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Sample records for acid insoluble ash

  1. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets. PMID:9603354

  2. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets.

  3. Apparent digestibility of wheat bran and extruded flax in horses determined from the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker.

    PubMed

    De Marco, M; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G; Bergero, D

    2012-02-01

    Several studies have reported data on comparisons between two methods: the total collection of feces and the internal markers method. The aim of this study was to assess the apparent digestibility of two concentrates and to compare the apparent digestion coefficients using the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as the internal marker method. In 2009, six adult geldings aged between 3 and 11 years, with an average weight per trial of 543, 540 and 542 kg, respectively, were used to determine the apparent digestibility by means of three in vivo digestibility trials on hay, hay plus wheat bran (60 : 40) and hay plus extruded flax (80 : 20). Feces were collected over a 6-day period with a previous 14-day adaptation period. The three digestibility trials were carried out to determine the digestion coefficients of the three diets and, indirectly, of the two concentrates. The digestion coefficients of the diets were determined for the dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy, whereas the apparent digestion coefficients of the same parameters were calculated for wheat bran and extruded flax, by calculating the difference from the previous results. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for paired samples. The digestion coefficients obtained were similar when the total collection of feces and the AIA method were used. Higher data variability, confirmed by a greater standard deviation, was observed using the AIA method to estimate the apparent digestion coefficients. It can be concluded that the use of AIA as an internal marker in digestibility trials on average leads to values similar to those obtained with the total collection of feces and can therefore be considered a less-expensive method to determine apparent digestion coefficients. Nevertheless, the total collection of feces should still be considered the best choice to determine the digestibility of some specific feedstuffs.

  4. Comparison of hemolytic activities of coal fly ash and its soluble and insoluble fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Wong, M.H.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    1986-08-01

    Coal fly ash of a particle diameter smaller than 10 ..mu..m was collected from the precipitator of a power plant in Hong Kong. Comparison of hemolytic activities between fly ash and free silica showed that fly ash had a lower biological effect than free silica. The hemolytic activities of the soluble and insoluble fractions of fly ash were further compared by two methods: total hemoglobin method and cyanmethemoglobin method. An analysis of results showed significant differences for fly ash and its soluble fraction between methods. Fly ash, which contained a silicate level similar to its insoluble fraction, had a hemolytic activity higher than the summation of both its soluble and insoluble fractions. This indicates that the hemolytic activity was independent of the silicate content in the fly ash samples.

  5. Plant and soil intake by organic broilers reared in tree- or grass-covered plots as determined by means of n-alkanes and of acid-insoluble ash.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Germain, K; Juin, H; Jondreville, C

    2015-05-01

    Free-range birds such as organic broilers may ingest soil and plants during exploration. The estimation of such intakes is of great interest to quantify possible nutritional supplies and also to evaluate the risk of exposure to parasites or to environmental contaminants. Marker-based techniques are now available and would allow to quantify plant and, especially, soil intake in free-range birds, and this quantification was the aim of this study. Methodologically, the proportion of plants in diet intake was determined first using a method based on n-alkanes. Subsequently, the fraction of soil in the total intake was estimated with a second marker, acid-insoluble ash. This approach was carried out to estimate ingested amounts of plants and soil for five successive flocks of organic broilers, exploring grass-covered yards or those under trees, at two time points for each yard: 51 and 64 days of age. Each factor combination (yard type×period=flock number×age) was repeated on two different yards of 750 broilers each. The birds' plant intake varied widely, especially on grass-covered yards. The proportion of plant intake was significantly higher on grass-covered plots than under trees and was also affected, but to a lesser extent, by age or flock number. The ingestion of plants would generally not exceed 11 g of DM daily, except two extreme outliers of nearly 30 g. The daily plant intake under trees tended to be lower and never exceeded 7 g of DM. The amount of ingested plants increased significantly for spring flocks. It increased slightly but significantly with age. The proportion of ingested soil was significantly higher under trees than on grass-covered yards. Dry soil intake was generally low with not more than 3 g per day. Only in adverse conditions - that is, older birds exploring yards under trees in winter - soil intake reached the extreme value of nearly 5 g. Broilers on yards under trees ingested significantly more soil than on grass-covered yards with least

  6. [Determination of Acid-Insoluble Aluminum Content in Steel by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Jia, Yun-hai; Zhang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a very attractive and popular chemical analysis technique in material science for its advantage of rapid analysis, non-contact measurement, micro surface analysis and online analysis. In this paper, LIBS were used to determine insoluble aluminum content by analyzing the scanning data on massive steel samples. Abnormal data were discarded by Nalimov criterion, and the remaining data was used to calculate the average and the standard deviation. The threshold to distinguish acid-insoluble aluminum and soluble aluminum was identified as the average value plus triple standard deviation. Two different mathematical models were proposed to calculate insoluble aluminum content, respectively according to the ratio of the total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength to total aluminum signal strength and acid-insoluble signal number to total aluminum signal number. The total aluminum content was determined by the calibration curve. Insoluble aluminum content of certified reference materials and plate blank samples obtained by mathematical model is coincident to chemical wet method results. The result according to total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength is much better. LIBS can be used as a rapid analysis method to characterize insoluble aluminum content in steel samples.

  7. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  8. Study of insoluble crystals derived from solutions of Kevlar 49 in sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, N.L.

    1984-05-21

    The object of the study was to isolate and obtain x-ray diffraction analysis of the insoluble crystals which have been observed in Kevlar 49/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ dope. These insoluble crystals had previously been reported to be Kevlar single crystals after analysis by optical microscopy. A more detailed analysis does not support this conclusion. Additional optical microscopy coupled with FTIR and elemental analysis for C, H and N, has shown that these insoluble crystals are in fact terephthalic acid which is a decomposition product of the acid hydrolysis of Kevlar. A model compound study of sulfuric-acid hydrolysis of aromatic amide was carried out in order to better understand the sulfuric-acid-hydrolysis of Kevlar.

  9. XPS and STEM studies of Allende acid insoluble residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Clarke, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on Allende acid residues obtained both before and after etching with hot HNO3 are presented. X-ray photoelectron spectra show predominantly carbonaceous material plus Fe-deficient chromite in both cases. The HNO3 oxidizes the carbonaceous material to some extent. The small chromites in these residues have a wide range of compositions somewhat paralleling those observed in larger Allende chromites and in Murchison chromites, especially in the high Al contents; however, they are deficient in divalent cations, which makes them metastable and indicates that they must have formed at relatively low temperatures. It is suggested that they formed by precipitation of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) from olivine at low temperature or during rapid cooling.

  10. Poly(N-vinylimidazole) gels as insoluble buffers that neutralize acid solutions without dissolving.

    PubMed

    Horta, Arturo; Piérola, Inés F

    2009-04-01

    Typical buffers are solutions containing weak acids or bases. If these groups were anchored to insoluble gels, what would be their behavior? Simple thermodynamics is used to calculate the pH in two-phase systems that contain the weak acid or base fixed to only one of the phases and is absent in the other. The experimental reference of such systems are pH sensitive hydrogels and heterogeneous systems of biological interest. It is predicted that a basic hydrogel immersed in slightly acidic solutions should absorb the acid and leave the external solution exactly neutral (pH 7). This is in accordance with experimental results of cross-linked poly(N-vinylimidazole). The pH 7 cannot be obtained if the system were homogeneous; the confinement of the weak base inside the gel phase is a requisite for this neutral pH in the external solution. The solution inside the gel is regulated to a much higher pH, which has important implications in studies on chemical reactions and physical processes taking place inside a phase insoluble but in contact with a solution. PMID:19245223

  11. Integrated acid mine drainage management using fly ash.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Mugera W; Petrik, Leslie F; Etchebers, Olivier; Ellendt, Annabelle

    2012-01-01

    Fly Ash (FA) from a power station in South Africa was investigated to neutralise and remove contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). After this primary treatment the insoluble FA residue namely solid residue (SR) was investigated as a suitable mine backfill material by means of strength testing. Moreover, SR was used to synthesise zeolite-P using a two-step synthesis procedure. Furthermore, the zeolite-P was investigated to polish process water from the primary FA-AMD reaction. The main objective of this series of investigations is to achieve zero waste and to propose an integrated AMD management using FA. Fly Ash was mixed with AMD at various predetermined FA-AMD ratios until the mixtures achieved circumneutral pH or higher. The supernatants were then analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC) for cations and anions respectively. The physical strength testing of SR was carried out by mixing it with 3% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and curing for 410 days. Synthesis of zeolite-P using SR was carried out by two step synthesis procedure: ageing for 24 hours followed by a mild hydrothermal synthesis at 100°C for 4 days. The polishing of process water from primary AMD treatment using FA was ascertained by mixing the process water with zeolite at a liquid to solid ratio of 100:1 for 1 hour. The results indicated that FA can be successfully used to ameliorate AMD. High removal of major AMD contaminants Fe, Al, Mg, Mn and sulphate was achieved with the ash treatment and trace elements such as Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb were also removed by the FA. Strength testing over 410 days indicated that the material gained strength over the testing period. The maximum unconfined compressive strength and elastic modulus was observed to be approximately 0.3 MPa and 150 Mpa respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the synthesized product indicated that SR was successfully converted into zeolite-P with some mullite phase

  12. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  13. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  14. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  15. Micellar acid-base potentiometric titrations of weak acidic and/or insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Gerakis, A M; Koupparis, M A; Efstathiou, C E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of various surfactants [the cationics cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), the anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), and the nonionic polysorbate 80 (Tween 80)] on the solubility and ionization constant of some sparingly soluble weak acids of pharmaceutical interest was studied. Benzoic acid (and its 3-methyl-, 3-nitro-, and 4-tert-butyl-derivatives), acetylsalicylic acid, naproxen and iopanoic acid were chosen as model examples. Precise and accurate acid-base titrations in micellar systems were made feasible using a microcomputer-controlled titrator. The response curve, response time and potential drift of the glass electrode in the micellar systems were examined. The cationics CTAB and CPC were found to increase considerably the ionization constant of the weak acids (delta pKa ranged from -0.21 to -3.57), while the anionic SDS showed negligible effect and the nonionic Tween 80 generally decreased the ionization constants. The solubility of the acids in aqueous micellar and acidified micellar solutions was studied spectrophotometrically and it was found increased in all cases. Acetylsalicylic acid, naproxen, benzoic acid and iopanoic acid could be easily determined in raw material and some of them in pharmaceutical preparations by direct titration in CTAB-micellar system instead of using the traditional non-aqueous or back titrimetry. Precisions of 0.3-4.3% RSD and good correlation with the official tedious methods were obtained. The interference study of some excipients showed that a preliminary test should be carried out before the assay of formulations.

  16. Impact of modifications in acid development on the insoluble calcium content and rheological properties of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-R; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2005-11-01

    Cheddar cheese was made from milk concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to increase the lactose content or from whole milk. Manufacturing parameters (pH at coagulant addition, whey drainage, and milling) were altered to produce cheeses with different total Ca contents and low pH values (i.e., <5.0) during ripening. The concentration of insoluble (INSOL) Ca in cheese was measured by cheese juice method, buffering by acid-base titration, rheological properties by small amplitude oscillatory rheometry, and melting properties by UW-Melt Profiler. The INSOL Ca content as a percentage of total Ca in all cheeses rapidly decreased during the first week of aging but surprisingly did not decrease below approximately 41% even in cheeses with a very low pH (e.g., approximately 4.7). Insoluble Ca content in cheese was positively correlated (r = 0.79) with cheese pH in both RO and nonRO treatments, reflecting the key role of pH and acid development in altering the extent of solubilization of INSOL Ca. The INSOL Ca content in cheese was positively correlated with the maximum loss tangent value from the rheology test and the degree of flow from the UW-Melt Profiler. When cheeses with pH <5.0 where heated in the rheometer the loss tangent values remained low (<0.5), which coincided with limited meltability of Cheddar cheeses. We believe that this lack of meltability was due to the dominant effects of reduced electrostatic repulsion between casein particles at low pH values (<5.0).

  17. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Elicit a Bitterness-Masking Effect on Quinine and Other Nitrogenous Bitter Substances by Formation of Insoluble Binary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Kayako; Yamashita, Haruyuki; Terada, Tohru; Homma, Ryousuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2015-09-30

    We have previously found that fatty acids can mask the bitterness of certain nitrogenous substances through direct molecular interactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the interactions between sodium oleate and 22 bitter substances. The hydrochloride salts of quinine, promethazine, and propranolol interacted strongly with fatty acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms. The (1)H NMR spectra of these substances, obtained in the presence of the sodium salts of the fatty acids in dimethyl sulfoxide, revealed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atoms of the bitter substances and the carboxyl groups of the fatty acids. When sodium laurate and the hydrochloride salt of quinine were mixed in water, an equimolar complex formed as insoluble heterogeneous needlelike crystals. These results suggested that fatty acids interact directly with bitter substances through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to form insoluble binary complexes that mask bitterness.

  18. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Elicit a Bitterness-Masking Effect on Quinine and Other Nitrogenous Bitter Substances by Formation of Insoluble Binary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Kayako; Yamashita, Haruyuki; Terada, Tohru; Homma, Ryousuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2015-09-30

    We have previously found that fatty acids can mask the bitterness of certain nitrogenous substances through direct molecular interactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the interactions between sodium oleate and 22 bitter substances. The hydrochloride salts of quinine, promethazine, and propranolol interacted strongly with fatty acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms. The (1)H NMR spectra of these substances, obtained in the presence of the sodium salts of the fatty acids in dimethyl sulfoxide, revealed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atoms of the bitter substances and the carboxyl groups of the fatty acids. When sodium laurate and the hydrochloride salt of quinine were mixed in water, an equimolar complex formed as insoluble heterogeneous needlelike crystals. These results suggested that fatty acids interact directly with bitter substances through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to form insoluble binary complexes that mask bitterness. PMID:26365517

  19. The hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of Cholazol H, a chemically functionalized insoluble fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T A; Romano, C; Liang, J; Nicolosi, R J

    1998-08-01

    Cholazol H (Alpha-Beta Technology, Worcester, MA), a chemically functionalized, insoluble dietary fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties, was studied in 30 male F1 B Golden Syrian hamsters for its effect on plasma lipid concentrations and early atherogenesis in experiment 1. In experiment 2, 30 male Golden Syrian hamsters were studied for the effects on plasma lipids and fecal excretion of bile acids. In experiment 1, three groups of 10 hamsters each were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 5% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, hamsters were continued on the diet with either 0% drug (hypercholesterolemic diet [HCD]), 0.5% cholestyramine (CSTY), or 0.5% Cholazol H for 8 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 6, 10, and 14, and early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was measured at week 14. Relative to HCD, CSTY and Cholazol H significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol (TC) (-37%, P < .03, and -30%, P < .04, respectively) and plasma very-low and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (nonHDL-C) (-45%, P < .02, and -36%, P < .03, respectively) with no significant effects on plasma HDL-C or triglycerides (TG). Despite similar reductions in nonHDL-C, only Cholazol H significantly prevented early atherosclerosis (-38%, P < .02) relative to HCD. In experiment 2, three groups of 10 hamsters each were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10% coconut oil and 0.05% cholesterol and either 0% drug HCD, 0.5% CSTY, or 0.5% Cholazol H for 4 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 2 and 4, and fecal bile acids were measured at week 4. Both Cholazol H and CSTY were equally effective in significantly lowering plasma TC (-16%, P < .003, and -13%, P < .01, respectively) and nonHDL-C (-22%, P < .004, and -18%, P < .02, respectively), with no significant effect on HDL-C and TG relative to HCD. Cholazol H and CSTY produced a significantly greater concentration of fecal total

  20. Potential of fly ash for neutralisation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Lignite (PK), bituminous (FI) and biomass (SE) fly ashes (FAs) were mineralogically and geochemically characterised, and their element leachability was studied with batch leaching tests. The potential for acid neutralisation (ANP) was quantified by their buffering capacity, reflecting their potential for neutralisation of acid mine drainage. Quartz was the common mineral in FAs detected by XRD with iron oxide, anhydrite, and magnesioferrite in PK, mullite and lime in FI, and calcite and anorthite in SE. All the FAs had high contents of major elements such as Fe, Si, Al and Ca. The Ca content in SE was six and eight times higher compared to PK and FI, respectively. Sulphur content in PK and SE was one magnitude higher than FI. Iron concentrations were higher in PK. The trace element concentrations varied between the FAs. SE had the highest ANP (corresponding to 275 kg CaCO3 tonne(-1)) which was 15 and 10 times higher than PK and FI, respectively. The concentrations of Ca(2+), SO4 (2-), Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leachates were much higher compared to other elements from all FA samples. Iron, Cu and Hg were not detected in any of the FA leachates because of their mild to strong alkaline nature with pH ranging from 9 to 13. Potassium leached in much higher quantity from SE than from the other ashes. Arsenic, Mn and Ni leached from PK only, while Co and Pb from SE only. The concentrations of Zn were higher in the leachates from SE. The FAs used in this study have strong potential for the neutralisation of AMD due to their alkaline nature. However, on the other hand, FAs must be further investigated, with scaled-up experiments before full-scale application, because they might leach pronounced concentrations of elements of concern with decreasing pH while neutralising AMD. PMID:27209637

  1. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash.

  2. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash. PMID:19423597

  3. Potent inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the presence of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10% (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol significantly inhibited the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5 in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. However, the inhibitory effect of acid production by D-tagatose was significantly stronger than that of xylitol in presence of sucrose.

  4. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  5. Poly (γ-glutamic acid) based combination of water-insoluble paclitaxel and TLR7 agonist for chemo-immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anushree; Heo, Min Beom; Lim, Yong Taik

    2014-09-01

    Advanced anti-cancer regimens are being introduced for more effective cancer treatment with improved life expectancy. In this research, immuno-stimulating agent toll-like receptor-7 (TLR-7) agonist-imiquimod and low dose chemotherapeutic agent-paclitaxel were synergized to demonstrate tumor therapy along with anti-tumor memory effect. Both therapeutic agents being water insoluble were dispersed in water with the help of water soluble polymer: poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) using a co-solvent systems leading to formation of micro-dispersions of drugs. Paclitaxel and imiquimod formed crystalline microstructures in the size range of 2-3 μm and were stably dispersed in γ-PGA matrix for more than 6 months. Paclitaxel and combination of paclitaxel and imiquimod had significant tumor killing effect in-vitro on various tumor cell lines, while antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells-DCs) treated with the same concentration of imiquimod along with the combination led to enhanced proliferation (250%). In DCs, enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory and Th1 cytokines was observed in cells co-treated with paclitaxel and imiquimod dispersed in γ-PGA. When administered by intra-tumoral injection in mouse melanoma tumor model, the treatment with combination exemplified drastic inhibition of tumor growth leading to 70% survival as compared to individual components with 0% survival at day 41. The anti-tumor response generated was also found to have systemic memory response since the vaccinated mice significantly deferred secondary tumor development at distant site 6 weeks after treatment. The relative number and activation status of DCs in-vivo was found to be dramatically increased in case of mice treated with combination. The dramatic inhibition of tumor treated with combination is expected to be mediated by both chemotherapeutic killing of tumor cells followed by uptake of released antigen by the DCs and due to enhanced proliferation and activation of the DCs.

  6. Incorporation of glycine-2-C-14 in acid-insoluble proteins of rat bones and teeth during hypokinesia and administration of thyrocalcitonine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stekolnikov, L. I.; Uglova, N. N.; Potkin, V. Y.

    1979-01-01

    A forced limitation of the motor activity in rats (from 5 to 60 days) results in reduced incorporation of glycine 2-C14 in the total acid insoluble proteins of limb bones and its increase in the teeth and mandibular-maxillary bones. Daily administration of five micrograms of thyrocalcitonine together with polyvinylpyrrolidone normalizes the protein metabolism in the bone tissues during the 40 days of experimentation.

  7. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  8. Effects of soluble and insoluble fractions from bilberries, black currants, and raspberries on short-chain fatty acid formation, anthocyanin excretion, and cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Nilsson, Ulf; Blanco, Narda; Sterner, Olov; Nyman, Margareta

    2014-05-14

    Dietary fiber and flavonoids, important components in berries, are suggested to improve metabolic health. This study investigates whether soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from bilberry, black currant, and raspberry affect the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), uptake and excretion of flavonoids, and levels of cholesterol differently. Cecal SCFA pools were higher in rats fed the soluble than the insoluble fractions (525 vs 166 μmol, P < 0.001), whereas higher concentrations of butyric acid were found in the distal colon and serum of rats fed the insoluble fractions (5 vs 3 μmol/g and 58 vs 29 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.001). The soluble bilberry fraction gave lower amounts of liver cholesterol (56 mg) than the other berry fractions (87 ± 5 mg), formed the highest amount of SCFAs (746 vs 266 ± 21 μmol), and contributed the highest intake of anthocyanins. Cyanidin-3-glucoside monoglucuronide was detected in the urine of all groups, whereas anthocyanins were found only in groups fed soluble black currant and raspberry.

  9. Catalyst Of A Metal Heteropoly Acid Salt That Is Insoluble In A Polar Solvent On A Non-Metallic Porous Support And Method Of Making

    DOEpatents

    Wang. Yong; Peden. Charles H. F.; Choi. Saemin

    2004-11-09

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  10. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  11. Effect of wood ash application on soil solution chemistry of tropical acid soils: incubation study.

    PubMed

    Nkana, J C Voundi; Demeyer, A; Verloo, M G

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wood ash application on soil solution composition of three tropical acid soils. Calcium carbonate was used as a reference amendment. Amended soils and control were incubated for 60 days. To assess soluble nutrients, saturation extracts were analysed at 15 days intervals. Wood ash application affects the soil solution chemistry in two ways, as a liming agent and as a supplier of nutrients. As a liming agent, wood ash application induced increases in soil solution pH, Ca, Mg, inorganic C, SO4 and DOC. As a supplier of elements, the increase in the soil solution pH was partly due to ligand exchange between wood ash SO4 and OH- ions. Large increases in concentrations of inorganic C, SO4, Ca and Mg with wood ash relative to lime and especially increases in K reflected the supply of these elements by wood ash. Wood ash application could represent increased availability of nutrients for the plant. However, large concentrations of basic cations, SO4 and NO3 obtained with higher application rates could be a concern because of potential solute transport to surface waters and groundwater. Wood ash must be applied at reasonable rates to avoid any risk for the environment. PMID:12365502

  12. The reaction of acid mine drainage with fly ash from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-07-01

    The placement of alkaline fly ash in abandoned, reclaimed or active surface coal mines is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites by neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion. A continuing concern with this application is the potential release of trace elements from the fly ash when it is placed in contact with AMD. To investigate the possible release of antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc from fly ash, a series of column leaching tests were conducted. A one kg fly ash sample, placed in a 5-cm by 1 m acrylic columns, was leached at a nominal rate of 250 mL/d for between 30 and 60 days. The leachant solutions were deionized water, and dilute solutions of sulfuric acid and ferric chloride. Leaching tests have been completed on 28 fly ash samples. leachate data, analyzed as the mass extracted with respect to the concentration in the solid, indicate that the release of trace elements is variable, with only barium and zinc extracted at greater than 50 pct of the amount present in the original sample. As a comparison, water quality changes have been monitored at three sites where fly ash grout was injected after reclamation to control AMD. When compared before and after grouting, small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points were observed. Concentrations of trace metals were found to be comparable in treated and untreated areas. When grouted and ungrouted areas were compared, the effect of the fly ash was shown to be localized in the areas of injection. These studies indicated that when fly ash is used as a reagent to control of AMD, the release of trace elements is relatively small.

  13. Leaching of lignite ash by rain and acid rain. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, R.A.

    1981-08-25

    Samples of lignite ash were obtained from the start-up operations of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Station at Jourdanton, Texas. Fly ash and bottoms ash were subjected to the conditions of a worst case analysis by refluxing with demineralized water in order to determine the maximum concentrations of hazardous inorganic pollutants which could be leached from the ash samples. The leachate was analyzed for cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickle, silver, and zinc. Effects of varying the pH of the leaching water upon the concentrations of these species in the leachate were also assessed. For the fly ash, the concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and silver in the fly ash leachate were lower than the detection limits of the analyticl technique at all pH values. Zinc was detectable at all pH levels studied, and copper and manganese were detected at the most acidic pH levels. Results from the bottoms ash leaching experiments were quite different from those obtained from the leaching of fly ash with regards to pH effects, total dissolved solids, and metals in the leachate. At all pH values utilized, the concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, and silver in the bottoms ash leachate were below the detection limits of the analytical technique. Cobalt, manganese, nickel, and zinc were detected at most pH values. The results indicate that the exhaustive leaching of the fly and bottoms ash from the combustion of Texas lignite does produce concentrations of some hazardous inorganic constituents which are in the range of hundredths to tenths of a part per million.

  14. Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash forming acid-resistant material.

    PubMed

    Etoh, Jiro; Kawagoe, Takeshi; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2009-03-01

    To recycle municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash, synthesis of hydrothermal minerals from bottom ash was performed to stabilize heavy metals. MSWI bottom ash was mixed with SiO(2), Al(OH)(3), and Mg(OH)(2) so its chemical composition was similar to that of hydrothermal clay minerals. These solid specimens were mixed with water at a liquid/solid ratio of 5. The reaction temperature was 200 degrees C, and reactions were performed for 24-240h. Generation of kaolinite/smectite mixed-layer clay mineral was found in the samples after the reaction of the mixture of bottom ash, SiO(2), and Mg(OH)(2). Calcium silicate hydrate minerals such as tobermorite and xonotlite were also generated. X-ray powder diffraction suggested the presence of amorphous materials. Leaching tests at various pHs revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leachates from MSWI bottom ash hydrothermally treated with SiO(2) and Mg(OH)(2) was lower than that in leachates from non-treated bottom ash, especially under acid conditions. Hydrothermal treatment with modification of chemical composition may have potential for the recycling of MSWI bottom ash. PMID:18845427

  15. Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash forming acid-resistant material

    SciTech Connect

    Etoh, Jiro Kawagoe, Takeshi; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2009-03-15

    To recycle municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash, synthesis of hydrothermal minerals from bottom ash was performed to stabilize heavy metals. MSWI bottom ash was mixed with SiO{sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, and Mg(OH){sub 2} so its chemical composition was similar to that of hydrothermal clay minerals. These solid specimens were mixed with water at a liquid/solid ratio of 5. The reaction temperature was 200 deg. C, and reactions were performed for 24-240 h. Generation of kaolinite/smectite mixed-layer clay mineral was found in the samples after the reaction of the mixture of bottom ash, SiO{sub 2}, and Mg(OH){sub 2}. Calcium silicate hydrate minerals such as tobermorite and xonotlite were also generated. X-ray powder diffraction suggested the presence of amorphous materials. Leaching tests at various pHs revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leachates from MSWI bottom ash hydrothermally treated with SiO{sub 2} and Mg(OH){sub 2} was lower than that in leachates from non-treated bottom ash, especially under acid conditions. Hydrothermal treatment with modification of chemical composition may have potential for the recycling of MSWI bottom ash.

  16. Adsorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid from an Aqueous Solution on Fly Ash.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierek, Krzysztof; Świątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on fly ash was studied. The effects of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the adsorption were investigated. Adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models, and results showed that adsorption kinetics were better represented by the pseudo-second order model. Adsorption isotherms of 2,4-D on fly ash were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The negative values of ΔG° and the positive value of ΔH° indicate the spontaneous nature of 2,4-D adsorption on fly ash, and that the adsorption process was endothermic. Results showed that fly ash is an efficient, low-cost adsorbent for removal of 2,4-D from water.

  17. Prediction of Coal ash leaching behavior in acid mine water, comparison of laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    ANNA, KNOX

    2005-01-10

    Strongly alkaline fluidized bed combustion ash is commonly used to control acid mine drainage in West Virginia coal mines. Objectives include acid neutralization and immobilization of the primary AMD pollutants: iron, aluminum and manganese. The process has been successful in controlling AMD though doubts remain regarding mobilization of other toxic elements present in the ash. In addition, AMD contains many toxic elements in low concentrations. And, each mine produces AMD of widely varying quality. So, predicting the effect of a particular ash on a given coal mine's drainage quality is of particular interest. In this chapter we compare the results of a site-specific ash leaching procedure with two large-scale field applications of FBC ash. The results suggested a high degree of predictability for roughly half of the 25 chemical parameters and poor predictability for the remainder. Of these, seven parameters were successfully predicted on both sites: acidity, Al, B, Ba, Fe, Ni and Zn while electrical conductivity, Ca, Cd, SO4, Pb and Sb were not successfully predicted on either site. Trends for the remaining elements: As, Ag, Be, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, pH, Se Tl and V were successfully predicted on one but not both mine sites.

  18. Use of Ekibastuzsk coal ash as a filler for acid resistant plaster

    SciTech Connect

    Korsakov, F.F.; Isichenko, I.I.; Kabanov, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Acid resistant plasters are used extensively at thermal power plants for protection of gas conduits, ash traps with spouts and hydraulic valves, and the internal surfaces of smoke pump housings. The surface being protected is preliminarily cleaned and a No. 16-20 steel grid attached to the surface by electrial welding. In producing the acid resistant plaster, 14-17 parts by weight of sodium silicofluoride are added to 100 parts by weight of sodium water glass; the remainder consists of andesite or diabase meal to the required consistency. The water glass fulfills the role of a binder; the sodium silicofluoride accelerates solidification of the water glass and the andesite and diabase meal serve as fillers. We found, tested in the laboratory and used successfully (under experimental-industrial conditions) a substitute for andesite and diabase meal. This substitute was ash of Ekibastuzsk coal, which was not only comparable to the meal in regard to quality of the acid resistant plaster, but even exceeded andesite and diabase meal in regard to several qualitative indicators. At the present time, a formula is being developed for an acid resistant plaster produced on the basis of water glass, sodium silicofluoride and ash of Ekibastuzsk coal. In order to verify the possibility of using other ashes instead of andesite and diabase meal, we also tested, under laboratory conditions, acid resistant plasters using ash from thermal power plants (TPP's) also burning Karagandinsk, Kuuchekinsk, Kuznetsk and Kansko-Achinsk coals. In compositions produced with polymer binders, Kansko-Achinsk coal ash was one of the best fillers, providing the most favorable physico-mechanical properties of the composition.

  19. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  20. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil. Technical terminal report

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

  1. Emission control for precursors causing acid rain (V): Improvement of acid soil with the bio-briquette combustion ash.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xu-Hui; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Wang, Wei; Gao, Shi-Dong; Isobe, Yugo

    2004-01-01

    The bio-briquette technique which mixes coal, biomass and sulfur fixation agent and bio-briquettes under 3-5 t/cm2 line pressure has aroused people's attention in view of controlling the air pollution and the acid rain. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of bio-briquette and its ash were investigated. And the acid soil was improved by the bio-briquette combustion ash, which contained nutritive substances such as P, N, K and had the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The pH, EC, effective nutrient elements (Ca, Mg, K, P and N), heavy metal elements (Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) and acid-neutralizing capacity change of ash-added soils within the range of 0-10%, were also studied. Specially, when 5% bio-briquette combustion ash was added to the tested soil, the content of the effective elements such as Ca, Mg and K rose by 100 times, 7 times and twice, respectively. The total nitrogen also increased by about twice. The results showed the oxyanions such as that of Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn were not potentially dangerous, because they were about the same as the averages of them in Chinese soil. It is shown that the ANC became stronger, though the ANC hardly increases in the ash-added soil. On the basis of the evaluation indices, it is concluded that the best mixture ratio is to add 2.5%-8% of the bio-briquette combustion ash to the tested soil.

  2. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively.

  3. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively. PMID:25461009

  4. Chemical composition and minerals in pyrite ash of an abandoned sulphuric acid production plant.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ward, Colin R; Izquierdo, Maria; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Sabedot, Sydney; Querol, Xavier; Silva, Luis F O

    2012-07-15

    The extraction of sulphur produces a hematite-rich waste, known as roasted pyrite ash, which contains significant amounts of environmentally sensitive elements in variable concentrations and modes of occurrence. Whilst the mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash associated with iron or copper mining has been studied, as this is the main source of sulphur worldwide, the mineralogy, and more importantly, the characterization of submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles, in coal-derived roasted pyrite ash remain to be resolved. In this work we provide essential data on the chemical composition and nanomineralogical assemblage of roasted pyrite ash. XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM were used to identify a large variety of minerals of anthropogenic origin. These phases result from highly complex chemical reactions occurring during the processing of coal pyrite of southern Brazil for sulphur extraction and further manufacture of sulphuric acid. Iron-rich submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles within the ash may contain high proportions of toxic elements such as As, Se, U, among others. A number of elements, such as As, Cr, Cu, Co, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr, were found to be present in individual nanoparticles and submicron, ultrafine and nanominerals (e.g. oxides, sulphates, clays) in concentrations of up to 5%. The study of nanominerals in roasted pyrite ash from coal rejects is important to develop an understanding on the nature of this by-product, and to assess the interaction between emitted nanominerals, ultra-fine particles, and atmospheric gases, rain or body fluids, and thus to evaluate the environmental and health impacts of pyrite ash materials.

  5. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  6. Injection of alkaline ashes into underground coal mines for acid mine drainage abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    The injection of fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) ash, and other alkaline waste materials into abandoned underground coal mines for acid mine drainage (AMD) abatement has obvious conceptual appeal. This report describes three ongoing projects -- one each in West Virginia, Maryland, and Ohio -- where field demonstrations of the technique are being pursued in cooperative efforts among State and Federal agencies and/or private companies. The West Virginia site produces AMD that is causing the State to incur very high treatment costs and operational problems, especially in the storage and disposal of metal hydroxide sludges that result from treatment. In an attempt to achieve a more cost-effective long-term remediation scheme, the State is working with local coal companies and power generators on a plan to fill part or all of the mine voids with slurries of fly ash and/or FBC ash. At the Maryland site, the goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of completely filling a very small underground mine with an FEC ash slurry. The information gained here will determine whether large-scale AMD remediation can be achieved if deep mine disposal of ash is incorporated into the design of a new FBC power plant. In Ohio, it is believed that sealing and complete flooding of a relatively small mine will be able to curtail its AMD production. In order to accelerate the flooding process and insure that alkaline conditions will prevail in the mine, a waste slurry of calcium hydroxide from a nearby source will be injected into the mine voids in conjunction with mine sealing.

  7. Ash iron mobilization in volcanic eruption plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that volcanic ash fertilizes the Fe-limited areas of the surface ocean through releasing soluble iron. As ash iron is mostly insoluble upon the eruption, it is hypothesized that heterogeneous in-plume and in-cloud processing of the ash promote the iron solubilization. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. In this study, a 1-D numerical model is developed to simulate the physicochemical interactions of gas-ash-aerosol in volcanic eruption plumes focusing on the iron mobilization processes at temperatures between 600 and 0 °C. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at ~150 and ~50 °C on the ash surface, respectively. This liquid phase then efficiently scavenges the surrounding gases (>95% of HCl, 3-20% of SO2 and 12-62% of HF) forming an extremely acidic coating at the ash surface. The low pH conditions of the aqueous film promote acid-mediated dissolution of the Fe-bearing phases present in the ash material. We estimate that 0.1 to 33% of the total iron available at the ash surface is dissolved in the aqueous phase before the freezing point is reached. The efficiency of dissolution is controlled by the halogen content of the erupted gas as well as the mineralogy of the iron at ash surface: elevated halogen concentrations and presence of Fe2+-carrying phases lead to the highest dissolution efficiency. Findings of this study are in agreement with the data obtained through leaching experiments.

  8. Adsorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid from an Aqueous Solution on Fly Ash.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierek, Krzysztof; Świątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on fly ash was studied. The effects of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the adsorption were investigated. Adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models, and results showed that adsorption kinetics were better represented by the pseudo-second order model. Adsorption isotherms of 2,4-D on fly ash were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The negative values of ΔG° and the positive value of ΔH° indicate the spontaneous nature of 2,4-D adsorption on fly ash, and that the adsorption process was endothermic. Results showed that fly ash is an efficient, low-cost adsorbent for removal of 2,4-D from water. PMID:26931534

  9. Effect of additives on adsorption and desorption behavior of xylanase on acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfei; Ge, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zongping; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-06-01

    The competitive adsorption between cellulases and additives on lignin in the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses has been confirmed, whereas the effect of additives on the interaction between xylanase and lignin is not clear. In this work, the effects of additives, poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, Tween 20, and Tween 80, on the xylanase adsorption/desorption onto/from acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover (CS-lignin) and wheat straw (WS-lignin) were investigated. The results indicated that the additives could adsorb onto isolated lignin and reduce the xylanase adsorption onto lignin. Compared to CS-lignin, more additives could adsorb onto WS-lignin, making less xylanase adsorbed onto WS-lignin. In addition, the additives could enhance desorption of xylanase from lignin, which might be due to the competitive adsorption between xylanase and additives on lignin. The released xylanase from lignin still exhibited hydrolytic capacity in the hydrolysis of isolated xylan and xylan in corn stover.

  10. Illinois basin coal fly ashes. 2. Equilibria relationships and qualitative modeling of ash-water reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Alkaline and acidic Illinois Basin coal fly ash samples were each mixed with deionized water and equilibrated for about 140 days to simulate ash ponding environments. Common to both equilibrated solutions, anhydrite solubility dominated Ca2+ activities, and Al3+ activities were in equilibrium with both matrix mullite and insoluble aluminum hydroxide phases. Aqueous silica activities were controlled by both mullite and matrix silicates. The pH of the extract of the acidic fly ash was 4.1 after 24 h but increased to a pH value of 6.4 as the H2SO4, assumed to be adsorbed to the particle surfaces, was exhausted by the dissolution of matrix iron oxides and aluminosilicates. The activities of aqueous Al3+ and iron, initially at high levels during the early stages of equilibration, decreased to below analytical detection limits as the result of the formation of insoluble Fe and Al hydroxide phases. The pH of the extract of the alkaline fly ash remained above a pH value of 10 during the entire equilibration interval as a result of the hydrolysis of matrix oxides. As with the acidic system, Al3+ activities were controlled by amorphous aluminum hydroxide phases that began to form after about 7 days of equilibration. The proposed mechanisms and their interrelations are discussed in addition to the solubility diagrams used to deduce these relationships. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  11. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application. PMID:24617077

  12. Treatment of acid mine drainage with fly ash: Removal of major contaminants and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gitari, M.W.; Petrik, L.F.; Etchebers, O.; Key, D.L.; Iwuoha, E.; Okujeni, C.

    2006-08-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been reacted with two South African fly ashes in a batch setup in an attempt to evaluate their neutralization and major, trace elements removal capacity. Different fly ash:acid mine drainage ratios (FA:AMD) were stirred in a beaker for a set time and the process water analyzed for major, trace elements and sulphate content. The three factors that finally dictated the nature of the final solution in these neutralization reactions were the FA:AMD ratio, the contact time of the reaction and the chemistry of the AMD. Efficiency of the elements removal was directly linked to the amount of FA in the reaction mixture and to the final pH attained. Most elements attained approximate to 100% removal only when the pH of minimum solubility of their hydroxides was achieved (i.e., Mg = 10.49 - 11.0, Cu{sup 2+} = 6, Pb{sup 2+} = 6 - 7). Dissolution of CaO and subsequent precipitation of gypsum and formation of Al, Fe oxyhydroxysulphates, Fe oxyhydroxides with subsequent adsorption of sulphate contributed to the sulphate attenuation. Significant leaching of B, Sr, Ba and Mo was observed as the reaction progressed and was observed to increase with quantity of fly ash in the reaction mixture. However B was observed to decrease at high FA:AMD ratios probably as result of co-precipitation with CaCO{sub 3}(s).

  13. Heterogeneous photochemistry of oxalic acid on Mauritanian sand and Icelandic volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Styler, Sarah A; Donaldson, D J

    2012-08-21

    Teragram quantities of crustal and volcanic aerosol are released into the atmosphere on an annual basis. Although these substrates contain photoactive metal oxides, little is known about the role that they may play in catalyzing the heterogeneous phototransformation of semivolatile organic species. In the present study, we have investigated oxalic acid photochemistry at the surface of Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), Mauritanian sand, and Icelandic volcanic ash in the presence and absence of oxygen using a photochemical Knudsen cell reactor. Illumination of all sample types resulted in the production of gas-phase CO(2). In the case of Mauritanian sand, the production of gas-phase CO(2) scaled with the loss of surface oxalic acid. In the absence of oxygen, the production of CO(2) by the sand and ash films scaled with the absorption spectrum of iron oxalate, which suggests that the reaction is at least in part iron-mediated. The presence of oxygen suppressed CO(2) production at the Fe(2)O(3) surface, enhanced CO(2) production at the Mauritanian sand surface, and did not have a net effect upon CO(2) production at the Icelandic ash surface. These different oxygen dependencies imply that oxalic acid photochemistry at the authentic surfaces under study was not solely iron-mediated. Experiments at the TiO(2) surface, which showed enhanced CO(2) production from oxalic acid in the presence of oxygen, suggest that Ti-mediated photochemistry played an important role. In summary, these results provide evidence that solid-phase aerosol photochemistry may influence the atmospheric lifetime of oxalic acid in arid regions, where its removal via wet deposition is insignificant.

  14. Relative solubility of cations in Class F fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ann G; Kazonich, George; Dahlberg, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Coal utilization byproducts (CUB), such as fly ash, contain cations that may be released during exposure to fluids such as acid rain or acid mine drainage. Researchers at the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) have conducted a long-term column leaching study of 32 Class F fly ash samples from pulverized coal (PC) combustion, and quantified the release of 19 cations in four leachants with a pH between 1.2 and 12. The relative solubility (M(L/T)) of each cation was defined as the total mass leached (M(L)) relative to the concentration (M(T)) of that element in the fly ash sample. A frequency distribution of relative solubility values was computed with ranges defined as insoluble, slightly soluble, moderately soluble, and very soluble. On the basis of this sample set, Ba, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sb, and Se in PC fly ash are insoluble. The elements Al, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are slightly to moderately acid soluble. Only Ca and Na are water soluble; As and Ca are soluble in the basic solution, The results of this study indicate that the extent to which cations in Class F PC fly ash can be leached by naturally occurring fluids is very limited.

  15. Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA).

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tong, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge ash samples obtained from 7 operating sludge incinerators in the UK using a sulfuric acid washing procedure to produce a technical grade phosphoric acid product has been investigated. The influences of reaction time, sulfuric acid concentration, liquid to solid ratio and source of ISSA on P recovery have been examined. The optimised conditions were the minimum stoichiometric acid requirement, a reaction time of 120 min and a liquid to solid ratio of 20. Under these conditions, average recoveries of between 72% and 91% of total phosphorus were obtained. Product filtrate was purified by passing through a cation exchange column, concentrated to 80% H(3)PO(4) and compared with technical grade H(3)PO(4) specifications. The economics of phosphate recovery by this method are briefly discussed.

  16. Copper and cobalt recovery from pyrite ashes of a sulphuric acid plant.

    PubMed

    Erust, Ceren; Akcil, Ata

    2016-06-01

    The pyrite ashes formed as waste material during the calcination of concentrated pyrite ore used for producing sulphuric acid not only has a high iron content but also contains economically valuable metals. These wastes, which are currently landfilled or dumped into the sea, cause serious land and environmental pollution problems owing to the release of acids and toxic substances. In this study, physical (sulphation roasting) and hydrometallurgical methods were evaluated for their efficacy to recover non-iron metals with a high content in the pyrite ashes and to prevent pollution thereby. The preliminary enrichment tests performed via sulphation roasting were conducted at different roasting temperatures and with different acid amounts. The leaching tests investigated the impact of the variables, including different solvents, acid concentrations and leach temperatures on the copper and cobalt leaching efficiency. The experimental studies indicated that the pre-enrichment via sulphation roasting method has an effect on the leaching efficiencies of copper and cobalt, and that approximate recoveries of 80% copper and 70% cobalt were achieved in the H2O2-added H2SO4 leaching tests. PMID:26987736

  17. Does simulated acid rain increase the leaching of cadmium from wood ash to toxic levels to coniferous forest humus microbes?

