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Sample records for acid internal standard

  1. Fast high-throughput method for the determination of acidity constants by capillary electrophoresis. II. Acidic internal standards.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2010-12-24

    A fast method for the determination of acidity constants by CZE has been recently developed. This method is based on the use of an internal standard of pK(a) similar to that of the analyte. In this paper we establish the reference pK(a) values of a set of 24 monoprotic neutral acids of varied structure that we propose as internal standards. These compounds cover the most usual working pH range in CZE and facilitate the selection of adequate internal standards for a given determination. The reference pK(a) values of the acids have been established by the own internal standard method, i.e. from the mobility differences between different acids of similar pK(a) in the same pH buffers. The determined pK(a) values have been contrasted to the literature pK(a) values and confirmed by determination of the pK(a) values of some acids of the set by the classical CE method. Some systematic deviations of mobilities have been observed in NaOH buffer in reference to the other used buffers, overcoming the use of NaOH in the classical CE method. However, the deviations affect in a similar degree to the test compounds and internal standards allowing thus, the use of NaOH buffer in the internal standard method. This fact demonstrates the better performance of the internal standard method over the classical method to correct mobility deviations, which together with its fastness makes it an interesting method for the routine determination of accurate pK(a) values of new pharmaceutical drugs and drug precursors.

  2. Determination of acidity constants by the capillary electrophoresis internal standard method. IV. Polyprotic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2013-03-01

    The IS-CE method is developed for pK(a) determination of polyprotic compounds. In this method, the internal standard (IS) and the polyprotic test compound are injected into the capillary electrophoresis (CE) system in buffers with appropriate pH. The pH of the buffers is not externally measured, but determined inside the capillary from the mobilities of the internal standards. Then the pK(a) values of the polyprotic compounds are obtained by fitting its mobilities to the in situ pH values. The method is faster than the classical CE method (a diprotic compound can be done in less than 15 min), and also than other methods like potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. The method has been successfully applied to 20 polyprotic test compounds of different chemical nature, including compounds with extreme or very close pK(a) values.

  3. Internal intensity standards for heme protein UV resonance Raman studies: excitation profiles of cacodylic acid and sodium selenate.

    PubMed

    Song, S H; Asher, S A

    1991-02-01

    We examine the utility of SO4(2-), ClO4-, cacodylic acid, and SeO4(2-) as internal intensity standards for Raman spectral measurements of protein structure. We find that 0.1 M SO4(2-) and ClO4- perturb the protein tertiary structure of aquomethemoglobin (met-Hb) and its fluoride (met-HbF) and azide (met-HbN3) complexes. Changes occur for the tryptophan near-UV absorption bands, the iron spin state is altered, and the fluoride ligand affinity decreases. Concentrations of ClO4- and SO4(2-) as low as 0.1 M suppress the met-HbF quaternary R----T transition induced by the allosteric effector inositol hexaphosphate (IHP). In contrast, similar concentrations of cacodylic acid and SeO4(2-) show little effect on the hemoglobin tertiary or quaternary protein structures or upon the R----T transition induced by IHP. We measure the Raman cross sections of cacodylic acid and SeO4(2-) between 218 and 514.5 nm and find that for UV excitation they are ca. 5-fold larger than ClO4- or SO4(2-). Thus, cacodylic acid and selenate can be used at lower concentrations. Cacodylic acid and SeO4(2-) are superior Raman internal intensity standards for protein structural studies.

  4. Occupational Standards: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao, Ed.

    These nine papers from a conference of the International Research Network for Training and Development focus on occupational classification, standards, and certification. "Introduction" (Joao Oliveria) presents synopses with highlights from the papers. Part I offers an overview of recent developments in the United States in "Occupational Standards…

  5. A collaborative study to establish the 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus for nucleic acid amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Jacqueline F; Heath, Alan B; Minor, Philip D

    2016-07-01

    Variability in the performance of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays presents a significant problem in the diagnosis and management of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Here we describe a collaborative study to evaluate the suitability of candidate reference materials to harmonize HCMV viral load measurements in a wide range of NAT assays. Candidate materials comprised lyophilized Merlin virus, liquid Merlin virus, liquid AD169 virus, and purified HCMV Merlin DNA cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. Variability in the laboratory mean HCMV concentrations determined for virus samples across the different assays was 2 log10. Variability for the purified DNA sample was higher (>3 log10). The agreement between laboratories was markedly improved when the potencies of the liquid virus samples were expressed relative to the lyophilized virus candidate. In contrast, the agreement between laboratories for the purified DNA sample was not improved. Results indicated the suitability of the lyophilized Merlin virus preparation as the 1st WHO International Standard for HCMV for NAT. It was established in October 2010, with an assigned potency of 5 × 10(6) International Units (IU) (NIBSC code 09/162). It is intended to be used to calibrate secondary references, used in HCMV NAT assays, in IU. PMID:27179913

  6. Determination of acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous solution by the internal standard capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2014-12-01

    A set of 33 drugs with different solubilities, ranging from soluble to very insoluble, has been chosen in order to evaluate the performance of the internal standard CE method to determine acidity constants of compounds with limited solubility. The set of drugs tested in this work has been chosen as a function of their intrinsic solubility. For the most insoluble compounds, several analytical conditions to overcome the insolubility in aqueous buffers have been tested. This paper assesses the compound solubility limits for the IS-CE method in aqueous pKa determinations, and also compares the determined pKa s with the results from the literature data obtained by other methods. It is proved that IS-CE method determines acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous media (compounds with logS down to around -6), whereas other reference methods require the use of aqueous-organic solvent buffers and extrapolation procedures to obtain the aqueous pKa for the same compounds.

  7. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  8. A combination of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy with chemometric treatment and internal standards in non-aqueous potentiometric titrations of fulvic acids.

    PubMed

    Esteves da Silva, J C; Machado, A A

    1994-12-01

    The acid properties of a soil fulvic acid (sfua) were characterized by potentiometric titration with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in two non-aqueous solvents with high acid-base resolution power N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and acetonitrile. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SyF) was also used to monitor directly the sfua status during the potentiometric titration in DMF. The potentiometric titration curves showed no clear end-point and the analysis of the sets of spectra obtained at increasing neutralization degree, with a self-modeling curve resolution method (SIMPLISMA), revealed the existence of two components with featureless concentration profiles. Internal standards (maleic, salicylic and p-hydroxylbenzoic acids) were used to determine the amounts of acid groups with different acid strengths in the two non-aqueous solvents. It was shown that the variations observed in the SyF spectra sets of the internal standards are not correlated with those observed in the sfua data. The splitting of the sfua groups in the non-aqueous titration curves seems to be forced artificially depending on the standards used.

  9. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  10. Improved detection of sugar addition to maple syrup using malic acid as internal standard and in 13C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Patrice; Paquin, Réal

    2007-01-24

    Stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta13C IRMS) was used to detect maple syrup adulteration by exogenous sugar addition (beet and cane sugar). Malic acid present in maple syrup is proposed as an isotopic internal standard to improve actual adulteration detection levels. A lead precipitation method has been modified to isolate quantitatively malic acid from maple syrup using preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The stable carbon isotopic ratio of malic acid isolated from this procedure shows an excellent accuracy and repeatability of 0.01 and 0.1 per thousand respectively, confirming that the modified lead precipitation method is an isotopic fractionation-free process. A new approach is proposed to detect adulteration based on the correlation existing between the delta13Cmalic acid and the delta13Csugars-delta13Cmalic acid (r = 0.704). This technique has been tested on a set of 56 authentic maple syrup samples. Additionally, authentic samples were spiked with exogeneous sugars. The mean theoretical detection level was statistically lowered using this technique in comparison with the usual two-standard deviation approach, especially when maple syrup is adulterated with beet sugar : 24 +/- 12% of adulteration detection versus 48 +/- 20% (t-test, p = 7.3 x 10-15). The method was also applied to published data for pineapple juices and honey with the same improvement. PMID:17227042

  11. International standardization of mechanical contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mellstam, S

    1983-06-01

    At least 12 countries have regulations for condoms, and because of the complicated regulations relating to condoms the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was asked to create a committee for contraceptives. Its objective is to promote the development of standards throughout the world to help the international exchange of goods and services. Following discussions between the World Health Organization (WHO) and ISO it was decided in 1974 to establish a technical ISO committee that would deal with international standards for mechanical contraceptives, comprising condoms, diaphragms, and IUDs. It was also decided that spermicides and oral contraceptives (OCs) should be excluded from the ISO effort, but that they should fall within the responsibility of WHO. The committee, entitled ISO/TC 157 Mechanical Contraceptives, was represented by 35 member countries in 1982. The object of standardizing condoms is to obtain a satisfactory quality that can be accepted throughout the world. To achieve that purpose, acceptable test methods and associated limit requirements and values must be determined, along with rules for storage, packaging, and labeling. The most important factors in determining condom quality are the need to reach agreement on an acceptable number of holes in the condom and the ability to establish limit values for the mechanical properties of the condom. Specific requirements regarding dimensions, resistance to storage, packaging, labeling, and appropriate storage are also important. Up to 1982 the work of ISO for condoms resulted in 8 published international standards, of which 6 deal with test methods, 1 with packaging and labeling, and 1 with storage. Agreement has also been reached within the ISO committee on an additional 3 draft standards. Due to the comparatively small use of diaphragms, standardization efforts in this area do not have the highest priority. ISO/TC 157 has formulated 10 drafts which are being prepared for distribution to

  12. LC-MS/MS analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A in serum after protein precipitation using an in-house synthesized deuterated internal standard.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2012-06-01

    An assay based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the fast, precise and sensitive quantitation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) in serum. THCA is the biogenetic precursor of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis and has aroused interest in the pharmacological and forensic field especially as a potential marker for recent cannabis use. After addition of deuterated THCA, synthesized from D(3)-THC as starting material, and protein precipitation, the analytes were separated using gradient elution on a Luna C18 column (150 × 2.0 mm × 5 µm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid. Data acquisition was performed on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. After optimization, the following sample preparation procedure was used: 200 μL serum was spiked with internal standard solution and methanol and then precipitated 'in fractions' with 500 μL ice-cold acetonitrile. After storage and centrifugation, the supernatant was evaporated and the residue redissolved in mobile phase. The assay was fully validated according to international guidelines including, for the first time, the assessment of matrix effects and stability experiments. Limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mL, and limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL. The method was found to be selective and proved to be linear over a range of 1.0 to 100 ng/mL using a 1/x weighted calibration model with regression coefficients >0.9996. Accuracy and precision data were within the required limits (RSD ≤ 8.6%, bias: 2.4 to 11.4%), extractive yield was greater than 84%. The analytes were stable in serum samples after three freeze/thaw cycles and storage at -20 °C for one month.

  13. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization International Standard for Plasmodium falciparum DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays

    PubMed Central

    Padley, David J; Heath, Alan B; Sutherland, Colin; Chiodini, Peter L; Baylis, Sally A

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to harmonize results for the detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA by nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays, a World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative study was performed, evaluating a series of candidate standard preparations. Methods Fourteen laboratories from 10 different countries participated in the collaborative study. Four candidate preparations based upon blood samples parasitaemic for P. falciparum were evaluated in the study. Sample AA was lyophilized, whilst samples BB, CC and DD were liquid/frozen preparations. The candidate standards were tested by each laboratory at a range of dilutions in four independent assays, using both qualitative and quantitative NAT-based assays. The results were collated and analysed statistically. Results Twenty sets of data were returned from the participating laboratories and used to determine the mean P. falciparum DNA content for each sample. The mean log10 "equivalents"/ml were 8.51 for sample AA, 8.45 for sample BB, 8.35 for sample CC, and 5.51 for sample DD. The freeze-dried preparation AA, was examined by accelerated thermal degradation studies and found to be highly stable. Conclusion On the basis of the collaborative study, the freeze-dried material, AA (NIBSC code No. 04/176) was established as the 1st WHO International Standard for P. falciparum DNA NAT-based assays and has been assigned a potency of 109 International Units (IU) per ml. Each vial contains 5 × 108 IU, equivalent to 0.5 ml of material after reconstitution. PMID:18652656

  14. Characterization of the International Humic Substances Society standard and reference fulvic and humic acids by solution state carbon-13 (13C) and hydrogen-1 (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Folan, Daniel W.; MacCarthy, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Standard and reference samples of the International Humic Substances Society have been characterized by solution state carbon-13 and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Samples included the Suwannee River, soil, and peat standard fulvic and humic acids, the Leonardite standard humic acid, the Nordic aquatic reference fulvic and humic acids, and the Summit Hill soil reference humic acid. Aqueous-solution carbon-13 NMR analyses included the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times, measurement of nuclear Overhauser enhancement factors, measurement of quantitative carbon distributions, recording of attached proton test spectra, and recording of spectra under nonquantitative conditions. Distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer carbon-13 NMR spectra also were recorded on the Suwannee River fulvic acid in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide. Hydrogen-1 NMR spectra were recorded on sodium salts of the samples in deuterium oxide. The carbon aromaticities of the samples ranged from 0.24 for the Suwannee River fulvic acid to 0.58 for the Leonardite humic acid.

  15. International Standard Reagents for HPV Detection

    PubMed Central

    Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2007-01-01

    Humam papillomavirus is the commonest genital viral infection in healthy sexually active subjects, and the presence of chronic or persistent HPV types in genital cells may constitute a prognostic marker of underlying, or predict future HPV-associated diseases. A variety of novel tests for detecting the presence of oncogenic HPV types in biological specimens have been reported. These are based on the various stages of infection and viral life cycle. HPV infects squamous epithelium with expression of various gene products intimately linked to epithelial cell differentiation. Hence, there are basically three classes of detectable markers directly derived from HPVs: molecular markers based on detection of nucleic acid sequences, serological markers based on detection of antibodies against viral proteins, and cellular markers based on detection of proteins expressed intracellularly, upon either infection or carcinogenesis. The nature of various assays and the development of international standard reagents for qualitative and quantitative assessment of assay performance are outlined. There is an increasing demand to develop standard tools to assess the quality of HPV detection systems, for regulatory and clinical management purposes. International standard reagents for HPV will help defining the analytical sensitivity and specificity of various detection methods, and will allow assuring that laboratory services used to evaluate disease burden, HPV vaccines, and cancer prevention strategies are accurate and comparable worldwide. The advancement of prophylactic vaccine candidates against HPV infections and related diseases stresses the increasing importance of HPV assays in monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination on disease burden. PMID:17627063

  16. The Second International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin*

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, D. R.; Woodward, Patricia M.

    1966-01-01

    In 1961 the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization asked the National Institute for Medical Research, London, to collect and study material to replace the first International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin, stocks of which were running low. This paper describes the material that was contributed, its distribution into ampoules and the international collaborative assay to compare its biological activity with that of the first International Standard. On the basis of the results obtained the material has been established as the second International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin, with a potency of 1600 International Units per ampoule. The International Unit for Serum Gonadotrophin is thus defined as the activity contained in 0.003569 mg of the second International Standard for Serum Gonadotrophin. PMID:5297810

  17. Reflections on International Bibliographic Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, W.

    This paper raises questions about many bibliographic standards developed over the past 20 years, and challenges librarians to consider how standards might evolve. A brief overview is given of the aims of Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC) and to some assumptions common to much standardization work in recent years inspired by the concept of UBC.…

  18. International Lessons about National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Houang, Richard; Shakrani, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Whether to adopt national standards and tests has long been a subject of lively debate in the United States. With 47 states now participating in the Common Core State Standards Initiative, and a commitment from Education Secretary Arne Duncan to allocate hundreds of millions in stimulus funds to the development of common tests, the country is…

  19. The Second International Standard for Bacitracin

    PubMed Central

    Lightbown, J. W.; Kogut, M.; Uemura, K.

    1964-01-01

    The National Institute for Medical Research, London, was requested by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to establish a second International Standard for Bacitracin since stocks of the first International Standard were running low. A batch of 500 g of zinc bacitracin was obtained in 1962 and was distributed into ampoules in 100-mg amounts and dried in vacuum; the ampoules were then filled with dry nitrogen and sealed. This proposed replacement material has been assayed biologically in terms of the first International Standard in seven laboratories in five countries by means of plate diffusion assays. In spite of a large difference in purity between the first and proposed second standards, the variation in the potencies obtained for the proposed second standard were small, although significant. This material has been established as the second International Standard for Bacitracin with a defined potency of 74 mg. The International Unit of Bacitracin is defined as the activity of 0.01351 mg of the second International Standard for Bacitracin. PMID:14230883

  20. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... their comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rules published June 1, 2012, at 77 FR 32444 and 77 FR 32465, is extended. Comments on the proposed rules must be received on or before August 15... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards...

  1. (International conference on acidic deposition)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. Jr.

    1990-10-05

    The traveler took the opportunity to participate in a mini-sabbatical at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) in Edinburgh, Scotland, as a part of planned travel to Glasgow, Scotland, to attend the International Conference on Acidic Precipitation. The purpose of the sabbatical was to provide quality time for study and interchange of ideas with scientists at ITE working on physiological effects of acidic deposition and to allocate significant time for writing and synthesizing of results of physiological studies from the National Forest Response Program's Spruce/Fir Research Cooperative. The study focused on the very significant cytological and physiological effects of calcium deficiency in trees, a response that appears to be amplified in spruce by acidic deposition.

  2. International Standard Classification of Education. Abridged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) has been designed as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling, and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally. The classification is designed for assembling data on current educational phenomena such as enrollment, teaching staff and…

  3. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR... technology and has substantively amended them numerous times, most recently on September 21, 2012. 77 FR... surveillance standards to Part 543 on February 20, 2013 (78 FR 11793). The Commission received...

  4. Working towards compliance with international standards.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2004-04-01

    Developing countries are increasingly coming under pressure to improve their delivery of veterinary services as a prerequisite for entering the competitive arena of international trade in animals and animal products. The demands placed on developing countries by predominantly developed countries to comply with international disease prevention standards have also resulted in increasing demands on the financial, human and technological resources of these developing countries. The minimum requirements of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard-setting organisations, such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health), are evaluated in terms of the opportunities embedded within these guidelines for developing countries. Such an evaluation indicates that the rights and obligations contained in these standards, guidelines and recommendations do not necessarily protect only the interests of developed countries but also encourage developing countries to work towards the levels of compliance and disease prevention required by their potential trade partners. The costs of this compliance can be reduced by exploiting more cost-effective alternatives for delivering services, when dictated by budgetary constraints. International organisations have illustrated on many occasions, and through a variety of development programmes, that they do indeed realise their responsibility towards developing countries in the areas of increased capacity building and technical assistance. If international organisations can refocus their interventions on the actual and specific needs of developing countries, then they can help to expedite the process of compliance with international standards. PMID:15200089

  5. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  6. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards. PMID:21809769

  7. International standards for brucellosis prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Ragan, V; Vroegindewey, G; Babcock, S

    2013-04-01

    International standards are a crucial element in brucellosis prevention and management. They allow policy-makers, scientists, epidemiologists, laboratories and trade entities to have a common vocabulary for communication and understanding of the disease. These standards cover the entire spectrum of activities from surveillance, testing, prophylaxis, transport and trade to policy development, research and reporting. Developing, adhering to and monitoring standards increases both the effectiveness and efficiency of prevention and management programmes. Creating standards with the input of all stakeholders ensures that the standards do not adversely affect the requirements of any of the multiple parties involved. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in conjunction with its Member Countries, and through its standing and ad hoc committees plus expert input, has taken a key leadership role in developing and reviewing brucellosis standards. These standards are used to harmonise testing, prevention processes, vaccines and reporting, to support trade and to protect human and animal health. PMID:23837376

  8. Why Should Workers Know More about International Labour Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Zdenek

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness and importance of international labor standards for workers; workers' participation in the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) standard-setting activities and in the implementation of international labor standards; and the ILO's procedures of supervision. (CT)

  9. International Labour Standards. A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Concerned with the standard-setting work of the International Labor Organization (ILO), this manual is chiefly intended to provide guidance for worker's education instructors and trade union officials. It contains nine chapters: (1) the ILO origins and history are traced and the structure is explained; (2 & 3) procedures for the origination and…

  10. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations..., 2002 (67 FR 43390), August 12, 2005 (70 FR 47108), and October 10, 2008 (73 FR 60498). In addition to... regulations, and the process NIGC should utilize to make revisions. 75 FR 70680 (Nov. 18, 2010). On April...

  11. An international computer protocol standard is essential

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the need for the development of an international communication protocol to avoid building or buying customized interfaces or gateways in order to connect two separate vendor's devices to the same computer. The article discuss the need for standards and details one electric cooperative's experience in converting their automated mapping and facilities management system to EPRI sponsored Utility Communications Architecture.

  12. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations... equivalently secure area with comparable controls. (3) Access to the count room during the count must be...) Controlled keys. Controls must be established and procedures implemented to safeguard the use, access,...

  13. Accurate LC-ESI-MS/MS quantification of 2'-deoxymugineic acid in soil and root related samples employing porous graphitic carbon as stationary phase and a ¹³C₄-labeled internal standard.

    PubMed

    Schindlegger, Yvonne; Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Kraemer, Stephan M; Puschenreiter, Markus; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    For the first time the phytosiderophore 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) could be accurately quantified by LC-MS/MS in plant and soil related samples. For this purpose a novel chromatographic method employing porous graphitic carbon as stationary phase combined with ESI-MS/MS detection in selected reaction monitoring was developed. Isotope dilution was implemented by using in-house synthesized DMA as external calibrant and ¹³C₄-labeled DMA as internal standard (concentration levels of standards 0.1-80 μM, determination coefficient of linear regression R² > 0.9995). Sample preparation involved acidification of the samples in order to obtain complete dissociation of metal-DMA complexes. Excellent matrix related LOD and LOQ depending on different experimental setups were obtained in the range of 3-34 nM and 11-113 nM, respectively. Standard addition experiments and the implementation of the internal ¹³C₄-DMA standard proved the accuracy of the quantification strategy even in complex matrices such as soil solution. The repeatability of the method, including sample preparation, expressed as short- and long term precision was below 4 and 5% RSD, respectively. Finally, application in the context of plant and soil research to samples from rhizosphere sampling via micro suction cups, from soil solutions and soil adsorption/extraction studies revealed a DMA concentration range from 0.1 to 235 μM.

  14. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-01

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  15. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as "Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle" create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

  16. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  17. IRI, an International Standard for the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Triskova, L.; Friedrich, M.

    2003-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a data-based model of the ionosphere that has been steadily improved and updated by a joint working group of the Committee on Space Research and the International Union of Radio Science. We will report about the most recent IRI workshops and the improvements and additions planned for the next version of the model. In particular new models will be included for the D-region electron density (Friedrich et al., 2002), and for the ion densities (Triskova et al., 2003) the latter based on Atmosphere Explorer C, D, E and Intercosmos 24 data. A correction term will be introduced in the topside electron density model to alleviate problems at high solar activities and high altitudes (Bilitza, 2002). A special IRI task groups is working on an occurrence probability model for spread-F (Abdu et al., 2003) for inclusion in IRI. A quantitative description of ionospheric variability (standard deviation from monthly mean) is the goal of a special IRI task force activity at the International Center for Theoretical Physics (Radicella 2002). We will also report about activities to update IRI with actual measurements and thus obtain a more accurate description of the actual ionosphere. A proposal to make the IRI model the ISO standard for the ionosphere is now pending before the International Standardization Organization (ISO). The IRI homepage is at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/ionos/iri.html and a web-interface for computing and plotting IRI parameters can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/models/iri.html . Abdu, M. A., J. R de Souza, I. S. Batista, and J. H. A. Sobral, Equatorial Spread F statistics and their empirical modeling for the IRI: A regional model for the Brazilian longitude sector, Adv. Space Res., in press, 2003. Triskova, L., V. Truhlik and J. Smilauer, An empirical model of ion composition in the outer ionosphere, Adv. Space Res., in press, 2003 Bilitza, D., A Correction for the IRI Topside

  18. Improved nuclear safety through international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doctor, S. R.; Moffitt, R. L.; Taylor, T. T.; Trosman, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chemobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option—the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: • improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection • transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections • enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants.

