in ASA (70.0%) and YSA (66.66%) groups were comparable to the NC group. 4. In ovo injection of RJ into both sacs increased chicks' absolute and relative body, heart, liver and testes weights compared to the control group whereas plasma testosterone concentration was similar among the different groups. 5. It was concluded that in ovo injection of RJ may be an effective method to increase the body weight of hatched chicks as an absolute value (CWT) and chicks' internal organ weights.

  12. The influence of the sequence of nanoparticles injection to solution on the rate of fibrinogen-thrombin reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Krivokhiza, S. V.; Chaikov, L. L.; Bulychev, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the rate of fibrinogen-thrombin reaction is studied. The nanoparticles were obtained in acoustoplasma discharge with cavitation. The sequence of nanoparticles injection appeared to change dramatically the rate and result of enzymatic reaction. In case of nanoparticles injection to fibrinogen before thrombin addition, enzymatic reaction practically stopped at the first stage. The mixing of nanoparticles with thrombin before its addition to fibrinogen leads to acceleration of gel formation in comparison with reaction without nanoparticles. We believe that Fe2O3 nanoparticles can modify the rate of enzymatic reaction, in one case acting as inhibitors of the reaction and as activators in other.

  13. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J; Keimowitz, Alison R; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N

    2014-09-25

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949-1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m(2)) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale.

  14. Systemic Injection of Kainic Acid Differently Affects LTP Magnitude Depending on its Epileptogenic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Luz M.; Cid, Elena; Gal, Beatriz; Inostroza, Marion; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R.; Gómez-Domínguez, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Seizures have profound impact on synaptic function and plasticity. While kainic acid is a popular method to induce seizures and to potentially affect synaptic plasticity, it can also produce physiological-like oscillations and trigger some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here, we examine whether induction of LTP is altered in hippocampal slices prepared from rats with different sensitivity to develop status epilepticus (SE) by systemic injection of kainic acid. Rats were treated with multiple low doses of kainic acid (5 mg/kg; i.p.) to develop SE in a majority of animals (72–85% rats). A group of rats were resistant to develop SE (15–28%) after several accumulated doses. Animals were subsequently tested using chronic recordings and object recognition tasks before brain slices were prepared for histological studies and to examine basic features of hippocampal synaptic function and plasticity, including input/output curves, paired-pulse facilitation and theta-burst induced LTP. Consistent with previous reports in kindling and pilocapine models, LTP was reduced in rats that developed SE after kainic acid injection. These animals exhibited signs of hippocampal sclerosis and developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, resistant rats did not become epileptic and had no signs of cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. In slices from resistant rats, theta-burst stimulation induced LTP of higher magnitude when compared with control and epileptic rats. Variations on LTP magnitude correlate with animals’ performance in a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. Our results suggest dissociable long-term effects of treatment with kainic acid on synaptic function and plasticity depending on its epileptogenic efficiency. PMID:23118939

  15. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J.; Keimowitz, Alison R.; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949–1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m2) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale. PMID:25598701

  16. Relationship between the length of the uterine cavity and clinical pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sang Sik; Chung, Min Ji; Chong, Gun Oh; Park, Kee Sang; Lee, Taek Hoo

    2010-02-01

    In this prospective clinical study involving 354 IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, we determined the influence of the length of the uterine cavity on clinical pregnancy rates. Our data showed that clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are associated positively with an increased length of the uterine cavity.

  17. Ipsilateral Ophthalmic and Cerebral Infarctions After Cosmetic Polylactic Acid Injection Into the Forehead.

    PubMed

    Ragam, Ashwinee; Agemy, Steven A; Dave, Sarita B; Khorsandi, Azita S; Banik, Rudrani

    2017-03-01

    A 55-year-old woman developed no light perception vision in her right eye 5 days after an injection of polylactic acid cosmetic filler into her right forehead. Diffuse corneal edema and anterior chamber inflammation prohibited any view to the posterior segment to identify the cause of her profound vision loss. MRI of the orbits with diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the right optic nerve with signal reduction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping, consistent with ischemia. Our patient also was found to have acute infarctions in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery on MRI of the brain despite having no permanent focal neurologic deficits aside from vision loss.

  18. [Use of hyaluronidase to correct hyaluronic acid injections in aesthetic medicine].

    PubMed

    Lacoste, C; Hersant, B; Bosc, R; Noel, W; Meningaud, J P

    2016-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most commonly used filler in aesthetic medicine. However, overcorrections are frequent even with experienced practitioner. Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes HA. Hyaluronidase has been recently proposed to correct unsatisfactory results of HA injections in aesthetic medicine (overcorrection, asymmetry, Tyndall effect) and to treat immediate complications such as arterial or venous thrombosis. The objective of this technical note was to summarize the literature data regarding the efficacy, safety and technique of use of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronidase may be responsible for allergies. The practitioner should take this risk and the possible drug interactions into account before using this antidote in order to weigh up the risk/benefit ratio.

  19. Neonatal striatal grafts prevent lethal syndrome produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N; Huang, S; Whetsell, W O; Allen, G S

    1986-07-02

    It is reported that unilateral grafts of neonatal striatal tissue protect the recipient from the lethal aphagia and adipsia produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of 10 nmol of kainic acid in rats. It is shown that neither adult striatum nor neonatal tissue from other sites have the same lifesaving effect and that the salutary effect of the graft is dependent upon graft survival. Grafts from a histoincompatible donor are apparently rejected, leading to the death of the recipient. Cyclosporine inhibits rejection thereby enabling recipient survival. It is postulated that the graft exerts a neurohumoral influence that protects the striatum from the toxic effect of kainate.

  20. Association between Number of Formed Embryos, Embryo Morphology and Clinical Pregnancy Rate after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    PubMed

    Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Giorgi, Vanessa Silvestre Innocenti; Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Infertility has a high prevalence in the general population, affecting ∼ 5 to 15% of couples in reproductive age. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) include in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos and are an important treatment indicated to these couples. It is well accepted that the implantation rate is positively influenced by the morphology of transferred embryos. However, we question if, apart from the assessment of embryo morphology, the number of produced embryos per cycle is also related to pregnancy rates in the first fresh transfer cycle. Purpose To evaluate the clinical pregnancy rate according to the number of formed embryos and the transfer of top quality embryos (TQEs). Methods In a retrospective cohort study, between January 2011 and December 2012, we evaluated women who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), aged < 40 years, and with at least 1 formed embryo fresh transferred in cleavage stage. These women were stratified into 3 groups according to the number of formed embryos (1 embryo, 2-3 and ≥ 4 embryos). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the presence or not of at least 1 transferred TQE (1 with TQE; 1 without TQE; 2-3 with TQE, 2-3 without TQE; ≥ 4 with TQE; ≥ 4 without TQE). The clinical pregnancy rates were compared in each subgroup based on the presence or absence of at least one transferred TQE. Results During the study period, 636 women had at least one embryo to be transferred in the first fresh cycle (17.8% had 1 formed embryo [32.7% with TQE versus 67.3% without TQE], 42.1% of women had 2-3 formed embryos [55.6% with TQE versus 44.4% without TQE], and 40.1% of patients had ≥ 4 formed embryos [73.7% with TQE versus 26.3% without TQE]). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the subgroup with ≥ 4 formed embryos with at least 1 transfered TQE (45.2%) compared with the subgroup without TQE (28.4%). Conclusions Having at

  1. Effect of a new injectable male contraceptive on the seminal plasma amino acids studied by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Koel; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, N R; Guha, Sujoy K

    2002-09-01

    Effect of RISUG, a newly developed male contraceptive, on various amino acids of seminal plasma ejaculates was studied by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 400 MHz. Levels of amino acids were compared with the seminal plasma of obstructive azoospermia and controls. Glutamic acid, glutamine, and arginine were found to be high in concentration in human seminal plasma. The concentration of aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine, histidine, and phenylalanine in RISUG-injected subjects showed no significant difference compared to controls (p > 0.1); however, there was a statistically significant decrease in the concentration of these amino acids in obstructive azoospermia. The concentration of some prominent amino acids that showed overlapping resonances, such as isoleucine+leucine+valine (p < 0.01), alanine+isoleucine+lysine (p < 0.01), arginine+lysine+leucine (p < 0.01), and glutamic acid+glutamine (p < 0.01), showed a statistically significant decrease in RISUG-injected subjects compared to controls. Overlap of these amino acid resonances were noticed even at 600 MHz. In general, the total amino acids concentration in RISUG-injected subjects was found to be higher than in azoospermic subjects, confirming the occurrence of 'partial' obstructive azoospermia in subjects injected with this contraceptive.

  2. Injectable hyaluronic acid-dextran hydrogels and effects of implantation in ferret vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Kobler, James B; Heaton, James T; Jia, Xinqiao; Zeitels, Steven M; Langer, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Injectable hydrogels may potentially be used for augmentation/regeneration of the lamina propria of vocal fold tissue. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) and dextran were chemically modified and subsequently crosslinked via formation of hydrazone bonds in phosphate buffer. Swelling ratios, degradation, and compressive moduli of the resulting hydrogels were investigated. It was found that the properties of HA-dextran hydrogels were variable and the trend of variation could be correlated with the hydrogel composition. The biocompatibility of three injectable HA-dextran hydrogels with different crosslinking density was assessed in the vocal fold region using a ferret model. It was found that HA-dextran hydrogels implanted for three weeks stimulated mild foreign-body reactions. Distinct tissue-material interactions were also observed for hydrogels made from different formulations: the hydrogel with the lowest crosslinking density was completely degraded in vivo; while material residues were visible for other types of hydrogel injections, with or without cell penetration into the implantation depending on the hydrogel composition. The in vivo results suggest that the HA-dextran hydrogel matrices can be further developed for applications of vocal fold tissue restoration.

  3. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from low-dose injection of iohexol and a single blood sample

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, H.S.; Hvid-Jacobsen, K. )

    1991-04-01

    Clearance of a small dose of iohexol (7 g I) was compared with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) marker {sup 51}Cr EDTA in 11 healthy volunteers. The two tracers were injected simultaneously. The plasma concentration of iohexol was measured with x-ray fluorescence technique. Glomerular filtration rate was determined using blood samples drawn three and four hours after injection. An excellent correlation (0.92 less than r less than 0.97) between iohexol clearance and {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance was found. Glomerular filtration rate can be reliably determined with a low dose of iohexol and a single blood sample obtained three hours after the injection in persons with normal serum creatinine. This new method is a good alternative to the methods using radiopharmaceuticals; it causes no radioactive burden to the patients, increases patient comfort, reduces costs, and requires no special license.

  4. Hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis. Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anita; Sempowski, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injections improves pain and function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in their knees. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases using the MeSH headings and key words osteoarthritis (knee) and hyaluronic acid. STUDY SELECTION: English-language case series and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected. Studies with biologic, histologic, or arthroscopic outcomes were excluded. SYNTHESIS: Five case series and 13 RCTs were critically appraised. Data from three case series and three RCTs using injections of high-molecular-weight HA (Synvisc) demonstrated significant improvement in pain, activity levels, and function. The beneficial effect started as early as 12 weeks. Studies using low-molecular-weight HA had conflicting results. CONCLUSION: Viscosupplementation with high-molecular-weight HA is an effective treatment for patients with knee OA who have ongoing pain or are unable to tolerate conservative treatment or joint replacement. Viscosupplementation appears to have a slower onset of action than intra-articular steroids, but the effect seems to last longer. PMID:15000336

  5. Development of Injectable Hyaluronic Acid/Cellulose Nanocrystals Bionanocomposite Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Rui M A; Silva, Marta; Gershovich, Pavel; Betta, Sefano; Babo, Pedro; Caridade, Sofia G; Mano, João F; Motta, Antonella; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2015-08-19

    Injectable hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels compose a promising class of materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. However, their limited mechanical properties restrict the potential range of application. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were employed as nanofillers in a fully biobased strategy for the production of reinforced HA nanocomposite hydrogels. Herein we report the development of a new class of injectable hydrogels composed of adipic acid dihydrazide-modified HA (ADH-HA) and aldehyde-modified HA (a-HA) reinforced with varying contents of aldehyde-modified CNCs (a-CNCs). The obtained hydrogels were characterized in terms of internal morphology, mechanical properties, swelling, and degradation behavior in the presence of hyaluronidase. Our findings suggest that the incorporation of a-CNCs in the hydrogel resulted in a more organized and compact network structure and led to stiffer hydrogels (maximum storage modulus, E', of 152.4 kPa for 0.25 wt % a-CNCs content) with improvements of E' up to 135% in comparison to unfilled hydrogels. In general, increased amounts of a-CNCs led to lower equilibrium swelling ratios and higher resistance to degradation. The biological performance of the developed nanocomposites was assessed toward human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs). HA-CNCs nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited preferential cell supportive properties in in vitro culture conditions due to higher structural integrity and potential interaction of microenvironmental cues with CNC's sulfate groups. hASCs encapsulated in HA-CNCs hydrogels demonstrated the ability to spread within the volume of gels and exhibited pronounced proliferative activity. Together, these results demonstrate that the proposed strategy is a valuable toolbox for fine-tuning the structural, biomechanical, and biochemical properties of injectable HA hydrogels, expanding their potential range of application in the biomedical field.

  6. Particulate characteristics and emission rates during the injection of class B biosolids into an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Abhishek; Kumar, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    A field study was conducted during the summer of 2009 to collect airborne particulate matter emitted during the agricultural activities. The activities surrounding the injection application of class B biosolids were targeted for the sampling. The sampling was carried out before (pre-application), during (application), and after (post-application) the application. This study characterized the particulate emissions deposited on the aerosols spectrometer. The effect of different biosolids related activities was significant on the mass concentration, the number concentration, and the size distribution. The mass concentration of fine (PM(2.5)) and ultrafine (PM(1.0)) was highest during the pre-application. The mass concentration of thoracic fraction (PM(2.5-10)) increased significantly during the application. A bimodal size distribution was observed throughout the sampling. Nuclei mode formation was predominant during the pre-application and the post-application, whereas the accumulation mode was distinctive during the application. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was highest during the entire sampling period. The application of biosolids resulted into a higher number of coarse particle emission. It was also observed that the ultrafine and fine particles traveled longer downwind distances. The emission rates were determined for pre-application, application, and post-application activities.

  7. Changes of electroretinogram and neurochemical aspects of GABAergic neurons of retina after intraocular injection of kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Goto, M; Inomata, N; Ono, H; Saito, K I; Fukuda, H

    1981-05-04

    The effect of kainic acid (KA) on both electroretinogram (ERG) readings and neurochemical properties of the retina was investigated in rats with emphasis placed upon examination of the events that occur immediately following KA treatment. KA was injected into the eyes of rats with doses of 50 and 200 nmol. One hour after injection, histological alterations became evident. Swelling was observed in the inner and outer plexiform layers. Certain ganglion cells and cells of the inner nuclear layers exhibited pyknotic nuclei. Most of the ganglion cells appeared to have degenerated 48 h following injection, and the form of the outer plexiform layer was incomplete. The amplitude of the b-waves of the ERG decreased 2 h following injection and never recovered. The amplitude of the a-waves was unaffected by KA. The gamma-aminobutyric acid content in the eyecups began to decrease within 1 h and fell to approximately 20% of its original level 24 h following injection. The taurine content in the eyecups was unaffected by KA. The activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase remained unaffected for 2 h after injection, but was reduced to approximately 40% of its original activity by 24 h after injection. A possible explanation for the mechanism by which KA effects degenerative changes in the rat retina is that KA induces release of neurotransmitters through stimulation of neurons, and degeneration in the soma follows.

  8. Double injection/single detection asymmetric flow injection manifold for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid: Selection the optimal conditions by MCDM approach based on different criteria weighting methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroumand, Samira; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali

    2017-03-01

    A simple and sensitive double injection/single detector flow injection analysis (FIA) method is proposed for the simultaneous kinetic determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). This method is based upon the difference between the rates of the AA and UA reactions with Fe3 + in the presence of 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen). The absorbance of Fe2 +/1, 10-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) complex obtained as the product was measured spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. To reach a good accuracy in the differential kinetic determination via the mathematical manipulations of the transient signals, different criteria were considered in the selection of the optimum conditions. The multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was applied for the selection of the optimum conditions. The importance weights of the evaluation criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and compromised weighting (CW). The experimental conditions (alternatives) were ranked by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Under the selected optimum conditions, the obtained analytical signals were linear in the ranges of 0.50-5.00 and 0.50-4.00 mg L- 1 for AA and UA, respectively. The 3σ detection limits were 0.07 mg L- 1 for AA and 0.12 mg L- 1 for UA. The relative standard deviations for four replicate determinations of AA and UA were 2.03% and 3.30% respectively. The method was also applied for the analysis of analytes in the blood serum, Vitamine C tablets, and tap water with satisfactory results.

  9. Double injection/single detection asymmetric flow injection manifold for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid: Selection the optimal conditions by MCDM approach based on different criteria weighting methods.

    PubMed

    Boroumand, Samira; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali

    2017-03-05

    A simple and sensitive double injection/single detector flow injection analysis (FIA) method is proposed for the simultaneous kinetic determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). This method is based upon the difference between the rates of the AA and UA reactions with Fe(3+) in the presence of 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen). The absorbance of Fe(2+)/1, 10-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) complex obtained as the product was measured spectrophotometrically at 510nm. To reach a good accuracy in the differential kinetic determination via the mathematical manipulations of the transient signals, different criteria were considered in the selection of the optimum conditions. The multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was applied for the selection of the optimum conditions. The importance weights of the evaluation criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and compromised weighting (CW). The experimental conditions (alternatives) were ranked by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Under the selected optimum conditions, the obtained analytical signals were linear in the ranges of 0.50-5.00 and 0.50-4.00mgL(-1) for AA and UA, respectively. The 3σ detection limits were 0.07mgL(-1) for AA and 0.12mgL(-1) for UA. The relative standard deviations for four replicate determinations of AA and UA were 2.03% and 3.30% respectively. The method was also applied for the analysis of analytes in the blood serum, Vitamine C tablets, and tap water with satisfactory results.

  10. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  11. Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (viscosupplementation) in the haemophilic knee.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Intra-articular injections (IAIs) of hyaluronic acid, also called viscosupplementation, can be used for the treatment of radiological haemophilic arthropathy of the knee, that is when mild-to-moderate degenerative changes can be visualized on plain radiographs. This article aims to define the efficacy of IAIs of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of radiological haemophilic arthropathy of the knee. A review of recent literature on the topic has been performed. The literature seems to support the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, because it diminishes pain and improves disability, generally within 1 week and for up to 3-12 months (but especially at the 5-13-week postinjection period). There are only five reports in the literature on the efficacy of knee viscosupplementation in haemophilia, all of them with a low level of evidence. The five studies dealing with viscosupplementation in haemophilia recommend it for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee as a way of delaying the need of operative treatment when noninvasive medical therapy (relative rest, oral anti-inflammatory drugs, oral analgesics and physical therapy) has failed. The short-lived improvement afforded by viscosupplementation does not, however, seem to warrant its use in haemophilic patients given the risks and the cost involved. Further trials are required to ascertain whether viscosupplementation should be indicated in painful radiological haemophilic arthropathy of the knee.

  12. Bone reservoir: Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for minimal invasive bone augmentation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Ossipov, Dmitri A; Hilborn, Jöns; Larsson, Sune; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Varghese, Oommen P

    2011-06-10

    A strategy has been designed to develop hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel for in vivo bone augmentation using minimal invasive technique. A mild synthetic procedure was developed to prepare aldehyde modified HA by incorporating an amino-glycerol side chain via amidation reaction and selective oxidation of the pendent group. This modification, upon mixing with hydrazide modified HA formed hydrazone-crosslinked hydrogel within 30s that was stable at physiological pH. In vitro experiments showed no cytotoxicity of hydrogel with the controlled release of active bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). In vivo evaluation of this gel as a BMP-2 carrier was performed by injecting gels over the rat calvarium and showed bone formation in 8 weeks in correlation with the amount of BMP-2 loaded (0, 1 and 30μg) within the gel. Furthermore, hydrogels with 30μg of BMP-2 induced less bone formation upon subcutaneous injection in comparison with subperiosteal implantation. Histological examination showed newly formed bone with a high expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin and with angiogenic bone marrow when higher BMP-2 concentration was employed. Our result suggests that novel HA hydrogels could be used as a BMP-2 carrier and can promote bone augmentation for potential orthopedic applications.

  13. Sustained Small Molecule Delivery from Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels through Host-Guest Mediated Retention

    PubMed Central

    Mealy, Joshua E.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembled and injectable hydrogels have many beneficial properties for the local delivery of therapeutics; however, challenges still exist in the sustained release of small molecules from these highly hydrated networks. Host-guest chemistry between cyclodextrin and adamantane has been used to create supramolecular hydrogels from modified polymers. Beyond assembly, this chemistry may also provide increased drug retention and sustained release through the formation of inclusion complexes between drugs and cyclodextrin. Here, we engineered a two-component system from adamantane-modified and β-cyclodextrin (CD)-modified hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural component of the extracellular matrix, to produce hydrogels that are both injectable and able to sustain the release of small molecules. The conjugation of cyclodextrin to HA dramatically altered its affinity for hydrophobic small molecules, such as tryptophan. This interaction led to lower molecule diffusivity and the release of small molecules for up to 21 days with release profiles dependent on CD concentration and drug-CD affinity. There was significant attenuation of release from the supramolecular hydrogels (~20% release in 24h) when compared to hydrogels without CD (~90% release in 24h). The loading of small molecules also had no effect on hydrogel mechanics or self-assembly properties. Finally, to illustrate this controlled delivery approach with clinically used small molecule pharmaceuticals, we sustained the release of two widely used drugs (i.e., doxycycline and doxorubicin) from these hydrogels. PMID:26693019

  14. Scientific evidence on the usefulness of intraarticular hyaluronic acid injection in the management of temporomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Escoda-Francolí, Jaume; Vázquez-Delgado, Eduardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2010-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is found in high concentrations in cartilage and synovial fluid, and is an important component of the extracellular matrixes-exerting joint lubrication and buffering actions thanks to its viscoelastic properties. The present study examines the scientific evidence found in the current literature on the usefulness of the intraarticular injection of HA in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction. A literature search was made up until May 2008 in the following databases: PubMed / MEDLINE. Of the articles found in the literature, the present review included 18 relevant studies on the application of HA in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The quality, level of evidence and strength of recommendation of the articles was evaluated based on the "Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy" criteria. It is concluded that type A level of recommendation exists in favor of the intraarticular injection of HA in dysfunction of the TMJ. However, further studies are needed to establish the true therapeutic effects and to identify the best dosing regimen.

  15. Biodegradability of injection molded bioplastic pots containing polylactic acid and poultry feather fiber.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Huda, M S; Smith, M C; Mulbry, W; Schmidt, W F; Reeves, J B

    2011-04-01

    The biodegradability of three types of bioplastic pots was evaluated by measuring carbon dioxide produced from lab-scale compost reactors containing mixtures of pot fragments and compost inoculum held at 58 °C for 60 days. Biodegradability of pot type A (composed of 100% polylactic acid (PLA)) was very low (13 ± 3%) compared to literature values for other PLA materials. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) results suggest that the PLA undergoes chemical structural changes during polymer extrusion and injection molding. These changes may be the basis of the low biodegradability value. Biodegradability of pot types B (containing 5% poultry feather, 80% PLA, 15% starch), and C (containing 50% poultry feather, 25% urea, 25% glycerol), were 53 ± 2% and 39 ± 3%, respectively. More than 85% of the total biodegradation of these bioplastics occurred within 38 days. NIRS results revealed that poultry feather was not degraded during composting.

  16. Flow-injection determination of acetone with diazotized anthranilic acid through a fluorescent reaction intermediate.

    PubMed

    García de María, C; Hueso Domínguez, K B; Martín Garrido, N

    2007-09-26

    Acetone and diazotized anthranilic acid react in alkaline solution, giving a fluorescent intermediate that can be measured at excitation and emission wavelengths of 305 and 395 nm, respectively. Based on this, a fluorimetric flow-injection method is proposed for the determination of acetone in aqueous solution. Under the proposed conditions, acetone can be detected at concentrations higher than 8 x 10(-7)M, with a linear application range from 1 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4)M and an R.S.D. of 2.7% (1.0 x 10(-5)M, n=10). A sampling frequency of 24h(-1) is achieved. Some potentially interfering species are investigated.

  17. How acidic is the lidocaine we are injecting, and how much bicarbonate should we add?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Simon G; Lalonde, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many ‘recipes’ for how much bicarbonate one should add. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acidity of lidocaine and the correct ratio of bicarbonate that should be added to neutralize lidocaine to achieve body pH. METHODS: Fifty samples each of commonly used anesthetics (lidocaine 1% and 2%, with and without epinephrine 1:100,000) were obtained and tested for pH. Data were also analyzed according to whether the vials had been previously opened. Ten additional samples of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine were titrated against sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and tested for pH and the presence of precipitate. RESULTS: A solution of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean (± SD) pH of 4.24±0.42, and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean pH of 3.93±0.43. Plain 1% lidocaine had a pH of 6.09±0.16, and plain 2% lidocaine had a pH of 6.00±0.27. Epinephrine-containing solutions were more acidic when they had been previously opened. One per cent lidocaine with epinephrine required 8.4% sodium bicarbonate at a ratio of 1.1 mL:10 mL to 1.8 mL:10 mL to achieve the target tissue pH of 7.38 to 7.62. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine with epinephrine was approximately 1000 times more acidic than subcutaneous tissue. The addition of bicarbonate to the local anesthetic solution is simple to perform and is inexpensive. The proper volume ratio of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine is approximately 1 mL:10 mL. Surgeons should be more aware of the simplicity and value of buffering with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection. PMID:23730153

  18. Effect of intrauterine injection of human chorionic gonadotropin before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Mostajeran, Fatemeh; Godazandeh, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Sayed Mehdi; Movahedi, Minoo; Jabalamelian, Seyed Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor to controlled implantation is one of the early embryonic signals in primates that is secreted by the embryo before its implantation. This study was designed to assess the effects of intrauterine injection of hCG before the embryo transfer in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle on pregnancy rate in infertile patients. Materials and Methods: This randomized study was done on 100 infertile patients in two groups: intervention group received injection of 700 IU of intrauterine hCG 10 min before embryo transfer and control group did not receive hCG. The pregnancy rate was tested 2 weeks after embryo transfer, and if the pregnancy test was positive, a transvaginal ultrasound was performed 3 weeks later to search for signs of pregnancy, such as the presence of a gestational sac, embryo, and fetal heart rate, and confirmed as successful pregnancy. Results: Pregnancy test was positive in 13 (28.6%) of 46 patients in hCG group and in control group was positive in 6 (12.5%) of 48 patients. The pregnancy rate between hCG group and control group was not significantly different (P = 0.54). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with IVF fertilization was 20.8% and in their controls was 7.4% (P = 0.51). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with ICSI fertilization was 36.4% and in their controls was 19% (P = 0.16). Conclusion: The intrauterine injection of 700 IU of hCG before embryo transfer improved pregnancy rate compared to control group but was not significantly different.

  19. Impacts of trunk and soil injections of low rates of imidacloprid on hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and eastern hemlock (Pinales: Pinaceae) health.

    PubMed

    Eisenback, Brian M; Salom, Scott M; Kok, Loke T; Lagalante, Anthony F

    2014-02-01

    Eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis Carrière) at two sites in southwestern Virginia were treated by trunk and soil injections of imidacloprid to determine the insecticide's impact on hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. Treatments were 25, 50, and 100% of the highest labeled dosage rates for both stem and soil injection. Three and 4 yr after treatment, the half and full rates had significantly reduced A. tsugae populations, which were accompanied by increased new hemlock shoot growth and higher hemlock health scores on a visual rating of tree appearance. Imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations in tissue of treated trees were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and A. tsugae density decreased as imidacloprid concentrations increased in wood tissue. There were no observed A. tsugae populations in all trees with imidacloprid tissue concentrations >413 ppb. Olefin, di-hydroxy, and 6-chloro-nicotinic-acid metabolites were the imidacloprid metabolites recovered in the highest concentrations. This suggests that hemlock metabolism of imidacloprid may increase efficacy of the parent compound. Stem and soil treatments of low rates of systemic imidacloprid reduce adelgid populations and promote hemlock health, but still may provide a remnant food source for beneficial predators.

  20. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid or steroid injections for the treatment of a rat model of rotator cuff injury.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasaki, Yu; Kijima, Takehiro; Hashimoto, Eiko; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Yamazaki, Hironori; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated dorsal root ganglia from C3-C7, analyzed gait, and compared the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) which was a marker of inflammatory pain in a rat rotator cuff tear model in which the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were detached; comparisons were made to a sham group in which only the tendons were exposed. Fluorogold was injected into the glenohumeral joint 21 days after surgery in both groups, and saline, steroids, or hyaluronic acid was injected into the glenohumeral joint in the rotator cuff tear group 26 days after surgery. The proportions of CGRP-immunoreactive neurons were higher and the gait parameters were impaired in the rotator cuff tear group compared to in the sham group. However, the CGRP expression was reduced and the gait was improved with steroid or hyaluronic acid injection compared to saline, suggesting that both hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suppressed of inflammation which thought to be provided pain relief. While there were no significant differences, the suppression of CGRP expression and the improved gait after hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suggested that both methods were effective for rat rotator cuff tear model.

  1. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway.

  2. Optimizing injectable poly-L-lactic acid administration for soft tissue augmentation: The rationale for three treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ute; Graivier, Miles H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability and variety of different injectable modalities has led to a dramatic increase in soft tissue augmentation procedures in recent years. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a synthetic, biodegradable polymer device approved in the United States for use in immunocompetent patients as a single regimen of up to four treatment sessions for correction of shallow to deep nasolabial fold contour deficiencies and other facial wrinkles. Injectable PLLA is also approved for restoration and/or correction of signs of facial fat loss (lipoatrophy) in individuals with HIV. METHODS: The present article provides an overview of previous studies with injectable PLLA, and specifically focuses on the number of recommended treatment sessions and intervals between treatment sessions. The authors also provide two case studies to support their recommendations for an average of three treatment sessions. RESULTS: Although the specific mechanisms remain hypothetical, injections of PLLA are believed to cause a cascade of cellular events that lead to collagen repair and subsequent restoration of facial volume. Because the development of a response to injectable PLLA is gradual and its duration of effect is long lasting, sufficient time between treatment sessions should be allocated to avoid overcorrection. CONCLUSION: Studies of injectable PLLA support the hypothesized mode of operation, and the experience and clinical recommendations of the authors that suggest that three treatment sessions are an optimal regimen for use of injectable PLLA in the majority of patients. PMID:22942665

  3. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhiqun D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectablemore » transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. As a result, the information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.« less

  4. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of acetylsalicylic acid based on its enhancing effect on the lucigenin–hydrogen peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Wabaidur, S M; Alam, S M; Alothmana, Z A; Eldesokya, Gaber

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of acetylsalicylic acid is described. It is based on the enhanced chemiluminescent emission of the alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 system by acetylsalicylic acid. The difference in chemiluminescent intensity of alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid from that in the absence of acetylsalicylic acid was linear at acetylsalicylic acid concentrations in the range of 0.0029–47.37 μg/mL, with detection and quantification limits of 0.0011 and 0.0029 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the working curve was 0.9983. The relative standard deviation (n = 10) for 25 μg/mL acetylsalicylic acid is 1.95%. All experimental parameters were optimized. The method was successfully applied to the determination of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The recovery results obtained by the method were satisfactory.

  10. Experimental particle formation rates spanning tropospheric sulfuric acid and ammonia abundances, ion production rates, and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürten, Andreas; Bianchi, Federico; Almeida, Joao; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Dunne, Eimear M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Barmet, Peter; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Gordon, Hamish; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Ickes, Luisa; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Onnela, Antti; Ortega, Ismael K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Smith, James N.; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Wagner, Paul E.; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Ken; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    Binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water as well as ternary nucleation involving ammonia are thought to be the dominant processes responsible for new particle formation (NPF) in the cold temperatures of the middle and upper troposphere. Ions are also thought to be important for particle nucleation in these regions. However, global models presently lack experimentally measured NPF rates under controlled laboratory conditions and so at present must rely on theoretical or empirical parameterizations. Here with data obtained in the European Organization for Nuclear Research CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber, we present the first experimental survey of NPF rates spanning free tropospheric conditions. The conditions during nucleation cover a temperature range from 208 to 298 K, sulfuric acid concentrations between 5 × 105 and 1 × 109 cm-3, and ammonia mixing ratios from zero added ammonia, i.e., nominally pure binary, to a maximum of 1400 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We performed nucleation studies under pure neutral conditions with zero ions being present in the chamber and at ionization rates of up to 75 ion pairs cm-3 s-1 to study neutral and ion-induced nucleation. We found that the contribution from ion-induced nucleation is small at temperatures between 208 and 248 K when ammonia is present at several pptv or higher. However, the presence of charges significantly enhances the nucleation rates, especially at 248 K with zero added ammonia, and for higher temperatures independent of NH3 levels. We compare these experimental data with calculated cluster formation rates from the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code with cluster evaporation rates obtained from quantum chemistry.