    PubMed

    Perkiömäki, Jonna; Fritze, Hannu

    2003-05-01

    Abstract Wood ash contains Cd in concentrations not permitted for fertilization use in agriculture (>3 mg kg(-1)). It has been shown that spiking ash with Cd to concentrations of 1000 mg kg(-1) induced no further changes in humus microbial activity and community structure as ash alone. To accelerate the weathering process and thus to liberate the spiked Cd from the ash, three treatments - wood ash (A), Cd spiked wood ash (ACd, 1000 mg Cd kg(-1) ash), both applied at a fertilization rate of 5000 kg ha(-1), together with a control (C) - were performed in microcosms and incubated in field condition under two types of irrigation - water and simulated acid rain. During the incubation period of one growing season the simulated acid rain plots received a sulfur load of 3.64 g S m(-2), which was 15 times more than the S deposition on the water irrigated plots. The treatments resulted in a mean Cd increase of the humus from 0.23 mg kg(-1) of the C treatment to 0.52 and 39.5 mg kg(-1) of the A and ACd treatments, respectively. The irrigation had no further effect on the result. The microbial activity, measured as soil basal respiration, and the microbial community structure, measured as humus phospholipid fatty acid and 16S and 18S polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns, changed only due to the ash (A and ACd treatments) fertilization irrespective of the irrigation. The bacterial biosensor, emitting light in the presence of bioavailable Cd, did not react to any of the treatments. This result shows that Cd in ash was not leached into the humus due to increased deposition of acidified rain.

  18. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  19. Removal of arsenic in coal fly ash by acid washing process using dilute H2SO4 solvent.

    PubMed

    Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hajime; Matsubae-Yokoyama, Kazuyo; Kumagai, Yuichi; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2010-09-15

    Coal fly ash emitted from coal thermal power plants generally contains tens ppm of arsenic, one of the hazardous elements in coal, during combustion and their elution to soil or water has become a public concern. In this study, the acid washing process developed by the authors was applied to the removal of arsenic from coal fly ash. Laboratory- and bench-scale investigations on the dissolution behavior of arsenic from various coal fly ash samples into dilute H(2)SO(4) were conducted. Arsenic in the coal fly ash samples were dissolved into H(2)SO(4) solutions rapidly. However, its concentrations decreased with an increase in the pH of H(2)SO(4) solution in some cases. The species of arsenic in the dilute H(2)SO(4) was estimated as H(3)AsO(4), and its anionic species was considered to adsorb with the elevation of pH under the presence of ash particle. Such adsorption behavior was enhanced under the presence of Fe ion in the solution. The sufficient removal of arsenic was achieved by controlling pH and avoiding the adsorption of arsenic on the surface of coal fly ash particles, and the elution of arsenic from coal fly ash sample was successfully below the regulation limit.

  20. Incinerator ash dissolution model for the system: Plutonium, nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E V

    1988-06-01

    This research accomplished two goals. The first was to develop a computer program to simulate a cascade dissolver system. This program would be used to predict the bulk rate of dissolution in incinerator ash. The other goal was to verify the model in a single-stage dissolver system using Dy/sub 2/O/sub 3/. PuO/sub 2/ (and all of the species in the incinerator ash) was assumed to exist as spherical particles. A model was used to calculate the bulk rate of plutonium oxide dissolution using fluoride as a catalyst. Once the bulk rate of PuO/sub 2/ dissolution and the dissolution rate of all soluble species were calculated, mass and energy balances were written. A computer program simulating the cascade dissolver system was then developed. Tests were conducted on a single-stage dissolver. A simulated incinerator ash mixture was made and added to the dissolver. CaF/sub 2/ was added to the mixture as a catalyst. A 9M HNO/sub 3/ solution was pumped into the dissolver system. Samples of the dissolver effluent were analyzed for dissolved and F concentrations. The computer program proved satisfactory in predicting the F concentrations in the dissolver effluent. The experimental sparge air flow rate was predicted to within 5.5%. The experimental percentage of solids dissolved (51.34%) compared favorably to the percentage of incinerator ash dissolved (47%) in previous work. No general conclusions on model verification could be reached. 56 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  2. In-situ treatment of acid mine waters using fluidized bed ash: Field study

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.W.; Canty, G.A.

    1999-07-01

    A slurry of mine water and fluidized bed ash (FBA) was injected into an abandoned coal mine in eastern Oklahoma in July 1997. Oil-field technology was used to inject 1.8 Gg (418 tons) of FBA through five wells in 15 hours. Prior to injection the seep water had a pH of 4.4, was net acidic (acidity over 400 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}), and had relatively high metal concentrations (in mg/L: Fe-200; Mn-7; and Al-6). After injection, during the period of effective treatment, the seep water had a pH above 6.0, less net acidity, and had lower metals concentrations (in mg/L: Fe-120; Mn-5; and Al-{lt}PQL). When the treated seep water exited the mine, the dissolved metals oxidized and hydrolyzed. As the metals precipitated, the alkalinity introduced by the FBA was consumed and the pH dropped. However, the seep water characteristics upon entering the receiving stream were improved, compared to pre-injection. The resulting seep water quality is such that it is more amenable to further treatment by passive treatment methods, such as anoxic limestone drains or wetlands. Alkaline injection is a finite treatment process. Eventually, the added alkalinity is exhausted, at which time the seep returns to pre-injection conditions, necessitating another injection of ash. For the study discussed in this paper, the treatment lasted approximately 15 months. While the amount of alkalinity added to the mine could have potentially treated much more than a year's volume of seep water, it is believed that much of the injected alkalinity was unavailable in backwater areas in the mine. This alkalinity contributed little, if any, to the treatment of water flowing through the mine. Mine hydrology, especially during injection are crucial to treatment longevity.

  3. In-depth proteomic analysis of a mollusc shell: acid-soluble and acid-insoluble matrix of the limpet Lottia gigantea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Invertebrate biominerals are characterized by their extraordinary functionality and physical properties, such as strength, stiffness and toughness that by far exceed those of the pure mineral component of such composites. This is attributed to the organic matrix, secreted by specialized cells, which pervades and envelops the mineral crystals. Despite the obvious importance of the protein fraction of the organic matrix, only few in-depth proteomic studies have been performed due to the lack of comprehensive protein sequence databases. The recent public release of the gastropod Lottia gigantea genome sequence and the associated protein sequence database provides for the first time the opportunity to do a state-of-the-art proteomic in-depth analysis of the organic matrix of a mollusc shell. Results Using three different sodium hypochlorite washing protocols before shell demineralization, a total of 569 proteins were identified in Lottia gigantea shell matrix. Of these, 311 were assembled in a consensus proteome comprising identifications contained in all proteomes irrespective of shell cleaning procedure. Some of these proteins were similar in amino acid sequence, amino acid composition, or domain structure to proteins identified previously in different bivalve or gastropod shells, such as BMSP, dermatopontin, nacrein, perlustrin, perlucin, or Pif. In addition there were dozens of previously uncharacterized proteins, many containing repeated short linear motifs or homorepeats. Such proteins may play a role in shell matrix construction or control of mineralization processes. Conclusions The organic matrix of Lottia gigantea shells is a complex mixture of proteins comprising possible homologs of some previously characterized mollusc shell proteins, but also many novel proteins with a possible function in biomineralization as framework building blocks or as regulatory components. We hope that this data set, the most comprehensive available at present, will

  4. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water. PMID:24355687

  5. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  6. Removal of sulfuric acid mist from lead-acid battery plants by coal fly ash-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuehong; Wei, Xiangyu; Fang, Yu; Lan, Bingyan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Sorbents from coal fly ash (CFA) activated by NaOH, CaO and H2O were prepared for H2SO4 mist removal from lead-acid battery plants. The effects of parameters including temperature, time, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid during sorbent preparation were investigated. It is found that the synthesized sorbents exhibit much higher removal capacity for H2SO4 mist when compared with that of raw coal fly ash and CaO except for H2O activated sorbent and this sorbent was hence excluded from the study because of its low capacity. The H2SO4 mist removal efficiency increases with the increasing of preparation time length and temperature. In addition, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid also impact the removal efficiency, and the optimum preparation conditions are identified as: a water/solid ratio of 10:1 at 120 °C for 10h, a CFA:CaO weight ratio of 10:1, and a NaOH solution concentration of 3 mol/L. The formation of rough surface structure and an increased surface area after NaOH/CaO activation favor the sorption of H2SO4 mist and possible sorption mechanisms might be electrostatic attractions and chemical precipitation between the surface of sorbents and H2SO4 mist.

  7. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  8. Cadmium, lead and zinc leaching from smelter fly ash in simple organic acids--simulators of rhizospheric soil solutions.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtech; Vrtisková, Růzena; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Grygar, Tomás; Drahota, Petr

    2009-10-30

    Emissions from base-metal smelters are responsible for high contamination of the surrounding soils. Fly ash from a secondary Pb smelter was submitted to a batch leaching procedure (0.5-168 h) in 500 microM solutions of acetic, citric, or oxalic acids to simulate the release of toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) in rhizosphere-like environments. Organic acids increased dissolution of fly ash by a factor of 1.3. Cadmium and Pb formed mobile chloro- and sulphate-complexes, whereas Zn partly present in a citrate (Zn-citrate(-)) complex is expected to be less mobile due to sorption onto the positively charged surfaces of hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) and organic matter (OM) in acidic soil.

  9. The effect of ambient ozone pollution and acidic rain on the growth and chlorophyll content of green and white ash.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C L; Eberhardt, J C; Brennan, E G

    1987-01-01

    Two- and three-year old green ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) seedlings were exposed to combinations of ambient ozone and acidic ambient rainfall in New Brunswick, New Jersey. During the 3-year study the potted seedlings did not develop typical foliar ozone toxicity symptoms, despite the occurrence of as many as 78 h in exceedance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 0.12 ppm. Although the pH of the rainfall was as low as 3.6 and averaged 4.1, no symptoms were observed resulting from the ambient precipitation. The rate of shoot growth in terms of height and diameter was generally not affected by either of the pollutants during the growing season. Although the chlorophyll content of white ash foliage was low following frequent rainfall in the early summer of 1984, there was no statistically significant evidence that acid raid or ambient ozone decreased chlorophyll in ash seedlings during the 3-year study.

  10. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash. PMID:27072618

  11. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash.

  12. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and turns to gel during ... and nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat ...

  13. Adsorption of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solution by Bagasse Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the studies on the benzoic acid (BA) onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) was studied in aqueous solution in a batch system. Physico-chemical properties including surface area, surface texture of the GAC before and after BA adsorption onto BFA were analysed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The optimum initial pH for the adsorption of BA was found to be 5.56. The adsorbent dose was 10 g/l for BFA and the equilibrium time 8 h of reaction. Pseudo first and second order models were used to find the adsorption kinetics. It was found that intraparticle diffusion played important role in the adsorption mechanisms of BA and the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model rather than the pseudo first order kinetic model. Isotherm data were generated for BA solution having initial concentrations of BA in the range of 10-200 mg/l for the BFA dosage of 10 g/l at temperatures of 288, 303, and 318 K. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was favorably influenced by an increase in temperature. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model. Values of the change in entropy ( ΔS 0), heat of adsorption ( ΔH 0) for adsorption of BA on BFA was found to be 120.10 and 19.61 kJ/mol respectively. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was an endothermic reaction. Desorption of BA from BFA was studied by various solvents method. Acetic acid was found to be a better eluant for desorption of BA with a maximum desorption efficiency of 55.2 %. Owing to its heating value, spent BFA can be used as a co-fuel for the production of heat in boiler furnaces.

  14. Composts with and without wood ash admixture for the management of tropical acid soils: chemical, physical and microbiological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougnom, B. P.; Insam, H.; Etoa, F. X.

    2009-04-01

    Acid soils generally found in the tropics have a low pH, are poor in organic matter, deficient in Ca2+, Mg+, P, or Mo ; limited in mineralization, nitrification, nodulation, and mycorrhizal infection , suffer from Al or Mn toxicity. Within the framework aiming at using organic wastes and wood ash to overcome soil infertility in tropical acidic soils, a green house experiment was conducted with two acid soils collected from Cameroon (Ferralsol and Acrisol) and amended with three types of compost 3:1(W/W) containing 0 (K0), 8(K8) and 16% (K16) wood ash admixture respectively for two consecutive cycles of 100 days, during which soybean (Glycine max) was grown on the first, the second cycle was left as fallow. Generally the same trends of variation of the physico-chemical parameters were observed in both soils. Addition of organic wastes increased the pH electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, water holding capacity, total Carbone and total nitrogen as compared to the controls. The rate of nitrification highly increased posing the problem of possible leaching of nitrates in the ground water. The cations and micronutrients content followed the same trends. These changes leaded to an increase of the P availability and a decrease of Al toxicity. At the end of the second cycle, generally most of the different parameters slightly decreased except for the electrical conductivity. All composts passed a toxicity test, and the amended soils had significant better fresh and dried plant biomass, the Total nitrogen also significantly increased. Amended soils with K0 generally performed better than those amended with K8 and K16, thinking that their pH (closer to the neutrality) was responsible of these performances, all the parameters were significantly correlated to the pH. K8 and K16 performances could be performed by reducing the added quantities. The study of PCR-DGGE have shown a shift in the fungal and bacterial communities, Ammonia oxidizing bacteria community were

  15. Importance of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in small intestine for urinary orotic acid excretion: analysis of OTC-deficient spf-ash mice with OTC transgene.

    PubMed

    Saheki, T; Mori, K; Kobayashi, K; Horiuchi, M; Shige, T; Obara, T; Suzuki, S; Mori, M; Yamamura, K

    1995-01-25

    We report the effect of the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) transgene composed of 1.3 kb of the 5' flanking region of the rat OTC gene fused to rat OTC cDNA on urinary orotic acid excretion in OTC-deficient spf-ash (sparse-fur with abnormal skin and hair) mice during overnight-starvation and nitrogen loading. During starvation, spf-ash mice with about 6% and 2% of control levels of OTC activity in the liver and small intestine excreted a large amount of orotic acid in the urine. Transgenic spf-ash mice with about 10% and 30% of the control OTC activities in the liver and small intestine did not excrete more than the normal level of orotic acid. Accidental parasitization of transgenic spf-ash mice with ticks (Myocoptes musculinus) resulted in decrease of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine to the levels in spf-ash mice, and increased excretion of orotic acid. During extermination of the ticks, the mice showed varied levels of OTC activity and orotic acid excretion. On nitrogen loading, transgenic spf-ash mice as well as spf-ash mice excreted larger amounts of orotic acid, while control mice showed no increase in its excretion. The levels of urinary orotic acid were inversely correlated to the logarithms of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine, the correlation being significantly higher with intestinal OTC than with hepatic OTC activity. These results suggest that the level of OTC activity in the small intestine is important for production of orotic acid.

  16. Chromium(III), insoluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chromium ( III ) , insoluble salts ; CASRN 16065 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  17. Olivine + halides: a recipe for iron mobilization in volcanic ash?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M. K.; Langmann, B.

    2013-12-01

    During the last decade, scientific evidences strongly suggest that volcanic ash iron has fertilization impact upon the surface ocean. Still, it is not well constrained how the insoluble iron in ash (i.e., as a component in minerals and also glass) could be mobilized during volcanic eruptions and atmospheric transport. Here we investigate the volcanic plume controls on ash iron solubility. We develope a conceptual box model to simulate the high, mid and low temperature chemical, physical and thermodynamic processes in eruption plumes to better constrain the iron mobilization in volcanic ash. We take into account the interaction of different species in a solid-liquid-gas system representing various volcanic settings (convergent plate, divergent plate and hot spot). Results show that the hot core of a volcanic plume (T>600°C) does not produce soluble iron directly but significantly controls the Fe mineralogy and oxidation state at the ash surface. The final iron mineralogy at the ash surface (i.e. the ash's oxidation front with 1-100 nm thickness) is likely to be independent of temperature and oxygen fugacity and is closely correlated to the ratio of H2 and H2S content of the magmatic gas to the amount of entrained oxygen. As the plume continues rising and cooling, sulfuric acid condenses at about 150°C followed by water condensation at about 50°C which also dissociates sulfuric acid and produces H+ ions in the liquid phase. The aqueous phase scavenges the surrounding gas species (e.g. SO2, HCl, HF) and concurrently dissolves the ash surface constituents. Since HCl is about 4 orders of magnitudes more soluble than SO2, its dissolution mainly controls the pH of the liquid. Hence, high HCl concentrations in the gas phase results in lower pH in the aqueous phase (pH<0.5) and consequently an increase in the ash dissolution rate. Moreover reduced iron carrying minerals (e.g. fayalite) show a much higher dissolution rate in comparison with oxidized species (e.g. hematite

  18. Effect of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn-ethanol distillation origin on energy, fiber, and amino acid digestibility, hindgut degradability of fiber, and growth performance of pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Kerr, B J; Patience, J F

    2013-11-01

    Extensive use of corn coproducts in swine diets increases the concentration of dietary fiber, raising concerns on energy and nutrient digestibility and, ultimately, pig performance. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the effect of increasing levels of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn in the diet, using corn bran with solubles (CBS) from the corn-ethanol distillation industry, on digestibility of energy, fiber, and AA, and hindgut fermentation of fiber in diets fed to growing pigs. Fifteen growing pigs (BW=28.7 kg) arranged in a 3-period incomplete block design and fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were provided 5 diets (n=9) containing either a corn-casein basal or the basal diet with 10, 20, 30, or 40% CBS. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected. Two subsequent 28-d growth trials determined the effects of increasing dietary fiber from CBS in 2 sets of 7 diets formulated either with declining (growing phase: 2,387 to 2,133 kcal NE/kg; finishing phase: 2,499 to 2,209 kcal NE/kg) or constant dietary NE (growing phase≈2,390 kcal NE/kg; finishing phase≈2,500 kcal NE/kg) on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in 70 growing (BW=48.9 kg; n=10 per diet) and 70 finishing (BW=102.0 kg; n=10) pigs. Results indicated that increasing fiber from corn lowered (P<0.01) the apparent ileal digestibility of all indispensable amino acids except Arg, GE, DM, and CP but not NDF or total dietary fiber (TDF). Increased fiber from corn also reduced ATTD of GE, DM, CP, NDF, and TDF (P<0.01). Increasing fiber with declining diet NE lowered BW, ADG, and G:F (P<0.05) in growing and in finishing pigs. When NE was held constant, as fiber increased, BW and ADG were unaffected in growing and finishing pigs, and G:F was unaffected in finishing pigs but improved in growing pigs (P<0.05) with increasing dietary fiber. In both growing and finishing pigs, ADFI was unaffected by the increased fiber from corn, regardless of

  19. Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in Food.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Yeo, Ju-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This contribution provides a review of the topic of insoluble-bound phenolics, especially their localization, synthesis, transfer and formation in plant cells, as well as their metabolism in the human digestive system and corresponding bioactivities. In addition, their release from the food matrix during food processing and extraction methods are discussed. The synthesis of phenolics takes place mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum and they are then transferred to each organ through transport proteins such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter at the organ's compartment membrane or via transport vesicles such as cytoplasmic and Golgi vesicles, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolics at the vacuole and cell wall matrix, respectively. This part has not been adequately discussed in the food science literature, especially regarding the synthesis site and their transfer at the cellular level, thus this contribution provides valuable information to the involved scientists. The bound phenolics cannot be absorbed at the small intestine as the soluble phenolics do (5%-10%), thus passing into the large intestine and undergoing fermentation by a number of microorganisms, partially released from cell wall matrix of foods. Bound phenolics such as phenolic acids and flavonoids display strong bioactivities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation and cardiovascular disease ameliorating effects. They can be extracted by several methods such as acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis to quantify their contents in foods. In addition, they can also be released from the cell wall matrix during food processing procedures such as fermentation, germination, roasting, extrusion cooking and boiling. This review provides critical information for better understanding the insoluble-bound phenolics in food and fills an existing gap in the literature. PMID:27626402

  20. Leaching of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators to a water system.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, R; Akimoto, Y

    1991-08-01

    In order to predict how much polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) are leached from fly ash by rain water when fly ash is disposed, leaching of PCDDs/Fs from a fly ash obtained from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) was investigated by packing the ash in a column and eluting with water. In the beginning of the elution, PCDDs/Fs associated with water-soluble particulates in the ash were eluted, whereas in the latter half, those associated with water slightly soluble particles were eluted, judging from the comparison of PCDDs/Fs in eluate fractions with those transferred to solutions from the original ash by stepwise batch methods with water and 2N hydrochloric acid. The amounts of PCDDs/Fs eluted from the ash column were 2.9% and 1.7% of those extracted from the original ash, respectively, while large amounts of PCDDs/Fs were contained in the fly ash in the column after the elution, suggesting that PCDDs/Fs in water-insoluble particulates of the ash would not be eluted by water.

  1. Ash iron mobilization through physicochemical processing in volcanic eruption plumes: a numerical modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G. A.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2015-08-01

    It has been shown that volcanic ash fertilizes the Fe-limited areas of the surface ocean through releasing soluble iron. As ash iron is mostly insoluble upon the eruption, it is hypothesized that heterogeneous in-plume and in-cloud processing of the ash promote the iron solubilization. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. In this study, a 1-D numerical model is developed to simulate the physicochemical interactions of the gas-ash-aerosol in volcanic eruption plumes focusing on the iron mobilization processes at temperatures between 600 and 0 °C. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at ~ 150 and ~ 50 °C on the ash surface, respectively. This liquid phase then efficiently scavenges the surrounding gases (> 95 % of HCl, 3-20 % of SO2 and 12-62 % of HF) forming an extremely acidic coating at the ash surface. The low pH conditions of the aqueous film promote acid-mediated dissolution of the Fe-bearing phases present in the ash material. We estimate that 0.1-33 % of the total iron available at the ash surface is dissolved in the aqueous phase before the freezing point is reached. The efficiency of dissolution is controlled by the halogen content of the erupted gas as well as the mineralogy of the iron at ash surface: elevated halogen concentrations and presence of Fe2+-carrying phases lead to the highest dissolution efficiency. Findings of this study are in agreement with the data obtained through leaching experiments.

  2. Rapid reduction of lead leachate from hazardous fly ash using microwave treatment with acid combination.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Mei; Wang, Li-Pang; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long; Chang, Yu-Min

    2016-02-01

    The novelty of this study is to rapidly reduce hazardous lead leachates from solid waste using microwave digestion treatment, which is an energy-saving and low greenhouse gas emission technology. The article presents the reduction of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration in the municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by the microwave digestion treatment in HNO3/H2SO4 combination, and focuses on the effects of treatment time and temperature. The results obtained from this study indicated a significant reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration and showed sufficient reduction in leaching levels to render the treated fly ash safe in lead compound leaching characteristics. The reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration can reach 98% in 15 minutes of treatment time. This is equivalent to the original toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration of 46.2 mg L(-1) in raw fly ash being reduced down to less than 1.0 mg L(-1). Based on the experimental data obtained in this study, a useful correlation between reduction efficiency and treatment conditions is proposed. For engineering applications, the necessary minimum treatment time is solved using a graphic illustration method, by which the minimum treatment time (t(min)) is obtained if the desired reduction efficiency (η) and treatment temperature (T) are known. The effects of treatment time and temperature are discussed. Some problems caused by the microwave digestion treatment method are also delineated in this article.

  3. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  4. Fabrication of a novel bone ash-reinforced gelatin/alginate/hyaluronic acid composite film for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Alemdar, Neslihan

    2016-10-20

    In this study, a novel pH-sensitive composite film with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties was prepared by the incorporation of bone ash at varying concentrations from 0 to 10v.% into gelatin/sodium alginate/hyaluronic acid (Gel/SA/HyA) polymeric structure for colon-specific drug delivery system. Films were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and XRD analyses. Thermal and mechanical performances of films were determined by DSC, TGA and universal mechanical tester, respectively. Results proved that thermal stability and mechanical properties of bone ash-reinforced composite films improved significantly with respect to that of neat Gel/SA/HyA film. Cytotoxicity assay for composite films was carried out by using L929 cells. Water uptake capacity of films was determined by swelling test. Herein, release experiments of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) were performed in two different solutions (pH 2.1 and 7.4). The results assured that Gel/SA/HyA film containing BA could be considered as a potential biomaterial for controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:27474650

  5. Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp

    SciTech Connect

    Cerry, D.S.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Harvey, R.S.

    1984-08-01

    Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions, and perhaps overall by elemental concentrations and bioaccumulation. Heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions after the addition of fly ash to the original settling basin system, had the most profound effect on biota. Dipterans (chironomids) and some odonates (Plathemis lydia and Libellula spp.) were resistant to heavy ash siltation, while mosquitofish, which showed no discernible responses to ash siltation, were absent at acidic pH along with the few previously surviving invertebrate populations. Elemental concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc did not appear to limit aquatic flora and fauna on a short-term, acute basis. Long-chronic elemental exposures may have been instrumental in retarding the recovery of all forms of aquatic life in the receiving system. Elemental concentrations (except for arsenic and selenium) in the receiving system were generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than the Water Quality Criteria set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1980) for protection of aquatic life for the minimum and 24-hour mean values. By 1978, when the new settling basin systems were operating effectively, invertebrate populations were largely recovered, and mosquito-fish populations recovered within one year afterward.

  6. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1990-04-16

    The use of fly ash as amendment to compost is presented. Plant growth/yields of corn collard greens, mustard greens, and sorgum is described. The treatment parameters such as fly ash to compost ratio, fly ash-amended compost to soil ratio, type of compost used for treatment etc. are discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs. (CBS)

  7. Chemical composition of organic matter in extremely acid, lignite-containing lake sediments impacted by fly ash contamination.

    PubMed

    Chabbi, A; Rumpel, C

    2004-01-01

    In the Lusatian lignite mining district of eastern Germany, extremely acid lakes developed during ground water rising after exploitation of lignite in open-cast mines. The reasons of plant colonization (Juncus bulbosus L.) of some lakes exhibiting moderate pH values while others remain extremely acid and unvegetated are unknown. Alkalinity gain may be achieved by addition of alkaline materials and/or decomposition of organic matter. Our objective was to examine fly ash deposition and the resulting changes in organic matter composition in the uppermost 0 to 5 cm of the sediment sampled from vegetated and unvegetated lakes. Bulk soil and particle size fractions were analyzed for elemental composition, magnetic susceptibility, and chemical structure of the organic matter by 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The lignite content of the samples was estimated by 14C activity measurements. The pH values decreased with increasing depth and the changes in pH were found to be correlated with changes in magnetic susceptibility. Carbon and nitrogen contents were found to decrease with increasing depth. The C to N ratios are consistent with the (i) the presence of decomposing plant residues and/or microbial material such as algae in the upper 0 to 5 cm of the sediment and (ii) the dominance of lignite in the layers below this depth as confirmed by 14C activity measurements. The structural analyses of the particle size separates from the 0- to 5-cm depth were consistent with the presence of organic matter derived from plant material. This study confirms that fly ash is an important source of alkalinity in the upper 0 to 5 cm of the sediment that enhanced plant growth and led to enrichment of the sediment with organic matter derived from plant material. PMID:15074815

  8. Coal combustion ash haulback

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

  9. Stearic acid coating on circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ashes and its effect on the mechanical performance of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Nina; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lixian; Kang, Ming; Lu, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Rong

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to test circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ashes (CFAs) for its potential to be utilized in polymer composites manufacturing to improve its toughness. CFAs was coated by stearic acid and used in the composite of polypropylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/high density polyethylene (PP/EVA/HDPE) by molding process method. The resulting coated and uncoated CFAs were fully characterized by particle size analyzer, contact angles, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stearic acid coated onto the surface of CFAs particles in the physical and chemical ways, and the total clad ratio reached 2.05% by measuring TGA/DTA curve. The percentage of CFAs particles focused to a narrow range 2-4 μm and the median mean size was 3.2 μm more than uncoated CFAs. The properties of hydrophobic and dispersive of CFAs particles improved and original activity was reserved after stearic acid coating. The stearic acid was verified as a coupling agent by how much effect it had on the mechanical properties. It showed the elongation at break of PP/EVA/HDPE reinforced with 15 wt% coated CFAs (c-CFAs) was 80.20% and higher than that of the uncoated. The stearic acid treatment of CFAs is a very promising approach to improve the mechanical strength due to the incorporation of stearic acid on the CFAs surface, and hence, further enhances the potential for recycling CFAs as a suitable filler material in polymer composites.

  10. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    PubMed

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA.

  11. Disposal of Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash in an Underground Mine to Control Acid Mine Drainage and Subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-31

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. YO void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase Ill the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the spring of 1998 and monitored for following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during the winter of 1997. This document will report on progress made during Phase Ill. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase Ill tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase Ill (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  12. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... Insoluble wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with...

  13. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... Insoluble wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with...

  14. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... Insoluble wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with...

  15. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... Insoluble wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with...

  16. Resource recycling through artificial lightweight aggregates from sewage sludge and derived ash using boric acid flux to lower co-melting temperature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Shen-Chih; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2012-02-01

    This study focuses on artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWAs) formed from sewage sludge and ash at lowered co-melting temperatures using boric acid as the fluxing agent. The weight percentages of boric acid in the conditioned mixtures of sludge and ash were 13% and 22%, respectively. The ALWA derived from sewage sludge was synthesized under the following conditions: preheating at 400 degrees C 0.5 hr and a sintering temperature of 850 degrees C 1 hr. The analytical results of water adsorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and compressive strength were 3.88%, 1.05 g/cm3, 3.93%, and 29.7 MPa, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the ALWA show that the trends in water adsorption and apparent porosity were opposite to those of bulk density. This was due to the inner pores being sealed off by lower-melting-point material at the aggregates'surface. In the case of ash-derived aggregates, water adsorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and compressive strength were 0.82%, 0.91 g/cm3, 0.82%, and 28.0 MPa, respectively. Both the sludge- and ash-derived aggregates meet the legal standards for ignition loss and soundness in Taiwan for construction or heat insulation materials.

  17. Characterization of insoluble fractions of TNT transformed by composting

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.H.; Williams, R.T.; Griest, W.H. )

    1994-05-01

    Soil contaminated with explosives was supplemented with carbon-14 labelled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene ([sup 14]C-TNT) and was composted in a field static pile composting experiment. After 90 d of composting, the distribution of carbon-14 ([sup 14]C) activity in fractions from acetonitrile extraction ([open quotes]free[close quotes] fraction, 1.2% of the initial [sup 14]C-activity) and filtration ([open quotes]insoluble-particle[close quotes] fraction, 17.9%), alkaline hydrolysis ([open quotes]insoluble-hydrolyzable[close quotes] fraction, 56.8%), and combustion of the residue ([open quotes]insoluble-nonhydrolyzable[close quotes] fraction, 4.7%) showed that the bulk of the [sup 14]C-activity, and presumably transformed product(s) of the [sup 14]C-TNT, accumulated in a nonextractable, but hydrolyzable fraction. Repetitive aqueous leaching of the compost and also ultraviolet light irradiation followed by leaching suggest that the insoluble fraction of transformed TNT should not be released appreciably by the action of acid rain or sunlight. 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens.

  19. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens. PMID:18212376

  20. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  1. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-07-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  2. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into four major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report reports on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase III (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  3. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-04-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  4. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  5. Performance of in-vessel composting of food waste in the presence of coal ash and uric acid.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Jiang; Huang, Guo-He; Yao, Yao; Sun, Wei; An, Kai

    2012-02-15

    Massive quantities of food waste often coexist with other agroindustrial and industrial waste, which might contain coal ash (CA) and uric acid (UA). This study investigated the influence of CA and UA on the composting of food waste in the in-vessel system. The patterns of food waste composting were compared among various combinations. The results showed that the temperature level was enhanced in the presence of CA and UA during the first 8 days. The significant drop in pH was observed in the treatment without any amendment. But the presence of CA could alleviate the drop of pH. More intensive organic mass reduction took place in the treatments with amended CA and UA in the first half of process. The O(2) uptake rate in the reactor with CA and UA was higher than that with only CA in the early stage. Both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were present throughout the composting period. The populations of both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were influenced when amended with CA and UA. The decreasing trend in C/N ratio was shown in all the reactors, while a relatively lower C/N ratio was obtained in the series with both CA and UA.

  6. Sono-assisted extraction of alcohol-insoluble extract from Althaea rosea: purification and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Meghdad; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and water to raw material ratio on extraction yield of alcohol-insoluble polysaccharide of Althaea rosea leaf (ARLP). Purification was carried out by dialysis method. Chemical analysis of ARLP revealed contained 12.69 ± 0.48% moisture, 79.33 ± 0.51% total sugar, 3.82 ± 0.21% protein, 11.25 ± 0.37% uronic acid and 3.77 ± 0.15% ash. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant quadratic regression equation with high R(2) (=0.9997) was successfully fitted for extraction yield of ARLP as function of independent variables. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of ultrasonic power 91.85 W, extraction time 29.94 min, extraction temperature 89.78 °C, and the ratio of water to raw material 28.77 (mL/g). At this optimum point, extraction yield of ARLP was 19.47 ± 0.41%. No significant (p>0.05) difference was found between the actual and predicted (19.30 ± 0.075%) values. The results demonstrated that ARLP had strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals.

  7. Mineralogy of the hardpan formation processes in the interface between sulfide-rich sludge and fly ash: Applications for acid mine drainage mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; Alvarez-Valero, A.M.; De Almodovar, G.R.

    2007-11-15

    In the present study, experiments in non-saturated leaching columns were conducted to characterize the neoformed phases that precipitate at the interface between two waste residues having different chemical characteristics: an acid mine drainage producer residue (i.e., pyritic sludge) and an acidity neutralizer residue (i.e., coal combustion fly ash). A heating source was placed on top of one of the columns to accelerate oxidation and precipitation of newly formed phases, and thus, to observe longer-scale processes. When both residues are deposited together, the resulting leachates are characterized by alkaline pH, and low sulfate and metal concentrations. Two mechanisms help to improve the quality of the leachates. Over short-time scales, the leaching of pyrite at high pH (as a consequence of fly ash addition) favors the precipitation of ferrihydrite, encapsulating the pyrite grains and attenuating the oxidation process. Over longer time scales, a hardpan is promoted at the interface between both residues due to the precipitation of ferrihydrite, jarosite, and a Ca phase-gypsum or aragonite, depending on carbonate ion activity. Geochemical modeling of leachates using PHREEQC software predicted supersaturation in the observed minerals. The development of a relatively rigid crust at the interface favors the isolation of the mining waste from weathering processes, helped by the cementation of fly ash owing to aragonite precipitation, which ensures total isolation and neutralization of the mine residues.

  8. Utilization of fly ash to improve the quality of the acid mine drainage generated by oxidation of a sulphide-rich mining waste: column experiments.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; de Almodóvar, Gabriel Ruiz

    2007-04-01

    The production of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as a result of the oxidative dissolution of sulphides is one of the main pollution problems affecting natural watercourses in mining environments with sulphide-rich residues. In this work, the generation of AMD was prevented by means of the addition of fly ash to sulphide-rich residues in non-saturated column experiments. A column experiment filled with a pyrite-rich sludge with artificial irrigation leached acid drainages (pH approx. 2) containing high concentrations of sulphate, iron and other metals. However, non-saturated column experiments filled with pyritic-rich sludge and fly ash drained leachates characterized by alkaline pH (pH up to 10), low sulphate concentration, and lack of iron and other metals in solution. The pyrite oxidative dissolution at high pH, as a consequence of the leaching of fly ash, favours the metal precipitation inside the column (mainly iron), the coating of pyrite grains, and the attenuation of the oxidation process, resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the leachates.

  9. Utilization of fly ash to improve the quality of the acid mine drainage generated by oxidation of a sulphide-rich mining waste: column experiments.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; de Almodóvar, Gabriel Ruiz

    2007-04-01

    The production of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as a result of the oxidative dissolution of sulphides is one of the main pollution problems affecting natural watercourses in mining environments with sulphide-rich residues. In this work, the generation of AMD was prevented by means of the addition of fly ash to sulphide-rich residues in non-saturated column experiments. A column experiment filled with a pyrite-rich sludge with artificial irrigation leached acid drainages (pH approx. 2) containing high concentrations of sulphate, iron and other metals. However, non-saturated column experiments filled with pyritic-rich sludge and fly ash drained leachates characterized by alkaline pH (pH up to 10), low sulphate concentration, and lack of iron and other metals in solution. The pyrite oxidative dissolution at high pH, as a consequence of the leaching of fly ash, favours the metal precipitation inside the column (mainly iron), the coating of pyrite grains, and the attenuation of the oxidation process, resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the leachates. PMID:17257643

  10. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  11. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  12. 40 CFR 227.12 - Insoluble wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Insoluble wastes. 227.12 Section 227.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE... wastes. (a) Solid wastes consisting of inert natural minerals or materials compatible with the...

  13. Growth and elemental accumulation of plants grown in acidic soil amended with coal fly ash-sewage sludge co-compost.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2009-10-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and heavy-metal accumulation of Brassica chinensis and Agropyron elongatum in 10 and 25% ash-sludge co-compost (ASC)--amended loamy acidic soil (pH 4.51) at two different application rates: 20% and 40% (v/v). Soil pH increased, whereas electrical conductivity decreased with the amendment of ASC to soil. Bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn contents of ASC-amended soil decreased, whereas Ni, Pb, and B contents increased. Concentrations of bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn in sludge compost (SC)-amended soils were 5.57, 20.8, and 8.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were significantly lower than those in soil receiving an application rate of 20 or 25% ASC as 2.64, 8.48, and 5.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals and B contents of the composting mass significantly increased with an increase in ASC application rate from 20 to 40% (6.2 to 16.6 mg kg(-1) for 10% ASC- and 9.4 to 18.6 mg kg(-1) for 25% ASC-amended soil. However, when the ash content in co-compost increased from 10 to 25% during composting, bioavailable heavy-metal contents decreased. However, B contents increased with an increase in ash content. Addition of co-composts increased the dry-weight yield of the plants, and this increase was more obvious as the ash amendment rate in the co-composts and the ASC application rate increased. In case of B. chinensis, the biomass of 2.84 g/plant for 40% application of 25% ASC was significantly higher than SC (0.352 g/plant), which was 40% application of 10% ASC (0.434 g/plant) treatments. However, in A. elongatum, the differences between biomass of plants grown with 10% (1.34-1.94 g/ plant) and 25% ASC (2.12-2.21 g/plant) were not significantly different. Furthermore, there were fewer plant-available heavy metals in 25% ASC, which decreased the uptake of heavy metals by plants. ASC was favorable in increasing the growth of B. chinensis and A. elongatum. The optimal ash amendment to the sludge composting

  14. Growth and elemental accumulation of plants grown in acidic soil amended with coal fly ash-sewage sludge co-compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.W.C.; Selvam, A.

    2009-10-15

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and heavy-metal accumulation of Brassica chinensis and Agropyron elongatum in 10 and 25% ash-sludge co-compost (ASC)-amended loamy acidic soil (pH 4.51) at two different application rates: 20% and 40% (v/v). Soil pH increased, whereas electrical conductivity decreased with the amendment of ASC to soil. Bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn contents of ASC-amended soil decreased, whereas Ni, Pb, and B contents increased. Concentrations of bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn in sludge compost (SC)-amended soils were 5.57, 20.8, and 8.19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These concentrations were significantly lower than those in soil receiving an application rate of 20 or 25% ASC as 2.64, 8.48, and 5.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals and B contents of the composting mass significantly increased with an increase in ASC application rate from 20 to 40% (6.2 to 16.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 10% ASC- and 9.4 to 18.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 25% ASC-amended soil. However, when the ash content in co-compost increased from 10 to 25% during composting, bioavailable heavy-metal contents decreased. However, B contents increased with an increase in ash content. Addition of co-composts increased the dry-weight yield of the plants, and this increase was more obvious as the ash amendment rate in the co-composts and the ASC application rate increased. In case of B. chinensis, the biomass of 2.84 g/plant for 40% application of 25% ASC was significantly higher than SC (0.352 g/plant), which was 40% application of 10% ASC (0.434 g/plant) treatments. However, in A. elongatum, the differences between biomass of plants grown with 10% (1.34-1.94 g/ plant) and 25% ASC (2.12-2.21 g/plant) were not significantly different. ASC was favorable in increasing the growth of B. chinensis and A. elongatum. The optimal ash amendment to the sludge composting and ASC application rates were at 25 and 20%, respectively.

  15. Composition of Insoluble Residues Generated During Spent Fuel Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Aleksandruk, V.; Bibichev, B.; Novikov, G.; Riazantsev, V.; Saprykin, V.; Rance, P.

    2002-02-27

    One type of HLW associated with the procedures of spent fuel reprocessing or conditioning as would be required in order to implement accelerator driven transmutation of waste, is the insoluble residue, which remains after the majority of the fuel, is dissolved. This material is separated as part of the head-end processing and must be suitably encapsulated within a waste-form to permit its disposal. In spite of the fact that the specific contribution of insoluble deposits, arising from SNF dissolution does not exceed 0,5-1 % of the general volume of wastes, the radionuclides, contained in them introduce a rather significant hazard and demand the most careful treatment of the material during its treatment and subsequent disposal. The main contributors to the insoluble residues are the slowly dissolving metallic fission product inclusions found in spent fuel and the certain fission products which although initially soluble precipitate during the dissolution process. The most significant elements, in mass terms are the platinum group metals (PGM) and, also molybdenum and zirconium. In turn, the formed deposits are capable of adsorbing fission products and actinides, for example, antimony, uranium and plutonium. This group of elements presents two issues one relating to the activity and heat of the relatively short-lived isotopes, in particular {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh and {sup 125}Sb and the other due to the presence of the long-lived and potentially environmentally mobile {sup 99}Tc. The main factors determining the amount and composition of insoluble residues are the temperature and degree of burnup and conditions of fuel dissolution. In this paper the results on composition and mass determination of insoluble residues (primary and secondary), derived from samples of fuel with burnup from 15 up to 54 MWd/kgU are given. Dissolution of spent fuel samples was conducted at the boiling temperature and at 80 C. The concentration of nitric acid in the final solutions varied

  16. Profile and distribution of soluble and insoluble phenolics in Chinese rapeseed (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Wu, Li; Pu, Huiming; Li, Chunyang; Hu, Qiuhui

    2012-11-15

    The profile and distribution of soluble and insoluble phenolics in 10 rapeseed (Brassica napus) varieties were studied in this work. Photometric results show that the soluble total phenolic content (TPC) and the total tannin content (TTC) of rapeseed dehulled flours are much higher than those of rapeseed hulls. Soluble and insoluble phenolics were further analysed by HPLC/MS and MS/MS. For soluble phenolics, seven species were identified and quantified. Sinapine was found to be the major component in both defatted rapeseed hulls and dehulled flours, with its content ranging from 0.93 to 1.76 mg/g and 15.65 to 21.88 mg/g, respectively. For insoluble phenolics, eight phenolic acids were detected in rapeseed hulls, while only two of them were found in their dehulled flours. Sinapic acid and protocatechuic acid, which also were found in dehulled flours, were identified as two major insoluble phenolics in rapeseed hulls. Insoluble TPCs in defatted rapeseed hulls and dehulled flours were shown to be in the similar range.