  19. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z.

    2010-06-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  20. `Scientific uncertainty` scuttles new acid rain standard

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, R.

    1995-10-01

    An EPA report to Congress due this month will report on the controversial question of whether the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) adequately protect sensitive areas of the United States from acid rain, and recommends against establishing a new `acid deposition standard` to protect sensitive areas of the United States from acid rain. Rebecca Renner reports on the scientific issues underlying that decision and the efforts of one state to overturn it. The report to Congress, required by the CAAA, asked the Agency to report on the feasibility of setting an acid deposition standard to protect sensitive areas. EPA missed the original 1993 deadline and is under court order to issue the final report by October 15. The draft report identifies the lakes and streams of the Appalachian mountains as sensitive resources that receive damaging concentrations of acidic deposition. Three areas where sensitive water resources have been well studied were selected as providing the best available data for modeling case studies: the Adirondacks; the mid-Appalachian region, including parts of Pennsylvania. West Virginia, Maryland, and Virginia; and the Southern Blue Ridge in Tennessee, North Carolina, and Georgia. Results are discussed. 6 refs.

  1. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  2. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  3. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  4. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to...

  5. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to...

  6. Survey and qualification of internal standards for quantification by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; Mathiasson, Marie; Bekiroglu, Somer; Hakkarainen, Birgit; Bowden, Tim; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2010-09-01

    In quantitative NMR (qNMR) selection of an appropriate internal standard proves to be crucial. In this study, 25 candidate compounds considered to be potent internal standards were investigated with respect to the ability of providing unique signal chemical shifts, purity, solubility, and ease of use. The (1)H chemical shift (delta) values, assignments, multiplicities and number of protons (for each signal), appropriateness (as to be used as internal standards) in four different deuterated solvents (D(2)O, DMSO-d(6), CD(3)OD, CDCl(3)) were studied. Taking into account the properties of these 25 internal standards, the most versatile eight compounds (2,4,6-triiodophenol, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-nitrobenzene, 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethyl terephthalate, 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid) were qualified using both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and NMR spectroscopy employing highly pure acetanilide as the reference standard. The data from these two methods were compared as well as utilized in the quality assessment of the compounds as internal standards. Finally, the selected internal standards were tested and evaluated in a real case of quantitative NMR analysis of a paracetamol pharmaceutical product. PMID:20207092

  7. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating. PMID:19910270

  8. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating.

  9. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  10. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards....

  11. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  12. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  13. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  14. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  15. International standards pertaining to thermography practices, training and certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West Åkerblom, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    American, European and International societies establish standards for individuals and companies within the field of infrared thermography. Historically addressing non-destructive testing (NDT) applications and personnel, standards exist and are being developed within the fields of condition monitoring (CM) and building diagnostics. Incorrect reference to or application of standards and guidelines create widespread market confusion. What type of claim can be made against which standards? Does the standard apply to a company or an individual? To what or whom is the standard intended? Does reference to a standard guarantee compliance or imply quality? How does one become educated or involved in standards? An overview of international standards within the field of thermography (with brief reference to recognizable guidelines and standards such as ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CEN 473), their status and application will be presented.

  16. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  17. Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

  18. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Fuel Gas Code. International Green Construction Code. International Mechanical Code. ICC Performance... for Residential Construction in High Wind Regions. ICC 700: National Green Building Standard The... proposals from interested individuals and organizations involved in the construction industry as well as...

  19. International environmental management standards (ISO 9000`s less tractable siblings)

    SciTech Connect

    Cascio, J.

    1994-12-31

    Before the advent of ISO 9000 Quality Management standards, the International Organization for Standardization`s (ISO) nearly exclusive focus was on international technical and safety standards. Then, some ten years ago, this staid, Geneva based world standards harmonizer took a fateful step into a more exciting, through considerably less solid realm by impaneling a new technical committee (TC 176) to develop Quality Management standards for organizations. With that, it entered the relatively soft science of organizational management. This initial gamble paid off and resulted in the ISO 9000 series of Quality standards which have won adherents throughout the world and have (in some regions) become requirements of trade. Now, ISO has launched its second sally into the organizational management field by forming Technical Committee 207 to develop yet another set of management standards, this time focusing on the considerably less tractable subject of environmental protection activities within organizations.

  20. Science Education Standards: An International Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpwood, Graham

    1997-04-01

    The development of standards has become the latest strategy for governments concerned for the quality of education in science to employ in an effort to improve student achievement. In the past five years, not only the US but also Australia, New Zealand, England and Canada have developed new curriculum frameworks for science education. While making clear the expectations for student learning is clearly an important step towards improving achievement, I shall argue that on its own it is not enough and that fundamental change requires levels of public commitment to science and science education that have yet to be realised in the English-speaking democracies.

  1. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  2. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary......

  3. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal......

  4. Proton-binding study of standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids, and natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jason D.; Perdue, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base properties of 14 standard and reference materials from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) were investigated by potentiometric titration. Titrations were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl under a nitrogen atmosphere, averaging 30 min from start to finish. Concentrations of carboxyl groups and phenolic groups were estimated directly from titration curves. Titration data were also fit to a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch model for two classes of proton-binding sites to obtain "best fit" parameters that describe proton-binding curves for the samples. The model was chosen for its simplicity, its ease of implementation in computer spreadsheets, and its excellent ability to describe the shapes of the titration curves. The carboxyl contents of the IHSS samples are in the general order: terrestrial fulvic acids > aquatic fulvic acids > Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) > aquatic humic acids > terrestrial humic acids. Overall, fulvic acids and humic acids have similar phenolic contents; however, all of the aquatically derived samples have higher phenolic contents than the terrestrially derived samples. The acid-base properties of reference Suwannee River NOM are surprisingly similar to those of standard Suwannee River humic acid. Results from titrations in this study were compared with other published results from both direct and indirect titrations. Typically, carboxyl contents for the IHSS samples were in agreement with the results from both methods of titration. Phenolic contents for the IHSS samples were comparable to those determined by direct titrations, but were significantly less than estimates of phenolic content that were based on indirect titrations with Ba(OH) 2 and Ca(OAc) 2. The average phenolic-to-carboxylic ratio of the IHSS samples is approximately 1:4. Models that assume a 1:2 ratio of phenolic-to-carboxylic groups may overestimate the relative contribution of phenolic groups to the acid-base chemistry of humic substances.

  5. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  6. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  7. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  8. A Proposal for an International Standard Object Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses extand paradigms (ISBN, ISSN, ISMN, and the emerging ISAN). Models a procedure for assigning ISONs (International Standard Object Number) to objects and their surrogates. Describes resources requisite to the construction of the ISON, and outlines the necessarily cooperative work ahead if an ISON is to become a standard for visual…

  9. IPDA PDS4 Project: Towards an International Planetary Data Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Roatsch, Thomas; Capria, Maria Teresa; Heather, David; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hughes, Steven; Stein, Thomas; Cecconi, Baptiste; Prashar, Ajay; Batanov, Oleg; Gopala Krishna, Barla

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with the main objective of facilitating discovery, access and use of planetary data managed across international boundaries. For this purpose, the IPDA has adopted the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard as the de-facto archiving standard, and is working towards the internationalisation of the new generation of the standards, called PDS4. PDS4 is the largest upgrade in the history of the PDS, and is a significant step towards an online, distributed, model-driven and service-oriented architecture international archive. Following the successful deployment of PDS4 to support NASA's LADEE and MAVEN missions, PDS4 was endorsed by IPDA in 2014. This has led to the adoption of PDS4 by a number of international space agencies (ESA, JAXA, ISRO and Roscosmos, among others) for their upcoming missions. In order to closely follow the development of the PDS4 standards and to coordinate the international contribution and participation in its evolution, a group of experts from each international agency is dedicated to review different aspects of the standards and to capture recommendations and requirements to ensure the international needs are met. The activities performed by this group cover the assessment and implementation of all aspects of PDS4, including its use, documentation, tools, validation strategies and information model. This contribution will present the activities carried out by this group and how this partnership between PDS and IPDA provides an excellent foundation towards an international platform for planetary science research.

  10. An International Centre for Standards Documentation: Proposals for Standardization of UDC Usage and the Mechanized Documentation of Information on Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Hans

    At present, there are several obstacles to efficient information retrieval regarding the world's standards. There is no uniformity in subject classification, although most standards are classified by the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC); there are no international indexes to the subjects covered; foreign standards and superseded standards…

  11. Ensuring global standards for medical graduates: a pilot study of international standard-setting.

    PubMed

    Stern, David T; Ben-David, Miriam Friedman; De Champlain, Andre; Hodges, Brian; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Schwarz, M Roy

    2005-05-01

    Increasing physician and patient mobility has led to a move toward internationalization of standards for physician competence. The Institute for International Medical Education proposed a set of outcome-based standards for student performance, which were then measured using three assessment tools in eight leading schools in China: a 150-item multiple-choice examination, a 15-station OSCE and a 16-item faculty observation form. The purpose of this study was to empanel a group of experts to determine whether international student-level performance standards could be set. The IIME convened an international panel of experts in student education with specialty and geographic diversity. The group was split into two, with each sub-group establishing standards independently. After a discussion of the borderline student, the sub-groups established minimally acceptable cut-off scores for performance on the multiple-choice examination (Angoff and Hofstee methods), the OSCE station and global rating performance (modified Angoff method and holistic criterion reference), and faculty observation domains (holistic criterion reference). Panelists within each group set very similar standards for performance. In addition, the two independent parallel panels generated nearly identical performance standards. Cut-off scores changed little before and after being shown pilot data but standard deviations diminished. International experts agreed on a minimum set of competences for medical student performance. In addition, they were able to set consistent performance standards with multiple examination types. This provides an initial basis against which to compare physician performance internationally.

  12. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    PubMed Central

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E.; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A. T.; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry. PMID:26973825

  13. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel.

    PubMed

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A T; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry. PMID:26973825

  14. Core Standards and Implementation of the International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, Daniel

    Solar System exploration in the 21st Century is ushering in a new paradigm with complex missions that are hosting instruments developed and managed by the international scientific community. Over the past decade, the European and United States space agencies have collaborated extensively to share common data standards for planetary science archiving, while, just recently, countries including Japan, India and China are now planning and executing robotic exploration missions of the solar system. The collective results yield an unprecedented volume of data across a large number of missions as compared with the last forty years of exploration. At the same time, resources from any one agency are scarce, requiring agencies to leverage existing standards and tools, where possible, and coordinate release and sharing of scientific data results to the worldwide scientific community. In 2006, the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) was founded which includes representatives on a Steering Committee from major space agencies around the world that are involved in planetary science exploration missions. The purpose of the IPDA is two pronged. First, it is to develop a set of data standards for archiving and sharing scientific data products across international agencies and missions. Second, to develop a set of technical information system standards allowing interoperability between agency data systems. These standards are critical to building compatible archives that will allow for science data from international missions to be both captured and shared in a consistent manner. The Planetary Data System (PDS) has a long history of providing data standards to missions for the explicit purpose of archiving and preserving data. These standards have been adopted by the European Space Agency in developing their Planetary Science Archive. In addition, at the time of the IPDA founding, the PDS Standards are considered the "de facto" standards for capturing and archiving planetary

  15. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  16. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a description of the activities and accomplishments of the American Society for Testing and Materials' U. S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 146 on Air Quality. The purpose of the TAG is to re...

  18. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  19. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  20. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  1. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  2. 78 FR 8431 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 172 RIN 2137-AE87 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR) Correction In rule document 2012-31243 appearing on pages...

  3. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  4. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... the International Green Construction Code which will become part of the family of 2012 International... proposals from interested individuals and organizations involved in the construction industry as well as the... standards as the basis for developing Federal regulations concerning new and existing construction. The...

  5. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  6. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  7. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  8. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  10. Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?

    PubMed

    Maher, Dermot

    2009-10-01

    Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

  11. World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Blümel, Johannes; Mizusawa, Saeko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Sakata, Hidekatsu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Nübling, C. Micha; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique–based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but assay sensitivity can vary widely. To improve interlaboratory results for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA, a candidate World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) strain was evaluated in a collaborative study involving 23 laboratories from 10 countries. The IS, code number 6329/10, was formulated by using a genotype 3a HEV strain from a blood donation, diluted in pooled human plasma and lyophilized. A Japanese national standard, representing a genotype 3b HEV strain, was prepared and evaluated in parallel. The potencies of the standards were determined by qualitative and quantitative assays. Assay variability was substantially reduced when HEV RNA concentrations were expressed relative to the IS. Thus, WHO has established 6329/10 as the IS for HEV RNA, with a unitage of 250,000 International Units per milliliter. PMID:23647659

  12. International Consensus on Allergen Immunotherapy II: Mechanisms, standardization, and pharmacoeconomics.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robyn; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Sublett, James L; Sugita, Kazunari; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-02-01

    This article continues the comprehensive international consensus (ICON) statement on allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The initial article also recently appeared in the Journal. The conclusions below focus on key mechanisms of AIT-triggered tolerance, requirements in allergen standardization, AIT cost-effectiveness, and regulatory guidance. Potential barriers to and facilitators of the use of AIT are described in addition to future directions. International allergy specialists representing the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization critically reviewed the existing literature and prepared this summary of recommendations for best AIT practice. The authors contributed equally and reached consensus on the statements presented herein. PMID:26853128

  13. International Consensus on Allergen Immunotherapy II: Mechanisms, standardization, and pharmacoeconomics.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robyn; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Sublett, James L; Sugita, Kazunari; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-02-01

    This article continues the comprehensive international consensus (ICON) statement on allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The initial article also recently appeared in the Journal. The conclusions below focus on key mechanisms of AIT-triggered tolerance, requirements in allergen standardization, AIT cost-effectiveness, and regulatory guidance. Potential barriers to and facilitators of the use of AIT are described in addition to future directions. International allergy specialists representing the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization critically reviewed the existing literature and prepared this summary of recommendations for best AIT practice. The authors contributed equally and reached consensus on the statements presented herein.

  14. Integrated Procedures for Flight and Ground Operations Using International Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John

    2011-01-01

    Imagine astronauts using the same Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM's) as the ground personnel who assemble or maintain their flight hardware, and having all of that data interoperable with design, logistics, reliability analysis, and training. Modern international standards and their corresponding COTS tools already used in other industries provide a good foundation for streamlined technical publications in the space industry. These standards cover everything from data exchange to product breakdown structure to business rules flexibility. Full Product Lifecycle Support (PLCS) is supported. The concept is to organize, build once, reuse many ways, and integrate. This should apply to all future and some current launch vehicles, payloads, space stations/habitats, spacecraft, facilities, support equipment, and retrieval ships.

  15. Quantitation of biological retinoids by high-pressure liquid chromatography: primary internal standardization using tritiated retinoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1986-02-15

    A single method is described for quantitation of 14 retinoids found in biological material. The method consists of reversed-phase HPLC, internal standardization, and carrier extraction procedures with three synthetic retinoids. Primary standardization of HPLC uv detector is achieved using tritiated all-trans-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl palmitate, and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Extraction methods are standardized by correlating the uv absorbance of retinoids at 340 nm with radioactivity of tritiated retinoids of known specific activity. Quantitation of 10 pg of tritiated or 5 ng of nonradioactive retinoid per 0.1 g sample in a polarity range from 4-oxo-retinoic acid to retinyl stearate can be achieved in a single, 50-min chromatographic run. A single HPLC pump, a C/sub 18/ reversed-phased analytical column, a multistep three-solvent gradient, and inexpensive solvents based on methanol, water, and chloroform comprise this cost-effective chromatographic system. Our primary standardization method allows investigators employing different procedures to compare results between laboratories by standardizing the HPLC uv detector with commercially available tritiated retinoids. With this method we were able to quantitate nanomolar amounts of endogenous retinoic acids and retinyl esters, that HPLC uv only conditions usually would not detect in the circulation and liver of rats under physiological conditions.

  16. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C Micha; Baylis, Sally A; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the "1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection" (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing.

  17. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  18. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1–3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

  19. Synthesis of stable isotope labelled internal standards for drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies.

    PubMed

    Atzrodt, J; Blankenstein, J; Brasseur, D; Calvo-Vicente, S; Denoux, M; Derdau, V; Lavisse, M; Perard, S; Roy, S; Sandvoss, M; Schofield, J; Zimmermann, J

    2012-09-15

    The syntheses of stable isotope labelled internal standards of important CYP-isoform selective probes, like testosterone 1, diclofenac 3, midazolam 5, and dextromethorphan 7, as well as their corresponding hydroxylated metabolites 6β-hydroxytestosterone 2, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4, 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6 and dextrorphan 8 are reported. Microwave-enhanced H/D-exchange reactions applying either acid, base, or homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysis, or combinations thereof proved to be highly efficient for direct deuterium labelling of the above mentioned probes. Compared to conventional stepwise synthetic approaches, the combination of H/D exchange and biotransformation provides the potential for considerable time- and cost savings, in particular for the synthesis of the stable isotope labelled internal standards of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4 and 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6. PMID:22890009

  20. Synthesis of stable isotope labelled internal standards for drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies.

    PubMed

    Atzrodt, J; Blankenstein, J; Brasseur, D; Calvo-Vicente, S; Denoux, M; Derdau, V; Lavisse, M; Perard, S; Roy, S; Sandvoss, M; Schofield, J; Zimmermann, J

    2012-09-15

    The syntheses of stable isotope labelled internal standards of important CYP-isoform selective probes, like testosterone 1, diclofenac 3, midazolam 5, and dextromethorphan 7, as well as their corresponding hydroxylated metabolites 6β-hydroxytestosterone 2, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4, 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6 and dextrorphan 8 are reported. Microwave-enhanced H/D-exchange reactions applying either acid, base, or homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysis, or combinations thereof proved to be highly efficient for direct deuterium labelling of the above mentioned probes. Compared to conventional stepwise synthetic approaches, the combination of H/D exchange and biotransformation provides the potential for considerable time- and cost savings, in particular for the synthesis of the stable isotope labelled internal standards of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac 4 and 1'-hydroxymidazolam 6.

  1. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

  2. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is

  3. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  4. International standards for optical circuit board fabrication, assembly and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitwon, Richard; Immonen, Marika; Wang, Kai; Itoh, Hideo; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Wu, Jinhua; Zhu, Long Xiu; Yan, Hui Juan; Worrall, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The commercial adoption of electro-optical printed circuit board (EOCB) technology will be accelerated by the development of industrial and conformity standards for high volume fabrication, connector assembly and waveguide measurement. In this paper, we introduce international standardisation activities surrounding EOCBs and report on industrial processes developed for the high volume fabrication of complex EOCBs with embedded multimode polymer waveguides including a first connector standard for polymer waveguide termination. We focus on solving a serious historic problem with the measurement of optical waveguide systems, namely the lack of harmonised measurement conditions for optical waveguides, which to this day gives rise to strong inconsistencies in the results of measurements by different parties on the same waveguide. We report on the development of a standard to ensure repeatable measurement of optical waveguides, whereby we demonstrate how the application of a measurement identification system and proposed reference measurement conditions can bring variation in measurement results to within 5%, thereby serving as the basis for a formal reliable optical waveguide measurement methodology.

  5. International Micrographics Standards: Report of the 1979 Paris Meeting of ISO/TC171.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heynen, Jeffrey

    1980-01-01

    Describes a meeting of the technical committee on micrographics of the International Organization for Standardization, and fcuses on the committee's work relating to the reproduction of library materials within the general context of international standards-making activities. (FM)

  6. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P<0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P<0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child's BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  7. Objectives And Structures Of The International Organization For Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reihlen, Helmut

    1989-04-01

    I am certainly pleased to be with you here today, and to speak to you on the subject of international standardization. The work of some of the ISO technical committees, such as ISO/TC 36 "Cinematography", ISO/TC 42 "Photograhy" and, of course, ISO/TC 172 "Optics and optical instruments" may be familiar to many of you and their activities will be presented in your technical sessions. Rather than going into the detail of these technical committees it might be appropriate that, in my capacity as Vice-President of ISO, I present to you an overview of the organization, what it aims to do, with what means, what its achievements are and how it does its job in practice.

  8. 76 FR 37953 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0... for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: The... standards of performance for new stationary compression ignition internal combustion engines under...

  9. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  10. Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

  11. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M.; Barry, Catherine P.; Choi, Won S.; Abravaya, Klara B.; Schneider, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  12. Replacement of the International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin and the Use of the Standard in the Flocculation Test

    PubMed Central

    Spaun, J.; Lyng, J.

    1970-01-01

    Since 1935 the International Unit for Tetanus Antitoxin has been defined as the activity contained in a certain weight of the first International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin. As stocks of this standard had become depleted, 11 laboratories in 8 countries were requested to participate in a collaborative assay of a preparation proposed as a replacement. The assay results were analysed and presented to the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 1969 which established the preparation studied as the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin and defined the International Unit for Tetanus Antitoxin as the activity contained in 0.03384 mg of the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin. This definition would ensure the continuity of the size of this international unit. The analysis of the collaborative studies also showed that the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin has suitable properties for use in the flocculation test for the determination of the antigen content of tetanus toxoids in Lf values. The designation Lf-equivalent is described and the problems relating to the use of this term for the expression of results of in vitro assays are analysed in relation to the use of international units for expressing results of in vivo assays. As the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin has an in vivo/in vitro ratio of 1.4, the Lf-equivalent of this antitoxin is 1.4 times less than its unitage. PMID:5310949

  13. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... that provided national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark... Docket Center (6102T), National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  14. Biobanking of CSF: international standardization to optimize biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte E; Tumani, Hayrettin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mollenhauer, Brit

    2014-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects pathophysiological aspects of neurological diseases, where neuroprotective strategies and biomarkers are urgently needed. Therefore, biobanking is very relevant for biomarker discovery and evaluation of neurological diseases. Important and unique features of CSF biobanking are intensive collaboration in international networks and the tight application of standardized protocols. The current adoption of standardized protocols for CSF and blood collection as presented in this review enables biomarker studies in large cohorts of patients and controls. Another topic of this review is the selection of control groups, which influences the outcome of biomarker investigations. Control groups in CSF biobanks mainly consist of different disease controls. This is in part due to the fact that lumbar punctures are mostly performed for clinical indications and rarely for research purposes only, as it is a relatively invasive procedure. Moreover, there is a lack of homogenous criteria and definition of control groups. We therefore propose uniform consensus definitions for such control groups in biomarker research, i.e. Healthy controls (HC), Spinal anesthesia subjects (SAS), Symptomatic controls (SC), Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (CINDC), Peripheral Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (PINDC) and Non-inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (NINDC). Another important aspect of CSF biobanking is quality control. Systematic studies to address effects of pre-analytical and storage variation on a broad range of CSF proteins are needed. In conclusion, biomarker research in neurodegenerative diseases has entered a new era due to the collaborative and multicenter efforts of many groups. The streamlining of biobanking procedures, including quality control, and the selection of optimal control groups for investigating biomarkers are important improvements to perform high quality biomarker studies.

  15. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt. PMID:27405171

  16. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt.

  17. Acidic precipitation: considerations for an air-quality standard

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Stensland, G.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Francis, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Acidic precipitation, wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greatern than 2.5 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ is a significant air pollution problem in the United States. The chief anions accounting for the hydrogen ions in rainfall are nitrate and sulfate. Agricultural systems are more likely to derive net nutritional benefits from increasing inputs of acidic rain than are forest systems when soils alone are considered. Agricultural soils may benefit because of the high N and S requirements of agricultural plants. Detrimental effects to forest soils may result if atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs significantly add to or exceed H/sup +/ production by soils. Acidification of fresh waters of southern Scandinavia, southwestern Scotland, southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States is caused by acid deposition. Areas of these regions in which this acidification occurs have in common, highly acidic precipitation with volume weighted mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations of 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ or higher and slow weathering granitic or precambrian bedrock with thin soils deficient in minerals which would provide buffer capacity. Biological effects of acidification of fresh waters are detectable below pH 6.0. As lake and stream pH levels decrease below pH. 6.0, many species of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates are progressively eliminated. Generally, fisheries are impacted below pH 5.0 and are completely destroyed below pH 4.8. There are few studies that document effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation to establish an air quality standard. It must be demonstrated that current levels of precipitation acidity alone significantly injure terrestrial vegetation. In terms of documented damanges, current research indicates that establishing a standard for precipitation for the volume weighted annual H/sup +/ concentration at 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ may protect the most sensitive areas from permanent lake acidification.