  11. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

  12. Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) BaPS: Establishment of a new method to measure rates of soil respiration and gross nitrification in calcareous agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrads, Hannah; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Soil respiration and nitrification are key processes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil. An exact measurement of these two processes is a prerequisite for understanding the release of trace gases from soils. During the last decades the Barometric Process Separation (BaPS) method has become a widely used method to measure the turnover rates of these two processes. Its application, however, is currently limited to acidic to slightly acidic soils. In calcareous soils huge amounts of CO2 from soil respiration are dissolved in the soil solution, and the application of the BaPS method is hampered by the exact quantification of this flux. Small errors in this flux may result in huge errors in the calculation of the nitrification and respiration rates. In order to overcome this shortcoming and to extend the applicability of the method to a wider range of soils (especially agricultural soils) we developed a new adaptive method, the Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) method, which aims to determine the CO2 dissolution flux (CO2,aq) experimentally. Therefore, an additional measuring step is introduced in which a sterilized soil subsample is incubated in the BaPS apparatus and known amounts of a pure CO2 gas are injected into the system while CO2 partial pressure is monitored. After each injection peak CO2 partial pressure decreases until a new stable equilibrium concentration is reached. This behavior is used to compute the amount of CO2 transferred to the soil solution applying simple mass balance calculation. The paired information about CO2 and CO2,aq is used to derive a regression equation, which gives CO2,aq as a function of the CO2 partial pressure. This relation is further used within the standard BaPS method. Results of the SCI-BaPS method for gross nitrification rates will be presented and compared to data measured by the 15N pool dilution method (Kirkham and Bartholomew, 1954). Results were obtained with calcareous and acidic agricultural soil samples. It turned

  13. Conflict of interest in the assessment of hyaluronic acid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee: an updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Printz, Jonathon O; Lee, John J; Knesek, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew G

    2013-09-01

    The search results of a recent systematic review of prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on hyaluronic acid injections for knee arthritis were updated and reviewed for funding source and qualitative conclusions. Forty-eight studies were identified; 30 (62.5%) were industry funded, and 3 (6.25%) were not. Fifteen (31.3%) studies did not identify a funding source. An association was observed between a reported potential financial conflict of interest of the author and the qualitative conclusion (P=0.018). None of the studies with a reported financial conflict of interest of at least one author had an unfavorable conclusion; 11 (35%) of the 31 studies with no industry-affiliated authors indicated that hyaluronic acid injection for knee osteoarthritis was no more effective than a placebo injection.

  14. A phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study of ATX-101: injectable, synthetic deoxycholic acid for submental contouring.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patricia; Fellmann, Jere; Lizzul, Paul F

    2015-03-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid [DCA] injection) is a proprietary formulation of pure synthetic DCA. When injected into subcutaneous fat, ATX-101 results in focal adipocytolysis, the targeted destruction of fat cells. ATX-101 is undergoing investigation as an injectable drug for contouring the submental area by reducing submental fat (SMF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the maximal therapeutic dose of ATX-101 (100 mg total dose). Following PK evaluation of endogenous DCA, subjects (N=24) received subcutaneous injections of ATX-101 (2 mg/cm2, with or without 0.9% benzyl alcohol) into SMF; PK evaluation was repeated periodically over 24 hours. Endogenous DCA plasma concentrations measured prior to injection were highly variable within and between subjects. Similarly, following ATX-101 injection, DCA plasma concentrations were highly variable, peaked rapidly, and returned to the range observed for endogenous values by 24 hours postdose. All subjects experienced at least 1 adverse event (AE). No death, serious AE, or AE-related discontinuations occurred. The majority of AEs were transient, associated with the area treated, and of mild or moderate severity. No clinically significant changes were reported for laboratory test results, vital signs, or Holter electrocardiograms postdosing. These data support the favorable safety and efficacy observations of ATX-101 as an injectable drug to reduce SMF.

  15. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  16. Evaluation of peanut fatty acid methyl ester sprays, combustion, and emissions, for use in an indirect injection diesel engine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper provides an analysis of 100% peanut fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and peanut FAME/ULSD#2 blends (P20, P35, and P50) in an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine (for auxiliary power unit applications) in comparison to ultralow sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) at various speeds and 100% load...

  17. Hyaluronic acid gel injection to prevent thermal injury of adjacent gastrointestinal tract during percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1%, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  18. Boronic acid-modified alginate enables direct formation of injectable, self-healing and multistimuli-responsive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pettignano, Asja; Grijalvo, Santiago; Häring, Marleen; Eritja, Ramon; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Quignard, Françoise; Díaz Díaz, David

    2017-03-16

    One-step functionalization of alginate with boronic acid groups allowed spontaneous formation of biocompatible hydrogels under basic conditions without additional complementary molecules or crosslinking agents. The dynamic nature of boronate ester bonds formed with vicinal diols present on alginate pyranose rings provided remarkable self-healing, injectable and multi-stimuli responsive properties to the material.

  19. Contrast material injection protocol with the flow rate adjusted to the heart rate for dual source CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenping; Li, Mei; Xu, Yi; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Yinsu; Wang, Dehang; Tang, Lijun

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect on coronary arterial attenuations of contrast material flow rate adjusted to a patient's heart rate during dual source CT coronary angiography (DSCT-CCTA). A total of 296 consecutive patients (mean age: 58.7 years) undergoing DSCT-CCTA without previous coronary stent placement, bypass surgery, congenital or valvular heart disease were included. The image acquisition protocol was standardized (120 kV, 380 mAs) and retrospective electrocardiograph (ECG) gating was used. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups [flow rate: G1: dosage/16, G2: dosage/(scan time +8), G3: fixed flow rate]. The groups were compared with respect to the attenuations of the ascending aorta (AA) above coronary ostia, the left main coronary artery (LM), the proximal right coronary artery (RCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD), the left circumflex artery (LCX), and the contrast to noise ratio of the LM (LM(CNR)) and the proximal RCA (RCA(CNR)). Correlations between heart rate and attenuation of the coronary arteries were evaluated in three groups with linear regression. There was no significant difference in the three groups among the mean attenuations of AA (P = 0.141), LM (P = 0.068), RCA (P = 0.284), LM(CNR) (P = 0.598) and RCA(CNR) (P = 0.546). The attenuations of the LAD and the LCX in group 1 were slightly higher than those in group 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). In group 1, the attenuations of the AA (P < 0.01), LM (P < 0.01), RCA (P < 0.01), LAD (P = 0.02) and LCX (P < 0.01) decreased, respectively, with an increasing heart rate. A similar finding was detected in group 3 (AA: P < 0.01, LM: P < 0.01, RCA: P < 0.01, LAD: P < 0.01 and LCX: P < 0.01). In contrast, the attenuations of the AA (P = 0.55), LM (P = 0.27), RCA (P = 0.77), LAD (P = 0.22) and LCX (P = 0.74) had no significant correlation with heart rate in group 2. In all three groups, LM(CNR) (P = 0.77, 0.69 and 0.73 respectively) and RCA(CNR) (P = 0.75, 0.39 and 0.61 respectively) had no

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  1. Synthetic modeling of a fluid injection-induced fault rupture with slip-rate dependent friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urpi, Luca; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frédéric; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Poro-elastic stress and effective stress reduction associated with deep underground fluid injection can potentially trigger shear rupture along pre-existing faults. We modeled an idealized CO2 injection scenario, to assess the effects on faults of the first phase of a generic CO2 aquifer storage operation. We used coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to evaluate the stress and pressure perturbations induced by fluid injection and the response of a nearby normal fault. Slip-rate dependent friction and inertial effects have been aken into account during rupture. Contact elements have been used to take into account the frictional behavior of the rupture plane. We investigated different scenarios of injection rate to induce rupture on the fault, employing various fault rheologies. Published laboratory data on CO2-saturated intact and crushed rock samples, representative of a potential target aquifer, sealing formation and fault gouge, have been used to define a scenario where different fault rheologies apply at different depths. Nucleation of fault rupture takes place at the bottom of the reservoir, in agreement with analytical poro-elastic stress calculations, considering injection-induced reservoir inflation and the tectonic scenario. For the stress state here considered, the first triggered rupture always produces the largest rupture length and slip magnitude, correlated with the fault rheology. Velocity weakening produces larger ruptures and generates larger magnitude seismic events. Heterogeneous faults have been considered including velocity-weakening or velocity strengthening sections inside and below the aquifer, while upper sections being velocity-neutral. Nucleation of rupture in a velocity strengthening section results in a limited rupture extension, both in terms of maximum slip and rupture length. For a heterogeneous fault with nucleation in a velocity-weakening section, the rupture may propagate into the overlying velocity

  2. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  3. CHLORINATION OF AMINO ACIDS: REACTION PATHWAYS AND REACTION RATES.

    PubMed

    How, Zuo Tong; Linge, Kathryn; Busetti, Francesco; Joll, Cynthia A

    2017-03-15

    Chlorination of amino acids can result in the formation of organic monochloramines or organic dichloramines, depending on the chlorine to amino acid ratio (Cl:AA). After formation, organic chloramines degrade into aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloraldimines. In this paper, the formation of organic chloramines from chlorination of lysine, tyrosine and valine were investigated. Chlorination of tyrosine and lysine demonstrated that the presence of a reactive secondary group can increase the Cl:AA ratio required for the formation of N,N-dichloramines, and potentially alter the reaction pathways between chlorine and amino acids, resulting in the formation of unexpected by-products. In a detailed investigation, we report rate constants for all reactions in the chlorination of valine, for the first time, using experimental results and modelling. At Cl:AA = 2.8, the chlorine was found to first react quickly with valine (5.4x104 M-1 s-1) to form N-monochlorovaline, with a slower subsequent reaction with N-monochlorovaline to form N,N-dichlorovaline (4.9x102 M-1 s-1), although some N-monochlorovaline degraded into isobutyraldehyde (1.0x10-4 s-1). The N,N-dichlorovaline then competitively degraded into isobutyronitrile (1.3x10-4 s-1) and N-chloroisobutyraldimine (1.2x10-4 s-1). In conventional drinking water disinfection, N-chloroisobutyraldimine can potentially be formed in concentrations higher than its odour threshold concentration, resulting in aesthetic challenges and an unknown health risk.

  4. Cross-sectional comparison of first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections vs risperidone long-acting injection: patient-rated attitudes, satisfaction and tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sourabh Moti; Haddad, Peter M.; Husain, Nusrat; Heaney, Eamonn; Tomenson, Barbara; Chaudhry, Imran B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare patients’ attitudes and satisfaction with medication and patient-rated tolerability between those prescribed a first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection (FGA-LAI) and those prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of outpatients prescribed an FGA-LAI or RLAI for a minimum of 6 months and attending a depot clinic. Attitudes to medication were assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), tolerability was measured by the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) and satisfaction with antipsychotic medication was assessed by the Satisfaction with Antipsychotic Medication (SWAM) scale. Results: The RLAI (n = 28) and FGA-LAI (n = 39) groups did not differ in terms of mean age, sex, diagnosis and ethnicity. All individual LAIs were prescribed within British National Formulary limits. The most commonly prescribed FGA-LAI was flupentixol decanoate (n = 22). There was no significant difference between the RLAI and FGA-LAI groups in terms of mean total scores on the DAI-30, LUNSERS and SWAM or the tolerability subscales of the LUNSERS or the two subscales (treatment acceptability and medication insight) of the SWAM. In both LAI groups there was a low level of side effects (LUNSERS) and a generally positive attitude (DAI-30) and reasonable satisfaction (SWAM) with medication. Conclusions: Patients treated with FGA-LAI and RLAI for at least 6 months did not differ in terms of patient-rated tolerability, attitudes and satisfaction with medication. The current design cannot determine whether differences would have been evident earlier on during treatment. These results should be regarded as preliminary and are subject to prescribing bias. Randomized studies avoid prescribing bias and are a superior way to compare specific LAIs. Ideally randomized studies should include patient-rated outcome measures including

  5. Nitrogen mineralization rates of the acidic, xeric soils of the New Jersey Pinelands: field rates

    SciTech Connect

    Poovarodom, S.; Tate, R.L. III; Bloom, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Using the buried-bag procedure, the authors quantified nitrogen mineralization rates in the xeric, acidic Lakehurst, and Atsion sands of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Average annual nitrogen yields in the upper 15 cm for the Lakehurst and the Atsion sands were 38.4 and 53.0 kg N/ha, corresponding to 4.5 and 2.5% of the total nitrogen, respectively. Net nitrogen mineralization in both soils exhibited distinct seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minimum rates in the winter. Nitrification accounted for only 5% of the total N mineralized in both soils. This is consistent with the finding of low populations of autotrophic nitrifiers in these soils.

  6. The uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol improves mitochondrial homeostasis following striatal quinolinic acid injections.

    PubMed

    Korde, Amit S; Sullivan, Patrick G; Maragos, William F

    2005-10-01

    It is now generally accepted that excitotoxic cell death involves bioenergetic failure resulting from the cycling of Ca2+ and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. Both Ca2+ cycling and ROS formation by mitochondria are dependent on the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) that results from the proton gradient that is generated across the inner membrane. Mitochondrial uncoupling refers to a condition in which protons cross the inner membrane back into the matrix while bypassing the ATP synthase. As a consequence of this "short-circuit," there is a reduction in Deltapsi(m). We have previously demonstrated that animals treated with the classic uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) show significant protection against brain damage following striatal injections of the NMDA agonist quinolinic acid (QA). In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotection, we have assessed the effects of DNP on several parameters of mitochondrial function caused by QA. The results presented herein demonstrate that treatment with DNP attenuates QA-induced increases in mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and ROS formation and also improves mitochondrial respiration. Our findings indicate that DNP may confer protection against acute brain injury involving excitotoxic pathways by mechanisms that maintain mitochondrial function.

  7. A bio-injectable algin-aminocaproic acid thixogel with tri-stimuli responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Badhe, Ravindra V; Mulla, Jameel A S; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-01-01

    In this article a novel bio-injectable algin-aminocaproic acid (Alg-ACA) tri-stimuli responsive thixogel system is reported. The designed soft thixotrophic hydrogel (thixogel) was characterized using various analytical techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, SEM, AFM and DSC. The soft thixogel system was further investigated for stress responsiveness using different rheological studies which confirmed the thixotropic nature of the gel [Thixotropic area (Ar) of Alg-ACA (1:0.5), Alg-ACA (1:1) and Alg-ACA (1:2), were 23.5%, 43.1%, and 27.59%, respectively, which were higher than that of Na-Alg (2.08%)]. The thixogel also demonstrated temperature and ultrasonication responsiveness. This tri-stimuli responsive soft thixogel system was rendered flowable (fluid) on applying the described physical stimuli and recovered its "rigid" gel structure upon removal of the applied stimuli. This approach of synthesizing a thixogels may be applicable to a broad variety of other natural polymers and has the potential for use in biomedical applications.

  8. 6-Hydroxydopamine injections into the nigrostriatal pathway attenuate striatal malonate and 3-nitropropionic acid lesions.

    PubMed

    Maragos, W F; Jakel, R J; Pang, Z; Geddes, J W

    1998-12-01

    The mitochondrial inhibitors malonate and 3-nitropropionic (3NP) acid are potent neurotoxins in vivo. Administration of these compounds results in neuronal loss similar to that seen in Huntington's disease. Although the mechanism of cell death produced by these compounds likely involves activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, it remains unclear why the striatum demonstrates regional susceptibility to the toxicity of these and other mitochondrial poisons. We hypothesized that dopamine, a weak neurotoxin that occurs in high concentrations in the striatum, may contribute to the neuronal damage caused by mitochondrial inhibition. We investigated whether depletion of striatal dopamine using the catecholaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine would attenuate lesions induced by mitochondrial inhibition. We found that dopamine depletion reduced significantly the extent of histological damage in the striatum elicited by both intraparenchymal injections of 0.8 micromol malonate and 20 mg/kg systemic administration of 3NP. These data suggest that dopamine or one of its metabolites may contribute to mitochondrial toxin-induced cell death.

  9. Determination of iodide using flow injection with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Mohammad; Atiq-ur-Rehman; Waseem, Amir; Nabi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection method is described for the determination of iodide, based on potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection via oxidation of formaldehyde in aqueous hydrochloric acid. The calibration graph was linear over the range 1.0-12 x 10(-6) mol/L (r2 = 0.9955) with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0-3.5%. The detection limit (3sigma) was 1.0 x 10(-7) mol/L, with sample throughput of 120/h. The effect of interfering cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) and Pb(II)] and anions (Cl-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), NO3-, NO2-, F- and SO3(2-)) were studied. The method was applied to iodized salt samples and the results obtained in the range 0.03 +/- 0.005 - 0.10 +/- 0.006 mg I/g were in reasonable agreement with the amount labelled. The method was statistically compared with the results obtained by titration; no significant disagreement at 95% confidence was observed.

  10. Effect of increasing paternal body mass index on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Umul, M; Köse, S A; Bilen, E; Altuncu, A G; Oksay, T; Güney, M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, our purpose was to investigate the possible effect of paternal obesity on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes on the basis of clinical pregnancy outcome. Antropometric measurements of 155 couples, referred to our infertility clinic and who underwent an ICSI cycle, have been evaluated. The study sample were divided into three groups with respect to paternal body mass index (BMI), as normal weight (BMI: 20-24.9), overweight (BMI: 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30). Results of conventional semen analysis were also analysed. Clinical pregnancy data, including fertilisation rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate, were evaluated. Paternal obesity was a significant negative factor for sperm concentration and sperm motility (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease of clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate was associated with increased paternal BMI (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). We have not determined a significant difference among groups in terms of fertilisation rate and implantation rate. This study demonstrates that increasing paternal BMI has a negative influence on ICSI success, including clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. There is a need for further studies to point the importance of lifestyle changes in order to overcome the negative influence of paternal obesity on couple's fertility.

  11. Pain reduction and improvement of function following ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of triamcinolone hexacetonide and hyaluronic acid in hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, J P; Silva, L; Andrade, R; Paços, M; Moreira, H; Migueis, N; Pereira, R; Sarmento, A; Pereira, H; Loureiro, N; Espregueira-Mendes, J

    2016-01-01

    The scientific literature has shown positive results regarding intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritic joints. When injecting in the hip joint, the guidance of ultrasound can provide higher injection accuracy and repeatability. However, due to the methodological limitations in the current available literature, its recommendation in the current practice is still controversial. This study shows that ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of triamcinolone hexacetonide and hyaluronic acid can improve pain, function and quality of life in patients with symptomatic and radiographic hip osteoarthritis. In addition, the administration of triamcinolone hexacetonide and hyaluronic acid to the hip joint in these patients can delay the need for interventional surgery.

  12. Simultaneous determination of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and geniposide in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after administration of Reduning injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjuan; Wen, Jing; Zheng, Weihua; Zhao, Longshan; Fu, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiong, Zhili; Li, Famei; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A simple, specific and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated for simultaneous determination of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and geniposide in rat plasma using puerarin as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step direct protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile after acidified using as little as 50 μL plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min by a gradient elution, using 0.2% acetic acid-methanol as mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring via electrospray ionization source with negative ion mode. Calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.995) over wide concentration ranges. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <15%, and the accuracy was within ±8.0%. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the four bioactive components in rats after intravenous administration of Reduning injection.

  13. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  14. Artificial Weathering as a Function of CO2 Injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: Investigation of Dissolution Rate in Surficial Condition

    PubMed Central

    Jalilavi, Madjid; Zoveidavianpoor, Mansoor; Attarhamed, Farshid; Junin, Radzuan; Mohsin, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca2+ to 17.42% for Mg2+, with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection. PMID:24413195

  15. Artificial Weathering as a Function of CO2 Injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: Investigation of Dissolution Rate in Surficial Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilavi, Madjid; Zoveidavianpoor, Mansoor; Attarhamed, Farshid; Junin, Radzuan; Mohsin, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca2+ to 17.42% for Mg2+, with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection.

  16. Treatment-completion rates with olanzapine long-acting injection versus risperidone long-acting injection in a 12-month, open-label treatment of schizophrenia: indirect, exploratory comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Montgomery, William S; McDonnell, David P; Coleman, Kristina A; Feldman, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-head studies comparing olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection, this study was intended to make exploratory, indirect, cross-study comparisons between the long-acting formulations of these two atypical antipsychotics in their effectiveness in treating patients with schizophrenia. Methods Indirect, cross-study comparisons between olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection used 12-month treatment-completion rates, because discontinuation of an antipsychotic for any cause is a recognized proxy measure of the medication’s effectiveness in treating schizophrenia. Following a systematic review of the literature, two indirect comparisons were conducted using open-label, single-cohort studies in which subjects were stabilized on an antipsychotic medication before depot initiation. The first analysis compared olanzapine long-acting injection (one study) with pooled data from nine identified risperidone long-acting injection studies. The second analysis was a “sensitivity analysis,” using only the most similar studies, one for olanzapine long-acting injection and one for risperidone long-acting injection, which shared near-identical study designs and involved study cohorts with near-identical patient characteristics. Pearson Chi-square tests assessed group differences on treatment-completion rates. Results Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection data (931 patients) with the pooled data from the nine risperidone long-acting injection studies (3950 patients) provided almost identical 12-month treatment-completion rates (72.7% versus 72.4%; P = 0.87). When the two most similar studies were compared, the 12-month completion rate for olanzapine long-acting injection was significantly higher than for risperidone long-acting injection (81.3% versus 47

  17. A comparison of injectable fluorescent marks in two genera of darters: Effects on survival and retention rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD marks on survival and the influences of mark type, location, and color on mark retention. Short-term (???80-d) survival was similar between marked and control specimens for both marks in both species. Over the long term (200-240 d), however, the survival rate for IPD-marked Roanoke darters P. roanoka was significantly lower than that for controls (50% versus 80%), whereas VIE-marked Roanoke darters had a survival rate (88%) similar to that of controls. Long-term survival of riverweed darters E. podostemone did not differ among groups. In Roanoke darters, the mark retention rate for IPD was significantly lower than that for VIE by day 80 of the experiment (80% versus 94%), and ventral IPD marks were retained with greater frequency than were dorsal IPD marks. In riverweed darters, retention was similar for VIE and IPD (79% versus 83%) in all body locations through day 240. In both species, yellow IPD marks exhibited higher retention rates than did green IPD marks, whereas the reverse was true for yellow and green VIE marks. Overall, VIE was a superior mark in the Percina representative but performed similarly to IPD in Etheostoma. Because of interspecific and intraspecific variability in mark performance, we recommend a pilot study before initiating field use of injectable marks in untested species.

  18. Flow injection analysis of organic peroxide explosives using acid degradation and chemiluminescent detection of released hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Zakaria, Philip; Guijt, Rosanne; Macka, Mirek; Dicinoski, Greg; Breadmore, Michael; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of acid degradation of organic peroxides into hydrogen peroxide in a pneumatically driven flow injection system with chemiluminescence reaction with luminol and Cu(2+) as a catalyst (FIA-CL) was investigated for the fast and sensitive detection of organic peroxide explosives (OPEs). The target OPEs included hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and methylethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). Under optimised conditions maximum degradations of 70% and 54% for TATP and HMTD, respectively were achieved at 162 µL min(-1), and 9% degradation for MEKP at 180 µL min(-1). Flow rates were precisely controlled in this single source pneumatic pressure driven multi-channel FIA system by model experiments on mixing of easily detectable component solutions. The linear range for detection of TATP, HMTD and H2O2 was 1-200 µM (r(2)=0.98-0.99) at both flow rates, while that for MEKP was 20-200 µM (r(2)=0.97) at 180 µL min(-1). The detection limits (LODs) obtained were 0.5 µM for TATP, HMTD and H2O2 and 10 µM for MEKP. The detection times varied from 1.5 to 3 min in this FIA-CL system. Whilst the LOD for H2O2 was comparable with those reported by other investigators, the LODs and analysis times for TATP and HMTD were superior, and significantly, this is the first time the detection of MEKP has been reported by FIA-CL.

  19. Laminar and turbulent flow solutions with radiation and ablation injection for Jovian entry. [radiative heating rates for the Galileo probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent flow-field solutions with coupled carbon-phenolic mass injection are presented for the forebody of a probe entering a nominal Jupiter atmosphere. Solutions are obtained for a 35-degree hyperboloid and for a 45-degree spherically blunted cone using a time-dependent, finite-difference method. The radiative heating rates for the coupled laminar flow are significantly reduced as compared to the corresponding no-blowing case; however, for the coupled turbulent flow, it is found that the surface radiative heating rates are substantially increased and often exceed the corresponding no-blowing values. Turbulence is found to have no effect on the surface radiative heating rates for the no-blowing solutions. The present results are compared with the other available solutions, and some additional solutions are presented.

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD). The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV) can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed. PMID:22110443

  1. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so that the body can eliminate it.

  2. Measuring plasma fatty acid oxidation with intravenous bolus injection of 3H- and 14C-fatty acid

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Ali, Asem H.; Mundi, Manpreet S.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measures of plasma FA oxidation can improve our understanding of diseases characterized by impaired FA oxidation. We describe and compare the 24 h time-courses of FA oxidation using bolus injections of [1-14C]palmitate versus [9,10-3H]palmitate under postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking conditions. Fifty-one men and 95 premenopausal women participated in one condition (postabsorptive, postprandial, or walking), one tracer (14C- or 3H-labeled), and an acetate or palmitate study. Groups were matched for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). At 24 h, cumulative [3H]acetate recovery as 3H2O was 80 ± 6%, 78 ± 2%, and 81 ± 6% in the postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking conditions, respectively (not significant). Model-predicted maximum [1-14C]acetate recovery as expired 14CO2 was 59 ± 12%, 52 ± 8%, and 65 ± 10% in the postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking condition, respectively (one way ANOVA, P = 0.12). When corrected with the corresponding acetate recovery factors, 24 h time-courses of FFA oxidation were similar between [1-14C]palmitate and [9,10-3H]palmitate in all three conditions. In contrast to previous meal ingestion studies, an acetate-hydrogen recovery factor was needed to achieve comparable oxidation rates using an intravenous bolus of [3H]palmitate. In conclusion, intravenous boluses of [9,10-3H]palmitate versus [1-14C]palmitate gave similar estimates of 24 h cumulative FFA oxidation in age-, sex- and BMI-matched individuals. PMID:23093549

  3. A microchip-based flow injection-amperometry system with mercaptopropionic acid modified electroless gold microelectrode for the selective determination of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Luo, Jie; Chen, Hengwu; He, Qiaohong; Gan, Nin; Li, Tianhua

    2008-09-12

    A novel chip-based flow injection analysis (FIA) system has been developed for automatic, rapid and selective determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). The system is composed of a polycarbonate (PC) microfluidic chip with an electrochemical detector (ED), a gravity pump, and an automatic sample loading and injection unit. The selectivity of the ED was improved by modification of the gold working microelectrode, which was fabricated on the PC chip by UV-directed electroless gold plating, with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). Postplating treatment methods for cleaning the surface of electroless gold microelectrodes were investigated to ensure the formation of high quality SAMs. The effects of detection potential, flow rate, and sampling volume on the performance of the chip-based FIA system were studied. Under optimum conditions, a detection limit of 74 nmol L(-1) for DA was achieved at the sample throughput rate of 180 h(-1). A RSD of 0.9% for peak heights was observed for 19 runs of a 100 micromol L(-1) DA solution. Interference-free determination of DA could be conducted if the concentration ratio of AA-DA was no more than 10.

  4. Metabolic rates associated with membrane fatty acids in mice selected for increased maximal metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Wone, Bernard W. M.; Donovan, Edward R.; Cushman, John C.; Hayes, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic metabolism of vertebrates is linked to membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Although the membrane pacemaker hypothesis posits that desaturation of FAs accounts for variation in resting or basal metabolic rate (BMR), little is known about the FA profiles that underpin variation in maximal metabolic rate (MMR). We examined membrane FA composition of liver and skeletal muscle in mice after seven generations of selection for increased MMR. In both liver and skeletal muscle, unsaturation index did not differ between control and high-MMR mice. We also examined membrane FA composition at the individual-level of variation. In liver, 18:0, 20:3 n-6, 20:4 n-6, and 22:6 n-3 FAs were significant predictors of MMR. In gastrocnemius muscle, 18:2 n-6, 20:4 n-6, and 22:6 n-3 FAs were significant predictors of MMR. In addition, muscle 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 22:5 n-3 FAs were significant predictors of BMR, whereas no liver FAs were significant predictors of BMR. Our findings indicate that (i) individual variation in MMR and BMR appear to be linked to membrane FA composition in the skeletal muscle and liver, and (ii) FAs that differ between selected and control lines are involved in pathways that can affect MMR or BMR. PMID:23422919

  5. Transperineal Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in Anterior Perirectal Fat to Decrease Rectal Toxicity From Radiation Delivered With Intensity Modulated Brachytherapy or EBRT for Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Prada, Pedro J. Fernandez, Jose; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Rua, Angeles de la; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Fernandez, Jose M.; Juan, German

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity remains a serious complication affecting quality of life for prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. We began an investigational trial injecting hyaluronic acid (HA) in the perirectal fat to increase the distance between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. This is the first report using HA injection in oncology. Methods and Materials: This is a trial of external beam radiation therapy with HDR brachytherapy boosts in prostate cancer. During the two high-dose-rate (HDR) fractions, thermoluminescent dosimeter dosimeters were placed in the urethra and in the rectum. Before the second HDR fraction, 3-7 mL (mean, 6 mL) of HA was injected under transrectal ultrasound guidance in the perirectal fat to systematically create a 1.5-cm space. Urethral and rectal HDR doses were calculated and measured. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess the stability of the new space. Results: Twenty-seven patients enrolled in the study. No toxicity was produced from the HA or the injection. In follow-up computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the HA injection did not migrate or change in mass/shape for close to 1 year. The mean distance between rectum and prostate was 2.0 cm along the entire length of the prostate. The median measured rectal dose, when normalized to the median urethral dose, demonstrated a decrease in dose from 47.1% to 39.2% (p < 0.001) with or without injection. For an HDR boost dose of 1150 cGy, the rectum mean Dmax reduction was from 708 cGy to 507 cGy, p < 0.001, and the rectum mean Dmean drop was from 608 to 442 cGy, p < 0.001 post-HA injection. Conclusion: The new 2-cm distance derived from the HA injection significantly decreased rectal dose in HDR brachytherapy. Because of the several-month duration of stability, the same distance was maintained during the course of external beam radiation therapy.

  6. Effect of liposomes on rheological and syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels intended for local injection of drugs.

    PubMed

    El Kechai, Naila; Bochot, Amélie; Huang, Nicolas; Nguyen, Yann; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence

    2015-06-20

    The aim of this work was to thoroughly study the effect of liposomes on the rheological and the syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels intended for the local administration of drugs by injection. Whatever the characteristics of the liposomes added (neutral, positively or negatively charged, with a corona of polyethylene glycol chains, size), the viscosity and the elasticity of HA gels increased in a lipid concentration-dependent manner. Indeed, liposomes strengthened the network formed by HA chains due to their interactions with this polymer. The nature and the resulting effects of these interactions depended on liposome composition and concentration. The highest viscosity and elasticity were observed with liposomes covered by polyethylene glycol chains while neutral liposomes displayed the lowest effect. Despite their high viscosity at rest, all the formulations remained easily injectable through needles commonly used for local injections thanks to the shear-thinning behavior of HA gels. The present study demonstrates that rheological and syringeability tests are both necessary to elucidate the behavior of such systems during and post injection. In conclusion, HA liposomal gels appear to be a promising and versatile formulation platform for a wide range of applications in local drug delivery when an injection is required.

  7. A novel injection strategy of flurbiprofen axetil by inhibiting protein binding with 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kenji; Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Setoguchi, Nao; Tanda, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Nishio, Toyotaka; Kawai, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Flurbiprofen axetil (FPA) is an injection product and a prodrug of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). After injection, it is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active form, flurbiprofen (FP). Since frequent injections of FPA can lead to abnormal physiology, an administration strategy is necessary to ensure there is enhancement of the analgesic efficiency of FP after a single dose and to reduce the total number of doses. FP strongly binds to site II of albumin, and thus the free (unbound) FP concentration is low. This study focused on 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), the active metabolite of nabumetone (a prodrug of NSAID). We performed ultrafiltration experiments and pharmacokinetics analysis in rats to investigate whether the inhibitory effect of 6-MNA on FP binding to albumin increased the free FP concentration in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that 6-MNA inhibited the binding of FP to albumin competitively. When 6-MNA was injected in rats, there was a significant increase in the free FP concentration and the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) calculated from the free FP concentration, while there was a significant decrease in the total (bound + free) FP concentration and the AUC calculated from the total FP concentration. These findings indicate that 6-MNA inhibits the protein binding of FP in vivo. This suggests that the frequency of FPA injections can be reduced when administered with nabumetone, as there is increase in the free FP concentration associated with pharmacological effect.

  8. Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-07-01

    Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation.

  9. Release and pharmacokinetics of near-infrared labeled albumin from monodisperse poly(d,l-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) microspheres after subcapsular renal injection.