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of some water insoluble drugs in silver hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Ying-Sing; Zhang, Zenxin; An, Dengqui

    2003-02-01

    An extraction method has been used to obtain surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of water insoluble drugs such as aspirin, salicylic acid, acetaminophen, and vitamin A acid. This method is based on the strong affinity of the sample molecules to the silver particle surfaces. Results from the present study indicate that the method can be extended to identify and analyze many other water insoluble compounds by SERS. The high sensitivity of SERS and the linear calibration curve make it feasible in the trace quantitative analysis; the low limit of detection is comparable or better than those of calorimetric and spectrophotometric methods.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of some water insoluble drugs in silver hydrosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Ying-Sing; Zhang, Zenxin; An, Dengqui

    2003-02-01

    An extraction method has been used to obtain surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of water insoluble drugs such as aspirin, salicylic acid, acetaminophen, and vitamin A acid. This method is based on the strong affinity of the sample molecules to the silver particle surfaces. Results from the present study indicate that the method can be extended to identify and analyze many other water insoluble compounds by SERS. The high sensitivity of SERS and the linear calibration curve make it feasible in the trace quantitative analysis; the low limit of detection is comparable or better than those of calorimetric and spectrophotometric methods.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1372 Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of high fructose corn syrup described in §...

  20. Nanoparticles Containing Insoluble Drug for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shutao; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle drug formulations have been extensively researched and developed in the field of drug delivery as a means to efficiently deliver insoluble drugs to tumor cells. By mechanisms of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, nanoparticle drug formulations are capable of greatly enhancing the safety, pharmacokinetic profiles and bioavailability of the administered treatment. Here, the progress of various nanoparticle formulations in both research and clinical applications is detailed with a focus on the development of drug/gene delivery systems. Specifically, the unique advantages and disadvanges of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals and lipid-coated nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery will be investigated in detail. PMID:24113214

  1. Accurate quantification and transformation of arsenic compounds during wet ashing with nitric acid and microwave assisted heating.

    PubMed

    Goessler, W; Pavkov, M

    2003-06-01

    Arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), methylarsonic acid (MA), arsenic acid, arsenobetaine bromide (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine iodide (AC), and tetramethylarsonium iodide (TETRA) were heated in a microwave autoclave with nitric acid to 100-300 degrees C. The arsenic compounds in the digests were separated with anion- and cation-exchange chromatography and determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer as arsenic-specific detector. Arsenous acid was completely oxidized to arsenic acid at 100 degrees C. For a complete oxidation of MA and DMA to arsenic acid temperatures > 220 degrees C and > 280 degrees C were necessary. AB decomposed to arsenic acid via TMAO. Complete conversion was only obtained after heating the sample for 90 min to 300 degrees C. For a complete conversion of TMAO similar harsh conditions were necessary. AC was already substantially degraded to TMAO, TETRA and two unknown compounds at 100 degrees C. The unknown arsenic compounds were found only in the digests up to 160 degrees C. Quantitative conversion of AC to arsenic acid went also via TMAO. At temperatures above 220 degrees C TETRA started to convert to TMAO, which then was further converted to arsenic acid. To investigate whether the results obtained for the arsenic standards are transferable to real samples, the certified reference material DORM-2 was also heated in nitric acid with variable digestion temperatures and times. For an almost complete conversion of the AB present in DORM-2 90 min at 300 degrees C were necessary. Total organic carbon (TOC) was less < 0.2% when DORM-2 was heated at temperatures > or = 260 degrees C for 60 min. UV photo-oxidation of DORM-2 was investigated as an alternative sample decomposition. Only 6% of AB was converted to arsenic acid when DORM-2 was irradiated for 2 h at 1000 W. In contrast to microwave heating substantial amounts of MA were observed as degradation product.

  2. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, September 1--November 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e., % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the spring of 1998 and monitored for following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during the winter of 1997. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  3. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine. The Gantt Chart on the following page details progress by task.

  4. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion -- FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  5. Using NMR chemical shift imaging to monitor swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid): methodology and effects of polymer (in)solubility.

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Topgaard, Daniel; Wahlgren, Marie; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2013-11-12

    A new technique has been developed using NMR chemical shift imaging (CSI) to monitor water penetration and molecular transport in initially dry polymer tablets that also contain small low-molecular weight compounds to be released from the tablets. Concentration profiles of components contained in the swelling tablets could be extracted via the intensities and chemical shift changes of peaks corresponding to protons of the components. The studied tablets contained hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) as the polymer component and griseofulvin and ethanol as hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively, low-molecular weight model compounds. The water solubility of HMPAA could be altered by titration with NaOH. In the pure acid form, HMPAA tablets only underwent a finite swelling until the maximum water content of the polymer-rich phase, as confirmed by independent phase studies, had been reached. By contrast, after partial neutralization with NaOH, the polyacid became fully miscible with water. The solubility of the polymer affected the water penetration, the polymer release, and the releases of both ethanol and griseofulvin. The detailed NMR CSI concentration profiles obtained highlighted the clear differences in the disintegration/dissolution/release behavior for the two types of tablet and provided insights into their molecular origin. The study illustrates the potential of the NMR CSI technique to give information of importance for the development of pharmaceutical tablets and, more broadly, for the general understanding of any operation that involves the immersion and ultimate disintegration of a dry polymer matrix in a solvent.

  6. Evaluation of sulfidic mine tailings solidified/stabilized with cement kiln dust and fly ash to control acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Nehdi, M.; Tariq, A.

    2008-11-15

    In the present research, industrial byproducts, namely, cement kiln dust (CKD) and Class C fly ash (FAC) have been used as candidate materials along with the partial addition of sulfate-resistant cement (SRC) in the Stabilization/solidification of polymetallic sulfidic mine tailings (MT). The effectiveness of S/S was assessed by comparing laboratory experimental values obtained from unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity and leaching propensity tests of S/S samples with regulatory standards for safe surface disposal of such wastes. Despite general regulatory compliance of compressive strength and hydraulic conductivity, some solidified/stabilized-cured matrices were found unable to provide the required immobilization of pollutants. Solidified/stabilized and 90-day cured mine tailings specimens made with composite binders containing (10% CKD + 10% FAC), (5% SRC + 15% FAC) and (5% SRC + 5% CKD + 10% FAC) significantly impaired the solubility of all contaminants investigated and proved successful in fixing metals within the matrix, in addition to achieving adequate unconfined compressive strength and hydraulic conductivity values, thus satisfying USEPA regulations. Laboratory investigations revealed that, for polymetallic mining waste, leachate concentrations are the most critical factor in assessing the effectiveness of S/S technology.

  7. EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Lester, G. E.; Caterson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve and anion exchange chromatography, a proteoglycan-containing peak was obtained. Immunochemical analysis showed that this peak contained chondroitin 4-sulfate and possibly keratan sulfate. Amino acid analysis showed that this proteoglycan contained high amounts of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), serine (Ser), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), proline (Pro), and glycine (Gly); however, it contained little leucine (Leu) which suggests that it is not a member of the leucine-rich small proteoglycan family. In addition, significant amounts of phosphoserine (P-Ser) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were identified in hydrolysates of this fraction. A single band (M(r) 59 kDa) was obtained on SDS-PAGE that stained with Stains-all but not with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. If bone powder was trypsinized prior to demineralization, this proteoglycan-containing fraction was not liberated. Collectively, these results indicate that a proteoglycan occurs in the demineralized matrix that is precipitated with CaCl2 and is closely associated with both mineral and collagen matrices. Such a molecule might facilitate the structural network for the induction of mineralization in bone.

  8. The proteome of the insoluble Schistosoma mansoni eggshell skeleton.

    PubMed

    Dewalick, Saskia; Bexkens, Michiel L; van Balkom, Bas W M; Wu, Ya-Ping; Smit, Cornelis H; Hokke, Cornelis H; de Groot, Philip G; Heck, Albert J R; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Hellemond, Jaap J

    2011-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, the majority of symptoms of the disease is caused by the eggs that are trapped in the liver. These eggs elicit an immune reaction that leads to the formation of granulomas. The eggshell, which is a rigid insoluble structure built from cross-linked proteins, is the site of direct interaction between the egg and the immune system. However, the exact protein composition of the insoluble eggshell was previously unknown. To identify the proteins of the eggshell of Schistosoma mansoni we performed LC-MS/MS analysis, immunostaining and amino acid analysis on eggshell fragments. For this, eggshell protein skeleton was prepared by thoroughly cleaning eggshells in a four-step stripping procedure of increasing strength including urea and SDS to remove all material that is not covalently linked to the eggshell itself, but is part of the inside of the egg, such as Reynold's layer, von Lichtenberg's envelope and the miracidium. We identified 45 proteins of which the majority are non-structural proteins and non-specific for eggs, but are house-keeping proteins that are present in large quantities in worms and miracidia. Some of these proteins are known to be immunogenic, such as HSP70, GST and enolase. In addition, a number of schistosome-specific proteins with unknown function and no homology to any known annotated protein were found to be incorporated in the eggshell. Schistosome-specific glycoconjugates were also shown to be present on the eggshell protein skeleton. This study also confirmed that the putative eggshell protein p14 contributes largely to the eggshell. Together, these results give new insights into eggshell composition as well as eggshell formation. Those proteins that are present at the site and time of eggshell formation are incorporated in the cross-linked eggshell and this cross-linking does no longer occur when the miracidium starts secreting proteins. PMID:21236260

  9. Differential response in foliar chemistry of three ash species to emerald ash borer adult feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to EAB adult feeding. Black ash was the least responsive to EAB adult feeding in terms of the induction of volatile compounds, and levels of only two (indole and benzyl cyanide) of the 11 compounds studied increased. In green ash, levels of two [(E)-β-ocimene and indole] of the 11 volatile compounds studied were elevated, while the levels of two green leaf volatiles [hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal] decreased. White ash showed the greatest response with an increase in levels of seven of the 11 compounds studied. Qualitative differences among ash species were detected. Among the phenolic compounds detected, ligustroside was the only one detected in all three species. Oleuropein aglycone and 2 unidentified compounds were found only in black ash; coumaroylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid were detected only in green ash; and verbascoside hexoside was detected only in white ash. EAB adult feeding did not elicit or decrease concentrations of any selected individual phenolic compounds. However, although levels of total phenolics from black and green ash foliage were not affected by EAB adult feeding, they decreased significantly in white ash. EAB adult feeding elevated chymotrypsin inhibitors in black ash. The possible ecological implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  11. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  12. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Peshkova, Tatyana V; Minkov, Ivan L; Tsekov, Roumen; Slavchov, Radomir I

    2016-09-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3-30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na(+) is specifically adsorbed, while Cl(-) remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na(+) seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer. PMID:27529571

  13. Adsorption of Ions at Uncharged Insoluble Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkova, T. V.; Minkov, I. L.; Tsekov, R.; Slavchov, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    A method is proposed for the experimental determination of the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes at a surface covered with insoluble surfactant monolayer. This task is complicated by the fact that the change of the salt concentration alters both chemical potentials of the electrolyte and the surfactant. Our method resolves the question by combining data for the surface pressure versus area of the monolayer at several salt concentrations with data for the equilibrium spreading pressure of crystals of the surfactant (used to fix a standard state). We applied the method to alcohols spread at the surface of concentrated halide solutions. The measured salt adsorption is positive and has nonmonotonic dependence on the area per surfactant molecule. For the liquid expanded film, depending on the concentration, there is one couple of ions adsorbed per each 3–30 surfactant molecules. We analyzed which ion, the positive or the negative, stands closer to the surface, by measuring the effect of NaCl on the Volta potential of the monolayer. The potentiometric data suggest that Na+ is specifically adsorbed, while Cl– remains in the diffuse layer, i.e., the surface is positively charged. The observed reverse Hofmeister series of the adsorptions of NaF, NaCl, and NaBr suggests the same conclusion holds for all these salts. The force that causes the adsorption of Na+ seems to be the interaction of the ion with the dipole moment of the monolayer.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  17. Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, D.

    1998-02-01

    Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

  18. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence - phase II - small scale field demonstration. Topical report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Head, W.J.; Gray, D.D.; Siriwardane, H.J.; Sack, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been proposed that a mix made from fly and bottom ash from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combusters (FBC ash), water, and stabilizers be injected from the surface into abandoned room and pillar coal mines through boreholes. Besides ash disposal, this process would prevent subsidence and acid mine drainage. Such a mix (called `grout`) needs to be an adequately stable and flowable suspension for it to spread and cover large areas in the mine. This is necessary as the drilling of the boreholes will be an expensive operation and the number such holes should be minimized. Addition of bentonite was found to be needed for this purpose. A suitable grout mix was tested rheologically to determine its fluid flow properties. Finding little published information on such materials, tests were performed using a commercial rotational viscometer with a T-bar rotor and a stand which produced a helical rotor path. Existing mixer viscometer test methods were modified and adapted to convert the measurements of torque vs. angular speed to the material properties appearing in several non-Newtonian constitutive equations. Yield stress was measured by an independent test called the vane method. The rheological behavior was a close fit to the Bingham fluid model. Bleed tests were conducted to ascertain the stability of the mixtures. Spread tests were conducted to compare the flowability of various mixes. Using the flow parameters determined in the laboratory, numerical simulations of grout flow were performed and compared with the results of scale model and field tests. A field injection of this grout was performed at the Fairfax mines in Preston county, W.V.. The observations there proved that this FBC ash grout flows as desired, is a very economical way of disposing the environmentally menacing ash, while also preventing the subsidence and acid mine drainage of the mines.

  19. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion, FBC, ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach, cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). Phase 1 of the project was completed in September 1995 and was concerned with the development of the grout and a series of predictive models. These models were verified through the Phase 2 field phase and will be further verified in the large scale field demonstration of Phase 3. The verification will allow the results to be packaged in such a way that the technology can be easily adapted to different site conditions. Phase 2 was successfully completed with 1,000 cubic yards of grout being injected into Anker Energy`s Fairfax mine. The grout flowed over 600 feet from a single injection borehole. The grout achieved a compressive strength of over 1,000 psi (twice the level that is needed to guarantee subsidence control). Phase 3 is to take 26 months and will be a full scale test at Anker`s eleven acre Longridge mine site.

  20. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This project evaluated the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with coal combustion byproducts. Success was measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). Phase 1 of the project was completed in September 1995 and was concerned with the development of the grout and a series of predictive models. These models were verified through the Phase II field phase and will be further verified fin the large scale field demonstration of Phase III. The verification allows the results to be packaged in such a way that the technology can be easily adapted to different site conditions. Phase II was successfully completed with 1000 cubic yards of grout being injected into Anker Energy's Fairfax mine. The grout flowed over 600 feet from a single injection borehole. The grout achieved a compressive strength of over 1000 psi (twice the level that is needed to guarantee subsidence control). Phase III was a full scale test at Anker's eleven acre Longridge mine site. The CCB grout replaced what was an open mine void with a solid so that the groundwater tends to flow around and through the pillars rather than through the previously mined areas. The project has demonstrated that CCBs can be successfully disposed in underground mines. Additionally, the project has shown that filling an abandoned underground mine with CCBs can lead to the reduction and elimination of environmental problems associated with underground mining such as acid mine drainage and subsidence. The filling of the Longridge Mine with 43,000 cubic yards of CCB grout resulted in a 97% reduction in acid mine drainage coming from the mine.

  1. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Keun-Ki; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2008-01-01

    A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation. PMID:24031195

  2. Isotopic composition of hydrogen in insoluble organic matter from cherts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Robert (1989) reported the presence of unusually enriched hydrogen in the insoluble HF-HCl residue extracted from two chert samples of Eocene and Pliocene ages. Since the presence of heavy hydrogen might be due to the incorporation of extraterrestrial materials, we desired to reexamine the same samples to isolate the D-rich components. Our experiments did not reveal any D-rich components, but the hydrogen isotope composition of the insoluble residue of the two chert samples was well within the range expected for terrestrial organic matter. We also describe a protocol that needs to be followed in the hydrogen isotope analysis of any insoluble organic matter.

  3. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  4. Insoluble layer deposition and dilatational rheology at a microscale spherical cap interface.

    PubMed

    Kotula, Anthony P; Anna, Shelley L

    2016-08-17

    The dilatational properties of insoluble monolayers are important for understanding the mechanics of biological systems and consumer products, but isolating the dilatational response of an interface is challenging due to the difficulties in separating dilatation from shear and other deformation modes. Oscillations of a microscale bubble radius are useful for generating purely dilatational flows, but the current deposition methods for insoluble layers onto fluid interfaces are not easily scaled down. In this paper, we describe a miscible solvent exchange procedure for generating insoluble layers at an air-water interface pinned at the tip of a capillary tens of micrometers in diameter. We show that the amount of surfactant adsorbed at the interface can be controlled by the initial concentration dissolved in isopropanol (the starting solvent) and the volumetric flow rate of solvent exchange. Surface pressure-area isotherms and dilatational moduli are measured concurrently for three insoluble surfactants: palmitic acid (PA), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The isotherms measured on the microscale interface compare well with previous experiments performed on a Langmuir trough. However, the magnitudes of the dilatational moduli differ from those measured on either Langmuir trough or pendant drop apparatuses. Several possible reasons for the observed differences are discussed. A comparison of the dilatational modulus with the Gibbs elasticity is used to determine the presence of dilatational extra stresses at the interface. The isotherm and dilatational modulus of the insoluble component of the industrial surfactant Tween 80 are measured using this approach. The methods developed here also open the possibility for future study of the important role of finite size effects on microstructure formation and the resulting interfacial mechanics.

  5. Biochemical Composition and Assembly of Biosilica-associated Insoluble Organic Matrices from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Pawolski, Damian; Milentyev, Alexander; Shevchenko, Anna; Scheffel, André; Poulsen, Nicole; Shevchenko, Andrej; Kröger, Nils

    2016-03-01

    The nano- and micropatterned biosilica cell walls of diatoms are remarkable examples of biological morphogenesis and possess highly interesting material properties. Only recently has it been demonstrated that biosilica-associated organic structures with specific nanopatterns (termed insoluble organic matrices) are general components of diatom biosilica. The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contains three types of insoluble organic matrices: chitin meshworks, organic microrings, and organic microplates, the latter being described in the present study for the first time. To date, little is known about the molecular composition, intracellular assembly, and biological functions of organic matrices. Here we have performed structural and functional analyses of the organic microrings and organic microplates from T. pseudonana. Proteomics analysis yielded seven proteins of unknown function (termed SiMat proteins) together with five known silica biomineralization proteins (four cingulins and one silaffin). The location of SiMat1-GFP in the insoluble organic microrings and the similarity of tyrosine- and lysine-rich functional domains identifies this protein as a new member of the cingulin protein family. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates that most of the lysine residues of cingulins and the other insoluble organic matrix proteins are post-translationally modified by short polyamine groups, which are known to enhance the silica formation activity of proteins. Studies with recombinant cingulins (rCinY2 and rCinW2) demonstrate that acidic conditions (pH 5.5) trigger the assembly of mixed cingulin aggregates that have silica formation activity. Our results suggest an important role for cingulins in the biogenesis of organic microrings and support the hypothesis that this type of insoluble organic matrix functions in biosilica morphogenesis.

  6. Insoluble layer deposition and dilatational rheology at a microscale spherical cap interface.

    PubMed

    Kotula, Anthony P; Anna, Shelley L

    2016-08-17

    The dilatational properties of insoluble monolayers are important for understanding the mechanics of biological systems and consumer products, but isolating the dilatational response of an interface is challenging due to the difficulties in separating dilatation from shear and other deformation modes. Oscillations of a microscale bubble radius are useful for generating purely dilatational flows, but the current deposition methods for insoluble layers onto fluid interfaces are not easily scaled down. In this paper, we describe a miscible solvent exchange procedure for generating insoluble layers at an air-water interface pinned at the tip of a capillary tens of micrometers in diameter. We show that the amount of surfactant adsorbed at the interface can be controlled by the initial concentration dissolved in isopropanol (the starting solvent) and the volumetric flow rate of solvent exchange. Surface pressure-area isotherms and dilatational moduli are measured concurrently for three insoluble surfactants: palmitic acid (PA), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The isotherms measured on the microscale interface compare well with previous experiments performed on a Langmuir trough. However, the magnitudes of the dilatational moduli differ from those measured on either Langmuir trough or pendant drop apparatuses. Several possible reasons for the observed differences are discussed. A comparison of the dilatational modulus with the Gibbs elasticity is used to determine the presence of dilatational extra stresses at the interface. The isotherm and dilatational modulus of the insoluble component of the industrial surfactant Tween 80 are measured using this approach. The methods developed here also open the possibility for future study of the important role of finite size effects on microstructure formation and the resulting interfacial mechanics. PMID:27478885

  7. Depositional and tectonic interpretation of limestone insoluble residues from modern and ancient carbonate rocks, Caribbean and southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Isphording, W.C.; Bundy, M.E.; George, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    Mineral compositions have long been used as indicators of the provenance and tectonic setting of source rocks for sandstones and shales. Extraction of the same information from limestones is less common because of the general paucity of the non-carbonate phase and the greater processing time that is required to concentrate the frequently encountered small quantities of detrital (and authigenic) minerals. The insoluble component, however, contains a great deal of valuable information and should not be ignored. The clays and other insoluble minerals in limestones from southeastern United States and the Caribbean region, for example, clearly reflect the volcanic activity that was associated with formation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift system and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Similarly, major periods of orogeny during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic have left their signature, even in carbonate rocks that originated far from the sites where uplift was taking place. In other cases, the insoluble residue component clearly manifests periods of quiescence in adjacent land areas or testifies to the airborne transport of insoluble components from sources as far distant as the Saharan Desert of Africa. Similarly, insoluble components have convincingly shown that the origin of the extensive bauxite deposits found in Jamaican limestones are the result of alteration of interbedded volcanic ash units and have not resulted from accumulation of the detritus in the limestones. Residue analysis in Gulf Coast limestones can be successfully used for subsurface identification and correlation of carbonate units in the exploration for hydrocarbons, to reconstruct sedimentary environments, to identify missing sections, and to identify paraconformable realtionships between adjacent carbonate units that are otherwise similar in appearance. The latter is especially useful where extensive recrystallization has taken place and fossils have been destroyed.

  8. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%. PMID:27295250

  9. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%.

  10. Asymmetric Ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    , it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  11. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chuan-qing; Cao, Guang-xiang; Huang, Wei-yi; Luan, Xing-she; Yang, Yi-fei

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc. PMID:25477929

  12. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil

    PubMed Central

    Chuan-qing, Zhong; Guang-xiang, Cao; Wei-yi, Huang; Xing-she, Luan; Yi-fei, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc. PMID:25477929

  13. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  14. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  15. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256

  16. Structural and physico-chemical properties of insoluble rice bran fiber: effect of acid–base induced modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural modifications of insoluble rice bran fiber (IRBF) by sequential regimes of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and their effects on the physicochemical attributes were studied. The increment of H2SO4 concentration resulted in decreased water holding capacity that ultimately enhanced the oil bindin...

  17. Potential for leaching of heavy metals in open-burning bottom ash and soil from a non-engineered solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Gwenzi, Willis; Gora, Dorcas; Chaukura, Nhamo; Tauro, Tonny

    2016-03-01

    Bottom ash from open-burning of municipal waste practised in developing countries poses a risk of heavy metal leaching into groundwater. Compared to incineration ash, there is limited information on heavy metal leaching from open-burning ash and soil from non-engineered landfills. Batch and column experiments were conducted to address three specific objectives; (1) to determine aqua regia extractable concentrations of heavy metals in fresh ash, old ash and soil from beneath the landfill, (2) to determine the relationship between heavy metal leaching, initial and final pH of leaching solution, and aqua regia extractable concentrations, and (3) to determine the breakthrough curves of heavy metals in ashes and soil. Aqua regia extractable concentrations of Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni and Pb were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fresh and old ashes than soil beneath landfill and uncontaminated soil (control). Increasing initial solution pH from 5 and 7 to 9 significantly reduced the mobility of Pb, Zn and Cu but not Cd whose mobility peaked at pH 7 and 9. Concentrations of desorbed heavy metals were not correlated with aqua regia extractable concentrations. Final pH of leachate rebounded to close to original pH of the material, suggesting a putative high buffering capacity for all materials. Both batch and column leaching showed that concentrations of leached heavy metals were disproportionately lower (<5%) than aqua regia extractable concentrations in most cases. The retardation of heavy metals was further evidenced by sigmoidal breakthrough curves. Heavy metal retention was attributed to precipitation, pH-dependent adsorption and formation of insoluble organo-metallic complexes at near-neutral to alkaline pH. Overall, the risk of heavy metal leaching from ash and soil from the waste dump into groundwater was low. The high pH and the presence of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu make ash an ideal low-cost liming material and source of micronutrients particularly on acidic soils prevalent

  18. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256

  19. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  20. Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2003-01-01

    The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified materials. This paper looks at the potential of two post-combustion ash treatment processes, CERCHAR hydration and AWDS disposal, in solving these challenges. A high-sulphur coal-derived CFBC ash is examined, after CERCHAR hydration treatment, in conjunction with a conventionally hydrated ash, in a range of chemical, geotechnical and utilization scenarios. The ashes are used to make no-cement and roller-compacted concrete as well as Ash Water Dense Suspensions (AWDS). The solidified mortar paste from no-cement concrete is subjected to an extensive geochemical examination to determine how solidification progresses and strength develops, from a chemical point of view. PMID:12909091

  1. Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2003-01-01

    The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified materials. This paper looks at the potential of two post-combustion ash treatment processes, CERCHAR hydration and AWDS disposal, in solving these challenges. A high-sulphur coal-derived CFBC ash is examined, after CERCHAR hydration treatment, in conjunction with a conventionally hydrated ash, in a range of chemical, geotechnical and utilization scenarios. The ashes are used to make no-cement and roller-compacted concrete as well as Ash Water Dense Suspensions (AWDS). The solidified mortar paste from no-cement concrete is subjected to an extensive geochemical examination to determine how solidification progresses and strength develops, from a chemical point of view.

  2. Improvement of thermostability and activity of Trichoderma reesei endo-xylanase Xyn III on insoluble substrates.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Satoshi; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma reesei Xyn III, an endo-β-1,4-xylanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10), is vital for the saccharification of xylans in plant biomass. However, its enzymatic thermostability and hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates are low. To overcome these difficulties, the thermostability of Xyn III was improved using random mutagenesis and directed evolution, and its hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates was improved by creating a chimeric protein. In the screening of thermostable Xyn III mutants from a random mutagenesis library, we identified two amino acid residues, Gln286 and Asn340, which are important for the thermostability of Xyn III. The Xyn III Gln286Ala/Asn340Tyr mutant showed xylanase activity even after heat treatment at 60 °C for 30 min or 50 °C for 96 h, indicating a dramatic enhancement in thermostability. In addition, we found that the addition of a xylan-binding domain (XBD) to the C-terminal of Xyn III improved its hydrolytic activity on insoluble xylan. PMID:27138202

  3. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  4. Observations on the wet ashing of oils and asphaltenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezekiel, Herbert Mordecai

    1955-01-01

    The wet ashing of oils and aspbaltenes by sulfUric acid, percbloric acid, and nitric-sulfuric acid techniques is discussed and compared. A simple sulfuric acid=nitric acid technique which has been found to be satisfactory for these substances is described.

  5. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 by Insoluble Particulate Material and Association with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Shapiro, Darien; Romero, Erin G; Stockmann, Chris; Bevans, Tatjana S; Phan, Quang M; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled irritants activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), resulting in cough, bronchoconstriction, and inflammation/edema. TRPA1 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our hypothesis was that particulate materials activate TRPA1 via a mechanism distinct from chemical agonists and that, in a cohort of children with asthma living in a location prone to high levels of air pollution, expression of uniquely sensitive forms of TRPA1 may correlate with reduced asthma control. Variant forms of TRPA1 were constructed by mutating residues in known functional elements and corresponding to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in functional domains. TRPA1 activity was studied in transfected HEK-293 cells using allyl-isothiocynate, a model soluble electrophilic agonist; 3,5-ditert butylphenol, a soluble nonelectrophilic agonist and a component of diesel exhaust particles; and insoluble coal fly ash (CFA) particles. The N-terminal variants R3C and R58T exhibited greater, but not additive, activity with all three agonists. The ankyrin repeat domain-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms E179K and K186N exhibited decreased response to CFA. The predicted N-linked glycosylation site residues N747A and N753A exhibited decreased responses to CFA, which were not attributable to differences in cellular localization. The pore-loop residue R919Q was comparable to wild-type, whereas N954T was inactive to soluble agonists but not CFA. These data identify roles for ankyrin domain-4, cell surface N-linked glycans, and selected pore-loop domain residues in the activation of TRPA1 by insoluble particles. Furthermore, the R3C and R58T polymorphisms correlated with reduced asthma control for some children, which suggest that TRPA1 activity may modulate asthma, particularly among individuals living in locations prone to high levels of air pollution.

  6. Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

  7. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  8. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-β-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-α-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were α-aminobutyric acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed.

  9. Sulfur-bearing coatings on fly ash from a coal-fired power plant: Composition, origin, and influence on ash alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Johnson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash samples collected from two locations in the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant differ markedly with respect to the abundance of thin (???0.1 ??m) sulfur-rich surface coatings that are observable by scanning electron microscopy. The coatings, tentatively identified as an aluminum-potassium-sulfate phase, probably form upon reaction between condensed sulfuric acid aerosols and glass surfaces, and are preferentially concentrated on ash exposed to exhaust stream gases for longer. The coatings are highly soluble and if sufficiently abundant, can impart an acidic pH to solutions initially in contact with ash. These observations suggest that proposals for ash use and predictions of ash behavior during disposal should consider the transient, acid-generating potential of some ash fractions and the possible effects on initial ash leachability and alteration. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  11. Why do proteins aggregate? "Intrinsically insoluble proteins" and "dark mediators" revealed by studies on "insoluble proteins" solubilized in pure water.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianxing

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, I reviewed and proposed a model for our discovery in 2005 that unrefoldable and insoluble proteins could in fact be solubilized in unsalted water. Since then, this discovery has offered us and other groups a powerful tool to characterize insoluble proteins, and we have further addressed several fundamental and disease-relevant issues associated with this discovery. Here I review these results, which are conceptualized into several novel scenarios. 1) Unlike 'misfolded proteins', which still retain the capacity to fold into well-defined structures but are misled to 'off-pathway' aggregation, unrefoldable and insoluble proteins completely lack this ability and will unavoidably aggregate in vivo with ~150 mM ions, thus designated as 'intrinsically insoluble proteins (IIPs)' here. IIPs may largely account for the 'wastefully synthesized' DRiPs identified in human cells. 2) The fact that IIPs including membrane proteins are all soluble in unsalted water, but get aggregated upon being exposed to ions, logically suggests that ions existing in the background play a central role in mediating protein aggregation, thus acting as 'dark mediators'. Our study with 14 salts confirms that IIPs lack the capacity to fold into any well-defined structures. We uncover that salts modulate protein dynamics and anions bind proteins with high selectivity and affinity, which is surprisingly masked by pre-existing ions. Accordingly, I modified my previous model. 3) Insoluble proteins interact with lipids to different degrees. Remarkably, an ALS-causing P56S mutation transforms the β-sandwich MSP domain into a helical integral membrane protein. Consequently, the number of membrane-interacting proteins might be much larger than currently recognized. To attack biological membranes may represent a common mechanism by which aggregated proteins initiate human diseases. 4) Our discovery also implies a solution to the 'chicken-and-egg paradox' for the origin of primitive membranes embedded

  12. Market opportunities for fly ash fillers in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.; Harris, T.; Gledhill, J. )

    1990-11-01

    Direct Acid Leaching (DAL) processed fly ash is derived from treating raw and beneficiated coal fly ash with hydrochloric acid. The DAL process allows for the production of fly ash with greater chemical purity and consistency than raw fly ash alone. In addition, DAL fly ash is similar to various minerals used in a wide range of applications that require filler minerals. This project investigates the feasibility of using three grades of DAL fly ash ranging from 10 microns to 30 microns in diameter as an alternative filler material to mineral fillers. Six major applications in North America, requiring large volumes of filler minerals were investigated by region including: (1) asphalt roofing shingles (2) carpet backing (3) joint compound and wallboard (4) industrial coatings (5) plastics (6) vinyl flooring. It is determined that calcium carbonate was the primary mineral filler DAL fly ash would be competing with in the applications investigated. Calcium carbonate is used in all applications investigated. The application which demonstrated the greatest potential for using DAL fly ash is asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles were the largest calcium carbonate consuming application identified, consuming 4.8 million tons in 1988, and is the least sensitive to the dark color of the DAL fly ash. Although the DAL fly ash typically has a smaller particle size, in comparison to calcium carbonate, the asphalt shingle manufacturers felt it would be a good substitute. Other promising applications for DAL fly ash were industrial coatings and plastics where the calcium carbonate particle size requirements of 3 to 6 microns very closely matches the particle size of the DAL fly ash considered in this project. 17 figs., 36 tabs.

  13. Fly ash as a liming material for cotton.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gene; Dunn, David

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fly ash from a coal combustion electric power facility on soil acidity in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. Fresh fly ash was applied to a Bosket fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Mollic Hapludalf) soil with an initial soil pH(salt) of 4.8. The fly ash was equivalent to 42 g kg(-1) calcium carbonate with 97% passing through a 60 mesh (U.S. standard) sieve. Fly ash was applied one day before cotton planting in 1999 at 0, 3.4, 6.7, and 10.1 Mg ha(-1). No fly ash was applied in 2000. Within 60 d of fly ash application in 1999, all rates of fly ash significantly increased soil pH above 6.0. Manganese levels in cotton petioles were reduced significantly by 6.7 and 10.1 Mg ha(-1) of fly ash. Soil boron (B) and sodium (Na) concentrations were significantly increased with fly ash. In 1999, B in cotton leaves ranged from 72 to 84 mg kg(-1) in plots with fly ash applications. However, no visual symptoms of B toxicity in plants were observed. In 1999, cotton lint yield decreased on average 12 kg ha(-1) for each Mg of fly ash applied. In 2000, cotton yields were significantly greater for the residual 3.4 and 6.7 Mg fly ash ha(-1) plots than the untreated check. Due to the adverse yield effects measured in the first year following application, fly ash would not be a suitable soil amendment for cotton on this soil at this time. PMID:14964389

  14. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.

    1992-08-01

    The first step in the integrated, mufti-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal is the production of ultra low-ash coal. Subsequent steps convert low-ash coal to high-value, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  15. An In Situ Method for Sizing Insoluble Residues in Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axson, J. L.; Creamean, J.; Bondy, A. L.; Warner, K. Y.; Ault, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) play an important role in the climate effects of clouds. Wet deposition of these particles via rainout, washout, or cloud seeding is an important removal mechanism for aerosols in the atmosphere. Many of these particles, especially those that serve as IN, are insoluble and remain suspended after uptake within precipitating droplets/crystals as insoluble residues. While studies have measured the dissolved ions or mass of species within collected precipitation, no studies to date have quantified the number and size of insoluble residues. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time an in situ method for determining the number concentration, number size distribution, and surface area distribution of insoluble residues < 1 μm in diameter in samples of melted snow and rain. This work evaluates the use of nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), a new and novel technique for determining particle size distributions in a liquid medium, to determine in situ size distributions of insoluble residue particles in precipitation and evaluate this technique versus other analytical methods, including dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Number size distribution modes ranged from 80-150 nm and were strongly sample dependent. Surface area distribution modes ranged from 150-400 nm. Differences were observed between concentrations and size distributions for snow collected at different locations and elevations and between rain and melted snow. These differences can indicate changes in the insoluble residues that vary with ambient aerosol concentration, cloud microphysics, and meteorological dynamics. This method has great potential for improving our understanding of the properties of the particles nucleating droplets and crystals, the surface area available for reactions to occur, and the number of particles removed by scavenging. Additionally, the snow samples were further evaluated

  16. The influence of fly ash on obtaining quality plastic and hardened properties of portland cement concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamad, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental test burn was done substituting coal with Refuse-Derived-Fuel(RDF) consisting mainly of waste paper and plastic with heating value of 6000 to 8000 BTU/lb. Twelve test burn days were run with 4 days of 5% RDF and 8 days of 10% RDF. The effect of RDF on the chemical and physical properties of fly ash and the effect of coal-RDF fly ash on the properties of plastic and hardened concrete were investigated. Coal fly ash from Merrimack Power Station was classified as an ASTM class F complying to the chemical and physical properties of ASTM C-618 specifications. Coal-RDF fly ash produced during the test burn showed chemical and physical properties comparable to coal fly ash. The average chemical and physical properties of coal-RDF fly ash complied to ASTM C-618 specifications. Concrete made with coal fly ash and coal-RDF fly ash showed increased slump in high paste mixes and decreased slump in low paste mixes. Air content decreased with increased fly ash at a constant dosage of air entrainment. Compressive strength the fly ash concrete at and beyond 28 days were comparable to ordinary portland cement concrete. Heavy metals were not leached from coal fly ash and coal-RDF fly ash concrete during a column test using a synthetic acid rain of pH 4.5 even though small quantities of cadmium and lead were found to leach from coal fly ash and coal-RDF fly ash during the beginning of the test. The volume of the acid rain was approximately equivalent to 7 years of precipitation, assuming 36 inches of rain per year. A microscopic investigation comparing the structure of pastes made with coal fly ash, coal-RDF fly ash, incinerator fly ash and incinerator bottom ash was conducted.

  17. Fly ash utilization in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Mouche, R.J.; Lin, M.J.L.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method of enhancing the release of alkalinity from an aqueous suspension of finely divided fly ash. It comprises contacting the suspension for a period of time sufficient to increase the alkalinity of the aqueous suspension with a mixture comprising stearic acid and a member selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbon mineral oil, polalkylene glycol, alkylarlpolyether alcohol, and kerosene.

  18. Mutagenicity of fly ash particles in Paramecium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Palizzi, R.A.; Herr, C.; Fisher, G.L.

    1981-01-09

    Paramecium, a protozoan that ingests nonnutritive particulate matter, was used to determine the mutagenicity of fly ash. Heat treatment inactivated mutagens that require metabolic conversion to their active form but did not destroy all mutagenicity. Extraction of particles with hydrochloric acid, but not dimethyl sulfoxide, removed detectable mutagenic activity.

  19. Characterization of insoluble nanoparticles in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, A.; Edwards, R.; Van Riessen, A.; Saunders, M.; Smith, A. M.; Curran, M. A.; Goodwin, I. D.; Feiteng, W.

    2013-12-01

    Insoluble nanoparticles in the form of aerosols have significant effects on climate and biogeochemical cycles. Records of these aerosols are essential for understanding paleoclimate forcing and future climate change. These particles and their precursors are emitted to the atmosphere from a variety of primary and secondary sources including biomass burning as well as biogenic, anthropogenic, volcanic, extraterrestrial, and terrestrial mineral emissions. While a large body of research exists with respect to mineral dust particles (on the micrometer scale) derived from ice and sediment cores, very little is known with regards to the history of insoluble particles on the nano scale. Ice core records are the only reliable way to study the past history of these particles. Here, we will present new data regarding the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles found in ice cores from East Antarctica.

  20. Improved utilization of coal derived fly ash in concrete. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Cerkanowicz, T.

    1994-02-01

    Successful use of coal derived fly-ash in the formulation of mortar and concrete currently depends on long term testing of the suitability of sample fly ash-concrete formulations prior to fly ash acceptance. Existing mm have proven unreliable and have not provided correlation between formulated mortar and concrete strength and fly-ash/combustor/coal properties or characteristics. This investigation represents a study of the interrelationship between the fly ash formation processes, the fly ash properties, and the mortar and concrete quality as reflected in compressive strength development and resistance to acid/sulfate degradation. Given the properties of the fly ash used and the conditions under which the combustion and fly ash collection was carried out, the optimum use of the captured ash in the mortar and concrete formulation could be defined. Further, the results were used to develop an innovative fly ash quality test to define optimum use of the fly ash. It was the intent of this investigation to increase the market for coal fly ash through its use in cement products. The development of new cement products through replacement of cement with coal fly ash to lower costs and provide comparable or superior compressive strength and resistance to acid/sulfate degradation was undertaken.

  1. Water-insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q.; Hu, X; Wang, X; Kluge, J; Lu, S; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally produced by increasing the {beta}-sheet content (silk II). In the present study water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling the very slow drying of Bombyx mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with a predominant silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle X-ray scattering indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared by slow drying had a globule-like structure at the core surrounded by nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random turns and {alpha}-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250 C, without crystallization above the T{sub g}, but degraded at lower temperatures than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films the films prepared by slow drying had better mechanical ductility and were more rapidly enzymatically degraded, reflecting the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated by the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low {beta}-sheet content.

  2. Water-Insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Lu, Shenzhou; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally achieved by increasing β-sheet content (silk II). In the present study, water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling very slow drying of B. mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with dominating silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared through slow drying had a globule-like structure in the core with nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, and these regions are surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random, turns, and α-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. DSC results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250°C, without crystallization above the Tg, but degraded in lower temperature than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films, the films prepared through slow drying achieved better mechanical ductility and more rapid enzymatic degradation, reflective of the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated in the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode to generate new types of silk biomaterials, where mechanical properties can be enhanced, and degradation rates increased, yet water insolubility is maintained along with low beta sheet content. PMID:19874919

  3. Water-insoluble silk films with silk I structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kluge, Jonathan A; Lu, Shenzhou; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2010-04-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally produced by increasing the beta-sheet content (silk II). In the present study water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling the very slow drying of Bombyx mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with a predominant silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle X-ray scattering indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared by slow drying had a globule-like structure at the core surrounded by nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random turns and alpha-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250 degrees C, without crystallization above the T(g), but degraded at lower temperatures than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films the films prepared by slow drying had better mechanical ductility and were more rapidly enzymatically degraded, reflecting the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated by the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low beta-sheet content.

  4. Insoluble polyelectrolyte and ion-exchange hollow fiber impregnated therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The number of quaternary sites and ion exchange capacity of a polyquaternary, cross linked, insoluble copolymer of a vinyl pyridine and a dihalo organic compound is increased by about 15-35% by reaction of the polymer with an amine followed by quaternization, if required. The polymer forms spontaneously in the presence of a substrate such as within the pores of a hollow fiber. The improved resin impregnated fiber may be utilized to remove ions from waste or process steams.

  5. Transmission of Soluble and Insoluble α-Synuclein to Mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daryl Rhys; Delenclos, Marion; Baine, AnnMarie T; DeTure, Michael; Murray, Melissa E; Dickson, Dennis W; McLean, Pamela J

    2015-12-01

    The neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which include Parkinson disease, multiple-system atrophy, and Lewy body disease, are characterized by the presence of abundant neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. These disorders remain incurable, and a greater understanding of the pathologic processes is needed for effective treatment strategies to be developed. Recent data suggest that pathogenic misfolding of the presynaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), and subsequent aggregation and accumulation are fundamental to the disease process. It is hypothesized that the misfolded isoform is able to induce misfolding of normal endogenous α-syn, much like what occurs in the prion diseases. Recent work highlighting the seeding effect of pathogenic α-syn has largely focused on the detergent-insoluble species of the protein. In this study, we performed intracerebral inoculations of the sarkosyl-insoluble or sarkosyl-soluble fractions of human Lewy body disease brain homogenate and show that both fractions induce CNS pathology in mice at 4 months after injection. Disease-associated deposits accumulated both near and distal to the site of the injection, suggesting a cell-to-cell spread via recruitment of α-syn. These results provide further insight into the prion-like mechanisms of α-syn and suggest that disease-associated α-syn is not homogeneous within a single patient but might exist in both soluble and insoluble isoforms. PMID:26574670

  6. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  7. Vegetation establishment on soil-amended weathered fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Semalulu, O.; Barnhisel, R.I.; Witt, S.