  18. Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard? Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    ACT examined the international competitiveness of college and career ready standards in the policy research report, Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard? In this study, ACT performed a linking analysis to identify the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) scores in reading and…

  19. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  20. Commutability of the First World Health Organization International Standard for Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Preiksaitis, J.; Tong, Y.; Pang, X.; Sun, Y.; Tang, L.; Cook, L.; Pounds, S.; Fryer, J.; Caliendo, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA has become a standard part of care for many groups of immunocompromised patients; recent development of the first WHO international standard for human CMV DNA has raised hopes of reducing interlaboratory variability of results. Commutability of reference material has been shown to be necessary if such material is to reduce variability among laboratories. Here we evaluated the commutability of the WHO standard using 10 different real-time quantitative CMV PCR assays run by eight different laboratories. Test panels, including aliquots of 50 patient samples (40 positive samples and 10 negative samples) and lyophilized CMV standard, were run, with each testing center using its own quantitative calibrators, reagents, and nucleic acid extraction methods. Commutability was assessed both on a pairwise basis and over the entire group of assays, using linear regression and correspondence analyses. Commutability of the WHO material differed among the tests that were evaluated, and these differences appeared to vary depending on the method of statistical analysis used and the cohort of assays included in the analysis. Depending on the methodology used, the WHO material showed poor or absent commutability with up to 50% of assays. Determination of commutability may require a multifaceted approach; the lack of commutability seen when using the WHO standard with several of the assays here suggests that further work is needed to bring us toward true consensus. PMID:26269622

  1. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

  3. Is the standard dose of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pharmacodynamic (PD) efficacy target of amoxicillin is 40% time above the minimal inhibition concentration (40%T > MIC). Recent studies of other antibiotics have shown that PD-efficacy targets are not always reached. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of hospitalised patients, using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid intravenously (iv), that reach the pharmacodynamic efficacy target 40%T > MIC. Additionally, the association of demographic anthropomorphic and clinical parameters with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin were determined. Methods In serum of 57 hospitalised patients amoxicillin concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Patients were older than 18 years and most patients had an abdominal infection. The standard amoxicillin/clavulanic acid dose was 4 times a day 1000/200 mg iv. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation (MW\\Pharm 3.60). A one-compartment open model was used. Individual dosing simulations were performed with MW\\Pharm. Results In our study population, the mean (±SD) age was 67 (±16) years and the mean clearance corrected for bodyweight was 0.17 (±0.07) L/h/kg. Only, 65% of the patients reached the proposed amoxicillin 40%T > MIC with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for bacterial MICs of 8 mg/L. A computer simulated increase of the standard dose to 6 times daily, increased this percentage to 95%. In this small study group 40%T > MIC was not associated with clinical or microbiological cure. Conclusion A substantial proportion of the hospitalised patients did not reach the 40%T > MIC with the standard dose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for a bacterial MIC of 8 mg/L. Therefore, we suggest increasing the standard dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to 6 times a day in patients with severe Enterobacteriaceae infections. Trial registration Trial registration number: NTR1725 16th march 2009. PMID

  4. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages 6674-6724 in the issue of...

  5. The Impact of International Standardization on the Rules of Entry for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannan, Judith Proctor

    1975-01-01

    The major provisions of the International Serials Data System and International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials are presented and related to present rules of entry for serials as detailed in the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. (Author)

  6. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

  7. Novel Instrument for Automated pK(a) Determination by Internal Standard Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan M; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí; Smejkal, Petr; Breadmore, Michael C

    2015-06-16

    The internal standard capillary electrophoresis method (IS-CE) has been implemented in a novel sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument for the high-throughput determination of acidity constants (pK(a)) regardless of aqueous solubility, number of pK(a) values, or structure. This instrument comprises a buffer creation system that automatically mixes within a few seconds four reagents for in situ creation of the separation electrolyte with a pH range of 2-13, ionic strength of 10-100 mM and organic solvent content from 0% to 40%. Combined with 1.2 kV/cm and a short effective length (15 cm to the UV detector) fast 20 s electrophoretic separations can be obtained. The low standard deviation of the replicates and the low variation compared to reference values show that this system can accurately determine acidity constants of drugs by IS-CE. A single pK(a) can be determined in 2 min and a set of 20 measurements in half an hour, allowing rapid, simple, and flexible determination of pK(a) values of pharmaceutical targets.

  8. International comparisons of intensive care: informing outcomes and improving standards

    PubMed Central

    Prin, Meghan; Wunsch, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Interest in international comparisons of critical illness is growing, but the utility of these studies is questionable. This review examines the challenges of international comparisons and highlights areas where international data provide information relevant to clinical practice and resource allocation. Recent findings International comparisons of ICU resources demonstrate that definitions of critical illness and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds vary due to differences in ability to provide organ support and variable staffing. Despite these limitations, recent international data provide key information to understand the pros and cons of different availability of ICU beds on patient flow and outcomes, and also highlight the need to ensure long-term follow-up due to heterogeneity in discharge practices for critically ill patients. With increasing emphasis on curbing costs of healthcare, systems that deliver lower cost care provide data on alternative options, such as regionalization, flexible allocation of beds, and bed rationing. Summary Differences in provision of critical care can be leveraged to inform decisions on allocation of ICU beds, improve interpretation of clinical outcomes, and assess ways to decrease costs of care. International definitions of key components of critical care are needed to facilitate research and ensure rigorous comparisons. PMID:22954664

  9. Internal Standards: A Source of Analytical Bias For Volatile Organic Analyte Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity betw...

  10. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR RESEARCH INTEGRITY: AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    A movement to promulgate international ethics standards covering areas of conduct other than research with human subjects has now begun to gain momentum. This commentary explains why it is important to develop international research integrity standards and some of the problems that must be overcome to bring them to fruition. PMID:20183162

  11. What States Should Know about International Standards in Science: Highlights from Achieve's Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Achieve, through support from the Noyce Foundation, examined ten sets of international standards with the intent of informing the development of both the conceptual framework and Next Generation Science Standards. Achieve selected countries based on their strong performance on international assessments and/or their economic, political, or cultural…

  12. The Role of Internal Standards and their Interaction with Soils Impact Accuracy of Volatile Organics Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods 8260C/5035 and 8261A include mixing soil with water and addition of internal standards prior to analyses but the equilibration of internal standards with the soil is not required. With increasing total organic carbon (...

  13. The International Standard for the Description of Archives: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Describes progress in the efforts to develop an international standard for the description of archives (ISAD(G)) under the auspices of the International Council on Archives (ICA). Reconciling national standards from various countries is discussed; and provenance, access points, authority files, and a hierarchy of levels of arrangement are…

  14. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed acid level, may be stabilized as a part of the finishing process by the addition of citric acid within... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of acid to...

  15. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. PMID:24013124

  16. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization international standards for human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and type 18 DNA.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dianna E; Baylis, Sally A; Padley, David; Heath, Alan B; Ferguson, Morag; Pagliusi, Sonia R; Quint, Wim G; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-06-15

    A World Health Organization collaborative study was conducted to evaluate candidate international standards for human papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 DNA (NIBSC code 06/202) and HPV Type 18 DNA (NIBSC code 06/206) for use in the amplification and detection steps of nucleic acid-based assays. The freeze-dried candidate international standards were prepared from bulk preparations of cloned plasmid containing full-length HPV-16 or HPV-18 genomic DNA. Nineteen laboratories from 13 countries participated in the study using a variety of commercial and in-house quantitative and qualitative assays. The data presented here indicate that, upon freeze-drying, there is no significant loss in potency for the candidate HPV-18 DNA and a slight loss in potency for the candidate HPV-16 DNA; although this is likely not scientifically relevant when assay precision is considered. In general, the individual laboratory mean estimates for each study sample were grouped +/- approximately 2 log(10) around the theoretical HPV DNA concentration of the reconstituted ampoule (1 x 10(7) HPV genome equivalents/mL). The agreement between laboratories is improved when potencies are made relative to the candidate international standards, demonstrating their utility in harmonizing amplification and detection steps of HPV-16 and -18 DNA assays. Degradation studies indicate that the candidate international standards are extremely stable and suitable for long-term use. Based on these findings, the candidate standards were established as the 1st WHO international standards for HPV-16 DNA and HPV-18 DNA, each with a potency of 5 x 10(6) international units (IU) per ampoule or 1 x 10(7) IU mL(-1) when reconstituted as directed.

  17. 75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... of International Standards Strategic Plan can be accessed at: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs...://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . Documents Copies of documents for the UNSCOE TDG meeting....phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international also provides additional information regarding the UNSCOE...

  18. 76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... of International Standards Strategic Plan can be accessed at: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs....dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . PHMSA's site at...

  19. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  20. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the International Plant Protection Convention of the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization has been approved for incorporation by reference in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (b)...

  1. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by the International Plant Protection Convention of the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization has been approved for incorporation by reference in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (b)...

  2. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  3. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  4. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  5. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  6. Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility device…

  7. New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirvastava, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

  8. Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…

  9. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  10. Directory of International and Regional Organizations Conducting Standards-Related Activities, May 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenberg, Maureen

    1989-05-01

    The directory contains information on 338 international and regional organizations which conduct standardization, certification, laboratory accreditation, or other standards-related activities. The volume describes their work in these areas, the scope of each organization, national affliations of members, U.S. participants, restrictions on membership, as well as the availability of any standards in English. The volume is designed to serve the needs of Federal agencies and standards writers for information on international and regional organizations involved in standardization and related activities. It may also be useful to manufacturers, engineers, purchasing agents, and others.

  11. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  12. International regulations and standards for avian influenza, including the vaccine standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Bruschke, C J M; Pittman, M; Laddomada, A

    2009-04-01

    For avian influenza the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has laid down international standards on notification, trade, diagnosis, surveillance and the production and use of vaccine. These standards are science- and risk-based to ensure safe trade in poultry and poultry products without unjustified barriers. The European Union, with its 27 Member States, has in place harmonised legislation in line with OIE standards. Early detection, rapid diagnosis, notification and high quality Veterinary Services are crucial for ensuring a rapid response to avian influenza outbreaks and for swiftly reducing the risk of virus spread via trade. Depending on the situation, vaccination may also be a very important tool for disease control. The use of high quality vaccines and postvaccination monitoring are essential for the successful implementation of vaccination. Compliance with international standards is of paramount importance for protecting animal and human health in the global crisis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 subtype.

  13. FDA use of international standards in the premarket review process.

    PubMed

    Rechen, E; Barth, D J; Marlowe, D; Kroger, L

    1998-01-01

    "This is an exciting time," says Eric Rechen, policy analyst in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Device Evaluation (ODE). "We're entering an era in which standards will have a more prominent role in the review of medical devices than ever before." During the past 10 years, there has been significant growth in the importance of standards in regulatory processes, as Donald J. Barth, regulatory staff manager for the Medical Products Group at Hewlett Packard Company, notes in setting the stage for discussion of the latest developments. Donald Marlowe, director of the FDA's Office of Science and Technology, and Rechen explain the use of standards in the regulatory review process as part of FDA efforts to ensure public safety in a time of shrinking agency resources. Marlowe discusses provisions of the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 that allow manufacturers to submit a declaration of conformity to a standard to satisfy premarket review requirements. A guidance on the recognition and use of consensus standards, a list of recognized standards, and a list of frequently asked questions are available at the Web site of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at www.fda.gov/cdrh and via the AAMI Web site at www.aami.org. The information is also available by telephone via CDRH Facts on Demand at 800-899-0381. Rechen provides details about the two new approaches for premarket notifications available under the new 510(k) paradigm. Manufacturers may demonstrate substantial equivalence through special and abbreviated 510(k)s in addition to traditional 510(k)s. A copy of the new 510(k) paradigm is available at the AAMI and CDRH Web sites and through Facts on Demand. As the FDA and many manufacturers enter the new world of abbreviated and special 510(k)s, Larry Kroger, GE Medical Systems, provides his comments based on the 4 years of experience manufacturers of diagnostic x-ray products have had with simplified 510(k)s. A comparison of the European

  14. PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

  15. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pim M W; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C

    2015-06-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For these considerations, it was assumed that current developments in genetic testing and Internet possibilities mean that, now, all donors are potentially identifiable by their offspring, so no distinction was made between anonymous and non-anonymous donation. Genetic considerations did not lead to restrictive limits (indicating that up to 200 offspring or more per donor may be acceptable except in isolated social-minority situations). Psychosocial considerations on the other hand led to proposals of rather restrictive limits (10 families per donor or less). Operational and ethical considerations did not lead to more or less concrete limits per donor, but seemed to lie in-between those resulting from the aforementioned ways of viewing the issue. In the end, no unifying agreed figure could be reached; however the consensus was that the number should never exceed 100 families. The conclusions of the group are summarized in three recommendations. PMID:25817048

  16. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliveries", and the name of key players, in different combinations.
RESULTS—It is clear that the tobacco industry, through the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA), play a major role in determining the scientific evidence and suggesting the standards that are eventually adopted as international standards for tobacco and tobacco products in several areas, including the measurement of cigarette tar and nicotine yield.
CONCLUSIONS—ISO's tobacco and tobacco products standards are not adequate to guide tobacco products regulatory policies, and no health claims can be made based on ISO's tobacco products standards. There is an urgent need for tobacco control advocates and groups worldwide to be more involved with the work of the ISO, both directly and through their national standardisation organisations.


Keywords: tar and nicotine measurement; International Organization for Standardization; ISO; Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco; CORESTA; regulatory policy PMID:11387528

  17. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  18. Standardization and harmonization of the blood count: the role of International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH).

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M

    1990-01-01

    Scientific principles of standardization were first applied in haematology in 1963 when the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology was established with a primary objective to improve the measurement of haemoglobin. Subsequently, ICSH has established Expert Panels on a wide range of haematological topics, including especially a Panel on Cytometry. The purpose of haematological standardization is to obtain precision, accuracy, specificity and harmonization of results between different laboratories in all countries and also between different instruments or methods in the same laboratory. To achieve these objectives ICSH sponsors collaborative studies by scientists from academic centres and from industry and uses a consensus procedure for establishing standards on the basis of the scientific data, followed by an educational programme to ensure that the standards are adopted worldwide. ICSH defines material standards and standardized methods. Material standards are classified as primary international standards, certified reference materials, secondary standards and calibrators. These must be distinguished from control preparations which are intended exclusively for quality control. Standardization of methods must also be considered at four levels: definitive, reference, selected and routine. Each has a place in practice but their roles must be clearly defined. ICSH has an established protocol for evaluation of automated blood cell counters. This defines the levels of precision and accuracy of instrument performance. It is also necessary to assess "clinical utility". The main requirement of the practising haematologist is clinical reliability and harmonization of results for comparability. One of the major functions of ICSH is to provide an interface for collaboration between the manufacturers who develop the instruments and the users in order to achieve this goal.

  19. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  20. Boric acid as reference substance: pros, cons and standardization.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M J B; Natal-da-Luz, T; Sousa, J P; Loureiro, S; Becker, L; Römbke, J; Soares, A M V M

    2012-04-01

    Boric acid (BA) has been successfully used as reference substance in some standard test guidelines. Due to the fact that previously selected reference substances present a significant risk to human health and/or are banned for environmental reasons, BA is being discussed for broader adoption in OECD or ISO guidelines. To provide input on BA data and contribute to the discussion on its suitability as a reference substance, in the present study BA was tested with two standard soil organisms, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida, in terms of survival, reproduction and avoidance. Additionally, published data on other organisms was analysed to derive the most sensitive soil dwelling invertebrate (hazard concentration-HC5). Results showed that BA affected the tested organisms, being two times more toxic for collembolans (LC50 = 96; EC50 = 54 mg/kg) than for enchytraeids (LC50 = 325; EC50 = 104 mg/kg). No avoidance behaviour occurred despite the fact that BA affects earthworms. Actually, it is the recommended reference substance for the earthworm avoidance test. Clearly, the suitable performance of BA in one species should not be generalized to other species. Absolute toxicity is not an important criterion for the selection of a reference substance, but it has been proposed that effects should occur within a reasonable range, i.e. <1,000 mg/kg. We could confirm, compiling previous data that for most soil invertebrates, the EC50 is expected to be below 1,000 mg/kg. From these data it could be derived that the most sensitive soil dwelling invertebrate (HC5, 50%) is likely to be affected (EC10) at 28 (8-53) mg H(3)BO(3)/Kg, equivalent to 4.6 (1.4-8.7) mg boron/kg. PMID:22113457

  1. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend the interim rule addressing lifesaving equipment... liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatuses with recently adopted international standards...

  2. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... audit report required pursuant to 25 CFR part 571. (3) Review of internal audit. (i) The CPA must... GAAP, GAAS, and standards promulgated by GASB and FASB. In the event of a conflict between the MICS...

  3. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... audit report required pursuant to 25 CFR part 571. (3) Review of internal audit. (i) The CPA must... GAAP, GAAS, and standards promulgated by GASB and FASB. In the event of a conflict between the MICS...

  4. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE. PMID:20014840

  5. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE.

  6. [From manual workshop to international standard maker: exploration on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.

  7. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information technology? 542.16 Section 542.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.16 What are the minimum internal control.... (2) (f) Document storage. (1) Documents may be scanned or directly stored to an unalterable...

  8. International Labour Standards and Technical Co-Operation: The Case of Special Public Works Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jean

    1989-01-01

    Applies international labor standards to results of the International Labour Office's special public works programs to discover whether program intentions have been met. Finds that while productive employment has been pursued, popular participation is not occurring and such issues as (1) forced labor, (2) child employment, and (3) inequality of…

  9. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and the transportation in commerce of hazardous materials in accordance with the International Civil... international transport standards and regulations authorized in paragraph (a) of this section (e.g., paragraph 1... transported in the United States in full compliance (i.e., packaged, marked, labeled, classed,...

  10. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  11. Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we

  12. Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjicharalambous, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

  13. Current Status of International Airborne Platform Data and Instrument Interface Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Matt; Webster, Chris; Freundinger, Larry

    2016-06-01

    Commission I of the International Society for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing formed working group I/1 for the purpose of standardizing airborne platform interfaces. The primary mission of this working group is to promote the standardization of instrument interfaces, data formats, and supporting infrastructures; and to facilitate more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective international science flight operations. Within WGI/1 are a number of focused subgroups. This paper addresses the efforts of some of these subgroups having interdependent and overlapping interests; including the development of standard software interfaces for sensors, standardized approaches to management of information over potentially intermittent wireless data links, the development of standardized processing algorithms, and data archival format standards. The data in this report reflect the outcome of work-to-date in the current subgroups.

  14. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-09-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research.

  15. Ethical issues in tissue banking for research: the prospects and pitfalls of setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J; Murray, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or international regulations that include an official oversight mechanism and sanctions for noncompliance, and about who should participate in the harmonization process. Moreover, the normative assumptions and political dynamics that shape global policymaking need to be addressed. This commentary explores the policy implications and normative questions raised by the idea of international ethical guidelines for the use of biotechnologies and biotechnological resources such as stored samples of human tissue.

  16. Determination of miconazole in pharmaceutical creams using internal standard and second derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, K; Wróbel, K; de la Garza Rodríguez, I M; López-de-Alba, P L; López-Martínez, L

    1999-06-01

    A simple method is proposed for miconazole determination in pharmaceutical creams, based on extraction and second derivative spectrophotometry. In the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (0.5%) and sulphuric acid (0.4 mol l(-1)), the miconazole and internal standard (IS) (methylene blue) were extracted to 100 microl of methylene chloride. The organic phase was evaporated in the nitrogen stream and the dry residue was dissolved in methanol (1.5 ml). The analytical signal was obtained as the ratio between second derivative absorbances measured at 236.9 nm (miconazole) and at 663.2 nm (IS). The use of IS in such multi-stage procedure enabled quite good analytical performance in calibration range 50.0 400 mg l(-1): linear correlation coefficient 0.9995, precision (measured as CV for ten replicates) at 50.0 mg l(-1) and at 400 mg l(-1) of miconazole was 1.5 and 0.5% respectively. Four commercial pharmaceutical creams were analyzed and the results obtained were in good agreement with the results obtained by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  17. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    PubMed

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively.

  18. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs.

  19. Trace iodine quantitation in biological samples by mass spectrometric methods: the optimum internal standard.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kirk, Andrea B

    2009-07-15

    Accurate quantitation of iodine in biological samples is essential for studies of nutrition and medicine, as well as for epidemiological studies for monitoring intake of this essential nutrient. Despite the importance of accurate measurement, a standardized method for iodine analysis of biological samples is yet to be established. We have evaluated the effectiveness of (72)Ge, (115)In, and (129)I as internal standards for measurement of iodine in milk and urine samples by induction coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and of (35)Cl(18)O(4)(-), (129)I(-), and 2-chlorobenzenesulfonate (2-CBS) as internal standards for ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS). We found recovery of iodine to be markedly low when IC-MS/MS was used without an internal standard. Percent recovery was similarly low using (35)Cl(18)O(4) as an internal standard for milk and unpredictable when used for urine. 2-Chlorobenzebenzenesulfonate provided accurate recovery of iodine from milk, but overestimated iodine in urine samples by as much as a factor of 2. Percent recovery of iodine from milk and urine using ICP-MS without an internal standard was approximately 120%. Use of (115)In predicted approximately 60% of known values for both milk and urine samples. (72)Ge provided reasonable and consistent percent recovery for iodine in milk samples (approximately 108%) but resulted in approximately 80% recovery of iodine from urine. Use of (129)I as an internal standard resulted in excellent recovery of iodine from both milk and urine samples using either IC-MS/MS and ICP-MS.

  20. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  1. Open System Interconnection - NASA program communications of the future. [developed by International aorganization for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards are being developed by the ISO and the Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph with the support of industry. These standards are being developed to allow the interconnecting of computer systems and the interworking of applications such that the applications can be independent of any equipment manufacturer. Significant progress has been made, and the establishment of government OSI standards is being considered. There is considerable interest within NASA in the potential benefits of OSI and in communications standards in general. The OSI standards are being considered for possible application in the Space Station onboard data management system. The OSI standards have reached a high level of maturity, and it is now imperative that NASA plan for future migration to OSI where appropriate.

  2. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  3. International standards related to the classification and deregulation of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Linsley, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    Although solid radioactive waste management is mainly a national concern, there are some aspects that have international implications. One important example is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, which results in the release of materials that could be reused and recycled. It is possible that these materials could enter international trade, especially if the material is a metal. It is clearly desirable, therefore, to have appropriate international standards to help regulate trade. This paper describes recent international developments relating to the establishment of radiological criteria for the release of materials from regulatory control (clearance). There have already been some experiences of clearance and the transfer of recycled materials within Europe, and this paper reviews that experience. It also discusses recent developments in relation to the international classification of radioactive waste. PMID:17033457

  4. 25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... issued. (c) The internal audit or accounting departments shall review the reports required in paragraph... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum...

  5. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.14 What are the minimum internal...