    PubMed

    Kazazi-Hyseni, F; van Vuuren, S H; van der Giezen, D M; Pieters, E H; Ramazani, F; Rodriguez, S; Veldhuis, G J; Goldschmeding, R; van Nostrum, C F; Hennink, W E; Kok, R J

    2015-08-01

    Subcapsular renal injection is a novel administration method for local delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of kidney related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of polymeric microspheres for sustained release of protein therapeutics in the kidney and study the subsequent redistribution of the released protein. For this purpose, monodisperse poly(d,l-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA) microspheres (40 μm in diameter) loaded with near-infrared dye-labeled bovine serum albumin (NIR-BSA) were prepared by a membrane emulsification method. Rats were injected with either free NIR-BSA or with NIR-BSA loaded microspheres (NIR-BSA-ms) and the pharmacokinetics of the released NIR-BSA was studied for 3 weeks by ex vivo imaging of organs and blood. Quantitative release data were obtained from kidney homogenates and possible metabolism of the protein was investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis of the samples. The ex vivo images showed a rapid decrease of the NIR signal within 24h in kidneys injected with free NIR-BSA, while, importantly, the signal of the labeled protein was still visible at day 21 in kidneys injected with NIR-BSA-ms. SDS-PAGE analysis of the kidney homogenates showed that intact NIR-BSA was released from the microspheres. The locally released NIR-BSA drained to the systemic circulation and subsequently accumulated in the liver, where it was degraded and excreted renally. The in vivo release of NIR-BSA was calculated after extracting the protein from the remaining microspheres in kidney homogenates. The in vivo release rate was faster (89 ± 4% of the loading in 2 weeks) compared to the in vitro release of NIR-BSA (38 ± 1% in 2 weeks). In conclusion, PLHMGA microspheres injected under the kidney capsule provide a local depot from which a formulated protein is released over a prolonged time-period.

  10. Differential effect of injections of kainic acid into the prepositus and the vestibular nuclei of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Godaux, E; Mettens, P; Cheron, G

    1993-01-01

    1. In order adequately to control eye movements, oculomotoneurones have to be supplied with both an eye-velocity signal and an eye-position signal. However, all the command signals of the oculomotor system are velocity signals. Nowadays, there is general agreement about the existence of a brainstem network that would convert velocity command-signals into an eye-position signal. This circuit, because of its function, is called the oculomotor neural integrator. The most obvious symptom of its eventual failure is a gaze-holding deficit: in this case, saccades are followed by a centripetal post-saccadic drift. Although the oculomotor neural integrator is central in oculomotor theory, its precise location is still a matter for debate. 2. Previously, microinjections of kainic acid (KA) into the region of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) were found to induce a horizontal gaze-holding failure both in the cat and in the monkey. However, the relatively large volumes (1-3 microliters) and concentrations (2-4 micrograms microliters-1) used in these injections made it difficult to know if the observed deficit was due to a disturbance of the NPH or of the nearby MVN. These considerations led us to inject very small amounts of kainic acid (50 nl, 0.1 microgram microliter-1) either into the rostral part of the MVN or into different sites along the NPH of the cat. 3. The search coil technique was used to record (1) spontaneous eye movements (2) the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) induced by a constant-velocity rotation (50 deg s-1 for 40 s) and the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) elicited by rotating an optokinetic drum at 30 deg s-1 for 40 s. 4. In each injection experiment, the location of the abducens nucleus of the alert cat was mapped out by recording the antidromic field potentials evoked by the stimulation of the abducens nerve. Two micropipettes were then glued together in such a way that when the tip of the recording micropipette

  11. Chemiluminescence method for the assay of perphenazine in drug formulation using permanganate in sulphuric acid with flow injection technique and a chemometrical optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Sultan, S M; Abdennabi, A M; Almuaibed, A M

    1999-08-09

    An accurate selective flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the assay of perphenazine was explored. In the method 394 ppm permanganate solution was used as a chemiluminogenic reagent in 0.289 mol dm(-3) sulphuric acid media. A photomultiplier tube was used as a detector at a total flow rate of 4.94 ml/min. Perphenazine was determined by a linear calibration plot of the following equation in the range 50-350 ppm: mV=-4.488+0.1162C, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989 for five measurements and a relative standard deviation less than 2.33. A sampling frequency not less than 110 samples h(-1) was established. Three factors namely, the flow rate, sulphuric acid and permanganate concentrations were found to have an influence on the amount of chemiluminescence intensity produced. Therefore, their interaction effects were thoroughly investigated by employing the 2(3) factorial design chemometrical approach and the results obtained revealed a higher interaction between sulphuric acid and permanganate and a less significant interaction for both reagents with the flow rate. The interaction of variables observed necessitated the conduct of the super modified simplex optimization procedure which has resulted in offering the proper optimum conditions as stated above and led to the quantitative assay of perphenazine. An interference study indicated that the method was suitable for application in pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  13. Sex-Based Differences in Rates, Causes, and Predictors of Death Among Injection Drug Users in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Dong, Huiru; Marshall, Brandon D L; Milloy, Michael-John; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    In the present study, we sought to identify rates, causes, and predictors of death among male and female injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during a period of expanded public health interventions. Data from prospective cohorts of IDUs in Vancouver were linked to the provincial database of vital statistics to ascertain rates and causes of death between 1996 and 2011. Mortality rates were analyzed using Poisson regression and indirect standardization. Predictors of mortality were identified using multivariable Cox regression models stratified by sex. Among the 2,317 participants, 794 (34.3%) of whom were women, there were 483 deaths during follow-up, with a rate of 32.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.3, 35.0) deaths per 1,000 person-years. Standardized mortality ratios were 7.28 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.14) for men and 15.56 (95% CI: 13.31, 18.07) for women. During the study period, mortality rates related to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) declined among men but remained stable among women. In multivariable analyses, HIV seropositivity was independently associated with mortality in both sexes (all P < 0.05). The excess mortality burden among IDUs in our cohorts was primarily attributable to HIV infection; compared with men, women remained at higher risk of HIV-related mortality, indicating a need for sex-specific interventions to reduce mortality among female IDUs in this setting.

  14. The Value of PIC Cystography in Detecting De Novo and Residual Vesicoureteral Reflux after Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Injection.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B W; Hemphill, M; Wettengel, K; Kropp, B P; Frimberger, D

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic injection of Dx/HA in the management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has become an accepted alternative to open surgery. In the current study we evaluated the value of cystography to detect de novo contralateral VUR in unilateral cases of VUR at the time of Dx/HA injection and correlated the findings of immediate post-Dx/HA injection cystography during the same anesthesia to 2-month postoperative VCUG to evaluate its ability to predict successful surgical outcomes. The current study aimed to evaluate whether an intraoperatively performed cystogram could replace postoperative studies. But a negative intraoperative cystogram correlates with the postoperative study in only 80%. Considering the 75-80% success rate of Dx/HA implantation, the addition of intraoperative cystograms cannot replace postoperative studies. In patients treated with unilateral VUR, PIC cystography can detect occult VUR and prevent postoperative contralateral new onset of VUR.

  15. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) Versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial)

    PubMed Central

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Hassanabadi, Hossein; Fathi, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Elham; Babaee, Marzieh; Azma, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients with knee OA, including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc). New studies have focused on modern therapeutic methods that stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a complex of growth factors. Due to the high incidence of OA and its consequences, we decided to study the long-term effect of intraarticular injection of PRP and HA on clinical outcome and quality of life of patients with knee OA. METHOD This non-placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involved 160 patients affected by knee OA, grade 1–4 of Kellgren–Lawrence scale. In the PRP group (n = 87), two intra-articular injections at 4-week interval were applied, and in the HA group (n = 73), three doses of intra-articular injection at 1-week interval were applied. All patients were prospectively evaluated before and at 12 months after the treatment by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and SF-36 questionnaires. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.1 software (RCT code: IRCT2014012113442N5). RESULTS At the 12-month follow-up, WOMAC pain score and bodily pain significantly improved in both groups; however, better results were determined in the PRP group compared to the HA group (P < 0.001). Other WOMAC and SF-36 parameters improved only in the PRP group. More improvement (but not statistically significant) was achieved in patients with grade 2 OA in both the groups. CONCLUSION This study suggests that PRP injection is more efficacious than HA injection in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee OA who have not responded to conventional treatment. PMID:25624776

  16. Folic Acid and Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorate Cognitive Dysfunction in the Rats with Intracerebroventricular Injection of Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Dolatabadi, Hamid Reza; Reisi, Parham; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Azizi Malekabadi, Hamid; Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a fat soluble antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and folic acid on learning and memory in the rats with intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ), an animal model of sporadic type of Alzheimer's disease. Materials and Methods The lesion groups were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (1.5 mg/kg b.wt., in normal saline). In the treated groups, rats received folic acid (4 mg/kg; i.p.) or CoQ10 (10 mg/kg; i.p.), either alone or together, for 21 days. Passive avoidance learning test was used for evaluation of learning and memory. Results The results showed that learning and memory performance was significantly impaired in the rats with ICV-STZ (P< 0.001), however CoQ10 and folic acid, either alone or together, prevented impairments significantly (P< 0.001), as there was not any significant difference between these treated lesion groups and control group. Conclusion The present results suggest that CoQ10 and folic acid have therapeutic and preventive effects on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23493655

  17. Determination of deoxycholic acid pool size and input rate using (24-/sup 13/C)deoxycholic acid and serum sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Stellard, F.; Paumgartner, G.; van Berge Henegouwen, G.P.; van der Werf, S.D.

    1986-11-01

    We have developed an isotope dilution method for determination of deoxycholic acid pool size and input rate which employs oral administration of 50 mg of (24-/sup 13/C)deoxycholic acid and serum sampling. The method has been validated by classical isotope dilution technique using (24-/sup 14/C)deoxycholic acid and bile sampling in five patients with colonic adenomas. Excellent agreement between pool sizes and input rates determined with /sup 13/C/12C isotope ratio measurements in serum and /sup 14/C measurements in bile was obtained when isotope ratios were measured in the conjugated fraction of deoxycholic acid in serum. We conclude that pool size and input rate of deoxycholic acid can accurately be determined by blood sampling after oral administration of (24-/sup 13/C)deoxycholic acid, therewith eliminating the use of radioactive tracers and the need for bile sampling.

  18. Hybrid therapy with locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid sheets to prevent stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nagami, Yasuaki; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Ominami, Masaki; Fukunaga, Shusei; Sugimori, Satoshi; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: The incidence of stricture formation caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for widespread lesions is high, and stricture formation can reduce quality of life. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets with fibrin glue to prevent stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients in whom we predicted stricture formation would be difficult to prevent with a single prophylactic steroid injection. Methods: Ten patients who underwent esophageal ESD were enrolled (entire-circumference: n = 6; sub-circumference, more than 5/6 of the circumference: n = 4). A single locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue were used after ESD. We evaluated the incidence of stricture formation, the number of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) procedures needed to treat the stricture formation, and adverse events of the therapy. Results: Esophageal stricture formation occurred in 50.0 % of patients (5/10) (median EBD sessions 0.5, range 0 – 16). Subanalysis showed that stricture formation occurred in 37.5 % of patients (3/8) excluded the lesions located near a previous scar from ESD or surgical anastomosis site (median EBD sessions 0, range 0 – 4). Conclusion: Hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue may have the potential to prevent esophageal stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients. PMID:27652294

  19. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand PK11195 reduces microglial activation and neuronal death in quinolinic acid-injected rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae K; Choi, Hyun B; McLarnon, James G

    2005-11-01

    The effects of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand, PK11195, were investigated in the rat striatum following the administration of quinolinic acid (QUIN). Intrastriatal QUIN injection caused an increase of PBR expression in the lesioned striatum as demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Double immunofluorescent staining indicated PBR was primarily expressed in ED1-immunoreactive microglia but not in GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes or NeuN-immunoreactive neurons. PK11195 treatment significantly reduced the level of microglial activation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS in QUIN-injected striatum. Oxidative-mediated striatal QUIN damage, characterized by increased expression of markers for lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), was significantly diminished by PK11195 administration. Furthermore, intrastriatal injection of PK11195 with QUIN significantly reduced striatal lesions induced by the excitatory amino acid and diminished QUIN-mediated caspase-3 activation in striatal neurons. These results suggest that inflammatory responses from activated microglia are damaging to striatal neurons and pharmacological targeting of PBR in microglia may be an effective strategy in protecting neurons in neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease.

  20. The Impact of the Flow Field Heterogeneity and of the Injection Rate on the Effective Reaction Rates in Carbonates: a Study at the Pore Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J. P. P.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate rocks are notoriously difficult to characterize. Their abrupt facies variations give rise to drastic changes in the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. Such heterogeneity, when further associated with variations in rock mineralogy due to diagenetic processes, result in a challenging scenario to model from the pore to the field scale. Micro-CT imaging is one of the most promising technologies to characterize porous rocks. The understanding at the pore scale of reactive and non-reactive transport is being pushed forward by recent developments in both imaging capability - 3D images with resolution of a few microns - and in modeling techniques - flow simulations in giga-cell models. We will present a particle-based method capable of predicting the evolution of petrophysical properties of carbonate cores subjected to CO2 injection at reservoir conditions (i.e. high pressures and temperatures). Reactive flow is simulated directly on the voxels of high resolution micro-CT images of rocks. Reactants are tracked using a semi-analytical streamline tracing algorithm and rock-fluid interaction is controlled by the diffusive flux of particles from the pores to the grains. We study the impact of the flow field heterogeneity and of the injection rate on the sample-averaged (i.e. effective) reaction rate of calcite dissolution in three rocks of increasing complexity: a beadpack, an oolitic limestone and a bioclastic limestone. We show how decreases in the overall dissolution rate depend on both the complexity of the pore space and also on the flow rate. This occurs even in chemically homogenous rocks. Our results suggest that the large differences observed between laboratory and field scale rates could, in part, be explained by the inhomogeneity in the flow field at the pore scale and the consequent transport-limited flux of reactants at the solid surface. Our results give valuable insight into the processes governing carbonate dissolution and provide a starting

  1. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of four phenolic acids in rat plasma using UFLC-MS/MS after intravenous administration of salvianolic acid for injection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiuman; Miao, Jingzhuo; Sun, Wanyang; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Shuming; Tong, Ling; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-02-05

    A simple, sensitive and selective ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of rosmarinic acid (RA), salvianolic acid D (Sal D), lithospermic acid (LA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) in rat plasma after intravenous administration of salvianolic acid for injection (SAFI). Three doses of administration, containing 14, 28 and 56mg/kg, were investigated in this study. Plasma samples were pretreated using protein precipitation (PP) with pre-cooled acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a CORTECS™ UPLC C18 column (1.6μm, 2.1×100mm) with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid aqueous (V/V) and 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile (V/V). Analytes were detected using electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ionization mode and quantified in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The validated method is stable and reliable. No significant difference of half lives (t1/2) of four analytes at three doses was observed. Area under the curve (AUC0-∞) and peak concentration (Cmax) of the four analytes demonstrated a linear increase in across the doses with the linear correlation r of each analyte at three doses were greater than 0.95. It indicated that the pharmacokinetic behavior of SAFI is positively related to dose at the range of 14-56mg/kg.

  2. Tachyphylaxis associated with repeated epidural injections of lidocaine is not related to changes in distribution or the rate of elimination from the epidural space

    SciTech Connect

    Mogensen, T.; Simonsen, L.; Scott, N.B.; Henriksen, J.H.; Kehlet, H. )

    1989-08-01

    The relationship between tachyphylaxis (measured as a decrease in the rate of regression of sensory levels of analgesia) during repeated epidural injections of lidocaine and both the distribution of lidocaine within the epidural space (as measured by spread of simultaneous injection of the tracer technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA)) and elimination of lidocaine from the epidural space (as measured by serum concentrations of lidocaine) was investigated in 18 patients undergoing minor surgery during lumbar epidural analgesia. Twelve patients received four injections of 20 mL of 2% lidocaine at 2-hr intervals. Epidural distribution was assessed by injection of 99mTc-DTPA diluted in saline on the preoperative day and diluted in an equal volume of 2% lidocaine on the morning before surgery and again after the fourth injection of lidocaine 6 hr later. The distribution of 99mTc-DTPA in the epidural space was unchanged during the three measurements despite significant tachyphylaxis in both sensory analgesia and motor blockade (11 of 12 patients had sensory analgesia 2 hr after the first injection in contrast to only 3 of 12 patients during the third injection). In another six patients 20 mL of 2% lidocaine were injected three times at 2-hr intervals before surgery, with measurements of serum concentrations of lidocaine after the first and last injections. Despite tachyphylaxis (no patient had sensory analgesia 2 hr after the third injection), there was no difference in the rate of disappearance of lidocaine from the epidural space as assessed by plasma lidocaine concentration curves during the first and third injection (0.5 +/- 0.1 and 0.3 +/- 0.04 microgram.mL-1.min-1, respectively).

  3. Online Determination of Trace Amounts of Tannic Acid in Colored Tannery Wastewaters by Automatic Reference Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method was proposed for online determination of tannic acid in colored tannery wastewater by automatic reference flow injection analysis. Based on the tannic acid reduction phosphotungstic acid to form blue compound in pH 12.38 alkaline solutions, the shade of blue compound is in a linear relation to the content of tannic acid at the point of the maximum absorption peak of 760 nm. The optimal experimental conditions had been obtained. The linear range of the proposed method was between 200 μg L−1 to 80 mg L−1 and the detection limit was 0.58 μg L−1. The relative standard deviation was 3.08% and 2.43% for 500 μg L−1 and 40 mg L−1 of tannic acid standard solution, respectively, (n = 10). The method had been successfully applied to determination of tannic acid in colored tannery wastewaters and the analytical results were satisfactory. PMID:20508812

  4. New progress in electron-injection detectors for NIR imagers with low noise and high frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohsen; Park, Min-Su; Wheaton, Skylar; Tan, Chee Leong; Fathipour, Vala; Guyon, Olivier; Ulmer, Melville P.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-07-01

    This article reports the progress on the development of a novel detector with the promise of addressing the needs of extreme AO (ExAO) in the near-IR band (NIR), 0.9-1.7 μm. The camera is based on the electron injection mechanism which resembles how the human eye processes light. The camera design allows high sensitivity operation at TEC reachable temperatures for ExAO at 1-4 kHz frame rates, and at the same time the concept produces sufficient gain to overcome the read noise of the device. Here we present the overall design, test results on Gen-1 (outdated but operable) camera, along with early results of our next generation of detectors.

  5. Effects of an intravenous bolus calcium injection on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in the kidney in conscious pigs.

    PubMed

    Maier, H; Járos, G G; van Hoorn-Hickman, R; Hall, A

    1985-03-02

    This paper reports the changes observed in the concentration of various constituents of plasma and in their excretion in the urine after a bolus intravenous injection of 2,2 mM calcium gluconate into conscious pigs weighing 20 kg. In the plasma, both ionic and total calcium concentrations increased but returned to normal within 35 minutes, while sodium, potassium and inorganic phosphate did not change significantly. In the kidney, the urine volume, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and fractional sodium excretion increased slightly during the first 10 minutes but became significantly depressed later. Potassium and phosphate levels decreased, the latter significantly, while the calcium concentration increased significantly and only returned to normal after 70 minutes. These results suggest that since the disturbances in urinary volume, GFR and fractional phosphate excretion persist after both the plasma calcium and urinary calcium levels have returned to normal, factors other than these calcium values may be responsible for changes in the former measurements.

  6. Effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuping Qian; Chiensong Chyang; Weishen Yen

    2009-07-15

    The effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission were investigated in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC), an integration of circular freeboard and a rectangular combustion chamber. Operating conditions, such as the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber, the bed temperature and the injecting location of acetic acid, were determined by means of response surface methodology (RSM), which enables the examination of parameters with a moderate number of experiments. In RSM, NO emission concentration after acetic acid injection and NO removal percentage at the exit of the VFBC are used as the objective function. The results show that the bed temperature has a more important effect on the NO emission than the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber have a more important effect on the NO removal percentage than the bed temperature. NO emission can be decreased by injecting the acetic acid into the combustion chamber, and NO emission decreases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location above the distributor. On the other hand, NO removal percentage increases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location, and NO emission increases with the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber and the bed temperature. NO removal percentage increases with the stoichiometric oxygen, and increases first, then decreases with the bed temperature. Also, a higher NO removal percentage could be obtained at 850{sup o}C. 26 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. A methodology for achieving high-speed rates for artificial conductance injection in electrically excitable biological cells.

    PubMed

    Butera, R J; Wilson, C G; Delnegro, C A; Smith, J C

    2001-12-01

    We present a novel approach to implementing the dynamic-clamp protocol (Sharp et al., 1993), commonly used in neurophysiology and cardiac electrophysiology experiments. Our approach is based on real-time extensions to the Linux operating system. Conventional PC-based approaches have typically utilized single-cycle computational rates of 10 kHz or slower. In thispaper, we demonstrate reliable cycle-to-cycle rates as fast as 50 kHz. Our system, which we call model reference current injection (MRCI); pronounced merci is also capable of episodic logging of internal state variables and interactive manipulation of model parameters. The limiting factor in achieving high speeds was not processor speed or model complexity, but cycle jitter inherent in the CPU/motherboard performance. We demonstrate these high speeds and flexibility with two examples: 1) adding action-potential ionic currents to a mammalian neuron under whole-cell patch-clamp and 2) altering a cell's intrinsic dynamics via MRCI while simultaneously coupling it via artificial synapses to an internal computational model cell. These higher rates greatly extend the applicability of this technique to the study of fast electrophysiological currents such fast a currents and fast excitatory/inhibitory synapses.

  8. Comparison of injection pain, heart rate increase, and postinjection pain of articaine and lidocaine in a primary intraligamentary injection administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system.

    PubMed Central

    Nusstein, John; Berlin, Jeffrey; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the pain of injection, heart rate increase, and postinjection pain of the intraligamentary injection of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system. Using a crossover design, intraligamentary injections of 1.4 mL of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine were randomly administered on the mesial and distal aspects of the mandibular first molar with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system in a double-blind manner at 2 separate appointments to 51 subjects. The results demonstrated the incidence of moderate pain was 14%-27% with needle insertion, with 0%-4% reporting severe pain. For solution deposition, moderate pain was reported 8%-18% of the time, with no reports of severe pain. There were no significant differences between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. Regarding heart rate changes, neither anesthetic solution resulted in a significant increase in heart rate over baseline readings. On day 1 postinjection, there was a 31% incidence of moderate/severe pain with the articaine solution and 20% incidence of moderate/severe pain with the lidocaine solution. The moderate/severe pain ratings decreased over the next 2 days. There were no significant differences between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. We concluded that the intraligamentary injection of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was similar to 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for injection pain and postinjection pain in the mandibular first molar when administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system. For both anesthetic solutions, heart rate did not significantly increase with the intraligamentary injection using the computer-controlled local anesthetic system. PMID:15675261

  9. Investigation of a reacting jet injected into vitiated crossflow using CARS, high repetition rate OH-PLIF, and high repetition rate PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Mario

    The proposed PhD thesis research program will be carried out in a staged combustion test rig developed with funding from Siemens Power Generation Inc. and the United States Department of Energy. This research program will study the reacting flow field created by an injector that is axially distributed along the combustor with use the laser diagnostics methods: Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), high repetition rate OH Planar Laser Induced Florescence (OHPLIF), and high repetition rate Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), to determine why certain conditions result in low NOx emissions. This data will be used to validated the development of more precise computer models. These laser diagnostic techniques will be applied to the reacting jet produced using an extended, premixed 10 mm injector using both natural gas (NG) and hydrogen (H2) as fuels. The objective of this thesis research is to use advance laser diagnostics to gain insight into the reacting flow field resulting form transverse injection into a vitiated cross flow. The advance laser diagnostics will also provide insight into pollution formation mechanisms and will be used for validating CFD models of the transverse jet injection. The following measurements will be performed: (1) dual pump nitrogen/hydrogen (H2/ N2) CARS at the midplane of the extended 10 mm nozzle, (2) high repetition rate OH-PLIF and emission sampling for the same extended nozzle using NG and H2 as secondary fuel, (3) and combing both high repetition OH-PLIF and high repetition rate PIV for extended 10 mm nozzle for both NG and H2 secondary fuel. The PIV measurements will be combined with OH-PLIF in a simultaneous manner, with the OH fluorescence centered between the two PIV laser pulses. The dual pump H2/N2 CARS system will be used to measure both temperature of the reacting jet and the species concentration ratio of H2/ N2. The high repetition rate OH-PLIF, conducted with a 5 kHz, dual cavity Nd:YAG laser that optically pumps a

  10. Water evaporation rates across hydrophobic acid monolayers at equilibrium spreading pressure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Minami; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Shibata, Osamu

    2008-02-15

    The effect of alkanoic acid [CH(3)(CH(2))(n-2)COOH; HCn] and perfluoroalkanoic acid [CF(3)(CF(2))(n-2)COOH; FCn] monolayers on the water evaporation rate was investigated by thermogravimetry tracing the decrease in amount of water with time. The evaporation rate from the surface covered by a monolayer was measured as a function of temperature and hydrophobic chain length of the acids, where the monolayer was under an equilibrium spreading pressure. From thermal behavior of the crystallized acids, their solid states are C-type in crystalline state over the temperature range from 298.2 to 323.2 K. The dry air was flowed through a furnace tube of a thermogravimetry apparatus at the flow rate of 80 mL min(-1), where the evaporation rate becomes almost constant irrespective of the flow rate. The temperature dependence of the evaporation rate was analyzed kinetically to evaluate the activation energy and thermodynamics values for the activated complex, which demonstrated that these values were almost the same for both alkanoic acids and perfluoroalkanoic acids, although the effect of perfluoroalkanoic acids on the evaporation rate was smaller than that of corresponding hydrogenated fatty acids. The difference in the evaporation rate between FCn and HCn was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), surface potential (DeltaV) at equilibrium spreading pressure, and Langmuir curve (pi-A isotherm), and their results were consistent and supported the difference.

  11. Pre-injection of hyaluronic acid does not affect the systemic effects of intra-articular depot betamethasone injection at the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Habib, George; Khatib, Muhamad; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2017-01-01

    Intra-articular injection (IAI) of both hyaluronic acid (HA) and depot-steroid preparations had the advantage of quick and prolonged favorable effects on pain relief among patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). The effect of IAI of HA on the systemic effects of the intra-articular steroids had not been investigated. Non-selected patients attending the rheumatology clinic with symptomatic OAK who failed NSAIDS and physical therapy were offered an IAI of HA at the knee joint followed 20 min later by an IAI of 1 ml of Celestone Chronodose at the same joint (group 1). Morning serum levels of cortisol were obtained just prior to the IAI and 1, 2 and 8 days later. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were obtained also from all the patients. Age- and sex-matched group of patients from the same clinic were recruited as a control group (group 2). Mean baseline serum cortisol levels in group 1 was 381 ± 154 mmol/l vs. 376 ± 119 in group 2 (p = 0.954). Morning serum cortisol levels at day 1 and day 2 were 24 ± 6 and 22 ± 6 mmol/l, respectively, in group 1 patients vs. 27 ± 5.8 (p = 0.214) and 25 ± 5.6 mmol/l (p = 0.200), respectively, in group 2. These levels were significantly lower than baseline levels in each group. Morning serum cortisol levels at day 8 in group 1 and group 2 were 349 ± 128 and 314 ± 99 mmol/l, respectively (p = 0.419). Pre-injection of HA at the knee joint did not affect the systemic effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of IAI of Celestone Chronodose.

  12. MRI evaluation of injectable hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel therapy to limit ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Shauna M; McGarvey, Jeremy R; Wang, Hua; Nikou, Amir; Arama, Leron; Koomalsingh, Kevin J; Kondo, Norihiro; Gorman, Joseph H; Pilla, James J; Gorman, Robert C; Wenk, Jonathan F; Burdick, Jason A

    2015-11-01

    Injectable biomaterials are an attractive therapy to attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Although studies have shown that injectable hydrogels improve cardiac structure and function in vivo, temporal changes in infarct material properties after treatment have not been assessed. Emerging imaging and modeling techniques now allow for serial, non-invasive estimation of infarct material properties. Specifically, cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assesses global LV structure and function, late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI enables visualization of infarcted tissue to quantify infarct expansion, and spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) tagging provides passive wall motion assessment as a measure of tissue strain, which can all be used to evaluate infarct properties when combined with finite element (FE) models. In this work, we investigated the temporal effects of degradable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels on global LV remodeling, infarct thinning and expansion, and infarct stiffness in a porcine infarct model for 12 weeks post-MI using MRI and FE modeling. Hydrogel treatment led to decreased LV volumes, improved ejection fraction, and increased wall thickness when compared to controls. FE model simulations demonstrated that hydrogel therapy increased infarct stiffness for 12 weeks post-MI. Thus, evaluation of myocardial tissue properties through MRI and FE modeling provides insight into the influence of injectable hydrogel therapies on myocardial structure and function post-MI.

  13. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2013-12-28

    Stimuli triggered polymers provide a variety of applications related with the biomedical fields. Among various stimuli triggered mechanisms, thermoresponsive mechanisms have been extensively investigated, as they are relatively more convenient and effective stimuli for biomedical applications. In a contemporary approach for achieving the sustained action of proteins, peptides and bioactives, injectable depots and implants have always remained the thrust areas of research. In the same series, Poloxamer based thermogelling copolymers have their own limitations regarding biodegradability. Thus, there is a need to have an alternative biomaterial for the formulation of injectable hydrogel, which must remain biocompatible along with safety and efficacy. In the same context, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and composition prospects of smart PEG/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. The manuscript also highlights the synthesis scheme and stability characteristics of these copolymers, which will surely help the researchers working in the same area. We have also emphasized the applied use of these smart copolymers along with their formulation problems, which could help in understanding the possible modifications related with these, to overcome their inherent associated limitations.

  14. MRI Evaluation of Injectable Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Therapy to Limit Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Shauna M.; McGarvey, Jeremy R.; Wang, Hua; Nikou, Amir; Arama, Leron; Koomalsingh, Kevin J.; Kondo, Norihiro; Gorman, Joseph H.; Pilla, James J.; Gorman, Robert C.; Wenk, Jonathan F.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Injectable biomaterials are an attractive therapy to attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Although studies have shown that injectable hydrogels improve cardiac structure and function in vivo, temporal changes in infarct material properties after treatment have not been assessed. Emerging imaging and modeling techniques now allow for serial, non-invasive estimation of infarct material properties. Specifically, cine MRI assesses global LV structure and function, late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI enables visualization of infarcted tissue to quantify infarct expansion, and spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) tagging provides passive wall motion assessment as a measure of tissue strain, which can all be used to evaluate infarct properties when combined with finite element (FE) models. In this work, we investigated the temporal effects of degradable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels on global LV remodeling, infarct thinning and expansion, and infarct stiffness in a porcine infarct model for 12 weeks post-MI using MRI and FE modeling. Hydrogel treatment led to decreased LV volumes, improved ejection fraction, and increased wall thickness when compared to controls. FE model simulations demonstrated that hydrogel therapy increased infarct stiffness for 12 weeks post-MI. Thus, evaluation of myocardial tissue properties through MRI and FE modeling provides insight into the influence of injectable hydrogel therapies on myocardial structure and function post-MI. PMID:26280951

  15. Quinolinic acid injection in mouse medial prefrontal cortex affects reversal learning abilities, cortical connectivity and hippocampal synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Latif-Hernandez, Amira; Shah, Disha; Ahmed, Tariq; Lo, Adrian C.; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Van der Linden, Annemie; Balschun, Detlef; D’Hooge, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral injection of the excitotoxic, endogenous tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic acid (QA), constitutes a chemical model of neurodegenerative brain disease. Complementary techniques were combined to examine the consequences of QA injection into medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of C57BL6 mice. In accordance with the NMDAR-mediated synapto- and neurotoxic action of QA, we found an initial increase in excitability and an augmentation of hippocampal long-term potentiation, converting within two weeks into a reduction and impairment, respectively, of these processes. QA-induced mPFC excitotoxicity impaired behavioral flexibility in a reversal variant of the hidden-platform Morris water maze (MWM), whereas regular, extended MWM training was unaffected. QA-induced mPFC damage specifically affected the spatial-cognitive strategies that mice use to locate the platform during reversal learning. These behavioral and cognitive defects coincided with changes in cortical functional connectivity (FC) and hippocampal neuroplasticity. FC between various cortical regions was assessed by resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) methodology, and mice that had received QA injection into mPFC showed increased FC between various cortical regions. mPFC and hippocampus (HC) are anatomically as well as functionally linked as part of a cortical network that controls higher-order cognitive functions. Together, these observations demonstrate the central functional importance of rodent mPFC as well as the validity of QA-induced mPFC damage as a preclinical rodent model of the early stages of neurodegeneration. PMID:27819338

  16. Development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction procedure with GC-FID for analysis of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Phoopraintra, Pattamaporn; Wilairat, Prapin; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Chantiwas, Rattikan

    2017-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic, propionic, butyric, iso-valeric and valeric acids, play an important role in methanogenesis activity for biogas production processes. Thus, simple and rapid procedures for monitoring the levels of short-chain fatty acids are requisite for sustaining biogas production. This work presents the development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction (SI-LME) procedure with GC-FID analysis for determination of short-chain fatty acids. GC-FID was employed for detection of the short-chain fatty acids. Calibration curves were linear with good coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.999), using methacrylic acid as the internal standard. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.03-0.19mM. The SI-LME procedure employed tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) as the extracting solvent. Various SI-LME conditions were investigated and optimized to obtain the highest recovery of extraction. With these optimized conditions, an extraction recovery of the five key short-chain fatty acids of 67-90% was obtained, with less than 2% RSD (n=3). The final SI-LME procedure employed two fluidic zones of TBME with a single aqueous fluidic zone of sample sandwiched between the TBME zones, with 5 cycles of flow reversal at a flow rate of 5µL/s for the extraction process. Intra- and inter-day precision values were 0.5-4.0% RSD and 3.3-4.8% RSD, respectively. Accuracy based on percentage of sample recovery were in the range of 69-96, 102-107, and 82-101% (n=4) for acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the measurement of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluents used in biogas production in a factory performing palm oil extraction process. The SI-LME method provides improved extraction performance with high precision, and is both simple and rapid with its economical extraction technique. The SI-LME procedure with GC-FID has strong potential for use as a quality control process for monitoring

  17. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  18. Regulating the Skin Permeation Rate of Escitalopram by Ion-pair Formation with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian; Quan, Peng; Xiang, Rongwu; Fang, Liang

    2016-12-01

    In order to regulate the skin permeation rate (flux) of escitalopram (ESP), ion-pair strategy was used in our work. Five organic acids with different physicochemical properties, benzoic acid (BA), ibuprofen (IB), salicylic acid (SA), benzenesulfonic acid (BSA), and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), were employed as counter-ions to regulate the permeation rate of ESP across the rabbit abdominal skin in vitro. The interaction between ESP and organic acids was characterized by FTIR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that all organic acids investigated in this study performed a controlling effect on ESP flux. To further analyze the factors concerned with the permeation capability of ESP-acid complex, a multiple linear regression model was used. It is concluded that the steady-state flux (J) of ESP-acid complexes had a positive correlation with log K o/w (the n-octanol/water partition coefficient of ion-pair complex) and pK a (the acidity of organic acid counter-ion), but a negative correlation with MW (the molecular weight of ion-pair complex). The logK o/w of ion-pair complex is the primary one in all the factors that influence the skin permeation rate of ESP. The results demonstrated that organic acid with appropriate physicochemical properties can be considered as suitable candidate for the transdermal drug delivery of escitalopram.