    1998-12-31

    A field study was conducted with the following objectives in mind: (1) to study the effect of soil addition to weathered fly ash on the establishment and survival of different grasses and legumes, (2) to identify suitable grasses and/or legume species for vegetation of fly ash, (3) to study the fertilizer N and P requirements for successful vegetation establishment on fly ash and ash-soil mixtures, (4) to examine the nutrient composition of the plant species tested, and (5) to study the plant availability of P from fly ash and ash-soil mixtures. Three rooting media were used: weathered fly ash, and 33% or 50% soil blended with the ash. Four experiments were established on each of these media to evaluate warm season grasses in pure stands, warm season grasses inter-seeded with legumes, cool season grasses, and cool season grasses inter-seeded with legumes. Soil used in this study was more acidic than the fly ash. Only the results from characterization of the rooting media, ground cover, and yield will be presented here.

  8. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1400 Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for packaging food in accordance with the following...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... cellulose film, water-insoluble. Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl cellulose film may be safely used for... cellulose film consists of a base sheet manufactured by the ethoxylation of cellulose under...

  14. Nutritional attributes of ash (Fraxinus spp.) outer bark and phloem and their relationships to resistance against the emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Hill, Amy L; Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Phelan, P Larry; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an alien, invasive wood-boring insect that is responsible for killing millions of ash trees since its discovery in North America in 2002. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that EAB has encountered have shown various degrees of susceptibility, while Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Ruprecht), which shares a co-evolutionary history with this insect, is resistant. Recent studies have looked into constitutive resistance mechanisms in Manchurian ash, concentrating on the secondary phloem, which is the feeding substrate for the insect. In addition to specialized metabolism and defense-related components, primary metabolites and nutritional summaries can also be important to understand the feeding behavior of insect herbivores. Here, we have compared the nutritional characteristics (water content, total protein, free amino acids, total soluble sugars and starch, percent carbon and nitrogen, and macro- and micronutrients) of outer bark and phloem from black, green, white and Manchurian ash to determine their relevance to resistance or susceptibility to EAB. Water content and concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, K, Li, tryptophan and an unknown compound were found to separate black and Manchurian ash from green and white ash in a principal component analysis (PCA), confirming their phylogenetic placements into two distinct clades. The traits that distinguished Manchurian ash from black ash in the PCA were water content and concentrations of total soluble sugars, histidine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, proline, sarcosine, tyramine, tyrosol, Al, Fe, K, Na, V and an unknown compound. However, only proline, tyramine and tyrosol were significantly different, and higher, in Manchurian ash than in black ash.

  15. Partitioning of metals between the aqueous phase and suspended insoluble material in fog droplets.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Valeriana; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Mangani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the partitioning of metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) between the aqueous phase and the suspended insoluble material in fog samples collected in the Po Valley during two extensive fields campaigns. Metals represent on average 11% of the mass of suspended insoluble matter, while the main component is carbon (both organic carbon, OC = 35%, and black carbon, BC = 8%). The unaccounted suspended matter mass is very high, on average 46%, and is attributable to non metallic species, such as O and N and of Si. The principal metals in the insoluble suspended fraction are Fe and Al (2-5%), while the contributions of other metals (Na, Mg, Cu, Pb and Zn) are lower than 1%. Ca and K exhibited high blank values and could not be detected above blank detection limit threshold. The main components in the aqueous phase are NO3- (34%), WSOC (23%), SO4(2-) (18%) and NH4+ (19%), while trace metals and remaining cations and anions accounted for less than 1% of solute mass. The main dissolved trace metals in fog droplets are Zn, Al and Fe, while the main metallic cations are Na and Ca. Fe and Al are the only metals preferentially distributed in the suspended insoluble matter of fog droplets (partitioning ratio respectively 37% and 33%). All other metals are mostly dissolved in the aqueous phase (mean partitioning ratios of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu and Na are 69%, 70%, 77%, 81% and 87%). These findings are in agreement with literature data on metal speciation in cloud and rain samples. The dependence of partitioning ratios on pH is investigated for the different metals, with only Al showing a clear partitioning ratio decrease with increasing pH. Conversely, the other metals show no dependence or a complex and highly variable behaviour. The partitioning ratio of iron (mean 37%) observed in the Po Valley fog samples is much higher than the water extractable iron in aerosol particles (typically 1-2 %): this fact can be explained by differences in the aerosol sources

  16. An assessment of Mercury immobilisation in alkali activated fly ash (AAFA) cements.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Shane; Fernández-Jiménez, Ana; Palomo, Angel

    2012-04-30

    This paper presents total and soluble Mercury contents for three coal fly ashes and alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) cements consisting of 100% fly ash as starting material. To evaluate the potential of the AAFA cement matrix to immobilise Hg from an external source, another batch of cements, doped with 5000 mg/kg Hg as highly soluble HgCl(2), was prepared. The ashes and control AAFA cements complied with Mercury leaching criteria for non-hazardous wastes according to both TCLP and EN 12457 tests. Fly ash activated cements doped with 5000 mg/kg Hg and aged for 2 days immobilised 98.8-99.6% and 97.3-98.8% of Hg according to TCLP and EN 12457 tests respectively. Evidence from SEM-EDX suggests that Hg was immobilised by precipitation as highly insoluble HgS or Hg(2)S, although partial precipitation as less insoluble HgO or Hg silicates could not be entirely ruled out based on data presented. The results for Hg-doped cements contribute to the growing body of evidence that shows AAFA cement as a useful material for immobilizing elevated concentrations of toxic and hazardous elements.

  17. Evaluation of post-ashed photoresist cleaning using oxidizing chemistries

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    The use of sulfuric acid based chemistries for the removal of photoresist ashing residue was investigated. Samples were prepared by ion-implanting patterned, UV-hardened photoresist. The efficacy of post-ash cleaning was determined by measuring organic, metallic, and particulate surface concentrations. Sulfuric-nitric mixtures and sulfuric-hydrogen peroxide mixtures were highly effective for the removal of metallic contaminants. Neither chemistry was very effective for particulate and organic residue. Highly effective overall cleaning was observed when a sulfuric acid based clean was followed with an RCA-type process sequence. Redundant cleans provided no additional benefits. Post-ash cleaning may be simplified by either reducing the number of sulfuric acid based cleans, or for certain post-ash applications, by replacing them with RCA-type processes.

  18. Development of Stable Solidification Method for Insoluble Ferrocyanides-13170

    SciTech Connect

    Ikarashi, Yuki; Masud, Rana Syed; Mimura, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Eiji; Matsukura, Minoru

    2013-07-01

    The development of stable solidification method of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge is an important subject for the safety decontamination in Fukushima NPP-1. By using the excellent immobilizing properties of zeolites such as gas trapping ability and self-sintering properties, the stable solidification of insoluble ferrocyanides was accomplished. The immobilization ratio of Cs for K{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O saturated with Cs{sup +} ions (Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O) was estimated to be less than 0.1% above 1,000 deg. C; the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions are completely volatilized. In contrast, the novel stable solid form was produced by the press-sintering of the mixture of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O and zeolites at higher temperature of 1,000 deg. C and 1,100 deg. C; Cs volatilization and cyanide release were completely depressed. The immobilization ratio of Cs, under the mixing conditions of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O:CP= 1:1 and calcining temperature: 1,000 deg. C, was estimated to be nearly 100%. As for the kinds of zeolites, natural mordenite (NM), clinoptilolite (CP) and Chabazite tended to have higher immobilization ratio compared to zeolite A. This may be due to the difference in the phase transformation between natural zeolites and synthetic zeolite A. In the case of the composites (K{sub 2-X}Ni{sub X/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O loaded natural mordenite), relatively high immobilization ratio of Cs was also obtained. This method using zeolite matrices can be applied to the stable solidification of the solid wastes of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge. (authors)

  19. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples.

  20. Insoluble calcium content and rheological properties of Colby cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-R; Johnson, M E; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Lucey, J A

    2010-05-01

    Colby cheese was made using different manufacturing conditions (i.e., varying the lactose content of milk and pH values at critical steps in the cheesemaking process) to alter the extent of acid development and the insoluble and total Ca contents of cheese. Milk was concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to increase the lactose content. Extent of acid development was modified by using high (HPM) and low (LPM) pH values at coagulant addition, whey drainage, and curd milling. Total Ca content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the insoluble (INSOL) Ca content of cheese was measured by the cheese juice method. The rheological and melting properties of cheese were measured by small amplitude oscillatory rheometry and UW-Melt Profiler, respectively. There was very little change in pH during ripening even in cheese made from milk with high lactose content. The initial (d 1) cheese pH was in the range of 4.9 to 5.1. The INSOL Ca content of cheese decreased during the first 4 wk of ripening. Cheeses made with the LPM had lower INSOL Ca content during ripening compared with cheese made with HPM. There was an increase in melt and maximum loss tangent values during ripening except for LPM cheeses made with RO-concentrated milk, as this cheese had pH <4.9 and exhibited limited melt. Curd washing reduced the levels of lactic acid produced during ripening and resulted in significantly higher INSOL Ca content. The use of curd washing for cheeses made from high lactose milk prevented a large pH decrease during ripening; high rennet and draining pH values also retained more buffering constituents (i.e., INSOL Ca phosphate), which helped prevent a large pH decrease.

  1. Preparation of soluble and insoluble polymer supported IBX reagents.

    PubMed

    Reed, Neal N; Delgado, Mercedes; Hereford, Kristina; Clapham, Bruce; Janda, Kim D

    2002-08-01

    A series of soluble and insoluble polymer supported versions of the versatile oxidizing reagent IBX has been prepared. Each of the reagents were evaluated for their efficiency in the conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Results from this study were that the soluble, non-crosslinked polystyrene supported IBX reagent gave the best rate of conversion to benzaldehyde, while the macroporous polymer supported IBX resin provided a superior rate of conversion to benzaldehyde when compared with a gel type resin. The macroporous IBX reagent was also shown to convert a series of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones.

  2. Making nonsymmetrical bricks: synthesis of insoluble dipolar sexiphenyls.

    PubMed

    Garmshausen, Yves; Schwarz, Jutta; Hildebrandt, Jana; Kobin, Björn; Pätzel, Michael; Hecht, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    A versatile synthesis of nonsymmetrical, terminally substituted p-sexiphenyl (6P) derivatives has been developed. The synthesis makes use of a nonsymmetrical starting material as well as modular functionalization using Suzuki cross-coupling to yield a soluble precursor, which finally is converted to the insoluble target 6P derivatives. These derivatives display similar electronic and optical properties to the parent 6P, yet the permanent dipole along their molecular axis allows for tuning of their self-assembly on various substrate surfaces.

  3. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    PubMed

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks.

  4. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  5. Insoluble and soluble roasted walnut proteins retain antibody reactivity.

    PubMed

    Downs, Melanie L; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Bartra, Joan; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-03-01

    Thermal processing techniques commonly used during food production have the potential to impact food allergens by inducing physical and/or chemical changes to the proteins. English walnuts (Juglans regia) are among the most commonly allergenic tree nuts, but little information is available regarding how walnut allergens respond to thermal processing. This study evaluated the effects of dry roasting (132 or 180°C for 5, 10, or 20min) on the solubility and immunoreactivity of walnut proteins. A dramatic decrease in walnut protein solubility was observed following dry roasting at 180°C for 20min. However, both the soluble and insoluble protein fractions from roasted walnuts maintained substantial amounts of IgG immunoreactivity (using anti-raw and anti-roasted walnut antisera), with similar patterns of reactivity observed for human IgE from walnut-allergic individuals. Thus, walnut proteins are relatively stable under certain thermal processing conditions, and IgE reactivity remains present even when insoluble aggregates are formed.

  6. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure.

  7. Insoluble and soluble roasted walnut proteins retain antibody reactivity.

    PubMed

    Downs, Melanie L; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Bartra, Joan; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-03-01

    Thermal processing techniques commonly used during food production have the potential to impact food allergens by inducing physical and/or chemical changes to the proteins. English walnuts (Juglans regia) are among the most commonly allergenic tree nuts, but little information is available regarding how walnut allergens respond to thermal processing. This study evaluated the effects of dry roasting (132 or 180°C for 5, 10, or 20min) on the solubility and immunoreactivity of walnut proteins. A dramatic decrease in walnut protein solubility was observed following dry roasting at 180°C for 20min. However, both the soluble and insoluble protein fractions from roasted walnuts maintained substantial amounts of IgG immunoreactivity (using anti-raw and anti-roasted walnut antisera), with similar patterns of reactivity observed for human IgE from walnut-allergic individuals. Thus, walnut proteins are relatively stable under certain thermal processing conditions, and IgE reactivity remains present even when insoluble aggregates are formed. PMID:26471647

  8. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  9. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  10. Gas/aerosol-ash interaction in volcanic plumes: New insights from surface analyses of fine ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Lambert, Mathieu; Dufrêne, Yves; Gerin, Patrick; Óskarsson, Niels

    2007-07-01

    The reactions occurring between gases/aerosols and silicate ash particles in volcanic eruption plumes remain poorly understood, despite the fact that they are at the origin of a range of volcanic, environmental, atmospheric and health effects. In this study, we apply X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a surface-sensitive technique, to determine the chemical composition of the near-surface region (2-10 nm) of nine ash samples collected from eight volcanoes. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to image the nanometer-scale surface structure of individual ash particles isolated from three samples. We demonstrate that rapid acid dissolution of ash occurs within eruption plumes. This process is favoured by the presence of fluoride and is believed to supply the cations involved in the deposition of sulphate and halide salts onto ash. AFM imaging also has permitted the detection of extremely thin (< 10 nm) coatings on the surface of ash. This material is probably composed of soluble sulphate and halide salts mixed with sparingly soluble fluoride compounds. The surface approach developed here offers promising aspects for better appraising the role of gas/aerosol-ash interaction in dictating the ability of ash to act as sinks for various volcanic and atmospheric chemical species as well as sources for others.

  11. Controls on the surface chemical reactivity of volcanic ash investigated with probe gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maters, Elena C.; Delmelle, Pierre; Rossi, Michel J.; Ayris, Paul M.; Bernard, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Increasing recognition that volcanic ash emissions can have significant impacts on the natural and human environment calls for a better understanding of ash chemical reactivity as mediated by its surface characteristics. However, previous studies of ash surface properties have relied on techniques that lack the sensitivity required to adequately investigate them. Here we characterise at the molecular monolayer scale the surfaces of ash erupted from Eyjafjallajökull, Tungurahua, Pinatubo and Chaitén volcanoes. Interrogation of the ash with four probe gases, trimethylamine (TMA; N(CH3)3), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; CF3COOH), hydroxylamine (HA; NH2OH) and ozone (O3), reveals the abundances of acid-base and redox sites on ash surfaces. Measurements on aluminosilicate glass powders, as compositional proxies for the primary constituent of volcanic ash, are also conducted. We attribute the greater proportion of acidic and oxidised sites on ash relative to glass surfaces, evidenced by comparison of TMA/TFA and HA/O3 uptake ratios, in part to ash interaction with volcanic gases and condensates (e.g., H2O, SO2, H2SO4, HCl, HF) during the eruption. The strong influence of ash surface processing in the eruption plume and/or cloud is further supported by particular abundances of oxidised and reduced sites on the ash samples resulting from specific characteristics of their eruptions of origin. Intense interaction with water vapour may result in a higher fraction of oxidised sites on ash produced by phreatomagmatic than by magmatic activity. This study constitutes the first quantification of ash chemical properties at the molecular monolayer scale, and is an important step towards better understanding the factors that govern the role of ash as a chemical agent within atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic or biotic systems.

  12. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  13. Fermentation of Insoluble Cellulose by Continuous Cultures of Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Miller, Terry L.; Wolin, Meyer J.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrolysis and fermentation of insoluble cellulose (Avicel) by continuous cultures of Ruminococcus albus 7 was studied. An anaerobic continuous culture apparatus was designed which permitted gas collection, continuous feeding, and wasting at different retention times. The operation of the apparatus was controlled by a personal computer. Cellulose destruction ranged from ca. 30 to 70% for hydraulic retention times of 0.5 to 2.0 days. Carbon recovery in products was 92 to 97%, and the oxidation-reduction ratios ranged from 0.91 to 1.15. The total product yield (biomass not included) per gram of cellulose (expressed as glucose) was 0.83 g g−1, and the ethanol yield was 0.41 g g−1. The product yield was constant, indicating that product formation was growth linked. PMID:16347769

  14. New insights into the characterization of 'insoluble black HCN polymers'.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; de la Fuente, José L; Rogero, Celia; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José A

    2012-01-01

    The data presented here provide a novel contribution to the understanding of the structural features of HCN polymers and could be useful in further development of models for prebiotic chemistry. The interpretation of spectroscopic and analytical data, along with previous results reported by other authors, allowed us to propose a mechanism for the aqueous polymerization of HCN from its primary and simplest isolated oligomer, the diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) tetramer. We suggest that 'insoluble black HCN polymers' are formed by an unsaturated complex matrix, which retains a significant amount of H(2) O and important bioorganic compounds or their precursors. This polymeric matrix can be formed by various motifs of imidazoles and cyclic amides, among others. The robust formation of HCN polymers assayed under several conditions seems to explain the plausible ubiquity of these complex substances in space.

  15. CLAY MINERALOGY OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUES IN MARINE EVAPORITES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, Marc W.

    1985-01-01

    Insoluble residues from three sequences of Paleozoic marine evaporites (Retsof salt bed in western New York, Salado Formation in south-eastern New Mexico, and Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation in southeastern Utah) are rich in trioctahedral clays. Chlorite (clinochlore), corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite-trioctahedral smectite), talc, and illite (the only dioctahedral clay) are the dominant clay minerals; serpentine, discrete trioctahedral smectite (saponite), and interstratified talc-trioctahedral smectite are sporadically abundant. These clay-mineral assemblages differ chemically and mineralogically from those observed in most continental and normal marine rocks, which commonly contain kaolinite, dioctahedral smectite (beidellite-montmorillonite), illite, mixed-layer illite-dioctahedral smectite, and, in most cases, no more than minor quantities of trioctahedral clay minerals. The distinctive clay mineralogy in these evaporite sequences suggests a largely authigenic origin. These clay minerals are thought to have formed during deposition and early diagenesis through interaction between argillaceous detritus and Mg-rich marine evaporite brines.

  16. New insights into the characterization of 'insoluble black HCN polymers'.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; de la Fuente, José L; Rogero, Celia; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José A

    2012-01-01

    The data presented here provide a novel contribution to the understanding of the structural features of HCN polymers and could be useful in further development of models for prebiotic chemistry. The interpretation of spectroscopic and analytical data, along with previous results reported by other authors, allowed us to propose a mechanism for the aqueous polymerization of HCN from its primary and simplest isolated oligomer, the diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) tetramer. We suggest that 'insoluble black HCN polymers' are formed by an unsaturated complex matrix, which retains a significant amount of H(2) O and important bioorganic compounds or their precursors. This polymeric matrix can be formed by various motifs of imidazoles and cyclic amides, among others. The robust formation of HCN polymers assayed under several conditions seems to explain the plausible ubiquity of these complex substances in space. PMID:22253100

  17. ASH and NASH.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, F; Ciccia, S; Marino, M; Bedogni, G; Bellentani, S

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) have a similar pathogenesis and histopathology but a different etiology and epidemiology. NASH and ASH are advanced stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). NAFLD is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis), without any other evident causes of chronic liver diseases (viral, autoimmune, genetic, etc.), and with an alcohol consumption ≤20-30 g/day. On the contrary, AFLD is defined as the presence of steatosis and alcohol consumption >20-30 g/day. The most common phenotypic manifestations of primary NAFLD/NASH are overweight/obesity, visceral adiposity, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension. The prevalence of NAFLD in the general population in Western countries is estimated to be 25-30%. The prevalence and incidence of NASH and ASH are not known because of the impossibility of performing liver biopsy in the general population. Up to 90% of alcoholics have fatty liver, and 5-15% of these subjects will develop cirrhosis over 20 years. The risk of cirrhosis increases to 30-40% in those who continue to drink alcohol. About 10-35% of alcoholics exhibit changes on liver biopsy consistent with alcoholic hepatitis. Natural histories of NASH and ASH are not completely defined, even if patients with NASH have a reduced life expectancy due to liver-related death and cardiovascular diseases. The best treatment of AFLD/ASH is to stop drinking, and the most effective first-line therapeutic option for NAFLD/NASH is non-pharmacologic lifestyle interventions through a multidisciplinary approach including weight loss, dietary changes, physical exercise, and cognitive-behavior therapy. PMID:21734385

  18. Study of a nickel-copper filter for the future conditioning of insoluble residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoni, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the feasibility of a separate conditioning for insoluble residues coming from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The two possible conditioning routes considered for insoluble residues were (i) added with cladding hulls with the considered filter (route #1) or (ii) melted with a nickel copper alloy already studied (route #2). Only route #2 was dealt with in this study. In France, the current practice is to store insoluble residues in a water suspension. For the two conditioning routes described here, dry insoluble residues are required for safety with melted metals. A nickel-copper filter was developed that can serve for the two types of conditioning. A filtration test performed with molybdenum particles as insoluble residue surrogates was done. The particle-charged filter was sintered, and Mo particles were kept inside the filter. Thus an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues was demonstrated.

  19. Existence of Cl in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and dechlorination effect of thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-02-28

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is widely used in Japan, through which large amount of incineration residues are produced. The recycle/reuse of the incineration residues is troubled by many factors. This paper studied the MSWI bottom ash with the principal focus on Cl. Both bulk analysis and microanalysis methods have been carried out. The bulk analysis disclosed a particle-size dependent pattern of the Cl content in the bottom ash and the insoluble Cl is essentially in the form of Friedel's salt (3CaO·Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)·10H(2)O). The microanalysis revealed that Cl preferentially exists in the quench phase of the individual bottom ash particle. Since Friedel's salt and the other quench products are thermally unstable, a series of thermal treatments were carried out to decompose such Cl-bearing phases. The experimental results showed the total Cl content in the MSWI bottom ash was reduced by 55.46% after a 4-h heating process at 1000°C. The removal of the soluble Cl (originally as alkali salts) by the thermal process was found to be more effective. However, the insoluble Cl content in the heated sample was barely lowered owing to the formation of calcium chlorocalumite (11CaO·7Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)) in the course of heating.

  20. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    PubMed

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-01

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation. PMID:21254775

  1. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    PubMed

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-01

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation.

  2. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  3. Direct Image-Based Enumeration of Clostridium phytofermentans Cells on Insoluble Plant Biomass Growth Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alvelo-Maurosa, Jesús G.; Lee, Scott J.; Hazen, Samuel P.

    2015-01-01

    A dual-fluorescent-dye protocol to visualize and quantify Clostridium phytofermentans ISDg (ATCC 700394) cells growing on insoluble cellulosic substrates was developed by combining calcofluor white staining of the growth substrate with cell staining using the nucleic acid dye Syto 9. Cell growth, cell substrate attachment, and fermentation product formation were investigated in cultures containing either Whatman no. 1 filter paper, wild-type Sorghum bicolor, or a reduced-lignin S. bicolor double mutant (bmr-6 bmr-12 double mutant) as the growth substrate. After 3 days of growth, cell numbers in cultures grown on filter paper as the substrate were 6.0- and 2.2-fold higher than cell numbers in cultures with wild-type sorghum and double mutant sorghum, respectively. However, cells produced more ethanol per cell when grown with either sorghum substrate than with filter paper as the substrate. Ethanol yields of cultures were significantly higher with double mutant sorghum than with wild-type sorghum or filter paper as the substrate. Moreover, ethanol production correlated with cell attachment in sorghum cultures: 90% of cells were directly attached to the double mutant sorghum substrate, while only 76% of cells were attached to wild-type sorghum substrate. With filter paper as the growth substrate, ethanol production was correlated with cell number; however, with either wild-type or mutant sorghum, ethanol production did not correlate with cell number, suggesting that only a portion of the microbial cell population was active during growth on sorghum. The dual-staining procedure described here may be used to visualize and enumerate cells directly on insoluble cellulosic substrates, enabling in-depth studies of interactions of microbes with plant biomass. PMID:26637592

  4. Effects of fly ash and boric acid on Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 dispersed with MgAl2O4: An experimental study on rat subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Gulfem; Guru, Metin; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Yilmaz, Dervis

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue reaction around zirconia-based materials. Forty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Disk-shaped (1mm height and 5mm diameter) samples composed of 67% spinel (MgAl2O4), 27% tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, 4% (m/m) fly ash and 2% (m/m) boric acid were inserted into dorsal muscles of rats. After 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and zirconia materials were removed with the surrounding tissue. Tissue sections were made with a microtome and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Sections were evaluated for the intensity of inflammation. Additionally, the somatic and visceral lymph nodes were evaluated. Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests at a significant level of p < 0.05. There were statistically significant differences between mean inflammatory scores in different experimental periods (p <0.05). In addition, the inflammatory reaction decreased over time. The tested materials had no damaging effect on the rat lymph nodes and did not have a toxic action on the internal organs. Therefore, zirconia polycrystal tested in the present study may offer a promising treatment alternative after further mechanical and biological studies are performed.

  5. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash. PMID:27228215

  6. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  7. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from incinerator ash residues

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, K.E.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of a novel and state-of-the-art patent-pending processes developed jointly by Forrester Environmental Services Inc. (FESI) and Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) for the extraction and recovery of lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals from heavy metal bearing wastes including but not limited to solid waste incinerator bottom ash, flyash and combined ash. The heavy metal extraction and recovery processes were found to be capable of high percentage of heavy metals extraction and recovery at a relatively low cost under bench scale and full-scale refuse incinerator facility conditions. This paper presents empirical data from bench scale studies only, as the full-scale data is currently under review. The ash product remaining after extraction passed all TCLP regulatory limits and retained only minimal Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn content and other water insoluble heavy metal compounds. Results of heavy metals recovery and low cost from ongoing field applications of this technology are consistent with the bench scale data presented within this paper.

  8. ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

    1999-12-01

    The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

  9. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-03-02

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  10. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-03-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  11. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  12. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200–2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  13. Soluble and insoluble signals sculpt osteogenesis in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ripamonti, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    The basic tissue engineering paradigm is tissue induction and morphogenesis by combinatorial molecular protocols whereby soluble molecular signals are combined with insoluble signals or substrata. The insoluble signal acts as a three-dimensional scaffold for the initiation of de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. The osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, the bone morphogenetic/osteogenic proteins (BMPs/OPs) and, uniquely in the non-human primate Papio ursinus (P. ursinus), the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce bone formation as a recapitulation of embryonic development. In this paper, I discuss the pleiotropic activity of the BMPs/OPs in the non-human primate P. ursinus, the induction of bone by transitional uroepithelium, and the apparent redundancy of molecular signals initiating bone formation by induction including the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms. Amongst all mammals tested so far, the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce endochondral bone formation in the non-human primate P. ursinus only. Bone tissue engineering starts by erecting scaffolds of biomimetic biomaterial matrices that mimic the supramolecular assembly of the extracellular matrix of bone. The molecular scaffolding lies at the hearth of all tissue engineering strategies including the induction of bone formation. The novel concept of tissue engineering is the generation of newly formed bone by the implantation of “smart” intelligent biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the ripple-like cascade of bone differentiation by induction without exogenously applied BMPs/OPs of the TGF-β supergene family. A comprehensive digital iconographic material presents the modified tissue engineering paradigm whereby the induction of bone formation is initiated by intelligent smart biomimetic matrices that per se initiate the induction of bone formation without the exogenous application of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals

  14. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  15. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lihong; McLean, Jeffrey S; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-12-10

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the principal cariogenic bacterium for dental caries. Despite the recognition of their importance for cariogenesis, the possible coordination among S. mutans' main virulence factors, including glucan production, acidogenicity and aciduricity, has been less well studied. In the present study, using S. mutans strains with surface-displayed pH-sensitive pHluorin, we revealed sucrose availability- and Gtf functionality-dependent proton accumulation on S. mutans surface. Consistent with this, using a pH-sensitive dye, we demonstrated that both in vivo cell-produced and in vitro enzymatically synthesized insoluble glucans displayed proton-concentrating ability. Global transcriptomics revealed proton accumulation triggers the up-regulation of genes encoding functions involved in acid tolerance response in a glucan-dependent manner. Our data suggested that this proton enrichment around S. mutans could pre-condition the bacterium for acid-stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found S. mutans strains defective in glucan production were more acid sensitive. Our study revealed for the first time that insoluble glucans is likely an essential factor linking acidogenicity with aciduricity. The coordination of these key virulence factors could provide new insights on how S. mutans may have become a major cariogenic pathogen.

  16. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lihong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the principal cariogenic bacterium for dental caries. Despite the recognition of their importance for cariogenesis, the possible coordination among S. mutans’ main virulence factors, including glucan production, acidogenicity and aciduricity, has been less well studied. In the present study, using S. mutans strains with surface-displayed pH-sensitive pHluorin, we revealed sucrose availability- and Gtf functionality-dependent proton accumulation on S. mutans surface. Consistent with this, using a pH-sensitive dye, we demonstrated that both in vivo cell-produced and in vitro enzymatically synthesized insoluble glucans displayed proton-concentrating ability. Global transcriptomics revealed proton accumulation triggers the up-regulation of genes encoding functions involved in acid tolerance response in a glucan-dependent manner. Our data suggested that this proton enrichment around S. mutans could pre-condition the bacterium for acid-stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found S. mutans strains defective in glucan production were more acid sensitive. Our study revealed for the first time that insoluble glucans is likely an essential factor linking acidogenicity with aciduricity. The coordination of these key virulence factors could provide new insights on how S. mutans may have become a major cariogenic pathogen. PMID:26657939

  17. The Ash that Closed Europe's Airspace in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gislason, S. R.; Alfredsson, H.; Olsson, J.; Eiriksdottir, E.; Oskarsson, N.; Hassenkam, T.; Nedel, S.; Bovet, N.; Hem, C.; Balogh, Z.; Dideriksen, K.; Stipp, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    On 14 April 2010, when meltwater from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive phreato-magmatic eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash had caused sand blasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. In this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected during the explosive eruption and compared with fresh ash with the same bulk composition from a later more typical magmatic event, when meltwater did not have access to the magma.[1] Up to 70 mass % of the phreato-magmatic ash particles, collected 60 km from the source, was <60 μm in diameter, 22% was <10 μm and 11% was ≤ 4.4 μm. The finest grain size was found in the centre of the "collapsed" plume. The magmatic ash was coarser and its surface area was an order of magnitude smaller than for the explosive ash. The relative concentration of surface salts down to 10 nm depth was significantly lower on the explosive ash than the magmatic ash, because less volatile compounds were available to condense on the surfaces when water and steam were present. Instead, they dissolved in the meltwater and were transported as solutes in the ensuing floodwaters. The surface salts dissolved rapidly when exposed to experimental and natural waters, releasing pollutants and nutrients. Some of the salts further enhanced bulk dissolution of the ash. The particles of phreato-magmatic ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and hard, therefore abrasive, over their entire size range

  18. Insoluble surface carbon on steel sheet annealed in hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, H. E.; Takacs, R. C.; Dickey, A. E.

    1983-09-01

    The way in which heating in hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere affects the pyrolysis of the residual lubricant on cold-reduced steel sheet was studied to discover the factors responsible for the formation of carbonaceous films on the steel surface. These films, referred to as insoluble surface carbon, cannot be removed with the usual solvents or water-base cleaners and adversely affect the paintability of the steel. A surprising result was the observation that the full-hard steel surface has a significant amount of insoluble surface carbon; amounts in excess of 0.010 gm/m2 (1 mg/ft2) were observed. The origin of this “initial” insoluble carbon can be traced to the pickling operation after hot rolling. During annealing much of the residual rolling lubricant on the surface is driven off by evaporation, but concurrently insoluble pyrolysis products are formed. The amount of insoluble pyrolysis product formed is directly related to the amount of “initial” insoluble carbon on the surface before annealing. The results show that at some point during annealing the total amount of insoluble carbon on the surface is more than double the amount of “initial” insoluble carbon. These insoluble pyrolysis products can also be driven from the surface at higher temperatures than are required for evaporation of the oil. The results suggest that removal of the “initial” insoluble carbon prior to cold reduction might be very beneficial with respect to decreasing the amount of insoluble carbon on the surface of steel sheet after annealing.

  19. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  20. Circle of Ashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Circle of Ashes

    This plot tells astronomers that a pulsar, the remnant of a stellar explosion, is surrounded by a disk of its own ashes. The disk, revealed by the two data points at the far right from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, is the first ever found around a pulsar. Astronomers believe planets might rise up out of these stellar ashes.

    The data in this plot, or spectrum, were taken by ground-based telescopes and Spitzer. They show that light from around the pulsar can be divided into two categories: direct light from the pulsar, and light from the dusty disk swirling around the pulsar. This excess light was detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Dust gives off more infrared light than the pulsar because it's cooler.

    The pulsar, called 4U 0142+61, was once a massive star, until about 100,000 years ago, when it blew up in a supernova explosion and scattered dusty debris into space. Some of that debris was captured into what astronomers refer to as a 'fallback disk,' now circling the leftover stellar core, or pulsar. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks around young stars, out of which planets are thought to be born.

    The data have been corrected to remove the effects of light scattering from dust that lies between Earth and the pulsar.

    The ground-based data is from the Keck I telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  1. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-22

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  2. Assessment of organic matter resistance to biodegradation in volcanic ash soils assisted by automated interpretation of infrared spectra from humic acid and whole soil samples by using partial least squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Zulimar; Pérez Trujillo, Juan Pedro; Hernández-Hernández, Sergio Alexander; Almendros, Gonzalo; Sanz, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    From a practical viewpoint, the most interesting possibilities of applying infrared (IR) spectroscopy to soil studies lie on processing IR spectra of whole soil (WS) samples [1] in order to forecast functional descriptors at high organizational levels of the soil system, such as soil C resilience. Currently, there is a discussion on whether the resistance to biodegradation of soil organic matter (SOM) depends on its molecular composition or on environmental interactions between SOM and mineral components, such could be the case with physical encapsulation of particulate SOM or organo-mineral derivatives, e.g., those formed with amorphous oxides [2]. A set of about 200 dependent variables from WS and isolated, ash free, humic acids (HA) [3] was obtained in 30 volcanic ash soils from Tenerife Island (Spain). Soil biogeochemical properties such as SOM, allophane (Alo + 1 /2 Feo), total mineralization coefficient (TMC) or aggregate stability were determined in WS. In addition, structural information on SOM was obtained from the isolated HA fractions by visible spectroscopy and analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). Aiming to explore the potential of partial least squares regression (PLS) in forecasting soil dependent variables, exclusively using the information extracted from WS and HA IR spectral profiles, data were processed by using ParLeS [4] and Unscrambler programs. Data pre-treatments should be carefully chosen: the most significant PLS models from IR spectra of HA were obtained after second derivative pre-treatment, which prevented effects of intrinsically broadband spectral profiles typical in macromolecular heterogeneous material such as HA. Conversely, when using IR spectra of WS, the best forecasting models were obtained using linear baseline correction and maximum normalization pre-treatment. With WS spectra, the most successful prediction models were obtained for SOM, magnetite, allophane, aggregate stability, clay and total aromatic compounds, whereas the PLS

  3. Formation of Humic Substances in Weathered MSWI Bottom Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haixia; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs) content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37°C and 50°C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na4P2O7. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37°C and at 18th week under 50°C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50°C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37°C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported. PMID:23844394

  4. Formation of humic substances in weathered MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haixia; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs) content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37°C and 50°C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na₄P₂O₇. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37°C and at 18th week under 50°C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50°C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37°C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported. PMID:23844394

  5. Illinois basin coal fly ashes. 1. Chemical characterization and solubility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.; Dickerson, D.R.; Schuller, R.M.; Martin, S.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve precipitator-collected fly ash samples (nine derived from high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals and three from Western U.S. coals) were found to contain a variety of paraffins, aryl esters, phenols, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons including phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene but all at very low concentrations. Less than 1% of the organic carbon in the samples was extractable into benzene. Solubility studies with a short-term (24-h) extraction procedure and a long-term (20-week) procedure indicate that the inorganic chemical composition of some types of fly ash effluent is time dependent and may be most toxic to aquatic ecosystems when initially mixed with water and pumped to disposal ponds. Some acidic, high-Cd fly ashes would be classified as hazardous wastes if coal ash was included in this waste category by future RCRA revisions. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  6. MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application.

    PubMed

    Kamon, M; Katsumi, T; Sano, Y

    2000-09-15

    The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength tests, leachate tests, and soaking tests. The behavior of soluble salts contained in the MSW fly ash significantly affects strength development, soaking durability, and the hardening reaction of the stabilized MSW fly ash mixtures. The cement stabilization of the MSW fly ash does not have enough effect on strength development and soaking durability. The addition of cement only contributes to the containment of heavy metals due to the high level of alkalinity. When using FCA as a stabilizing agent for MSW fly ash, the mixture exhibits high strength and durability. However, the Cd leachate cannot be prevented in the early stages of curing. Using a combination of cement and FCA as a MSW fly ash stabilizer can attain high strength, high soaking durability, and the containment of heavy metals. The stabilized MSW fly ash with cement and FCA can be practically applied to embankments. PMID:10936538

  7. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  8. Spreading of droplet with insoluble surfactant on corrugated topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunxi; Pei, Jianjun; Ye, Xuemin

    2014-09-01

    The flow of microscale fluid on a topography surface is a key to further development of MEMS, nanoscience and technology. In the present paper, a theoretical model of the droplet spreading with insoluble surfactant over corrugated topography is established with the lubrication theory, and the evolution equations of film thickness and surfactant concentration in base state and disturbance state are formulated. The droplet dynamics, the nonlinear stability based on nonmodal stability theory, and the effects of topography structure and Marangoni stress are numerically simulated with PDECOL scheme. Results show that the impact of topographical surface is strengthened apparently while the Marangoni stress driven by surfactant concentration is weakened in the mid-late stages of the spreading. The droplet radius on the topography advances faster and the lowest height of liquid/gas interface near the droplet edge reduces remarkably in the intermediate stage compared with those on the flat wall. The quantity of the wavelet similar to the topography increases gradually, with the characteristics of wavelet crest height with time exhibiting a single-hump feature. The spreading stability is enhanced under the disturbance wavenumber of 4, however, is to deteriorate and even to transform into instability when wavenumber increases further. In addition, the reductive Marangoni number, enhancive capillary number, modest Peclet number, the low height of the topography as well as small wavenumber of topography can make contributions to the evident stability of droplet spreading.

  9. Toward an experimental synthesis of the chondritic insoluble organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, Kasia; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, FrançOis; Rouzaud, Jean-NoëL.

    2015-08-01

    Based on the statistical model proposed for the molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from the Murchison meteorite, it was recently proposed that, in the solar T-Tauri disk regions where (photo)dissociation of gaseous molecules takes place, aromatics result from the cyclization/aromatization of short aliphatics. This hypothesis is tested in this study, with n-alkanes being submitted to high-frequency discharge at low pressure. The contamination issue was eliminated using deuterated precursor. IOM was formed and studied using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, RuO4 oxidation, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It exhibits numerous similarities at the molecular level with the hydrocarbon backbone of the natural IOM, reinforcing the idea that the initial precursors of the IOM were originally chains in the gas. Moreover, a fine comparison between the chemical structure of several meteorite IOM suggests either that (i) the meteorite IOMs share a common precursor standing for the synthetic IOM or that (ii) the slight differences between the meteorite IOMs reflect differences in their environment at the time of their formation i.e., related to plasma temperature that, in turn, dictates the dissociation-recombination rates of organic fragments.

  10. Ash in the Soil System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  11. An atlas of volcanic ash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.

    1974-01-01

    Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

  12. Conquering the control of insoluble and soluble starch with novel applications of amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new knowledge that there is markedly more insoluble starch than previously considered in products across both the sugarcane factory and refinery has processing implications. This includes the application of a-amylases in the factory to control not only soluble but insoluble starch. Studies wer...

  13. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols enhances lipid oxidation and lowers postprandial acylated ghrelin in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Garcia, Ada L; Otto, Baerbel; Mueller, Corinna; Steiniger, Jochen; Weickert, Martin O; Speth, Maria; Katz, Norbert; Koebnick, Corinna

    2006-06-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that may affect substrate utilization in humans. Ghrelin is influenced by macronutrients, but the effects of insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols are unknown. We investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fiber preparation from carob pulp (carob fiber) on postprandial ghrelin responses and substrate utilization. Dose-dependent effects of the consumption of carob fiber were investigated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study in 20 healthy subjects, aged 22-62 y. Plasma total and acylated ghrelin, triglycerides, and serum insulin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels were repeatedly assessed before and after ingestion of an isocaloric standardized liquid meal with 0, 5, 10, or 20 g of carob fiber over a 300-min period. The respiratory quotient (RQ) was determined after consumption of 0 or 20 g of carob fiber. Carob fiber intake lowered acylated ghrelin to 49.1%, triglycerides to 97.2%, and NEFA to 67.2% compared with the control meal (P < 0.001). Total ghrelin and insulin concentrations were not affected by consumption of a carob fiber-enriched liquid meal. Postprandial energy expenditure was increased by 42.3% and RQ was reduced by 99.9% after a liquid meal with carob fiber compared with a control meal (P < 0.001). We showed that the consumption of a carob pulp preparation, an insoluble dietary fiber rich in polyphenols, decreases postprandial responses of acylated ghrelin, triglycerides, and NEFA and alters RQ, suggesting a change toward increased fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that carob fiber might exert beneficial effects in energy intake and body weight.

  14. Secreted expression of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrase in Lactococcus lactis for the production of insoluble glucans.

    PubMed

    Skory, Christopher D; Côté, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    We expressed a glucansucrase, DsrI, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that catalyzes formation of water-insoluble glucans from sucrose using a nisin-controlled gene expression system in Lactococcus lactis. These polymers have potential for production of biodegradable gels, fibers, and films. We optimized production of DsrI using several different background vectors, signal peptides, strains, induction conditions, and bioreactor parameters to increase extracellular accumulation. Optimal production of the enzyme utilized a high-copy plasmid, pMSP3535H3, which contains a nisin immunity gene, L. lactis LM0230, and bioreactors maintained at pH 6.0 to stabilize the enzyme. We were able to significantly improve growth using the lactic acid inhibitor heme and by continuous removal of lactic acid with anion exchange resins, but enzyme production was less than the controls. The recombinant enzyme under optimized conditions accumulated in the culture medium to approximately 380 mg/L, which was over 150-fold higher compared to the native L. mesenteroides strain. Methods are also included for purification of DsrI utilizing the glucan-binding domain of the enzyme.

  15. Secreted expression of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrase in Lactococcus lactis for the production of insoluble glucans.