  6. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  7. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  8. Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lisa; Nguyen, Binh; Auten, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The "NCAA Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility" provides specific criteria to be used as a guide in reviewing the initial eligibility (graduation, core curriculum, grade-point average and ACT/SAT test scores) of students who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-United States educational…

  9. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  10. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  11. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  12. India Needs International Standards in Accreditation Problems in Adoption and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper outlines in brief, need and importance of introducing global quality standards in accreditation, prescribed by the international agreement "Washington Accord". This agreement is initially provisional and after scrutiny, if found fit, it is upgraded to Signatory status. It is this status which empowers students of engineering,…

  13. Using ASBO International's Standards To Map Your Professional Growth and Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Explores various definitions of what constitutes a profession and what characteristics determine a professional. Identifies the need for continued professional growth and development related to the new Association of School Business Officials, International, "Professional Standards" (2001). Examples illustrate how individual school business…

  14. Functional Competency Development Model for Academic Personnel Based on International Professional Qualification Standards in Computing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumthong, Suwut; Piriyasurawong, Pullop; Jeerangsuwan, Namon

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a functional competency development model for academic personnel based on international professional qualification standards in computing field and examines the appropriateness of the model. Specifically, the model consists of three key components which are: 1) functional competency development model, 2) blended training…

  15. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... standards of performance (``NSPS'') for stationary internal combustion engines (ICE) (78 FR 6674). Following... stationary RICE on March 3, 2010, (75 FR 9648) and August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51570). The EPA received petitions... of the final NESHAP and NSPS for stationary RICE (78 FR 6674, January 30, 2013). The Office...

  16. Evaluation of Vocational Services Provided to Jordanian Disabled People According to International Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vocational rehabilitation services provided to people with disabilities according to international standards in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of (56) managers and teachers in four specialized centers in vocational rehabilitation. The findings showed that the compatibility degree ranged…

  17. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  18. Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report examines how performance standards in reading and math on PLAN[R], the organization's college and career readiness assessment for 10th graders, compare to performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide assessment of 15-year-old students' academic achievement. The results show that the performance…

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of AACSB International's 2013 Accreditation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Morgan P.; Franklin, Geralyn McClure; Grimmer, Martin; Heriot, Kirl C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of an exploratory survey designed to measure AACSB member deans' perceptions about the recently revised 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Accreditation Standards. In April of 2013, AACSB International released a major revision of its accreditation…

  20. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  1. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) with diphenylcarbazide using internal standard and derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, K; Wróbel, K; López-de-Alba, P L; López-Martínez, L

    1997-11-01

    In the present work, erioglaucine A was applied as internal standard to enhanced spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) with diphenylcarbazide. The following procedure was used: (1) addition of internal standard and formation of ion pairs of Cr (VI) with benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTAB) (sample volume 100 ml), (2) extraction to 10 ml of methylene chloride, (3) evaporation in nitrogen stream, and (4) redissolution in a micro-volume with addition of diphenylcarbazide for color development (final volume 200 mul). The preconcentration factor achieved was about 400 and it was shown that, using internal standard, the analytical errors due to sample treatment were reduced. The analytical signals for chromium and internal standard were obtained at 591.30 and 653.50 nm from first derivative spectra, normalized against (1)D(653.50nm). The analytical characteristics evaluated were: detection limit = 0.06 mug l(-1), quantification limit = 0.19 mug l(-1), precision for 1 mug l(-1) 14.2%, and for 10 mug l(-1) 3.2%, correlation coefficient of linear regression was 0.9985. The proposed procedure was applied to determination of chromium (VI) in tap water. Total chromium was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, the recovery of hexavalent chromium added was then evaluated and compared with the results of the proposed procedure. In this experiment, good agreement was obtained between results obtained by the two methods. PMID:18966962

  2. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  3. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  4. Calibration of replacement international standard and European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Sesardic, D; Winsnes, R; Rigsby, P; Gaines-Das, R

    2001-06-01

    We report here the characterisation of a preparation of diphtheria toxoid, adsorbed, and its calibration by twenty laboratories in fourteen countries in terms of the Second International Standard (I.S.) for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed, coded sample A (DIXA) using the established World Health Organisation (WHO)/European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) challenge methods. The replacement standard preparation was found to have a unitage of 160 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration by in vivo bioassay. Stability was assessed within the collaborative study, and as part of candidate characterisation. Results suggest that the replacement standard will have satisfactory stability. This study also provided an opportunity to investigate serology as alternative to in vivo bioassay for potency testing of diphtheria vaccines. Six laboratories participated by performing serology according to in-house protocol. The calibration of the replacement standard in a mouse Vero cell assay gave a significantly higher results than in the established WHO/Ph Eur methods. Based on the results of this study and with the agreement of participants, the candidate standard was established as the Third International Standard for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed (coded 98/560) by the WHO Expert Committee of Biological Standardization in October 1999. The same preparation was also established as the second Ph Eur Biological Reference Preparation (Ph Eur BRP, batch no. 3) by the Steering Committee of the Biological Standardisation Programme of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and approved by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission.

  5. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  6. CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems - International data communications standards for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1990-01-01

    Established in 1982, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that is staffed by data-handling experts from nearly all of the world's major space agencies. Its goal is to develop standard data-communications techniques so that several agencies may cross-support each other's data flow and thus allow complex, international missions to be flown. Under the general umbrella of Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS), an international CCSDS task force was formed in 1985 to develop standard data-communications concepts for manned missions, such as the Space Station Freedom and the Hermes space plane, and large unmanned vehicles, such as polar orbiting platforms. The history of the CCSDS and the development of the AOS recommendation are reviewed, and the user services and protocols embodied in its systems architecture are introduced.

  7. Evaluation of mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures and international standardization for those methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.

    2014-01-01

    Testing methods for mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures had been developed rapidly after 1980, however, until 1985 many researches on cryogenic structural materials have been reported using their own methods and new materials have been developed for ITER. Since 1986, a series of international inter-laboratory comparisons on the evaluation of mechanical properties of cryogenic structural materials have been performed among the participants of US-Japan cooperation project and VAMAS (the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) in order to establish unified test methods. Through these international collaborations and Round-Robin Tests, we have accumulated knowledge about mechanical tests at 4 K, and have prepared a draft of an international standard for tensile testing in liquid helium. After testing conditions, strain measurements and other technical points have been discussed, those drafts were submitted to ISO. The outline, development, and discussion of the documents so far, with the results of RRTs, were discussed.

  8. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 4(th) International Standard for Streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Jorajuria, S; Raphalen, C; Dujardin, V; Daas, A

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the 4(th) World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for Streptomycin. Fourteen laboratories from different countries participated. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 3(rd) IS for Streptomycin was used as a reference. Based on the results of the study, the 4(th) IS for Streptomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 with an assigned potency of 76 000 International Units (IU) per vial. The 4(th) IS for Streptomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  9. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  10. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 3rd international standard for neomycin.

    PubMed

    Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) 3(rd) International Standard (IS) for neomycin. Ten laboratories from different countries participated in the collaborative study. The potency of the candidate material, a freeze-dried preparation, was estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 2(nd) IS for neomycin was used as a standard. Based on the results of the study, the 3(rd) IS for neomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2012 with an assigned potency of 19,050 IU per vial. The 3(rd) IS for neomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  11. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  12. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  13. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-01

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  14. International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, A.R.; Loppinet, A.; Reeve, P.T.N.; Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.; Vanzini, R.

    1995-12-01

    A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ``internationalization`` of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry.

  15. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy E; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2006-12-01

    Development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by two contemporaneous events: the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the World Health Organization (WHO). If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues would have to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and how to define optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, on the basis of available data, it cannot be ruled out that some of the observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents would have to include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  16. The standard enthalpies of formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid and its aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernyavskaya, N. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Nikol'Skii, V. M.

    2007-07-01

    The energy of combustion of N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid (CMAA) was determined by bomb calorimetry in oxygen. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid were calculated. The heat effects of solution of crystalline CMAA in water and a solution of sodium hydroxide were measured at 298.15 K by direct calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of CMAA and its dissociation products in aqueous solution were determined.

  17. Proposed Standards for Medical Education Submissions to the Journal of General Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Judith L.; Gerrity, Martha S.; Kalet, Adina L.; Kogan, Jennifer R.; Spickard, Anderson; Wayne, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    To help authors design rigorous studies and prepare clear and informative manuscripts, improve the transparency of editorial decisions, and raise the bar on educational scholarship, the Deputy Editors of the Journal of General Internal Medicine articulate standards for medical education submissions to the Journal. General standards include: (1) quality questions, (2) quality methods to match the questions, (3) insightful interpretation of findings, (4) transparent, unbiased reporting, and (5) attention to human subjects’ protection and ethical research conduct. Additional standards for specific study types are described. We hope these proposed standards will generate discussion that will foster their continued evolution. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0676-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18612716

  18. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    PubMed

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards

  19. A decade of international cooperation brings a standard seismic point of view

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, H. S

    1971-01-01

    Whether in a castle in Italy, a police station in Iceland, o an abandoned gold mine in Australia, the sensitive instruments in the Worldwide Seismograph Network send a steady flow of standard earthquake records to the geophysical scientific community. They provide the raw data that make possible very precise earthquake studies, precise because the instruments are identical and their product standard. A truly international program, this network of 115 stations in 61 countires and territories has laid the foundation for reserach in seismology for many years to come. 

  20. ISBD(S), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials; Recommended by the Joint Working Group on the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials set up by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing and the IFLA Committee on Serial Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--provides a format for the international communication of bibliographic information so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(S) standards are limited to the descriptive…

  1. Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Bai, Kaijie; Lu, Jidong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement's accuracy and precision, a new internal standardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic elements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standardization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system. supported by Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology of China (No. SKL2013KF03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51206055, 51476061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014ZZ0014), the New Star of Pearl River on Science and Technology of Guangzhou, China (No. 2014J2200054), the Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (No. KLB10004) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and

  2. Collaborative study for the calibration of HCV RNA, HBV DNA and HIV RNA reference preparations against the relative international standards.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Giulio; Marino, Francesco; Cristiano, Karen; Bisso, Guillermo Mario; Mele, Caludio; Luciani, Francesca; Wirz, Maria; Gentili, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    We organised a collaborative study to calibrate three new ISS reference preparations (ISS: Istituto Superiore di Sanità), one for HCV RNA, one for HIV RNA and one for HBV DNA, to be used for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood testing. Serial dilution of the ISS reference preparations and the respective international standards were tested in different days by each participating laboratory using two commercial NAT assays. Data were collected by the ISS for statistical analysis. Based on the mean potency of the HCV RNA and HIV RNA preparations, calculated from the results provided by the 12 participating laboratories, a definitive concentrations of 5700 IU/mL and 4000 IU/mL, respectively, were assigned to the reference materials. On the contrary, it was not possible to obtain a consensus titre for the HBV DNA reference material. These new Italian reference preparations (HCV RNA ISS/1005 and HIV RNA ISS/1005) calibrated against the respective international standards are available free of charge to any laboratory upon request.

  3. Isolation of immunomodulatory triterpene acids from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.).

    PubMed

    Saaby, Lasse; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik Wind; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-02-01

    A previously published systematic review and a metaanalysis have concluded that the consumption of standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) can reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients. Synovial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and mainly to involve infiltration of the synovial membrane by macrophages. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effect of standardized rose hip powder of Rosa canina L. was investigated and active principles isolated using the Mono Mac 6 cell line as a model for human macrophages. Treatment of Mono Mac 6 cells with the residue of a crude dichloromethane extract of rose hip powder significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release. Through bioassay-guided fractionation the immunomodulatory effect of the dichloromethane extract was correlated to a mixture of three triterpene acids; oleanolic acid, betulinic acid and ursolic acid (IC(50) 21 ± 6 µm). Further studies revealed that only oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, but not betulinic acid, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells when tested separately. Combination of either oleanolic acid or ursolic acid with betulinic acid enhanced the immunomodulatory effect of the two triterpene acids.

  4. Short tandem repeat profiling provides an international reference standard for human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masters, John R.; Thomson, Jim A.; Daly-Burns, Bernadette; Reid, Yvonne A.; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Packer, Phil; Toji, Lorraine H.; Ohno, Tadao; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Arlett, Colin F.; Kelland, Lloyd R.; Harrison, Maureen; Virmani, Arvind; Ward, Timothy H.; Ayres, Karen L.; Debenham, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    Cross-contamination between cell lines is a longstanding and frequent cause of scientific misrepresentation. Estimates from national testing services indicate that up to 36% of cell lines are of a different origin or species to that claimed. To test a standard method of cell line authentication, 253 human cell lines from banks and research institutes worldwide were analyzed by short tandem repeat profiling. The short tandem repeat profile is a simple numerical code that is reproducible between laboratories, is inexpensive, and can provide an international reference standard for every cell line. If DNA profiling of cell lines is accepted and demanded internationally, scientific misrepresentation because of cross-contamination can be largely eliminated. PMID:11416159

  5. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Huggett, A; Petersen, B J; Walker, R; Fisher, C E; Notermans, S H; Rombouts, F M; Abbott, P; Debackere, M; Hathaway, S C; Hecker, E F; Knaap, A G; Kuznesof, P M; Meyland, I; Moy, G; Narbonne, J F; Paakkanen, J; Smith, M R; Tennant, D; Wagstaffe, P; Wargo, J; Würtzen, G

    1998-06-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure to reach these goals. The interaction between risk assessors and risk managers is considered vital to this procedure. This paper reports the outcome of a meeting of risk assessors and risk managers on specific aspects of risk analysis and its application to international standard setting for food additives and contaminants. Case studies on aflatoxins and aspartame were used to identify the key steps of the interaction process which ensure scientific justification for risk management decisions. A series of recommendations were proposed in order to enhance the scientific transparency in these critical phases of the standard setting procedure.

  6. Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, K

    2011-03-01

    Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. PMID:21212077

  7. Collaborative study for the establishment of the second international standard for gramicidin.

    PubMed

    Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2010-10-01

    An international collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) to establish the WHO second International Standard (IS) for gramicidin as the stocks of the 1st IS, established in 1964, were close to depletion. The candidate material did not show any sign of potency loss when kept at elevated temperatures of + 4 °C, + 20 °C, + 37 °C and + 45 °C for 3 months. Six laboratories from 5 countries as well as the EDQM laboratory participated in the collaborative study. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 1st IS for gramicidin was used as standard. Based on the results of the study, the 2nd IS for gramicidin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2008 with an assigned potency of 1070 International Units per mg (IU/mg). The 2nd IS for gramicidin is available from the EDQM.

  8. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  9. Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations. An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    1999-10-01

    Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid. The redox titration endpoint is determined by the first iodine excess that is complexed with starch, giving a deep blue-violet color. The results of the titration of iodine solution using ascorbic acid as a calibration standard were compared with the results acquired by the classic method using a standardized solution of sodium thiosulfate. The standardization of the iodine solution using ascorbic acid was accurate and precise, with the advantages of saving time and avoiding mistakes due to solution preparation. The colorless ascorbic acid solution gives a very clear and sharp titration end point with starch. It was shown by thermogravimetric analysis that ascorbic acid can be dried at 393 K for 2 h without decomposition. This experiment allows general chemistry students to perform an iodometric titration during a single laboratory period, determining with precision the content of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulations.

  10. International standards for tuberculosis care: relevance and implications for laboratory professionals.

    PubMed

    Pai, M; Daley, P; Hopewell, P C

    2007-04-01

    On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems. PMID:17582176

  11. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and ‘alter-standardization’ in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field. PMID:26983174

  12. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-02-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and 'alterstandardization' in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field.

  13. Interpreting international governance standards for health IT use within general medical practice.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Rachel J; Williams, Patricia A H

    2014-01-01

    General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation (ISO) released a new global standard in May 2013 entitled, ISO/IEC 27014:2013 Information technology - Security techniques - Governance of information security. This standard, applicable to organisations of all sizes, offers a framework against which to assess and implement the governance components of information security. The standard demonstrates the relationship between governance and the management of information security, provides strategic principles and processes, and forms the basis for establishing a positive information security culture. An analysis interpretation of this standard for use in Australian general practice was performed. This work is unique as such interpretation for the Australian healthcare environment has not been undertaken before. It demonstrates an application of the standard at a strategic level to inform existing development of an information security governance framework.

  14. The LABAT '99 international conference on lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    LABAT'99, the fourth in the series of lead-acid battery conferences held every three years and organized by Professor Pavlov and his Committee from the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources (Bulgarian Academy of Science) was held in Sofia on 7--10 June, 1999. Many excellent papers were presented over the four days, reporting the latest achievements in the theory, design and technology of lead-acid batteries as well as new findings, elucidating the processes during battery operation. The full texts of 25 selected papers will be included in a special volume of the Journal of Power Sources, dedicated to the Conference.

  15. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  16. 7th international conference on acid rock drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhisel, R.I.

    2006-07-01

    This meeting also serves as the 23rd annual meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation. The papers discussed various aspects of acid mine drainage including its impact, sustainability issues, case studies, lessons learned, characterization, closure/land use issues, emerging technologies, forestry/ecology, abandoned mine lands, modelling, pit lakes/backfill, soils and overburden, and treatment.

  17. International cooperation on the use of peracetic acid in aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will discuss collaborative efforts on research to evaluate the usefulness of peracetic acid (PAA) as a therapeutant in aquaculture. Research has been underway since 2009 with a scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Berlin, Germany). Ther...

  18. Amino acids improve acid tolerance and internal pH maintenance in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 strain.

    PubMed

    Senouci-Rezkallah, Khadidja; Schmitt, Philippe; Jobin, Michel P

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the involvement of glutamate-, arginine- and lysine-dependent systems in the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 strain. Cells were grown in a chemostat at external pH (pH(e)) 7.0 and 5.5. Population reduction after acid shock at pH 4.0 was strongly limited in cells grown at pH 5.5 (acid-adapted) compared with cells grown at pH 7.0 (unadapted), indicating that B. cereus cells grown at low pH(e) were able to induce a marked ATR. Glutamate, arginine and lysine enhanced the resistance of unadapted cells to pH 4.0 acid shock of 1-log or 2-log populations, respectively. Amino acids had no detectable effect on acid resistance in acid-adapted cells. An acid shock at pH 4.0 resulted in a marked drop in internal pH (pH(i)) in unadapted cells compared with acid-adapted cells. When acid shock was achieved in the presence of glutamate, arginine or lysine, pH(i) was maintained at higher values (6.31, 6.69 or 6.99, respectively) compared with pH(i) in the absence of amino acids (4.88). Acid-adapted cells maintained their pH(i) at around 6.4 whatever the condition. Agmatine (a competitive inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase) had a negative effect on the ability of B. cereus cells to survive and maintain their pH(i) during acid shock. Our data demonstrate that B. cereus is able to induce an ATR during growth at low pH. This adaptation depends on pH(i) homeostasis and is enhanced in the presence of glutamate, arginine and lysine. Hence evaluations of the pathogenicity of B. cereus must take into account its ability to adapt to acid stress.

  19. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  20. Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be

  1. Collaborative study for the calibration of a replacement International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Rob; Stickings, Paul; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Iwaki, Masaaki; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of a collaborative study for the establishment of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed. Two candidate preparations were included in the study, one of which was established as the 4th IS for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed at the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting in October 2010. This preparation was found to have a unitage of 490 IU/ampoule, based on calibration in guinea pig challenge assays. Results from mouse challenge assays suggest that the relative performance of two candidate preparations may differ significantly between guinea pigs and mice. The authors note that the number of laboratories that performed guinea pig challenge assays, which are used to calibrate and assign IU, is much lower than in previous collaborative studies and this may have implications for calibration of replacement standards in the future. The issue of assigning separate units to the IS for guinea pig and mouse assays is discussed. The study also assessed performance of the replacement standard in serological assays which are used as alternative procedures to challenge assays for tetanus potency testing. Results suggest that the replacement standard is suitable for use as the reference vaccine in serological assays.

  2. Upcoming new international measurement standards in the field of building acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goydke, Hans

    2002-11-01

    The extensively completed revision of most of the ISO measurement standards in building acoustics mainly initiated by the European Commissions demand for harmonized standards emphasized the insight that the main goal to avoid trade barriers between the countries can only be reached when the standards sufficiently and comprehensively cover the field when they are related to the actual state of the art and when they are sufficiently related to practice. In modern architecture one can observe the rapid change in the use of building materials, for instance regarding the use of glass. Lightweight constructions as well as heavyweight building elements with additional linings are increasingly in common use and unquestionably there are consequences to be considered regarding the ascertainment of sound insulation properties. Besides others, International Standardization is unsatisfactory regarding the assessment of noise in buildings from waste water installations, in the low frequency area and in general regarding the expression of uncertainty of measurements. Intensity measurements in building acoustics, rainfall noise assessment, estimation of sound insulation, impulse response measurement methods, assessment of sound scattering are examples of upcoming standards.

  3. Free amino acid quantification by LC-MS/MS using derivatization generated isotope-labelled standards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W

    2011-05-15

    The further development of derivatizing reagents for plasma amino acid quantification by tandem mass spectrometry is described. The succinimide ester of 4-methylpiperazineacetic acid (MPAS), the iTRAQ reagent, was systematically modified to improve tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) product ion intensity. 4-Methylpiperazinebutyryl succinimide (MPBS) and dimethylaminobutyryl succinimide (DMABS) afforded one to two orders of magnitude greater MS/MS product ion signal intensity than the MPAS derivative for simple amino acids. CD(3) analogues of the modified derivatizing reagents were evaluated for preparation of amino acid isotope-labelled quantifying standards. Acceptable accuracy and precision was obtained with d(3)-DMABS as the amino acid standards derivatizing reagent. The product ion spectra of the DMABS amino acid derivatives are diagnostic for structural isomers including valine/norvaline, alanine/sarcosine and leucine/isoleucine. Improved analytical sensitivity and specificity afforded by these derivatives may help to establish liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with derivatization generated isotope-labelled standards a viable alternative to amino acids analysers.

  4. The Meaning of Curriculum-Related Examination Standards in Scotland and England: A Home-International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Gray, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which examination standards are conceptualised and operationalised differently across nations has not been given sufficient attention. The international literature on standard-setting has been dominated by the psychometrics tradition. Broader conceptualisations of examination standards have been discussed in the literature in England,…

  5. Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative

  6. Development of botanical and fish oil standard reference materials for fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; NguyenPho, Agnes; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60% long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:23371533

  7. Development of botanical and fish oil standard reference materials for fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; NguyenPho, Agnes; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60% long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  8. Standard addition method for free acid determination in solutions with hydrolyzable ions

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in a 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy is verifiable by reasonable agreement of the Nerst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5 percent.

  9. The URSI/COSPAR Standard for the Ionosphere: International Reference Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawer, K.; Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Triskova, L.; Oyama, K.

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is the standard for ionospheric densities and temperatures recommended by the International Union of Radio science (URSI) and the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). The IRI Working Group consists of a team of 43 experts who work on different aspects of the modeling problem. By charter IRI is a data-based (empirical) model that attempts to represent the combined ionospheric data base of ground and space measurements as accurate as possible. IRI provides monthly averages of the electron density, total electron content, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition (O+, H+, He+, N+, O2+, NO+, Cluster) and vertical ion drift (at the equator). If measured values are available the IRI profile can be updated with E and F peak densities and heights. IRI shortcomings, improvements, new additions, and applications are discussed during annual workshops. This talk will review the current status of the IRI project and describe the most recent version of the model, IRI-2000.

  10. The test technology of electrical safety performances based on IEC international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Dong; Wang, Yanlin

    2008-10-01

    The test technology of electrical safety performance based on IEC international standards is put forward in the paper, including mainly four test parameters: leakage current, high-voltage withstand, insulation resistance and ground resistance. The definitions, the types, the testing purposes and methods of these parameters are also proposed. Based on the technology, we construct a system for data collection, processing and controlling with a PC, a high-performance microcomputer ADμC842 and a FPGA, and adopts a VI technology to develop an integrated testing system for electrical safety performance. The system can be applied to both the certification testing of products and quality control in manufacturing and provides an authenticating measure for the domestic electrical equipments to enter international markets.