  19. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  20. Quantitative determination of cyclic polylactic acid oligomers in serum by direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Issey; Yoshimoto, Arihumi; Watanabe, Mikio; Takama, Masashi; Murakami, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2008-07-15

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer, currently used in pharmaceutical and surgical devices. There is a concern that cyclic polylactic acid (CPLA), which is a by-product of PLA synthesis, may be introduced into the human body as an undesirable contaminant. We carried out a quantitation investigation of the CPLA heptamer (CPLA-7) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We found that CPLA-7 binds strongly with serum proteins and that only 62% of CPLA-7 was recovered after routine deproteination; therefore, we directly injected serum into the LC-MS/MS system after passage through a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated chromatographic column and found the recovery of CPLA-7 was improved to 84%, and that the detection (S/N=3) and quantitation limit (S/N=10 and below 15% relative standard deviation) were 1.5 and 2.5 ng/mL, respectively. We conclude that direct injection LC-MS/MS, using a BSA column, is a simple and effective quantitative analysis method for CPLA in serum.

  1. Biotransformation of acrolein in rat: excretion of mercapturic acids after inhalation and intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Linhart, I; Frantík, E; Vodicková, L; Vosmanská, M; Smejkal, J; Mitera, J

    1996-01-01

    Biotransformation of acrolein (ACR) was studied in vivo in the rat following inhalation and ip administration. The major and minor urinary metabolites were 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (HPMA) and 2-carboxyethylmercapturic acid (CEMA), respectively. Male Wistar rats were exposed to ACR, 23, 42, 77 and 126 mg/m3, for 1 hr. The sum of mercapturic acids HPMA and CEMA excreted within 24 hr after the exposure amounted to 0.87 +/- 0.12, 1.34 +/- 0.5, 2.81 +/- 1.15, and 7.13 +/- 1.56 mumol/kg, i.e., 10.9 +/- 1.5, 13.3 +/- 5.0, 16.7 +/- 6.9, and 21.5 +/- 4.8% of the estimated absorbed dose, respectively. The dose estimate was based on reported values of minute respiratory volume and respiratory tract retention and was corrected for the ACR-induced changes in minute respiratory volume. In the relevant dose range (8.9 to 35.7 mumol/kg) the portion of mercapturic acids excreted was nearly constant for ip exposed rats. The sum of HPMA and CEMA amounted to 29.1 +/- 6.5% of the dose. These results indicate that the deficiency in rat lung metabolism of ACR to acrylic acid previously observed is not compensated by the other detoxication pathway in vivo, mercapturic acid formation. The health hazard arising from inhalation of ACR is likely to be higher than that from other routes of exposure.

  2. Knee vs hip single-joint intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection in patients with both hip and knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Alptekin, Kerem; Teksöz, Bahar; Yağci, Ilker; Ozçakar, Levent; Aksoy, Cihan

    2009-09-01

    This paper aims to compare the results of single-joint knee vs hip hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) involving both the knee and hip joints. Thirty-eight patients who were diagnosed to have both hip and knee OA were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups to receive HA injection three times at 1-week intervals either to the hip or knee joints. Pain level during activities and rest was measured by using visual analog scale (VAS). Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC 5-point Likert 3.0) was also used prior to the injections and 1 month after the 3rd injection. In the knee injection group, the intragroup analysis revealed significant improvements in VAS activity pain, VAS rest pain, and WOMAC pain values following injection when compared with preinjection values, while no significant difference was detected in WOMAC stiffness, WOMAC physical function, and WOMAC total values. In the hip injection group, VAS activity pain, VAS rest pain, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, WOMAC physical function, and WOMAC total values showed significant improvement after the injection when compared with preinjection values. Although statistically not significant (p > 0.05), the comparison of the differences (preinjection-postinjection) between the groups demonstrated higher values in the hip injection group. We imply that intra-articular single-joint HA injections either to the knee or hip joints in OA patients with involvement of both of these joints are effective with regard to pain and functional status.

  3. Sequential injection titration method using second-order signals: determination of acidity in plant oils and biodiesel samples.

    PubMed

    del Río, Vanessa; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

    2010-06-15

    A new concept of flow titration is proposed and demonstrated for the determination of total acidity in plant oils and biodiesel. We use sequential injection analysis (SIA) with a diode array spectrophotometric detector linked to chemometric tools such as multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). This system is based on the evolution of the basic specie of an acid-base indicator, alizarine, when it comes into contact with a sample that contains free fatty acids. The gradual pH change in the reactor coil due to diffusion and reaction phenomenona allows the sequential appearance of both species of the indicator in the detector coil, recording a data matrix for each sample. The SIA-MCR-ALS method helps to reduce the amounts of sample, the reagents and the time consumed. Each determination consumes 0.413ml of sample, 0.250ml of indicator and 3ml of carrier (ethanol) and generates 3.333ml of waste. The frequency of the analysis is high (12 samples h(-1) including all steps, i.e., cleaning, preparing and analysing). The utilized reagents are of common use in the laboratory and it is not necessary to use the reagents of perfect known concentration. The method was applied to determine acidity in plant oil and biodiesel samples. Results obtained by the proposed method compare well with those obtained by the official European Community method that is time consuming and uses large amounts of organic solvents.

  4. The effectiveness of injections of hyaluronic acid or corticosteroid in patients with subacromial impingement: a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Penning, L I F; de Bie, R A; Walenkamp, G H I M

    2012-09-01

    A total of 159 patients (84 women and 75 men, mean age of 53 (20 to 87)) with subacromial impingement were randomised to treatment with subacromial injections using lidocaine with one of hyaluronic acid (51 patients), corticosteroid (53 patients) or placebo (55 patients). Patients were followed up for 26 weeks. The primary outcome was pain on a visual analogue score (VAS), and secondary outcomes included the Constant Murley score, shoulder pain score, functional mobility score, shoulder disability questionnaire and pain-specific disability score. The different outcome measures showed similar results. After three, six and 12 weeks corticosteroid injections were superior to hyaluronic acid injections and only at six weeks significantly better than placebo injections. The mean short-term reduction in pain on the VAS score at 12 weeks was 7% (SD 2.7; 97.5% confidence interval (CI) 0.207 to 1.55; p = 0.084) in the hyaluronic acid group, 28% (SD 2.8; 97.5% CI 1.86 to 3.65; p < 0.001) in the corticosteroid group and 23% (SD 3.23; 97.5% CI 1.25 to 3.26; p < 0.001) in the placebo group. At 26 weeks there was a reduction in pain in 63% (32 of 51) of patients in the hyaluronic acid group, 72% (38 of 53) of those in the corticosteroid group and 69% (38 of 55) of those in the placebo group. We were not able to show a convincing benefit from hyaluronic acid injections compared with corticosteroid or placebo injections. Corticosteroid injections produced a significant reduction in pain in the short term (three to 12 weeks), but in the long term the placebo injection produced the best results.

  5. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Martinez, J J; Li, H; Harnish, R A; Woodley, C M; Hughes, J A; Li, X; Fu, T; Lu, J; McMichael, G A; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B; Skalski, J R; Townsend, R L

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes.

  6. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes. PMID:28220850

  7. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes.

  8. Development of a real-time chemical injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical injection system is an effective method to minimize chemical waste and reduce the environmental pollution in pesticide spray applications. A microprocessor controlled injection system implementing a ceramic piston metering pump was developed to accurately dispense chemicals to be mixed wi...

  9. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

  10. Biodegradability of injection molded bioplastics containing polylactic acid and poultry feather fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradability of three types of bioplastic pots was evaluated by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from lab-scale compost reactors containing mixtures of pot fragments and compost inoculum held at 58 C for 60 days. Biodegradability of pot type A (composed of 100% polylactic acid (PLA)) was...

  11. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  12. The effect of intrauterine human chorionic gonadotropin injection before embryo transfer on the implantation and pregnancy rate in infertile patients: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Janati, Sima; Razi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implantation is one of the essential steps for the success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Their success depends on three main factors: embryo quality, endometrial receptivity (ER), and synchrony between embryo and endometrium. There are various factors that regulate the complex process of implantation. In this regard, one may refer to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of intrauterine hCG injection before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy outcome in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: A total of 159 patients undergone In vitro Fertilization/ Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (IVF/ICSI) with an antagonist protocol were evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups (n=53). Group 1 received 500 IU of hCG, group 2 received 1000 IU of hCG intrauterine injection before ET, and the control group underwent ET without hCG preceding intrauterine injection. Results: There was no significant difference among the groups. The implantation rates were 18.86%, 13.52%, and 14.37%, chemical pregnancy rates were 34%, 32.1%, and 35.3%, and clinical pregnancy rates were 34%, 32.1%, and 31.4% respectively. Conclusion: The pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI /ET cycles cannot be improved through hCG intrauterine injections before ET. PMID:27921090

  13. CE versus LC for simultaneous determination of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin/sulbactam in pharmaceutical formulations for injections.

    PubMed

    Pajchel, Genowefa; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Tyski, Stefan

    2002-06-20

    A rapid, capillary electrophoresis method was evaluated for determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in Augmentin as well as ampicillin and sulbactam in Unasyn preparations for injections. Phosphate-borate buffer at pH 8.66 containing 14.4% sodium dodecyl sulfate was used as a mobile phase. The method was validated. Reproducibility, precision, accuracy and assay linearity in concentration of amoxicillin 0.05-3.03 mg/ml and ampicillin 0.05-3.08 mg/ml, as well as clavulanic acid 0.02-2.02 mg/ml and sulbactam 0.05-2.08 mg/ml were established. This new method is fast, inexpensive and limits consumption of organic solvents when compared with alternative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, used for drug analysis. Statistical analysis by Student's t-test showed no significant differences between the results obtained by the two methods t(calculated) 0.32 and 1.69 for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and 0.67 and 1.93 for ampicillin and sulbactam were smaller than t(tabulated).

  14. Development of injectable biocomposites from hyaluronic acid and bioactive glass nano-particles obtained from different sol-gel routes.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Mehri; Hesaraki, Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Asghar; Alizadeh, Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Bioactive glass nano-powders with the same chemical composition and different particle characteristics were synthesized by acid-catalyzed (the glass is called BG1) and acid-base catalyzed (BG2) sol-gel processes. Morphological characteristics of powders were determined by TEM and BET methods. The powders were separately mixed with 3% hyaluronic acid solution to form a paste. In vitro reactivity of pastes was determined by soaking them in simulated body fluid. Rheological behaviors of paste in both rotation and oscillation modes were also measured. The results showed that BG1 particles was microporous with mean pore diameter of 1.6 nm and particle size of ~300 nm while BG2 was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 8 and 17 nm and particle size of 20-30 nm. The paste made of BG2 revealed better washout resistance and in vitro apatite formation ability than BG1. According to the rheological evaluations, both pastes exhibited shear thinning but non-thixotropic behavior, meanwhile paste of BG2 had higher viscosity than BG1. The oscillatory tests revealed that the pastes were viscoelastic materials with more viscous nature. Both pastes could be completely injected through standard syringe using low compressive load of 5-50 N. Overall, The biocomposites can potentially be used as bioactive paste for the treatment of hard and even soft tissues.

  15. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  16. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  17. Comparison between intrarticular injection of hyaluronic acid, oxygen ozone, and the combination of both in the treatment of knee osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Di Cesare, A; Giovannangeli, F; Rizzo, M; Moffa, S; Martinelli, F

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare short-term clinical outcomes between intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA), oxygen ozone (O2O3), and the combination of both, in patients affected by osteoarthrosis (OA) of the knee. Seventy patients (age 45-75 years) with knee OA were randomized to intra-articular injections of HA (n=23), or O2O3 (n=23) or combined (n=24) one per week for 5 consecutive weeks. KOOS questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS), before treatment (pre) at the end (post), and at 2 months after treatment ended (follow-up) were used as outcome measures. Analysis showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of the conditions (pre, post and follow-up) in all parameters of the KOOS score and a significant effect (P < 0.05) of groups (HA, O2O3 and combined) for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living and quality of life. The combined group scores were higher compared to the HA and O2O3 groups, especially at follow-up. The combination of O2O3 and HA treatment led to a significantly better outcome especially at 2-month follow-up compared to HA and O2O3 given separately to patients affected by OA of the knee.

  18. Trace level haloacetic acids in drinking water by direct injection ion chromatography and single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Johnson; McMillin, Rick; Gandhi, Jay; Mohsin, Sheher; Czyborra, Stefanie

    2009-08-01

    Chlorine has been widely used to kill disease-causing microbes in drinking water. During the disinfection process, organic and inorganic material in source waters can combine with chlorine and certain other chemical disinfectants to form disinfection by-products. The kind of disinfectant used can produce different types and levels of disinfectant byproducts in the drinking water, such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (5HAAs). Currently, USEPA Method 552 utilizes a methyl tert-butyl ether extraction and diazomethane derivatization of HAAs and phenolic disinfectant by-products, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column to perform the separation of methyl-haloacetates and anisoles. To detect, gas chromatography and electron capture detector are used. This article demonstrates a simple method using direct injection ion chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the analysis of 5HAAs.

  19. Delayed-onset ureteral obstruction after endoscopic dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) injection for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children: a case series.

    PubMed

    Rubenwolf, Peter C; Ebert, Anne-Karoline; Ruemmele, Petra; Rösch, Wolfgang H

    2013-03-01

    We report 4 patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) obstruction requiring ureteric reimplantation at 1, 7, 28, and 63 months after dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) injection for vesicoureteric reflux. Histopathologic evaluation of ureteric segments revealed extensive foreign body formation in all cases. We conclude that UUT obstruction is a rare but serious complication after Dx/HA injection that can occur even years after surgery. The incidence of delayed-onset UUT obstruction may be higher than previously noted. Long-term follow-up and a critical reappraisal of the method are needed to assess the late sequelae of Dx/HA injection therapy for vesicoureteric reflux.

  20. Electron injection studies in TiO2 nanocrystalline films sensitized with fluorene dyes and photovoltaic characterization. The effect of co-adsorption of a bile acid derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dori, M.; Seintis, K.; Stathatos, E.; Tsigaridas, G.; Lin, T.-Y.; Lin, J. T.; Fakis, M.; Giannetas, V.; Persephonis, P.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, the electron injection in TiO2 films sensitized with six fluorene sensitizers is studied by femtosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy using nanocrystalline Al2O3 films as reference. The sensitizers are dipolar organic molecules with the fluorene group utilized as a conjugated bridge. The electron injection efficiency is correlated to the structure, conjugation length and excited state potential of the sensitizers. One of the sensitizers has been studied using different amounts of cheno-deoxy cholic acid as co-adsorbent. In order to correlate the efficiency of electron injection with the device performance, quasi solid-state solar cells have been fabricated and characterized.

  1. Effects of the biologically produced polymer alginic acid on macroscopic and microscopic calcite dissolution rates.

    PubMed

    Perry, Thomas D; Duckworth, Owen W; McNamara, Christopher J; Martin, Scot T; Mitchell, Ralph

    2004-06-01

    Dissolution of carbonate minerals has significant environmental effects. Microorganisms affect carbonate dissolution rates by producing extracellular metabolites, including complex polysaccharides such as alginic acid. Using a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)/flowthrough reactor apparatus, we investigated the effects of alginic acid on calcite dissolution. Macroscopic dissolution rates, derived from the aqueous metal ion concentrations, are 10(-5.5) mol m(-2) s(-1) for 5 < pH < 12 in the absence of alginic acid compared to 10(-4.8) mol m(-2) s(-1) in its presence. The AFM images demonstrate that alginic acid preferentially attacks the obtuse steps of dissolution pits on the calcite surface. In pure water, the obtuse and acute steps retreat at similar rates, and the pits are nearly isotropic except under highly acidic conditions. In alginic acid, the acute step retreat rate is nearly unchanged in comparison to water, whereas the obtuse step retreat rate increases with decreasing pH values. As a result, the pits remain rhombohedral but propagate faster in the obtuse direction. To explain these observations, we propose that alginic acid preferentially forms dissolution active surface complexes with calcium atoms on the obtuse step, which results in anisotropic ligand-promoted dissolution.

  2. Intrastriatal injections of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, malonate, cause a rise in extracellular amino acids that is blocked by MK-801.

    PubMed

    Messam, C A; Greene, J G; Greenamyre, J T; Robinson, M B

    1995-07-03

    The effects of intrastriatal injections of a reversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, malonate, on the extracellular concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters were examined using a microdialysis probe that was positioned a fixed distance from an injection cannula. Malonate (2 mumol) caused a 23 +/- 5-fold increase in extracellular glutamate (Glu), a 18 +/- 6-fold increase extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a modest increase in extracellular aspartate (Asp, 2.9 +/- 0.8-fold increase). Administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (5 mg/kg) prior to injection of malonate almost completely blocked these increases. This study provides direct evidence that inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase causes an increase in extracellular amino acid neurotransmitters and further evidence that bioenergetic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative diseases through an excitotoxic mechanism.

  3. Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

  4. Glucose Injections into the Dorsal Hippocampus or Dorsolateral Striatum of Rats Prior to T-Maze Training: Modulation of Learning Rates and Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial…

  5. Pyrazinoic acid efflux rate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a better proxy of pyrazinamide resistance.

    PubMed

    Zimic, Mirko; Fuentes, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Kirwan, Daniela; Sheen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Pyrazinamide is one of the most important drugs in the treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The emergence of strains resistant to pyrazinamide represents an important public health problem, as both first- and second-line treatment regimens include pyrazinamide. The accepted mechanism of action states that after the conversion of pyrazinamide into pyrazinoic acid by the bacterial pyrazinamidase enzyme, the drug is expelled from the bacteria by an efflux pump. The pyrazinoic acid is protonated in the extracellular environment and then re-enters the mycobacterium, releasing the proton and causing a lethal disruption of the membrane. Although it has been shown that mutations causing significant loss of pyrazinamidase activity significantly contribute to pyrazinamide resistance, the mechanism of resistance is not completely understood. The pyrazinoic acid efflux rate may depend on multiple factors, including pyrazinamidase activity, intracellular pyrazinamidase concentration, and the efficiency of the efflux pump. Whilst the importance of the pyrazinoic acid efflux rate to the susceptibility to pyrazinamide is recognized, its quantitative effect remains unknown. Thirty-four M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and a Mycobacterium smegmatis strain (naturally resistant to PZA) were selected based on their susceptibility to pyrazinamide, as measured by Bactec 460TB and the Wayne method. For each isolate, the initial velocity at which pyrazinoic acid is released from the bacteria and the initial velocity at which pyrazinamide enters the bacteria were estimated. The data indicated that pyrazinoic acid efflux rates for pyrazinamide-susceptible M. tuberculosis strains fell within a specific range, and M. tuberculosis strains with a pyrazinoic acid efflux rate below this range appeared to be resistant. This finding contrasts with the high pyrazinoic acid efflux rate for M. smegmatis, which is innately resistant to pyrazinamide: its pyrazinoic acid efflux

  6. 88 EFFECT OF BICARBONATE/CO2 LEVEL DURING EMBRYO CULTURE ON EQUINE BLASTOCYST RATE AFTER INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Tinetti, P; Brom-de-Luna, J G; Hinrichs, K

    2016-01-01

    Equine embryos appear to require a high glucose concentration for development to the blastocyst stage. The complete cell-culture medium, DMEM/F-12 (DM), which contains 17mM glucose, has been widely used for equine embryo culture; however, in other species, high glucose during the early stages of embryo development is detrimental. To avoid this, we initiated a 2-step system using a low-glucose human embryo culture medium (Global) from Days 0 to 5 [Day 0=day of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)], with glucose (20mM) added to the medium in the second step (Days 5 to 10; Choi et al. 2015 Reproduction 150, 31-41). We noted a high pregnancy loss rate (20%) in our clinical ICSI program (Hinrichs et al. 2014 J. Equine Vet. Sci. 34, 176), which used this 2-step Global system. Limited data are available on pregnancy with DM-produced embryos, but in one study, the loss rate was 1/13 (7.7%; Choi et al. 2011 Reproduction 142, 529-538). It is possible that use of DM in the second step of culture would better support normal blastocyst development than does Global with added glucose. However, DM is typically used at 5% CO2, and Global at 6% CO2, so use of both media would necessitate 2 sets of incubators. In the present study, we explored the use of DM in the second step of a two-step equine embryo culture system, under different CO2 environments. Oocytes were collected from research mares via follicle aspiration and were held overnight before being matured in vitro for 30h. All media included 10% fetal bovine serum. On Days 0 to 5 after ICSI, all embryos were cultured in Global under 6% CO2 in mixed gas (5% O2 and remainder N2) at 38.2°C. In Experiment 1, on Day 5, embryos were transferred to DM prepared according to our standard method, with 14.3mM NaHCO3 and 5mM NaOH, and were cultured in mixed gas at either 5% CO2 or 6% CO2. Five replicates were performed. In Experiment 2, DM was prepared by our standard method, or with 24.2mM bicarbonate and no NaOH. When pH was

  7. Changes of synovial fluid protein concentrations in supra-patellar bursitis patients after the injection of different molecular weights of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Carl P C; Hsu, Chih Chin; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ruo Li; Zhou, Shaobo; Shen, Hsuan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Cherng; Tsai, Wen Chung

    2014-04-01

    Knee pain is commonly seen in orthopedic and rehabilitation outpatient clinical settings, and in the aging population. Bursitis of the knee joint, especially when the volume of the synovial fluid is large enough, can compress and distend the nearby soft tissues, causing pain in the knee joint. Out of all the bursae surrounding the knee joint, supra-patellar bursitis is most often associated with knee pain. Treatment strategies in managing supra-patellar bursitis include the aspiration of joint synovial fluid and then followed by steroid injection into the bursa. When supra-patellar bursitis is caused by degenerative disorders, the concept of viscosupplementation treatment may be effective by injecting hyaluronic acid into the bursa. However, the rheology or the changes in the concentrations of proteins (biomarkers) that are related to the development of bursitis in the synovial fluid is virtually unexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the concentration changes in the synovial fluid total protein amount and individual proteins associated with supra-patellar bursitis using the Bradford protein assay and western immunoglobulin methods. A total of 20 patients were divided into two groups with 10 patients in each group. One group received the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid product of Synvisc Hylan G-F 20 and the other group received the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid product of Hya-Joint Synovial Fluid Supplement once per week injection into the bursa for a total of 3 weeks. Significant decreases in the synovial fluid total protein concentrations were observed after the second dosage of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid injections. Apolipoprotein A-I, interleukin 1 beta, alpha 1 antitrypsin, and matrix metalloproteinase 1 proteins revealed a trend of decreasing western immunoblotting band densities after hyaluronic acid injections. The decreases in apolipoprotein A-I and interleukin 1 beta protein band densities were significant in the high

  8. Lactic acid jet test: in vitro erosion rates of glass ionomer dental cements containing radiopacifying elements.

    PubMed

    Williams, J A; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    1993-06-01

    The lactic acid jet test erosion rates were measured for 13 radiopaque glass ionomer dental materials obtained from a number of manufacturing sources. The erosion rate was compared with that found for the non-radiopaque restorative from the same manufacturer to determine whether the addition of an extra element had affected the resistance to erosion. Six materials were not significantly affected, six showed a significant increase in erosion rate. Only one material showed a reduced erosion rate. Materials containing a high proportion of any additive could show an increased erosion rate. Glass ionomer cements with or without radiopacifying elements had low erosion rates compared with other dental materials.

  9. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  10. Strategies to reduce short-chain organic acids and synchronously establish high-rate composting in acidic household waste.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Ove; Bøen, Anne S; Sørheim, Roald

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document whether addition of lime or increased amount of bulking agent would ensure, efficiently, a predictable composting process in acidic SSOW applicable in full scale plants. The results show that both lime addition and increasing the amount of bulking agent relative to waste support the development of high-rate respiration in composting. Both strategies are considered efficient in establishing desired microbial composting processes of acid household waste. Reduction in the content of different organic acids and loss on ignition were higher when more bulking agent was used compared with adding 5% lime to the acidic SSOW. Respiration was completely repressed in samples with 10% lime, where pH remained high. In addition fat and protein seem to degrade faster with increasing amount of bulking agent.

  11. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  12. Phosphorylation of CREB and mechanical hyperalgesia is reversed by blockade of the cAMP pathway in a time-dependent manner after repeated intramuscular acid injections.

    PubMed

    Hoeger-Bement, Marie K; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2003-07-02

    Spinal activation of the cAMP pathway produces mechanical hyperalgesia, sensitizes nociceptive spinal neurons, and phosphorylates the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which initiates gene transcription. This study examined the role of the cAMP pathway in a model of chronic muscle pain by assessing associated behavioral changes and phosphorylation of CREB. Bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia of the paw was induced by administering two injections of acidic saline, 5 d apart, into the gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats. Interestingly, the increases in immunoreactivity for CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn occur 24 hr, but not 1 week, after the second injection of acidic saline compared with pH 7.2 intramuscular injections. Spinal blockade of adenylate cyclase prevents the expected increase in p-CREB that occurs after intramuscular acid injection. The reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia by adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A inhibitors spinally follows a similar pattern with reversal at 24 hr, but not 1 week, compared with the vehicle controls. The p-CREB immunoreactivity in the superficial dorsal horn correlates with the mechanical withdrawal threshold such that increases in p-CREB are associated with decreases in threshold. Therefore, activation of the cAMP pathway in the spinal cord phosphorylates CREB and produces mechanical hyperalgesia associated with intramuscular acid injections. The mechanical hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of CREB depend on early activation of the cAMP pathway during the first 24 hr but are independent of the cAMP pathway by 1 week after intramuscular injection of acid.

  13. Clinical comparison of two 8.5% amino acid injection products.

    PubMed

    Mirtallo, J M; Schneider, P J; Mavko, K; Ruberg, R L

    1981-01-01

    A comparative clinical trial of Travasol 8.5% without electrolytes and FreAmine II 8.5% was performed. Thirty-six patients were admitted to the double-blind study and assigned randomly to receive either Travasol (16 patients) or FreAmine II (20 patients). All patients had abnormal renal and liver function. Nitrogen balance was compared, and metabolic complications were monitored by evaluating BUN, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serum CO2, SGOT, SGPT, serum LDH, and serum alkaline phosphatase. There were no significant differences found in nitrogen balance of patients receiving either Travasol or FreAmine (p greater than 0.05). The Bun for days 1--5 in the Travasol group was significantly greater (p = 0.02), but the difference (3 mg/dl) was not considered clinically significant. All other comparative measurements of renal function, liver function, and acid-base balance remained the same throughout the study period (p greater than 0.05). Based on these results, the use of either FreAmine II or Travasol can promote positive nitrogen balance in a TPN patient population with normal renal and hepatic function with no difference in metabolic complications.

  14. The temperature dependence of the rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; Cornett, K. D.; Murphy, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with nitric acid in the 225-443 K temperature range has been measured by means of the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Above 300 K, the rate constant levels off in a way that can only be explained by the occurrence of two reaction channels, of which one, operative at low temperatures, proceeds through the formation of an adduct intermediate. The implications of these rate constant values for stratospheric reaction constants is discussed.

  15. Injections of Galanin-Like Peptide directly into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) reduces food intake and body weight but increases metabolic rate and plasma leptin.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Lindy; Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Carla; Barney, Christopher C; Fraley, Gregory S

    2016-12-29

    Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters. Following ICV injection with either 5nmol GALP or vehicle, the oxygen consumption of each rat was monitored for 8h. Food intake, core temperature, and general motor activity were monitored for 24h. GALP significantly increased oxygen consumption, an indirect estimator of metabolic rate, without having any significant effect on motor activity. Compared to controls, GALP increased core body temperature during the photophase and reduced food intake over the 24h period following injection. ICV GALP also increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH). A second group of male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with abdominal transmitters and given injections of GALP directly into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). These injections resulted in a significant reduction in food intake, and a significant increase in both oxygen consumption and core body temperature compared to vehicle injections. Direct injections of GALP into the NTS compared to vehicle also resulted in a significant increase in plasma leptin levels, but not LH levels. GALP appears to increase energy expenditure in addition to decreasing energy input by actions within the NTS and thus may play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of body weight.

  16. The effects of walking on heart rate, ventilation rate and acid-base status in the lobster homarus americanus

    PubMed

    Rose; Wilkens; Walker

    1998-09-01

    American lobsters Homarus americanus were exercised on an underwater treadmill at speeds from 1.7 to 8 m min-1 to determine the effects of exercise on heart rate, ventilation rate and acid-base status. Heart and ventilation rates showed almost instantaneous increases at the start of exercise, but the magnitude of the increase was not related to speed. Maximum heart rate was approximately 80-90 beats min-1 and maximum ventilation rate was 175-180 beats min-1 at all speeds tested. Exercise at all speeds caused a decrease in haemolymph pH, with the acidosis after exercise at 8 m min-1 being significantly greater than at the other three speeds. Concomitant with this acidosis was a large increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide, with the largest increase occurring after exercise at 8 m min-1. The concentration of lactate in the haemolymph increased to similar levels at all speeds of walking. Davenport analysis indicates that the acidosis was predominantly respiratory in nature. Although it was anticipated that heart and ventilation rates would show increases proportional to the speed of exercise, this was not the case. Rather, the responses were fixed regardless of walking speed. The reason for this phenomenon remains unexplained.

  17. Effect of a local, one time, low-dose injection of zoledronic acid on titanium implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Gao; Bo, Lian; Yanjun, Jiao; Lina, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Local application of bisphosphonates has been proven to be safer than systemic administration to promote implant fixation. The objective of this study was to introduce such a simple, convenient and efficient method to enhance titanium (Ti) implant osseointegration in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Material and methods Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats sequentially underwent bilateral ovariectomy and tibia implantation, and injection of 30 µg/implant zoledronic acid (ZOL) at the site of implantation was performed. At the end of the study, the tibiae, mandibles, femurs and vertebrae were harvested for dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, histology and micro-computed tomography examination. Results Ovariectomized rats showed poor bone density, bone mass and trabecular microstructure. OVX + ZOL rats were characterized by significantly improved peri-implant bone area (1.72-fold), bone contact (2.30-fold), bone mineral density (1.57-fold) and bone mineral content (1.67-fold), as well as moderately increased bone volume to total volume ratio (1.34-fold), percentage osteointegration (1.54-fold), connectivity density (1.45-fold), and trabecular number (1.43-fold), but decreased trabecular separation (57.69%) when compared with the control levels (p < 0.05). No histological signs of jaw osteonecrosis were observed in the rats treated with ZOL, and there was no significant difference between the OVX group and OVX + ZOL group in the bone mass of the mandible, femur and 5th lumbar vertebra (p > 0.05). In addition, the overproduction of osteoporosis-induced advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was completely prevented by local treatment with 30 µg/implant ZOL. Conclusions A local, one time, low-dose injection of ZOL at the site of implantation is able to promote the osseointegration of Ti implants following postmenopausal osteoporosis, and this action may be partly mediated by inhibition of the osteoporosis-induced AGE overproduction in the bone marrow. PMID:27695483

  18. Pain and efficacy rating of a microprocessor-controlled metered injection system for local anaesthesia in minor hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Nimigan, André S; Gan, Bing Siang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Little attention has been given to syringe design and local anaesthetic administration methods. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic delivery device has become available that may minimize discomfort during injection. The purpose of this study was to document the pain experience associated with the use of this system and to compare it with use of a conventional syringe. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed. 40 patients undergoing carpal tunnel release were block randomized according to sex into a two groups: a traditional syringe group and a microprocessor-controlled device group. The primary outcome measure was surgical pain and local anaesthetic administration pain. Secondary outcomes included volume of anaesthetic used and injection time. Results. Analysis showed that equivalent anaesthesia was achieved in the microprocessor-controlled group despite using a significantly lower volume of local anaesthetic (P = .0002). This same group, however, has significantly longer injection times (P < .0001). Pain during the injection process or during surgery was not different between the two groups. Conclusions. This RCT comparing traditional and microprocessor controlled methods of administering local anaesthetic showed similar levels of discomfort in both groups. While the microprocessor-controlled group used less volume, the total time for the administration was significantly greater.