    PubMed

    Skory, Christopher D; Côté, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    We expressed a glucansucrase, DsrI, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that catalyzes formation of water-insoluble glucans from sucrose using a nisin-controlled gene expression system in Lactococcus lactis. These polymers have potential for production of biodegradable gels, fibers, and films. We optimized production of DsrI using several different background vectors, signal peptides, strains, induction conditions, and bioreactor parameters to increase extracellular accumulation. Optimal production of the enzyme utilized a high-copy plasmid, pMSP3535H3, which contains a nisin immunity gene, L. lactis LM0230, and bioreactors maintained at pH 6.0 to stabilize the enzyme. We were able to significantly improve growth using the lactic acid inhibitor heme and by continuous removal of lactic acid with anion exchange resins, but enzyme production was less than the controls. The recombinant enzyme under optimized conditions accumulated in the culture medium to approximately 380 mg/L, which was over 150-fold higher compared to the native L. mesenteroides strain. Methods are also included for purification of DsrI utilizing the glucan-binding domain of the enzyme. PMID:26239071

  16. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  19. Evaluation of tubular ceramic heat exchanger materials in acidic coal ash from coal-oil-mixture combustion. [Sialon; alumina; CVD, sintered, and siliconized SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.K.; Tennery, V.J.

    1981-12-01

    Tubes of five ceramic materials were exposed to the hot combustion gases from a coal-oil-mixture (COM) fuel in the Ceramic Recuperator Analysis Facility (CRAF) at about 1200/sup 0/C for about 500 h. Siliconized SiC, sintered ..cap alpha..-SiC, and chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC survived the long-term exposure with no major visible degradation. The alumina and sialon tubes were cracked extensively. Acidic coal slag deposited extensively on the upstream surface of all tubes. During cooldown, the slag did not strongly bond to any of the silicon carbide tubes, but a strong bond was developed with the alumina and sialon tubes. The silicon carbides corroded by a micropitting oxidation at the carbide-slag interface. The SiC and Si phases of siliconized SiC corroded at essentially the same rate. Exposure to hot coal slag increased the room-temperature helium permeability of all the SiC-based tubes. For KT and CVD SiC, both upstream and downstream sides exhibited expansion increases up to about 17% at 1000/sup 0/C. Sintered ..cap alpha..-SiC had much smaller increases. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ had an expansion increase of about 14% on the upstream side at 1000/sup 0/C but the downstream side was unchanged. 65 figures, 22 tables.

  20. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton

  1. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton

  2. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  3. Evaporation of Sessile Droplets Laden with Particles and Insoluble Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Karapetsas, George; Chandra Sahu, Kirti; Matar, Omar K

    2016-07-12

    We consider the flow dynamics of a thin evaporating droplet in the presence of an insoluble surfactant and noninteracting particles in the bulk. On the basis of lubrication theory, we derive a set of evolution equations for the film height, the interfacial surfactant, and bulk particle concentrations, taking into account the dependence of liquid viscosity on the local particle concentration. An important ingredient of our model is that it takes into account the fact that the surfactant adsorbed at the interface hinders evaporation. We perform a parametric study to investigate how the presence of surfactants affects the evaporation process as well as the flow dynamics with and without the presence of particles in the bulk. Our numerical calculations show that the droplet lifetime is affected significantly by the balance between the ability of the surfactant to enhance spreading, suppressing the effect of thermal Marangoni stresses-induced motion, and to hinder the evaporation flux through the reduction of the effective interfacial area of evaporation, which tend to accelerate and decelerate the evaporation process, respectively. For particle-laden droplets and in the case of dilute solutions, the droplet lifetime is found to be weakly dependent on the initial particle concentration. We also show that the particle deposition patterns are influenced strongly by the direct effect of the surfactant on the evaporative flux; in certain cases, the "coffee-stain" effect is enhanced significantly. A discussion of the delicate interplay between the effects of capillary pressure and solutal and thermal Marangoni stresses, which drive the liquid flow inside of the evaporating droplet giving rise to the observed results, is provided herein.

  4. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  5. The adsorption of Congo red and vacuum pump oil by rice hull ash.

    PubMed

    Chou, K S; Tsai, J C; Lo, C T

    2001-06-01

    Rice hull ash (RHA) of large surface area was obtained by acid wash and then calcination at 600 degrees C for 4 h. The white ash was then mixed with kaolin and starch to make pellet adsorbents with reasonable strength to be utilized in a packed column. Both ash and pellet samples showed good adsorption capacities toward the organic substances in wastewater. Furthermore, the surface nature of the white ash and pellet adsorbent could be modified through either hydration or esterification reactions. Corresponding changes in silanol concentrations were successfully correlated to changes in adsorption capacity toward either Congo red or vacuum pump oil molecules. PMID:11333045

  6. Chemical speciation and leaching properties of elements in municipal incinerator ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Imada, Teruji

    1996-12-31

    Different chemical properties of bottom ash and fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators were compared based on the results of the five measuring techniques: (1) total contents and leaching amounts by regulatory leaching test in Japan; (2) leaching properties by pH-dependent leaching test; (3) modeling of pH-dependent leaching test using model compounds; (4) enriched chemical composition compared with bulk composition by an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS); (5) estimation of chemical states of elements by XPS analysis. The difference between bottom ash and EP ash was clearly found in element content, leaching behavior and release rate. The release rates of many elements in bottom ash were lower than in electrostatic precipitation (EP) ash even in an acidic condition of pH 3 as well as at the inherent pH of 12. Corresponding to the relatively complicated components in bottom ash, leaching patterns depending on pH were not simple. Comparison between the pH-dependent pattern of Ca in a sample and in model compounds resulted in the estimation of some Ca compounds in ash. The surface analysis by XPS showed results that Na, Cl, Zn, Pb and S were enriched in EP ash and Fe and Ti were rarely found in the surface of ash. Possible chemical states of Na, Ca, K, Cl and S were estimated by a new method of comparing binding energies of standard compounds and their mixtures.

  7. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  8. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification.

  9. Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

  10. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  12. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  13. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  14. Sorption of cadmium and lead by clays from municipal incinerator ash- water suspensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Steele, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Cl complexation in extracts of a flue gas-scrubber incinerator fly ash sample on the sorption of Cd and Pb by kaolinite and illite was investigated using batch-sorption methods. In the pH range of 5 to 9, Cl complexation may reduce sorption and thus increase the mobility of these metals. When an ash-water suspension was acidified to pH 6.85, the dissolution of Cl and Ca essentially eliminated Cd sorption because of complexation and cationic competition. Cadmium would be considered as either mobile or very mobile under these conditions. Lead was not soluble in the pH- 6.85 suspension. At pH 12, the approximate pH of water in contact with flue gas-scrubber fly ash, Cd was essentially insoluble and Pb occurred as anionic Pb hydroxide. Anionic Pb was sorbed by the two clays, and the extent of sorption was not influenced by Cl or carbonate complexation. Sorption constants, derived from isotherms, suggested that Pb would be relatively immobile in saturated soil-water systems. The recent concern that highly alkaline, flue gas-scrubber fly ash may release environmentally significant concentrations of mobile Pb when placed in an ash-disposal site with a soil liner should be reevaluated in light of this study.

  15. Novel cross-linked alcohol-insoluble solid (CL-AIS) affinity gel from pea pod for pectinesterase purification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Guan-Hui; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-10-01

    Alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) from pea pod were cross-linked (CL-AIS) and used as an affinity gel matrix to isolate pectin esterases (PEs) from tendril shoots of chayote (TSC) and jelly fig achenes (JFA), and the results were compared with those isolated by ion-exchange chromatography with a commercial resin. CL-AIS gel matrix in a column displayed poor absorption and purification fold of PE; however, highly methoxylated CL-AIS (HM-CL-AIS), by exposing CL-AIS to methanolic sulfuric acid to increase the degree of esterification (DE) to 92%, facilitated the enzyme purification. The purified TSC PE and JFA PE by the HM-CL-AIS column were proofed as a single band on an SDS-PAGE gel, showing that the HM-CL-AIS column was a good matrix for purification of PE, either with alkaline isoelectric point (pI) (TSC PE) or with acidic pI (JFA PE).

  16. Evaluation of leachates from coal refuse blended with fly ash at different rates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B R; Daniels, W L; Zelazny, L W; Jackson, M L

    2001-01-01

    There is great interest in returning coal combustion products to mining sites for beneficial reuse as liming agents. A column study examined the effects of blending two coal fly ashes with an acid-forming coal refuse (4% pyritic S). Both fly ashes were net alkaline, but had relatively low neutralizing capacities. One ash with moderate alkalinity (CRF) was bulk blended with coal refuse at 0, 20, and 33% (w/w), while another lower alkalinity ash (WVF) was blended at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 33% (w/w). The columns were leached (unsaturated) weekly with 2.5 cm of simulated precipitation for >150 wk. Where high amounts of ash alkalinity (>20% w/w) were mixed with the coal refuse, pyrite oxidation was controlled and leachate pH was >7.0 with low metal levels throughout the study. At lower rates of alkalinity loading, trace metals were sequentially released from the WVF ash as the 5, 10, and 20% treatments acidified due to pyrite oxidation. Lechate metals increased in proportion to the total amounts applied in the ash. In this strongly acidic environment, metals such as Mn, Fe, and Cu were dissolved and leached from the ash matrix in large quantities. If ash is to be beneficially reused in the reclamation of acid-producing coal refuse, the alkalinity and potential acidity of the materials must be balanced through the appropriate addition of lime or other alkaline materials to the blend. Highly potentially acidic refuse material, such as that used here, may not be suitable for ash/refuse codisposal scenarios.

  17. Novel proteins identified in the insoluble byssal matrix of the freshwater zebra mussel.

    PubMed

    Gantayet, Arpita; Rees, David J; Sone, Eli D

    2014-04-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is an invasive, biofouling species that adheres to a variety of substrates underwater, using a proteinaceous anchor called the byssus. The byssus consists of a number of threads with adhesive plaques at the tips. It contains the unusual amino acid 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is believed to play an important role in adhesion, in addition to providing structural integrity to the byssus through cross-linking. Extensive DOPA cross-linking, however, renders the zebra mussel byssus highly resistant to protein extraction, and therefore limits byssal protein identification. We report here on the identification of seven novel byssal proteins in the insoluble byssal matrix following protein extraction from induced, freshly secreted byssal threads with minimal cross-linking. These proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests of the matrix proteins by spectrum matching against a zebra mussel cDNA library of genes unique to the mussel foot, the organ that secretes the byssus. All seven proteins were present in both the plaque and thread. Comparisons of the protein sequences revealed common features of zebra mussel byssal proteins, and several recurring sequence motifs. Although their sequences are unique, many of the proteins display similarities to marine mussel byssal proteins, as well as to adhesive and structural proteins from other species. The large expansion of the byssal proteome reported here represents an important step towards understanding zebra mussel adhesion. PMID:24057171

  18. [Mechanisms of electron transfer to insoluble terminal acceptors in chemoorganotrophic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Samarukha, I A

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of electron transfer of association of chemoorganotrophic bacteria to the anode in microbial fuel cells are summarized in the survey. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and are divided into the mechanisms of mediator electron transfer, mechanisms of electron transfer with intermediate products of bacterial metabolism and mechanism of direct transfer of electrons from the cell surface. Thus, electron transfer mediators are artificial or synthesized by bacteria riboflavins and phenazine derivatives, which also determine the ability of bacteria to antagonism. The microorganisms with hydrolytic and exoelectrogenic activity are involved in electron transfer mechanisms that are mediated by intermediate metabolic products, which are low molecular carboxylic acids, alcohols, hydrogen etc. The direct transfer of electrons to insoluble anode is possible due to membrane structures (cytochromes, pili, etc.). Association of microorganisms, and thus the biochemical mechanisms of electron transfer depend on the origin of the inoculum, substrate composition, mass transfer, conditions of aeration, potentials and location of electrodes and others, that are defined by technological and design parameters.

  19. Factors to Govern Soluble and Insoluble Aggregate-formation in Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Jun; Iwura, Takafumi; Yanagihara, Shigehiro; Kano, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation formation of monoclonal antibodies as biopharmaceuticals induced by heat stress was evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the formation rate was correlated with several physicochemical parameters of the antibodies to clarify the factors to govern the aggregate formation. The parameters we studied were: the melting temperature (Tm) and the standard enthalpy of the melting point (ΔmH°) evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry under given and common conditions; the wavelength (λmax) and the intensity (Fint) of the maximum fluorescence peak of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate as a probe dye; the z-average diameter (D) evaluated by dynamic light scattering; and the isoelectric point (pI) and the hydrophobic index (Hpho) of the complementarity determining region calculated from the amino acid sequence. Multivariate statistical analysis with these explanatory variables based on Akaike's information criterion indicates that the soluble aggregate formation is negatively correlated with Tm and pI, while the insoluble aggregate formation is positively correlated with Fint and pI. Based on these results, the mechanisms of the aggregate formation and methods to prevent the formation are discussed.

  20. Water uptake by sodium chloride particles coated with insoluble organics: impact of chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. B.; Zarzana, K. J.; Hasenkopf, C. A.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Light extinction by particles is strongly dependent on chemical composition, particle size, and water uptake. Relative humidity affects extinction by causing changes in refractive index and particle size due to hygroscopic growth. The ability of particles to take up water depends on its composition and structure. Organic compounds and inorganic salts are often found to be internally mixed within the same aerosol particle. There is currently a great deal of interest in aqueous particles with an insoluble organic coating. The impact of organic films on particle water uptake is uncertain. Therefore, a systematic study that examines water uptake as a function of the chemical nature, packing structure, and coating thickness is highly desirable. These data are critical to evaluate the aerosol direct effect on climate, which is the most uncertain aspect of future climate change. To determine how tightly packed the organic component is, a range organic compounds with different chain lengths, such as decanoic (C10), myristic (C14), stearic (C18), and docosanoic (C22) acids, were used. Coated aerosols are generated and sized using a TSI constant output atomizer and scanning mobility particle sizer. A cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectrometer at 532 nm is used to measure the optical growth factor as a function of relative humidity for the internally mixed particles. We explored the relationship between optical growth and packing structure by varying the organic component chain length and working with different coating thicknesses.

  1. Molecular organization of a water-insoluble iridium(III) complex in mixed monolayers.

    PubMed

    Giner-Casares, Juan J; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Bolink, Henk J; Muñoz, Eulogia; de Miguel, Gustavo; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2007-11-01

    In this work, organized mixed monolayers containing a cationic water-insoluble iridium(III) complex, Ir-dye, [Ir(ppy)(2)(tmphen)]PF(6), (tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, and ppy = 2-phenylpyridine), and an anionic lipid matrix, DMPA, dimyristoyl-phosphatidic acid, with different molar proportions, were formed by the co-spreading method at the air-water interface. The presence of the dye at the interface, as well as the molecular organization of the mixed films, is deduced from surface techniques such as pi-A isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and reflection spectroscopy. The results obtained remark the formation of an equimolar mixed film, Ir-dye/DMPA = 1:1. BAM images reveal a whole homogeneous monolayer, with gradually increasing reflectivity along the compression process up to reaching the collapse of this equimolecular monolayer at pi approximately equal to 37 mNm(-1). Increasing the molar ratio of DMPA in the mixture, the excess of lipid molecules organizes themselves forming dark flower-like domains of pure DMPA at high surface pressures, coexisting with the mixed Ir-dye/DMPA = 1:1 monolayer. On the other hand, unstable mixed monolayers are obtained by using an initial dye surface concentration higher than the equimolecular one. These mixed Langmuir monolayers have been successfully transferred onto solid substrates by the LB (Langmuir-Blodgett) technique. PMID:17618641

  2. Molecular organization of a water-insoluble iridium(III) complex in mixed monolayers.

    PubMed

    Giner-Casares, Juan J; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Bolink, Henk J; Muñoz, Eulogia; de Miguel, Gustavo; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2007-11-01

    In this work, organized mixed monolayers containing a cationic water-insoluble iridium(III) complex, Ir-dye, [Ir(ppy)(2)(tmphen)]PF(6), (tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, and ppy = 2-phenylpyridine), and an anionic lipid matrix, DMPA, dimyristoyl-phosphatidic acid, with different molar proportions, were formed by the co-spreading method at the air-water interface. The presence of the dye at the interface, as well as the molecular organization of the mixed films, is deduced from surface techniques such as pi-A isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and reflection spectroscopy. The results obtained remark the formation of an equimolar mixed film, Ir-dye/DMPA = 1:1. BAM images reveal a whole homogeneous monolayer, with gradually increasing reflectivity along the compression process up to reaching the collapse of this equimolecular monolayer at pi approximately equal to 37 mNm(-1). Increasing the molar ratio of DMPA in the mixture, the excess of lipid molecules organizes themselves forming dark flower-like domains of pure DMPA at high surface pressures, coexisting with the mixed Ir-dye/DMPA = 1:1 monolayer. On the other hand, unstable mixed monolayers are obtained by using an initial dye surface concentration higher than the equimolecular one. These mixed Langmuir monolayers have been successfully transferred onto solid substrates by the LB (Langmuir-Blodgett) technique.

  3. Folding and Purification of Insoluble (Inclusion Body) Proteins from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T; Palmer, Ira; Liang, Shu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli often results in the formation of insoluble and inactive protein aggregates, commonly referred to as inclusion bodies. To obtain the native (i.e., correctly folded) and hence active form of the protein from such aggregates, four steps are usually followed: (1) the cells are lysed, (2) the cell wall and outer membrane components are removed, (3) the aggregates are solubilized (or extracted) with strong protein denaturants, and (4) the solubilized, denatured proteins are folded with concomitant oxidation of reduced cysteine residues into the correct disulfide bonds to obtain the native protein. This unit features three different approaches to the final step of protein folding and purification. In the first, guanidine·HCl is used as the denaturant, after which the solubilized protein is folded (before purification) in an "oxido-shuffling" buffer system to increase the rate of protein oxidation. In the second, acetic acid is used to solubilize the protein, which is then partially purified by gel filtration before folding; the protein is then folded and oxidized by simple dialysis against water. Thirdly, folding and purification of a fusion protein using metal-chelate affinity chromatography are described. PMID:25367010

  4. An unassembled subunit of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is insoluble and covalently modified.

    PubMed

    Gadde, D M; Yang, E; McCammon, M T

    1998-06-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an octamer composed of four Idh1p subunits and four Idh2p subunits. Isocitrate dehydrogenase functions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and has also been reported to bind to the 5' nontranslated region of mitochondrially encoded mRNAs. Mutants defective in either or both of these subunits are unable to grow on the nonfermentable carbon source, acetate, but will utilize glycerol or ethanol. Mutant strains lacking Idh2p maintain normal if not elevated levels of mitochondrial Idh1p. In addition to the mature unassembled Idh1p subunit, a complex of bands in the 85- to 170-kDa range (Idh1p-Cpx) is observed using NAD-IDH antiserum. Both Idh1p and Idh1p-Cpx are insoluble within the mitochondrion and are associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. A histidine-tagged form of Idh1p was expressed in yeast strains. Chemical amounts of the Idh1p-Cpx could be purified from strains lacking Idh2p but not from strains containing normal levels of Idh2p. The data indicate that Idh1p-Cpx is an aggregated and cross-linked form of Idh1p that may be oxidized within the mitochondrion as a consequence of its aborted assembly.

  5. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Wood Ash Analysis: An Experiment for Introductory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, William B.

    1982-01-01

    This experiment presents one direct titration for water soluble base and an indirect titration after dissolving a sample (oak ashes) in a known excess of acid. A titer method of calculation is given to allow use by students without knowledge of molarity-volume-mole calculations. (Author/JN)

  7. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  8. Sorptivity of fly ash concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

  9. Characteristics of chromated copper arsenate-treated wood ash.

    PubMed

    Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsend, Timothy G; Messick, Brian; Calitu, Vandin

    2002-01-28

    The combustion of recovered wood from construction and demolition waste as biomass fuel is a common practice. When chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is present as part of the wood fuel mix, concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and copper become elevated in the ash. The objectives of this study were to estimate the fraction of CCA-treated wood needed to cause the ash to fail regulatory guidelines and to test a series of solvents for the purpose of extracting the metals from the ash. Ash samples were prepared in an industrial furnace using samples of CCA-treated wood, mixtures of CCA-treated wood and untreated wood, and recycled wood waste collected at construction and demolition recycling facilities. Regulatory guidelines were evaluated by measuring total metals concentrations (using neutron activation analysis) and by conducting standardized leaching tests (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP)) on the ash. Ten different solvents, ranging from distilled water to strong acids, were also tested for their ability to extract metals. Results of this study indicate that metal concentrations (chromium plus copper plus arsenic) can be as high as 36% of the ash by weight for treated wood samples containing high retention levels (40 kg/m(3)) of CCA. All ash samples from the combustion of 100% CCA-treated wood and mixtures containing 5% CCA-treated wood leached enough arsenic (and sometimes chromium) to be characterized as a hazardous waste under US regulations. Concentrated nitric acid, which was the most effective solvent tested, was capable of removing between 70 and 100% of the copper, between 20 and 60% of the chromium, and 60 and 100% of the arsenic for samples characterized by low retention levels. A particular finding of interest was the efficiency of distilled water and other weak solvents to extract measurable amounts of chromium, especially for ash samples containing low retention levels

  10. Natural sedimentation of insoluble particles during directional solidification of upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, C. H.; Xiong, H. P.; Fang, M.; Qiu, S.; Xing, P. F.; Luo, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon is used to cast an ingot by directional solidification. Black shadows are randomly distributed in the ingot, and the shadows are caused by natural sedimentation of insoluble particles. The insoluble particles mainly consist of SiC and Si3N4. SiC and Si3N4 exist as foreign particles and mainly sedimentate at the bottom of the ingot, not generating during directional solidification. Melt convection performs an important role in the sedimentation, resulting in the insoluble particles in the ingot center more than the nearby. Interestingly, since SiC and Si3N4 will not be the recombination center of the minority carrier, the insoluble particles do not have a significant influence on the minority carrier lifetime. In particular, the sedimentation is discussed according to the thermodynamics and kinetics in detail.

  11. [Change of the trace elements content from cigarettes (tobacco) to its ash and to look at harm of stuck cigarette].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nai-Xing; Cui, Xue-Gui; Han, Ling; Zhaxi, Yongxi; Dawa, Zhuoga

    2007-09-01

    After the digestion of cigarettes and its ash are digested with concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid, the change in mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb and Cd) content in the cigarette and its ash were determined by flame atomic absorptionspectrophotometry. The experimental results showed that there were differences between the cigarette (tobacco) and its ash, especially, the contents of Pb and Cd harmful to human health in the ash are lowed 26.4% and 44.2%, respectively. It is concluded that a part of Pb and Cd in the cigarette passes through the human lung respiration and air environment. PMID:18051543

  12. Critical evaluation of changes in the ratio of insoluble bound to soluble phenolics on antioxidant activity of lentils during germination.

    PubMed

    Yeo, JuDong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-21

    A new indicator, the ratio of insoluble bound phenolics (IBPs) to soluble phenolics (SPs), is suggested as an effective means to monitor changes in the antioxidant activity of lentils during germination. This indicator may be used to monitor other process-induced changes in antioxidant potential of food phenolics in other foods. The antioxidant activity of SPs, IBPs, and total value, the sum of both free and esterified phenolics, of germinated CDC Richlea lentil variety was evaluated for 4 days. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability were employed to record antioxidant activities. An incremental increase in IBPs was found in TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, whereas SPs showed a declining trend in TFC, DPPH, and ABTS, except TPC during 4 days of germination. The ratio of IBPs to SPs increased using most methods, and this may be possibly due to the changes of phenolic compound formation from soluble into insoluble bound form during germination process. The ratio can be used as a novel method for monitoring process-induced changes in the antioxidant activity of foods.

  13. Improved sample treatment for the determination of insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-09-15

    A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition.

  14. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  15. Differential effects of glycosphingolipids on the detergent-insolubility of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Parkin, E T; Turner, A J; Hooper, N M

    2001-08-15

    The insolubility of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in certain detergents appears to be an intrinsic property of their association with sphingolipids and cholesterol in lipid rafts. We show that the GPI-anchored protein membrane dipeptidase is localized in detergent-insoluble lipid rafts isolated from porcine kidney microvillar membranes, and that these rafts, which lack caveolin, are enriched not only in sphingomyelin and cholesterol, but also in the glycosphingolipid lactosylceramide (LacCer). Dipeptidase purified from porcine kidney was reconstituted into artificial liposomes in order to investigate the relationship between glycosphingolipids and GPI-anchored protein detergent-insolubility. Dipeptidase was insoluble in liposomes containing extremely low concentrations of LacCer. In contrast, identical concentrations of glucosylceramide or galactosylceramide failed to promote significant detergent-insolubility. Cholesterol was shown to enhance the detergent-insoluble effect of LacCer. GC-MS analysis revealed dramatic differences between the fatty acyl compositions of LacCer and those of the other glycosphingolipids. However, despite these differences, we show that the unusually marked effect of LacCer to promote the detergent-insolubility of dipeptidase cannot be singularly attributed to the fatty acyl composition of this glycosphingolipid molecule. Instead, we suggest that the ability of LacCer to confer detergent-insolubility on this GPI-anchored protein is dependent on the structure of the lipid molecule in its entirety, and that this glycosphingolipid may have an important role to play in the stabilization of lipid rafts, particularly the caveolin-free glycosphingolipid signalling domains.

  16. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Wang, H.P.; Lin, K.S.

    1997-12-01

    Resource recovery plants with waste sorting process prior to incineration have not been successfully developed in many developing countries. The reuse potential of incineration ash in light of toxicity and compressive strength remains unclear due to the inhomogeneous composition and higher moisture content of solid waste in Taiwan. A comparative evaluation of the ash generated from two types of incineration processes were performed in this paper. The results indicate that fly ash collected from both types of incineration processes are classified as hazardous materials because of higher metal contents. The reuse of bottom ash collected from refuse-derived fuel incineration process as fine aggregate in concrete mixing would present 23% lower compressive strength as compared with the normal condition.

  17. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  18. Modifiers of the ash properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Vaclav; Najser, Jan; Pilat, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this article is to perform an experimental verification of the impact of added substances to limit or prevent sintering of solid fuel ash, which is formed during the thermochemical conversion of fuels. As a modifiers of ash sintering and melting temperature were used halloysite (aluminosilicate) and limestone, which has similar mechanism of action. Both of them act on the principle of a strong chemical adsorption of potassium ions, which largely cause a reduction of ash fusibility. Influence of the modifiers was observed after tests provided at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Modifiers were dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.%.

  19. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  20. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  1. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value.

  2. MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

    1997-04-01

    Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in

  3. Self-Assembly of Charged Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Insoluble Blocks of Decreasing Hydrophobicity: From Kinetically Frozen Colloids to Macrosurfactants

    SciTech Connect

    M Jacquin; P Muller; H Cottet; O Theodoly

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the self-assembly properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with insoluble blocks of different hydrophobicity and demonstrated that the condition to obtain dynamic micelles is to design samples with insoluble blocks of low enough hydrophobicity. We focus here on results with new water-soluble amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(diethyleneglycol ethylether acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), or PDEGA-b-PAA. The physical characteristics of PDEGA-b-PAA micelles at high ionization have been determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). We show that PDEGA-b-PAA samples form micelles at thermodynamic equilibrium. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) decrease strongly with ionic strength and temperature due to a solvent quality decrease for, respectively, the corona and the core. This behavior of reversible aggregation is remarkable as compared to the behavior of kinetically frozen aggregation that has been widely observed with samples of similar architecture and different hydrophobic blocks, for example, poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PS-b-PAA, and poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA. We have measured the interfacial tension between water and the homopolymers PDEGA and PBA at, respectively, 3 and 20 mN/m at room temperature, which permits one to estimate the energy cost to extract a unimer from a micelle. The results are consistent with a micelle association that is fast for PDEGA-b-PAA and kinetically frozen PBA-b-PAA. Hence, PDEGA-b-PAA samples form a new system of synthetic charged macrosurfactant with unique properties of fast dynamic association, tunable charge, and water solubility even at temperatures and NaCl concentrations as high as 65 C and 1 M.

  4. Size distributions and mineralogy of ash particles in the stratosphere from eruptions of mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Farlow, N H; Oberbeck, V R; Snetsinger, K G; Ferry, G V; Polkowski, G; Hayes, D M

    1981-02-20

    Samples from the stratosphere obtained by U-2 aircraft after the first three major eruptions of Mount St. Helens contained large globules of liquid acid and ash. Because of their large size, these globules had disappeared from the lower stratosphere by late June 1980, leaving behind only smaller acid droplets. Particle-size distributions and mineralogy of the stratospheric ash grains demonstrate in-homogeneity in the eruption clouds.

  5. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  6. Using stabilized fly ash to neutralize leachate in coal power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    PP and L, Inc., decided to convert its Brunner Island Steam Electric Station from a wet sluicing fly ash system to a dry ash handling system. The decision was based on changing regulations, diminishing disposal capacity in its basins, and economics. PP and L, Inc., then decided to undertake an ambitious program to use all of the station`s 200,000 tons per year of Type F fly ash beneficially rather than build an ash landfill. PP and L, Inc., has begun to use the ash in a series of new public roadway projects, in a coal pile liner, in structural fills, and in encapsulating coal mill rejects. These projects will use the plant`s ash for the next ten years. This paper discusses the research, analysis, and design of a coal pile liner system and a series of coal mill rejects disposal tombs using fly ash stabilized with lime or cement. Each of these projects saves PP and L, Inc., millions of dollars in disposal and material costs. The basic concept is to use the stabilized ash to limit and neutralize any acid mine drainage (AMD) generated by the coal pile or the pyritic coal mill rejects. Stabilized fly ash in Pennsylvania is not heavily regulated and can be used in construction without a permit.

  7. Ash Stabilization Campaign Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-06-21

    This Stabilization Blend Plan documents the material to be processed and the processing order for the FY95 Ash Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing ash. The source of the ash is from Rocky Flats and the 232-Z incinerator at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The ash is currently being stored in Room 235B and Vault 174 in building 234-5Z. The sludge is to be thermally stabilized in a glovebox in room 230A of the 234-5Z building and material handling for the process will be done in room 230B of the same building. The campaign is scheduled for approximately 12--16 weeks. A total of roughly 4 kg of Pu will be processed.

  8. Comparison of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients measured with broilers, layers, and roosters.

    PubMed

    Huang, K H; Li, X; Ravindran, V; Bryden, W L

    2006-04-01

    The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in 7 feed ingredients was determined using broilers, layers, and roosters. The ingredients included 3 cereals (wheat, sorghum, and corn), 3 oilseed meals (canola, cottonseed, and soybean meals), and 1 animal protein meal (meat and bone meal). Dietary protein in the assay diets was supplied solely by the test ingredient. All diets contained 20 g/kg of acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker, and each diet was offered ad libitum in mash form to 5 replicate pens of broilers and layers, and 4 replicate pens of roosters. The digestibility coefficients of individual amino acids for wheat, corn, and sorghum were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in layers and roosters. The digestibility of most amino acids for corn and sorghum was higher (P < 0.05) in roosters compared with those in layers, whereas the digestibility for wheat in layers and roosters was similar. In general, the digestibility of amino acids in canola meal, cottonseed meal, and meat and bone meal was similar among the 3 classes of chickens. The digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal was higher (P < 0.05) for layers compared with those for broilers and roosters but similar between broilers and roosters. These results suggest that the class of chickens significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in some feed ingredients.

  9. Chemical processing of volcanic ash within eruption plume and cloud: a numerical modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Hort, Matthias; Langmann, Baerbel; Brasseur, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic ash is recently identified as an active chemical agent in the Earth system. Generated mainly through lithospheric processes and magma fragmentation, it can pose significant impacts upon different components of the Earth system for e.g. atmosphere and hydrosphere on various temporal and spatial scales. While airborne in the atmosphere, transition metals contained in the ash can catalyze the sulfur oxidation cycle thereby indirectly affecting the volcanic radiative forcing. Moreover, upon deposition on the surface ocean, ash can release soluble iron that fertilizes Fe-limited areas of the ocean and stimulate the marine productivity and CO2 drawdown. Such impacts are provoked through interfacial processes and thus, are mainly induced by the ash surface composition. Recent studies suggest that in-plume and in-cloud processing of volcanic ash primarily control its surface composition. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. Here we present the results of our recent investigations on in-plume and in-cloud processing of volcanic ash. A 1D numerical model is developed that simulates the gas-ash-aerosol interactions in volcanic eruption plume and cloud at temperatures between 600 C and 0 C focusing on iron, sulfur and halogen chemistry. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at 150 C and 50 C, respectively, generating a liquid coating at the ash surface that scavenges the surrounding gases (>95extremely acidic (pH

  10. Small intestinal goblet cell proliferation induced by ingestion of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber is characterized by an increase in sialylated mucins in rats.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shingo; Takemura, Naoki; Sonoyama, Kei; Morita, Akio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Aoe, Seiichiro; Morita, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of insoluble and soluble fibers on mucin sialylation and sulfation in the small intestine. First, diets containing soluble [konjac mannan (KM), psyllium, or guar gum; 50 g/kg) or insoluble (polystyrene foam, wheat bran, or cornhusk; 80 g/kg) fiber were fed to rats for 13 d. The fiber-fed groups had more goblet cells in the ileum than the fiber-free control group. High-iron diamine/alcian blue staining showed more sialylated mucin-producing cells in the fiber-fed groups than in the control, whereas sulfated mucin-producing cells were fewer (insoluble fibers) or unchanged (soluble fibers). Second, feeding KM (50 g/kg) and beet fiber (BF) (80 g/kg) diets for 7 d yielded a higher ileum Siat4C expression than the control, but Gal3ST2 and Gal3ST4 expression was comparable. Luminal mucin content correlated with sialic acid (r = 0.96; P < 0.001) or sulfate (r = 0.62; P < 0.01), but the slope of the sialic acid-derived equation was greater than that of the sulfate-derived equation, indicating a preferred increase in sialylated mucins. Third, rats were fed the control diet for 10 d while receiving antibiotic treatment. Analysis of the luminal mucin showed that sialylated mucins were more vulnerable to bacterial degradation than sulfated mucins. Finally, a study of bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation in rats fed a BF diet indicated that goblet cell proliferation accompanied by increased sialylated mucin appeared to be related to accelerated ileal epithelial cell migration. We conclude that intestinal goblet cell responses to insoluble and soluble fibers are characterized by increases in sialylated mucin production.

  11. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  12. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  13. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  14. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction.

  15. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced.

  16. Production and cytotoxicity of extracellular insoluble and droplets of soluble melanin by Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, D N; Mazhari, Bi Bi Zainab; Dastager, Syed G; Agsar, Dayanand

    2014-01-01

    A Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 strain with potential to synthesize both insoluble and soluble melanins was detected. Melanins are quite distinguished based on their solubility for varied biotechnological applications. The present investigation reveals the enhanced production of insoluble and soluble melanins in tyrosine medium by a single culture. Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 was characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An enhanced production of 5.29 g/L insoluble melanin was achieved in a submerged bioprocess following response surface methodology. Combined interactive effect of temperature (50°C), pH (8.5), tyrosine (2.0 g/L), and beef extract (0.5 g/L) were found to be critical variables for enhanced production in central composite design analysis. An optimized indigenous slant culture system was an innovative approach for the successful production (264 mg/L) of pure soluble melanin from the droplets formed on the surface of the culture. Both insoluble and soluble melanins were confirmed and characterized by Chemical, reactions, UV, FTIR, and TLC analysis. First time, cytotoxic study of melanin using brine shrimps was reported. Maximum cytotoxic activity of soluble melanin was Lc50-0.40 µg/mL and insoluble melanin was Lc50-0.80 µg/mL.

  17. Production and Cytotoxicity of Extracellular Insoluble and Droplets of Soluble Melanin by Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, D. N.; Mazhari, Bi Bi Zainab; Dastager, Syed G.

    2014-01-01

    A Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 strain with potential to synthesize both insoluble and soluble melanins was detected. Melanins are quite distinguished based on their solubility for varied biotechnological applications. The present investigation reveals the enhanced production of insoluble and soluble melanins in tyrosine medium by a single culture. Streptomyces lusitanus DMZ-3 was characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An enhanced production of 5.29 g/L insoluble melanin was achieved in a submerged bioprocess following response surface methodology. Combined interactive effect of temperature (50°C), pH (8.5), tyrosine (2.0 g/L), and beef extract (0.5 g/L) were found to be critical variables for enhanced production in central composite design analysis. An optimized indigenous slant culture system was an innovative approach for the successful production (264 mg/L) of pure soluble melanin from the droplets formed on the surface of the culture. Both insoluble and soluble melanins were confirmed and characterized by Chemical, reactions, UV, FTIR, and TLC analysis. First time, cytotoxic study of melanin using brine shrimps was reported. Maximum cytotoxic activity of soluble melanin was Lc50-0.40 µg/mL and insoluble melanin was Lc50-0.80 µg/mL. PMID:24839603

  18. Forensic Analysis of Cigarette Ash-Brand Determination Through Trace-metal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Groth, Anja C; Barnes, James H; Lewis, Cris; Murray, Cynthia K; Albahadily, Fakhrildeen; Jourdan, Thomas H

    2016-07-01

    The information inherent in cigarette ash in the form of trace-metal concentrations may be of use in a forensic context as it can indicate the brand from which the ash originated. This knowledge might help place suspects at crime scenes or determine how many people may have been present. To develop and test statistical models capable of classifying ash samples according to brand, commercial cigarettes procured in the U.S. and overseas were "smoked" using a peristaltic pump, mimicking the range of human smoking habits. Ash samples were digested in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid applying microwave digestion and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis of the elemental data showed intrinsic differences between brands. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis demonstrated that brand classification yields good sensitivity and specificity for a number of models tested. Varying smoking parameters did not impact the classification of ash samples. PMID:27364270

  19. Forensic Analysis of Cigarette Ash-Brand Determination Through Trace-metal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Groth, Anja C; Barnes, James H; Lewis, Cris; Murray, Cynthia K; Albahadily, Fakhrildeen; Jourdan, Thomas H

    2016-07-01

    The information inherent in cigarette ash in the form of trace-metal concentrations may be of use in a forensic context as it can indicate the brand from which the ash originated. This knowledge might help place suspects at crime scenes or determine how many people may have been present. To develop and test statistical models capable of classifying ash samples according to brand, commercial cigarettes procured in the U.S. and overseas were "smoked" using a peristaltic pump, mimicking the range of human smoking habits. Ash samples were digested in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid applying microwave digestion and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis of the elemental data showed intrinsic differences between brands. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis demonstrated that brand classification yields good sensitivity and specificity for a number of models tested. Varying smoking parameters did not impact the classification of ash samples.

  20. El Chichon volcanic ash in the stratosphere - Particle abundances and size distributions after the 1982 eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Clanton, U. S.; Gabel, E. M.; Warren, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Volcanic ash particles collected from the stratosphere after the March/April, 1982 explosive eruption of El Chichon volcano, Mexico, were mostly 2-40 micron vesicular shards of silicic volcanic glass that varied in abundance, at 16.8-19.2 km altitude, from 200 per cu m (30-49 deg N lat.) in May to 1.3 per cu m (45-75 deg N) in October. At the minimum, the ash cloud covered latitudes 10-60 deg N in July and 10 deg S-75 deg N in October. In May and July, ash particles were mostly free, individual shards (and clusters of shards) but, by October, were intimately associated with liquid droplets (presumably, sulfuric acid). In May 1982, the total stratospheric burden of ash was at least 240 tons (2.2 x 10 to the 8th g) although the total ash injected into the stratosphere by the eruption was probably 480-8400 tons.

  1. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  2. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R

    2008-05-23

    The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support evaluation tests of different cleaning methods. The Process Science and Engineering section of SRNL has been asked to develop an insoluble salt simulant for use in testing potential ECC processes (HLE-TTR-2007-017). An insoluble salt simulant has been developed based upon the residues from salt dissolution of saltcake core samples from Tank 28F. The simulant was developed for use in testing SRS waste tank chemical cleaning methods. Based on the results of the simulant development process, the following observations were developed: (1) A composition based on the presence of 10.35 grams oxalate and 4.68 grams carbonate per 100 grams solids produces a sufficiently insoluble solids simulant. (2) Aluminum observed in the solids remaining from actual waste salt dissolution tests is probably precipitated from sodium aluminate due to the low hydroxide content of the saltcake. (3) In-situ generation of aluminum hydroxide (by use of aluminate as the Al source) appears to trap additional salts in the simulant in a manner similar to that expected for actual waste samples. (4) Alternative compositions are possible with higher oxalate levels and lower carbonate levels. (5) The maximum oxalate level is limited by the required Na content of the insoluble solids. (6) Periodic mixing may help to limit crystal growth in this type of salt simulant. (7) Long term storage of an insoluble salt simulant is likely to produce a material that can not be easily removed from the storage container. Production of a relatively fresh simulant is best if pumping the simulant is necessary for testing purposes. The insoluble

  4. Ingestion of insoluble dietary fibre increased zinc and iron absorption and restored growth rate and zinc absorption suppressed by dietary phytate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hara, H; Asvarujanon, P; Aoyama, Y; Luangpituksa, P

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of ingestion of five types of insoluble fibre on growth and Zn absorption in rats fed a marginally Zn-deficient diet (6.75 mg (0.103 mmol) Zn/kg diet) with or without added sodium phytate (12.6 mmol/kg diet). The types of insoluble fibre tested were corn husks, watermelon skin, yam-bean root (Pachyrhizus erosus) and pineapple core, and cellulose was used as a control (100 g/kg diet). Body-weight gain in the cellulose groups was suppressed by 57 % by feeding phytate. Body-weight gain in phytate-fed rats was 80 % greater in the watermelon skin fibre and yam-bean root fibre group than that in the cellulose group. Zn absorption ratio in the cellulose groups was lowered by 46 and 70 % in the first (days 7-10) and second (days 16-19) measurement periods with feeding phytate. In the rats fed the phytate-containing diets, Zn absorption ratio in the watermelon skin, yam-bean root and pineapple core fibre groups was 140, 80 and 54 % higher respectively than that in the cellulose group, in the second period. Fe absorption was not suppressed by phytate, however, feeding of these three types of fibre promoted Fe absorption in rats fed phytate-free diets. The concentration of soluble Zn in the caecal contents in the watermelon skin fibre or yam-bean root fibre groups was identical to that in the control group in spite of a higher short-chain fatty acid concentration and lower pH in the caecum. These findings indicate that ingestion of these types of insoluble fibre recovered the growth and Zn absorption suppressed by feeding a high level of phytate, and factors other than caecal fermentation may also be involved in this effect of insoluble fibre. PMID:11591231

  5. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  6. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  7. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10.

  8. An In Situ Method for Sizing Insoluble Residues in Precipitation and Other Aqueous Samples

    PubMed Central

    Axson, Jessica L.; Creamean, Jessie M.; Bondy, Amy L.; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Warner, Katy Y.; Ault, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Particles are frequently incorporated into clouds or precipitation, influencing climate by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, taking up coatings during cloud processing, and removing species through wet deposition. Many of these particles, particularly ice nuclei, can remain suspended within cloud droplets/crystals as insoluble residues. While previous studies have measured the soluble or bulk mass of species within clouds and precipitation, no studies to date have determined the number concentration and size distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation or cloud water using in situ methods. Herein, for the first time we demonstrate that Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is a powerful in situ method for determining the total number concentration, number size distribution, and surface area distribution of insoluble residues in precipitation, both of rain and melted snow. The method uses 500 μL or less of liquid sample and does not require sample modification. Number concentrations for the insoluble residues in aqueous precipitation samples ranged from 2.0–3.0(±0.3)×108 particles cm−3, while surface area ranged from 1.8(±0.7)–3.2(±1.0)×107 μm2 cm−3. Number size distributions peaked between 133–150 nm, with both single and multi-modal character, while surface area distributions peaked between 173–270 nm. Comparison with electron microscopy of particles up to 10 μm show that, by number, > 97% residues are <1 μm in diameter, the upper limit of the NTA. The range of concentration and distribution properties indicates that insoluble residue properties vary with ambient aerosol concentrations, cloud microphysics, and meteorological dynamics. NTA has great potential for studying the role that insoluble residues play in critical atmospheric processes. PMID:25705069

  9. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  10. Wood pellet fly ash and bottom ash as an effective liming agent and nutrient source for rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and oats (Avena sativa).