  11. Acid-Soluble Internal Capsules for Closed-Face Cassette Elemental Sampling and Analysis of Workplace Air

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Ashley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles that are collected using closed-face filter cassettes (CFCs), which are used widely in the sampling of workplace aerosols, can deposit in places other than on the filter and thereby may not be included in the ensuing analysis. A technique for ensuring that internal non-filter deposits are included in the analysis is to collect airborne particles within an acid-soluble internal capsule that, following sampling, can be dissolved along with the filter for subsequent elemental analysis. An interlaboratory study (ILS) was carried out to evaluate the use of cellulosic CFC capsule inserts for their suitability in the determination of trace elements in airborne samples. The ILS was performed in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice, ASTM E691, which describes statistical procedures for investigating interlaboratory precision. Performance evaluation materials consisted of prototype cellulose acetate capsules attached to mixed-cellulose ester filters. Batches of capsules were dosed with Pb-containing materials (standard aqueous solutions, and certified reference material soil and paint). Also, aerosol samples containing nine target analyte elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, and Ni) were generated using a multiport sampler; various concentrations and sampling times were employed to yield samples fortified at desired loading levels. Triplicates of spiked capsules at three different loadings were conveyed to each volunteer laboratory; loading levels were unknown to the participants. The laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid dissolution and to analyze aliquots of extracted samples by atomic spectrometry in accordance with applicable ASTM International Standards. Participants were asked to report their results in units of μg of each target element per sample. For the elements investigated, interlaboratory precision and recovery estimates from the participating laboratories demonstrated the utility of the

  12. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Polymer Additives with MALDI-TOF MS Using an Internal Standard Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

  14. Quantitative analysis of polymer additives with MALDI-TOF MS using an internal standard approach.

    PubMed

    Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

  15. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    PubMed Central

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  16. The current state of the international standard for exchange of optical data in electronic form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormell, Prudence M. J. H.

    2006-06-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is developing a standard for the exchange of optical data in electronic form between different design programs. In order that the data be completely unambiguous an on-line Properties Dictionary is also being established, when finished this should be available to subscribers to ISO and will enable optical designers and manufacturing industry to access information accurately and transfer this information without manual intervention, across many boundaries. The Neutral Optical Data Interchange Format (NODIF) will use this dictionary to define the optical data that can be passed between to any CAD programs that are STEP compliant. NODIF is of concern to software developers, the Properties Dictionary is of concern to manufacturers.

  17. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe. PMID:20166316

  18. Isotope labeled internal standards (ILIS) as a basis for quality control in clinical studies using plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Rezeli, Melinda; Végvári, Akos; Marko-Varga, György; Laurell, Thomas

    2010-04-18

    For clinical proteomic studies, the quality of the biofluid samples such as human blood plasma is extremely important. In this study we have investigated the stability of human plasma samples by spiking stable isotope-labeled peptides into the plasma and monitoring their degradation under different storage conditions. FPA-1, C4A and C3f were synthesized with isotopically labeled amino acids, and used as reference peptides. The mixture of internal calibrants was spiked into plasma at the starting point of investigation, mimicking the time of collection for future biobanking efforts, and their qualitative and quantitative changes were analyzed over time by using both MALDI-MS (LTQ Orbitrap XL) and nanoLC-ESI-MS (LTQ XL ETD). We have found that all three synthetic peptides were stable in plasma at -20 and -80 degrees C during the examined 2-month period. However, different proteolytic degradation profiles of the peptides were observed at room temperature. We anticipate that the use of these isotope-labeled peptides as internal standards (ILIS) provides a quality control for long-term storage and proteomic plasma analysis.

  19. Internal standard capillary electrophoresis as a high-throughput method for pKa determination in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan M; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2014-10-13

    A novel high-throughput method for determining acidity constants (pKa) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is developed. The method, based on the use of an internal standard (IS-CE), is implemented as a routine method for accurate experimental pKa determination of drugs undergoing physicochemical measurements in drug discovery laboratories. Just two electropherograms at 2 different pH values are needed to calculate an acidity constant. Several ISs can be used in the same buffer and run to enhance precision. With 3 ISs, for example, the pKa of the test compound (TC) can be obtained in triplicate in less than 3 min of electrophoresis. It has been demonstrated that the IS-CE method eliminates some systematic errors, maintaining, or even increasing the precision of the results compared with other methods. Furthermore, pH buffer instability during electrophoretic runs is not a problem in the IS-CE method. It is also proved that after 16 h of electroseparation using the same buffer vial, pH may change by around one unit; but the pKa calculated by the IS-CE method remains constant. Thus, IS-CE is a powerful high-throughput method for pKa determination in drug discovery and development.

  20. International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry Cell Sorter Biosafety Standards

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Kevin L.; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H.; Wadley, Robert B.; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99–117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414–437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. PMID:24634405

  1. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.2 are subject to the standards for cadmium and lead, the standards for arsenic, beryllium, and... acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of Environment... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric...

  2. The internalization signal in the cytoplasmic tail of lysosomal acid phosphatase consists of the hexapeptide PGYRHV.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, L E; Eberle, W; Krull, S; Prill, V; Schmidt, B; Sander, C; von Figura, K; Peters, C

    1992-01-01

    Lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) is rapidly internalized from the cell surface due to a tyrosine-containing internalization signal in its 19 amino acid cytoplasmic tail. Measuring the internalization of a series of LAP cytoplasmic tail truncation and substitution mutants revealed that the N-terminal 12 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail are sufficient for rapid endocytosis and that the hexapeptide 411-PGYRHV-416 is the tyrosine-containing internalization signal. Truncation and substitution mutants of amino acid residues following Val416 can prevent internalization even though these residues do not belong to the internalization signal. It was shown recently that part of the LAP cytoplasmic tail peptide corresponding to 410-PPGY-413 forms a well-ordered beta turn structure in solution. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy of two modified LAP tail peptides, in which the single tyrosine was substituted either by phenylalanine or by alanine, revealed that the tendency to form a beta turn is reduced by 25% in the phenylalanine-containing peptide and by approximately 50% in the alanine-containing mutant peptide. Our results suggest, that in the short cytoplasmic tail of LAP tyrosine is required for stabilization of the right turn and that the aromatic ring system of the tyrosine residue is a contact point to the putative cytoplasmic receptor. Images PMID:1425575

  3. Stable isotope coded derivatizing reagents as internal standards in metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Bruheim, Per; Kvitvang, Hans Fredrik Nyvold; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2013-06-28

    Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometric (MS) detection have become the two main techniques for the analysis of metabolite pools (i.e. Metabolomics). These technologies are especially suited for Metabolite Profiling analysis of various metabolite groups due to high separation capabilities of the chromatographs and high sensitivity of the mass analysers. The trend in quantitative Metabolite Profiling is to add more metabolites and metabolite groups in a single method. This should not be done by compromising the analytical precision. Mass spectrometric detection comes with certain limitations, especially in the quantitative aspects as standards are needed for conversion of ion abundance to concentration and ionization efficiencies are directly dependent on eluent conditions. This calls for novel strategies to counteract all variables that can influence the quantitative precision. Usually, internal standards are used to correct any technical variation. For quantitation of single or just a few analytes this can be executed with spiking isotopically labeled standards. However, for more comprehensive analytical tasks, e.g. profiling tens or hundreds of analytes simultaneously, this strategy becomes expensive and in many cases isotopically labeled standards are not available. An alternative is to introduce a derivatizing step where the sample is derivatized with naturally labeled reagent, while a standard solution is separately derivatized with isotopically labeled reagent and spiked into the sample solution prior to analysis. This strategy, named isotope coded derivatization - ICD, is attractive in the emerging field of quantitative Metabolite Profiling where current protocols can easily comprise over hundred metabolites. This review provides an overview of isotopically labeled derivatizing reagents that have been developed for important metabolite groups with the aim to improve analytical performance and precision.

  4. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine §...

  5. Quantitative MALDI tandem mass spectrometric imaging of cocaine from brain tissue with a deuterated internal standard.

    PubMed

    Pirman, David A; Reich, Richard F; Kiss, András; Heeren, Ron M A; Yost, Richard A

    2013-01-15

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is an analytical technique used to determine the distribution of individual analytes within a given sample. A wide array of analytes and samples can be investigated by MSI, including drug distribution in rats, lipid analysis from brain tissue, protein differentiation in tumors, and plant metabolite distributions. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is a soft ionization technique capable of desorbing and ionizing a large range of compounds, and it is the most common ionization source used in MSI. MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) is generally considered to be a qualitative analytical technique because of significant ion-signal variability. Consequently, MSI is also thought to be a qualitative technique because of the quantitative limitations of MALDI coupled with the homogeneity of tissue sections inherent in an MSI experiment. Thus, conclusions based on MS images are often limited by the inability to correlate ion signal increases with actual concentration increases. Here, we report a quantitative MSI method for the analysis of cocaine (COC) from brain tissue using a deuterated internal standard (COC-d(3)) combined with wide-isolation MS/MS for analysis of the tissue extracts with scan-by-scan COC-to-COC-d(3) normalization. This resulted in significant improvements in signal reproducibility and calibration curve linearity. Quantitative results from the MSI experiments were compared with quantitative results from liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS results from brain tissue extracts. Two different quantitative MSI techniques (standard addition and external calibration) produced quantitative results comparable to LC-MS/MS data. Tissue extracts were also analyzed by MALDI wide-isolation MS/MS, and quantitative results were nearly identical to those from LC-MS/MS. These results clearly demonstrate the necessity for an internal standard for quantitative MSI experiments. PMID:23214490

  6. Utilizing Internal Standard Responses to Assess Risk on Reporting Bioanalytical Results from Hemolyzed Samples.

    PubMed

    Fung, Eliza N; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Allentoff, Alban; Ji, Qin C

    2015-09-01

    Bioanalytical analysis of toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic samples is an integral part of small molecule drugs development and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been the technique of choice. One important consideration is the matrix effect, in which ionization of the analytes of interest is affected by the presence of co-eluting interfering components present in the sample matrix. Hemolysis, which results in additional endogenous components being released from the lysed red blood cells, may cause additional matrix interferences. The effects of the degree of hemolysis on the accuracy and precision of the method and the reported sample concentrations from hemolyzed study samples have drawn increasing attention in recent years, especially in cases where the sample concentrations are critical for pharmacokinetic calculation. Currently, there is no established procedure to objectively assess the risk of reporting potentially inaccurate bioanalytical results from hemolyzed study samples. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different degrees of hemolysis on the internal standard peak area, accuracy, and precision of the analyses of BMS-906024 and its metabolite, BMS-911557, in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. In addition, we proposed the strategy of using the peak area of the stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) from the LC-MS/MS measurement as the surrogate marker for risk assessment. Samples with peak areas outside of the pre-defined acceptance criteria, e.g., less than 50% or more than 150% of the average IS response in study samples, plasma standards, and QC samples when SIL-IS is used, are flagged out for further investigation. PMID:25975617

  7. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  8. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

  9. International Comparison of FTIR measurements traceable to HITRAN and Gravimetrically prepared Gas Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, F.; Joële, V.; Philippe, M.; Faraz, I.; Robert, W.

    2009-12-01

    An international comparison is being organised to compare measurement results of gas concentration that are traceable to the HITRAN database with SI traceable values based on gravimetrically prepared gas standards. The results of the comparison will allow potential biases for specific gas species in the HITRAN database to be identified. The comparison is being performed on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) but the developed methodology is applicable to the majority of gas species in the HITRAN database. There is a high international priority attached to activities which reduce NOx in the atmosphere. The current level of permitted emissions is typically between 50 μmol/mol and 100 μmol/mol, but lower values are expected in the future. Currently, ambient air quality monitoring regulations also require the measurement of NOx mole fractions of 0.2 μmol/mol. To determine accurately the NO2 mole fraction at ambient levels high quality primary gas references are desirable. However, since NO2 is a reactive gas, stability problems in the gas standards below mole fractions of 100 μmol/mol, and particularly below 10 μmol/mol, has been observed and studied at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures during the last years. An international comparison of NO2 measurement capabilities between National Metrology Institutes, coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, was initiated in June 2009. The comparison consists in two main protocols, the protocol CCQM-K74 and the protocol CCQM-P110. The procedure CCQM-K74 comparison is designed to evaluate the level of comparability of the laboratories’ measurement capabilities for NO2 at a nominal mole fraction of 10 μmol/mol based on their own measurement capabilities. The CCQM-P110 protocol, open only to laboratories maintaining Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy facilities, aims to evaluate the level of comparability of laboratories’ NO2 measurement capabilities based on FTIR spectroscopy traceable to primary

  10. Water uptake of internally mixed ammonium sulfate and dicarboxylic acid particles probed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, Lorena; Méndez, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, María N.; Castaño, Fernando; Basterretxea, Francisco J.

    2013-05-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are usually mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds in variable proportions, and the relative amount of organic fraction can influence the hygroscopic properties of the particles. Infrared spectra of submicrometer internally mixed dry particles of ammonium sulfate (AS) with various dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, maleic, glutaric and pimelic) have been measured in an aerosol flow tube at several solute mass ratios. The spectra show a notable broadening in the bandwidth of sulfate ion ν3 vibrational band near 1115 cm-1 with respect to pure AS. We attribute these perturbations, that are biggest at AS/organic acid mass ratio near unity, to intermolecular interactions between inorganic ions and organic acid molecules in the internally mixed solids. The water uptake behavior of internally mixed particles has been measured by recording the infrared integrated absorbance of liquid water as a function of relative humidity (RH). The amount of water present in the particles prior to deliquescence correlates partially with the water solubilities of the dicarboxylic acids, and also with the relative magnitudes of intermolecular interactions in the internally mixed dry solids. Phase change of ammonium sulfate in the internally mixed particles with RH has been spectrally monitored, and it is shown that water uptaken before full deliquescence produces structural changes in the particles that are revealed by their vibrational spectra.

  11. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  12. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

  13. Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report. Appendix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This appendix accompanies the report "Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report," a study conducted by Achieve to compare the science standards of 10 countries. This appendix includes the following: (1) PISA and TIMSS Assessment Rankings; (2) Courses and Levels…

  14. Reproducible vapor-time profiles using solid-phase microextraction with an externally sampled internal standard.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William; Moore, Stephanie; Schantz, Michele

    2012-06-29

    Determination of the dynamic nature of vapor/odor release has application in a wide variety of systems. This study applies automated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) utilizing an externally sampled internal standard (ESIS) to determine the vapor-time profile of odor delivery devices for three classes of explosive compounds. The profiles of delivery systems for target odorants 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EH), and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) as canine training aids were compared over a period of 70 h. Strategies for evaluating the vapor-time profile of components with widely differing volatility are considered. An approach to quantifying the vapor concentration is described. The differences in the vapor-time profiles are examined and suggestions for selecting the best representative odor delivery technique are outlined. PMID:22633864

  15. Increasing Allele Detection by Altering the Quantity of Internal Lane Standard.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Jessica M; Michalik, Monnie; Dukes, Mary Jones; Wojtkiewicz, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic injection (EI) is the primary method used in forensic laboratories to load amplified PCR product in capillary electrophoresis for short tandem repeat (STR) fragment separation. Because all samples subjected to capillary electrophoresis use internal lane standard (ILS), this study investigated the consequence of varying the volume of ILS and its effects on allele peak heights and number of alleles detected. Results demonstrated that when the volume of ILS is reduced, the average peak height and number of alleles increased, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the detection method. Sizing anomalies were observed; however, they did not adversely affect accuracy and precision. The method developed in this study offers a simple and universal procedure to increase the alleles detected in forensic STR analysis. Reducing the volume of ILS to achieve greater sensitivity is applicable to all STR amplification kits and capillary electrophoresis instruments currently used in forensic DNA analysis. PMID:26390320

  16. Heteromer score-using internal standards to assess the quality of proteomic data.

    PubMed

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, Stephen J

    2014-05-01

    In the cell, the majority of proteins exist in complexes. Most of these complexes have a constant stoichiometry and thus can be used as internal standards. In this rapid communication, we show that it is possible to calculate a correlation coefficient that reflects the reproducibility of the analytical approach used. The abundance of one subunit in a heterodimer is plotted against the abundance of the other, and this is repeated for all subunits in all heteromers found in the data set. The correlation coefficient obtained (the "heteromer score") is a new bioinformatic tool that is independent of the method used to collect the data, requires no special sample preparation and can be used retrospectively on old datasets. It can be used for quality control, to indicate when a change becomes significant or identify complexes whose stoichiometry has been perturbed during the experiment.

  17. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Joel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M.; Ackerson, Teri; Bernhardt, Julie; Davie, Charlie; George, Mary G.; Gething, Stephanie; Kelly, Adam G.; Lindsay, Patrice; Liu, Liping; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Morgan, Louise; Norrving, Bo; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Silver, Frank L.; Smith, Eric E.; Williams, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures was defined for use in a variety of healthcare settings. Methods— A modified Delphi process was implemented with an international expert panel representing patients, advocates, and clinical specialists in stroke outcomes, stroke registers, global health, epidemiology, and rehabilitation to reach consensus on the preferred outcome measures, included populations, and baseline risk adjustment variables. Results— Patients presenting to a hospital with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were selected as the target population for these recommendations, with the inclusion of transient ischemic attacks optional. Outcome categories recommended for assessment were survival and disease control, acute complications, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes proposed for assessment at 90 days were pain, mood, feeding, selfcare, mobility, communication, cognitive functioning, social participation, ability to return to usual activities, and health-related quality of life, with mobility, feeding, selfcare, and communication also collected at discharge. One instrument was able to collect most patient-reported subdomains (9/16, 56%). Minimum data collection for risk adjustment included patient demographics, premorbid functioning, stroke type and severity, vascular and systemic risk factors, and specific treatment/care-related factors. Conclusions— A consensus stroke measure Standard Set was developed as a simple, pragmatic method to increase the value of stroke care. The set should be validated in practice when used for monitoring and comparisons across different care settings. PMID:26604251

  18. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  20. A novel reductive amination method with isotopic formaldehydes for the preparation of internal standard and standards for determining organosulfur compounds in garlic.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Cheng; Liu, Meng-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Reng; Huang, Mei-Fang; Liang, Shih-Shin

    2016-04-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is a long-cultivated plant that is widely utilized in cooking and has been employed as a medicine for over 4000 years. In this study, we fabricated standards and internal standards (ISs) for absolute quantification via reductive amination with isotopic formaldehydes. Garlic has four abundant organosulfur compounds (OSCs): S-allylcysteine, S-allylcysteinine sulfoxide, S-methylcysteine, and S-ethylcysteine are abundant in garlic. OSCs with primary amine groups were reacted with isotopic formaldehydes to synthesize ISs and standards. Cooked and uncooked garlic samples were compared, and we utilized tandem mass spectrometry equipped with a selective reaction monitoring technique to absolutely quantify the four organosulfur compounds.

  1. Effects of iron deficiency on iron binding and internalization into acidic vacuoles in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Paz, Yakov; Shimoni, Eyal; Weiss, Meira; Pick, Uri

    2007-07-01

    Uptake of iron in the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina is mediated by a transferrin-like protein (TTf), which binds and internalizes Fe(3+) ions. Recently, we found that iron deficiency induces a large enhancement of iron binding, which is associated with accumulation of three other plasma membrane proteins that associate with TTf. In this study, we characterized the kinetic properties of iron binding and internalization and identified the site of iron internalization. Iron deficiency induces a 4-fold increase in Fe binding, but only 50% enhancement in the rate of iron uptake and also increases the affinity for iron and bicarbonate, a coligand for iron binding. These results indicate that iron deprivation leads to accumulation and modification of iron-binding sites. Iron uptake in iron-sufficient cells is preceded by an apparent time lag, resulting from prebound iron, which can be eliminated by unloading iron-binding sites. Iron is tightly bound to surface-exposed sites and hardly exchanges with medium iron. All bound iron is subsequently internalized. Accumulation of iron inhibits further iron binding and internalization. The vacuolar inhibitor bafilomycin inhibits iron uptake and internalization. Internalized iron was localized by electron microscopy within vacuolar structures that were identified as acidic vacuoles. Iron internalization is accompanied by endocytosis of surface proteins into these acidic vacuoles. A novel kinetic mechanism for iron uptake is proposed, which includes two pools of bound/compartmentalized iron separated by a rate-limiting internalization stage. The major parameter that is modulated by iron deficiency is the iron-binding capacity. We propose that excessive iron binding in iron-deficient cells serves as a temporary reservoir for iron that is subsequently internalized. This mechanism is particularly suitable for organisms that are exposed to large fluctuations in iron availability. PMID:17513481

  2. Establishment of replacement International Standard 13/132 for human antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Rijpkema, Sjoerd; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Guy, Edward C

    2016-09-01

    Sixteen laboratories carried out a collaborative study to validate 13/132 as a replacement International Standard (IS) for TOXM (3rd IS for anti-Toxoplasma Serum, Human, 1000 IU). 13/132 is a freeze dried preparation of pooled human plasma from six donors who experienced a recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. The potency of 13/132 was compared to TOXM and 01/600 (1st IS for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, Human, 20 IU). Samples were tested for IgA, IgG, IgG avidity and IgM in agglutination assays; enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), enzyme linked fluorescent assays, immunoblots, immunofluorescence assays and the Sabin-Feldman dye test for Ig. 13/132 was strongly positive for Ig, IgA, IgG and IgM and the reproducibility was very good. 13/132 contains high levels of anti-Toxoplasma Ig, IgG and IgM and its potency falls between TOXM and 01/600. The avidity of IgG was found to be low, similar to the avidity of IgG from TOXM. 13/132 was established by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 4th IS for Antibodies, Human, to T. gondii with an assigned unitage of 160 IU per ampoule for Ig by dye test and 263 U per ampoule for IgG by ELISA. PMID:27378430

  3. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine. PMID:24110023

  4. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    SciTech Connect

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R.; Goble, W.; Kumar, V.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  5. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine.

  6. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  7. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  8. Improved theophylline serum analysis by an appropriate internal standard for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D G; Davis, H L; Johnson, G E

    1976-06-23

    A gas chromatographic method is presented for the measurement of theophylline in serum. To serum samples containing the drug the internal standard, 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine, was added and the serum was saturated with ammonium carbonate. A mixture of isopropanol-chloroform (5:95) was used for extraction. The organic phase was filtered and evaporated. The residue, dissolved in chloroform, was extracted with sodium hydroxide. The basic solution was acidified, washed with hexane and reextracted with isopropanol-chloroform. The organic phase was dried with anhydrous sodium sulphate before evaporation. The sample was derivatized with n-Butyl-8 reagent. 85% of theophylline was recovered by extraction. 3-Isobutyl-l-methylxanthine was recovered with the same efficiency as theophylline and gas chromatographed well. The standard curve was linear between 1.0 and 50.0 mug/ml theophylline. No interference was encountered from normal serum constituents or methylxanthines such as caffeine, theobromine, or 3-methylxanthine. Serum samples were stared in the refrigerator for two weeks without significant loss of drug. The precision and accuracy of the method were good.

  9. Considerations of an air-quality standard to protect terrestrial vegetation from acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acidic precipitation which is here defined as wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/, are reviewed. At the present time there is an inadequate amount of information that shows decreases in crop growth except for one field study. Most studies with plants (crops and forests) are inadequate for standard setting because they are not conducted in the field with adequate randomization of plots coupled with rigorous statistical analyses. Although visible injury to foliage has been documented in a variety of greenhouse studies, no experimental evidence demonstrates loss of field crop value or reduction in plant productivity due to visible foliar injury. Acidic precipitation can contribute nutrients to vegetation and could also influence leaching rates of nutrients from vegetation. Although these processes occur, there are no data that show changes in nutrient levels in foliage that relate to crop or natural ecosystem productivity. Experimental results show that fertilization of ferns is inhibited by current levels of acidic precipitation in the northeastern United States. However, the overall impacts of inhibited fertilization on perpetuation of the species or ecosystem productivity have not been evaluated. Simulated acidic precipitation has been shown to effect plant pathogens in greenhouse and field experiments. Simulated acidic precipitation inhibited pathogen activities under some circumstances and promoted pathogen activities under other circumstances. No conclusion can be drawn about the effects of current levels of precipitation acidity on plant pathogen-host interactions. From these data it must be concluded that research on the effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation is too meager to draw any conclusions with regard to an air quality standard.

  10. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... credit procedures, pit credit play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the... for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including...

  11. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... credit procedures, pit credit play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the... for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including...

  12. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled 17-hydroxyprogesterone suitable as an internal standard for isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, K.; Yamaga, N.; Kohara, H.