  19. Relative Reaction Rates of Sulfamic Acid and Hydroxylamine with Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-03-28

    This report describes a study of comparative reaction rates where the reductant is in excess, as in the 1B bank in the Purex process. The results of this work apply to planned plant tests to partially substitute HAN for the ferrous sulfamate reductant in the Purex 1B bank.

  20. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  1. The self-crosslinking smart hyaluronic acid hydrogels as injectable three-dimensional scaffolds for cells culture.

    PubMed

    Bian, Shaoquan; He, Mengmeng; Sui, Junhui; Cai, Hanxu; Sun, Yong; Liang, Jie; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-04-01

    Although the disulfide bond crosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels have been reported by many research groups, the major researches were focused on effectively forming hydrogels. However, few researchers paid attention to the potential significance of controlling the hydrogel formation and degradation, improving biocompatibility, reducing the toxicity of exogenous and providing convenience to the clinical operations later on. In this research, the novel controllable self-crosslinking smart hydrogels with in-situ gelation property was prepared by a single component, the thiolated hyaluronic acid derivative (HA-SH), and applied as a three-dimensional scaffold to mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM) for the culture of fibroblasts cells (L929) and chondrocytes. A series of HA-SH hydrogels were prepared depending on different degrees of thiol substitution (ranging from 10 to 60%) and molecule weights of HA (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 MDa). The gelation time, swelling property and smart degradation behavior of HA-SH hydrogel were evaluated. The results showed that the gelation and degradation time of hydrogels could be controlled by adjusting the component of HA-SH polymers. The storage modulus of HA-SH hydrogels obtained by dynamic modulus analysis (DMA) could be up to 44.6 kPa. In addition, HA-SH hydrogels were investigated as a three-dimensional scaffold for the culture of fibroblasts cells (L929) and chondrocytes cells in vitro and as an injectable hydrogel for delivering chondrocytes cells in vivo. These results illustrated that HA-SH hydrogels with controllable gelation process, intelligent degradation behavior, excellent biocompatibility and convenient operational characteristics supplied potential clinical application capacity for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  2. Injectable dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel as bioadhesive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chu; Lu, Caicai; Li, Bingqiang; Shan, Meng; Wu, Guolin

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials with adhesive properties in wet environments have been considered as promising candidates for tissue adhesives. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is believed to be responsible for the water-resistant adhesive characteristics of mussel adhesive proteins. Under the inspiration of DOPA containing adhesive proteins, a dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative (PDAEA) was successfully synthesized by successive ring-opening reactions of polysuccinimide (PSI) with dopamine and ethanolamine, and an injectable bioadhesive hydrogel was prepared via simply mixing PDAEA and FeCl3 solutions. The formation mechanism of the hydrogel was investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic, Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic, visual colorimetric measurements and EDTA immersion methods. The study demonstrated that the PDAEA-Fe(3+) hydrogel is a dual cross-linking system composed of covalent and coordination crosslinks. The PDAEA-Fe(3+) hydrogel is suitable to serve as a bioadhesive agent according to the rheological behaviors and the observed significant shear adhesive strength. The slow and sustained release of the model drug curcumin from the hydrogel in vitro demonstrated the hydrogel could also be potentially used for drug delivery. Moreover, the cytotoxicity tests in vitro suggested the prepared polymer and hydrogel possessed excellent cytocompatibility. All the results indicated that the dopamine modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative based hydrogel was a promising candidate for bioadhesive drug delivery system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1000-1008, 2017.

  3. Modeling Aseismic and Seismic Slip Induced by Fluid Injection on Pre-existing Faults Governed by Rate-and-state Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Harrington, R. M.; Deng, K.; Larochelle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Pore fluid pressure evolution on pre-existing faults in the vicinity of fluid injection activity has been postulated as a key factor for inducing both moderate size earthquakes and aseismic slip. In this study, we develop a numerical model incorporating rate-and-state friction properties to investigate fault slip initiated by various perturbations, including fluid injection and transient dynamic stress changes. In the framework of rate-and-state friction, external stress perturbations and their spatiotemporal variation can be coupled to fault frictional strength evolution in a single computational procedure. Hence it provides a quantitative understanding of the source processes (i.e., slip rate, rupture area, triggering threshold) of a spectrum of slip modes under the influence of anthropogenic and natural perturbations. Preliminary results show both the peak and cumulative Coulomb stress change values can affect the transition from aseismic to seismic slip and the amount of slip. We plan to apply the physics-based slip model to induced earthquakes in western Canada sedimentary basins. In particular, we will focus on the Fox Creek sequences in north Alberta, where two earthquakes of ML4.4 (2015/01/23) and Mw4.6 (2015/06/13) were potentially induced by nearby hydraulic fracturing activity. The geometry of the seismogenic faults of the two events will be constrained by relocated seismicity as well as their focal mechanism solutions. Rate-and-state friction parameters and ambient stress conditions will be constrained by identifying dynamic triggering criteria using a matched-filter approach. A poroelastic model will be used to estimate the pore pressure history resolved onto the fault plane due to fluid injection. By comparing modeled earthquake source parameters to those estimated from seismic analysis, we aim to quantitatively discern the nucleation conditions of injection-induced versus dynamically triggered earthquakes, and aseismic versus seismic slip modes.

  4. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R; Crone, Wendy C; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold's microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications.

  5. Effect of methacrylic acid beads on the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and macrophage polarization in a subcutaneous injection mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lisovsky, Alexandra; Zhang, David K Y; Sefton, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (MAA) beads promote a vascular regenerative response when used in diabetic wound healing. Previous studies reported that MAA beads modulated the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and inflammation related genes in diabetic wounds. The aim of this work was to follow up on these observations in a subcutaneous injection model to study the host response in the absence of the confounding factors of diabetic wound healing. In this model, MAA beads improved vascularization in healthy mice of both sexes compared to control poly(methyl methacrylate) (MM) beads, with a stronger effect seen in males than females. MAA-induced vessels were perfusable, as evidenced from the CLARITY-processed images. In Shh-Cre-eGFP/Ptch1-LacZ non-diabetic transgenic mice, the increased vessel formation was accompanied by a higher density of cells expressing GFP (Shh) and β-Gal (patched 1, Ptch1) suggesting MAA enhanced the activation of the Shh pathway. Ptch1 is the Shh receptor and a target of the pathway. MAA beads also modulated the inflammatory cell infiltrate in CD1 mice: more neutrophils and more macrophages were noted with MAA relative to MM beads at days 1 and 7, respectively. In addition, MAA beads biased macrophages towards a MHCII-CD206+ ("M2") polarization state. This study suggests that the Shh pathway and an altered inflammatory response are two elements of the complex mechanism whereby MAA-based biomaterials effect vascular regeneration.

  6. Mechanical and degradation properties of biodegradable Mg strengthened poly-lactic acid composite through plastic injection molding.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Shoaib; Bai, Jing; Wan, Xiaofeng; Chu, Chenglin; Xue, Feng; Ding, Hongyan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods.With prolonging immersion time in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution until 8weeks, the MgO porous coating were corroded gradually, along with the disappearance of original pores and the formation of a relatively smooth surface. This resulted in a rapidly reduction in mechanical properties for corresponding composite rods owing to the weakening of interfacial binding capacity. The present results indicated that this new PLA-clad Mg composite rods show good potential biomedical applications for implants and instruments of orthopedic inner fixation.

  7. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R.; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R.; Crone, Wendy C.; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold’s microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. PMID:24094186

  8. Injectable in situ self-cross-linking hydrogels based on poly(L-glutamic acid) and alginate for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shifeng; Wang, Taotao; Feng, Long; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Kunxi; Chen, Xuesi; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo

    2014-12-08

    Injectable hydrogels as an important biomaterial class have been widely used in regenerative medicine. A series of injectable poly(l-glutamic acid)/alginate (PLGA/ALG) hydrogels were fabricated by self-cross-linking of hydrazide-modified poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLGA-ADH) and aldehyde-modified alginate (ALG-CHO). Both the degree of PLGA modification and the oxidation degree of ALG-CHO could be adjusted by the amount of activators and sodium periodate, respectively. The effect of the solid content of the hydrogels and oxidation degree of ALG-CHO on the gelation time, equilibrium swelling, mechanical properties, microscopic morphology, and in vitro degradation of the hydrogels was examined. Encapsulation of rabbit chondrocytes within hydrogels showed viability of the entrapped cells and good biocompatibility of the injectable hydrogels. A preliminary study exhibited injectability and rapid in vivo gel formation, as well as mechanical stability, cell ingrowth, and ectopic cartilage formation. The injectable PLGA/ALG hydrogels demonstrated attractive properties for future application in a variety of pharmaceutical delivery and tissue engineering, especially in cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Injection of acidic industrial waste into the Floridan Aquifer near Belle Glade, Florida: upward migration and geochemical interactions, 1973-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    In 1966, a furfural plant at Belle Glade, Florida, began injecting hot, acidic liquid waste into the saline, water-filled lower part of the Floridan aquifer, between the depths of 1 ,495-1,939 feet. The beds above and below the injection zone were subjected to attack by the acid waste. By 1969, effects of the waste were detected in the water of the well monitoring the upper part of the Floridan aquifer at 1,400 feet. The disposal well was deepened late in 1971 to 2,242 feet in an attempt to stop the upward migration of waste. The results of research investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1966-73 indicated that the waste continued to move upward and laterally. This investigated, continued by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973-1975, shows that the remedial actions of repairing the disposal well liner and injecting periodically into the deep monitor well at 2,060 feet failed to contain the wastes within the lower part of the Floridan aquifer. The data collected by the Survey are supported by the owner 's chemical-oxygen-demand and pH determinations. A hydraulic connection between the injection zone and the overlying monitoring zone is implied. Plans call for injecting into deepter strata. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Injection of phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholic acid regulates gene expression of lipolysis-related factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and hormones on mouse fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Won, Tae Joon; Nam, Yunsung; Lee, Ho Sung; Chung, Sujin; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Chung, Yoon Hee; Park, Eon Sub; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Injection of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and deoxycholic acid (DA) preparation is widely used as an alternative to liposuction for the reduction of subcutaneous fat. Nevertheless, its physiological effects and mechanism of action are not yet fully understood. In this report, PC and deoxycholic acid (DA) were respectively injected into adipose tissue. PC decreased tissue mass on day 7, but DA did not. On the other hand, a decrement of DNA mass was observed only in DA-injected tissue on day 7. Both PC and DA reduced the mRNA expression of adipose tissue hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. In lipolysis-related gene expression profiles, PC increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) transcription and decreased the expression other lipases, perilipin, and the lipogenic marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ); DA treatment diminished them all, including HSL. Meanwhile, the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine was greatly elevated in both PC-injected and DA-injected adipose tissue. Microscopic observation showed that PC induced lipolysis with mild PMN infiltration on day 7. However, DA treatment did not induce lipolysis but induced much amount of PMN infiltration. In conclusion, PC alone might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue, whereas DC alone might induce tissue damage.

  11. Characterization of metabolites in rats after intravenous administration of salvianolic acid for injection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jingzhuo; Sun, Wanyang; Huang, Jingyi; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Shuming; Han, Xiaoping; Tong, Ling; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    It is an essential requirement to clarify the metabolites of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections, which contain numerous ingredients, to assess their safe and effective use in clinic. Salvianolic acid for injection (SAFI), made from hydrophilic phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been widely used for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, but information on its metabolites in vivo is still lacking. In the present study, we aimed to holistically characterize the metabolites of the main active ingredients in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces following intravenous administration of SAFI. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed. Combining information on retention behaviors, multistage mass spectra and literature data, a total of eight prototypes and 52 metabolites were tentatively characterized. Metabolites originated from rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B comprised the majority of identified compounds. Meanwhile, four metabolites derived from salvianolic acid D and five from salvianolic acid B are reported for the first time. This study revealed that methylation, sulfation and glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways of phenolic acids in SAFI in vivo. Furthermore, the developed UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method could also benefit the metabolic investigation of extracts and preparations in TCM with hydrophilic ingredients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  13. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  14. Factors influencing the rate of non-enzymatic activation of carboxylic and amino acids by ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The nonenzymatic formation of adenylate anhydrides of carboxylic and amino acids is discussed as a necessary step in the origin of the genetic code and protein biosynthesis. Results of studies are presented which have shown the rate of activation to depend on the pKa of the carboxyl group, the pH of the medium, temperature, the divalent metal ion catalyst, salt concentration, and the nature of the amino acid. In particular, it was found that of the various amino acids investigated, phenylalanine had the greatest affinity for the adenine derivatives adenosine and ATP. Results thus indicate that selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides were important during prebiotic chemical evolution, and may have played a major role in the origin of protein synthesis and genetic coding.

  15. Preliminary histopathological study of intra-articular injection of a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid in a rabbit model of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Elhensheri, Mohamed; Bingöl, Ali O; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2013-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease mostly occurring in the knee and commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly adults. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid has been widely used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular injection of a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid, alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide, on knee articular cartilage in a rabbit model of collagenase-induced knee osteoarthritis. After induction of experimental osteoarthritis by intra-articular injection of collagenase, adult New Zealand white rabbits (n = 12) were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (control group) received 0.3 ml phosphate buffered saline into the right knee joint. Group 2 received 0.3 ml cross-linked hyaluronic acid (33 mg/ml) into the right knee joint. Group 3 received a mixture of 0.15 ml cross-linked hyaluronic acid (33 mg/ml), 0.05 ml ropivacaine hydrochloride 1 % and 0.1 ml triamcinolone acetonide (10 mg/ml) into the right knee joint. Intra-articular injections were given 4 weeks after first collagenase injection and were administered once a week for 3 weeks. Gross pathology and histological evaluation of rabbits' knee joints were performed after 16 weeks following initial collagenase injection. Histological analysis of sections of right knee joints at lesion sites showed a significant decrease in Mankin's score in groups treated with hyaluronic acid alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide versus control group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively). This evidence was consistent with strong articular degenerative changes in control right knee joints (grade III osteoarthritis), while the treated groups revealed less severe articular degenerative changes (grade II osteoarthritis). The present results show that cross-linked hyaluronic acid, alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and

  16. Fundamental Study on Temperature Dependence of Deposition Rate of Silicic Acid - 13270

    SciTech Connect

    Shinmura, Hayata; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of the silicic acid is one of the key factors to estimate the condition of the repository system after the backfill. This study experimentally examined the temperature dependence of dynamic behavior of supersaturated silicic acid in the co-presence of solid phase, considering Na ions around the repository, and evaluated the deposition rate constant, k, of silicic acid by using the first-order reaction equation considering the specific surface area. The values of k were in the range of 1.0x10{sup -11} to 1.0x10{sup -9} m/s in the temperature range of 288 K to 323 K. The deposition rate became larger with increments of temperature under the Na ion free condition. Besides, in the case of Na ions 0.6 M, colloidal silicic acid decreased dramatically at a certain time. This means that the diameter of the colloidal silicic acid became larger than the pore size of filter (0.45 μm) due to bridging of colloidal silicic acid. Furthermore, this study estimated the range of altering area and the aperture of flow-path in various value of k corresponding to temperature by using advection-dispersion model. The concentration in the flow-path became lower with increments of temperature, and when the value of k is larger than 1.0x10{sup -11} m/s, the deposition range of supersaturated silicic acid was estimated to be less than 20 m around the repository. In addition, the deposition of supersaturated silicic acid led the decrement of flow-path aperture, which was remarkable under the condition of relatively high temperature. Such a clogging in flow paths is expected as a retardation effect of radionuclides. (authors)

  17. Application of CE with novel dynamic coatings and field-amplified sample injection to the sensitive determination of isomeric benzoic acids in atmospheric aerosols and vehicular emission.

    PubMed

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Piechowski, Maria

    2007-10-01

    A simple and reliable CE method with direct UV detection has been developed to separate eight isomeric benzoic acids in atmospheric aerosols and vehicular emission without complex sample pretreatment. Optimal electrophoretic conditions, with migration times under 5 min, were obtained by using a 50 mM acetate buffer (pH 4.7) containing a dynamic surface coating EOTrol LN (0.005% w/v). The separations were carried out in a cathode to anode direction (-30 kV) allowing the low cathodal EOF ( approximately 1 x 10(-9) m(2)V(-1)s(-1)) to extend the effective separation by slowing the movement of the studied aromatic acids. Moreover, the sensitivity of the method at 200 nm was enhanced by using a field-amplified sample injection (FASI) with electrokinetic (EK) sample injection (-2 kV, 60 s). Prior to sample injection, a short water plug (3 s at 0.5 psi) was introduced. Under these conditions, the method was capable of detecting the analytes in deionized water with LODs (S/N = 3) as low as 0.1 microg/L for most of the studied acids. In the presence of 10 mg/L of sulphate (added to simulate a sample matrix), LODs ranged from 0.26 to 0.62 microg/L. The validation of the method has proven an excellent separation performance and accuracy for the determination of isomeric benzoic acids in the studied matrices.

  18. Ion-pair dynamic liquid-phase microextraction combined with injection-port derivatization for the determination of long-chain fatty acids in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingming; Lee, Hian Kee

    2006-11-10

    Ion-pair dynamic liquid-phase microextraction coupled to injection-port derivatization has been developed for the determination of long-chain fatty acids in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this procedure, long-chain fatty acids (C(14), C(16) and C(18)) were converted into their ion-pair complexes with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate and then extracted by organic solvent (1-octanol) impregnated in the hollow fiber. The dynamic nature of the extraction was represented by the repeated movement of the acceptor phase (organic solvent) in the hollow fiber that was controlled by a syringe pump. Ion pairs of fatty acids quantitatively formed butyl esters in the injection-port of the gas chromatography. Several parameters such as injection temperature, purge-off time, organic solvent, ion-pair reagent, pH, agitation speed, extraction time and the syringe pump parameters (plunger speed and dwell time) have been optimized. The limits of detection were in the range 0.0093-0.015 ng mL(-1) (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) under GC-MS-selected ion monitoring mode and the relative standard deviations were between 7.7% and 11.5%. The method was successfully applied to measure long-chain fatty acids in real water samples.

  19. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  20. Investigation of parameter estimation and impact of injection rate on relative permeability measurements for supercritical CO2 and water by unsteady-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2014-12-01

    CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is a promising option for mitigating climate changes. To predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a deep reservoir, relative permeability of supercritical CO2 and water of the reservoir rock is one of the most fundamental and influential properties. For determining the relative permeability, we employed the unsteady state method, in which the relative permeability is determined based on history matching of transient monitoring data with a multi-phase flow model. The unsteady-state method is relatively simple and short, but obviously its accuracy strongly depends on the flow model assumed in the history matching. In this study, we conducted relative permeability measurements of supercritical CO2-water system for Berea sandstone with the unsteady-state method under a reservoir condition at a 1km depth (P= 9.5MPa, T = 44˚C). Automatic history matching was performed with an inversion simulator iTOUGH2/ECO2N for multi-phase flow system of supercritical CO2, NaCl, and water. A sensitivity analysis of relative permeability parameters for CO2 and water was carried out to better understand the uniqueness and the uncertainty of the optimum solution estimated by the history matching. Among the parameters of the Corey-type curve employed in this study, while the end-point permeability could be optimized in a limited range, the other parameters were correlated and their combinations were not unique. However it was found that any combination of these parameters results in nearly identical shapes of the curve in the range of CO2 saturation in this study (0 to 60%). The optimally estimated curve from the unsteady-method was well comparable with those from the steady-state method acquired in the previous studies. Our experiment also focuses on the impact of injection rate on the estimates of relative permeability, as it is known that the injection rate could have a significant effect on fluid distribution such as viscous fingering with

  1. Effect of defatting on acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-11-01

    The effect of defatting on the physiochemical properties and the acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents was evaluated in this study. The increase in the number of pores and the stripping of starch surface layers were observed after defatting by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the peaks attributing to the amylose-lipid complex disappeared. The relative crystallinity increased by 19% for high-amylose maize starch (HMS) on defatting, while the other tested starches virtually unchanged. Differential scanning calorimetry study indicated an increase in the thermal stability for the defatted starches. Compared with native waxy maize starch, the acid hydrolysis rate of the defatted one increased by 6% after 10 days. For normal maize starch (NMS) and HMS, the higher rate of hydrolysis was observed during the first 5 days. Thereafter, the hydrolysis rate was lower than that of their native counterpart. The increase in susceptibility to acid hydrolysis (in the first 5 days) was mainly attributed to the defective and porous structures formed during defatting process, while the decrease of hydrolysis rate for NMS and HMS samples (after the first 5 days) probably resulted from the increase in the relative crystallinity.

  2. Behavioral effects of intraventricular injections of low doses of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate in rats: studies with low and high rate operant schedules.

    PubMed

    Arizzi, Maria N; Correa, Merce; Betz, Adrienne J; Wisniecki, Anna; Salamone, John D

    2003-12-17

    Although ethanol is typically classed as a sedative-hypnotic, low doses of ethanol have been shown to stimulate locomotor activity in mice. However, in rats the typical response to peripheral administration of ethanol is a dose-dependent suppression of motor activity and operant responding. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of intraventricular (ICV) infusions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate on operant performance in rats. ICV injections of ethanol, acetaldehyde, or acetate were given to rats previously trained on either a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rates-of-responding (DRL) 30-s schedule, which generates low rates of responding, or a fixed ratio 5 (FR5) schedule, which generates relatively high rates. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate all produced a rate-increasing effect in rats on the DRL 30-s schedule at moderate doses (2.8 and 1.4 micromol, respectively). Acetate also produced a rate-decreasing effect on the DRL 30-s schedule at a larger dose (8.8 micromol). Performance on the FR5 schedule was unaltered by ethanol and acetaldehyde, even at doses as high as 17.6 micromol. However, acetate produced a rate-decreasing effect on the FR5 schedule at doses of 4.4, 5.6, and 8.8 micromol. Central administration of low doses of ethanol and its metabolites can increase operant responding on some schedules in rats. Acetate is the substance that is most potent for producing rate-suppressing effects. These results indicate that the major metabolites of ethanol are pharmacologically active when injected into the brain, and suggest that acetate may mediate some of the rate-suppressing effects of ethanol, such as sedation, ataxia or motor slowing.

  3. Comparison of parameterized nitric acid rainout rates using a coupled stochastic-photochemical tropospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Richard W.; Thompson, Anne M.; Owens, Melody A.; Herwehe, Jerold A.

    1989-01-01

    A major tropospheric loss of soluble species such as nitric acid results from scavenging by water droplets. Several theoretical formulations have been advanced which relate an effective time-independent loss rate for soluble species to statistical properties of precipitation such as the wet fraction and length of a precipitation cycle. In this paper, various 'effective' loss rates that have been proposed are compared with the results of detailed time-dependent model calculations carried out over a seasonal time scale. The model is a stochastic precipitation model coupled to a tropospheric photochemical model. The results of numerous time-dependent seasonal model runs are used to derive numerical values for the nitric acid residence time for several assumed sets of preciptation statistics. These values are then compared with the results obtained by utilizing theoretical 'effective' loss rates in time-independent models.

  4. Covalently Linking Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles to Microbubbles Before Intravenous Injection Improves Their Ultrasound-Targeted Delivery to Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Caitlin W.; Hsiang, Yu-Han J.; Alexander, Eben; Kilbanov, Alexander L.; Price, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Intravenously-injected nanoparticles can be delivered to skeletal muscle through capillary pores created by the activation of microbubbles with ultrasound; however, strategies that utilize co-injections of free microbubbles and nanoparticles are limited by nanoparticle dilution in the bloodstream. Here, we tested whether fluorescently-labeled (VT680; far-red fluorophore) nanoparticle [~150nm; poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)] delivery to skeletal muscle can be improved by covalently linking them to albumin-shelled microbubbles in a composite agent formulation. Studies were performed using an experimental model of peripheral arterial disease, wherein the right and left femoral arteries of BalbC mice were surgically ligated. Four days after arterial ligation, composite agents, co-injected microbubbles and nanoparticles, or nanoparticles alone were administered intravenously and 1 MHz pulsed ultrasound was applied to the left hindlimb. Nanoparticle delivery was assessed at 0, 1, 4, and 24 hrs post-treatment by fluorescence-mediated tomography. Within the co-injection group, as expected, both microbubbles and ultrasound were required for nanoparticle delivery to skeletal muscle. Within the composite agent group, nanoparticle delivery was enhanced 8- to 18-fold over “no ultrasound” controls, depending on the time of measurement. A maximum of 7.2% of initial nanoparticle dose per gram tissue (ID/g) was delivered at 1 hr in the composite agent group, which was significantly greater than in the co-injection group (3.6% ID/g). We conclude that covalently linking 150 nm diameter poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles to microbubbles before intravenous injection can improve their delivery to skeletal muscle. PMID:21456081

  5. Rapid Quantitation of Ascorbic and Folic Acids in SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets using Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) are water-soluble vitamins and are usually fortified in food and dietary supplements. For the safety of human health, proper intake of these vitamins is recommended. Improvement in the analysis time required for the quantitative determination of these vitamins in food and nutritional formulations is desired. METHODS: A simple and fast (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed, independently for FA and AA, by mixing extraction solvent with a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Quantitative detection was achieved by flow-injection (1 L injection volume) electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in negative ion mode using the method of standard addition. RESULTS: Method of standard addition was employed for the quantitative estimation of each vitamin in a sample extract. At least 2 spiked and 1 non-spiked sample extract were injected in triplicate for each quantitative analysis. Given an injection-to-injection interval of approximately 2 min, about 18 min was required to complete the quantitative estimation of each vitamin. The concentration values obtained for the respective vitamins in the standard reference material (SRM) 3280 using this approach were within the statistical range of the certified values provided in the NIST Certificate of Analysis. The estimated limit of detections of FA and AA were 13 and 5.9 ng/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-injection ESI-MS/MS was successfully applied for the rapid quantitation of FA and AA in SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets.

  6. Using Optical Oxygen Sensors and Injection Experiments to Determine in situ Microbial Rate Constants for Methane Oxidation and Heterotrophic Respiration in a Boreal Bog and Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldo, N.; Moorberg, C.; Waldrop, M. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Neumann, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and play a key role in feedback cycles to climate change. In recognition of this, many researchers are developing process-based models of wetland methane emissions at various scales. In these models, the three key biogeochemical reactions are methane production, methane oxidation, and heterotrophic respiration, and they are modeled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The majority of Michaelis-Menten rate constants used in models are based on experiments involving slurries of peat incubated in vials. While these slurries provide a highly controlled setting, they are different from in situ conditions in multiple ways; notably they lack live plants and the centimeter-scale heterogeneities that exist in the field. To determine rate constants in a system more representative of in situ conditions, we extracted peat cores intact from a bog and fen located in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska and part of the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) research program. Into those cores we injected water with varying concentrations of methane and oxygen at multiple depths. We used planar oxygen sensors installed on the peat cores to collect high resolution, two dimensional oxygen concentration data during the injections and used oxygen consumption rates under various conditions to calculate rate constants. Results were compared to a similar but smaller set of injection experiments conducted against planar oxygen sensors installed in the bog. Results will inform parametrization of microbial processes in wetland models, improving estimates of methane emissions both under current climate conditions and in the future.

  7. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-02

    In this study, an improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy(DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  8. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  9. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; Campbell, J. M.

    2015-07-07

    An improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V{sub 2}) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capture cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.

  10. Fatty acid turnover rates in the adipose tissues of the growing chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Foglia, T A; Cartwright, A L; Gyurik, R J; Philips, J G

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mobility of fatty acids in adipose tissue of the chicken and to determine whether adipose tissue dynamics are altered by dietary repartitioning agents. To this end, the turnover rates of fatty acids and triglycerides were estimated in adipose tissue of growing chicks by using isopentadecanoic acid (IPDA) and elaidic acid (EA) as marker dietary fatty acids. The half-life of IPDA in abdominal and sartorial adipose tissues of birds over 6 to 10 wk of age were 20 +/- 4 and 23 +/- 6 d, respectively. The half-life for the remaining total carcass lipids was 23 +/- 3 d. The corresponding half-life for EA in abdominal fat tissue of birds over 2 to 7 wk of age was 18 +/- 3 d, a half-life not significantly different from the IPDA half-lives. On the other hand, a thyromimetic repartitioning agent (L-94901) fed to birds at the 2 ppm level from 2 to 7 wk of age significantly decreased the half-life of EA in abdominal fat tissue to 6 +/- 2 d. The data suggest that fatty acids were released from a more labile adipose site and subsequently reincorporated into abdominal and sartorial tissues and that fat mobilization occurred at the same time as did adipose tissue deposition in the growing chicken.

  11. Flow and sequential injection methods for the spectrofluorimetric determination of aluminium in pharmaceutical products using chromotropic acid as chromogenic reagent.

    PubMed

    Themelis, Demetrius G; Kika, Fotini S

    2006-06-16

    This work reports rapid and sensitive FI and SI spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of aluminium in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of aluminium with chromotropic acid (CA) in acidic medium to form a water-soluble complex (lambdaex.=360 nm, lambdaem.=385 nm). The proposed methods were validated in terms of linearity, repeatability, detection limit, accuracy and selectivity. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.03-2.0 and 0.1-4.0mg/l of aluminium using the FI and SI assays, respectively. The repeatabilities (sr=0.8% and 1.1% at 1mg/l aluminium using the FI and the SI assay, respectively, n=12) were satisfactory. The FI and SI methods proved to be adequately selective and sensitive with respective 3sigma limits of detection equal to cL=0.01 and 0.03 mg/l Al(III). The sampling rates were 120 and 72 h(-1) with the FI and SI assay. The methods were applied successfully to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and suspensions). The results were in good agreement with those by an official reference method and the nominal values of the pharmaceutical products.

  12. Transport of sucrose-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron in saturated porous media: role of media size, injection rate and input concentration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Han, Zhan-tao; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) in the remediation of contaminated groundwater raises concerns regarding its transport in aquifers. Laboratory-scale sand-packed column experiments were conducted with bare and sucrose-modified NZVI (SM-NZVI) to improve our understanding of the transport of the nanoparticles in saturated porous media, as well as the role of media size, suspension injection rate and concentration on the nanoparticle behavior. As the main indicative parameters, the normalized effluent concentration was measured and the deposition rate coefficient (k) was calculated for different simulated conditions. Overall, compared to the high retention of bare NZVI in the saturated silica column, SM-NZVI suspension could travel through the coarse sand column easily. However, the transport of SM-NZVI particles was not very satisfactory in a smaller size granular matrix especially in fine silica sand. Furthermore, the value of k regularly decreased with the increasing injection rate of suspension but increased with suspension concentration, which could reflect the role of these factors in the SM-NZVI travel process. The calculation of k-value at the tests condition adequately described the experimental results from the point of deposition dynamics, which meant the assumption of first-order deposition kinetics for the transport of NZVI particles was reasonable and feasible.

  13. Effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid, vitamin B12, or both, on lactational performance and energy status of multiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D; Laforest, J-P; Girard, C L

    2017-02-22

    The purpose of this experiment was to gain understanding on changes in energy partitioning when folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements, alone or combined, were given by weekly intramuscular injections from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 7 wk postpartum. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to previous 305-d lactation yield to either 0 or 320 mg of folic acid and 0 or 10 mg of vitamin B12 in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Plasma concentration of folates was increased by folic acid supplement, and this increase was greater with the combined supplement. Vitamin B12 supplement increased plasma concentration of vitamin B12. Even though postpartum energy balance was similar among treatments, postpartum body condition score was higher for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Milk yield of cows receiving folic acid supplement reached a plateau earlier than for cows that did not. Fat and protein, as well as total solid concentrations and yields, were unaffected by treatments. Postpartum plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were higher and postpartum plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was lower for cows that received weekly folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Plasma concentration of methylmalonic acid was low and unaffected by treatments, suggesting that vitamin B12 supply was not limiting, even for unsupplemented cows. Postpartum plasma concentrations of Cys, His, Phe, and Tyr were increased, whereas plasma concentration of Gly was decreased, by folic acid supplement. In the present study, supplementary folic acid altered energy partitioning in early lactation as suggested by similar milk total solid yield and postpartum energy balance, lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and body condition score losses, and higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  15. Metropolitan Social Environments and Pre-HAART/HAART Era Changes in Mortality Rates (per 10,000 Adult Residents) among Injection Drug Users Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Hall, H. Irene; Cantrell, Jennifer; Tempalski, Barbara; Chatterjee, Sudip; Hu, Xiaohong; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Galea, Sandro; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents) after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was developed. Methods This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993–2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents) from 1993–1995 to 2004–2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993–1995 mortality rates to (partially) control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. Results In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in ‘hard drug’ arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. Conclusions Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered

  16. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  17. Measurement of Rates of Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Synthesis In Vivo Using Tritiated Water.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adam M; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Turley, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Every organ in the body is capable of synthesizing cholesterol de novo but at rates that vary with a constellation of factors. A significant proportion of the hydrogen atoms present in cholesterol that is synthesized in the body are derived from water. Thus, although water ordinarily makes up the bulk of body mass, the acute enrichment of the body water pool with a sufficiently large amount of tritiated water over a short interval of time (usually 1 h) yields measurable rates of incorporation of the labeled water into newly generated cholesterol and also fatty acids. Such data can provide a quantitative measure of how specific genetic, dietary, and pharmacological manipulations impact not just the rate of cholesterol synthesis in particular organs but also rates of whole-body cholesterol production and turnover.