    PubMed

    Park, Nathan D; Michael Rutherford, P; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from a softwood pellet boiler were characterized and evaluated as soil amendments. In a greenhouse study, two plant species (rye grass, Lolium perenne L. and oats, Avena sativa) were grown in three different treatments (1% FA, 1% BA, non-amended control) of a silty loam soil. Total concentrations of plant nutrients Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn in both ashes were elevated compared to conventional wood ash. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Se and Zn were found to be elevated in the FA relative to BA and the non-amended soil. At 28 d, oat above-ground biomass was found to be significantly greater in soil amended with FA. Potassium and Mo plant tissue concentrations were significantly increased by addition of either ash, and FA significantly increased Zn tissue concentrations. Cadmium and Hg tissue concentrations were elevated in some cases. As soil amendments, either pellet ash is an effective liming agent and nutrient source, but high concentrations of Cd and Zn in FA may preclude its use as an agricultural soil amendment in some jurisdictions. Lower ash application rates than those used in this study (i.e. <1%) may still provide sufficient nutrients and effective neutralization of soil acidity.

  11. Critical aspects of biomass ashes utilization in soils: Composition, leachability, PAH and PCDD/F.

    PubMed

    Freire, Márcia; Lopes, Helena; Tarelho, Luís A C

    2015-12-01

    Bottom and fly ashes streams collected along a year in several biomass thermal plants were studied. The bulk composition of ashes and other chemical characteristics that may impact soil application showed a high variability depending on the ash stream, combustion technology and ash management practice at the power plants. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) and metal's availability for leaching at fixed pH 7 and 4 was performed according with EA NEN 7371, as a quick evaluation method to provide information on the long-term behavior of ashes, regarding heavy metals and also plant nutrients release. Also the pH dependence leachability study was performed according to CEN/TS 14429 for predicting the leaching behavior under different scenarios. Leachability profiles were established between pH 3 and 12, allowing to distinguish different solubility control phenomena of toxic heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb) as well as other salts (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cl). The ANC of fly ashes at pH 4 (3.6-9.6 molH(+)/kg) were higher than that observed for the bottom ashes (1.2-2.1 molH(+)/kg). Ashes were also characterized for persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paradibenzodioxines and furanes (PCDD/F). Contents were found to be much higher in fly ash than in bottom ash streams. None of the PAH levels did reach the current national limit value of sewage sludge application in soils or the guide value for ash in north European countries. However, PCDD/F contents, which are not regulated, varied from non-detectable levels to high amounts, regardless the level of loss on ignition (LOI) or unburned carbon content in fly ashes. Given the current ash management practices and possible use of blends of bottom and fly ash streams as soil conditioners resembles clear the urgent need to regulate ash utilization in soils, incorporating limit values both for heavy metals, PAH and PCDD/F.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: soda ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kostic, Dennis S.

    2006-01-01

    Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate, is an alkali chemical that can be refined from the mineral trona and from sodium carbonate-bearing brines. Several chemical processes exist for manufacturing synthetic soda ash.

  13. Analyzing the Technology of Using Ash and Slag Waste from Thermal Power Plants in the Production of Building Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malchik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kozik, V. V.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The work describes the problem of impounding and storing ash and slag waste at coal thermal power plants in Russia. Recovery and recycling of ash and slag waste are analyzed. Activity of radionuclides, the chemical composition and particle sizes of ash and slag waste were determined; the acidity index, the basicity and the class of material were defined. The technology for making ceramic products with the addition of ash and slag waste was proposed. The dependencies relative to the percentage of ash and slag waste and the optimal parameters for baking were established. The obtained materials were tested for physical and mechanical properties, namely for water absorption, thermal conductivity and compression strength. Based on the findings, future prospects for use of ash and slag waste were identified.

  14. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  15. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  16. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  17. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  18. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  19. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    encapsulate the salt or act as a sustainable salt sink due to over time reduction in pore water pH. The leaching behaviours of Ca, Mg, Na+, K+, Se, Cr and Sr are controlled by the pH of the leachant in both fresh and unsaturated weathered ash. Other trace metals like As, Mo and Pb showed amphoteric behaviour with respect to the pH of the leachant. The precipitation of minor quantities of secondary mineral phases in the unsaturated weathered ash has significant effects on the acid susceptibility and leaching patterns of chemical species in comparison with fresh ash. The unsaturated weathered ash had lower buffering capacity at neutral pH (7.94-8.00) compared to fresh (unweathered) ash. This may be due to the initial high leaching/flushing of soluble basic buffering constituents from fly ash after disposal. The overall results of the acid susceptibility tests suggest that both fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ash would release a large percentage of their chemical species when in contact with slightly acidified rain. Proper management of ash dumps is therefore essential to safeguard the environmental risks of water percolation in different fly ashes behaviour. PMID:22446137

  20. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    encapsulate the salt or act as a sustainable salt sink due to over time reduction in pore water pH. The leaching behaviours of Ca, Mg, Na+, K+, Se, Cr and Sr are controlled by the pH of the leachant in both fresh and unsaturated weathered ash. Other trace metals like As, Mo and Pb showed amphoteric behaviour with respect to the pH of the leachant. The precipitation of minor quantities of secondary mineral phases in the unsaturated weathered ash has significant effects on the acid susceptibility and leaching patterns of chemical species in comparison with fresh ash. The unsaturated weathered ash had lower buffering capacity at neutral pH (7.94-8.00) compared to fresh (unweathered) ash. This may be due to the initial high leaching/flushing of soluble basic buffering constituents from fly ash after disposal. The overall results of the acid susceptibility tests suggest that both fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ash would release a large percentage of their chemical species when in contact with slightly acidified rain. Proper management of ash dumps is therefore essential to safeguard the environmental risks of water percolation in different fly ashes behaviour.

  1. Transcriptomic Signatures of Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Phloem

    PubMed Central

    Mamidala, Praveen; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-01-01

    Background Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA). The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra), green (F. pennsylvannica) and white (F. americana) are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3) revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. Conclusions and Significance The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future

  2. Cytotoxicity of corrosion products of degradable Fe-based stents: relevance of pH and insoluble products.

    PubMed

    Fagali, Natalia S; Grillo, Claudia A; Puntarulo, Susana; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2015-04-01

    Fe-based biodegradable metallic materials (Fe-BMMs) have been proposed for cardiovascular applications and are expected to disappear via corrosion after an appropriate period. However, in vivo studies showed that Fe ions release leads to accumulation of orange and brownish insoluble products at the biomaterial/cell interface. As an additional consequence, sharp changes in pH may affect the biocompatibility of these materials. In the present work, the experimental protocols were designed with the aim of evaluating the relative importance that these factors have on biocompatibility evaluation of BMMs. Mitochondrial activity (MTT assay) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay on mammalian cells, exposed to 1-5 mM of added Fe3+ salt, were assessed and compared with results linked exclusively to pH effects. Soluble Fe concentration in culture medium and intracellular Fe content were also determined. The results showed that: (i) mitochondrial activity was affected by pH changes over the entire range of concentrations of added Fe3+ assayed, (ii) at the highest added Fe3+ concentrations (≥3 mM), precipitation was detected and the cells were able to incorporate the precipitate, that seems to be linked to cell damage, (iii) the extent of precipitation depends on the Fe/protein concentration ratio; and (iv) lipid peroxidation products were detected over the entire range of concentrations of added Fe3+. Hence, a new approach opens in the biocompatibility evaluation of Fe-based BMMs, since the cytotoxicity would not be solely a function of released (and soluble) ions but of the insoluble degradation product amount and the pH falling at the biomaterial/cell interface. The concentration of Fe-containing products at the interface depends on diffusional conditions in a very complex way that should be carefully analyzed in the future.

  3. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  4. Processing of Egyptian boiler-ash for extraction of vanadium and nickel.

    PubMed

    Amer, A M

    2002-01-01

    Proposed technique in this investigation is given for vanadium and nickel enrichment in the Egyptian boiler ash. Among the various concepts for recovery of vanadium and nickel from boiler ash, the pyro-metallurgical approach is technically feasible, but is not cost-effective from an operational economy standpoint. Another technically viable process which, however, needs further development and presented in this investigation, is the hydrometallurgical processing that involves acid leaching under oxygen pressure of ground ash, followed by electrolytic separation of nickel from sulphate solution and vanadium is then neutralized and precipitated by adjustment the pH value and calcined to produce V2O5.

  5. Ash from the combustion of Ekibastuzsk coals - a raw material for obtaining glasses and aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Suleimenov, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    The ash content of the Ekibastuzsk coal deposit is up to 45%. The ash contains 26-30% Al2O3, 60-65% SiO2 and at least 4-5% coke. It was mixed with 20-30% slag from the phosphorus industry and 4-5% sodium sulphate for the making of glass ceramic tiles. The good acid resistance of these tiles makes them suitable for lining the equipment in which Al is extracted from the same ash for producing aluminium sulphate.

  6. Utilization of fly ash in metallic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.; Guo, R.Q.; Golden, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Fly ash particles have been successfully dispersed into aluminum alloy to make aluminum alloy-fly ash composites (Ashalloy) at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Additions of solid and hollow particles of fly ash reduce the cost and density of aluminum castings while increasing their performance. Ashalloy represents a candidate material for high value added use of fly ash, while reducing the disposal volumes of fly ash for the electric utility industry and making the US foundries more competitive. The fly ash particle distribution in the matrix aluminum alloy and the microstructure of aluminum-fly ash composite was determined. Selected properties of cast aluminum-fly ash composites are also presented in this paper. Mechanical properties of aluminum-fly ash composites show that the composite possesses higher hardness and higher elastic modulus compared to the matrix alloy. The flow behavior of molten aluminum-fly ash slurries along with the components cast in aluminum-fly ash composites will be presented. Fly ash containing metal components have potential applications in covers, shrouds, casings, manifolds, valve covers, garden furniture, engine blocks in automotive, small engine and electromechanical industry sector.

  7. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  8. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  9. Serial batch leaching procedure for characterization of coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Hesbach, Peter A; Kim, Ann G; Abel, Alexander S P; Lamey, Steven C

    2010-09-01

    Although many leaching methods have been used for various purposes by research groups, industries, and regulators, there is still a need for a simple but comprehensive approach to leaching coal utilization by-products and other granular materials in order to estimate potential release of heavy metals when these materials are exposed to natural fluids. A serial batch characterization method has been developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory that can be completed in 2-3 days to serve as a screening tool. The procedure provides an estimate of cumulative metals release under varying pH conditions, and leaching the sample at increasing liquid/solid ratios can indicate the rate at which this process will occur. This method was applied to eight fly ashes, adapted to the acidic or alkaline nature of the ash. The leachates were analyzed for 30 elements. The test was run in quadruplicate, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was used as a measure of method reproducibility. RSD values are between 0.02 and 0.70, with the majority of the RSD values less than 0.3. The serial batch leaching procedure was developed as a simple, relatively quick, yet comprehensive method of estimating the risk of heavy metal release from fly ash when it is exposed to natural fluids, such as acid rain or groundwater. Tests on a random selection of coal fly ashes have shown it to be a reasonably precise method for estimating the availability and long-term release of cations from fly ash.

  10. A kinetic model for heterogeneous condensation of vapor on an insoluble spherical particle.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xisheng; Fan, Yu; Qin, Fenghua; Gui, Huaqiao; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-01-14

    A kinetic model is developed to describe the heterogeneous condensation of vapor on an insoluble spherical particle. This new model considers two mechanisms of cluster growth: direct addition of water molecules from the vapor and surface diffusion of adsorbed water molecules on the particle. The effect of line tension is also included in the model. For the first time, the exact expression of evaporation coefficient is derived for heterogeneous condensation of vapor on an insoluble spherical particle by using the detailed balance. The obtained expression of evaporation coefficient is proved to be also correct in the homogeneous condensation and the heterogeneous condensation on a planar solid surface. The contributions of the two mechanisms to heterogeneous condensation including the effect of line tension are evaluated and analysed. It is found that the cluster growth via surface diffusion of adsorbed water molecules on the particle is more important than the direct addition from the vapor. As an example of our model applications, the growth rate of the cap shaped droplet on the insoluble spherical particle is derived. Our evaluation shows that the growth rate of droplet in heterogeneous condensation is larger than that in homogeneous condensation. These results indicate that an explicit kinetic model is benefit to the study of heterogeneous condensation on an insoluble spherical particle.

  11. Identification of the cold-insoluble globulin of plasma in amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, A B; Mosesson, M W; Solish, G I

    1976-08-01

    A fetal and adult plasma protein known as the cold-insoluble globulin (CIg) of plasma has been identified in amniotic fluid. Its concentration relative to the total protein in amniotic fluid is several times higher than that in adult or fetal plasma, suggesting that it arises from amniotic tissues.

  12. Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Quintela, José C; de la Fuente, Ester; Haya, Javier; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes

    2010-03-01

    Recently, polyphenols have been found to affect blood lipids in animals in a similar manner as soluble dietary fibre. The aim was to assess whether an insoluble dietary fiber very rich in polyphenols has a beneficial effect on serum lipids in humans. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study with parallel arms, 88 volunteers with hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to consume daily either, fiber with insoluble 84% polyphenols 4 g twice a day (n = 43) or placebo (n = 45). Serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. The insoluble polyphenols consumption reduced the total cholesterol by 17.8 +/- 6.1% (p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol by 22.5 +/- 8.9% (p < 0.001), LDL: HDL cholesterol ratio by 26.2 +/- 14.3% (p < 0.001) and triglycerides by 16.3 +/- 23.4% (p < 0.05) at the end of the study compared with baseline. No significant differences were found during the study time in the placebo group for the lipid profile. The consumption of fiber very rich in insoluble polyphenols shows beneficial effects on human blood lipid profile and may be effective in prevention and treatment of hyperlipemia.

  13. Secreted expression of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrase in Lactococcus lactis for the production of insoluble glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We expressed a glucansucrase, DsrI, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that catalyzes formation of water-insoluble glucans from sucrose in Lactococcus lactis using a nisin-controlled gene expression system. Production of DsrI was optimized using several different background vectors, signal peptides, str...

  14. Turning a Water And Oil Insoluble Cisplatin Derivative into a Nanoparticle Formulation for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shutao; Wang, Yuhua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Zhenghong; Lin, C. Michael; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    The formulation of water insoluble organic compounds into nanoparticles has become a widely established method for enhancing the delivery and efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Therefore, a comparable approach when applied to water insoluble inorganic compounds should also promote similar advantages. Herein, we have successfully formulated insoluble iodinated cisplatin (CDDP-I) into a LPI NPs (lipid-coated iodinated CDDP nanoparticles). Two separate microemulsions were combined, each containing a precursor for the synthesis of CDDP-I. The resulting CDDP-I precipitate was then coated with an anionic lipid and dispersed in water with the help of an additional lipid. This method allows us to effectively encapsulate CDDP-I and was able to achieve a considerable drug loading of 82 wt%. Administered LPI NPs demonstrated high level accumulation in tumor tissues and exhibited an anti-cancer activity comparable to free CDDP in two melanoma xenograft models without inducing nephrotoxocity. The benefits offered through this delivery formulation are not unique to CDDP-I, as this versatile platform may be extended to the formulation of other inorganic compounds that are both water and oil insoluble into nanoparticles for superior anticancer efficacy. PMID:24920436

  15. Viscous sintering of volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Scheu, B.; Vasseur, J.; Tuffen, H.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Hess, K. U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic ash is often deposited in a hot state. Volcanic ash containing glass, deposited above the glass transition interval, has the potential to sinter viscously both to itself (particle-particle) and to exposed surfaces. Here, we constrain the kinetics of this process experimentally under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions using standard glasses and volcanic ash. In the absence of external load, this process is dominantly driven by surface relaxation. In such cases the sintering process is rate-limited by the melt viscosity, the size of the particles and the melt-vapour interfacial tension. We propose a polydisperse continuum model that describes the transition from a packing of particles to a dense pore-free melt and evaluate its efficacy in describing the kinetics of volcanic viscous sintering. We apply our model to viscous sintering scenarios for cooling crystal-poor rhyolitic ash using the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano as a case example. We predict that moderate cooling rates result in the common observation of incomplete sintering and the preservation of pore networks. Finally we discuss the effect of crystallisation, external loading and volatile degassing or regassing during viscous sintering and assert that such complexities must be considered in the volcanic scenario.

  16. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Luo, Huan-Lin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4-2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20-30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. PMID:17269231

  17. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Luo, Huan-Lin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4-2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20-30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil.

  18. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil

    SciTech Connect

    Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo

    2007-01-15

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Leaching heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash with chelator/biosurfactant mixed solution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Chen, Yu

    2015-07-01

    The chelator [S,S]-ethylene diamine disuccinic acid, citric acid, and biosurfactant saponin are selected as leaching agents. In this study, the leaching effect of saponin mixed with either ethylene diamine disuccinic acid or citric acid on the levels of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is investigated. Results indicate that saponin separately mixed with ethylene diamine disuccinic acid and citric acid exhibits a synergistic solubilisation effect on copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium leaching from fly ash. However, saponin and ethylene diamine disuccinic acid mixed solution exhibits a synergistic solubilisation effect that is superior to that of a saponin and citric acid mixed solution. The extraction rate of heavy metal in fly ash leached with a saponin and chelator mixed solution is related to the pH of the leaching solution, and the optimal range of the pH is suggested to be approximately neutral. After leaching with a saponin and chelator mixed solution, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium contents significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the extractable or acid-soluble and reducible fractions. By adopting the proposed approach, the leaching concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium in treated fly ash are in accordance with Standard for Pollution Control on the Security Landfill Site for Hazardous Wastes GB18598-2001. PMID:26185165

  20. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is a mediator of lung toxicity for coal fly ash particulate material.

    PubMed

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Johansen, Mark E; Roberts, Jessica K; Thomas, Karen C; Romero, Erin G; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2012-03-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4α (C4α), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue.

  1. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Is a Mediator of Lung Toxicity for Coal Fly Ash Particulate Material

    PubMed Central

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E.; Johansen, Mark E.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Thomas, Karen C.; Romero, Erin G.; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S.; Veranth, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4α (C4α), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue. PMID:22155782

  2. Investigation into the relationship between major and minor element contents and particle size and leachability of boron in fly ash from coal fuel thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Riley, Kenneth W; French, David H; Takatsu, Akiko; Chiba, Koichi

    2003-10-01

    A basic investigation of boron in discharged fly ash by coal fuel thermal power plants in several worldwide locations was carried out. Eight kinds of fly ash sample were prepared from eight coal fuel thermal power plants. Two of the fly ash samples were used to examine the relationship between the concentration of boron in fly ash and the particle size. When the particle size of fly ash is smaller, there is a possibility that it will be released into the air and spread over a wide area in the environment. However, it has become apparent that fly ash of smaller particle size has a higher concentration of boron and a higher enrichment factor. In other fly ash samples, the boron contents were examined and leaching tests were carried out. There is acidic fly ash as well as alkaline fly ash that contains larger amounts of acidic or basic salts. On alkaline fly ash, when the concentration of boron bound to Fe-Mn oxide is low; it has become apparent that leaching boron is increased in a solution with lower pH of approximately 4 which is nearly the pH of acid rain.

  3. A novel reactor for the simulation of gas and ash interactions in volcanic eruption plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    The chemical interactions between volcanic ash and the atmosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, cryosphere and biosphere are initially the result of rapid mobilisation of soluble salts and aqueous acids from wetted particle surfaces. Such surface features are attributable to the scavenging of sulphur and halide species by ash during its transport through the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. It has been historically considered (e.g., Rose, 1977) that the primary mechanism driving scavenging of sulphur and halide species is via condensation of acid aerosols onto ash surfaces within the cold volcanic cloud. However, for large explosive eruptions, insights from new experimental highlight the potential for scavenging via adsorption onto ash within the high-temperature eruption plume. In previous investigations on simple SO2 (Ayris et al. 2013a) and HCl systems (Ayris et al. 2013b), we identified ash composition, and the duration and temperature of gas-ash interaction as key determinants of adsorption-mode scavenging. However, the first generation of gas-ash reactors could not fully investigate the interactions between ash and the hydrous volcanic atmosphere; we have therefore developed an Advanced Gas Ash Reactor (AGAR), which can be fluxed with varying proportions of H2O, CO2, SO2 and HCl. The AGAR consists of a longitudinally-rotating quartz glass reaction bulb contained within a horizontal, three-stage tube furnace operating at temperatures of 25-900° C. A sample mass of up to 100 g can traverse a thermal gradient via manual repositioning of the reaction bulb within the furnace. In combination with existing melt synthesis capabilities in our laboratories, this facility permits a detailed investigation of the effects of ash and gas composition, and temperature on in-plume scavenging of SO2 and HCl. Additionally, the longitudinal rotation enables particle-particle interaction under an 'in-plume' atmosphere, and may yield insight into the effects of gas-ash interaction

  4. De-ashing treatment of corn stover improves the efficiencies of enzymatic hydrolysis and consequent ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Yanqing; Fang, Zhenhong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xinliang; Bao, Jie

    2014-10-01

    In this study, corn stover with different ash content was pretreated using dry dilute acid pretreatment method at high solids loading of 67% (w/w). The results indicate that the hydrolysis yield of corn stover is increased from 43.30% to 70.99%, and ethanol yield is increased from 51.74% to 73.52% when ash is removed from 9.60% to 4.98%. The pH measurement of corn stover slurry indicates that the decrease of pretreatment efficiency is due to the neutralization of sulfuric acid by alkaline compounds in the ash. The elemental analysis reveals that the ash has the similar composition with the farmland soil. This study demonstrates the importance of ash removal from lignocellulose feedstock under high solids content pretreatment.

  5. Evaluation of heavy metal leaching from coal ash-versus conventional concrete monoliths and debris.

    PubMed

    Gwenzi, Willis; Mupatsi, Nyarai M

    2016-03-01

    Application of coal ash in construction materials is constrained by the potential risk of heavy metal leaching. Limited information is available on the comparative heavy metal leaching from coal ash-versus conventional concrete. The current study compared total and leached heavy metal concentrations in unbound coal ash, cement and sand; and investigated the effect of initial leachant pH on heavy metal leaching from coal-ash versus conventional concrete monoliths and their debris. Total Pb, Mn and Zn in coal ash were lower than or similar to that of other materials, while Cu and Fe showed the opposite trend. Leached concentrations of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe in unbound coal ash, its concrete and debris were comparable and in some cases even lower than that for conventional concrete. In all cases, leached concentrations accounted for just <1% of the total concentrations. Log-log plots of concentration and cumulative release of Fe versus time based on tank leaching data showed that leaching was dominated by diffusion. Overall, the risk of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe leaching from coal ash and its concrete was minimal and comparable to that of conventional concrete, a finding in contrast to widely held public perceptions and earlier results reported in other regions such as India. In the current study the coal ash, and its concrete and debris had highly alkaline pH indicative of high acid neutralizing and pH buffering capacity, which account for the stabilization of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe. Based on the low risk of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe leaching from the coal ash imply that such coal ash can be incorporated in construction materials such as concrete without adverse impacts on public and environmental health from these constituents.

  6. Association of the cyclic AMP chemotaxis receptor with the detergent- insoluble cytoskeleton of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of 6-h differentiated Dictyostelium discoideum cells with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 dissolves away membranes and soluble components, as judged by marker enzyme distributions, leaving intact a cytoskeletal residue that contains approximately 10% of the cell protein and 50% of the actin. Nitrobenzooxadiazo-phallacidin staining for F-actin and electron microscopy of detergent-extracted whole-mounts indicate that the cytoskeletons retain the size and shape of intact cells and contain F-actin in cortical meshworks. The cytoskeletons contain little if any remaining membrane material by morphological criteria, and the plasma membrane enzymes cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphatase are absent from the insoluble residue, which retains only 15% of the membrane concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins. This detergent-insoluble residue retains a specific [3H]cAMP-binding site with the nucleotide specificity, rapid kinetics and approximate affinity of the cAMP receptor on intact cells. Upon detergent extraction of cells, the number of cAMP-binding sites increases 20-70%. The binding site is attached to the insoluble residue whether or not the cAMP receptor is occupied at the time of detergent addition. The pH dependence for recovery of the insoluble cAMP-binding site is much sharper than that on intact cells or membranes with an optimum at pH 6.1. Conditions of pH and ionic composition that lead to disruption of the cytoskeleton upon detergent treatment also result in the loss of cAMP binding. During differentiation, the detergent- insoluble cAMP binding increases in parallel with cell surface cAMP receptors and chemotaxis to cAMP. PMID:6693497

  7. A simplified method for the measurement of insoluble solids in pretreated biomass slurries.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noah D; Stickel, Jonathan J; Wolfe, Jeffrey L; Nguyen, Quang A

    2010-10-01

    The biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels includes the breakdown of biomass into its soluble, fermentable components. Pretreatment, the initial step in the conversion process, results in heterogeneous slurry comprised of both soluble and insoluble biomass components. For the purpose of tracking the progress of the conversion process, it is important to be able to accurately measure the fraction of insoluble biomass solids in the slurry. The current standard method involves separating the solids from the free liquor and then repeatedly washing the solids to remove the soluble fraction, a laborious and tedious process susceptible to operator variations. In this paper, we propose an alternative method for calculating the fraction of insoluble solids which does not require a washing step. The proposed method involves measuring the dry matter content of the whole slurry as well as the dry matter content in the isolated liquor fraction. We compared the two methods using three different pretreated biomass slurry samples and two oven-drying techniques for determining dry matter content, an important measurement for both methods. We also evaluated a large set of fraction insoluble solids data collected from previously analyzed pretreated samples. The proposed new method provided statistically equivalent results to the standard washing method when an infrared balance was used for determining dry matter content in the controlled measurement experiment. Similarly, in the large historical data set, there was no statistical difference shown between the wash and no-wash methods. The new method is offered as an alternative method for determining the fraction of insoluble solids.

  8. Cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of soluble and insoluble compounds containing hexavalent and trivalent chromium.

    PubMed Central

    Levis, A. G.; Majone, F.

    1981-01-01

    Cr(III) and Cr(VI) compounds of varying solubilities have been tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit cell growth and nucleic acid and protein syntheses in BHK cells, to induce alterations in the mitotic cycle in HEp cells, and to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in CHO cells. All Cr(VI) compounds, and particularly those containing soluble Cr(VI), such as potassium dichromate and zinc yellow, differentially inhibit macromolecular syntheses in BKH cells, that of DNA being always the most affected. Among Cr(III) compounds, which generally have very low cytotoxicity, chromite is particularly active, and inhibits cell growth and DNA synthesis even more than the poorly soluble Cr(VI) compounds. Preincubation in growth medium, with or without metabolizing cell cultures, solubilizes considerable amounts of Cr(VI) from zinc yellow and chromite, but significant amounts are also obtained from the most insoluble Cr(VI) pigments. When BHK cells are treated with such preincubated solutions, reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by cell metabolites is seen with all Cr(VI) compounds, accompanied by decreased cytotoxicity. The same differences between Cr(VI) and Cr(III) compounds apply to the cytotoxic effects on mitosis of HEp cells and the clastogenic effects on CHO cells. The activity of chromite, the only Cr(III) pigment capable of significantly increasing the frequency of SCE, is due to contamination with soluble Cr(VI). In contrast to the very low cytotoxicity of Cr(III), much higher chromium levels are detected in the cells incubated with soluble Cr(III) than with the same concentrations of soluble Cr(VI). 50% and 75% of chromium accumulated in the cells during treatments with Cr(VI) and Cr(III) respectively remains firmly bound to the cells, even when they are incubated for up to 48 h in normal growth medium. Chromium accumulated in the cells after treatment with Cr(III) is most probably bound to the cell

  9. Glazed tiles manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Sheen, Yeong-Nain

    2005-02-01

    Sewage sludge incineration is applied extensively in highly populated cities as a final sludge treatment. In this study, incinerated ash was utilized as an additive to clay to manufacture glaze tiles. Four different amounts of ash (0, 15, 30, and 45%) were added, and five glaze concentrations (0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g/cm2) were applied on the surface of biscuit tiles to study the effects of ash additive and glaze concentration on properties of fired samples. Sewage sludge was dehydrated and incinerated into ash at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, tile specimens were manufactured and fired at 800 degrees C to make biscuit tiles. Fritted glazes and iron oxide were used as the fundamental glaze and colorant, respectively. Finally, glaze was applied on the surface of biscuit tiles and then fired at 1050 degrees C to sinter them into glazed tile specimens. Tests were performed to analyze properties, including water absorption, firing shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, abrasion resistance, bending resistance, acid-alkali resistance, and aging resistance on specimens of glaze tile. To further understand more about the microstructural behavior of glazed tile specimens, analysis of energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray were carried out in this study.

  10. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  11. Gasification of ash-containing solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, G.

    1983-03-01

    Ash-contaminated solid or semi-solid fuel is passed into the bottom zone of a fluidized bed gasifier, preferably containing cao to fix labile sulfur moieties, and gasified at a temperature below the ash-softening point. The resulting char and ash of relatively low size and/or weight pass to a top zone of the bed wherein the char is gasified at a temperature above the ash-softening point whereby a substantial proportion of the ash sticks to and agglomerates with solids in the top zone until the particle size and/or weight of the resulting agglomerates causes them to sink to the bottom of the gasifier from where they can be recovered. The hot gases leaving the top of the gasifying bed have a reduced burden of entrained ash, and may be cooled to prevent any entrained ash adhering to downstream equipment through which the gases pass.

  12. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  13. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  14. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes. PMID:25053519

  15. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modifications on starch-linoleic acid complex formation.

    PubMed

    Arijaje, Emily Oluwaseun; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated the complexation yield and physicochemical properties of soluble and insoluble starch complexes with linoleic acid when a β-amylase treatment was applied to acetylated and debranched potato starch. The degree of acetylation was generally higher in the soluble complexes than in the insoluble ones. The insoluble complexes from the acetylated starch displayed the V-type pattern, whereas, the soluble complexes displayed a mixture of either the A-/V-type or the B-/V-type pattern. Acetylation decreased onset and peak melting temperatures for the insoluble complexes, whereas no melting endotherm was observed in the soluble complexes. Acetylation substantially increased the amount of complexed linoleic acid in the insoluble complexes, but had little positive effect on the formation of the soluble complexes. The β-amylase treatment significantly increased the complexed linoleic content in both soluble and insoluble complexes for the low acetylated starch, but not for the high acetylated starch. PMID:27664602

  16. Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).

    PubMed

    Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees.

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Jin, Limei; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-07-01

    In this study we analyzed the characteristics of bottom and fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator in China. The physical properties of particle size distribution and morphology were evaluated. At the chemical level, the chemical composition, heavy metal leaching behavior and BCR sequential extraction procedure (the Community Bureau of Reference, now the European Union 'Measurement and Testing Programme') were determined. The main mineralogical crystalline phases in raw and leached bottom and fly ashes were also identified. For the bottom ashes, the concentration of heavy metals showed a slight decrease with an increase in particle size, and most of the heavy metal concentrations in fly ashes were higher than those in bottom ashes. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure indicated that, among the metals, the concentrations of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in fly ash leachate exceeded thresholds, while the concentrations of studied heavy metals in bottom ash leachate were all below the regulatory limit. The BCR results indicated that more easily mobilized forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for cadmium and zinc; in contrast, the largest amount of Pb, Cu and manganese were associated with iron/manganese oxide, organic matter/sulfide fractions, or were residual. PMID:23618902

  18. Dealing with the aftermath of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident: decontamination of radioactive cesium enriched ash.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Tanaka, Hisashi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Minami, Kimitaka; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Umeoka, Kuniyoshi; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Hayashi, Yukie; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2013-04-16

    Environmental radioactivity, mainly in the Tohoku and Kanto areas, due to the long living radioisotopes of cesium is an obstacle to speedy recovery from the impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Although incineration of the contaminated wastes is encouraged, safe disposal of the Cs enriched ash is the big challenge. To address this issue, safe incineration of contaminated wastes while restricting the release of volatile Cs to the atmosphere was studied. Detailed study on effective removal of Cs from ash samples generated from wood bark, household garbage, and municipal sewage sludge was performed. For wood ash and garbage ash, washing only with water at ambient conditions removed radioactivity due to (134)Cs and (137)Cs, retaining most of the components other than the alkali metals with the residue. However, removing Cs from sludge ash needed acid treatment at high temperature. This difference in Cs solubility is due to the presence of soil particle originated clay minerals in the sludge ash. Because only removing the contaminated vegetation is found to sharply decrease the environmental radioactivity, volume reduction of contaminated biomass by incineration makes great sense. In addition, need for a long-term leachate monitoring system in the landfill can be avoided by washing the ash with water. Once the Cs in solids is extracted to the solution, it can be loaded to Cs selective adsorbents such as Prussian blue and safely stored in a small volume.

  19. Increase of available phosphorus by fly-ash application in paddy soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, H.H.; Ali, M.A.; Min, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash from the coal- burning industry may be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase rice productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil. In this study, fly ash was applied at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} in two paddy soils (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). During rice cultivation, available phosphorus (P) increased significantly with fly ash application, as there was high content of P (786 mg kg{sup -1}) in the applied fly ash. In addition, high content of silicon (Si) and high pH of fly ash contributed to increased available-P content by ion competition between phosphate and silicate and by neutralization of soil acidity, respectively. With fly-ash application, water-soluble P (W-P) content increased significantly together with increasing aluminum- bound P (Al- P) and calcium- bound P (Ca- P) fractions. By contrast, iron- bound P (Fe- P) decreased significantly because of reduction of iron under the flooded paddy soil during rice cultivation. The present experiment indicated that addition of fly ash had a positive benefit on increasing the P availability.

  20. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    is released at 800 °C. The salgging tendencies based on both base: acid ratio and slagging factor, fouling probabilities based on fouling factors is in the order Hydrilla > Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra. Among the different heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni have concentration > 100 mg/kg; Cr and V content was > 50 mg/kg; Co, > 10 mg/kg. In general the heavy metal contents were higher in Spirogyra. Due to the volatile nature Cd and Pb decreases in ash with temperature and is lost continuously in flue gas. Plant nutrient content was relatively higher for Eichornia: K (8 - 12.8 %), P (5.7 - 7.3 %), Ca (9.2 - 10.8 %), Mg (2.8 - 3.6 %), S (1.9 - 2.9 %), Zn (0.033 - 0.045 %), Fe (3.3 - 4.7 %), Cu (0.009 - 0.013 %), Mn (0.8 -1.3%). Among the four biomasses we have studied, Eichornia could be a potential candidate for energy extraction in view of its C content and widespread availability in many parts of the globe, and fast multiplication associated with the eutrophication of water bodies.

  1. EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

    2009-11-01

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

  2. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    SciTech Connect

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  3. Proteomic strategy for identifying mollusc shell proteins using mild chemical degradation and trypsin digestion of insoluble organic shell matrix: a pilot study on Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Benjamin; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Marin, Frédéric; Milet, Christian

    2012-08-01

    A successful strategy for the identification of shell proteins is based on proteomic analyses where soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from organic shell matrix are digested with trypsin with the aim of generating peptides, which are used to identify novel shell proteins contained in databases. However, using trypsin as a sole degradative agent is limited by the enzyme's cleavage specificity and is dependent upon the occurrence of lysine and arginine in the shell protein sequence. To bypass this limitation, we investigated the ability of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a low-specificity chemical degradative agent, to generate clusters of analyzable peptides from organic shell matrix, suitable for database annotation. Acetic acid-insoluble fractions from Haliotis tuberculata shell were processed by trypsin followed by TFA digestion. The hydrolysates were used to annotate an expressed sequence tag library constructed from the mantle tissue of Haliotis asinina, a tropical abalone species. The characterization of sequences with repeat motifs featured in some of the shell matrix proteins benefited from TFA-induced serial cutting, which can result in peptide ladder series. Using the degradative specificities of TFA and trypsin, we were able to identify five novel shell proteins. This pilot study indicates that a mild chemical digestion of organic shell matrix combined with trypsin generates peptides suitable for proteomic analysis for better characterization of mollusc shell matrix proteins.

  4. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  5. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05ashes generated in gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category.

  6. Volcanic Ash on Slopes of Karymsky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A volcanic eruption can produce gases, lava, bombs of rock, volcanic ash, or any combination of these elements. Of the volcanic products that linger on the land, most of us think of hardened lava flows, but volcanic ash can also persist on the landscape. One example of that persistence appeared on Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula in spring 2007. On March 25, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around the Karymsky Volcano. In this image, volcanic ash from earlier eruptions has settled onto the snowy landscape, leaving dark gray swaths. The ash stains are confined to the south of the volcano's summit, one large stain fanning out toward the southwest, and another toward the east. At first glance, the ash stain toward the east appears to form a semicircle north of the volcano and sweep back east. Only part of this dark shape, however, is actually volcanic ash. Near the coast, the darker color may result from thicker vegetation. Similar darker coloring appears to the south. Volcanic ash is not really ash at all, but tiny, jagged bits of rock and glass. These jagged particles pose serious health risks to humans and animals who might inhale them. Likewise, the ash poses hazards to animals eating plants that have been coated with ash. Because wind can carry volcanic ash thousands of kilometers, it poses a more far-reaching hazard than other volcanic ejecta. Substantial amounts of ash can even affect climate by blocking sunlight. Karymsky is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. It is one of many active volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, which is part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Rim. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  7. Evaluation of engineering properties for the use of leached brown coal ash in soil covers.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Chakrabarti, Srijib; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2007-01-31

    The need to engineer cover systems for the successful rehabilitation or remediation of a wide variety of solid wastes is increasing. Some common applications include landfills, hazardous waste repositories, or mine tailings dams and waste rock/overburden dumps. The brown coal industry of the Latrobe Valley region of Victoria, Australia, produces significant quantities of coal ash and overburden annually. There are some site-specific acid mine drainage (AMD) issues associated with overburden material. This needs to be addressed both during the operational phase of a project and during rehabilitation. An innovative approach was taken to investigate the potential to use leached brown coal ash in engineered soil covers on this overburden dump. The basis for this is two-fold: first, the ash has favourable physical characteristics for use in cover systems (such as high storage capacity/porosity, moderately low permeability, and an ability to act as a capillary break layer generating minimal leachate or seepage); and second, the leachate from the ash is mildly alkaline (which can help to mitigate and reduce the risk of AMD). This paper will review the engineering issues involved in using leached brown coal ash in designing soil covers for potentially acid-forming overburden dumps. It presents the results of laboratory work investigating the technical feasibility of using leached brown coal ash in engineered solid waste cover systems.

  8. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    PubMed

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant. PMID:25220259

  9. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    PubMed

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  10. 13C NMR spectroscopy of the insoluble carbon of carbonaceous chondrites.

    PubMed

    Cronin, J R; Pizzarello, S; Frye, J S

    1987-01-01

    13C NMR spectra have been obtained of the insoluble carbon residues resulting from HF-digestion of three carbonaceous chondrites, Orgueil (C1), Murchison (CM2), and Allende (CV3). Spectra obtained using the cross polarization magic-angle spinning technique show two major features attributable respectively to carbon in aliphatic/olefinic structures. The spectrum obtained from the Allende sample was weak, presumably as a consequence of its low hydrogen content. Single pulse excitation spectra, which do not depend on 1H-13C polarization transfer for signal enhancement were also obtained. These spectra, which may be more representative of the total carbon in the meteorite samples, indicate a greater content of carbon in aromatic/olefinic structures. These results suggest that extensive polycyclic aromatic sheets are important structural features of the insoluble carbon of all three meteorites. The Orgueil and Murchison materials contain additional hydrogenated aromatic/olefinic and aliphatic groups.

  11. A Pd8 Tetrafacial Molecular Barrel as Carrier for Water Insoluble Fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bijan; Ghosh, Aloke Kumar; Srivastava, Shubhi; D'Silva, Patrick; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-09-23

    A new carbazole-based tetraimidazole ligand 1,3,6,8-tetra(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-9-methyl-9H-carbazole (L) has been synthesized. The unsymmetrical nature of L as well as the rotational freedom of imidazole donor moieties around C-N bond make it a special building unit, which upon treatment with cis-(tmeda)Pd(NO3)2 produced an unprecedented single linkage-isomeric Pd8 tetrafacial molecular nanobarrel (PSMBR-1) [tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethane-1,2-diamine]. Unlike closed architectures, open barrel architecture of water-soluble PSMBR-1 makes it an ideal host for some water insoluble polyaromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous medium; one such inclusion complex coronene⊂PSMBR-1 was characterized by X-ray diffraction study. Moreover, the potential application of PSMBR-1 as carrier in aqueous medium for the transportation of water insoluble fluorophore (perylene) for live cell imaging is explored.

  12. Removal of metals and water-insoluble materials from desalter emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, S.K.; Mosby, J.F.; Treadman, J.E. II.

    1993-06-15

    A process for removing metals and insoluble materials from crude oil is described comprising the steps of: blending crude oil with water and desalting chemicals; charging the oil blend to a desalting chamber and passing it through an electrical field whereby agglomeration of suspended insoluble materials occurs and layers of clean oil, brine and oil-brine interface emulsion are formed; withdrawing the oil and brine; measuring the volume of the emulsion layer; withdrawing a portion of the emulsion layer; blending the withdrawn emulsion with up to 2 volumes of aromatic-rich hydrocarbon containing at least 20% aromatics by volume; maintaining the blend at a temperature of 100 to 300 F and a positive pressure; and subjecting the blend to a force of at least about 500 g, whereby oil free of at least 90% of suspended particulates and water results.

  13. 13C NMR spectroscopy of the insoluble carbon of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Frye, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    13C NMR spectra have been obtained of the insoluble carbon residues resulting from HF-digestion of three carbonaceous chondrites, Orgueil (C1), Murchison (CM2), and Allende (CV3). Spectra obtained using the cross polarization magic-angle spinning technique show two major features attributable respectively to carbon in aliphatic/olefinic structures. The spectrum obtained from the Allende sample was weak, presumably as a consequence of its low hydrogen content. Single pulse excitation spectra, which do not depend on 1H-13C polarization transfer for signal enhancement were also obtained. These spectra, which may be more representative of the total carbon in the meteorite samples, indicate a greater content of carbon in aromatic/olefinic structures. These results suggest that extensive polycyclic aromatic sheets are important structural features of the insoluble carbon of all three meteorites. The Orgueil and Murchison materials contain additional hydrogenated aromatic/olefinic and aliphatic groups.

  14. Antioxidants and bioactivities of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics from berry seed meals.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Maha; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-04-15

    Phenolic compounds present in the free, soluble ester and insoluble-bound forms of blackberry, black raspberry and blueberry were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry. The total phenolics, scavenging activity against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, the reducing power and chelating capacity were, in general, in the decreasing order of blackberry>black raspberry>blueberry. Amongst fractions, the order was insoluble-bound>esterified>free. These trends were the same as those found against copper-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation and supercoiled plasmid DNA strand breakage inhibition induced by both peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Extracts were found to contain various levels of phenolic compounds that were specific to each berry seed meal type. Berry seed meals should be considered as a good source of phenolics with potential health benefits. Their full exploitation may be helpful for the food industry and consumers.