    1988-03-01

    A synthesis is reported of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, labeled with four atoms of deuterium at ring C and suitable for use as an internal standard for isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Base-catalyzed equilibration of methyl 3 alpha-acetoxy-12-oxo-cholanate (III) with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O, followed by reduction of the 12-oxo group by the modified Wolff-Kisher method using (/sup 2/H)diethylene glycol and (/sup 2/H)hydrazine hydrate afforded (11,11,12,12,23,23(-2)H)lithocholic acid (V). The Meystre-Miescher degradation of the side chain of V yielded 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-(11,11,12,12(-2)H)pregnan-20-one (X). Oxidation of the 3,20-enol-diacetate of X with perbenzoic acid followed by saponification afforded 3 alpha,17-dihydroxy-5 beta-(11,11,12,12(-2)H)pregnan-20-one (XI). Oxidation of XI with N-bromoacetamide yielded 17-hydroxy-5 beta-(11,11,12,12(-2)H)pregnane-3,20-dione (XII). Bromination of XII followed by dehydrobromination yielded 17-hydroxy-(11,11,12,12(-2)H) progesterone (XIV), consisting of 0.3% /sup 2/H0-, 1.1% /sup 2/H/sub 1/-, 8.6% /sup 2/H/sub 2/-, 37.1% /sup 2/H/sub 3/-, 52.1% /sup 2/H/sub 4/-, and 0.8% /sup 2/H/sub 5/-species.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of..., Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards...

  14. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... internal combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This action proposes to amend... internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and...

  15. Application of internal standardization to rapid coprecipitation technique using lanthanum phosphate for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of iron and lead.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Malek, Zanariah Abdul; Araki, Yasuko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2002-08-01

    By applying an internal standardization, we could use a rapid coprecipitation technique using lanthanum phosphate as a coprecipitant for preconcentration of iron(III) and lead in their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. Indium as an internal standard was added to the initial sample solution together with lanthanum and phosphoric acid; the coprecipitation of iron(III) and lead was then carried out at pH about 3. After measuring the atomic absorbances of iron, lead, and indium in the final sample solution, we determined the contents of iron(III) and lead in the original sample solution by using the internal standardization with indium. In this method, complete collection of the precipitate was not required after the coprecipitation of iron(III), lead, and indium, because the ratio of the recovery of iron(III) or lead to that of indium was almost constant regardless of the recovery of the precipitate. This method was simple and rapid, and was available for the determination of 2-300 micrograms L-1 of iron(III) and 5-400 micrograms L-1 of lead in some water samples.

  16. An Audit of Emergency Department Accreditation Based on Joint Commission International Standards (JCI)

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Motamedi, Maryam; Etemad, Mania; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Kaghazchi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite thousands of years from creation of medical knowledge, it not much passes from founding the health care systems. Accreditation is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation, quality enhancement, and the safety of health care systems. This study was conducted to assess the results of emergency department (ED) accreditation in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013 in terms of domesticated standards of joint commission international (JCI) standards. Methods: This cohort study with a four-month follow up was conducted in the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital in 2013. The standard evaluation checklist of Iran hospitals (based on JCI standards) included 24 heading and 337 subheading was used for this purpose. The effective possible causes of weak spots were found and their solutions considered. After correction, assessment of accreditation were repeated again. Finally, the achieved results of two periods were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities had the score of below 50%. The mean of total score for accreditation in ED in the first period was 60.4±30.15 percent and in the second period 68.9±22.9 (p=0.005). Strategic plans, head of department, head nurse, resident physician, responsible nurse for the shift, and personnel file achieved the score of 100%. Of total headings below 50% in the first period just in two cases, collection and analysis of data with growth of 40% as well as competency and capability test for staffs with growth of 17%, were reached to more than 50%. Conclusion: Based on findings of the present study, the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital reached the score of below 50% in six heading of quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data

  17. Exploring the evolution of standard amino-acid alphabet: When genomics meets thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong-Yu . E-mail: zhanghy@sdut.edu.cn

    2007-08-03

    One of the most intriguing aspects of life is that despite the diversified apparent shapes, similar building blocks and infrastructures, such as standard amino acids and canonical genetic codes, are shared by most life on Earth. Thus, it is challenging to explore: why nature just selects these building blocks and strategies from numerous candidates to construct life? Was this deterministic or fortuitous? Thanks to the rapid progress in genomics, bioinformatics and synthetic biology, more and more basic principles underlying life design and construction were disclosed in the past decade. However, since the origin of early life is substantially a chemical process, to understand the enigma of life origin, chemists' efforts can not be neglected. In this paper, we focus on the evolution of standard amino-acid alphabet and indicate that chemistry, especially thermodynamics, is indeed critical to understanding the forming mechanisms of amino-acid alphabet. It is revealed that nature prefers low free energy and thus ubiquitous (cheap) small amino acids when beginning to build life, which is compatible with many recent findings from genomics and bioinformatics.

  18. Creating an educationally minded schedule: one approach to minimize the impact of duty hour standards on intern continuity clinic experience.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Dominick; Kerrey, M Kathleen; Sucharew, Heidi; Klein, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    To determine if implementing an educationally minded schedule utilizing consecutive night shifts can moderate the impact of the 2011 duty hour standards on education and patient continuity of care in longitudinal primary care experience (continuity clinic). A 14-month pre-post study was performed in continuity clinic with one supervising physician group and two intern groups. Surveys to assess attitudes and education were distributed to the supervising physicians and interns before and after the changes in duty hour standards. Intern groups' schedules were reviewed for the number of regular and alternative day clinic (i.e. primary care experience on a different weekday) sessions and patient continuity of care. Fifteen supervising physicians and 51 interns participated (25 in 2011, 26 in 2012). Intern groups' comfort when discussing patient issues, educational needs and teamwork perception did not differ. Supervising physicians' understanding of learning needs and provision of feedback did not differ between groups. Supervising physicians indicated a greater ability to provide feedback and understand learning needs during regular continuity clinic sessions compared with alternative day clinics (all p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between intern groups in the number of regularly scheduled continuity clinics, alternative day clinics or patient continuity of care. The 2011 duty hour standards required significant alterations to intern schedules, but educationally minded scheduling limited impact on education and patient continuity in care. PMID:24841768

  19. Creating an educationally minded schedule: one approach to minimize the impact of duty hour standards on intern continuity clinic experience.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Dominick; Kerrey, M Kathleen; Sucharew, Heidi; Klein, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    To determine if implementing an educationally minded schedule utilizing consecutive night shifts can moderate the impact of the 2011 duty hour standards on education and patient continuity of care in longitudinal primary care experience (continuity clinic). A 14-month pre-post study was performed in continuity clinic with one supervising physician group and two intern groups. Surveys to assess attitudes and education were distributed to the supervising physicians and interns before and after the changes in duty hour standards. Intern groups' schedules were reviewed for the number of regular and alternative day clinic (i.e. primary care experience on a different weekday) sessions and patient continuity of care. Fifteen supervising physicians and 51 interns participated (25 in 2011, 26 in 2012). Intern groups' comfort when discussing patient issues, educational needs and teamwork perception did not differ. Supervising physicians' understanding of learning needs and provision of feedback did not differ between groups. Supervising physicians indicated a greater ability to provide feedback and understand learning needs during regular continuity clinic sessions compared with alternative day clinics (all p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between intern groups in the number of regularly scheduled continuity clinics, alternative day clinics or patient continuity of care. The 2011 duty hour standards required significant alterations to intern schedules, but educationally minded scheduling limited impact on education and patient continuity in care.

  20. Standardization of a new batch of purified tuberculin (PPD) intended for international use

    PubMed Central

    Guld, Johannes; Bentzon, M. Weis; Bleiker, M. A.; Griep, W. A.; Magnusson, Mogens; Waaler, Hans

    1958-01-01

    A new batch of PPD tuberculin, RT 23, prepared at the request of UNICEF by the Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, has been compared with previous batches of tuberculin from the Statens Seruminstitut and with the International Standard for the Purified Protein Derivative of Mammalian Tuberculin. The comparisons were made by intradermal tuberculin testing. The majority of tests were carried out in human subjects with various types and levels of tuberculin sensitivity—namely, tuberculous patients in the Netherlands; BCG-vaccinated as well as spontaneously tuberculin-sensitive army recruits in the Netherlands; BCG-vaccinated schoolchildren in Denmark; population groups in the tropics (Mauritius and Nigeria) including a high proportion of persons with low-grade sensitivity. In addition, comparisons were made in guinea-pigs sensitized in different ways. For these comparisons, RT 23 was diluted both with phosphate-buffered saline alone (as were the other preparations) and with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.05‰ Tween 80 as a stabilizing agent. The results were found to differe significantly with the type and level of sensitivity of the groups tested. Thus, while the potency ratio of RT 23 and the International Standard is about 2:1 in BCG-vaccinated persons, it is about 1:1 in persons with naturally acquired tuberculin sensitivity. RT 23 in diluent containing Tween 80 elicited larger reactions than did RT 23 in ordinary diluent; however, when reactions of the same size were compared, a difference in character was observed: the reactions to RT 23 diluted with Tween 80 were softer and less frequently bullous. On the basis of the results—in terms of reaction size—obtained in patients and in non-vaccinated recruits, it is suggested that one unit of RT 23 should be defined as 0.02 μg of the dry substance; for use as a first or single dose in routine testing, 0.02 μg of RT 23 in diluent stabilized with Tween 80, or 0.06 μg in diluent without Tween 80, is

  1. Standardization of microcystin extraction from fish tissues: a novel internal standard as a surrogate for polar and non-polar variants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Juliette L; Boyer, Gregory L

    2009-02-01

    Microcystins (MCs), a class of potent liver/hepatopancreatic toxins produced by numerous species of freshwater cyanobacteria, are well known for their toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. The extraction efficiencies of MCs can vary greatly as a result of matrix differences and/or differences in the extraction solvents, techniques, and clean-up steps utilized. Here we report the preparation of a unique internal standard, (S-hydroxypropyl-cys7)microcystin-LR (thiol-LR), with a mass different than any known MCs, which can be spiked into field samples and quantified via HPLC-MS along with endogenous MCs. Thiol-LR is modified at the Mdha residue, and therefore, provides an accurate measure of only free MCs that are not covalently bound to endogenous thiols in the matrix. The internal standard proved to be a good surrogate for MC-RR, -LR, and -LA in fish liver tissue. In fish muscle tissue, thiol-LR was a good surrogate for polar variants, MC-RR and -LR, but was less representative of the non-polar variant, MC-LA. Coupling of the internal standard (8 microg/g ww tissue) with HPLC-MS detection will standardize the quantification of free microcystins across species, tissue types, and extraction methods, making the estimation of exposure risk more reliable.

  2. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the

  3. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  4. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  5. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  6. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... play procedures, rim credit procedures, soft drop/count procedures and the subsequent transfer of funds... technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for hydrochloric... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric...

  8. Why countries support international environmental agreements: The regulation of acid rain in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinz, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    The protection of the environment has become a major challenge for international public policy in the 1980s. While international environmental agreements are seen as a way to limit environmental degradation, little is known why national governments support these agreements. This study focuses on the research question: Why do national governments spend scarce resources on the protection of the international environment The study presents a public choice foundation and empirically tests the impact of (i) pollution-generated incentives as well as (ii) domestic political-economic interests on national support for international environmental regulation. Theories of interdependence, the foreign environmental policy approach, and more recent syntheses of both approaches guide the explanation of the impact of asymmetrical, international pollution patterns on national support for international environmental regulation. Theories of postmaterialism, new social movements, and support for green or ecological parties are combined with theories of domestic political economy to explain national preferences for international regulation. These theories are integrated with public choice models, namely an amended externality model and an endogenous policy model. Hypotheses were tested for two contemporary environmental agreements which mandate substantial pollution reductions by signatory countries in the empirical analysis of the transboundary air pollution problem (acid rain) in Europe. These tests employed mass public attitude data, responses to expert interviews, and international pollution data. Both pollution-based theories and domestic political theories were supported in the various analyses. In a wider sense, the research findings offer guidance for the study of the regulation of global climate change, and contribute to the growing literature stressing the (i) domestic sources of international politics and (ii) links between domestic politics and international politics.

  9. Internal standards in fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy1 1 Publication authorized by the Director, U.S. Geological Survey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, I.; Axelrod, J.M.

    1955-01-01

    The use of internal standards in the analysis of ores and minerals of widely-varying matrix by means of fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy is frequently the most practical approach. Internal standards correct for absorption and enhancement effects except when an absorption edge falls between the comparison lines or a very strong emission line falls between the absorption edges responsible for the comparison lines. Particle size variations may introduce substantial errors. One method of coping with the particle size problem is grinding the sample with an added abrasive. ?? 1955.

  10. Using the CEN/ISO standard for categorial structure to harmonise the development of WHO international terminologies.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jean M; Kumar, Anand; Bousquet, Cédric; Trombert, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Semantic interoperability (SIOp) is a major issue for health care systems having to share information across professionals, teams, legacies, countries, languages and citizens. The World Health Organisation (WHO) develops and updates a family of health care terminologies (ICD, ICF, ICHI and ICPS) and has embarked on an open web-based cooperation to revise ICD 11 using ontology driven tools. The International Health Terminology Standard Development Organisation (IHTSDO) updates, translates and maps SNOMED CT to ICD 10. We present the application of the CEN/ISO standard on categorial structure to bind terminologies and ontologies to harmonise and to map between these international terminologies.

  11. International organization for standardization (ISO) 9000 and chemical agent standard analytical reference material (SASARM) quality system development and implementation. Phase 1. Final report, April 1993-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is in the process of developing an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 quality assurance (QA) system and a Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material (CASARM) QA program. Phase I of this process consisted of analyzing the current DPG QA system, defining the structure of the new QA system, determine how the ISO 9000 and the CASARM systems will interact, develop the new QA system and implementation plan, and develop the CASARM program and begin implementation. The initial phases of the system design and synthesis met the objectives established for Phase I of this methodology project. Phase II will complete the functional analysis, system design, and prototype implementation. The prototype will be analyzed for weaknesses in operation, personnel and equipment requirements, software, and cost effectiveness. The system will be modified, if needed, and implemented across the Materiel Test Directorate. The final stage of this methodology will be to achieve ISO 9000 registration. International Organization for Standardization(ISO) 9000, Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material(CASARM), Standardized Quality Assurance(QA), QA/Quality Control(QC).

  12. Physiological Employment Standards III: physiological challenges and consequences encountered during international military deployments.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Castellani, John W; Warr, Bradley J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Henning, Paul C; Spiering, Barry A; Scofield, Dennis E

    2013-11-01

    Modern international military deployments in austere environments (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) place considerable physiological demands on soldiers. Significant physiological challenges exist: maintenance of physical fitness and body composition, rigors of external load carriage, environmental extremes (heat, cold, and altitude), medical illnesses, musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic brain injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder, and environmental exposure hazards (i.e., burn pits, vehicle exhaust, etc.). To date there is very little published research and no comprehensive reviews on the physiological effects of deployments. The purpose of this paper is to overview what is currently known from the literature related mainly to current military conflicts with regard to the challenges and consequences from deployments. Summary findings include: (1) aerobic capacity declines while muscle strength, power and muscular endurance appear to be maintained, (2) load carriage continues to tax the physical capacities of the Soldier, (3) musculoskeletal injuries comprise the highest proportion of all injury categories, (4) environmental insults occur from both terrestrial extremes and pollutant exposure, and (5) post-deployment concerns linger for traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. A full understanding of these responses will assist in identifying the most effective risk mitigation strategies to ensure deployment readiness and to assist in establishment of military employment standards. PMID:23430237

  13. Mental health legislation in Lebanon: Nonconformity to international standards and clinical dilemmas in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Hala; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Mental health legislation represents an important mean of protecting the rights of persons with mental disabilities by preventing human rights violations and discrimination and by legally reinforcing the objectives of a mental health policy. The last decade has seen significant changes in the laws relating to psychiatric practice all over the world, especially with the implementation of the Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD). In this paper, we review the existing legislation in Lebanon concerning the following areas in mental health: treatment and legal protection of persons with mental disabilities, criminal laws in relation to offenders with mental disorders, and laws regulating incapacity. We will discuss these texts in comparison with international recommendations and standards on the rights of persons with disabilities, showing the recurrent contradiction between them. Throughout our article, we will address the clinical dilemmas that Lebanese psychiatrists encounter in practice, in the absence of a clear legislation that can orient their decisions and protect their patients from abuse.

  14. Development of an evaluation methodology for triple bottom line reports using international standards on reporting.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  15. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  16. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  17. Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David W.

    1997-12-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol. Quantitative analysis of either the acetone or ethyl acetate in the nail polish removers is accomplished by comparing the analyte peak intensities with that of an internal standard. The system in which deuterated acetone is used as a solvent and methylene chloride as an internal standard gave precise results for both commercial removers and for standards prepared from pure acetone or an ethyl acetate/ethanol mixture. As recovery from the standards was approximately 96 - 98% of what was anticipated, the analysis of the commercial products is also believed to be accurate.

  18. Electronic book format EPUB and Japanese typography : Mainstream people in Japan are unlikely to win international standardization battles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Makoto

    EPUB3 is an electronic book format based on Web technologies such as HTML and CSS. EPUB3 is internationalized; in particular, it supports Japanese typography. Features such as vertical writing were introduced by first creating CSS Writing Modes and CSS Text at W3C and then creating EPUB3 at IDPF on top of them. On the basis of this standardization experience, common pitfalls for Japanese in international standardization are pointed out and a promising approach is suggested.

  19. Effects of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) on CIE documentary standards for radiometry, photometry, and colorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, K.D.; Hsia, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The differences between ITS-90 and IPTS-68 (International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968) above 1235 K are described. It is shown that none of the following CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage or International Commission on Illumination) definitions or recommendations require revision because of the introduction of the ITS-90: International Lighting Vocabulary definitions; CIE Standard Illuminants A, D(65), other illuminants; and sources for realizing CIE Illuminants. The effect of the ITS-90 on previously calibrated sources for realizing CIE illuminants is negligibly small.

  20. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one... the limitations on operation of emergency stationary engines to allow emergency engines to operate...

  1. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  2. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  3. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  4. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO Technical Instructions), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Transport Canada TDG Regulations), and the International...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  10. Internal acid buffering in San Joaquin Valley fog drops and its influence on aerosol processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Jeffrey L.; Hoag, Katherine J.; Rao, Xin; Pandis, Spyros N.

    Although several chemical pathways exist for S(IV) oxidation in fogs and clouds, many are self-limiting: as sulfuric acid is produced and the drop pH declines, the rates of these pathways also decline. Some of the acid that is produced can be buffered by uptake of gaseous ammonia. Additional internal buffering can result from protonation of weak and strong bases present in solution. Acid titrations of high pH fog samples (median pH=6.49) collected in California's San Joaquin Valley reveal the presence of considerable internal acid buffering. In samples collected at a rural location, the observed internal buffering could be nearly accounted for based on concentrations of ammonia and bicarbonate present in solution. In samples collected in the cities of Fresno and Bakersfield, however, significant additional, unexplained buffering was present over a pH range extending from approximately four to seven. The additional buffering was found to be associated with dissolved compounds in the fogwater. It could not be accounted for by measured concentrations of low molecular weight ( C1- C3) carboxylic acids, S(IV), phosphate, or nitrophenols. The amount of unexplained buffering in individual fog samples was found to correlate strongly with the sum of sample acetate and formate concentrations, suggesting that unmeasured organic species may be important contributors. Simulation of a Bakersfield fog episode with and without the additional, unexplained buffering revealed a significant impact on the fog chemistry. When the additional buffering was included, the simulated fog pH remained 0.3-0.7 pH units higher and the amount of sulfate present after the fog evaporated was increased by 50%. Including the additional buffering in the model simulation did not affect fogwater nitrate concentrations and was found to slightly decrease ammonium concentrations. The magnitude of the buffering effect on aqueous sulfate production is sensitive to the amount of ozone present to oxidize S

  11. 76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION....gov/hazmat/regs/international . Following the 40th session of the UNSCOE TDG, PHMSA will place a copy... site at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . PHMSA's site at...

  12. 77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . Failure to pre-register may delay your access to... will be posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER....gov/hazmat/regs/international provides additional information regarding the UNSCOE TDG and...

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  14. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... ignition (CI) reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE) (75 FR 9648). The final NESHAP for... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. 75 FR 32612 (June 8, 2010). In that action, EPA... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...

  15. Standardization of formulations for the acute amino acid depletion and loading tests.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    The acute tryptophan depletion and loading and the acute tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of cerebral monoamines in behaviour and symptoms related to various disorders. The tests use either amino acid mixtures or proteins. Current amino acid mixtures lack specificity in humans, but not in rodents, because of the faster disposal of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by the latter. The high content of BCAA (30-60%) is responsible for the poor specificity in humans and we recommend, in a 50g dose, a control formulation with a lowered BCAA content (18%) as a common control for the above tests. With protein-based formulations, α-lactalbumin is specific for acute tryptophan loading, whereas gelatine is only partially effective for acute tryptophan depletion. We recommend the use of the whey protein fraction glycomacropeptide as an alternative protein. Its BCAA content is ideal for specificity and the absence of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine render it suitable as a template for seven formulations (separate and combined depletion or loading and a truly balanced control). We invite the research community to participate in standardization of the depletion and loading methodologies by using our recommended amino acid formulation and developing those based on glycomacropeptide.

  16. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  17. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... address, and signature; (iii) For personal checks, verify the patron's check cashing authority and...

  18. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  19. 25 CFR 543.20 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... performed in accordance with 25 CFR 547.12. (l) Verifying downloads. Following download of any Class II... information technology and information technology data? 543.20 Section 543.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.20 What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and...

  20. 25 CFR 543.20 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... performed in accordance with 25 CFR 547.12. (l) Verifying downloads. Following download of any Class II... information technology and information technology data? 543.20 Section 543.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.20 What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and...

  1. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  2. Deconstructing Institutionalisation of the European Standards for Quality Assurance: From Instrument Mixes to Quality Cultures and Implications for International Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The paper enquires into the implementation of the European Standards and Guidelines for Internal Quality Assurance of Higher Education Institutions (ESG 1). The enquiry uses data from universities in the Czech Republic and compares them against those obtained in the relevant pan-European survey. The aims are to empirically deconstruct ESG 1…

  3. Adherence to ethical standards in publishing scientific articles: a statement from the International Journal of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Shewan, Louise G; Coats, Andrew J S

    2012-11-29

    All authors of manuscripts in the International Journal of Cardiology are required to make a binding statement that they as authors adhere to the following principles: 1. That the corresponding author has the approval of all other listed authors for the submission and publication of all versions of the manuscript. 2. That all people who have the right to be recognised as authors have been included on the list of authors and everyone listed as an author has made an independent material contribution to the manuscript. 3. That the work submitted in the manuscript is original and has not been published elsewhere and is not presently under consideration of publication by any other journal other than in oral, poster or abstract format. 4. That the material in the manuscript has been acquired according to modern ethical standards and has been approved by the legally appropriate ethical committee. 5. That the article does not contain material copied from anyone else without their written permission and that all material which derives from prior work, including from the same authors, is properly attributed to the prior publication by proper citation. 6. That all material conflicts of interest have been declared including the use of paid medical writers and their funding source. 7. That the manuscript will be maintained on the servers of the journal and held to be a valid publication by the journal only as long as all statements in these principles remain true. 8. That if any of the statements above ceases to be true the authors have a duty to notify the journal as soon as possible so that the manuscript can be withdrawn. PMID:23106906

  4. Organizational leadership: A study on the affects of certification to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowart, Jewel S.