  18. Decomposition of phenylarsonic acid by AOP processes: degradation rate constants and by-products.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, K; Czaplicka, M; Bratek, Ł

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents results of the studies photodegradation, photooxidation, and oxidation of phenylarsonic acid (PAA) in aquatic solution. The water solutions, which consist of 2.7 g dm(-3) phenylarsonic acid, were subjected to advance oxidation process (AOP) in UV, UV/H2O2, UV/O3, H2O2, and O3 systems under two pH conditions. Kinetic rate constants and half-life of phenylarsonic acid decomposition reaction are presented. The results from the study indicate that at pH 2 and 7, PAA degradation processes takes place in accordance with the pseudo first order kinetic reaction. The highest rate constants (10.45 × 10(-3) and 20.12 × 10(-3)) and degradation efficiencies at pH 2 and 7 were obtained at UV/O3 processes. In solution, after processes, benzene, phenol, acetophenone, o-hydroxybiphenyl, p-hydroxybiphenyl, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, and biphenyl were identified.

  19. Injection deep level transient spectroscopy: An improved method for measuring capture rates of hot carriers in semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Fleming, R. M.; Seager, C. H.; Lang, D. V.; ...

    2015-07-02

    In this study, an improved method for measuring the cross sections for carrier trapping at defects in semiconductors is described. This method, a variation of deep level transient spectroscopy(DLTS) used with bipolar transistors, is applied to hot carrier trapping at vacancy-oxygen, carbon-oxygen, and three charge states of divacancy centers (V2) in n- and p-type silicon. Unlike standard DLTS, we fill traps by injecting carriers into the depletion region of a bipolar transistor diode using a pulse of forward bias current applied to the adjacent diode. We show that this technique is capable of accurately measuring a wide range of capturemore » cross sections at varying electric fields due to the control of the carrier density it provides. Because this technique can be applied to a variety of carrier energy distributions, it should be valuable in modeling the effect of radiation-induced generation-recombination currents in bipolar devices.« less

  20. Effect of dietary fatty acids on metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating rodents prior to winter tend to select food rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several studies found that such diet may positively affect their winter energy budget by enhancing torpor episodes. However, the effect of composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) on metabolism of normothermic heterotherms is poorly understood. Thus we tested whether diets different in FA composition affect metabolic rate (MR) and the capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in normothermic golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures from May 2010 to April 2011 and fed a diet enriched with PUFA (i.e., standard food supplemented weekly with sunflower and flax seeds) or with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA/MUFA, standard food supplemented with mealworms). Since diet rich in PUFA results in lower MR in hibernating animals, we predicted that PUFA-rich diet would have similar effect on MR of normothermic hamsters, that is, normothermic hamsters on the PUFA diet would have lower metabolic rate in cold and higher NST capacity than hamsters supplemented with SFA/MUFA. Indeed, in winter resting metabolic rate (RMR) below the lower critical temperature was higher and NST capacity was lower in SFA/MUFA-supplemented animals than in PUFA-supplemented ones. These results suggest that the increased capacity for NST in PUFA-supplemented hamsters enables them lower RMR below the lower critical temperature of the thermoneural zone.

  1. Bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase: products, rates, and regulation of phosphonic and phosphinic acid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Wackett, L P; Shames, S L; Venditti, C P; Walsh, C T

    1987-01-01

    Carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage activity, found in bacteria that utilize alkyl- and phenylphosphonic acids, has not yet been obtained in a cell-free system. Given this constraint, a systematic examination of in vivo C-P lyase activity has been conducted to develop insight into the C-P cleavage reaction. Six bacterial strains were obtained by enrichment culture, identified, and characterized with respect to their phosphonic acid substrate specificity. One isolate, Agrobacterium radiobacter, was shown to cleave the carbon-phosphorus bond of a wide range of substrates, including fosfomycin, glyphosate, and dialkyl phosphinic acids. Furthermore, this organism processed vinyl-, propenyl-, and propynylphosphonic acids, a previously uninvestigated group, to ethylene, propene, and propyne, respectively. A determination of product stoichiometries revealed that both C-P bonds of dimethylphosphinic acid are cleaved quantitatively to methane and, furthermore, that the extent of C-P bond cleavage correlated linearly with the specific growth rate for a range of substrates. The broad substrate specificity of Agrobacterium C-P lyase and the comprehensive characterization of the in vivo activity make this an attractive system for further biochemical and mechanistic experiments. In addition, the failure to observe the activity in a group of gram-positive bacteria holds open the possibility that a periplasmic component may be required for in vivo expression of C-P lyase activity. PMID:3804975

  2. Clinical efficacy of intra-articular injections in knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized study comparing hyaluronic acid and betamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Trueba Davalillo, Cesáreo Ángel; Trueba Vasavilbaso, Cesáreo; Navarrete Álvarez, José Mario; Coronel Granado, Pilar; García Jiménez, Ozcar Alejandro; Gimeno del Sol, Mercedes; Gil Orbezo, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease and leading cause of disability. Intra-articular (IA) administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) or corticosteroids (CS) have been previously studied, though using insufficient number of patients or short follow-up periods. Objective We evaluate HA and CS in patients with knee OA in terms of clinical efficacy over 12 months. Methods We used a prospective, randomized study with parallel groups. Randomized patients received IA injections of HA or betamethasone (BM). The primary outcomes were improvement in pain using Visual Analog Scale and function in the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (Likert scale). Follow-up visits were scheduled at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months. Results A total of 200 patients were included. Pain was significantly reduced in both groups at the first follow-ups. At 12 months, the mean pain reduction in the HA group was 33.6% (95% CI: 31.1–36.1) compared to 8.2% (95% CI: 5.2–11.1) in BM (P<0.0001). Function improvement was higher in HA through every visit, and mean improvement at 12 months was 47.5% (95% CI: 45.6–49.3) in HA patients vs 13.2% (95% CI: 11.4–14.9) in the BM group (P<0.0001). All patients from both groups achieved the Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII) for both pain and function up to 6 months. At 9 months and 12 months, the MCII figures were higher in HA group with ≥80% compared to ≤10% in BM group (P<0.0001). Adverse reactions were rare and related to the administration procedure. Conclusion Both treatments effectively controlled OA symptoms. BM showed higher short-term effectiveness, while HA showed better long-term effectiveness, maintaining clinical efficacy in a large number of patients 1 year after administration. PMID:27790040

  3. Acute intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid provokes long-lasting misregulation of the cytoskeleton in the striatum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of young rats.

    PubMed

    Pierozan, Paula; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2014-08-19

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a neuroactive metabolite of the kinurenine pathway, considered to be involved in aging and some neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington׳s disease. In the present work we have studied the long-lasting effect of acute intrastriatal injection of QUIN (150 nmol/0.5 µL) in 30 day-old rats on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits (NFL, NFM and NFH) respectively, until 21 days after injection. The acute administration of QUIN altered the homeostasis of IF phosphorylation in a selective manner, progressing from striatum to cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Twenty four hours after QUIN injection, the IFs were hyperphosphorylated in the striatum. This effect progressed to cerebral cortex causing hypophosphorylation at day 14 and appeared in the hippocampus as hyperphosphorylation at day 21 after QUIN infusion. PKA and PKCaMII have been activated in striatum and hippocampus, since Ser55 and Ser57 in NFL head domain were hyperphosphorylated. However, MAPKs (Erk1/2, JNK and p38MAPK) were hyperphosphorylated/activated only in the hippocampus, suggesting different signaling mechanisms in these two brain structures during the first weeks after QUIN infusion. Also, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2B (PP2B)-mediated hypophosphorylation of the IF proteins in the cerebral cortex 14 after QUIN injection reinforce the selective signaling mechanisms in different brain structures. Increased GFAP immunocontent in the striatum and cerebral cortex 24h and 14 days after QUIN injection respectively, suggests reactive astrocytes in these brain regions. We propose that disruption of cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells takes part of the long-lasting molecular mechanisms of QUIN toxicity in adolescent rats, showing selective and progressive misregulation of the signaling mechanisms targeting the IF proteins in the

  4. Generation of ultrahigh and tunable repetition rates in CW injection-seeded frequency-shifted feedback lasers.

    PubMed

    Guillet de Chatellus, H; Jacquin, O; Hugon, O; Glastre, W; Lacot, E; Marklof, J

    2013-07-01

    We show both theoretically and experimentally that frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) lasers seeded with a single frequency laser can generate Fourier transform-limited pulses with a repetition rate tunable and limited by the spectral bandwidth of the laser. We demonstrate experimentally in a FSF laser with a 150 GHz spectral bandwidth, the generation of 6 ps-duration pulses at repetition rates tunable over more than two orders of magnitude between 0.24 and 37 GHz, by steps of 80 MHz. A simple linear analytical model i.e. ignoring both dynamic and non-linear effects, is sufficient to account for the experimental results. This possibility opens new perspectives for various applications where lasers with ultra-high repetition rates are required, from THz generation to ultrafast data processing systems.

  5. Control of off-gassing rates of methyl isothiocyanate from the application of metam-sodium by chemigation and shank injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. A.; Holdsworth, M. T.; Hlinka, D. J.

    Fumigants are used to enhance the yield and quality of agricultural produce, which is critical to the maintenance of the production levels of carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries, melons, and many other crops grown in the US and throughout much of the world. With the worldwide phase-out of methyl bromide in progress, the continued availability of the remaining alternatives, such as metam-sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene, and chloropicrin, is becoming increasingly important. Metam-sodium has been used for over 40 years and is the second most widely used fumigant in the United States. Reduction in off-gassing rates of fumigants can promote health and safety benefits and an increased dose in the treatment zone, thereby increasing the potential efficacy of these products. On this basis, there is a need to evaluate off-gassing rates as a function of application and sealing methods. This paper summarizes recent research into the volatilization of the principal transformation product of metam-sodium, i.e., methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), into the atmosphere as a function of application and sealing methods. Seven field studies were conducted from 1999-2001 to evaluate the off-gassing rates of MITC from applications of metam-sodium by shank injection and chemigation using two different water sealing methods, i.e., standard water sealing and intermittent water sealing. MITC is slightly soluble in water. Irrigation of a field following an application helps to retain the compound in the soil, minimizing off-gassing while increasing the dose to the target pests. Intermittent water sealing involves applying water on an intermittent basis to minimize off-gassing rates during nighttime periods when relatively poor atmospheric dispersion conditions often occur. Research conducted by the Metam-Sodium TASK Force indicates that intermittent water sealing significantly reduces off-gassing rates both for shank injection and chemigation applications when compared with standard water

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  7. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions.

  8. Increased spinal release of excitatory amino acids following intradermal injection of capsaicin is reduced by a protein kinase G inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sluka, K A; Willis, W D

    1998-07-06

    Second messengers have been shown to play a role in the release of neurotransmitters presynaptically in several brain regions and cell types. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased release of aspartate and glutamate that occurs after injection of capsaicin is dependent on activation of the cAMP and the cGMP transduction cascades. A microdialysis fiber was implanted into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord for collection of extracellular fluid and for administration of drugs to the spinal cord. Dialysate samples were collected before and after injection of capsaicin and after infusion of inhibitors of protein kinase G (PKG; KT5823) or protein kinase A (PKA; H89). KT5823, H89, or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; control) were administered after injection of capsaicin to reduce the increased release of aspartate and glutamate. At the time of injection of capsaicin, there is an increase in release of aspartate (191+/-21%) and glutamate (194+/-14%). This increased release is maintained through 2.5 h for both glutamate and aspartate at approximately 125% to 150%. The increase in aspartate and glutamate concentrations that occurs after capsaicin injection was reduced back to baseline after spinal infusion of the PKG inhibitor, KT5823. Blockade of PKA had no effect on the increased release of aspartate and glutamate. Thus, the current data support a role for the cGMP-PKG pathway in the control of neurotransmitter release in vivo.

  9. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves the implantation and live-birth rates of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) improved the developmental competence of mouse embryos by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis during preimplantation development. Here, we present a follow-up study examining whether TUDCA enhances the implantation and live-birth rate of mouse embryos. Mouse 2-cell embryos were collected by oviduct flushing and cultured in the presence or absence of 50 μM TUDCA. After culture (52 h), blastocysts were transferred to 2.5-day pseudopregnant foster mothers. It was found that the rates of pregnancy and implantation as well as the number of live pups per surrogate mouse were significantly higher in the TUDCA-treated group compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference in the mean weights of the pups or placentae. Thus, we report for the first time that TUDCA supplementation of the embryo culture medium increased the implantation and livebirth rates of transferred mouse embryos.

  10. Diffusion of intracerebrally injected (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid and (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol in the mouse brain. Effects of ischemia and electroconvulsive shock

    SciTech Connect

    Pediconi, M.F.; Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Bazan, N.G.

    1982-12-01

    (2-/sup 3/H)Glycerol and (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid were injected into the region of the frontal horn of the left ventricle of mice and were distributed rapidly throughout the brain. After 10 sec, most of the radioactive fatty acid was found in the hemisphere near the injection site; after 10 min, it was recovered in similar proportions in the cerebellum and brain stem. (2-/sup 3/H)Glycerol showed a heterogeneous distribution, with most of the label remaining in the left hemisphere even after 10 min. On a fresh weight basis, cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem were found to contain similar amounts of labeled glycerol. However, the amount of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonate in cerebrum was only 50% of that recovered from cerebellum or brain stem. Brain ischemia or a single electroconvulsive shock reduced the spread of the label, producing an accumulation of radioactivity in the injected hemisphere, except for an increase in (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol in the brain stem during ischemia. Despite the significant decrease in available precursor in the cerebellum and brain stem after electroshock, the amount of label incorporated into lipids was not altered in these areas and only slightly diminished in the cerebrum.

  11. Rate Constants for Peroxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Sterols in Solution and in Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Libin; Davis, Todd A.; Porter, Ned A.

    2013-01-01

    Rate constants for autoxidation propagation of several unsaturated lipids in benzene solution at 37°C and in phosphatidylcholine liposomes were determined by a linoleate radical clock. This radical clock is based on competition between hydrogen atom abstraction by an intermediate peroxyl radical derived from linoleic acid that leads to a trans,cis-conjugated hydroxyoctadecadienoic product and β–fragmentation of the same peroxyl that gives the trans,trans-product hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Rate constants determined by this approach in solution relative to linoleic acid (kp = 62 M−1s−1) were: arachidonic acid (kp = 197 ± 13 M−1s−1), eicosapentaenoic acid (kp = 249 ± 16 M−1s−1), docosahexaenoic acid (kp = 334 ± 37 M−1s−1), cholesterol (kp = 11 ± 2 M−1s−1), and 7-dehydrocholesterol (kp = 2,260 ± 40 M−1s−1). Free radical oxidations of multilamellar and unilamellar liposomes of various mixtures of glycerophosphatidylcholine molecular species were also carried out. In some experiments, cholesterol or 7-dehydrocholesterol was incorporated into the lipid mixture undergoing oxidation. A phosphatidylcholine bearing a linoleate ester at sn-2 was a component of each liposome peroxidation reaction and the ratio of trans,cis/trans,trans (t,c/t,t)-conjugated diene oxidation products formed from this phospholipid was determined for each oxidation reaction. This t,c/t,t-product ratio from linoleate was used to “clock” liposome constituents as hydrogen atom donors in the lipid bilayer. Application of this lipid bilayer radical clock gives relative autoxidation propagation rate constants of arachidonate (20:4), eicosapentaenoate (20:5), docosahexaenoate (22:6), and 7-dehydrocholesterol to be 115 ± 7, 145 ± 8, 172 ± 13, and 832 ± 86, respectively, a reactivity trend that parallels the one in solution. We also conclude from the liposome oxidations that linoleate peroxyl radicals at different positions on the eighteen-carbon chain (at C-9 and C

  12. Premature Progesterone Rise Positively Correlates with Clinical Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Patients with good Ovarian Response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Na; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yueming; Jiang, Lei; Yang, Aimin; Hao, Guimin

    2017-03-28

    Infertility affects millions of couples worldwide resulting in distress and depression. In the past several decades, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been developed with high efficiency and success rate. The possible effects of gonadotropin administration on follicular metabolism have been discussed but the outcomes remain controversial. The aim of this study was to identify whether serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and the ratio of serum progesterone and the number of oocyte retrieved (P/O) had a predictive role for the outcomes of IVF/ICSI. Eight hundred and twenty-five patients were enrolled between January 2012 and December 2012. A positive correlation between progesterone and IVF/ICSI outcomes were found in patients with good ovarian response using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We found that when progesterone level was higher than 1.04 ng/ml in good ovarian responses, the implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were both reduced compared to the rates in patients exhibiting lower progesterone level (progesterone≤1.04 ng/ml). Moreover, the rise of serum progesterone on the day of hCG was negatively correlated with luteinizing hormone (LH) level. This study used 1.04 ng/ml as a definition of progesterone elevation and an adverse effect of serum progesterone rise was observed on clinical pregnancy rate.

  13. Acid retention with reduced glomerular filtration rate increases urine biomarkers of kidney and bone injury.

    PubMed

    Wesson, Donald E; Pruszynski, Jessica; Cai, Wendy; Simoni, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Diets high in acid of developed societies that do not cause metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease nevertheless appear to cause acid retention with associated morbidity, particularly in those with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Here we used a rat 2/3 nephrectomy model of chronic kidney disease to study induction and maintenance of acid retention and its consequences on indicators of kidney and bone injury. Dietary acid was increased in animals eating base-producing soy protein with acid-producing casein and in casein-eating animals with added ammonium chloride. Using microdialysis to measure the kidney cortical acid content, we found that nephrectomized animals had greater acid retention than sham-operated animals when both ate the soy diet. Each increment in dietary acid further increased acid retention more in nephrectomized than in sham rats. Nephrectomized and sham animals achieved similar steady-state daily urine net acid excretion in response to increments in dietary acid but nephrectomized animals took longer to do so, contributing to greater acid retention that was maintained until the increased dietary acid was stopped. Acid retention was associated with increased urine excretion of both N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and deoxypyridinoline, greater in nephrectomized than control rats, consistent with kidney tubulointerstitial and bone matrix injury, respectively. Greater acid retention in nephrectomized than control animals was induced by a slower increase in urinary net acid excretion rate in response to the increment in dietary acid and also maintained until the dietary acid increment was stopped. Thus, acid retention increased biomarkers of kidney and bone injury in the urine, supporting untoward consequences to these two tissues.

  14. Improving arachidonic acid fermentation by Mortierella alpina through multistage temperature and aeration rate control in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2016-05-18

    Effective production of arachidonic acid (ARA) using Mortierella alpina was conducted in a 30-L airlift bioreactor. Varying the aeration rate and temperature significantly influenced cell morphology, cell growth, and ARA production, while the optimal aeration rate and temperature for cell growth and product formation were quite different. As a result, a two-stage aeration rate control strategy was constructed based on monitoring of cell morphology and ARA production under various aeration rate control levels (0.6-1.8 vvm). Using this strategy, ARA yield reached 4.7 g/L, an increase of 38.2% compared with the control (constant aeration rate control at 1.0 vvm). Dynamic temperature-control strategy was implemented based on the fermentation performance at various temperatures (13-28°C), with ARA level in total cellular lipid increased by 37.1% comparing to a constant-temperature control (25°C). On that basis, the combinatorial fermentation strategy of two-stage aeration rate control and dynamic temperature control was applied and ARA production achieved the highest level of 5.8 g/L.

  15. Duct injection technology prototype development

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S.L. . Research and Development Div.)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Biodistribution of intact fluorescent CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots coated by mercaptopropionic acid after intravenous injection into mice.

    PubMed

    Loginova, Yana F; Kazachkina, Natalia I; Zherdeva, Victoria V; Rusanov, Alexander L; Shirmanova, Marina V; Zagaynova, Elena V; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A; Dezhurov, Sergey V; Wakstein, Maxim S; Savitsky, Alexander P

    2012-11-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QD) have been widely used for fluorescent bioimaging. However their biosafety has attracted increasing attention, since the data about their in vivo behavior in biological systems are still limited. In this paper we have investigated the short- and long-term biodistribution of intact fluorescent CdSe/CdS/ZnS QD coated by 3-mercaptopropionic acid in mice. The results showed that intravenously injected QD accumulated mainly in the lungs, liver and spleen and were retained in these tissues for over 22 days. QD caused signs of acute toxicity in mice including death. The investigated QD possibly caused vascular thrombosis. The results of a toxicological assay indicated that some histopathological changes occurred in the lung tissue after the injection of QD. Our study highlights the need for careful evaluation of QD safety before their use in biological applications.

  17. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution.

  18. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure.

  19. Effect of discharge rate on charging a lead-acid battery simulated by mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugnet, Mikael; Liaw, Bor Yann

    To simulate lead-acid battery (LAB) charging has never been an easy task due to the influences of: (1) secondary reactions that involve gas evolution and recombination and grid corrosion, (2) prior end-of-discharge (EOD) and rest conditions; and (3) complexity caused by charging algorithm. In this work, successful results have been obtained with considerations of internal oxygen cycle and gas phase in the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells. The success is first attributed to the satisfactory validation of a mathematical model that has been able to simulate discharge regimes with various rates consistently. The model has been subsequently used to simulate a galvanostatic charge regime performed at C/10. The results give a better understanding of the role each electrode played in the polarization, the nature of the polarization (constituted by reaction kinetics and mass transport), and the charging efficiency. We were able to extrapolate the simulation results to rates beyond what the model has been validated for, and the results are still consistent, confirming some experimental observations, notably the maximum charging rate specified by most LAB manufacturers.

  20. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  1. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fondaparinux injection.Talk to your doctor about the risk of using fondaparinux injection. ... Fondaparinux injection is used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT; a blood ... Xa inhibitors. It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.

  2. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  3. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dexamethasone injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of ... gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. Dexamethasone injection ...

  4. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  5. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  6. Double dissociation of hippocampal and dorsal-striatal memory systems by posttraining intracerebral injections of 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Packard, M G; Teather, L A

    1997-06-01

    Rats received an 8-trial training session on a spatial or cued task in a water maze, followed by a posttraining intracerebral injection of AP5 or saline. On a retention test 24 hr later, latency to mount the escape platform was used as a measure of memory. Intrahippocampal (10 micrograms), but not intra-dorsal striatal (2, 5, or 10 micrograms), injection of AP5 impaired memory in the spatial task. In contrast, intra-dorsal striatal (2 micrograms), but not intrahippocampal (2, 5, or 10 micrograms) injection of AP5 impaired memory in the cued task. Intracerebral injections of AP5 delayed 2 hr posttraining were ineffective. The findings indicate a double dissociation of the roles of the hippocampus and dorsal striatum in memory, a role for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function in posttraining memory processes, and a glutamatergic modulation of both hippocampal and dorsal striatal memory processes, suggesting that different forms of memory may share a similar neurochemical basis.

  7. Single well field injection test of humate to enhance attenuation of uranium and other radionuclides in an acidic plume

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.

    2014-09-30

    This report documents the impact of the injected humate on targeted contaminants over a period of 4 months and suggests it is a viable attenuation-based remedy for uranium, potentially for I-129, but not for Sr-90. Future activities will focus on issues pertinent to scaling the technology to full deployment.

  8. Soil calcium status and the response of stream chemistry to changing acidic deposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.; Stoddard, J.L.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Porter, J.H.; Thompson, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a decreasing trend in acidic deposition rates over the past two to three decades, acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States have shown minimal changes. Depletion of soil Ca pools has been suggested as a cause, although changes in soil Ca pools have not been directly related to long-term records of stream chemistry. To investigate this problem, a comprehensive watershed study was conducted in the Neversink River Basin, in the Catskill Mountains of New York, during 1991-1996. Spatial variations of atmospheric deposition, soil chemistry, and stream chemistry were evaluated over an elevation range of 817-1234 m to determine whether these factors exhibited elevational patterns. An increase in atmospheric deposition of SO4 with increasing elevation corresponded with upslope decreases of exchangeable soil base concentrations and acid-neutralizing capacity of stream water. Exchangeable base concentrations in homogeneous soil incubated within the soil profile for one year also decreased with increasing elevation. An elevational gradient in precipitation was not observed, and effects of a temperature gradient on soil properties were not detected. Laboratory leaching experiments with soils from this watershed showed that (1) concentrations of Ca in leachate increased as the concentrations of acid anions in added solution increased, and (2) the slope of this relationship was positively correlated with base saturation. Field and laboratory soil analyses are consistent with the interpretation that decreasing trends in acid-neutralizing capacity in stream water in the Neversink Basin, dating back to 1984, are the result of decreases in soil base saturation caused by acidic deposition.

  9. Duration of symptom relief after intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid combined with sorbitol (anti-ox-vs) in symptomatic hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Migliore, A; Massafra, U; Bizzi, E; Tormenta, S; Cassol, M; Granata, M

    2014-01-01

    The intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) in hip osteoarthritis (OA) has been recently increased following the use of ultrasound guidance to perform an accurate delivery of the injected product. Viscosupplementation in hip OA seems to show similar results to those obtained by viscosupplementation in knee OA. However, an unmet need is the duration of symptomatic relief, therefore several new products are proposed to prolong and increase symptomatic effects. Among these, an innovative viscosupplement has been produced from high a concentration of HA combined with a high concentration of sorbitol as a free radical scavenger. The aim of this study is to evaluate the mid-term pain-relief effect of an ultrasound-guided injection of SynolisV-A (ANTI-OX-VS) in patients suffering from symptomatic hip osteoarthritis. Lequesne index, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), pain reduction, Global Patient Assessment (GPA), Global Medical Assessment (GMA) and reduction in monthly analgesic consumption were assessed during the 12-month follow-up after the injection. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study and received one IA US-guided injection of two syringes of ANTI-OX-VS into the target hip. Eleven drop-out patients were registered, of whom 2 were for loss of efficacy at 6 months, 1 for loss of efficacy at 9 months and 8 patients for severe comorbilities. Mean scores of all clinical parameters evaluated at each control visit were significantly different when compared with baseline mean value. No systemic adverse events were observed. Even though the sample size of this study is limited, the results suggest a durable good efficacy of a 4-ml single injection of ANTI-OX-VS in hip OA, at least for the patients who completed the study. A larger number of patients and an RCT are needed to confirm these data, investigating also the predictive factors of clinical response to ANTI-OX-VS.

  10. Liver fatty acid binding protein is required for high rates of hepatic fatty acid oxidation but not for the action of PPARalpha in fasting mice.

    PubMed

    Erol, Erdal; Kumar, Leena S; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Kelly, Daniel P; Binas, Bert

    2004-02-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been proposed to limit the availability of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) for oxidation and for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), a fatty acid binding transcription factor that determines the capacity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Here, we used L-FABP null mice to test this hypothesis. Under fasting conditions, this mutation reduced beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) plasma levels as well as BHB release and palmitic acid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes. However, the capacity for ketogenesis was not reduced: BHB plasma levels were restored by octanoate injection; BHB production and palmitic acid oxidation were normal in liver homogenates; and hepatic expression of key PPAR-alpha target (MCAD, mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase, ACO, CYP4A3) and other (CPT1, LCAD) genes of mitochondrial and extramitochondrial LCFA oxidation and ketogenesis remained at wild-type levels. During standard diet, mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase mRNA was selectively reduced in L-FABP null liver. These results suggest that under fasting conditions, hepatic L-FABP contributes to hepatic LCFA oxidation and ketogenesis by a nontranscriptional mechanism, whereas L-FABP can activate ketogenic gene expression in fed mice. Thus, the mechanisms whereby L-FABP affects fatty acid oxidation may vary with physiological condition.

  11. Suppression of Growth Rate of Colony-Associated Fungi by High Fructose Corn Syrup Feeding Supplement, Formic Acid, and Oxalic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Select colony-associated fungi (bee isolates). Absidia sp., Ascosphaera apis, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Penicillium glabrum, Mucor sp., showed a 40% reduction in radial growth rate with formic acid, a 28% reduction with oxalic acid, and a 15% reduction with fructose and high fructose corn sy...

  12. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of <7.0% (n=11). The linearity range of the free nitric acid measurement is excellent up to 2.77molL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.995. The method is specific, presence of actinide ions up to 0.54molL(-1) does not interfere on the determination of free nitric acid. In addition to automation, the developed sequential injection analysis method greatly improves the standard off-line oxalate complexation and alkalimetric titration method by reducing thousand fold the required sample volume, forty times the nuclear waste per analysis as well as the analysis time by eight fold. These analytical parameters are important especially in nuclear-related applications to improve laboratory safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste.

  13. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  14. Dose rate dependence of the speciation of neptunium in irradiated solutions of nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Precek, M.; Paulenova, A.; Mincher, B.J.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of radiation on the redox speciation of neptunium are of interest due to their impact on the performance of separation of neptunium from highly radioactive solutions of dissolved used nuclear fuel. In this study, the influence of dose rate change from 0.4 kGy/h to 6 kGy/h was examined during irradiation of solutions of initially hexavalent 2.0-2.5 mM neptunium in nitric acid of two different concentrations (0.5 and 1 M). Results indicate that the immediate radiolytic steady-state concentration of neptunium(V) were depressed and its initial radiolytic yield was up to 2-times lower (in 1 M HNO{sub 3} solutions)during irradiations with the higher dose rate. The finding is explained on the basis of the enhancement of the role of oxidizing radicals during the radiolytic process. (authors)

  15. Gas-Phase Formation Rates of Nitric Acid and Its Isomers Under Urban Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okumura, M.; Mollner, A. K.; Fry, J. L.; Feng, L.

    2005-01-01

    Ozone formation in urban smog is controlled by a complex set of reactions which includes radical production from photochemical processes, catalytic cycles which convert NO to NO2, and termination steps that tie up reactive intermediates in long-lived reservoirs. The reaction OH + NO2 + M -4 HONO2 + M (la) is a key termination step because it transforms two short-lived reactive intermediates, OH and NO2, into relatively long-lived nitric acid. Under certain conditions (low VOC/NOx), ozone production in polluted urban airsheds can be highly sensitive to this reaction, but the rate parameters are not well constrained. This report summarizes the results of new laboratory studies of the OH + NO2 + M reaction including direct determination of the overall rate constant and branching ratio for the two reaction channels under atmospherically relevant conditions.

  16. Delayed Obstruction With Asymptomatic Loss of Renal Function After Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer (Deflux) Injection for Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Close Look at a Disturbing Outcome.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulos, Dimitri; Rosoklija, Ilina; Cheng, Earl; Yerkes, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) first received Food and Drug Administration approval in 2001 for endoscopic injection in children with grade II-IV vesicoureteral reflux VUR. As experience has grown, Deflux has been used more liberally with encouraging results. We report 3 cases where Deflux was used in off-label fashion, resulting in delayed ureteral obstruction and loss of renal function (range 18-52 months postoperatively). We now place increased emphasis on the need for long-term follow-up after Deflux in both routine and complex cases, particularly in situations of off-label use.

  17. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  18. Effects of ammonium application rate on uptake of soil adsorbed amino acids by rice*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-chuang; Ma, Qing-xu; Wu, Liang-huan; Zhu, Lian-feng; Jin, Qian-yu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, excessive use of chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizers has resulted in the accumulation of excess ammonium (NH4 +) in many agricultural soils. Though rice is known as an NH4 +-tolerant species and can directly absorb soil intact amino acids, we still know considerably less about the role of high exogenous NH4 + content on rice uptake of soil amino acids. This experiment examined the effects of the exogenous NH4 + concentration on rice uptake of soil adsorbed glycine in two different soils under sterile culture. Our data showed that the sorption capacity of glycine was closely related to soils’ physical and chemical properties, such as organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Rice biomass was significantly inhibited by the exogenous NH4 + content at different glycine adsorption concentrations. A three-way analysis of variance demonstrated that rice glycine uptake and glycine nutritional contribution were not related to its sorption capacity, but significantly related to its glycine:NH4 + concentration ratio. After 21-d sterile cultivation, the rice uptake of adsorbed glycine accounted for 8.8%‒22.6% of rice total N uptake, which indicates that soil adsorbed amino acids theoretically can serve as an important N source for plant growth in spite of a high NH4 + application rate. However, further studies are needed to investigate the extent to which this bioavailability is realized in the field using the 13C, 15N double labeling technology.

  19. Effects of injection of acetic acid and propionic acid for total phosphorus removal at high temperature in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    PubMed

    Ki, C Y; Kwon, K H; Kim, S W; Min, K S; Lee, T U; Park, D J

    2014-01-01

    In summer, wastewater treatment plant total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency is low in South Korea. The reason is because of high temperatures or significant fluctuation of inflow characteristics caused by frequent rainfall. Hence, this study tried to raise TP removal efficiency by injecting fixed external carbon sources in real sewage. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete to occupy microorganisms at high temperature. Propionate is known to restrain GAOs. Thus, acetate and propionate were chosen as the external carbon source in this study to find out the suitable volume and ratio of carbon source which ensured the dominance of PAOs. An external carbon source was supplied in the anaerobic reactor of the biological phosphorus removal process at high temperature (above 25 °C). TP removal efficiency was improved by injecting an external carbon source compared to that without an external carbon source. Also, it remained relatively stable when injecting an external carbon source, despite the variation in temperature. TP removal efficiency was the highest when injecting acetate and propionate in the proportion of 2:1 (total concentration as chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 12 mg/L in influent).