  15. Antioxidants and bioactivities of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics from berry seed meals.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Maha; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-04-15

    Phenolic compounds present in the free, soluble ester and insoluble-bound forms of blackberry, black raspberry and blueberry were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry. The total phenolics, scavenging activity against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, the reducing power and chelating capacity were, in general, in the decreasing order of blackberry>black raspberry>blueberry. Amongst fractions, the order was insoluble-bound>esterified>free. These trends were the same as those found against copper-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation and supercoiled plasmid DNA strand breakage inhibition induced by both peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Extracts were found to contain various levels of phenolic compounds that were specific to each berry seed meal type. Berry seed meals should be considered as a good source of phenolics with potential health benefits. Their full exploitation may be helpful for the food industry and consumers. PMID:26616944

  16. Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, A; Voundi Nkana, J C; Verloo, M G

    2001-05-01

    Wood industries and power plants generate enormous quantities of wood ash. Disposal in landfills has been for long a common method for removal. New regulations for conserving the environment have raised the costs of landfill disposal and added to the difficulties for acquiring new sites for disposal. Over a few decades a number of studies have been carried out on the utilization of wood ashes in agriculture and forestry as an alternative method for disposal. Because of their properties and their influence on soil chemistry the utilization of wood ashes is particularly suited for the fertility management of tropical acid soils and forest soils. This review principally focuses on ash from the wood industry and power plants and considers its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics, its effect on soil properties, on the availability of nutrient elements and on the growth and chemical composition of crops and trees, as well as its impact on the environment. PMID:11272014

  17. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Kuboňová, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. • More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. • More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline – acid leaching. • The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  18. Can vegetative ash be water repellent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, M. B.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    In most of the literature, ash is referred to as a highly wettable material (e.g. Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Etiegni and Campbell, 1991; Woods and Balfour 2010). However, the contrary was suggested in few articles, albeit with no further quantification (Gabet and Sternberg, 2008; Khanna et al., 1996; Stark, 1977). To clarify this question, water repellency measurements on ash using the Water Drop Penetration Times (WDPT) method were performed on ash from Mediterranean ecosystems and it was found to be water repellent (Bodí et al. 2011). Water repellency on ash from different wildfires ranged from 40 to 10 % occurrence with samples being extreme repellent (lasting more than 3600 s to penetrate). Part of the ash produced in the laboratory was also water repellent. After that, other ash samples had been found water repellent in wildfires in Colorado (unpublished results), Portugal (Gonzalez-Pelayo, 2009), or in prescribed fires in Australia (Bodí et al. 2011b; Petter Nyman, personnal communication). All the samples exhibiting water repellent properties had in common that were combusted at low temperatures, yielding in general ash with dark colour and contents of organic carbon of more than 18 % (Bodí et al. 2011a), although these properties were not exactly proportional to its water repellency occurrence or persistence. In addition, the species studied in Bodí et al. (2011) had been found to produce different levels of WR repellency, being ash from Pinus halepensis more repellent than that from Quercus coccifera and Rosmarins officinalis. Ash from Eucaliptus radiata had been found also very water repellent, as Pinus halepensis (unpublished data). The reasons of the existance of water repellent ash are that the charred residue produced by fire (an also contained in the ash) can contain aromatic compounds that have a lower free energy than water and therefore behave as hydrophobic materials with reduced solubility (Almendros et al., 1992 and Knicker, 2007

  19. Effect of addition of pond ash and fly ash on properties of ash-clay burnt bricks.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ritwik; Singh, Nar; Das, Swapan Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Two industrial solid waste products generated by Indian coal-fired power plants, namely pond ash and fly ash, were used in combination with local clay to develop building bricks. The clay were mixed with the two different ashes in the range 10 to 90 wt.%, hydraulically pressed and fired at 1000 degrees C. The fired products were characterized for various quality properties required for building bricks. The properties of the optimal compositions were compared with conventional red clay bricks including the developed microstructures and the comparative study generally showed that te ash-clay bricks were of superior quality to the conventional products.

  20. A Chinese imprint in insoluble pollutants recently deposited in central Greenland as indicated by lead isotopes.

    PubMed

    Bory, Aloys J-M; Abouchami, Wafa; Galer, Stephen J G; Svensson, Anders; Christensen, John N; Biscaye, Pierre E

    2014-01-01

    A unique ∼ 10 year record of the lead isotopic composition of airborne insoluble particulate matter deposited in central Greenland was extracted from recent snow layers at NorthGRIP (75.1°N, 042.3°W; elevation 2,959 m), spanning the years 1989-2001. Comparison with lead isotopic signatures of both natural and anthropogenic northern hemisphere (NH) aerosol sources shows that human activities must have accounted for most of the insoluble lead deposited on Greenland during the late 1990 s, exceeding by far the natural contribution from large Asian mineral dust inputs. Lead isotopes imply predominance with time of European/Canadian sources over U.S.-derived lead, with an admixed signature typical of Chinese anthropogenic lead sources. The relative contribution of the latter shows a marked seasonal increase during spring. Our record also suggests that China's weight in the overall supply of insoluble pollutants deposited on Greenland was growing over the past decade of the 20th century.

  1. Effect of homogenization and ultrasonication on the physical properties of insoluble wheat bran fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ran; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Liu, Yaping

    2015-10-01

    Wheat bran is rich in dietary fibre and its annual output is abundant, but underutilized. Insoluble dietary fibre often influences food quality negatively; therefore, how to improve the physical and chemical properties of insoluble dietary fibre of wheat bran for post processing is a challenge. Insoluble dietary fibre was obtained from wheat bran and micronized using high-pressure homogenization, high-intensity sonication, and a combination of these two methods. The high-pressure homogenization and high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication treatments significantly (p<0.05) improved the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, and cation exchange capacities. The improvement of the above properties by high-intensity sonication alone was marginal. In most cases, the high-pressure homogenization process was as good as the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process in improving the above-mentioned properties; hence, the contribution of high-`intensity sonication in the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process was minimal. The best results show that the minimum particle size of wheat bran can reach 9 μm, and the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, cation exchange capacities change significantly.

  2. Insoluble protein characterization by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shaveta; Qin, Haina; Lim, Liangzhong; Song, Jianxing

    2015-01-01

    Besides misfolded proteins, which still retain the capacity to fold into uniquely defined structures but are misled to "off-pathway" aggregation, there exists a group of proteins which are unrefoldable and insoluble in buffers. Previously no general method was available to solubilize them and consequently their solution conformations could not be characterized. Recently, we discovered that these insoluble proteins could in fact be solubilized in pure water. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterization led to their classification into three groups, all of which lack the tight tertiary packing and consequently anticipated to unavoidably aggregate in vivo with ~150 mM ions, thus designated as "intrinsically insoluble proteins (IIPs)." It appears that eukaryotic genomes contain many "IIP," which also have a potential to interact with membranes to trigger neurodegenerative diseases. In this chapter, we provide a detailed procedure to express and purify these proteins, followed by CD and NMR spectroscopy characterization of their conformation and interaction with dodecylphosphocholine (DPC).

  3. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T. L.

    2005-07-12

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small

  4. Role of various parameters in synthesis of insoluble agrobased xanthates for removal of copper from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saswati; Tare, Vinod

    2006-12-01

    The research identifies and studies the parameters involved in the synthesis of two types of insoluble agrobased xanthates, named insoluble baggase xanthate (IBX) and insoluble wood xanthate (IWX) and their ability to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Copper was selected as the model metal and the metal removal capacity of IBX and IWX were expressed by copper loading (mg of copper removed/g of IBX or IWX). It was observed that contact times of 3 h and alkali strengths of 4 mol/L were necessary during alkalization. The maximum base material to alkali ratio (w/w) was 1.125 without sacrificing proper mixing of the base material alkali mixture. Optimum contact time during xanthation was 4h with a carbon-disulfide to base material ratio (w/w) of 1.25. Only strong bases like NaOH, KOH contributed high copper loadings and the starting liquor was reused twice without sacrificing the copper removal capacity of IBX and IWX. Maximum copper loadings achieved with IBX and IWX were 26.9+/-0.15 and 27.8+/-0.39 mg/g, respectively.

  5. Short-term treadmill exercise increased tau insolubility and neuroinflammation in tauopathy model mice.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Montasir; Motoi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Hasan, Zafrul; Ishiguro, Koichi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise has been identified as a preventive measure for Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the neuropathological hallmarks of which, neurofibrillary tangles, consist of hyperphosphorylated insoluble tau. Previous studies demonstrated that long-term treadmill exercise reduced tau hyperphosphorylation and insolubility; however, whether short-term treadmill exercise (STE) alters tau modifications currently remains unknown. In the present study, we attempted to characterize the effects of STE on tau solubility and determine its relationship with neuroinflammation using tauopathy model mice (Tg601), which express wild-type human tau. The results obtained showed that 3 weeks of non-shock treadmill exercise in Tg601 and non-transgenic female mice markedly increased insoluble tau. An analysis of phosphorylation patterns indicated that changes in tau solubility were related to an increase in phosphorylation at the tau C-terminal end. The results of immunohistochemical analyses revealed that STE increased the number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells in the hippocampus. Elevations in the levels of the lipid peroxidation markers, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-noneal and malondialdehyde, indicated the presence of oxidative stress. Moreover, higher levels of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and chemokines, CXCL-1 and CXCL-12, supported neuroinflammation. PMID:26592481

  6. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects

    PubMed Central

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects. PMID:26579474

  7. An oral controlled release system for ambroxol hydrochloride containing a wax and a water insoluble polymer.

    PubMed

    Chi, Na; Guo, Ju Hong; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xing

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop and optimize oral sustained-release formulations for Ambroxol hydrochloride matrix pellets using a combination of wax and water-insoluble polymer, glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) and Ethylcellulose (EC(7 FP)). It involved three factors: the content of Compritol 888 ATO (X(1)), EC(7 FP) (X(2)), and the matrix formation methods (X(3)), as independent variables. The drug release percentages at 1, 2 and 4 h were the target responses and were restricted to 15-45% (Y(1)), 45-80% (Y(2)) and 80-100% (Y(3)), respectively. The final blend formulation prepared by extrusion spheronization, was achieved with 27.00% (w/w) Ambroxol hydrochloride, 48.70% (w/w) Compritol 888 ATO, and 24.30% (w/w) EC(7 Fp) with 40 degrees C for 12 h. Comparing the single matrix materials consisting of just the wax or water-insoluble in the complex matrix system containing wax and water-insoluble polymer, the release of the drug can be far more retarded, when the formulations have undergone the process of heat treatment. Furthermore, the combination of the two polymers, with flexible matrix formation methods, will offer a very promising way of producing matrix pellets instead of coated controlled-release pellets to meet various demands of drug release.

  8. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects.

    PubMed

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-09-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects.

  9. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  10. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  11. Effects of fly ash particle size on strength of Portland cement fly ash mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogdu, K.; Tuerker, P.

    1998-09-01

    Fly ashes do not have the same properties for different size fractions. It can be accepted that the effect of a fly ash on mortar strength is a combined effect of its size fractions. Therefore, it was concluded that by separating the size fractions and replacing cement with them, the combined bulk effect of a fly ash on strength can be better analyzed. In this study, different size fractions of fly ash were used to replace cement partially in standard compressive strength mortars. The authors attempted to interpret the strength of Portland cement-fly ash mortars in terms of the chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and physical properties of different fly ash size fractions used. Strengths of the mortars were compared at 2, 7, 28, and 90 days. Also strength of mortars with all-in ash (original ash containing all the fractions) were estimated by using strength of mortars with size fractions and the suitability of this estimation was discussed.

  12. Predicting Water Quality Problems Associated with Coal Fly Ash Disposal Facilities Using a Trace Element Partitioning Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.

    2006-12-01

    For much of the U.S., coal-fired power plants are the most important source of electricity for domestic and industrial use. Large quantities of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products are produced every year, the majority of which is impounded in lagoons and landfills located throughout the country. Many older fly ash disposal facilities are unlined and have been closed for decades. Fly ash often contains high concentrations of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, boron, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, lead, strontium and vanadium. Trace elements present in coal fly ash are of potential concern due to their toxicity, high mobility in the environment and low drinking water MCL values. Concern about the potential release of these toxic elements into the environment due to leaching of fly ash by acid rain, groundwater or acid mine drainage has prompted the EPA to develop national standards under the subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to regulate ash disposal in landfills and surface impoundments. An attempt is made to predict the leaching of toxic elements into the environment by studying trace element partitioning in coal fly ash. A seven step sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP) modified from Filgueiras et al. (2002) is used to determine the trace element partitioning in seven coal fly ash samples collected directly from electric power plants. Five fly ash samples were derived from Eastern Bituminous coal, one derived from Western Sub-bituminous coal and the other derived from Northern Lignite. The sequential chemical extraction procedure gives valuable information on the association of trace elements: 1) soluble fraction, 2) exchangeable fraction, 3) acid soluble fraction, 4) easily reducible fraction, 5) moderately reducible fraction, 6) poorly reducible fraction and 7) oxidizable organics/sulfide fraction. The trace element partitioning varies with the composition of coal fly ash which is influenced by the

  13. Characterization of black carbon and organic contaminants in wood ash from different feedstocks and types of furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Agustin; Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Omil, Beatriz; Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Due to their important concentration of nutrient and charcoal, wood ash from biomass power plants (WA) can be used as a fertilizer and organic amendment in intensively managed soils. Unlike biochar produced in under anoxic conditions, the nature of the organic compounds present in wood ash has been scarcely studied. Due to the incomplete combustion, wood ash may contain a wide range of organic compounds, from charred to highly condensed refractory biomass, which determines the possibilities of WA as an organic amendment. In addition, the possible environmental risk of this practice must be assessed by determining the content of water-soluble and insoluble organic contaminants. due to the incomplete combustion of organic matter, organic pollutants, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be formed and can remain in the combustion residue. Also, the four alkyl benzene volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the ortho, para, and meta xylenes) can be formed, depending on certain conditions during combustion. For this study 15 biomass power stations in Spain were selected. In all of them the feedstock is pine or eucalyptus branches and bark. Nine of them were bottom wood ash generated from wood fires furnaces, obtained from grate-fired or water-tube boilers. Whereas four of them were fly ash, obtained in cyclone separators. The samples were collected following a common procedure to ensure the representiveness of the sampling. Bottom ash samples were fraccionated in three fractions: < 2mm, 2-5 mm and > 5mm. Each fraction was characterized for organic matter and BTEX, styrene and total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. For each analyzes, three replicates were analyzed per sample. Mixes wood ash shows higher amounts of charred material than fly ash. The 13 C CPMAS NMR, DSC/TG and FTIR analysis showed the loss of carbohydrates and aliphatic constituents and revealed the formation of aromatic compounds. The atomic H

  14. LIFAC ash--strategies for management.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2005-01-01

    LIFAC is a more recent addition to flue gas desulphurization methods for reducing sulphur emissions during coal combustion for the production of electricity. Ashes from the combustion of a low-sulphur lignite coal using LIFAC technology were used to evaluate different ash management strategies. The ashes, as produced and after treatment by the CERCHAR hydration process, were examined for their disposal characteristics and their utilization potential in concrete. They were also evaluated as underground disposal material using the AWDS process. PMID:15823742

  15. LIFAC ash--strategies for management.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2005-01-01

    LIFAC is a more recent addition to flue gas desulphurization methods for reducing sulphur emissions during coal combustion for the production of electricity. Ashes from the combustion of a low-sulphur lignite coal using LIFAC technology were used to evaluate different ash management strategies. The ashes, as produced and after treatment by the CERCHAR hydration process, were examined for their disposal characteristics and their utilization potential in concrete. They were also evaluated as underground disposal material using the AWDS process.

  16. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable.

  17. Combined ultrasonic and bioleaching treatment of hospital waste incinerator bottom ash with simultaneous extraction of selected metals.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Fozia; Shahid, Muhammad; Bukhari, ShaziaAnwer; Potgieter, J Herman

    2014-01-01

    The mineralogy, as well as elemental composition, of the incinerated hospital waste (HW) ashes are not well known and need to be investigated for the safe handling and disposal of such ash. A study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition, mineralogy and bioleaching of selected metals from incinerated HW bottom ash using Aspergillus niger under the combined effect ofultrasonic radiation. Different techniques were utilized to determine the elemental composition (Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy [EDX], atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer) and mineralogy (X-ray Diffraction) of the raw sample, as well as the bioleached samples. Chemical leaching tests were performed to determine the effect of different organic acids on metals dissolution. Microbes were tested for acid production and leaching capabilities of selected metals from medical waste (MW) bottom ash. Wet chemical and EDX analyses showed that the ash was enriched with metallic elements like Na, K, Ca, Fe and Al with a concentration range of 22-115 (g/kg). Furthermore, the ash contained heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Sn and Ti in the range of 0.51-21.74 (mg/kg). Citric and oxalic acids generated by fungi could be important leaching agents acting to dissolve these metals. Under ultrasonic treatment, metals dissolution by the acidic metabolites was at its maximum after just 9 d of leaching. The results showed that the dissolution of metals was much higher in citric and oxalic acid than with other acids. Extraction of metals from incinerated MW ash indicated that this ash may be a potential source of metals in the future.

  18. Combined ultrasonic and bioleaching treatment of hospital waste incinerator bottom ash with simultaneous extraction of selected metals.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Fozia; Shahid, Muhammad; Bukhari, ShaziaAnwer; Potgieter, J Herman

    2014-01-01

    The mineralogy, as well as elemental composition, of the incinerated hospital waste (HW) ashes are not well known and need to be investigated for the safe handling and disposal of such ash. A study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition, mineralogy and bioleaching of selected metals from incinerated HW bottom ash using Aspergillus niger under the combined effect ofultrasonic radiation. Different techniques were utilized to determine the elemental composition (Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy [EDX], atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer) and mineralogy (X-ray Diffraction) of the raw sample, as well as the bioleached samples. Chemical leaching tests were performed to determine the effect of different organic acids on metals dissolution. Microbes were tested for acid production and leaching capabilities of selected metals from medical waste (MW) bottom ash. Wet chemical and EDX analyses showed that the ash was enriched with metallic elements like Na, K, Ca, Fe and Al with a concentration range of 22-115 (g/kg). Furthermore, the ash contained heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Sn and Ti in the range of 0.51-21.74 (mg/kg). Citric and oxalic acids generated by fungi could be important leaching agents acting to dissolve these metals. Under ultrasonic treatment, metals dissolution by the acidic metabolites was at its maximum after just 9 d of leaching. The results showed that the dissolution of metals was much higher in citric and oxalic acid than with other acids. Extraction of metals from incinerated MW ash indicated that this ash may be a potential source of metals in the future. PMID:24600864

  19. Hazards Associated With Recent Popocatepetl Ash Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Ferres, D.

    2013-05-01

    Popocatepetl has been producing ash from small eruptions since 1994. Until 2012 about 650 small ash emissions have been recorded at the monitoring system of Popocatépetl Volcano. Ash consists mainly of glassy lithic clasts from the recent crater domes, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and in major eruptions, olivine and/or hornblende. Dome forming eruptions produced a fine white ash which covers the coarser ash. This fine ash consists of plagioclase, glass and cristobalite particles mostly under15 microns. During the recent crisis at Popocatépetl, April and May2012 ash fell on villages to the east and west of the volcano, reaching Mexico City (more than 20 million people) and Puebla (2 million people). In 14 cases the plumes had heights over 2 km, the largest on May 2 and 11 (3 and 4 km in height, respectively). Heavier ash fall occurred on April 13, 14, 20, and 23 and May 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 23, 24 and 25. A database for ash fall was constructed from April 13 with field observations, reports emitted by the Centro Nacional de Comunicaciones (CENACOM), ash fall advisories received at CENAPRED and alerts from the Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano (SENEAM). This aim of this database is to calculate areas affected by the ash and estimate the ash fall volume emitted by Popocatépetl in each of these events. Heavy ash fall from the May 8 to May 11 combined with reduced visibility due to fog forced to closure of the Puebla airport during various periods of time, for up to 13 hours. Domestic and international flights were cancelled. Ash eruptions have caused respiratory conditions in the state of Puebla, to the east of the volcano, since 1994 (Rojas et al, 2001), but because of the changing wind conditions in the summer mainly, some of these ash plumes go westward to towns in the State of Mexico and even Mexico City. Preliminary analyses of these eruptions indicate that some ash emissions produced increased respiratory noninfectious problems

  20. Spectrographic analysis of coal and coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.G.; Headlee, A.J.W.

    1950-01-01

    Coal can be analyzed on the spectrograph for per cent ash and composition of ash in a matter of a few minutes, using the total energy method. The composition of the ash so determined can be used to calculate ash softening temperatures. This analysis can be made in sufficiently short a time to control tipple and washing operations for preparation of coal to meet specifications. This spectrographic method can be readily adapted to the analysis of rocks, minerals, and inorganic chemicals of all kinds.

  1. Photochemical transformation of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene vapor-deposited on eight coal stack ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Yokley, R.A.; Garrison, A.A.; Wehry, E.L.; Mamantov, G.

    1986-01-01

    The photochemical decomposition of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, as adsorbates deposited from the vapor phase, has been examined on eight coal stack ashes of diverse origin and properties. Similar studies using alumina, silica gel, controlled-porosity glass, and graphite adsorbents also have been performed. Phototransformation of the adsorbates proceeds more slowly on any of the ash substrates than on alumina, silica, or glass surfaces. Those ashes relatively high in carbon and/or iron content are especially effective at suppressing photodegradation of adsorbed pyrene or benzo(a)pyrene. This relationship appears, at least in part, to be associated with the relatively dark colors of those ashes. The apparent acidity of ash surfaces does not appear to be related to the rate of phototransformation of adsorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 40 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  2. The Insoluble Carbonaceous Material of CM Chondrites as Possible Source of Discrete Organics During the Asteroidal Aqueous Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yabuta, H.; Williams, L.; Cody, G.; Pizzarello, S.

    2005-01-01

    The larger portion of the organic carbon in carbonaceous chondrites (CC) is present as a complex and heterogeneous macromolecular material that is insoluble in acids and most solvents (IOM). So far, it has been analyzed only as a whole by microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy (IR, NMR, EPR), which have offered and overview of its chemical nature, bonding, and functional group composition. Chemical or pyrolytic decomposition has also been used in combination with GC-MS to identify individual compounds released by these processes. Their value in the recognition of the original IOM structure resides in the ability to properly interpret the decomposition pathways for any given process. We report here a preliminary study of IOM from the Murray meteorite that combines both the analytical approaches described above, under conditions that would realistically model the IOM hydrothermal exposure in the meteorite parent body. The aim is to document the possible release of water and solvent soluble organics, determine possible changes in NMR spectral features, and ascertain, by extension, the effect of this loss on the frame of the IOM residue. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of an insoluble polymer based on polyamidoamine: applications for the decontamination of metals in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Oscar; Vergara, Claudia E; Camarada, Maria B; Carrasco-Sánchez, Veronica; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Tapia, Jaime; Fischer, Rainer; González-Nilo, F D; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel, insoluble, low-generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-based polymer. The monomer and polymer were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric measurement, revealing that G0 acryloyl-terminated PAMAM were synthesized and polymerized using ammonium persulfate as an initiator, producing a high-density PAMAM derivative (PAMAM-HD). PAMAM-HD was tested for its ability to remove Na(I), K(I), Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from acidic, neutral and basic aqueous solutions. PAMAM-HD efficiently removed metals ions from all three solutions. The greatest absorption efficiency at neutral pH was observed against Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), and the experimental data were supported by the calculated Kd values. Our data could have a significant impact on water purification by providing an inexpensive and efficient polymer for the removal of metal ions.

  4. Water-Insoluble Surface Coatings of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts Respond to Additives in a Surrounding Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Charlotte; Obiols-Rabasa, Marc; Piculell, Lennart

    2015-06-16

    Hydrated, but water-insoluble, "complex salts" (CS) composed of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions with polyacrylate counterions are known to exhibit a rich phase behavior in bulk mixtures with water and have recently been shown to act as water-responsive surface coatings. Here it is shown, by SAXS measurements, that surface coatings of CS also respond to various added solutes in a surrounding aqueous solution, by altering their liquid crystalline structure. The obtained results provide new information on the phase behavior of CS in contact with water and aqueous solutions. Solutes such as acids, salts, excess ionic surfactant, or water-soluble polymers act on the CS by altering the polyion charge density, screening the electrostatic interaction, changing the curvature of the surfactant aggregate, or increasing the osmotic pressuring in the surrounding solution, all of which may result in a phase transition in the film. In water, all studied CS surface coatings had a micellar cubic structure, which could change to 2D hexagonal, HCP, or disordered micellar structure, depending on the identity of the CS and the identity and concentration of the added solute. For some systems, even dissolved CO2 from the ambient air was sufficient to induce a structural change in the film. Especially the films containing the long polyions remained intact even for large concentrations of solutes in the contacting solutions, and extensive washing in water resulted, in most cases, in films with the "original" structure found in water. PMID:26017683

  5. Synthesis and characterization of an insoluble polymer based on polyamidoamine: applications for the decontamination of metals in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Oscar; Vergara, Claudia E; Camarada, Maria B; Carrasco-Sánchez, Veronica; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Tapia, Jaime; Fischer, Rainer; González-Nilo, F D; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel, insoluble, low-generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-based polymer. The monomer and polymer were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric measurement, revealing that G0 acryloyl-terminated PAMAM were synthesized and polymerized using ammonium persulfate as an initiator, producing a high-density PAMAM derivative (PAMAM-HD). PAMAM-HD was tested for its ability to remove Na(I), K(I), Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from acidic, neutral and basic aqueous solutions. PAMAM-HD efficiently removed metals ions from all three solutions. The greatest absorption efficiency at neutral pH was observed against Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), and the experimental data were supported by the calculated Kd values. Our data could have a significant impact on water purification by providing an inexpensive and efficient polymer for the removal of metal ions. PMID:25304521

  6. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    treatment. Peroxidase, phenol oxidase, and catalase activities were not affected by these treatments. Acid phosphatase activity decreased, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity increased due to biochar and fly ash treatment. Microbial biomass carbon increased significantly (P < 0.05) with biochar (+27.9%), fly ash (19.8%), and char + ash (+27.9%) applications. Maize grain yield was increased by biochar (+11.4%) and char + ash (+28.1%) treatments. The total PAH concentration decreased from 4191 μg/kg in control to 1930 μg/kg in fly ash; 1509 μg/kg in biochar and 1011 μg/kg in ash + char treatments. Among the different PAHs the concentration was higher for BkF, which decreased from 713 μg/kg in control to 139 - 315 μg/kg under different treatments. Overall, combined application of fly ash and biochar was found to be effective in amelioration of soil quality parameters and improving crop yield.

  7. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    combined treatment. Peroxidase, phenol oxidase, and catalase activities were not affected by these treatments. Acid phosphatase activity decreased, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity increased due to biochar and fly ash treatment. Microbial biomass carbon increased significantly (P < 0.05) with biochar (+27.9%), fly ash (19.8%), and char + ash (+27.9%) applications. Maize grain yield was increased by biochar (+11.4%) and char + ash (+28.1%) treatments. The total PAH concentration decreased from 4191 μg/kg in control to 1930 μg/kg in fly ash; 1509 μg/kg in biochar and 1011 μg/kg in ash + char treatments. Among the different PAHs the concentration was higher for BkF, which decreased from 713 μg/kg in control to 139 - 315 μg/kg under different treatments. Overall, combined application of fly ash and biochar was found to be effective in amelioration of soil quality parameters and improving crop yield.

  8. [Determination of Trace Germanium in Plant Samples by Dry Ashing-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-jie; Yu, Zhao-shui; Bai, Jin-feng; Li, Qing-xia; Liu, Ya-xuan; Bo, Wei; Zhang, Qin

    2015-04-01

    To reduce the limit of detection (LOD) and allow the accurate determination of Ge, a dry ashing method was performed to enrich the Ge in plant samples. A method for the determination.of trace Ge in plant samples by HG-AFS was established. Study of the effect of temperature on the ashing of plant samples showed that no volatile loss of Ge occurred even at 900 °C. Additional experiments indicated that a 4 h burning process at 600 °C would be sufficient to fully ash the plant samples. Various digestion methods (involving nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and sulfuric acid digestion methods) for ashed samples were investigated. High-temperature ashing with large sample weights was used, which could reduce the reagent doses and the method's LOD effectively and simultaneously, the precision of the method was improved. The method's LOD was 0.27 ng · g(-1), and the relative standard deviation was 3.99%-6.81%. Verified with national biological reference materials (grade I), the proposed method was accurate and reliable.

  9. Thermo-mechanical properties and microfabric of fly ash-stabilized gold tailings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Kyu; Shang, Julie Q; Jeong, Sangseom

    2014-07-15

    This paper studies the changes in thermal conductivity, temperature, and unconfined compressive strength of gold tailings and fly ash mixtures during the curing period of 5 days. The microfabric of the cured mixtures was investigated with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The mixture samples were prepared at their maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture content. Effect of adding fly ash to gold tailings (i.e., 0, 20, and 40% of the dry weight of tailings) was examined, and a comparison was made on samples prepared at the same fly ash content by replacing gold tailings with humic acid (i.e., gold tailings and humic acid ratios of 100:0, 90:10, and 80:20 by weight) or by varying pore fluid chemistry (i.e., water and salt solutions of 1M NaCl and CaCl2). The results show that the initial thermal conductivity of the samples is sensitive to the mixture proportion and a declination in the thermal conductivity is observed due to hydration of fly ash and evaporation. Inclusion of fly ash and salts into gold tailings improves the unconfined compressive strength but the presence of humic acid in samples leads to the decrease of the strength. MIP results reveal the pore structure changes associated with the packing states of the samples that reflect the influential factors considered. PMID:24910909

  10. [Determination of Trace Germanium in Plant Samples by Dry Ashing-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-jie; Yu, Zhao-shui; Bai, Jin-feng; Li, Qing-xia; Liu, Ya-xuan; Bo, Wei; Zhang, Qin

    2015-04-01

    To reduce the limit of detection (LOD) and allow the accurate determination of Ge, a dry ashing method was performed to enrich the Ge in plant samples. A method for the determination.of trace Ge in plant samples by HG-AFS was established. Study of the effect of temperature on the ashing of plant samples showed that no volatile loss of Ge occurred even at 900 °C. Additional experiments indicated that a 4 h burning process at 600 °C would be sufficient to fully ash the plant samples. Various digestion methods (involving nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and sulfuric acid digestion methods) for ashed samples were investigated. High-temperature ashing with large sample weights was used, which could reduce the reagent doses and the method's LOD effectively and simultaneously, the precision of the method was improved. The method's LOD was 0.27 ng · g(-1), and the relative standard deviation was 3.99%-6.81%. Verified with national biological reference materials (grade I), the proposed method was accurate and reliable. PMID:26197600

  11. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  12. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  13. Changes of the ash structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Václav; Friedel, Pavel; Janša, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the article is to appraisal of the changes in the structure of the ash due to the addition of compounds capable of the eutectics composition change. For the transformation were used limestone and dolomite dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.% with pellets of spruce wood, willow wood and refused derived fuel. Combustion temperatures of the mixtures were adjusted according to the temperatures reached during the using of fuels in power plants, i.e. 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C.

  14. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  15. Mobility and speciation of arsenic in the coal fly ashes collected from the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; Hernandez, Damaris; Schrlau, Jill; Allen, Marshall

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) leaching from coal fly ash stockpiled at waste disposal sites is a source of environmental concern. An array of techniques including batch extraction and column leaching tests, in combination with speciation analysis of chemically specific As species, was employed to evaluate the mobility of As in fly ashes collected from the U.S. DOE Savannah River Site. The results obtained using the U.S. EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), a two-step sequential extraction technique, and continuous column leaching experiments suggest that only a small portion of total As in the fly ashes was mobile, but mobilizable As could be a considerable fraction (3.1-43%), varying inversely with alkalinity of fly ash. Speciation analysis by using phosphate extraction suggests that arsenate (As(V)) was the major extractable species in the fly ash samples. During the column leaching experiment, however, it was observed that arsenite (As(III)) was an important species leached out of the fly ashes, indicating species conversion during the leaching process. The matrix-bound As(V) within the fly ash, once being released from the solid matrix, could be converted to As(III) during its transport inside the column. The pHs of leachates and fly ashes (both acidic in column leaching experiments here) could be related to the dominance of As(III) in the effluents.

  16. Metal composition and solubility determine lung toxicity induced by residual oil fly ash collected from different sites within a power plant.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Taylor, Michael D; Leonard, Stephen S; Lawryk, Nicholas J; Shi, Xianglin; Clarke, Robert W; Roberts, Jenny R

    2004-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a particulate pollutant comprised of soluble and insoluble metals and is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. The objective was to examine the pulmonary responses to chemically distinct ROFA samples collected from either a precipitator or air heater within the same power plant. The collected ROFA samples were suspended in saline (total sample), incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, centrifuged, separated into soluble and insoluble fractions, and the metal composition was determined. In addition, electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to detect short-lived free radical intermediates produced by the ROFA samples and the different fractions. On day 0, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the ROFA samples (1 mg/100 g body wt). At day 1, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and lung inflammation was assessed. On day 3, additional rats that had been treated with ROFA were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(5) Listeria monocytogenes, and pulmonary bacterial clearance was measured at days 6, 8, and 10. The precipitator ROFA was found to be more soluble and acidic with a significantly greater mass of each metal compared with the air heater ROFA. A prominent hydroxyl radical signal was measured for the total and soluble precipitator ROFA after the addition of H2O2, whereas the air heater ROFA and its fractions did not produce a signal. Precipitator ROFA induced a greater inflammatory response than air heater ROFA illustrated by a significant elevation in lung neutrophils. In addition, pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes was greatly diminished in the rats treated with the soluble and total precipitator ROFA samples. None of the air heater ROFA samples had an effect on lung bacterial clearance. In conclusion, precipitator ROFA, particularly the soluble fraction, generated a metal-dependent hydroxyl radical as measured by ESR and was shown to cause more inflammation and result in

  17. New pyrolytic and spectroscopic data on Orgueil and Murchison insoluble organic matter: A different origin than soluble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remusat, Laurent; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François; Knicker, Heike

    2005-08-01

    Pyrolysis with and without tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), vacuum pyrolysis, and solid state 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to examine the macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites. Conventional pyrolysis reveals a set of poorly functionalized aromatic compounds, ranging from one to four rings and with random methyl substitutions. These compounds are in agreement with spectroscopic and pyrolytic results previously reported. For the first time, TMAH thermochemolysis was used to study extraterrestrial material. The detection of aromatics bearing methyl esters and methoxy groups reveals the occurrence of ester and ether bridges between aromatic units in the macromolecular network. No nitrogen-containing compounds were detected with TMAH thermochemolysis, although they are a common feature in terrestrial samples. Along with vacuum pyrolysis results, thermochemolysis shows that nitrogen is probably sequestered in condensed structures like heterocyclic aromatic rings, unlike oxygen, which is mainly located within linkages between aromatic units. This is confirmed by solid state 15N NMR performed on IOM from Orgueil, showing that nitrogen is present in pyrrole, indole, and carbazole moieties. These data show that amino acids are neither derived from the hydrolysis of IOM nor from a common precursor. In order to reconcile the literature isotopic data and the present molecular results, it is proposed that aldehydes and ketones (1) originated during irradiation of ice in space and (2) were then mobilized during the planetesimal hydrothermalism, yielding the formation of amino acids. If correct, prebiotic molecules are the products of the subsurface chemistry of planetesimals and are thus undetectable through astronomical probes.

  18. Mazama ash in the northeastern pacific.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C H; Kulm, L D; Carlson, P R; Duncan, J R

    1968-07-01

    Volcanic glass in marine sediments off Oregon and Washington correlates with continental deposits of Mount Mazama ash by stratigraphic position, refractive index, and radiocarbon dating. Ash deposited in the abyssal regions by turbidity currents is used for tracing of the dispersal routes of postglacial sediments and for evaluation of marine sedimentary processes.

  19. Energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor); Dubis, David (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper, or other lockhopper for reactor product or byproduct. The invention includes an ash hopper at the outlet of a high temperature, high pressure reactor vessel containing heated high pressure gas, a fluidics control chamber having an input port connected to the ash hopper's output port and an output port connected to the input port of a pressure letdown means, and a control fluid supply for regulating the pressure in the control chamber to be equal to or greater than the internal gas pressure of the reactor vessel, whereby the reactor gas is contained while ash is permitted to continuously flow from the ash hopper's output port, impelled by gravity. The main novelty resides in the use of a control chamber to so control pressure under the lockhopper that gases will not exit from the reactor vessel, and to also regulate the ash flow rate. There is also novelty in the design of the ash lockhopper shown in two figures. The novelty there is the use of annular passages of progressively greater diameter, and rotating the center parts on a shaft, with the center part of each slightly offset from adjacent ones to better assure ash flow through the opening.

  20. Mazama ash in the Northeastern Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Kulm, L.D.; Carlson, P.R.; Duncan, J.R.

    1968-01-01

    Volcanic glass in marine sediments off Oregon and Washington correlates with continental deposits of Mount Mazama ash by stratigraphic position, refractive index, and radiocarbon dating. Ash deposited in the abyssal regions by turbidity currents is used for tracing of the dispersal routes of postglacial sediments and for evaluation of marine sedimentary processes.

  1. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans §...

  2. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans §...

  3. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans §...

  4. Ligand-induced association of surface immunoglobulin with the detergent insoluble cytoskeleton may involve an 89K protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.K.; Woda, B.

    1986-03-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin of B-lymphocytes is thought to play an important role in antigen recognition and cellular activation. Binding of cross-linking ligands to surface immunoglobulin (SIg) on intact cells converts it to a detergent insoluble state, and this conversion is associated with the transmission of a mitogenic signal. Insolubilized membrane proteins may be solubilized by incubating the detergent insoluble cytoskeletons in buffers which convert F-actin to G-actin ((Buffer 1), 0.34M sucrose, 0.5mM ATP, 0.5mM Dithiothrietol and lmM EDTA). Immunoprecipitation of SIg from the detergent soluble fraction of /sup 35/S-methionine labeled non ligand treated rat B-cells results in the co-isolation of an 89K protein and a 44K protein, presumably actin. The 89K protein is not associated with the fraction of endogenous detergent insoluble SIg. On treatment of rat B cells with cross-linking ligand (anti-Ig) the 89K protein becomes detergent insoluble along with most of the SIg and co-isolates with SIg on immunoprecipitation of the detergent insoluble, buffer l solubilized fraction. The migration of the SIg-associated 89K protein from the detergent soluble fraction to the detergent insoluble fraction after ligand treatment, suggests that this protein might be involved in linking SIg to the underlying cytoskeleton and could be involved in the transmission of a mitogenic signal.

  5. An Unique On-line Method to Infer Black Carbonaceous contributions to Water-Insoluble Aerosol Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asa-Awuku, A. A.; Short, D.

    2013-12-01

    Particle number, size, and composition information is important for constraining aerosol effects on air quality, climate, and health. The composition of particles, especially from vehicular sources, may contain insoluble material that may modify particle nucleating properties. Changes in fuel properties are known to modify criteria pollutants and particulate matter mass, size, and number. In this work we summarize findings as they pertain to the water-soluble and insoluble composition of particles. In field measuremnts and controlled laboratory studies, a water-based condensation particle counter (CPC) and a butanol-based CPC measure particle number concentration. Both instruments were coupled with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and particle number and size data were recorded. Real time particle insoluble mass fractions are estimated with the SMPS data sets; theoretical soluble fractions are calculated from ideal hygroscopicty single parameter values. This is the first time that this experimental method has been employed and used to infer online insoluble fractions. The results show that near-roadway emissions contain water insoluble and black carbon components. We will discuss the contributions of the organic component to the water-insoluble nature. Time permitting, the emissions of different ethanol and butanol gasoline blends are also explored for light-duty vehicles on a light-duty dynaometer chassis. Laboratory results indicate that soluble vehicular components are strongly correlated with vehicle driving conditions.

  6. Hollow mesoporous silica as a high drug loading carrier for regulation insoluble drug release.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongjian; Zhao, Yating; Liu, Jia; Cui, Yu; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Qinfu; Wang, Siling

    2016-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a high drug loading hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMS) and apply for regulation insoluble drug release. HMS was synthesized using hard template phenolic resin nanoparticles with the aid of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which was simple and inexpensive. To compare the difference between normal mesoporous silica (NMS) and hollow mesoporous silica in drug loading efficiency, drug release behavior and solid state, NMS was also prepared by soft template method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis, FT-IR and zeta potential were employed to characterize the morphology structure and physicochemical property of these carriers. The insoluble drugs, carvedilol and fenofibrate(Car and Fen), were chosen as the model drug to be loaded into HMS and NMS. We also chose methylene blue (MB) as a basic dye to estimate the adsorption ability of these carriers from macroscopic and microscopic view, and the drug-loaded carriers were systematically studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. What' more, the in vivo process of HMS was also study by confocal microscopy and in vivo fluorescence imaging. In order to confirm the gastrointestinal safety of HMS, the pathological examination of stomach and intestine also be evaluated. HMS allowed a higher drug loading than NMS and exhibited a relative sustained release curve, while NMS was immediate-release. And the effect of preventing drugs crystallization was weaker than NMS. As for in vivo process, HMS was cleared relatively rapidly from the mouse gastrointestinal and barely uptake by intestinal epithelial cell in this study due to its large particle size. And the damage of HMS to gastrointestinal could be ignored. This study provided a simple method to obtain high drug loading and regulation insoluble drug release, expanded the application of inorganic carriers in drug delivery system

  7. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  8. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  9. Abundance of volatile organic compounds in white ash phloem and emerald ash borer larval frass does not attract Tetrastichus planipennisi in a Y-tube olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Ulyshen, Michael D; Poland, Therese M

    2016-10-01

    Many natural enemies employ plant- and/or herbivore-derived signals for host/prey location. The larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is 1 of 3 biocontrol agents currently being released in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coloeptera: Burprestidae) in North America. To enhance its efficiency, allelochemicals that attract it need to be assessed. In this study, ash phloem volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of black, green, and white ash, and EAB larval frass were compared. Foraging behavior of T. planipennisi females in response to VOCs of white ash or frass from EAB larvae feeding on white ash phloem was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer. Results indicated that the 3 ash species had similar VOC profiles. EAB larval frass generally contained greater levels of VOCs than phloem. Factor analysis indicated that the 11 VOCs could be broadly divided into 2 groups, with α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, limonene, methyl benzoate, methyl indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate as the first group and the rest (i.e., methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate) as a second. Abundance of VOCs in white ash phloem tissue and frass, nevertheless, did not attract T. planipennisi females. The concealed feeding of EAB larvae might explain the selection for detectable and reliable virbrational signals, instead of undetectable and relatively unreliable VOC cues from phloem and frass, in short-range foraging by T. planipennisi. Alternatively, it is possible that T. planipennisi is not amenable to the Y-tube olfactometer assay employed. PMID:25879864

  10. Abundance of volatile organic compounds in white ash phloem and emerald ash borer larval frass does not attract Tetrastichus planipennisi in a Y-tube olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Ulyshen, Michael D; Poland, Therese M

    2016-10-01

    Many natural enemies employ plant- and/or herbivore-derived signals for host/prey location. The larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is 1 of 3 biocontrol agents currently being released in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coloeptera: Burprestidae) in North America. To enhance its efficiency, allelochemicals that attract it need to be assessed. In this study, ash phloem volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of black, green, and white ash, and EAB larval frass were compared. Foraging behavior of T. planipennisi females in response to VOCs of white ash or frass from EAB larvae feeding on white ash phloem was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer. Results indicated that the 3 ash species had similar VOC profiles. EAB larval frass generally contained greater levels of VOCs than phloem. Factor analysis indicated that the 11 VOCs could be broadly divided into 2 groups, with α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, limonene, methyl benzoate, methyl indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate as the first group and the rest (i.e., methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate) as a second. Abundance of VOCs in white ash phloem tissue and frass, nevertheless, did not attract T. planipennisi females. The concealed feeding of EAB larvae might explain the selection for detectable and reliable virbrational signals, instead of undetectable and relatively unreliable VOC cues from phloem and frass, in short-range foraging by T. planipennisi. Alternatively, it is possible that T. planipennisi is not amenable to the Y-tube olfactometer assay employed.