    Compliance to requirements of ISO is an important leadership problem for the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and the Aviation, Space and Defense (AS&D) companies. Furthermore, the IAQG seeks to understand the valuation of ISO/AS9100 requirements (2009), audit practices, management functions, business performance, customer satisfaction, and potential future concepts for the standard to assure quality. Since the release of the AS9100C total certification growth surpassed 1,100,000 organizations in 2010 with ISO 9001 series adoption and implementation governing business operations (ASQ, 2012b; ISO, 2011; Bernardo, Llach, & Marimon, 2011). Historians such as Crosby, Juran, Deming, and others established the foundation for quality assurance. Several researchers explored the issues which complicate overall benefits of ISO certification (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2012; Karthi et al., 2012; Sampaio et al., 2009). This study examined the effects on AS&D industries from ISO compliance to identify the implications (of ever-changing requirements) through an online survey of 15,000 practitioners. The research illuminated how ISO affects AS&D industries with current and future requirements for certification. The data showed that 75% of survey respondents report implementation of the AS9100C requirements still has benefits that outweigh the cost. Findings suggest that AS&D industries perceive significant value in the AS9100C document as part of the overall ISO 9000 series. In general, the comments from the survey can provide insight into the affects of ISO certification. The study concludes by recommending continued research to learn of further impacts from ISO certification within AS&D industries to improve the AS9100 document requirements for quality management systems.

  5. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Firnhaber, M.; Yegorova, L.; Brockmeier, U.

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  6. Selenium determination in biscuits and pasta: development of chronopotentiometric stripping determination by using a sulphide as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Svarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Stojanović, Zorica

    2013-10-15

    Being common in chromatographic techniques internal standard method is rarely applied in electrochemical stripping determinations. One of the reasons for such rare use of this elegant quantification method is because optimal conditions of accumulation at the electrode for individual compounds producing a reproducible signal may vary significantly. These criteria are much stricter when selenium is in question due to very complex mechanism of its accumulation at mercury electrodes which implies simultaneous cathodic mercury dissolution and chemical reaction. Elements that are in the analytical step stripped cathodically from mercury electrodes are rare, further limiting the application of the internal standard method when electrochemical selenium determination is in question. In this work the possibility of using sulphide for selenium quantification by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis was investigated. Optimal experimental parameters were defined in two-component systems. Dimensionless factors defining the ratio of proportionality constants of the two elements were calculated for different selenium concentration ranges at different sulphide contents. Sulphide content that was chosen as adequate for selenium concentrations reasonably to be expected in food samples was 500 µg/dm(3). Determined detection limit of chronopotentiometric stripping determination of selenium by using a sulphide as an internal standard was 0.04 µg/dm(3) (RSD=7.6%; n=5). Defined quantification method was confirmed by analysing spiked standard solutions and standard reference material. The method was used for selenium determination in biscuit and pasta samples. Calculated contents were statistically compared with those obtained by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  7. 25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following standards shall apply if a rabbit ear or wheel system is utilized: (i) A dedicated camera shall be... Tribal gaming regulatory authority upon request. (i) System security standards. (1) All keys...

  8. Establishment of the first international standard for PEGylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF): Report of an international collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian; Thorpe, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility of developing a suitable international reference standard for determination of in vitro biological activity of human sequence recombinant PEG-G-CSF products with a 20 kD linear PEG linked to the N-terminal methionyl residue of G-CSF (INN Filgrastim), produced using a conjugation process and coupling chemistry similar to that employed for the lead PEGfilgrastim product. Based on initial data which showed that the current WHO 2nd international standard, IS for G-CSF (09/136) or alternatively, a PEG-G-CSF standard with a unitage traceable to the G-CSF IS may potentially serve as the IS for PEG-G-CSF products, two candidate preparations of PEG-G-CSF were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC. These preparations were tested by 23 laboratories using in vitro bioassays in a multi-centre collaborative study. Results indicated that on the basis of parallelism, the current WHO 2nd IS for G-CSF or any of the PEG-G-CSF samples could be used as the international standard for PEG-G-CSF preparations. However, because of the variability in potency estimates seen when PEG-G-CSF preparations were compared with the current WHO 2nd IS for G-CSF, a candidate PEG-G-CSF was suitable as the WHO IS. The preparation 12/188 was judged suitable to serve as the WHO IS based on in vitro biological activity data. Therefore, the preparation coded 12/188 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2013 as the WHO 1st IS for human PEGylated G-CSF with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000 IU per ampoule. PMID:25450254

  9. Field Test Protocol. Standard Internal Load Generation for Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  10. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  11. Standard systems for measurement of pKs and ionic mobilities. 1. Univalent weak acids.

    PubMed

    Slampová, Andrea; Krivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Bocek, Petr

    2008-12-01

    Determination of pK values of weak bases and acids by CZE has already attracted big attention in current practice and proved to offer the advantage of being applicable for mixtures of analytes. The method is based on the measurement of mobility curves plotting the effective mobility vs. the pH of the background electrolyte, and following computer-assisted regression involving corrections for ionic strength and temperature. To cover the necessary range of pH for a given case, both buffering weak acids and bases are used in one set of measurements, which requires implementing computations of individual ionic strength corrections for each pH value. It is also well known that some components of frequently used background electrolytes may interact with the analytes measured, on forming associates or complexes. This obviously deteriorates the reliability of the resulting data. This contribution brings a rational approach to this problem and establishes a standard system of anionic buffers for measurements of pKs and mobilities of weak acids, where the only counter cation present (besides H(+)) is Na(+). In this way, the risk of formation of complexes or associates of analytes with counter ions is strongly reduced. Moreover, the standard system of anionic buffers is selected in such a way that it provides, for an entire set of measurements, constant and accurately known ionic strength and the operational conditions are selected so that they provide constant Joule heating. Due to these precautions only one correction for ionic strength and temperature is needed for the obtained set of experimental data. This considerably facilitates their evaluation and regression analysis as the corrections need not be implemented in the computation software. The reliability and the advantages of the proposed system are well documented by experiments, where the known problematic group of phenol derivatives was measured with high accuracy and without any notice of anomalous behaviour. PMID

  12. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  13. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  14. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  15. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  16. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  17. Standard enthalpies of formation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Skvortsov, I. A.; Korchagina, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Heat effects of the dissolution of crystalline γ-aminobutyric acid in water and potassium hydroxide solutions are determined by direct colorimetry at 298.15 K. Standard enthalpies of formation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution are calculated.

  18. Standard enthalpies of formation of α-aminobutyric acid and products of its dissociation in an aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.

    2016-08-01

    Heats of solution of crystalline α-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide at 298.15 K are measured by means of direct calorimetry. Standard enthalpies of formation of the amino acid and products of its dissociation in an aqueous solution are calculated.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are...

  1. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... this meeting by completing the form at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . Failure to... available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Vincent.../main/dgdb/dgsubc3/c3rep.html . PHMSA's site at...

  2. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... posted when available at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... accessed at: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . The public is invited to attend without... results on PHMSA's Hazardous Materials Safety Homepage at...

  3. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... internal combustion engines. The amendments inadvertently removed paragraphs from the regulation. EPA is... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3)....

  4. Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. )

    1990-05-01

    There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

  5. Improvements for comparative analysis of changes in diversity of microbial communities using internal standards in PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Dorthe Groth; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2005-08-01

    The use of internal standards both during DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE procedure gives the opportunity to analyse the relative abundance of individual species back to the original sample, thereby facilitating relative comparative analysis of diversity. Internal standards were used throughout the DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE to compensate for experimental variability. Such variability causes decreased reproducibility among replicate samples as well as compromise comparisons between samples, since experimental errors cannot be differentiated from actual changes in the community abundance and structure. The use of internal standards during DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE is suitable for ecological and ecotoxicological experiments with microbial communities, where relative changes in the community abundance and structure are studied. We have developed a protocol Internal Standards in Molecular Analysis of Diversity (ISMAD) that is simple to use, inexpensive, rapid to perform and it does not require additional samples to be processed. The internal standard for DNA extraction (ExtrIS) is a fluorescent 510-basepair PCR product which is added to the samples prior to DNA extraction, recovered together with the extracted DNA from the samples and analysed with fluorescence spectrophotometry. The use of ExtrIS during isolation of sample DNA significantly reduced variation among replicate samples. The PCR internal standard (PCR(IS)) originates from the Drosophila melanogaster genome and is a 140-basepair long PCR product, which is amplified by non-competitive primers in the same PCR reaction tubes as the target DNA and analysed together with the target PCR product on the same DGGE gel. The use of PCR(IS) during PCR significantly reduced variation among replicate samples both when assessing total PCR product and when comparing bands representing species on a DGGE gel. The entire ISMAD protocol was shown to accurately describe changes in relative abundance in an environmental sample

  6. [Acid polysaccharides of the internal zone of the kidney medulla of albino rats under different conditions of maintainance].

    PubMed

    Dubynin, T L

    1976-10-01

    Water-deprived albino rats displayed a greater stability of reaction to acid mucopolysaccharides in the interstitium of the distal portion of the internal zone of the medulla of the kidneys in case of greater air humidity.

  7. Progress in the global standardization of gravity: an analysis of the Woollard and Rose international gravity values

    SciTech Connect

    Woollard, G.P.; Godley, V.M.

    1980-12-01

    The history of improvements in the global standarization of gravity values since the advent of high range gravimeters in 1948 is reviewed. In particular the gravity base values given in SEG special publication International Gravity Measurements (Woolard and Rose, 1963) are evaluated against the most recent set of standarized gravity base values, The International Gravity Standardization Net, 1971 (Morelli et al, 1974). Adjunct IGSN 71 values prepared by the US Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (unpublished) are also used to give a more comprehensive worldwide comparison of values.

  8. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... major developments in the accountability and financial management profession and emphasize specific considerations applicable to the government environment. The draft of the proposed changes to Standards...

  9. 18O-labeled proteome reference as global internal standards for targeted quantification by selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L; Moore, Ronald J; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2011-12-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the application of stable isotope-labeled synthetic peptides as internal standards can be prohibitive for screening a large number of candidate proteins as often required in the preverification phase of discovery studies. Herein we present a proof of concept study using an (18)O-labeled proteome reference as global internal standards (GIS) for SRM-based relative quantification. The (18)O-labeled proteome reference (or GIS) can be readily prepared and contains a heavy isotope ((18)O)-labeled internal standard for every possible tryptic peptide. Our results showed that the percentage of heavy isotope ((18)O) incorporation applying an improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into the labeled mouse plasma reference. Reliable quantification was observed with high reproducibility (i.e. coefficient of variance <10%) for analyte concentrations that were set at 100-fold higher or lower than those of the GIS based on the light ((16)O)/heavy ((18)O) peak area ratios. The utility of (18)O-labeled GIS was further illustrated by accurate relative quantification of 45 major human plasma proteins. Moreover, quantification of the concentrations of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen was illustrated by coupling the GIS with standard additions of purified protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of (18)O-labeled proteome reference as GIS provides a convenient, low cost, and effective strategy for relative quantification of a large number of candidate proteins in biological or clinical samples using SRM.

  10. 18O-Labeled Proteome Reference as Global Internal Standards for Targeted Quantification by Selected Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol W.; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2011-10-11

    Selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biological and biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the use of stable isotope labeled synthetic peptides as internal standards is prohibitive for quantitatively screening large numbers of candidate proteins as often required in the pre-verification phase of biomarker discovery. Herein we present the proof-of-concept experiments of using an 18O-labeled 'universal' reference as comprehensive internal standards for quantitative SRM-MS analysis. With an 18O-labeled whole proteome sample as reference, every peptide of interest will have its own corresponding heavy isotope labeled internal standard, thus providing an ideal approach for quantitative screening of a large number of candidates using SRM-MS. Our results showed that the 18O incorporation efficiency using a recently improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated, a level comparable to 13C/15N labeled synthetic peptides in terms of heavy isotope incorporation. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into mouse plasma with an 18O-labeled mouse plasma reference. A dynamic range of four orders of magnitude in relative concentration was obtained with high reproducibility (i.e., coefficient of variance <10%) based on the 16O/18O peak area ratios. Absolute and relative quantification of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen were demonstrated by coupling an 18O-labeled reference with standard additions of protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of 18O-labeled reference provides a convenient and effective strategy for quantitative SRM screening of large number of candidate proteins.

  11. Guidelines of the Office International des Epizooties for laboratory quality evaluation, for international reference standards for antibody assays and for laboratory proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    Three guidelines, adopted by the International Committee of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), have been combined for publication in a single document. The Guidelines for evaluating laboratory quality (adopted in 1995) form part of the OIE Guidelines for evaluating Veterinary Services. General requirements for equipment, staffing and management of laboratories are outlined. The guidelines for international reference standards for antibody assays (adopted in 1998) provide general rules governing the preparation of immune sera by OIE Reference Laboratories. A data sheet should accompany each preparation dispatched from the laboratory, and details are given of the information to be contained in the data sheet. The guidelines are to be used in conjunction with the OIE Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Guidelines on the proficiency of laboratory testing (adopted in 1996) describe how the operation of a laboratory can be assessed by inter-laboratory testing, and by voluntary participation in an accreditation (quality assurance) audit, operated by an independent authority. Criteria for assessing serological testing are provided.

  12. Free nitrous acid pretreatment of wasted activated sludge to exploit internal carbon source for enhanced denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Peng, Yongzhen; Wei, Yan; Li, Baikun; Bao, Peng; Wang, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    Using internal carbon source contained in waste activated sludge (WAS) is beneficial for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio, but it is usually limited by sludge disintegration. This study presented a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment to intensify the release of organic matters from WAS for enhanced denitrification. During FNA pretreatment, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) production kept increasing when FNA increased from 0 to 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. Compared with untreated WAS, the internal carbon source production increased by 50% in a simultaneous fermentation and denitrification reactor fed with WAS pretreated by FNA for 24 h at 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. This also increased denitrification efficiency by 76% and sludge reduction by 87.5%. More importantly, greenhouse gas nitrous oxide production in denitrification was alleviated since more electrons could be provided by FNA pretreated WAS.

  13. Internal waves as a proposed mechanism for increasing ambient noise in an increasingly acidic ocean.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Daniel; Tang, Dajun

    2010-06-01

    The effect on the ambient noise level in shallow water of the ocean growing more acidic is modeled. Because most noise sources are near the surface, high-order acoustic modes are preferentially excited. Linear internal waves, however, can scatter the noise into the low-order, low-loss modes most affected by the changes in acidity. The model uses transport theory to couple the modes and assumes an isotropic distribution for the noise sources. For a scenario typical of the East China Sea, the noise at 3 kHz is predicted to increase by 30%, about one decibel, as the pH decreases from 8.0 to 7.4.

  14. Evolution of internal resistance during formation of flooded lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Chris; Deveau, Justin; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-09-01

    This study employs experimental techniques to measure the changing internal resistance of flooded, flat-plate lead-acid batteries during container formation, revealing a novel indicator of formation completeness. In order to measure internal resistance during formation, d.c. current pulses are superimposed over the constant formation current at set intervals, while change in voltage is measured. The resulting "pulsed" internal resistance is divided into ohmic and interfacial components by measuring the ohmic resistance with short d.c. pulses as well as with a.c. injection. Various constant-current container formations are carried out using different current levels, plate thicknesses, and pulsing techniques, yielding an array of resistance trends which are explained using Butler-Volmer kinetic theory. Ohmic and interfacial resistance trends are shown both theoretically and experimentally to eventually decay to a predictable steady-state value as the formation proceeds, suggesting that this internal resistance method can be used to detect the completion of the formation. The same principles are shown to apply to recharge cycles as well, but with potentially limited practical implications in comparison to formation.

  15. Water uptake properties of internally mixed sodium halide and succinic acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, Lorena; Méndez, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, María N.; Castaño, Fernando; Basterretxea, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols include appreciable fractions of organic material, that can affect properties such as hygroscopicity, phase transition or chemical reactivity. Although sodium chloride is the major component of marine salt, bromide and iodide ions tend to accumulate onto particle surfaces and influence their behaviour. The hygroscopic properties of internally mixed submicrometric particles composed of succinic acid (SA) and NaX (where X = F, Cl, Br or I) have been studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell at ambient temperature for different relative succinic acid/NaX compositions. The results show that deliquescence relative humidities of SA/NaF and SA/NaCl are equal to those of the pure sodium halides. SA/NaBr particles, on the other hand, deliquesce at lower relative humidities than pure NaBr particles, the effect being more marked as the SA/NaBr mass ratio approaches unity. The SA/NaI system behaves as a non-deliquescent system, absorbing liquid water at all relative humidities, as in pure NaI. Succinic acid phase in the particles has been spectroscopically monitored at given values of both RH and SA/NaX solute mass ratio. The different hygroscopic properties as the halogen ion is changed can be rationalized in terms of simple thermodynamic arguments and can be attributed to the relative contributions of ion-molecule interactions in the solid particles. The observed behaviour is of interest for tropospheric sea salt aerosols mixed with organic acids.

  16. Ribosome-mediated incorporation of a non-standard amino acid into a peptide through expansion of the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Bain, J D; Switzer, C; Chamberlin, A R; Benner, S A

    1992-04-01

    One serious limitation facing protein engineers is the availability of only 20 'proteinogenic' amino acids encoded by natural messenger RNA. The lack of structural diversity among these amino acids restricts the mechanistic and structural issues that can be addressed by site-directed mutagenesis. Here we describe a new technology for incorporating non-standard amino acids into polypeptides by ribosome-based translation. In this technology, the genetic code is expanded through the creation of a 65th codon-anticodon pair from unnatural nucleoside bases having non-standard hydrogen-bonding patterns. This new codon-anticodon pair efficiently supports translation in vitro to yield peptides containing a non-standard amino acid. The versatility of the ribosome as a synthetic tool offers new possibilities for protein engineering, and compares favourably with another recently described approach in which the genetic code is simply rearranged to recruit stop codons to play a coding role. PMID:1560827

  17. Standard Setting Lessons Learned in the South African Context: Implications for International Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitoniak, Mary J.; Yeld, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Criterion-referenced assessments have become more common around the world, with performance standards being set to differentiate different levels of student performance. However, use of standard setting methods developed in the United States may be complicated by factors related to the political and educational contexts within another country. In…

  18. Increasing the Validity of Angoff Standards through Analysis of Judge-Level Internal Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauser, Jerome C.; Clauser, Brian E.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend past work with the Angoff method for setting standards by examining judgments at the judge level rather than the panel level. The focus was on investigating the relationship between observed Angoff standard setting judgments and empirical conditional probabilities. This relationship has been used as a…

  19. 77 FR 70390 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... and Standards Directorate, Office of Design and Engineering Standards, Lifesaving and Fire Safety.... Taking of Private Property H. Civil Justice Reform I. Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting The Coast Guard does not plan...

  20. 75 FR 32611 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... standards would reduce nitrogen oxides by an estimated 1,100 tons per year, particulate matter by an... were initially published on July 11, 2006 (71 FR 39153). New source performance standards implement... NSPS put Federal restrictions on emissions of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NO X ),...

  1. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 2(nd) International Standard for Bleomycin Complex A2/B2.

    PubMed

    Jorajuria, S; Raphalen, C; Dujardin, V; Daas, A

    2015-01-01

    Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for bleomycin complex A2/B2. Eight laboratories from different countries participated. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 1(st) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 was used as a reference. Based on the results of the study, the 2(nd) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2014 with an assigned potency of 12 500 International Units (IU) per vial. The 2(nd) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  2. International Water Information Systems: Evolving the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System to a Standards-based Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D. W.; Taylor, P.; Arctur, D. K.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project is migrating core components of its service-oriented infrastructure to information models and service interfaces being standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), through coordination with the joint Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG) of the OGC and the World Meteorological Organization. The CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure for hydrologic observations will rely on OGC service standards including Web Map Service (WMS) for map portrayal, Web Feature Service (WFS) for delivery of geographic feature information, Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) for discovery in service catalogs, and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for data delivery. These standards will be supplemented by additional services and corresponding standards, such as the Water Quality Exchange (WQX), which is presently in use at the USGS and US EPA for delivery of water quality and ex situ analytical data. One of the key standards being developed through the OGC process is Water Markup Language (WaterML) 2.0, which specifies standard encoding for the representation of in-situ hydrological observations. Implemented as an application schema of OGC Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, focusing on encoding different types of hydrologic time series. In addition to developing this exchange standard, the HDWG conducts Interoperability Experiments (IE) to test WaterML 2.0 and OGC services to see they meet the requirements of the Hydrologic community. The Groundwater IE tested cross border exchange of water information between the US and Canada, and exercised, not only a prototype of WaterML 2.0, but existing standards GeoSciML and GroundwaterML. A Surface Water IE is testing 3 use cases focusing on cross-border exchange of surface water information, hydrologic forecasting, and automated monthly and yearly volume calculations from large

  3. Non-standard amino acid incorporation into proteins using Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hoon; Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Incorporating non-standard amino acids (NSAAs) into proteins enables new chemical properties, new structures, and new functions. In recent years, improvements in cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems have opened the way to accurate and efficient incorporation of NSAAs into proteins. The driving force behind this development has been three-fold. First, a technical renaissance has enabled high-yielding (>1 g/L) and long-lasting (>10 h in batch operation) CFPS in systems derived from Escherichia coli. Second, the efficiency of orthogonal translation systems has improved. Third, the open nature of the CFPS platform has brought about an unprecedented level of control and freedom of design. Here, we review recent developments in CFPS platforms designed to precisely incorporate NSAAs. In the coming years, we anticipate that CFPS systems will impact efforts to elucidate structure/function relationships of proteins and to make biomaterials and sequence-defined biopolymers for medical and industrial applications.

  4. Station coordinates in the Standard Earth III system derived by using camera data from ISAGEX. [International Satellite Geodesy Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.; Latimer, J.; Mendes, G.

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous and individual camera observations of Geos 1, Geos 2, Pageos, and Midas 4 obtained during the International Satellite Geodesy Experiment are used to determine station coordinates. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Standard Earth III system of coordinates is utilized to tie the geometrical network to a geocentric system and as a reference for calculating satellite orbits. The normal systems for geometrical and dynamical solutions are combined.

  5. International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working formulation of a standardized nomenclature for cardiac allograft vasculopathy-2010.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Dipchand, Anne; Ensminger, Stephan M; Hiemann, Nicola E; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Madsen, Joren; Parameshwar, Jayan; Starling, Randall C; Uber, Patricia A

    2010-07-01

    The development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains the Achilles heel of cardiac transplantation. Unfortunately, the definitions of cardiac allograft vasculopathy are diverse, and there are no uniform international standards for the nomenclature of this entity. This consensus document, commissioned by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation Board, is based on best evidence and clinical consensus derived from critical analysis of available information pertaining to angiography, intravascular ultrasound imaging, microvascular function, cardiac allograft histology, circulating immune markers, non-invasive imaging tests, and gene-based and protein-based biomarkers. This document represents a working formulation for an international nomenclature of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, similar to the development of the system for adjudication of cardiac allograft rejection by histology.

  6. International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working formulation of a standardized nomenclature for cardiac allograft vasculopathy-2010.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Dipchand, Anne; Ensminger, Stephan M; Hiemann, Nicola E; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Madsen, Joren; Parameshwar, Jayan; Starling, Randall C; Uber, Patricia A

    2010-07-01

    The development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains the Achilles heel of cardiac transplantation. Unfortunately, the definitions of cardiac allograft vasculopathy are diverse, and there are no uniform international standards for the nomenclature of this entity. This consensus document, commissioned by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation Board, is based on best evidence and clinical consensus derived from critical analysis of available information pertaining to angiography, intravascular ultrasound imaging, microvascular function, cardiac allograft histology, circulating immune markers, non-invasive imaging tests, and gene-based and protein-based biomarkers. This document represents a working formulation for an international nomenclature of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, similar to the development of the system for adjudication of cardiac allograft rejection by histology. PMID:20620917

  7. Reliable LC-MS quantitative glycomics using iGlycoMab stable isotope labeled glycans as internal standards.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiyue; Tello, Nadia; Harvey, Alex; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Glycans have numerous functions in various biological processes and participate in the progress of diseases. Reliable quantitative glycomic profiling techniques could contribute to the understanding of the biological functions of glycans, and lead to the discovery of potential glycan biomarkers for diseases. Although LC-MS is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative glycomics, the variation of ionization efficiency and MS intensity bias are influencing quantitation reliability. Internal standards can be utilized for glycomic quantitation by MS-based methods to reduce variability. In this study, we used stable isotope labeled IgG2b monoclonal antibody, iGlycoMab, as an internal standard to reduce potential for errors and to reduce variabililty due to sample digestion, derivatization, and fluctuation of nanoESI efficiency in the LC-MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans released from model glycoproteins, human blood serum, and breast cancer cell line. We observed an unanticipated degradation of isotope labeled glycans, tracked a source of such degradation, and optimized a sample preparation protocol to minimize degradation of the internal standard glycans. All results indicated the effectiveness of using iGlycoMab to minimize errors originating from sample handling and instruments. PMID:26913967

  8. Lipophilic benzamide and anilide derivatives as high-performance liquid chromatography internal standards: application to sirolimus (rapamycin) determination.