  20. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-06

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively.

  1. Effects of Cilnidipine on Heart Rate and Uric Acid Metabolism in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arijit; Kumar, Prakash; Kumari, Abha; Chandra, Satish; Gari, Manju; Singh, Nidhi; Dey, Debleena

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation between hypertension and hyperuricemia has been established by epidemiological studies. Calcium channel blockers are one of the first-line drugs for newly diagnosed patients with essential hypertension. Cilnidipine is a new calcium channel blocker acting by blocking both L- and N-type calcium channels. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of amlodipine and cilnidipine in patients with essential hypertension and their effects on heart rate and serum uric acid levels. Methods Out of 100 enrolled patients, 92 completed the study. They were randomly assigned to amlodipine (N = 47) and cilnidipine (N = 45) groups. Cilnidipine was started at 10 mg/day and then adjusted to 5 - 20 mg/day, and amlodipine was started at 5 mg/day and then adjusted to 2.5 - 10 mg/day. Results After 24 weeks of study, patients in cilnidipine groups showed significant reduction in heart rate and serum uric acid levels from baseline (P = 0.00). Conclusion In clinical setting where both hypertension and hyperuricemia exist, cilnidipine can be a promising drug of choice. PMID:28197287

  2. Glycyrrhizic Acid Reduces Heart Rate and Blood Pressure by a Dual Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kailash; Zaw, Aung Moe; Sekar, Revathi; Palak, Ahuja; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Chow, Billy K C

    2016-09-27

    Beta adrenergic receptors are crucial for their role in rhythmic contraction of heart along with their role in the pathological conditions such as tachycardia and high risk of heart failure. Studies report that the levels of beta-1 adrenergic receptor tend to decrease by 50%, whereas, the levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor remains constant during the risk of heart failure. Beta blockers-the antagonistic molecules for beta-adrenergic receptors, function by slowing the heart rate, which thereby allows the left ventricle to fill completely during tachycardia incidents and hence helps in blood pumping capacity of heart and reducing the risk of heart failure. In the present study, we investigate the potential of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as a possible principal drug molecule for cardiac arrhythmias owing to its ability to induce reduction in the heart rate and blood pressure. We use in vitro and in silico approach to study GA's effect on beta adrenergic receptor along with an in vivo study to examine its effect on heart rate and blood pressure. Additionally, we explore GA's proficiency in eliciting an increase in the plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide, which by dilating the blood vessel consequently, can be a crucial aid during the occurrence of a potential heart attack. Therefore, we propose GA as a potential principal drug molecule via its potential in modulating heart rate and blood pressure.

  3. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  4. The effects of temperature and growth rate on the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial lipids.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Suisted, J R

    1978-01-01

    The effects of temperature and growth rate on the fatty acid composition of the extractable lipids of four mesophilic and three psychotrophic bacteria were examined. Two of the mesophiles (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in their lipids with decreasing temperature over their whole growth temperature range. The other mesophiles (Enterobacter aerogenes and Lactobacillus casei) increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids with decreasing temperature only over the lower half of their growth temperature ranges. The psychrotrophs Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter sp. had a constant proportion of unsaturated acids over the lower half of their growth temperature range, while the psychotrophic Lactobacillus sp. showed no consistent change in its unsaturated fatty acid composition with temperature. All species showed some variation of unsaturated fatty acid composition with growth rate at the highest and lowest growth temperatures, although such variations were small in some species (Ent. aerogenes and Lactobacillus sp.).

  5. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  6. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  7. Determination of trace levels of haloacetic acids and perchlorate in drinking water by ion chromatography with direct injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjian; Mou, Shifen

    2003-05-16

    Disinfection by products of haloacetic acids and perchlorate pose significant health risks, even at low microg/l levels in drinking water. A new method for the simultaneous determination of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and perchlorate as well as some common anions in one run with ion chromatography was developed. The HAAs tested included mono-, di-, trichloroacetic acids, mono, di-, tribromoacetic acids, bromochloroacetic acid, dibromochloroacetic acid, and bromodichloroacetic acid. Two high-capacity anion-exchange columns, a carbonate-selective column and a hydroxide-selective hydrophilic one, were used for the investigation. With the carbonate-selective column, the nine HAAs as well as fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate could be well separated and determined in one run. With the very hydrophilic column and a gradient elution of sodium hydroxide, methanol and deionized water, the nine HAAs, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate as well as perchlorate could be simultaneously determined in one run within 34 min. The detection limits for HAAs were between 1.11 and 9.32 microg/l. For perchlorate, it was 0.60 microg/l.

  8. Effects of intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 on lactation performance of dairy cows fed dietary supplements of folic acid and rumen-protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J

    2005-02-01

    The experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of i.m. injections of vitamin B(12) on lactational performance of primiparous dairy cows fed dietary supplements of folic acid and rumen-protected methionine from 4 to 18 wk of lactation. Fourteen primiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 7 blocks of 2 cows each, according to milk production during the third week of lactation. All cows were fed a basal diet supplemented daily with rumen-protected methionine (18 g of supplement, to bring the estimated supply of methionine to 2.2% of metabolizable protein) plus folic acid (4 mg per kg of BW). Within each block, the cows received a weekly i.m. injection (2 mL) of saline or 10 mg of vitamin B(12). Milk production was recorded daily. Milk and blood were sampled every 2 wk. Supplementary vitamin B(12) increased energy-corrected milk from 25.8 to 29.0 (SE 1.6) kg/d, as well as milk yields of solids [3.52 to 3.90 (SE 0.22) kg/d], fat [0.87 to 1.01 (SE 0.06) kg/d], and lactose [1.48 to 1.64 (SE 0.11) kg/d]. Supplementation also increased concentrations and amounts of vitamin B(12) secreted in milk but had no significant effect on dry matter intake and concentrations and amounts of folates in milk. Packed cell volume, blood hemoglobin, and serum vitamin B(12) were increased by supplementary vitamin B(12), whereas serum methylmalonic acid was decreased. Serum concentrations of sulfur amino acids were unchanged by treatment. These findings support the hypothesis that, in early lactation, supply of vitamin B(12) was not optimal and limited the lactation performance of the cows.

  9. A flow injection chemiluminescence method for determination of nalidixic acid based on KMnO4-morin sensitized with CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-02-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for determination of nalidixic acid by application of CdS quantum dots (QDs) in KMnO4-morin CL system in acidic medium. Optical and structural features of L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots which were synthesized via hydrothermal approach were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential mechanism of the proposed CL method was described using the results of the kinetic curves of CL systems, the spectra of CL, PL and UV-Vis analyses. The CL intensity of the KMnO4-morin-CdS QDs system was considerably increased in the presence of nalidixic acid. Under the optimum condition, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of nalidixic acid in the range of 0.0013 to 21.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit of (3σ) 0.003 mg L- 1. Also, the proposed CL method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid in environmental water samples, and commercial pharmaceutical formulation to approve its applicability. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid and the results of real sample analysis by two proposed methods were compared. Comparison the analytical features of these methods represented that the proposed CL method is preferable to CD-IMS method for determination of nalidixic acid due to its high sensitivity and precision.

  10. A flow injection chemiluminescence method for determination of nalidixic acid based on KMnO₄-morin sensitized with CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-02-05

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for determination of nalidixic acid by application of CdS quantum dots (QDs) in KMnO4-morin CL system in acidic medium. Optical and structural features of L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots which were synthesized via hydrothermal approach were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential mechanism of the proposed CL method was described using the results of the kinetic curves of CL systems, the spectra of CL, PL and UV-Vis analyses. The CL intensity of the KMnO4-morin-CdS QDs system was considerably increased in the presence of nalidixic acid. Under the optimum condition, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of nalidixic acid in the range of 0.0013 to 21.0 mg L(-1), with a detection limit of (3σ) 0.003 mg L(-1). Also, the proposed CL method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid in environmental water samples, and commercial pharmaceutical formulation to approve its applicability. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid and the results of real sample analysis by two proposed methods were compared. Comparison the analytical features of these methods represented that the proposed CL method is preferable to CD-IMS method for determination of nalidixic acid due to its high sensitivity and precision.

  11. Relationship of lipogenic enzyme activities to the rate of rat liver fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.; Kelley, D.; Schmidt, P.; Virk, S.; Serrato, C.

    1986-05-01

    The mechanism by which diet regulates liver lipogenesis is unclear. Here the authors report how dietary alterations effect the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 400-500 g, were fasted for 48h and then refed a fat-free, high carbohydrate (HC) diet (75% cal. from sucrose) for 0,3,9,24 and 48h, or refed a HC diet for 48h, then fed a high-fat (HF) diet (44% cal. from corn oil) for 3,9,24 and 48h. The FA synthesis rate and the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (AC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP citrate lyase (CL), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were determined in the livers. FA synthesis was assayed with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically except for AC which was assayed with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate. There was no change in the activity of AC during fasting or on the HC diet. Fasting decreased the rate of FA synthesis by 25% and the activities of FAS and CL by 50%; refeeding the HC diet induced parallel changes in FA synthesis and the activities of FAS, CL, and G6PDH. After 9h on the HF diet, FA synthesis had decreased sharply, AC activity increased significantly while no changes were detected in the other activities. Subsequently FA synthesis did not change while the activities of the enzymes decreased slowly. These enzymes did not appear to regulate FA synthesis during inhibition of lipogenesis, but FAS, CL or G6PDH may be rate limiting in the induction phase. Other key factors may regulate FA synthesis during dietary alterations.

  12. Leucine disposal rate for assessment of amino acid metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Gerald B.; Deger, Serpil M.; Chen, Guanhua; Bian, Aihua; Sha, Feng; Booker, Cindy; Kesler, Jaclyn T.; David, Sthuthi; Ellis, Charles D.; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and closely associated with poor outcomes. Insulin resistance and associated alterations in amino acid metabolism are potential pathways leading to PEW. We hypothesized that the measurement of leucine disposal during a hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp (HEAC) procedure would accurately measure the sensitivity to insulin for its actions on concomitant carbohydrate and protein metabolism in MHD patients. Methods We examined 35 MHD patients and 17 control subjects with normal kidney function by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEGC) followed by HEAC clamp procedure to obtain leucine disposal rate (LDR) along with isotope tracer methodology to assess whole body protein turnover. Results The glucose disposal rate (GDR) by HEGC was 5.1 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 6.3 ± 3.9 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.38). The LDR during HEAC was 0.09 ± 0.03 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 0.11 ± 0.05 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.009). The LDR level was correlated with whole body protein synthesis (r = 0.25; p = 0.08), with whole body protein breakdown (r = −0.38 p = 0.01) and net protein balance (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) in the overall study population. Correlations remained significant in subgroup analysis. The GDR derived by HEGC and LDR correlated well in the controls (r = 0.79, p < 0.001), but less so in the MHD patients (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). Conclusions Leucine disposal rate reliably measures amino acid utilization in MHD patients and controls in response to high dose insulin. PMID:27413537

  13. Quantifying Rates of Complete Microbial Iron Redox Cycling in Acidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Pottenger, J. W.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Large accumulations of iron oxide commonly occur in shallow outflows of acidic hot springs, and culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopy by others indicate that this iron oxide (often ferrihydrite) is largely biogenic in Yellowstone National Park. The hot springs that support iron mats have several consistent geochemical features including combinations of pH, temperature, sulfide, dissolved oxygen, depth and ferrous iron concentration appropriate to support iron oxidation. These springs nearly always have a point source leading to a large shallow outflow apron. Microbial zones often, but not always, include a small clear zone near the source, followed by a sulfide oxidation zone, iron mat, and finally photosynthesis. The yellow sulfide oxidation zone is separated from the red iron mat by a sharp transition resulting from increasing dissolved oxygen from atmospheric contact and microbial depletion of sulfide. The iron mat is typically the largest microbial zone in the feature by area. Further down the outflow, iron oxidation appears to be outcompeted by phototrophs as the temperature cools. Occasionally there is overlap in these zones, but one metabolism always appears dominant. Our experiments at diverse hot springs indicate that microbial reduction is less geochemically restricted than oxidation, requiring only organic carbon, ferric minerals and an anoxic environment. With iron oxidizers fixing carbon and producing layers of ferric minerals that become rapidly anoxic with depth, iron reduction is invariably proximal to where biogenic iron oxides are forming. To characterize the interplay of oxidation and reduction rates that permit oxide accumulation, we conducted rate experiments at geochemically diverse Yellowstone hot springs featuring visible iron oxides in thermal areas throughout the park. These experiments were performed during two summer field seasons to determine in situ and maximum rates of iron oxidation and reduction by measuring changing

  14. Formation of shish-kebabs in injection-molded poly(L-lactic acid) by application of an intense flow field.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Fu, Qiang; Lei, Jun; Jiang, Wei; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2012-12-01

    Unlike polyolefins (e.g., isotactic polypropylene), it is still a great challenge to form rich shish-kebabs in biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) because of its short chain length and semirigid chain backbone. In the present work, a modified injection molding technology, named oscillation shear injection molding, was applied to provide an intense shear flow on PLLA melt in mold cavity, in order to promote shear-induced crystallization of PLLA. Additionally, a small amount of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with flexible chains was introduced for improving the crystallization kinetics. Numerous shish-kebabs of PLLA were achieved in injection-molded PLLA for the first time. High-resolution scanning electronic microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering showed a structure feature of shish-kebabs with a diameter of around 0.7 μm and a long period of ~20 nm. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction results showed that shish-kebabs had more ordered crystalline structure of α-form. A significant improvement of the mechanical properties was obtained; the tensile strength and modulus increased to 73.7 and 1888 MPa from the initial values of 64.9 and 1684 MPa, respectively, meanwhile the ductility is not deteriorated. Interestingly, when shish-kebabs form in the PLLA/PEG system, a bamboo-like bionic structure comprising a hard skin layer and a soft core develops in injection-molded specimen. This unique structure leads to a great balance of mechanical properties, including substantial increments of 26, 20, and 112% in the tensile strength, modulus, and impact toughness, compared to the control sample. Further exploration will give a rich fundamental understanding in the shear-induced crystallization and morphology manipulation of PLLA, aiming to achieve superior PLLA products.

  15. Production rates of bacterial tetraether lipids and fatty acids in peatland under varying oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Meador, Travis B.; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Könneke, Martin; Wu, Weichao; Derenne, Sylvie; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of the abundance and distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) lipids have been increasingly applied to infer changes in paleoenvironment and to estimate terrigenous organic matter inputs into estuarine and marine sediments. However, only preliminary information is known regarding the ecology and physiology of the source organisms of these biomarkers. We assessed the production rates of brGDGTs under different redox conditions in peat, where these lipids are found in high concentrations, particularly at greater depths below the fluctuating water table. The incorporation of hydrogen relative to carbon into lipids observed in our dual stable isotope probing assay indicates that brGDGTs were produced by heterotrophic bacteria. Unexpectedly, incubations with stable isotope tracers of the surface horizon (5-20 cm) initiated under oxic conditions before turning suboxic and eventually anoxic exhibited up to one order of magnitude higher rates of brGDGT production (16-87 ng cm-3 y-1) relative to the deeper, anoxic zone (20-35 cm; ca. 7 ng cm-3 y-1), and anoxic incubations of the surface horizon (<3 ng cm-3 y-1). Turnover times of brGDGTs in the surface horizon ranged between 8 and 41 years in the incubations initiated under oxic conditions, in contrast to 123-742 years in anoxic incubations. As brGDGTs were actively produced during both anoxic incubations and those exposed to oxygen, we conclude that their source organisms are likely facultative aerobic heterotrophs that are particularly active in the peat acrotelm. Production rates of bacterial fatty acids (ca. 2 μg cm-3 y-1) were roughly two orders of magnitude higher than those of brGDGTs, suggesting that brGDGT producers are a minor constituent of the microbial community or that brGDGTs are a small component of the microbial cell membrane in comparison to fatty acids, despite the typically high brGDGT concentrations observed in peat. Multivariate analysis identified two

  16. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; De Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Araújo, Paulo Victor Pontes; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo de Souza; Sousa Rodrigues, Francisca Taciana; Escudeiro, Sarah Souza; Lima, Nicole Brito Cortez; Patrocínio, Manoel Claúdio Azevedo; Aguiar, Lissiana Magna Vasconcelos; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson's disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA) at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment. PMID:24023579

  17. [Infectious cellulitis of the face complicating injection for esthetic nasolabial sulcus by hyaluronic acid: report of seven cases].

    PubMed

    Chader, H; Bosc, R; Hersant, B; Lange, F; Hermeziu, O; Zehou, O; Chosidow, O; Meningaud, J-P

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of seven patients with bacterial cellulitis of the face complicating a filler injection for cosmetic reason, treated in a university hospital from 2005 to 2012. There were seven women aged 34 to 57 years. Two patients had a deep collection requiring surgical excision combined with antibiotics. Five patients were treated with antibiotics only. In two cases the bacteria was found streptococcus A and in one case Staphylococcus aureus. One patient required hospitalization in an intensive care unit. Only patients who needed surgical treatment showed moderate aesthetic sequelae.

  18. Mortality rate and gross pathology due to tuberculosis in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) following low dose subcutaneous injection of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor; Whitford, Jackie; Cross, Martin L

    2013-04-01

    Gross pathology due to tuberculosis can be established experimentally in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) within 7 weeks of injection of virulent Mycobacterium bovis into subcutaneous connective tissues of the peripheral limbs. This pathology involves lymphadenomegaly and development of gross lesions in peripheral lymph nodes, with subsequent gross lesions in the lungs and reticuloendothelial organs. Using this artificial infection model, we here assessed the mortality rate for possums in the wild, to provide new information on the likely survival period for New Zealand's major wildlife host. Possums were trapped and inoculated with <50 CFU of M. bovis, then fitted with mortality signal emitting radio tracking collars, released and re-tracked for 6 months. Possum survival probability was 89% up to 12 weeks post-injection (p.i.), but cumulative mortality was rapid from then on. The median survival period, based on study of 38 possums, was 18 weeks p.i.; this corresponds with a predicted time interval of 11 weeks between first presentation of TB as palpable lymphadenomegaly and death for an average possum, shorter than period values currently used in possum TB epidemiological modelling. We also examined gross pathology in 11 possums by post mortem necropsy, and confirmed lymphadenomegaly and tuberculous lesions at 7 and 12 weeks p.i. Extra-peripheral gross lesions were more frequent among possums at 12 weeks p.i. than at 7 weeks, while the occurrence of lung lesions (the most likely cause of disease-induced mortality) was apparent in animals at 12 weeks but not at 7 weeks p.i. Our results suggest that the time course of TB from development of gross lesions to mortality may be shorter than previously estimated from field studies of naturally tuberculous possums.

  19. Study of the ammonia (gas)-sulfuric acid (aerosol) reaction rate

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, P.H.; Takano, H.; Anderson, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    An experimental study of the reaction rate between monodisperse sulfuric acid aerosols and ammonia gas is described. Reactions took place in a laminar flow reactor at 24/sup 0/C and 6% relative humidity, and reaction products were sampled from the core of the flow so that reaction times were well defined. For the data reported here, the reaction time was 5.0 +/- 0.5 s, ammonia concentrations ranged from 13 to 63 ppb, and particle sizes ranged from 0.03 to 0.2 ..mu..m. The extent of reaction was determined by comparing the hygroscopic and deliquescent properties of the product aerosols with known properties of aerosols consisting of internal mixtures of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. It was found that the average fraction of ammonia-aerosol collisions that resulted in chemical reaction during neutralization decreased from 0.40 +/- 0.10 for 0.058-..mu..m particles to 0.18 +/- 0.03 for 0.10-..mu..m particles. Differential mobility analyzers were used for generating the monodisperse aerosols and also for measuring the hygroscopic and deliquescent properties of the product aerosols.

  20. Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs.

  1. Aseismic and seismic slip induced by fluid injection from poroelastic and rate-state friction modeling with application to the Fox Creek, Alberta, 2013-2015 earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yajing; Deng, Kai; Clerc, Fiona; Castro, Andres; Harrington, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Stress change and pore pressure evolution caused by fluid injection has been postulated as a key factor for inducing both moderate-size earthquakes and aseismic slip on pre-existing faults. In this study, we have developed a numerical model that simulates aseismic and seismic slip in a rate-and-state friction framework with stress perturbations provided by a poroelastic model for multistage hydraulic fracturing scenarios. The coupling of external stress changes and their spatiotemporal variation to fault frictional strength in a single computational procedure provides a quantitative understanding of the source processes (i.e., slip rate, triggering threshold) of the spectrum of induced slip modes. We apply the physics-based fault slip model to the induced earthquake sequences near Fox Creek, Alberta, in the western Canada sedimentary basin, where two earthquakes of ML4.4 (2015/01/23) and Mw4.6 (2015/06/13) were potentially induced by nearby hydraulic fracturing activity. In particular, we use the relocated December 2013 seismicity sequence to approximate the fault orientation, and find the seismicity migration spatiotemporally correlate with the positive Coulomb stress changes calculated by the poroelastic model. When the poroelastic stress changes are introduced to the rate-state friction model as external perturbations, we find that the fault, previously undergoing aseismic slip, can be perturbed into seismic rupturing even after hydraulic fracturing has stopped but stress perturbations continues to evolve in the medium (Scenario 1). In an end-member case (Scenario 2) where stress perturbations are instantaneously returned to zero at shut-in, we observe aseismic slip; all other conditions unchanged from Scenario 1. Seismic slip is also more readily induced by larger stress perturbations. Our preliminary results thus suggest the design of flow-back strategy, either passively evolving in the medium or actively dropping to pre-perturbation level, is essential to

  2. Hyaluronic Acid Injections Are Associated with Delay of Total Knee Replacement Surgery in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Evidence from a Large U.S. Health Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Roy; Lim, Sooyeol; Steen, R. Grant; Dasa, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and the medical costs associated with total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for end-stage OA motivate a search for agents that can delay OA progression. We test a hypothesis that hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is associated with delay of TKR in a dose-dependent manner. Methods and Findings We retrospectively evaluated records in an administrative claims database of ~79 million patients, to identify all patients with knee OA who received TKR during a 6-year period. Only patients with continuous plan enrollment from diagnosis until TKR were included, so that complete medical records were available. OA diagnosis was the index event and we evaluated time-to-TKR as a function of the number of HA injections. The database included 182,022 patients with knee OA who had TKR; 50,349 (27.7%) of these patients were classified as HA Users, receiving ≥1 courses of HA prior to TKR, while 131,673 patients (72.3%) were HA Non-users prior to TKR, receiving no HA. Cox proportional hazards modelling shows that TKR risk decreases as a function of the number of HA injection courses, if patient age, gender, and disease comorbidity are used as background covariates. Multiple HA injections are therefore associated with delay of TKR (all, P < 0.0001). Half of HA Non-users had a TKR by 114 days post-diagnosis of knee OA, whereas half of HA Users had a TKR by 484 days post-diagnosis (χ2 = 19,769; p < 0.0001). Patients who received no HA had a mean time-to-TKR of 0.7 years; with one course of HA, the mean time to TKR was 1.4 years (χ2 = 13,725; p < 0.0001); patients who received ≥5 courses delayed TKR by 3.6 years (χ2 = 19,935; p < 0.0001). Conclusions HA injection in patients with knee OA is associated with a dose-dependent increase in time-to-TKR. PMID:26694145

  3. Thermal Properties of Extruded Injection-Molded Poly (lactic acid) and Milkweed Composites: Degradation Kinectics and Enthalpic Relaxation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid) (PLA) and different biomaterials, PLA was compounded with milkweed fiber, a new crop oil seed. After oil extraction, the remaining cake retained approximately 10% residual oil and 47% protein. The pressed seed cake (10% mo...

  4. Thermal properties of extruded injection-molded poly (lactic acid) and milkweed composites: degradation kinetics and enthalpic relaxation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  5. Rates of synthesis and degradation of ribosomal ribonucleic acid during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Mangiarotti, G; Altruda, F; Lodish, H F

    1981-01-01

    Synthesis of ribosomes and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) continued during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum concurrently with extensive turnover of ribosomes synthesized during both growth and developmental stages. We show here that the rate of synthesis of 26S and 17S ribosomal RNA during differentiation was less than 15% of that in growing cells, and by the time of sorocarp formation only about 25% of the cellular ribosomes had been synthesized during differentiation. Ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were utilized in messenger RNA translation to the same extent; about 50% of each class were on polyribosomes. Ribosome degradation is apparently an all-or-nothing process, since virtually all 80S monosomes present in developing cells could be incorporated into polysomes when growth conditions were restored. By several criteria, ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were functionally indistinguishable. Our data, together with previously published information on changes in the messenger RNA population during differentiation, indicate that synthesis of new ribosomes is not necessary for translation of developmentally regulated messenger RNA. We also establish that the overall rate of messenger RNA synthesis during differentiation is less than 15% of that in growing cells. PMID:6965093

  6. Rates of synthesis and degradation of ribosomal ribonucleic acid during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Altruda, F; Lodish, H F

    1981-01-01

    Synthesis of ribosomes and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) continued during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum concurrently with extensive turnover of ribosomes synthesized during both growth and developmental stages. We show here that the rate of synthesis of 26S and 17S ribosomal RNA during differentiation was less than 15% of that in growing cells, and by the time of sorocarp formation only about 25% of the cellular ribosomes had been synthesized during differentiation. Ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were utilized in messenger RNA translation to the same extent; about 50% of each class were on polyribosomes. Ribosome degradation is apparently an all-or-nothing process, since virtually all 80S monosomes present in developing cells could be incorporated into polysomes when growth conditions were restored. By several criteria, ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were functionally indistinguishable. Our data, together with previously published information on changes in the messenger RNA population during differentiation, indicate that synthesis of new ribosomes is not necessary for translation of developmentally regulated messenger RNA. We also establish that the overall rate of messenger RNA synthesis during differentiation is less than 15% of that in growing cells.

  7. Characterization of a hierarchical network of hyaluronic acid/gelatin composite for use as a smart injectable biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Heris, Hossein K; Rahmat, Meysam; Mongeau, Luc

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid HA/Ge hydrogel particles are embedded in a secondary HA network to improve their structural integrity. The internal microstructure of the particles is imaged through TEM. CSLM is used to identify the location of the Ge molecules in the microgels. Through indentation tests, the Young's modulus of the individual particles is found to be 22 ± 2.5 kPa. The overall shear modulus of the composite is 75 ± 15 Pa at 1 Hz. The mechanical properties of the substrate are found to be viable for cell adhesion. The particles' diameter at pH = 8 is twice that at pH = 5. The pH sensitivity is found to be appropriate for smart drug delivery. Based on their mechanical and structural properties, HA-Ge hierarchical materials may be well suited for use as injectable biomaterials for tissue reconstruction.

  8. Effect of environmental salinity manipulation on uptake rates and distribution patterns of waterborne amino acids in the Pacific hagfish.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    Among vertebrates, hagfish are the only known iono- and osmoconformers, and the only species thus far documented to absorb amino acids directly across the skin. In the current study, short-term (6h) manipulations of exposure salinities (75-125% seawater) were conducted to determine whether changes in osmotic demands influenced the uptake and tissue distribution of waterborne amino acids (alanine, glycine and phenylalanine), in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. No changes in erythrocyte or muscle amino acid accumulation rates were noted, but the patterns of plasma amino acid accumulation were suggestive of regulation. Contrary to expectations, glycine transport across the skin in vitro was enhanced in the lowest exposure salinity, but no other salinity-dependent changes were demonstrated. Overall, this study indicates that uptake and distribution of amino acids varies with salinity, but not in a manner that is consistent with a role for the studied amino acids in maintaining osmotic balance in hagfish.

  9. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  10. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  11. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  12. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... mix and inject it.Teduglutide comes as a kit containing vials of teduglutide powder for injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes ...

  13. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  14. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the ... people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat ...

  15. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  16. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  17. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  19. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... areas causing pain and joint damage), chronic plaque psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... etanercept injection is used to treat chronic plaque psoriasis, it may be injected twice a week during ...

  20. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  1. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to ...

  2. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  3. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  4. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  5. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  6. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  7. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Diphenhydramine injection is used to treat allergic reactions, especially for people who are unable to take diphenhydramine by mouth. ... is used also to treat motion sickness. Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other ...

  8. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  9. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  10. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  11. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  12. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  13. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  14. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  15. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  16. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  17. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  18. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  19. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  20. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  1. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system.

  3. Controls and rates of acid production in commercial-scale sulfur blocks.

    PubMed

    Birkham, T K; Hendry, M J; Barbour, S L; Lawrence, J R

    2010-01-01

    Acidic drainage (pH 0.4-1.0) from oxidizing elemental sulfur (S(0)) blocks is an environmental concern in regions where S(0) is stockpiled. In this study, the locations, controls, and rates of H(2)SO(4) production in commercial-scale S(0) blocks ( approximately 1-2 x 10(6) m(3)) in northern Alberta, Canada, were estimated. In situ modeling of O(2) concentrations ([O(2)]) suggest that 70 to >97% of the annual H(2)SO(4) production occurs in the upper 1 m of the blocks where temperatures increase to >15 degrees C during the summer. Laboratory experiments show that S(0) oxidation rates are sensitive to temperature (Q(10) = 4.3) and dependent on the activity of autotrophic S(0)-oxidizing microbes. The annual efflux of SO(4) in drainage water from a S(0) block (5.5 x 10(5) kg) was within the estimated range of SO(4) production within the block (2.7 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) kg), suggesting that H(2)SO(4) production and removal rates were approximately equal during the study period. The low mean relative humidity within the block (68%; SD = 17%; n = 21) was attributed to osmotic suction from elevated H(2)SO(4) concentrations and suggests a mean in situ pH of approximately -2.1. The low pH of drainage waters was attributed to the mixing of fresh infiltrating water and low-pH in situ water. Heat generation during S(0) oxidation was an important factor in maintaining elevated temperatures (mean, 11.1 degrees C) within the block. The implications of this research are relevant globally because construction methods and the physical properties of S(0) blocks are similar worldwide.

  4. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2016-12-09

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA.

  5. Hydrolysis of ionized deoxycholic acid in the aqueous phase and rate analysis for transfer of neutralized deoxycholic acid into the benzene phase across the benzene/water interface.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Ryo; Nakamura, Shohei; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Isoda-Yamashita, Teruyo

    2008-11-13

    Sodium deoxycholate in water dissociates into sodium cation and deoxycholate anion in the aqueous phase, and then, the latter anions partially hydrolyze to form deionized deoxycholic acids. The acids move into the benzene phase, when liquid benzene is placed upon the aqueous phase, and finally the partition equilibrium is reached. The above processes were traced by pH change in the aqueous phase by a pH meter or the change in [OH-] with time, from which the rate for transfer of neutralized acid to the organic phase was analyzed. From the trace, the rate constants for hydrolysis of acid anion ( kf), neutralization of acid ( kb), transfer of neutralized acid from the aqueous phase to the organic phase ( kin*), and its back-transfer from the organic phase to the aqueous phase ( kut*) were evaluated; kf = 2.18 x 10 (-4) mol (-1) dm (3) min (-1), kb = 1.24 x 10 (5) mol (-1) dm (3) min (-1), kin* = 4.06 x 10 (-1) min (-1) cm (-2), and kout*) = 8.00 x 10 (-2) min (-1) cm (-2). The above values are supported by the partition constant of deoxycholic acid between the benzene phase and the aqueous phase.

  6. The gas chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater samples: evaluation of experimental biases in direct injection method against thermal desorption method.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Md Ahsan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-04-11

    The production of short-chained volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by the anaerobic bacterial digestion of sewage (wastewater) affords an excellent opportunity to alternative greener viable bio-energy fuels (i.e., microbial fuel cell). VFAs in wastewater (sewage) samples are commonly quantified through direct injection (DI) into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this study, the reliability of VFA analysis by the DI-GC method has been examined against a thermal desorption (TD-GC) method. The results indicate that the VFA concentrations determined from an aliquot from each wastewater sample by the DI-GC method were generally underestimated, e.g., reductions of 7% (acetic acid) to 93.4% (hexanoic acid) relative to the TD-GC method. The observed differences between the two methods suggest the possibly important role of the matrix effect to give rise to the negative biases in DI-GC analysis. To further explore this possibility, an ancillary experiment was performed to examine bias patterns of three DI-GC approaches. For instance, the results of the standard addition (SA) method confirm the definite role of matrix effect when analyzing wastewater samples by DI-GC. More importantly, their biases tend to increase systematically with increasing molecular weight and decreasing VFA concentrations. As such, the use of DI-GC method, if applied for the analysis of samples with a complicated matrix, needs a thorough validation to improve the reliability in data acquisition.