  11. Correlation and Analysis of Volcanic Ash in Marine Sediments From the Peru Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D.; Miller, J.

    2005-05-01

    that explosive activity began in the early Eocene (35 Ma) and continued with explosive pulses during the Miocene. The greatest explosive activity occurred within the past 5 million years, with peak activity in the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. Based on petrographic and geochemical analysis, most of the volcanic ash within cores from Leg 201 was derived from the Andean volcanic arc. These plinian eruptions produced acidic glasses and ash layers with abundant feldspar and quartz, and minor amounts of hornblende and biotite. Pouclet, et al., (1990) reports a transition from andesitic volcanism in the Middle to Late Miocene to a more shoshonitic composition through the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene during peak volcanic activity. Ash layers from at least one drilling location (Site 1228) bracketed by biostratigraphic and oxygen isotope dates may correlate with the 254 kyr eruption of Taupo, New Zealand. Previous studies have recognized the presence of tephra from this eruption in cores as far away as 1100 km from the source and suggest that ash from this volcano may occur in sediments off South America (Froggatt, et al., 1986). REFERENCES Froggatt, P.C., Nelson, C.S., Carter, L., Griggs, G., Black, K.P., 1986. An exceptionally large late Quaternary eruption from New Zealand. Nature (London), 319;6054 578-582. Pouclet, A., Cambray, H., Cadet, J.P., Bourgois, J., De Wever, P., 1990. Volcanic ash from Leg 112 off Peru. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 112: 465-480.

  12. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  13. Geotechnical characterization of some Indian fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.K.; Yudhbir

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of experimental studies with regard to some common engineering properties (e.g., grain size, specific gravity, compaction characteristics, and unconfined compression strength) of both low and high calcium fly ashes, to evaluate their suitability as embankment materials and reclamation fills. In addition, morphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of fly ashes are studied using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray analyzer, x-ray diffractometer, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. In high calcium fly ash, mineralogical and chemical differences are observed for particles, {gt}75 {mu} m and the particles of {lt} 45 {mu} m size. The mode and duration of curing significantly affect the strength and stress-strain behavior of fly ashes. The geotechnical properties of fly ash are governed by factors like lime content (CaO), iron content (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and loss on ignition. The distinct difference between self-hardening and pozzolanic reactivity has been emphasized.

  14. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  15. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  16. [Determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yang, Y; Zhou, R; Bian, L

    2001-11-01

    For studying the contents of dietary fiber in general foods and functional foods, a enzymatic-gravimetric method recommended by AOAC was established in our laboratory. The method for the determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods and functional foods could be used for many other kind of foods. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of reproducibility between-run and within-run were 2.04%-7.85%, 3.42%-55.23% respectively. The repeatability of the methods was good, and the methods are suitable for many foods.

  17. Characterization of insoluble residues from the dissolution of irradiated (U,Pu)O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, J.H.; Arwood, P.C.

    1983-05-01

    Hot-cell tests were conducted using (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuels that had been irradiated to about 5.2 TJ/kg (U + Pu) [60 MWd/kg (U + Pu)] in an effort to characterize the insoluble residues that remained after the fuel pellets had been dissolved in HNO{sub 3} and in HNO{sub 3}-KF. The composition, particle size range, and density of the material were determined by newer analytical techniques, including spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence, combined with older methods such as sedimentation and powder density by water displacement.

  18. Evaluation of dry ashing in conjunction with ion chromatographic determination of transition metal ions in pig feed samples.

    PubMed

    Van paemel, Marleen R; De Rycke, Herman; Millet, Sam; Hesta, Myriam; Janssens, Geert P J

    2005-03-23

    The contents of transition metal ions iron, copper, zinc, and manganese were simultaneously determined in pig feed using an ion chromatographic technique (IC) preceded by dry ashing. Employing ion exchange, the ions were separated on an IonPac CS5A column used in combination with a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid based eluent. The separation was followed by spectrophotometric detection after postcolumn reaction with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. Dry ashing parameters were varied to assess their role in potential analyte loss. Quantitative recoveries (>95%) were obtained for all analytes with a dry ashing method that included a moderate temperature-time regime and ash leaching support in the form of sonication and heat treatment. The use of HCl as leaching acid and the presence of alkaline earths in the matrix solution did not interfere with the chromatographic separation. PMID:15769106

  19. Characterization of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gislason, S R; Hassenkam, T; Nedel, S; Bovet, N; Eiriksdottir, E S; Alfredsson, H A; Hem, C P; Balogh, Z I; Dideriksen, K; Oskarsson, N; Sigfusson, B; Larsen, G; Stipp, S L S

    2011-05-01

    On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds, such as fluoride, aluminum, and arsenic. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. For this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected immediately after the explosive event and compared with fresh ash from a later, more typical eruption. Using nanotechniques, custom-designed for studying natural materials, we explored the physical and chemical nature of the ash to determine if fears about health and safety were justified and we developed a protocol that will serve for assessing risks during a future event. On single particles, we identified the composition of nanometer scale salt coatings and measured the mass of adsorbed salts with picogram resolution. The particles of explosive ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers. Edges remained sharp even after a couple of weeks of abrasion in stirred water suspensions. PMID:21518890

  20. Characterization of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gislason, S R; Hassenkam, T; Nedel, S; Bovet, N; Eiriksdottir, E S; Alfredsson, H A; Hem, C P; Balogh, Z I; Dideriksen, K; Oskarsson, N; Sigfusson, B; Larsen, G; Stipp, S L S

    2011-05-01

    On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds, such as fluoride, aluminum, and arsenic. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. For this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected immediately after the explosive event and compared with fresh ash from a later, more typical eruption. Using nanotechniques, custom-designed for studying natural materials, we explored the physical and chemical nature of the ash to determine if fears about health and safety were justified and we developed a protocol that will serve for assessing risks during a future event. On single particles, we identified the composition of nanometer scale salt coatings and measured the mass of adsorbed salts with picogram resolution. The particles of explosive ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers. Edges remained sharp even after a couple of weeks of abrasion in stirred water suspensions.

  1. Characterization of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, S. R.; Hassenkam, T.; Nedel, S.; Bovet, N.; Eiriksdottir, E. S.; Alfredsson, H. A.; Hem, C. P.; Balogh, Z. I.; Dideriksen, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Sigfusson, B.; Larsen, G.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds, such as fluoride, aluminum, and arsenic. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. For this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected immediately after the explosive event and compared with fresh ash from a later, more typical eruption. Using nanotechniques, custom-designed for studying natural materials, we explored the physical and chemical nature of the ash to determine if fears about health and safety were justified and we developed a protocol that will serve for assessing risks during a future event. On single particles, we identified the composition of nanometer scale salt coatings and measured the mass of adsorbed salts with picogram resolution. The particles of explosive ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers. Edges remained sharp even after a couple of weeks of abrasion in stirred water suspensions. PMID:21518890

  2. Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D.

    2006-01-01

    Recrystallization of benzoic acid is an excellent way to remove insoluble impurities. In a traditional organic laboratory experiment, insoluble impurities are removed through the recrystallization of benzoic acid utilizing water as the recrystallization solvent. It was our goal to develop a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise…

  3. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K.

    2009-07-01

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  4. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Laboratory Studies of Ice Nucleation on Volcanic Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, M. A.; Schill, G. P.; Genareau, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Ice nucleation on volcanic ash controls both ash aggregation and cloud glaciation, which affect human respiratory health, atmospheric transport, and global climate. We have performed laboratory studies of the depositional and immersion freezing efficiency of three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman Microscopy coupled to an environmental cell. Ash from the Fuego (Basaltic Ash, Guatemala), Soufriere Hills (Andesetic Ash, Montserrat), and Taupo (Rhyolitic Ash, New Zealand) volcanoes were chosen to represent different geographical locations and silica content. All ash samples were quantitatively analyzed for both percent crystallinity and mineralogy using X-ray diffraction. We find that all three samples of volcanic ash are excellent depositional ice nuclei, nucleating ice at ice saturation ratios of 1.05 ± 0.1. For immersion freezing, however, only the Taupo ash exhibited efficient heterogeneous ice nucleation activity. Similar to recent studies on mineral dust, we suggest that the mineralogy of volcanic ash may dictate its ice nucleation activity in the immersion mode.

  7. Ceramic glass from flying-ash

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, J.F.; Xu, You-Wu; Chen, Pinzhen

    1996-10-01

    A ceramic glass composition compromises of mainly SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and with small percent of CaO, TiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO, K{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been produced. A convenient source of raw materials is a mixture of flying-ash from power plant, borax manufacturing plant waste, and titanium pigment waste. The ceramic glass is formed from an intermediate ceramic mixture which is subjected to heat treatment. The solid is annealed at another temperature for several hours, and then is reduced to a lower temperature at a rate of 20-30{degrees}C/hour. The final product, the ceramic glass possesses many useful mechanical and chemical properties, such as high compressive strength, high bending strength, high hardness, high impact resistance, acid and alkaline resistance, etc. The ceramic glass can be used as laboratory counter-top, reaction still, manufacture of fluid transfer tubing, sandpaper/grit, and many other industrial applications.

  8. Our silent enemy: ashes in our libraries.

    PubMed

    DeBakey, L; DeBakey, S

    1989-07-01

    SCHOLARS, SCIENTISTS, PHYSICIANS, OTHER HEALTH PROFESSIONALS, AND LIBRARIANS FACE A CRUCIAL DECISION TODAY: shall we nourish the biomedical archives as a viable and indispensable source of information, or shall we bury their ashes and lose a century or more of consequential scientific history? Biomedical books and journals published since the 1850s on self-destructing acidic paper are silently and insidiously scorching on our shelves. The associated risks for scientists and physicians are serious-incomplete assessment of past knowledge; unnecessary repetition of studies that have already led to conclusive results; delay in scientific advances when important concepts, techniques, instruments, and procedures are overlooked; faulty comparative analyses; or improper assignment of priority. The archives also disclose the nature of biomedical research, which builds on past knowledge, advances incrementally, and is strewn with missteps, frustrations, detours, inconsistencies, enigmas, and contradictions. The public's familiarity with the scientific process will avoid unrealistic expectations and will encourage support for research in health. But a proper historical perspective requires access to the biomedical archives. Since journals will apparently continue to be published on paper, it is folly to persist in the use of acidic paper and thus magnify for future librarians and preservationists the already Sisyphean and costly task of deacidifying their collections. Our plea for conversion to acid-free paper is accompanied by an equally strong appeal for more rigorous criteria for journal publication. The glut of journal articles-many superficial, redundant, mediocre, or otherwise flawed and some even fraudulent-has overloaded our databases, complicated bibliographic research, and exacerbated the preservation problem. Before accepting articles, journal editors should ask: If it is not worth preserving, is it worth publishing?It is our responsibility to protect the integrity

  9. Effect of different curd-washing methods on the insoluble Ca content and rheological properties of Colby cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-R; Johnson, M E; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Lucey, J A

    2011-06-01

    A curd-washing step is used in the manufacture of Colby cheese to decrease the residual lactose content and, thereby, decrease the potential formation of excessive levels of lactic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different washing methods on the Ca equilibrium and rheological properties of Colby cheese. Four different methods of curd-washing were performed. One method was batch washing (BW), where cold water (10°C) was added to the vat, with and without stirring, where curds were in contact with cold water for 5 min. The other method used was continuous washing (CW), with or without stirring, where curds were rinsed with continuously running cold water for approximately 7 min and water was allowed to drain immediately. Both methods used a similar volume of water. The manufacturing pH values were similar in all 4 treatments. The insoluble (INSOL) Ca content of cheese was measured by juice and acid-base titration methods and the rheological properties were measured by small amplitude oscillatory rheology. The levels of lactose in cheese at 1 d were significantly higher in CW cheese (0.06-0.11%) than in BW cheeses (∼0.02%). The levels of lactic acid at 2 and 12 wk were significantly higher in CW cheese than in BW cheeses. No differences in the total Ca content of cheeses were found. Cheese pH increased during ripening from approximately 5.1 to approximately 5.4. A decrease in INSOL Ca content of all cheeses during ripening occurred, although a steady increase in pH took place. The initial INSOL Ca content as a percent of total Ca in cheese ranged from 75 to 78% in all cheeses. The INSOL Ca content of cheese was significantly affected by washing method. Stirring during manufacturing did not have a significant effect on the INSOL Ca content of cheese during ripening. Batch-washed cheeses had significantly higher INSOL Ca contents than did CW cheeses during the first 4 wk of ripening. The maximum loss tangent values (meltability

  10. Leachability of uranium and other elements from freshly erupted volcanic ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Zielinski, R.A.; Rose, W.I.

    1982-01-01

    A study of leaching of freshly erupted basaltic and dacitic air-fall ash and bomb fragment samples, unaffected by rain, shows that glass dissolution is the dominant process by which uranium is initially mobilized from air-fall volcanic ash. Si, Li, and V are also preferentially mobilized by glass dissolution. Gaseous transfer followed by fixation of soluble uranium species on volcanic-ash particles is not an important process affecting uranium mobility. Gaseous transfer, however, may be important in forming water-soluble phases, adsorbed to ash surfaces, enriched in the economically and environmentally important elements Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, B, F, and Ba. Quick removal of these adsorbed elements by the first exposure of freshly erupted ash to rain and surface water may pose short-term hazards to certain forms of aquatic and terrestrial life. Such rapid release of material may also represent the first step in transportation of economically important elements to environments favorable for precipitation into deposits of commercial interest. Ash samples collected from the active Guatemalan volcanoes Fuego and Pacaya (high-Al basalts) and Santiaguito (hornblende-hypersthene dacite); bomb fragments from Augustine volcano (andesite-dacite), Alaska, and Heimaey (basalt), Vestmann Islands, Iceland; and fragments of "rhyolitic" pumice from various historic eruptions were subjected to three successive leaches with a constant water-to-ash weight ratio of 4:1. The volcanic material was successively leached by: (1) distilled-deionized water (pH = 5.0-5.5) at room temperature for 24 h, which removes water-soluble gases and salts adsorbed on ash surfaces during eruption; (2) dilute HCl solution (pH = 3.5-4.0) at room temperature for 24 h, which continues the attack initiated by the water and also attacks acid-soluble sulfides and oxides; (3) a solution 0.05 M in both Na,CO, and NaHCO, (pH = 9.9) at 80°C for one week, which preferentially dissolves volcanic glass. The first two leaches

  11. Investigation of basic properties of fly ash from urban waste incinerators in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-guo; Xu, Xin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Shi-jian; Zhang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Basic properties of fly ash samples from different urban waste combustion facilities in China were analyzed using as X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The leaching toxicity procedure and some factors influencing heavy metals distribution in fly ash were further investigated. Experimental results indicate that the fly ash structures are complex and its properties are variable. The results of XRF and SEM revealed that the major elements (>10000 mg/kg, listed in decreasing order of abundance) in fly ash are O, Ca, Cl, Si, S, K, Na, Al, Fe and Zn. These elements account for 93% to 97%, and the content of Cl ranges from 6.93% to 29.18 %, while that of SiO2 does from 4.48% to 24.84%. The minor elements (1000 to 10000 mg/kg) include Cr, Cu and Pb. Primary heavy metals in fly ash include Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu etc. According to standard leaching test, heavy metal leaching levels vary from 0 to 163.10 mg/L (Pb) and from 0.049 to 164.90 mg/L (Zn), mostly exceeding the Chinese Identification Standard for hazardous wastes. Morphology of fly ash is irregular, with both amorphous structures and polycrystalline aggregates. Further research showed that heavy metals were volatilized at a high furnace temperature, condensed when cooling down during the post-furnace system and captured at air pollution control systems. Generally, heavy metals are mainly present in the forms of aerosol particulates or tiny particulates enriched on surfaces of fly ash particles. The properties of fly ash are greatly influenced by the treatment capacities of incinerators or the variation of waste retention time in chamber. Fly ash from combustors of larger capacities generally has higher contents of volatile component and higher leaching toxicity, while those of smaller capacities often produce fly ash containing higher levels of nonvolatile components and has lower toxicity. The content of heavy metals and leaching toxicity maybe have no convincing

  12. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage profiling as a screening method for pulmonary damage induced by nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), fly ash, and NO/sub 2/-fly ash combinations

    SciTech Connect

    DeNicola, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profiling (BALP) was used to detect pulmonary injury induced by acute inhalation of NO/sub 2/ gas and fly ash alone and in combination. Also, BALP was utilized in an investigation into potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism. The components measured in the BALP included lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity levels, sialic acid and total protein contents, and total and differential cell counts. BALP analysis was effective in detecting the multifocal necrotizing terminal bronchiolitis produced in three groups of hamsters exposed to increasing concentrations of NO/sub 2/ gas (12, 17 and 22 ppM) for 48 continuous hours. BALP and histopathologic changes correlated well and followed a dose-related pattern. Increased numbers of neutrophils and macrophages were the most sensitive BALP indicators of NO/sub 2/ damage. To evaluate the potential acute toxic effects of fly ash, three groups of hamsters were exposed to increasing concentrations of fly ash alone (0, 69, and 123 mg/m/sup 3/). No significant BALP or histopathologic alterations were observed. To evaluate potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism, three groups of hamsters were exposed to 0, 12, and 17 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 48 continuous hours with the addition of 0, 115, and 105 mg/m/sup 3/ fly ash respectively during the initial 6 hours. No consistent significant BALP difference between hamsters exposed to NO/sub 2/ + fly ash exposed hamsters. To further evaluate synergistic effects between these two inhalants, the acute inhalation (48 continuous hours) LC/sub 50/ of NO/sub 2/ gas alone and in combination with fly ash were determined and estimated to be 36 and 31 ppM respectively, which represented a slight but insignificant decrease in the NO/sub 2/ + fly ash group.

  13. Tau kinase inhibitors protect hippocampal synapses despite of insoluble tau accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hinners, Ina; Hill, Anika; Otto, Ulrike; Michalsky, Anke; Mack, Till G A; Striggow, Frank

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathomechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prerequisite for the development of efficient treatments. We have used a novel assay system based on virus-transduced organotypic hippocampal slice cultures that mimics important aspects of tau-driven AD pathology in a short time frame. Human tau P301L, when expressed in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slice cultures, was increasingly phosphorylated at several disease-relevant epitopes, leading to progressive neuronal dystrophy and formation of RIPA-insoluble tau. AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation was reduced by the tau kinase inhibitors lithium and SRN-003-556, but RIPA-insoluble tau remained unaffected after treatment with any of these substances. Only SRN-003-556 was able to protect hippocampal neurons from synaptic damage that was presumably caused by a toxic soluble tau fraction. These data provide first mechanistic insights towards the functional benefits of SRN-003-556 that have been observed in vivo.

  14. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus. PMID:27138171

  15. High-throughput Screening of Carbohydrate-degrading Enzymes Using Novel Insoluble Chromogenic Substrate Assay Kits.

    PubMed

    Schückel, Julia; Kračun, Stjepan Krešimir; Willats, William G T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates active enzymes (CAZymes) have multiple roles in vivo and are widely used for industrial processing in the biofuel, textile, detergent, paper and food industries. A deeper understanding of CAZymes is important from both fundamental biology and industrial standpoints. Vast numbers of CAZymes exist in nature (especially in microorganisms) and hundreds of thousands have been cataloged and described in the carbohydrate active enzyme database (CAZy). However, the rate of discovery of putative enzymes has outstripped our ability to biochemically characterize their activities. One reason for this is that advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with associated bioinformatics tools allow for rapid identification of candidate CAZymes, but technology for determining an enzyme's biochemical characteristics has advanced more slowly. To address this technology gap, a novel high-throughput assay kit based on insoluble chromogenic substrates is described here. Two distinct substrate types were produced: Chromogenic Polymer Hydrogel (CPH) substrates (made from purified polysaccharides and proteins) and Insoluble Chromogenic Biomass (ICB) substrates (made from complex biomass materials). Both CPH and ICB substrates are provided in a 96-well high-throughput assay system. The CPH substrates can be made in four different colors, enabling them to be mixed together and thus increasing assay throughput. The protocol describes a 96-well plate assay and illustrates how this assay can be used for screening the activities of enzymes, enzyme cocktails, and broths. PMID:27684747

  16. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus.

  17. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus. PMID:27138171

  18. Gastrointestinal effects associated with soluble and insoluble copper in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Araya, M; Gidi, V; Uauy, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether total copper or soluble copper concentration is associated with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. Forty-five healthy adult women (18-55 years of age), living in Santiago, Chile, ingested tap water with 5 mg/L of copper containing different ratios of soluble copper (copper sulfate) and insoluble copper (copper oxide) over a 9-week period. Three randomized sequences of the different copper ratios (0:5, 1:4, 2:3, 3:2, and 5:0 mg/L) were followed. Subjects recorded their water consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms daily on a special form. Mean water consumption was similar among groups. Serum copper levels, ceruloplasmin, and activities of liver enzymes were within normal limits. No differences were detected between the means of biochemical parameters at the beginning and at the end of the study. Twenty subjects presented gastrointestinal disturbances at least once during the study, 9 suffered diarrhea (with or without abdominal pain and vomiting), and the other 11 subjects reported abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. No differences were found in incidence of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea regardless of the ratio of copper sulfate to copper oxide. In conclusion, both copper sulfate (a soluble compound) and copper oxide (an insoluble compound) have comparable effects on the induction of gastrointestinal manifestations, implying that similar levels of ionic copper were present in the stomach. PMID:11673125

  19. An automatic collector to monitor insoluble atmospheric deposition: application for mineral dust deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, B.; Losno, R.; Chevaillier, S.; Vincent, J.; Roullet, P.; Bon Nguyen, E.; Ouboulmane, N.; Triquet, S.; Fornier, M.; Raimbault, P.; Bergametti, G.

    2015-07-01

    Deposition is one of the key terms of the mineral dust cycle. However, dust deposition remains poorly constrained in transport models simulating the atmospheric dust cycle. This is mainly due to the limited number of relevant deposition measurements. This paper aims to present an automatic collector (CARAGA), specially developed to sample the total (dry and wet) atmospheric deposition of insoluble dust in remote areas. The autonomy of the CARAGA can range from 25 days to almost 1 year depending on the programmed sampling frequency (from 1 day to 2 weeks respectively). This collector is used to sample atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust on the Frioul islands in the Gulf of Lions in the Western Mediterranean. To quantify the mineral dust mass in deposition samples, a weighing and ignition protocol is applied. Almost 2 years of continuous deposition measurements performed on a weekly sampling basis on Frioul Island are presented and discussed with air mass trajectories and satellite observations of dust. Insoluble mineral deposition measured on Frioul Island was 2.45 g m-2 for February to December 2011 and 3.16 g m-2 for January to October 2012. Nine major mineral deposition events, measured during periods with significant MODIS aerosol optical depths, were associated with air masses coming from the southern Mediterranean Basin and North Africa.

  20. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-03

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus.

  1. Rescue from tau-induced neuronal dysfunction produces insoluble tau oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Quraishe, Shmma; Hands, Sarah; Sealey, Megan; Mahajan, Sumeet; Allan, Douglas W.; Mudher, Amritpal

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of highly phosphorylated tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. Nevertheless, animal models demonstrate that tau-mediated dysfunction/toxicity may not require large tau aggregates but instead may be caused by soluble hyper-phosphorylated tau or by small tau oligomers. Challenging this widely held view, we use multiple techniques to show that insoluble tau oligomers form in conditions where tau-mediated dysfunction is rescued in vivo. This shows that tau oligomers are not necessarily always toxic. Furthermore, their formation correlates with increased tau levels, caused intriguingly, by either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of tau kinase glycogen-synthase-kinase-3beta (GSK-3β). Moreover, contrary to common belief, these tau oligomers were neither highly phosphorylated, and nor did they contain beta-pleated sheet structure. This may explain their lack of toxicity. Our study makes the novel observation that tau also forms non-toxic insoluble oligomers in vivo in addition to toxic oligomers, which have been reported by others. Whether these are inert or actively protective remains to be established. Nevertheless, this has wide implications for emerging therapeutic strategies such as those that target dissolution of tau oligomers as they may be ineffective or even counterproductive unless they act on the relevant toxic oligomeric tau species. PMID:26608845

  2. Nucleation and growth of intragranular defect and insoluble atom clusters in nuclear oxide fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P.; Martin, G.; Sabathier, C.; Carlot, G.; Michel, A.; Martin, P.; Dorado, B.; Freyss, M.; Bertolus, M.; Skorek, R.; Noirot, J.; Noirot, L.; Kaitasov, O.; Maillard, S.

    2012-04-01

    Uranium and plutonium oxides are subjected to high levels of radiation damage due to the slowing of fission fragments. In addition the composition of the material evolves over time as a result of fission events. Rare gases which constitute an abundant class of fission products are particularly insoluble and therefore tend either to be released from the fuel or form small nanometre size clusters. Bubbles are liable to grow and become trapping sites for migrating defects or other insoluble atoms. Interactions between migrating atoms, defects and existing clusters will determine the rate and extent to which clusters grow. Because the transfer of gas from within the grain to the grain boundaries is thought of as being the rate limiting process for fission gas release, a review of phenomena occurring on the sub-grain scale is carried out. The microstructural modifications induced by neutron irradiations of UO2 fuels are discussed with an emphasis on their relation to fission gas release. Based mainly on TEM studies, the phenomena which are usually taken into account in fission gas behaviour models are looked at and the limitations of these models outlined. More recent experimental and modelling approaches involving ion-irradiation experiments and atomic scale modelling are presented. It is shown that combining these approaches may lead, despite the complexity inherent to the system, to a better understanding of basic radiation induced microstructural changes, clustering events, and rare gas behaviour.

  3. Effect of method of feeding protein and protein insolubility on milk production by Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Baxter, H D; Montgomery, M J; Waldo, D R; Owen, J R

    1983-10-01

    Each of two feeding trials used 32 first and second lactation Jersey cows to evaluate four methods of protein supplementation of corn silage: A) 20% crude protein grain mixture, B) 1.36 kg of soybean meal replaced an equal amount of grain mixture, C) 2.27 kg of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay daily and 16% crude protein grain mixture, and D) 2.72 kg of soybean meal mixed with the silage daily. Concentrates were fed at 1 to 4 kg fat-corrected milk for treatments A, B, and C. All cows received 1.18 kg of 16% crude protein concentrate mixture daily in the milking parlor. Protein contents, as percents of dry matter intake, for respective treatments were 12.9, 15.0, 12.7, and 17.2. Treatments did not differ significantly for milk production, fat-corrected milk, and change of body weight; however, percents milk fat for 1.36 and 2.72 kg soybean meal were higher. In trial 2, protein insolubility of ration components was determined by four extracting methods: A) autoclaved rumen fluid, B) sodium chloride solution, C) Burroughs' solution, and D) boiling water. Insoluble protein intake determined by autoclaved rumen fluid and hot water methods accounted for more of the variance of milk and fat-corrected milk production than total protein intake.

  4. Characterisation of detergent-insoluble membranes in pollen tubes of Nicotiana tabacum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Alessandra; Gagliardi, Assunta; Maneta-Peyret, Lilly; Bini, Luca; Stroppa, Nadia; Onelli, Elisabetta; Landi, Claudia; Scali, Monica; Idilli, Aurora Irene; Moreau, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pollen tubes are the vehicle for sperm cell delivery to the embryo sac during fertilisation of Angiosperms. They provide an intriguing model for unravelling mechanisms of growing to extremes. The asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins in the pollen tube plasma membrane modulates ion fluxes and actin dynamics and is maintained by a delicate equilibrium between exocytosis and endocytosis. The structural constraints regulating polarised secretion and asymmetric protein distribution on the plasma membrane are mostly unknown. To address this problem, we investigated whether ordered membrane microdomains, namely membrane rafts, might contribute to sperm cell delivery. Detergent insoluble membranes, rich in sterols and sphingolipids, were isolated from tobacco pollen tubes. MALDI TOF/MS analysis revealed that actin, prohibitins and proteins involved in methylation reactions and in phosphoinositide pattern regulation are specifically present in pollen tube detergent insoluble membranes. Tubulins, voltage-dependent anion channels and proteins involved in membrane trafficking and signalling were also present. This paper reports the first evidence of membrane rafts in Angiosperm pollen tubes, opening new perspectives on the coordination of signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and polarised secretion. PMID:25701665

  5. Sulfated modification, characterization and property of a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jun-Qiao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wang, Yuan-Xing; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Sulfated modification was carried out to modify a water-insoluble polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum (AGAP). The effects of sulfation on structure, physicochemical and functional properties of AGAP were investigated. Three sulfated derivatives were prepared, designated as S-1, S-2 and S-3 with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.35, 0.74 and 1.14, respectively. AGAP was elucidated as an α-(1→3)-glucan with few branches terminated by single mannose or xylose residues. The molecular weight (Mw) and radius of gyration (Rg) were estimated to be 1665 kDa and 65.49 nm, respectively. After sulfated modification, non-selective sulfation occurred preferably at O-6, partially at O-2 and O-4 positions of the glucosyl residues. The water-solubility of the derivatives was significantly improved in a DS-dependent manner. Mw of the derivatives showed a sharp decrease, and the chain conformation was estimated to be expanded stiff in phosphate buffer. In vitro tests showed that sulfated modification improved its antioxidant activities and anti-proliferative ability against S-180 tumor cells. This study suggested that sulfated modification was an effective approach to improve the water-solubility and functional properties of insoluble polysaccharides.

  6. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances.

  7. Long-wave Marangoni convection in a heated liquid layer with insoluble surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Matvey; Oron, Alex; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Recently, long-wave Marangoni convection in a heated binary-liquid layer was considered by Podolny et al. (Phys. Fluids 18, 054104, 2006) revealing rich dynamics stemming from oscillatory instability. These results were obtained in the absence of surfactants. In the present work we investigate an opposite limit: a liquid layer with insoluble surfactant. We consider a liquid layer lying on a solid horizontal substrate with insoluble surfactant adsorbed at the deformable free surface. Convection is triggered by a given transverse temperature gradient. Long-wave linear stability analysis of the quiescent state of the layer reveals a competition between monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability. We derive nonlinear evolution equations governing the large-scale dynamics of the layer. Linear stability analysis of these equations indicates their applicability only in the case of oscillatory instability. We then carry out weakly nonlinear analysis in the vicinity of the oscillatory-instability threshold for the case of a 2D layer, and study corresponding pattern selection. Finally, we compare the analytical results with the numerical solutions of our nonlinear evolution equations. This work is supported by the European Union via FP7 Marie Curie scheme Grant PITN-GA-2008-214919 (MULTIFLOW).

  8. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    à and Doerr, 2008; Woods and Balfour, 2008; Zavala et al., 2009). The presence of an ash layer may be ephemeral, as it often is quickly removed or redistributed by water and wind erosion, animals or traffic (Zavala et al., 2009a). Many authors have observed that the capacity of ash to protect soil depends on properties as the topography, the meteorological conditions and the thickness of ash coverage (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2013; Woods and Balfour, 2010; Zavala et al., 2009). Taking this into account, in this study we hypothesized that the wettability / hydrophobicity of the ash layer may have a significant effect on the soil response to splash erosion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dispersion of sediments produced by the impact of raindrops in function of ash wettability after a prescribed fire at plot scale. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 20 November 2012, a prescribed fire was carried out in an area located in the public mount "Las Navas", near Almaden de la Plata, Sevilla (approx. 37° 50' 44.44'' N / 6° 3' 7.44''W and 428 masl). Soils are acidic and shallow, developed from acidic metamorphic rocks (schists, slates and pyrophyllites). Vegetation is dominated by shrub legumes (Calicotome villosa and several species of Ulex and Genista). The experimental area was framed and plowed to eliminate the risk of fire spreading during the experiment. Previously to burn, level staffs were installed for determination of flame height. The temperature reached in the soil was monitored during the fire by a set of six thermocouples which were buried in soil (2 cm depth) and connected to a data-logger for monitoring the topsoil temperature every 60 s. The environmental conditions were also monitored during the experiment by a mobile weather station. At the moment of the ignition, the temperature was around 20 °C and the wind speed was near 0.0 m/s. After ignition, the experimental area was allowed to burn during 2.5 h. During burning, flames

  9. Comparative Study on Synergetic Degradation of a Reactive Dye Using Different Types of Fly Ash in Combined Adsorption and Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri Babu, P. V. S.; Swaminathan, G.

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out on four different fly ashes used as a catalyst for the degradation of Acid Red 1 using ultraviolet rays. These fly ashes are collected from different thermal power stations located at various places in India and having different chemical compositions. Three fly ashes are from lignite-based thermal power plants, and one is from the coal-based power plant. One fly ash is classified as Class F, two fly ashes are classified as Class C and remaining one is not conforming to ASTM C618 classification. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis was used to identify the chemical composition of fly ashes and SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3 and TiO2 were found to be the major elements present in different proportions. Various analysis were carried out on all the fly ashes like Scanning Electron Microscopy to identify the microphysical properties, Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy to quantify the elements present in the catalyst and X-Ray Diffraction to identify the catalyst phase analysis. The radical generated during the reaction was identified by Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The parameters such as initial pH of the dye solution, catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration which influence the dye degradation efficiency were studied and optimised. In 60 min duration, the dye degradation efficiency at optimum parametric values of pH 2.5, initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L and catalyst dosage of 1.0 g/L using various fly ashes, i.e., Salam Power Plant, Barmer Lignite Power Plant, Kutch Lignite Power Plant and Neyveli Lignite Thermal Power plant (NLTP) were found to be 40, 60, 67 and 95 % respectively. The contribution of adsorption alone was 18 % at the above mentioned optimum parametric values. Among the above four fly ash NLTP fly ashes proved to be most efficient.

  10. Comparative Study on Synergetic Degradation of a Reactive Dye Using Different Types of Fly Ash in Combined Adsorption and Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri Babu, P. V. S.; Swaminathan, G.

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out on four different fly ashes used as a catalyst for the degradation of Acid Red 1 using ultraviolet rays. These fly ashes are collected from different thermal power stations located at various places in India and having different chemical compositions. Three fly ashes are from lignite-based thermal power plants, and one is from the coal-based power plant. One fly ash is classified as Class F, two fly ashes are classified as Class C and remaining one is not conforming to ASTM C618 classification. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis was used to identify the chemical composition of fly ashes and SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3 and TiO2 were found to be the major elements present in different proportions. Various analysis were carried out on all the fly ashes like Scanning Electron Microscopy to identify the microphysical properties, Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy to quantify the elements present in the catalyst and X-Ray Diffraction to identify the catalyst phase analysis. The radical generated during the reaction was identified by Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The parameters such as initial pH of the dye solution, catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration which influence the dye degradation efficiency were studied and optimised. In 60 min duration, the dye degradation efficiency at optimum parametric values of pH 2.5, initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L and catalyst dosage of 1.0 g/L using various fly ashes, i.e., Salam Power Plant, Barmer Lignite Power Plant, Kutch Lignite Power Plant and Neyveli Lignite Thermal Power plant (NLTP) were found to be 40, 60, 67 and 95 % respectively. The contribution of adsorption alone was 18 % at the above mentioned optimum parametric values. Among the above four fly ash NLTP fly ashes proved to be most efficient.

  11. A review of volcanic ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. J.; Bonadonna, C.; Durant, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Most volcanic ash particles with diameters <63 μm settle from eruption clouds as particle aggregates that cumulatively have larger sizes, lower densities, and higher terminal fall velocities than individual constituent particles. Particle aggregation reduces the atmospheric residence time of fine ash, which results in a proportional increase in fine ash fallout within 10-100 s km from the volcano and a reduction in airborne fine ash mass concentrations 1000 s km from the volcano. Aggregate characteristics vary with distance from the volcano: proximal aggregates are typically larger (up to cm size) with concentric structures, while distal aggregates are typically smaller (sub-millimetre size). Particles comprising ash aggregates are bound through hydro-bonds (liquid and ice water) and electrostatic forces, and the rate of particle aggregation correlates with cloud liquid water availability. Eruption source parameters (including initial particle size distribution, erupted mass, eruption column height, cloud water content and temperature) and the eruption plume temperature lapse rate, coupled with the environmental parameters, determines the type and spatiotemporal distribution of aggregates. Field studies, lab experiments and modelling investigations have already provided important insights on the process of particle aggregation. However, new integrated observations that combine remote sensing studies of ash clouds with field measurement and sampling, and lab experiments are required to fill current gaps in knowledge surrounding the theory of ash aggregate formation.

  12. Erodibility of fly ash-treated minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.M.; Sencindiver, J.C.; Singh, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    Fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants, has been used successfully in reclaiming adverse mine sites such as abandoned mine lands by improving minesoil chemical and physical properties. But, the fine sand-silt particle size of fly ash may make it more susceptible to detachment and transport by erosive processes. Furthermore, the high content of silt-size particles in fly ash may make it more susceptable to surface crust formation resulting in reduced infiltration and increased surface runoff and erosion. In the summer of 1989, fly ash/wood waste mixtures were surface applied on two separate mine sites, one with 10% slope and the other 20% slope, in central Preston County, West Virginia. Erosion rates were measured directly using the Linear Erosion/Elevation Measuring Instrument (LEMI). Erosion measurements were taken during the first two growing seasons on both sites. Erosion values were up to five times greater on the fly ash-treated minesoil than on the minesoil without fly ash cover. Mulching with wood chips reduced fly ash erosion to about one-half the loss of the unmulched plots. Erosion was related to both the amount and type of ground cover. Increased vegetative ground cover resulted in reduced erosion. Mosses and fungi appeared to provide better erosion protection than grass-legume cover.

  13. Municipal solid-waste incinerator fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, A.T.C. ); Joohwa Tay )

    1993-05-01

    Many highly urbanized cities are faced with the problem of disposal of municipal solid waste because of the scarcity of land available for landfilling. One possible solution is the incineration of the municipal solid waste. After incineration, about 20% by weight of fly ash and other residues are produced. Investigations into the physical and engineering properties of the fly ash derived from municipal solid-waste incineration indicate that the material is a potential source of fill material, with low compacted density and high strength. The fly ash was relatively free draining, with permeability of the same order of magnitude as coarse grained materials. The use of the fly ash as an admixture in the stabilization of a soft marine clay showed improved undrained shear strengths and lower compressive properties. Leachate tests on the samples of fly ash initially indicated trace quantities of cadmium and chromium in excess of the acceptable drinking-water limits. After leaching for 28 days, the concentrations fell below the drinking-water limits. Lime and cement can be used to stabilize the fly ash. The concentrations of heavy metals in the leachates of lime and cement treated fly ash were nondetectable.

  14. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil

  15. Marine mesocosm bacterial colonisation of volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Verena; Cimarelli, Corrado; Ayris, Paul; Kueppers, Ulrich; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald; Woerheide, Gert

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, wind-delivered volcanic ash may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation remain unknown. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. The effect of substrate properties on bacterial colonisation was tested by exposing five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash (Sakurajima, Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size, in controlled marine coral reef aquaria under low light conditions for six months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis of Similarity supported significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community with the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community composition during colonisation of volcanic ash in a coral reef-like environment is controlled by the

  16. Characterizing the Hydrological Properties of Wildfire Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, S.; Balfour, V.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfires are extreme disturbance events that can increase runoff and erosion rates by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Fire related sediment presents a significant geomorphic hazard in terms of debris flows and other catastrophic erosion events, but ultimately plays a key role in landscape evolution in fire prone regions. The hyper-dessicated ash and soil layers making up the near surface profile in recently burned areas respond very differently to rainfall than the litter and unburned soil that existed prior to the fire. Limited knowledge regarding the hydrological properties of the ash-soil profile, and the ash layer in particular, currently limits efforts to model the infiltration process in burned areas and hence predict the location and magnitude of post fire runoff and erosion events. In our ongoing research we are investigating and quantifying the hydrologic properties of wildfire ash. Wherever possible we use conventional laboratory techniques from soil hydrology but in some cases we have had to adapt these techniques to account for the distinct physical and chemical properties of ash, such as the variability in particle density and the partial solubility of many of the mineral components. Some of the hydrologic properties of ash, such as the hydraulic conductivity, are similar to those of a mineral soil with a comparable particle size distribution. For example, ash from Spain with a silty loam texture had a hydraulic conductivity of 7 x 10-4 cm s-1, which is within the range reported for mineral soils with the same texture. However, other properties such as the porosity are considerably different; an undisturbed ash sample with a sandy loam texture had a porosity of 93 percent compared to the typical range of 30 to 50 percent for mineral soils with this texture. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that the contrasting hydrologic properties of ash and soil are due to differences in the particle shape, particle packing and pore structure. Using examples

  17. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  18. Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servranckx, R.; Stunder, B.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDM) have been used operationally since the mid 1990's by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) designated Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) to provide ash forecast guidance. Over the years, significant improvements in the detection and prediction of airborne volcanic ash have been realized thanks to improved models, increases in computing power, 24-hr real time monitoring by VAACs / Meteorological Watch Offices and close coordination with Volcano Observatories around the world. Yet, predicting accurately the spatial and temporal structures of airborne volcanic ash and the deposition at the earth's surface remains a difficult and challenging problem. The forecasting problem is influenced by 3 main components. The first one (ERUPTION SOURCE PARAMETERS) comprises all non-meteorological parameters that characterize a specific eruption or volcanic ash cloud. For example, the volume / mass of ash released in the atmosphere, the duration of the eruption, the altitude and distribution of the ash cloud, the particle size distribution, etc. The second component (METEOROLOGY) includes all meteorological parameters (wind, moisture, stability, etc.) that are calculated by Numerical Weather Prediction models and that serve as input to the VATDM. The third component (TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION) combines input from the other 2 components through the use of VATDM to transport and disperse airborne volcanic ash in the atmosphere as well as depositing it at the surface though various removal mechanisms. Any weakness in one of the components may adversely affect the accuracy of the forecast. In a real-time, operational response context such as exists at the VAACs, the rapid delivery of the modeling results puts some constraints on model resolution and computing time. Efforts are ongoing to evaluate the reliability of VATDM forecasts though the use of various methods, including ensemble techniques. Remote sensing data

  19. A process for resolving ash issues

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) plants leave about 10 percent of the combusted trash volume as ash. The residue has been a problem for may WTE plant operators and the communities they serve. Recent changes in regulations governing ash handling have lead to new sampling procedures, more frequent testing, and more costly handling and treatment processes. The Nashville Thermal Transfer Corporation`s WTE plant is involved in an project developed by the American Ash Recycling Corp, which addresses environmental conce