  7. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  8. [Evaluation on contribution rate of each component total salvianolic acids and characterization of apparent oil/water partition coefficient].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Chen, Xiao-yun; Xia, Hai-jian; Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai

    2015-02-01

    The difference between three representative components of total salvianolic acids in pharmacodynamic activity were compared by three different pharmacological experiments: HUVECs oxidative damage experiment, 4 items of blood coagulation in vitro experiment in rabbits and experimental myocardial ischemia in rats. And the effects of contribution rate of each component were calculated by multi index comprehensive evaluation method based on CRITIC weights. The contribution rates of salvianolic acid B, rosmarinic acid and Danshensu were 28.85%, 30.11%, 41.04%. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of each representative components of total salvianolic acids in n-octyl alcohol-buffer was tested and the total salvianolic acid components were characterized based on a combination of the approach of self-defined weighting coefficient with effects of contribution rate. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of total salvianolic acids was 0.32, 1.06, 0.89, 0.98, 0.90, 0.13, 0.02, 0.20, 0.56 when in octanol-water/pH 1.2 dilute hydrochloric acid solution/ pH 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 5.8, 6.8, 7.4, 7.8 phosphate buffer solution. It provides a certain reference for the characterization of components.

  9. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  10. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Michael M.

    2012-08-01

    Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10-4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10-4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

  11. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10−4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10−4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

  12. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of sub-mg dm(-3) silver(I) in a strongly acidic solution containing concentrated copper(II) using a pyridylazo reagent.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Kazuyoshi; Odake, Tamao; Takiguchi, Hiromi; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Sawada, Tsuguo

    2011-01-01

    A novel spectrophotometric flow injection method for determination of silver(I) in a strongly acidic solution containing concentrated copper(II) was developed using a coloring ligand, 4-(3,5-dibromo-2-pyridylazo)-N-ethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)aniline (3,5-diBr-PAESA). The method was first investigated by batch method. The interference from copper(II) chelate could be eliminated by the masking effect of EDTA. By utilizing the large formation constant (K = 12.3) of AgBr, one could determine silver(I) as a decrease of absorption by silver(I) chelate due to formation of AgBr by addition of KBr. Based on the results of batch experiments, two types of flow injection analysis (FIA) systems were constructed. Sub-mg dm(-3) determination of silver(I) was attained without interference from excess copper(II). The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of silver in a copper plating solution used in a plant to manufacture copper printed circuit boards, where the concentration of silver was critically important in the process control.

  13. Efficacy of orally administered amphipathic polyaminocarboxylic acid chelators for the removal of plutonium and americium: comparison with injected Zn-DTPA in the rat.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott C; Liu, Gang; Bruenger, Fred W; Lloyd, Ray D

    2006-01-01

    Chelators are used to promote excretion of actinides and some other metals, but few are orally effective. The relative efficacies of orally administered triethylenetetraminepentaacetic acids (TT) with varying lipophilic properties on the removal of 241Am and 239Pu and comparison with parenteral Zn-DTPA was determined. The actinides were administered to adult rats 2 weeks prior to initiation of 30 d of chelation treatment. The TT compounds were given orally while Zn-DTPA was given twice weekly by injection. Total body content of 241Am was measured before and during the treatment period and organ contents of 241Am and 239Pu were measured at the end of the study. Significant reductions in 241Am occurred within the first week, with Zn-DTPA being the most effective. By 3 weeks, the most lipophilic chelator, C22TT was as effective as Zn-DTPA. After 30 d, reductions in organ content of 239Pu and 241Am directly correlated with increasing lipophilicity of the TT chelators. Oral C22TT was as effective as injected Zn-DTPA in liver and bone, the major organs of actinide deposition. The removal of 239Pu from the liver and reduction of redeposition of 239Pu in newly formed bone by C22TT was confirmed by neutron-induced autoradiographs. The amphipathic TT chelators may be useful as orally administered alternatives to current parenteral DTPA for the removal of actinide elements from the body, particularly for longer-term therapeutic applications.

  14. Clinical effectiveness in severe knee osteoarthritis after intra-articular platelet-rich plasma therapy in association with hyaluronic acid injection: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Hsuan; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Kao, Mu-Jung; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder resulting from loss of joint cartilage and underlying bone and causes pain and loss of function. The treatment of knee OA is still a challenge because of the poor self-regeneration capacity of cartilage. The nonsurgical interventions include control of the aggravating factor (such as weight control and the use of walking aids), symptomatic treatment (such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), prolotherapy, and viscosupplementation. However, the combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) has not been widely used because of lack of clinical evidence and several limitations in patients with severe knee OA. Three patients who suffered from knee pain and poor walking endurance were diagnosed with advanced knee OA. They underwent PRP treatment in association with intra-articular HA injection and showed pain relief and functional improvement. The follow-up standard weight-bearing X-ray images of knees also confirmed the improvement and indicated the possibility of regeneration of the articular cartilage. These cases provide clinical and radiographic evidence for a new therapy for advanced knee OA. This treatment strategy of PRP in association with HA injection can offer a chance to treat severe knee OA, rather than immediate surgery, or a chance for those who cannot undergo surgery. It can also postpone the need of arthroplasty and can significantly improve the daily activity function. PMID:27660427

  15. Clinical effectiveness in severe knee osteoarthritis after intra-articular platelet-rich plasma therapy in association with hyaluronic acid injection: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Hsuan; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Kao, Mu-Jung; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chou, Li-Wei

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder resulting from loss of joint cartilage and underlying bone and causes pain and loss of function. The treatment of knee OA is still a challenge because of the poor self-regeneration capacity of cartilage. The nonsurgical interventions include control of the aggravating factor (such as weight control and the use of walking aids), symptomatic treatment (such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), prolotherapy, and viscosupplementation. However, the combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) has not been widely used because of lack of clinical evidence and several limitations in patients with severe knee OA. Three patients who suffered from knee pain and poor walking endurance were diagnosed with advanced knee OA. They underwent PRP treatment in association with intra-articular HA injection and showed pain relief and functional improvement. The follow-up standard weight-bearing X-ray images of knees also confirmed the improvement and indicated the possibility of regeneration of the articular cartilage. These cases provide clinical and radiographic evidence for a new therapy for advanced knee OA. This treatment strategy of PRP in association with HA injection can offer a chance to treat severe knee OA, rather than immediate surgery, or a chance for those who cannot undergo surgery. It can also postpone the need of arthroplasty and can significantly improve the daily activity function.

  16. In vivo delivery of human acid ceramidase via cord blood transplantation and direct injection of lentivirus as novel treatment approaches for Farber disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsubir, Shobha; Nonaka, Takahiro; Girbés, Carmen Bedia; Carpentier, Stéphane; Levade, Thierry; Medin, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Farber disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by a deficiency of acid ceramidase (AC) activity and subsequent accumulation of ceramide. Currently, there is no treatment for Farber disease beyond palliative care and most patients succumb to the disorder at a very young age. Previously, our group showed that gene therapy using oncoretroviral vectors (RV) could restore enzyme activity in Farber patient cells. The studies described here employ novel RV and lentiviral (LV) vectors that engineer co-expression of AC and a cell surface marking transgene product, human CD25 (huCD25). Transduction of Farber patient fibroblasts and B cells with these vectors resulted in overexpression of AC and led to a 90% and 50% reduction in the accumulation of ceramide, respectively. Vectors were also evaluated in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and by direct in vivo delivery in mouse models. In a xenotransplantation model using NOD/SCID mice, we found that transduced CD34+ cells could repopulate irradiated recipient animals, as measured by CD25 expression. When virus was injected intravenously into mice, soluble CD25 was detected in the plasma and increased AC activity was present in the liver up to 14 weeks post-injection. These findings suggest that vector and transgene expression can persist long-term and offer the potential of a lasting cure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo testing of direct gene therapy strategies for Farber disease. PMID:18805722

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells in a rat liver cirrhosis model induced by repeated injections of thioacetamide (TAA).

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Anusha Hemamali; Izawa, Takeshi; Wijesundera, Kavindra Kumara; Murakami, Hiroshi; Katou-Ichikawa, Chisa; Tanaka, Miyuu; Golbar, Hossain M; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells, the principal fibrogenic cell type in the liver, are known to express the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, the exact role of GFAP-expressing cells in liver fibrosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, cellular properties of GFAP-expressing cells were investigated in a rat model of liver cirrhosis. Six-week-old male F344 rats were injected intraperitoneally with thioacetamide (100 mg/kg BW, twice a week) and examined at post first injection weeks 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. Appearance of GFAP-expressing myofibroblasts peaked at week 15, associated with fibrosis progression. The majority of GFAP-expressing myofibroblasts co-expressed vimentin, desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Some GFAP-positive myofibroblasts co-expressed nestin (neural stem cell marker), while a few co-expressed A3 (mesenchymal stem cell marker) and Thy-1 (immature mesenchymal cell marker). A few GFAP expressing cells underwent both mitosis and apoptosis. These results indicate that there is a dynamic participation of GFAP-expressing myofibroblasts in rat liver cirrhosis, and that they are mainly derived from hepatic stellate cells, and partly from cells in the stem cell lineage. These findings, which were shown for the first time in detail, would be useful to understand the role of GFAP-expressing myofibroblasts in the pathogenesis of chemically induced liver cirrhosis.

  18. A new strategy for exploiting ion exchange in sequential injection analysis: in-line phytic acid separation/determination in foods as an example.

    PubMed

    Sartini, Raquel P; Oliveira, Cláudio C

    2002-06-01

    A novel strategy for exploiting ion exchange in sequential injection systems is proposed. The procedure is based on the selection of a defined volume of a resin suspension, which is introduced and packed in the analytical path, establishing a resin mini-column in the system. The passage of a selected sample volume through the resin mini-column leads to the retention of the analyte, while the sample matrix is discarded. The analyte is eluted during the passage of the eluant/reagent by the packed beads, being the analytical signal monitored (absorbance) in the liquid phase. The beads are then aspirated back to the holding coil and directed to a recovery flask, linked at the selection valve; then the system is ready to begin a new cycle. With the proposed strategy, the main characteristics of the sequential injection system are kept as any new artifact is added to the manifold and system reconfiguration is not required. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by the phytic acid determination in food samples. For this specific application, AG1-X8 was selected as ion exchanger, and a solution containing Cl- and Fe(III)-salicylate complex was used as eluant and spectrophotometric reagent.

  19. No difference between intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and placebo for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    van der Weegen, Walter; Wullems, Jorgen A; Bos, Ellis; Noten, Hub; van Drumpt, Rogier A M

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of our study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of Fermathron plus, a specific brand of hyaluronic acid (HA), in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, 196 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age ± SD, 59.4 ± 9.9 years, Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1-3) were given either 3 weekly intra-articular injections of HA or saline (placebo). Although pain and functional scores (WOMAC scale) improved significantly from baseline up to 6 months, HA was not superior to placebo at any follow-up (VAS pain 50 m walking from 56.4 to 38.1, P < .001, and 58.2 to 39.6, P < .001, respectively). No subgroup analysis resulted in superior outcomes. No serious adverse events were noticed.

  20. A sequential injection method for the fluorimetric determination of aluminum in drinking water using 8-hydroxy-7-(4-sulfo-1-naphthylazo)-5-quinoline sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Al-Ghamari, Salwa S; Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O

    2007-12-31

    A robust and simple sequential injection (SI) method for the assay of aluminum ions in drinking water is described. The method is based on the complex formation between aluminum and 8-hydroxy-7-(4-sulfo-1-naphthylazo)-5-quinoline sulfonic acid (HSNQ). The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 492 nm with excitation at 357 nm. The HSNQ concentration, aspirated reagent and sample volumes were optimized simultaneously using 3(3) full factorial design. The optimum operating conditions are aspirated sample and reagent volumes of 90 and 70 microL, respectively, and HSNQ concentration of 20 microM. With these conditions linear calibration curves were obtained from 100 to 800 ppb. The detection limit was 4 ppb. The maximum relative standard deviation of the method was 1.43% (n=5). The method was successfully applied for the determination of aluminum in drinking water samples.

  1. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra.

  2. A chamber study of the influence of boreal BVOC emissions and sulfuric acid on nanoparticle formation rates at ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Jülich plant-atmosphere simulation chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulfuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulfuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulfuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.

  3. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with ( sup 3 H)PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Altar, C.A.; Baudry, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of (3H)PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in (3H)PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration.

  4. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  5. Determination of acidity constants of curcumin in aqueous solution and apparent rate constant of its decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Pineda, Margarita; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; González-Vergara, Enrique; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2004-04-01

    The stability of curcumin (H3Cur) in aqueous media is improved when the systems in which it is present are at high pH values (higher than 11.7), fitting a model describable by a pseudo-zero order with a rate constant k' for the disappearance of the Cur3- species of 1.39 (10(-9)) Mmin(-1). There were three acidity constants measured for the curcumin as follows: pKA3 = 10.51 +/- 0.01 corresponding to the equilibrium HCur2- = Cur3- + H+, a pKA2 = 9.88 +/- 0.02 corresponding to the equilibrium H2Cur- = HCur-(2) + H+. These pKA values were attributed to the hydrogen of the phenol part of the curcumin, while the pKA1 = 8.38 +/- 0.04 corresponds to the equilibrium H3Cur = H2Cur- + H+ and is attributed the acetylacetone type group. Formation of quinoid structures play an important role in the tautomeric forms of the curcumin in aqueous media, which makes the experimental values differ from the theoretically calculated ones, depending on the conditions adopted in the study.

  6. Ascorbic Acid and Rates of Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Gene L.; Dodge, Hiroko; Frei, Balz; Calabrese, Carlo; Oken, Barry S.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    The brain maintains high levels of ascorbic acid (AA) despite a concentration gradient favoring diffusion from brain to peripheral tissues. Dietary antioxidants, including AA, appear to modify the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that neurodegeneration in AD is modified by brain levels of AA. Thirty-two patients with mild to moderate AD participated in a biomarker study involving standardized clinical assessments over one year. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected at baseline for AA and albumin content. Cognitive measures were collected at baseline and one year. CSF and plasma AA failed to predict cognitive decline independently, however, CSF: plasma AA ratio did. After adding CSF Albumin Index (an established marker of blood-brain barrier integrity) to the regression models the effect of CSF: plasma AA ratio as a predictor of cognitive decline was weakened. CSF: plasma AA ratio predicts rate of decline in AD. This relationship may indicate that the CSF: plasma AA ratio is an index of AA availability to the brain or may be an artifact of a relationship between blood-brain barrier impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:19158425

  7. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain. PMID:24212299

  8. Chromosomal aberrations in in-vitro matured oocytes influence implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates in a mouse model undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Li, Rong; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Implantation failure and early pregnancy loss have been reported to be closely related to the quality of mammalian oocytes; however, the pregnant outcome of embryos from in-vitro matured (IVM) oocytes remains unknown. In this study we examined spindle assembly and chromosome segregation during differentiation, and the duration of IVM of mouse oocytes. The resulting implantation and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the spindle and chromosomes of IVM oocytes and implantation and early pregnancy. Cumulus-enclosed germinal vesicle oocytes were collected and randomly cultured in IVM medium with different IVM durations. One part of IVM oocytes were analyzed the spindle and chromosome morphology by immunofluorescence method, and the other part of them were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The resulting embryos were transferred into pseudo-pregnant female mice, and the post-implantation and full term development was observed. The chromosome aberrations and incorrect spindle assembly seems not affect the early development and blastocyst cell number derived from IVM oocytes, however the development potential of the resulting embryos after implantation were significant decreased with the ratio increasing of chromosome aberrations and incorrect spindle assembly. Accordingly, the full-term development was also decreased. In conclusion, the present study showed the spindle assembly of in vitro-matured oocytes was one of the most important factors that affected the implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates of IVM oocytes, and the improvement by an appropriate duration of maturation in vitro will enhance the post-implantation development potential of the resulting embryos, and decrease implantation failure and early pregnancy loss.

  9. Determination of scandium in acid mine drainage by ICP-OES with flow injection on-line preconcentration using oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jerez, Javier; Isaguirre, Andrea C; Bazán, Cristian; Martinez, Luis D; Cerutti, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    An on-line scandium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry associated with flow injection was studied. Trace amounts of scandium were preconcentrated by sorption on a minicolumn packed with oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes, at pH 1.5. The retained analyte was removed from the minicolumn with 30% (v/v) nitric acid. A total enrichment factor of 225-fold was obtained within a preconcentration time of 300 s (for a 25 mL sample volume). The overall time required for preconcentration and elution of 25 mL of sample was about 6 min; the throughput was about 10 samples per hour. The value of the detection limit was 4 ng L(-1) and the precision for 10 replicate determinations at 100 ng L(-1) Sc level was 5% relative standard deviation, calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 10 mg L(-1). After optimization, the method was successfully applied to the determination of Sc in an acid drainage from an abandoned mine located in the province of San Luis, Argentina.

  10. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate.

  11. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected.

  12. Peritoneal adhesion prevention with a biodegradable and injectable N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan-aldehyde hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a rat repeated-injury model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linjiang; Li, Ling; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Li; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion is one of the serious issues because it induces severe clinical disorders. In this study, we prepared biodegradable and injectable hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (AHA), and assessed its anti-adhesion effect in a rigorous and severe recurrent adhesion model which is closer to clinical conditions. The flexible hydrogel, which gelated in 66 seconds at 37 °C, was cross-linked by the schiff base derived from the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in AHA. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed the hydrogel was non-toxic. In vitro and in vivo degradation examinations demonstrated the biodegradable and biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel. The hydrogel discs could prevent the invasion of fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts encapsulated in the porous 3-dimensional hydrogels could grow and proliferate well. Furthermore, the hydrogel was applied to evaluate the anti-adhesion efficacy in a more rigorous recurrent adhesion model. Compared with normal saline group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, the NOCC-AHA hydrogel exhibited significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion. Compared to control group, the blood and abdominal lavage level of tPA was increased in NOCC-AHA hydrogel group. These findings suggested that NOCC-AHA hydrogel had a great potential to serve as an anti-adhesion candidate. PMID:27869192

  13. Regionally specific induction of BDNF and truncated trkB.T1 receptors in the hippocampal formation after intraseptal injection of kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Venero, J L; Hefti, F

    1998-04-20

    The septo-hippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic systems were lesioned with single unilateral injections of kainic acid (KA) into the septum to further characterize the role of these afferents in the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Nearly all cells expressing choline acetyltransferase, trkA or glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA disappeared in the medial septum 7 days after the neurotoxin administration. The lesion resulted in a complete loss of CA3 pyramidal cells, and robust increases in BDNF mRNA levels in hippocampal granular dentate cells and in the amygdala. There were rapid transient increases of BDNF mRNA levels in the hippocampal formation and cortex. In addition, we found a strong induction of truncated trkB.T1 mRNA receptors in the stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of the CA3 subfield. The prolonged induction of BDNF mRNA levels suggests an important role of this neurotrophin, possibly mediated by truncated trkB receptors, in the regulation of hippocampal plasticity following injury.

  14. Effect of rate of pyrolysis on the textural properties of naturally-templated porous carbons from alginic acid.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Andrew S; Hunt, Andrew J; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Clark, James H

    2016-09-01

    The effect of pyrolysis rate on the properties of alginic acid-derived carbonaceous materials, termed Starbon(®), was investigated. Thermal Gravimetry-IR was used to prepare porous carbons up to 800 °C at several rates and highlighted increased CO2 production at higher pyrolysis rates. N2 porosimetry of the resultant carbons shows how pyrolysis rate affects both the mesopore structure and thus surface area and surface energy. Surface capacity of these carbons was analysed by methylene blue dye adsorption. In general, as the rate of pyrolysis increased, the mesopore content and adsorbent capacity decreased. It is considered here that the rapid production of volatiles at these higher rates causes structural collapse of the non-templated pore network. The work here demonstrates that pyrolysis rate is a key variable which needs to be controlled to maximise the textural properties of Starbon(®) required for adsorption applications.

  15. Impact of atypical long-acting injectable versus oral antipsychotics on rehospitalization rates and emergency room visits among relapsed schizophrenia patients: a retrospective database analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among schizophrenia patients relapsed on an oral antipsychotic (AP), this study compared the impact of switching to atypical AP long-acting injectable therapy (LAT) versus continuing oral APs on hospitalization and emergency room (ER) visit recurrence. Methods Electronic records from the Premier Hospital Database (2006-2010) were analyzed. Adult patients receiving oral APs during a schizophrenia-related hospitalization were identified and, upon relapse (i.e., rehospitalization for schizophrenia), were stratified into (a) patients switching to atypical LAT and (b) patients continuing with oral APs. Atypical LAT relapse patients were matched 1:3 with oral AP relapse patients, using a propensity score model. Andersen-Gill Cox proportional hazards models assessed the impact of atypical LAT versus oral AP on time to multiple recurrences of all-cause hospitalizations and ER visits. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results Atypical LAT (N = 1032) and oral AP (N = 2796) patients were matched and well-balanced with respect to demographic (mean age: 42.1 vs 42.4 years, p = .5622; gender: 43.6% vs 44.6% female, p = .5345), clinical, and hospital characteristics. Over a mean 30-month follow-up period, atypical LATs were associated with significantly lower mean number of rehospitalizations (1.25 vs 1.61, p < .0001) and ER visits (2.33 vs 2.67, p = .0158) compared with oral APs, as well as fewer days in hospital (mean days: 13.46 vs. 15.69, p = .0081). Rehospitalization (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.76–0.87, p < .0001) and ER visit (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.87–0.93, p < .0001) rates were significantly lower for patients receiving atypical LAT versus oral APs. Conclusions This hospital database analysis found that in relapsed schizophrenia patients, atypical LATs were associated with lower rehospitalization and ER visit rates than oral APs. PMID:24016390

  16. Acute abdomen as a consequence of an unusual suicide attempt: intra-abdominal injection of sulfuric acid

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Anna; D’Antini, Davide; Raimondo, Pasquale; Mirabella, Lucia; Pennisi, Leonardo; Carrillo, Giuseppe; Cotoia, Antonella; Dambrosio, Michele; Cinnella, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Caustic ingestion is a common cause of life-threatening upper gastrointestinal tract injuries. It mostly happens in children as accidental exposure, but may occur in adults as a result of suicide attempt. We present a case of an acute abdomen that occurred after a peculiar way of self-administration of sulfuric acid as a suicide attempt in an adult psychiatric male patient, already known for self-harm with caustic agents in the previous years. In a few hours, the patient developed diffuse peritonitis, pneumoperitoneum, and a rapid hemodynamic deterioration, as a consequence of ileum and sigmoid necrosis, requiring an emergency surgery with the application of a damage control strategy. The patient was then transferred to intensive care unit for hemodynamic stabilization, and definitive surgical correction of the abdominal lesions was performed after 3 days with Hartmann procedure. Thirty-nine days after hospital admission, the patient was discharged. In conclusion, to our knowledge, never has been reported in the literature a case of intra-abdominal self-administration of caustic substance causing a rapid evolution of clinical conditions and requiring the application of damage control strategy. PMID:27853393

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reaction rates with peroxy-acid treatment: prediction of reactivity using local ionization potential.

    PubMed

    Shoulder, J M; Alderman, N S; Breneman, C M; Nyman, M C

    2013-08-01

    Property-Encoded Surface Translator (PEST) descriptors were found to be correlated with the degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the peroxy-acid process. Reaction rate constants (k) in hr(-1) for nine PAHs (acenaphthene, anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) were determined by a peroxy-acid treatment method that utilized acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and a sulphuric acid catalyst to degrade the polyaromatic structures. Molecular properties of the selected nine PAHs were derived from structures optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) and HF/6-31G(d) levels of theory. Properties of adiabatic and vertical ionization potential (IP), highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), HOMO/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap energies and HOMO/singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) gap energies were not correlated with rates of peroxy-acid reaction. PEST descriptors were calculated from B3LYP/6-31G(d) optimized structures and found to have significant levels of correlation with k. PIP Min described the minimum local IP on the surface of the molecule and was found to be related to k. PEST technology appears to be an accurate method in predicting reactivity and could prove to be a valuable asset in building treatment models and in remediation design for PAHs and other organic contaminants in the environment.

  18. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants for control of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Müller, Günter C; Kline, Daniel L; Barnard, Donald R

    2011-03-01

    The use of toxic bait to kill adult Aedes albopictus is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was carried out to determine effective concentrations of boric acid needed in sugar bait solutions applied to plant surfaces, and to determine its residual effect in reducing adult mosquito densities. In outdoor tests in 1,100-m3 screened enclosures, landing rates of Ae. albopictus on a human subject and the number of female mosquitoes in mechanical traps were significantly reduced by a 1% boric acid bait compared with the other tested concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75%) and untreated control. Studies of the duration of boric acid activity on plant surfaces were made in 1.4-m3 cages in the laboratory and outdoors in 78-m3 screened enclosures. In the laboratory tests, 1% boric acid bait resulted in >96% mortality in male and female Ae. albopictus for 14 days, whereas in outdoor tests, mosquito landing rates in the treated enclosures were significantly lower than in the control enclosures for 7 days. Also, mosquito mortality responses to boric acid baits between plants with flowers and nonflowers (1.4-m3 cages in the laboratory) were not significantly different. The results of this study suggest that boric acid baits applied to plant surfaces may provide specific data related to the development of an effective point-source-based adjunct/alternative to the use of conventional adulticides for mosquito control.

  19. Short-term effect of ultrasound-guided low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid injection on clinical outcomes and imaging changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle and foot joints. A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien-Chih; Lee, Si-Huei; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Liu, Fu-Wei; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chan, Rai-Chi; Chou, Chen-Liang

    2017-01-06

    To determine whether hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into rheumatoid arthritis ankles and feet can achieve improvement in foot function and reduce synovial hyper-vascularization. Forty-four patients with RA having unilateral or bilateral painful ankle and foot involvement (N = 75) were studied. All the patients were randomized to receive HA (N = 40) or lidocaine (LI) (N = 35) injection at 2-week intervals; Clinical assessments were performed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and foot function index (FFItotal) including subscales of pain (FFIpain) before injection at baseline, 4 weeks (first evaluation) and 12 weeks (secondary evaluation). Imaging evaluation based on color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and synovitis scores was performed simultaneously. HA injection improved the VAS score (p = .009), FFIpain (p = .041), and FFItotal (p = .032) considerably more than LI injections did at the first evaluation. The CDUS values at first evaluation (p = .005) and secondary evaluation (p < .001) decreased significantly compared with the base line values. HA injections reduced the CDUS values of more than half of the joints (54%, p = .042) while the control group exhibited no change (20%, p = .56). However, HA injection did not reduce the CDUS values more than LI injection did. Regarding the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy, no significant difference was observed between or within the groups in the synovitis scores. HA injection improved short-term foot function and pain reduction. HA injection may have a modest effect in reducing synovial hyper-vascularization. Further large-scale study is warranted to confirm this result.

  20. Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and eighty-eight Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per pen; 0.45 m2 per bird) were randomly assigne...

  1. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  2. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants control of Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of toxic baits to kill adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was made to identify effective application rates for boric acid-sugar solution baits sprayed onto plant surfaces and to ...

  3. Long-chain fatty acid combustion rate is associated with unique metabolite profiles in skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA beta-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream...

  4. Regional trends in soil acidification and exchangeable metal concentrations in relation to acid deposition rates.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Carly J; Dise, Nancy B; Gowing, David J

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of high levels of reactive nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S), or the legacy of that deposition, remain among the world's most important environmental problems. Although regional impacts of acid deposition in aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, quantitative evidence of wide-scale impacts on terrestrial ecosystems is not common. In this study we analysed surface and subsoil chemistry of 68 acid grassland sites across the UK along a gradient of acid deposition, and statistically related the concentrations of exchangeable soil metals (1 M KCl extraction) to a range of potential drivers. The deposition of N, S or acid deposition was the primary correlate for 8 of 13 exchangeable metals measured in the topsoil and 5 of 14 exchangeable metals in the subsoil. In particular, exchangeable aluminium and lead both show increased levels above a soil pH threshold of about 4.5, strongly related to the deposition flux of acid compounds.

  5. Kinetic method for determination of ascorbic acid on flow injection system by using its catalytic effect on the complexation reaction of an ultra sensitive colorimetric reagent of porphyrin with Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianhua; Itoh, Jun-Ichi

    2007-06-01

    A kinetic method performed on a flow injection system is described for the determination of ascorbic acid by using its catalytic effect on the complexation reaction of Cu(II) with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4- N-trimethyl-aminophenyl)porphyrin. The characteristic spectrum of porphyrin (Soret band), which shows intense absorption around 400 nm ( ɛ > 2.0 × 10 5 cm -1 M -1), was used first time for determining ascorbic acid. By incorporating the complexation reaction into a flow injection system, ascorbic acid could be determined either over a broad dynamic range of 0.1-1000 μg/ml or at a trace level below 5 ng/ml. Good repeatability was also achieved by testing a working standard of 0.1 μg/ml with 10 injections at a throughput of 35 h -1, obtaining a relative standard deviation of 0.11%. Substances like amino acids, vitamins, sugars, organic acids and metal ions, showed no or little interference even present at high concentrations. The method was validated in the determination of ascorbic acid contents of some commercially available soft drinks by comparison with the official 2,6-dichloroindophenol method with reasonable agreement.

  6. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of perorally administered glutamic acid-chelated iron and iron-dextran injected subcutaneously in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace piglets.

    PubMed

    Egeli, A K; Framstad, T

    1998-02-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of orally administered amino acid-chelated iron (Fe) compared to injected Fe-dextran on haematology and weight gain in two different breeds raised under commercial conditions. Altogether 92 Duroc (D) pigs and 84 Norwegian Landrace (L) pigs from two different herds were included in the study. The day after birth the litters were divided in two groups (split litters). Group (Gr.) 1 was given 4 ml of a 50% solution of Super Fe-MAX (52 mg glutamic acid-chelated Fe in a water solution) orally, while Gr. 2 was subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with Idofer (180 mg Fe as ferridextran). Until weaning at 5 weeks, all the piglets had free access to a 3% solution of Super Fe-MAX (0.78 mg Fe/ml), access to pelleted food being given from 1 week of age. The piglets were weighed and bled before treatment the day after birth (day 1) and on days 4, 7, 14, 21 and 35. All piglets were weighed on days 28 and 49, while 72 of the L pigs were also weighed on days 77, 98 and 119. At weaning D pigs in Gr. 1 and Gr. 2 had a mean body weight of 8.64 kg and 8.30 kg, respectively, the corresponding figures for the L pigs being 10.82 kg and 10.34 kg. As regards the 72 L pigs followed to day 119, the mean weight in Gr. 1 and Gr. 2 was 80.6 kg and 80.2 kg, respectively. A significantly lower weight gain in the piglets with a birth weight below 1.2 kg in Gr. 2 compared with Gr. 1 indicated that excess administration of Fe to small piglets may have a detrimental effect on weight gain. From day 7 (D pigs) and on days 14 and 21 (L pigs), Gr. 2 had a significantly higher haemoglobin concentration (Hb) than Gr. 1. Nevertheless, Hb levels were also adequate in Gr. 1 in both breeds. There was a negative correlation between changes in Hb during the first weeks and the initial value. Though haematological values seemed to show inter-breed differences, with higher average erythrocyte counts (RBC) and Hb and lower mean cell volume (MCV) in the D pigs, the

  8. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment.

  9. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 76.8 ± 1.8% to 85.7 ± 1.2%. Analysis of covariance method followed by Tukey post-hoc test of 92 tests did not show a significant change in removal efficiency between liquid flow rates of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 L/min (p = 0.811). On the other hand, with fixed pressure loss across the tower, by increasing the liquid/gas (L/G) mass ratio, the average removal efficiency decreased significantly (p = 0.001) from 89.9% at L/G of <2 to 83.1% at L/G of 2–3 and further to 80.2% at L/G of >3, respectively. L/G of 2–3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream. PMID:23369487

  10. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Ghasemi, Roohollah; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmad Reza; Hajibabaei, Majid

    2012-12-10

    The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 76.8 ± 1.8% to 85.7 ± 1.2%. Analysis of covariance method followed by Tukey post-hoc test of 92 tests did not show a significant change in removal efficiency between liquid flow rates of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 L/min (p = 0.811). On the other hand, with fixed pressure loss across the tower, by increasing the liquid/gas (L/G) mass ratio, the average removal efficiency decreased significantly (p = 0.001) from 89.9% at L/G of <2 to 83.1% at L/G of 2-3 and further to 80.2% at L/G of >3, respectively. L/G of 2-3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream.

  11. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Conrozier, Thierry; Bozgan, Ana-Maria; Bossert, Marie; Sondag, Maxime; Lohse-Walliser, Anne; Balblanc, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of HAnox-M-XL (4.4 mL), viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL) + mannitol (35 mg/mL), in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0–50) and WOMAC total (0–240) and patient’s global assessment (PGA). Patient’s self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0–3) and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS Mean (SD) age was 60.7 (13.9) years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0). Kellgren–Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8) and 89.9 (42.8), respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD) variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were −8.2 (8.9) and −38.4 (35.6), respectively, at month 6 (P = 0.001). PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0) to 3.0 (2.2) (P = 0.006). Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. CONCLUSION Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data. PMID:27688712

  12. Poly(ester sulphonic acid) coated mercury thin film electrodes: characterization and application in batch injection analysis stripping voltammetry of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Brett, C M; Fungaro, D A

    2000-01-10

    Mercury-thin film electrodes coated with a thin film of poly(ester sulphonic acid) (PESA) have been investigated for application in the analysis of trace heavy metals by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry using the batch injection analysis (BIA) technique. Different polymer dispersion concentrations in water/acetone mixed solvent are investigated and are characterised by electrochemical impedance measurements on glassy carbon and on mercury film electrodes. The influence of electrolyte anion, acetate or nitrate, on polymer film properties is demonstrated, acetate buffer being shown to be preferable for stripping voltammetry applications. Although stripping currents are between 30 and 70% less at the coated than at bare