    PubMed

    Ferron, G M; Conway, W D; Jusko, W J

    1997-12-01

    Finding a suitable internal standard in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is often difficult. A general approach for selecting and synthesizing the proper internal standard is presented and applied to a validated method for quantitation of sirolimus in several biological matrices. A series of fifteen N-alkylbenzamides, N-alkyltoluamides and N-alkanoylanilines with a log P range of 3.51 to 6.68 were synthesized as internal standards; N-undecyl-o-toluamide was evaluated most extensively. Sirolimus quantitation involves a simple sample clean-up procedure followed by isocratic chromatography on a heated C18 analytical column with an 70% methanol-water mobile phase and ultraviolet detection at 278 nm. This method was linear from 2.5 to 200 ng with a limit of quantitation of 2.5 ng using a 1-ml blood sample. Sirolimus recovery was above 72.1%. The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 11.7%. Several drugs and sirolimus metabolites do not interfere with the analysis. This method was used to measure sirolimus in blood from rats, rabbits and humans.

  9. Separation and determination of tetrandrine and fangchinoline in herbal medicines by flow injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with internal standard method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Liu, Xiumei; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-12-01

    A simple, rapid and precision flow injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (FI-MEKC) system with trimethoprim as internal standard (IS) for automated quantitative analysis of tetrandrine (TET) and fangchinoline (FAN) in various herbal medicines was demonstrated. The real sample throughput was 19-40 samples per hour using the background electrolyte (BGE) containing 15mM acetic acid-15mM sodium acetate-3% (v/v) polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20)-5% (v/v) methanol at pH 5.5. The method resulted in excellent linearity, with correlation coefficient of regression equation of 0.9996 and 0.9991 for TET and FAN, respectively. Recoveries were in the range 95-109% and 92-106% for TET and FAN, respectively. PMID:16314176

  10. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4233 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4233 Section 60.4233... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4233 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary SI internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and...

  15. Promotion of viral internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation under amino acid starvation.

    PubMed

    Licursi, Maria; Komatsu, Yumiko; Pongnopparat, Theerawat; Hirasawa, Kensuke

    2012-05-01

    Cap-dependent and internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation are regulated differently within cells. Viral IRES-mediated translation often remains active when cellular cap-dependent translation is severely impaired under cellular stresses induced by virus infection. To investigate how cellular stresses influence the efficiency of viral IRES-mediated translation, we used a bicistronic luciferase reporter construct harbouring IRES elements from the following viruses: encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human rhinovirus (HRV). NIH3T3 cells transfected with these bicistronic reporter constructs were subjected to different cellular stresses. Increased translation initiation was only observed under amino acid starvation when EMCV or FMDV IRES elements were present. To identify cellular mechanisms that promoted viral IRES-mediated translation, we tested the involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP), general control non-depressed 2 (GCN2) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B), as these are known to be modulated under amino acid starvation. Knockdown of 4E-BP1 impaired the promotion of EMCV and FMDV IRES-mediated translation under amino acid starvation, whereas GCN2 and eIF2B were not involved. To further investigate how 4E-BP1 regulates translation initiated by EMCV and FMDV IRES elements, we used a phosphoinositide kinase-3 inhibitor (LY294002), an mTOR inhibitor (Torin1) or leucine starvation to mimic 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation induced by amino acid starvation. 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation induced by the treatments was not sufficient to promote viral IRES-mediated translation. These results suggest that 4E-BP1 regulates EMCV and FMDV IRES-mediated translation under amino acid starvation, but not via its dephosphorylation. PMID:22302880

  16. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; O'Connell, Steven G; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff M; De Silva, Amila O; Muir, Derek C G; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Reagen, William K; Malinsky, Michelle; Schäfer, Sandra; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M

    2012-11-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants. These SRMs can also serve as test materials for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants of emerging concern. Because inter-laboratory comparison studies have revealed substantial variability of measurements of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), future analytical measurements will benefit from determination of consensus values for PFAAs in SRMs to provide a means to demonstrate method-specific performance. To that end, NIST, in collaboration with other groups, has been measuring concentrations of PFAAs in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels of PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) determined in four biological SRMs: fish tissue (SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue), bovine liver (SRM 1577c), and mussel tissue (SRM 2974a). We also report concentrations for three in-house quality-control materials: beluga whale liver, pygmy sperm whale liver, and white-sided dolphin liver. Measurements in SRMs show an array of PFAAs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) being the most frequently detected. Reference and information values are reported for PFAAs measured in these biological SRMs. PMID:22476786

  17. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  18. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed.

  19. International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics - 30 years of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George D.; Gonczy, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties/performance of brittle bodies (e.g., advanced ceramics and glasses) can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. For three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed numerous full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure various properties and performance of a monolithic and composite ceramics and coatings that, in some cases, may be applicable to glasses. These standards give the "what, how, how not, why, why not, etc." for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of advanced ceramics. Use of these standards provides accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Involvement in ASTM Committee C28 has included users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. who write, continually update, and validate through round robin test programmes, more than 45 standards in the 30 years since the Committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the ASTM Committee C28 standards and how to obtain them either as i) individual copies with full details or ii) a complete collection in one volume. A listing of other ASTM committees of interest is included. In addition, some examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics are employed to demonstrate their practical application.

  20. Technical Study Addresses a Key Challenge to Harmonizing U.S. and International PV Module Standards (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NREL builds community and industry support by addressing concerns voiced by key standards organizations. Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers in the United States test the safety of their products using standards developed through consensus processes. Because U.S. PV module safety standards are not aligned with international standards, manufacturers must test their modules twice - and sometimes maintain separate product lines. By meeting with standards organizations such as the Solar ABCs and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leaders have worked to identify different stakeholders priorities and concerns. UL, specifically, has expressed concern that the international standards do not address all possible risks. For example, new encapsulant materials could soften at high temperatures and frameless modules could slide apart, exposing live electrical parts or allowing glass to fall on a person below. The deformation of a solid material under the influence of mechanical stresses is known as 'creep.' Current module qualification tests are limited to 85 C, whereas modules can, for short times, reach 105 C outdoors. In response to UL's concern, NREL designed and executed an experiment to compare on-sun and accelerated rates of creep for modules fabricated with various encapsulants, including some that have low melting points. Objectives were to (1) evaluate the potential for creep in outdoor exposure, (2) provide guidance on the risks and design needs with thermoplastic materials, and (3) provide a basis for modifying standards to account for materials with potential to creep. The study tested experimental materials with eight representative encapsulants in both outdoor and indoor (chamber) exposure. The study found that modules with materials that were expected to creep did so in the indoor exposure, but not in most outdoor environments and mounting configurations. The results provide a basis for defining an accelerated test needed to

  1. Internal quality audit and quality standards as a method of quality improvement at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nasić, Mirjana; Pokupec, Rajko; Katusić, Damir; Miklić, Pavle; Suić, Ivan; Galić, Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Quality assessment of clinical health care with the programme of quality standard is a method of health management, through which better efficiency and safety of health outcomes can be achieved. In the period from 2002 to 2004, a pilot program of quality has been carried out on the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Center in Zagreb. Seven internal audit teams of hospital commission and teams of hospital departments were evaluating introducing practice for quality standards every three months. In the period of two years improvement in all standards of quality has been noticed (expressed in percent of progress towards the ideal result of 100%): personnel 20%, patient rights 15%, medical equipment 40%, quality of emergency service 60%, implementation of clinical guidelines and criteria for elective admission 55%, quality of risk prevention 70%, quality of medical records 60%. The two-years-improvement dynamics of about 46%, first year 24%.

  2. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels?...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels?...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4217 - What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special fuels? 60.4217... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4217 What emission standards must I meet if I am an owner or operator of a stationary internal combustion engine using special...

  7. 78 FR 68501 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912, Jan. 25, 2012). Signed at Washington, DC, on October 29... completing the form at http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/regs/international . Attendees may pre-register for... live meeting access will be posted when available at...

  8. The Impact of International Students on Measured Learning and Standards in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    International students, who are also often from non-English language speaking backgrounds (NESB students), are an important source of revenue for Australian universities. Yet little large-scale evidence exists about their performance once they arrive. Do these students perform worse than other students in Australian undergraduate classrooms? What…

  9. Standards for Quality? A Citical Appraisal of the Berlin Principles for International Rankings of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hägg, Ingemund; Wedlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the principles developed to assure the quality of international ranking practices for higher education, the so-called Berlin Principles, and the role given to them in the higher education community. While the principles are generally regarded as proper quality assurance principles, they are problematic both in their content…

  10. 75 FR 47520 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... combustion engines. In this ] notice, we are announcing a 30-day extension of the public comment period for... combustion engines. After publication of the proposed rule, EPA received requests from the American...

  11. Internal Medicine House Officers' Performance as Assessed by Experts and Standardized Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Judith G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three chronically ill patients were trained to evaluate the performance of 31 second-year internal medicine house officers based upon: a checklist for the medical data elicited during the medical interview; the process of the interview; and the physical examination technique. (Author/MLW)

  12. Establishing and Verifying the Traceability of Remote-Sensing Measurements to International Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, Gerald T.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the principles of establishing and verifying the traceability of remote sensing measurements to national and international scales. Doing this allows comparisons to be made independent of time or locale, and improves understanding of instrument performance, provides confidence in the accuracy of the measurements, improves measurement accuracy and helps contractors understand and meet agency requirements, protecting contractor and customer.

  13. Descriptors for Competence: Towards an International Standard Classification for Skills and Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Plaimauer, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard…

  14. Fatigue resistance of ITI implant-abutment connectors -- a comparison of the standard cone with a novel internally keyed design.

    PubMed

    Perriard, Jean; Wiskott, W Anselm; Mellal, Aissa; Scherrer, Susanne S; Botsis, John; Belser, Urs C

    2002-10-01

    The Straumann Company has recently supplemented its standard 'morse-taper' configuration with an octagonal internal key. During the restorative phase of implant treatment, this additional feature was designed to ensure positional duplicability between the laboratory and the clinical environments. It was, however, unclear whether this keying mechanism would decrease the mechanical strength of the connection between the implant and the abutment. This applies to keyed male and female parts but also to combinations of the new and the standard designs. Specially constructed specimens analogs representing all three combinations were fitted with a T-shaped bar, preangled to 15 degrees and subjected to vertical force applications provided by a servohydrolic fatigue tester. The loading frequency was 2 Hz and the maximum cycle number was 106. The data were evaluated using the staircase technique. The specimens were also modeled and analyzed numerically using finite element procedures. The samples' failure locations were recorded and the displacement vs. cycle number plots were patterned in four groups. The fatigue tests and staircase analysis showed no difference in mechanical resistance between the standard and the internally keyed connectors. The finite element models revealed a stress concentration located at the apical edges of the octagonal connector. However, it appeared that this phenomenon was based on computational rather than mechanical grounds. The locations of the failure sites were distributed randomly across the structures, thereby indicating the absence of a locus of minor resistance. The patterns of the displacement vs. cycle number could not be attributed to specific combinations between the standard and the internally keyed designs. It was concluded that both connectors are equal in their mechanical resistance to bending and torquing forces.

  15. The Apollo Accreditation Program: A web-based Joint Commission International standards compliance management tool.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Shaveta; Sibal, Anupam; Uberoi, R S; Kaur, Ishneet; Nayak, Yogamaya; Kar, Sujoy; Loria, Gaurav; Yatheesh, G; Balaji, V

    2014-01-01

    Creating and implementing processes to deliver quality care in compliance with accreditation standards is a challenging task but even more daunting is sustaining these processes and systems. There is need for frequent monitoring of the gap between the expected level of care and the level of care actually delivered so as to achieve consistent level of care. The Apollo Accreditation Program (AAP) was implemented as a web-based single measurable dashboard to display, measure and compare compliance levels for established standards of care in JCI accredited hospitals every quarter and resulted in an overall 15.5% improvement in compliance levels over one year. PMID:25985559

  16. Standardization of natural mycolic acid antigen composition and production for use in biomarker antibody detection to diagnose active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ndlandla, F L; Ejoh, V; Stoltz, A C; Naicker, B; Cromarty, A D; van Wyngaardt, S; Khati, M; Rotherham, L S; Lemmer, Y; Niebuhr, J; Baumeister, C R; Al Dulayymi, J R; Swai, H; Baird, M S; Verschoor, J A

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is characterized by the abundance of species specific, antigenic cell wall lipids called mycolic acids. These wax-like molecules all share an identical, amphiphilic mycolic motif, but have different functional groups in a long hydrophobic hydrocarbon mero-chain that divide them into three main classes: alpha-, keto- and methoxy-mycolic acids. Whereas alpha-mycolic acids constitutively maintain an abundance of around 50%, the ratio of methoxy- to keto-mycolic acid types may vary depending on, among other things, the growth stage of M. tuberculosis. In human patients, antibodies to mycolic acids have shown potential as diagnostic serum biomarkers for active TB. Variations in mycolic acid composition affect the antigenic properties and can potentially compromise the precision of detection of anti-mycolic acids antibodies in patient sera to natural mixtures. We demonstrate this here with combinations of synthetic mycolic acid antigens, tested against TB patient and control sera. Combinations of methoxy- and α-mycolic acids are more antigenic than combinations of keto- and α-mycolic acids, showing the former to give a more sensitive test for TB biomarker antibodies. Natural mixtures of mycolic acids isolated from mature cultures of M. tuberculosis H37Rv give the same sensitivity as that with synthetic methoxy- and α-mycolic acids in combination, in a surface plasmon resonance inhibition biosensor test. To ensure that the antigenic activity of isolates of natural mycolic acids is reproducible, we cultured M. tuberculosis H37Rv on Middlebrook 7H10 solid agar plates to stationary growth phase in a standardized, optimal way. The proportions of mycolic acid classes in various batches of the isolates prepared from these cultures were compared to a commercially available natural mycolic acid isolate. LC-MS/MS and NMR data for quantitation of mycolic acids class compositions show that the variation in batches

  17. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information technology? 542.16 Section 542.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... standards for information technology? Link to an amendment published at 73 FR 60498, Oct. 10, 2008. This... information technology procedures to go undetected or fraud to be concealed. (5) Non-information...

  18. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... information technology? 542.16 Section 542.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... standards for information technology? Link to an amendment published at 73 FR 60498, Oct. 10, 2008. This... prevent error in general information technology procedures to go undetected or fraud to be concealed....

  19. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... information technology? 542.16 Section 542.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... standards for information technology? Link to an amendment published at 73 FR 60498, Oct. 10, 2008. This... adequately segregated and monitored to prevent error in general information technology procedures to...

  20. Linking Vocational Education and Training Standards and Employment Requirements: An International Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Bob

    This document, the fourth volume in a series, details a process for linking vocational education and training (VET) standards and employment requirements that was developed in the United Kingdom and based on functional analysis. The introductory sections describe the other three manuals in the series and the process used to develop this manual.…

  1. 76 FR 62961 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Standards'' in the Federal Register. See 75 FR 53458. The comment period for the NPRM closed on November 29... certain equipment and materials requiring Coast Guard approval. See 44 FR 73038 (December 17, 1979). The... has not increased at a comparable rate.'' 43 FR 49440 (October 23, 1978). The Coast Guard...

  2. Distance Education Assessment Infrastructure and Process Design Based on International Standard 23988

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is an important part of distance education (DE). As class sizes get larger and workloads increase, the IT infrastructure and processes used for DE assessments become more of an issue. Using the BS ISO/IEC 23988:2007 Standard for the use of technology in the delivery of assessments as a guide, this paper describes a rational approach to…

  3. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information technology? 542.16 Section 542.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... standards for information technology? Link to an amendment published at 73 FR 60498, Oct. 10, 2008. This... information technology procedures to go undetected or fraud to be concealed. (5) Non-information...

  4. 25 CFR 543.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accounts and cashless systems. (1) All smart cards (i.e., cards that possess the means to electronically... control standards for bingo? (a) Bingo Cards—(1) Inventory of bingo paper. (i) The bingo paper inventory... may be the unique card identifier(s) sold or when electronic bingo card faces are sold, the...

  5. 25 CFR 543.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounts and cashless systems. (1) All smart cards (i.e., cards that possess the means to electronically... control standards for bingo? (a) Bingo Cards—(1) Inventory of bingo paper. (i) The bingo paper inventory... may be the unique card identifier(s) sold or when electronic bingo card faces are sold, the...

  6. 25 CFR 543.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accounts and cashless systems. (1) All smart cards (i.e., cards that possess the means to electronically... control standards for bingo? (a) Bingo Cards—(1) Inventory of bingo paper. (i) The bingo paper inventory... may be the unique card identifier(s) sold or when electronic bingo card faces are sold, the...

  7. How Is Cultural Diversity Positioned in Teacher Professional Standards? An International Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Ninetta; Kennedy, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of global mobility mean that culturally homogenous classrooms are now increasingly rare. This brings with it challenges for teachers and raises issues about what constitutes quality teaching and teachers. Professional standards are commonly seen as a key policy instrument through which teacher quality can be enhanced. This…

  8. Agreement and Diagnostic Performance of FITNESSGRAM®, International Obesity Task Force, and Hungarian National BMI Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…

  9. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...: Background Information Document. On March 5, 2009 (71 FR 9698), EPA proposed national emission standards for... sources on June 15, 2004 (69 FR 33474). EPA promulgated NESHAP for new and reconstructed stationary RICE... on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 3568). On March 3, 2010, EPA promulgated NESHAP for existing...

  10. Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns over the need for a scientifically literate workforce, increasing the STEM pipeline, and aging science standards documents, the scientific and science education communities are embarking on the development of a new conceptual framework for science, led by the National Research Council (NRC), and aligned next generation…

  11. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' under the authority provided in 31 U.S.C... Comptroller General of the United States established the Green Book Advisory Council to provide input on revisions to the ``Green Book.'' This exposure draft of the standards includes the Advisory Council's...

  12. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deposit (cash, check, chips); however, (vi) Provided all of the information in paragraph (c)(2)(i) through... equivalents, chips, and tokens shall be accepted from customers for the purpose of a customer deposit. (7) The... Commission upon request. (e) Chip and token standards. The Tribal gaming regulatory authority, or the...

  13. 25 CFR 543.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... games? 543.10 Section 543.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... control standards for card games? (a) Supervision. Supervision must be provided as needed during the card... personnel independent of the transaction or independent of the card games department; or (2) A dealer...

  14. 25 CFR 543.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... games? 543.10 Section 543.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... control standards for card games? (a) Supervision. Supervision must be provided as needed during the card... personnel independent of the transaction or independent of the card games department; or (2) A dealer...

  15. 25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by the Tribal gaming regulatory authority, will be acceptable. (b) Game play standards. (1) The computerized customer ticket shall include the date, game number, ticket sequence number, station number, and... writing and voiding of tickets after a game has been closed and after the number selection process...

  16. 25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... perform the following: (i) For a minimum of five games per week, compare the video recording and/or... by the Tribal gaming regulatory authority, will be acceptable. (b) Game play standards. (1) The computerized customer ticket shall include the date, game number, ticket sequence number, station number,...

  17. International intraindustry trade and environmental policy: US EPA emission standards and the sales of imported German cars to the US

    SciTech Connect

    Waldner, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the potential effects of domestic environmental policy on international trade are analyzed. An international intraindustry trade model is developed for two countries with one industry, differential products and economies to scale. Into such a model an environmental policy variable is introduced. It is demonstrated that the environmental policy may have the effect of an import subsidy, a nontariff trade barrier or may be neutral. The impact depends on the relative cost and revenue changes due to the policy. Additionally, welfare effects due to the policy are examined. From the model, hypotheses are tested that the US EPA emission standards had the effect of an import subsidy for German cars imported to the US. For this purpose, a hedonic price index is estimated to measure the relative price of German cars. The EPA standards are found to decrease the relative price of German cars and decreases in the relative price of German cars are found to increase the ratio of German to domestic autos in the US. It is found that a 1% increase in the emission standards caused an increase an increase in the sales ratio of German cars in the US in a range between 0.077 and 0.176%.

  18. Evidence-based Standardized Care Plans for Use Internationally to Improve Home Care Practice and Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Monsen, K.A.; Foster, D.L.; Gomez, T.; Poulsen, J.K.; Mast, J.; Westra, B.L.; Fishman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To develop evidence-based standardized care plans (EB-SCP) for use internationally to improve home care practice and population health. Methods A clinical-expert and scholarly method consisting of clinical experts recruitment, identification of health concerns, literature reviews, development of EB-SCPs using the Omaha System, a public comment period, revisions and consensus. Results Clinical experts from Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United States participated in the project, together with University of Minnesota School of Nursing graduate students and faculty researchers. Twelve Omaha System problems were selected by the participating agencies as a basic home care assessment that should be used for all elderly and disabled patients. Interventions based on the literature and clinical expertise were compiled into EB-SCPs, and reviewed by the group. The EB-SCPs were revised and posted on-line for public comment; revised again, then approved in a public meeting by the participants. The EB-SCPs are posted on-line for international dissemination. Conclusions Home care EB-SCPs were successfully developed and published on-line. They provide a shared standard for use in practice and future home care research. This process is an exemplar for development of evidence-based practice standards to be used for assessment and documentation to support global population health and research. PMID:23616884

  19. Overweight and Obesity among Children (10-13 years) in Bahrain:A comparison between Two International Standards

    PubMed Central

    O. Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Marzog, Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity has become one of the main public health problems worldwide. Childhood obesity rate is growing very fast in both developed and developing countries. This paper aimed to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children aged 10-13 years in Bahrain, and to find out the difference in this prevalence when using two international standards. Methods: A multistage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 2146 students (1068 males, 1078 females) from public schools in Bahrain. Weight and height were measured and Body Mass Index for age and sex was calculated to determine the obesity levels. Both International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and World Health Organization (WHO) references were used to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results: The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 15.7% to 28.9% among males and from 21.1% to 30.7% among females. The WHO reference standard provided higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than IOTF reference. Conclusion: The study confirmed that obesity is a problem of concern in Bahraini school children and calls for intervention programme to combat obesity in schools. However, the standard used to determine obesity levels should be carefully selected and interpreted. PMID:24948966

  20. [Investigation of the efficacy of electrolyzed acid water on the standard strains of some pathogenic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Ileri, Ciğdem; Sezen, Yavuz; Dimoglo, Anatoli

    2006-10-01

    Many of the studies have indicated that electrolyzed acid water (EAW) has a strong microbicidal activity. In this study, EAW was obtained by the exposure of NaCl (10 g/L) and tap water mixture to direct electric current (2 ampere) during 15 minutes, in an instrument designed by the study group. EAW was tested for its inactivation efficacy on the standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different concentrations and for different periods (0, 10, 30 and 60 seconds). The EAW dilutions were prepared by using sterile deionized water in the rates of 100% (undiluted), 20%, 10%, 5%, 2% and 1%, while deionized water alone was used as control. The oxidation-reduction potency, pH, and free cloride amounts were separately measured in different concentrations of EAW. UNE-EN 1276 standard was used to investigate the inhibitory efficacy of EAW on S. aureus ATCC 29213, C. albicans ATCC 10231 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 through the use of membrane filtration method. As a result, all of the microorganisms have been completely inactivated at the end of 10th second, in all of the EAW concentrations, except 1% dilution. However, after the treatment with 1% EAW during 60 seconds, it was determined that an average population of 4.09 log cfu/ml, 4.56 log cfu/ml, and 3.62 log cfu/ml survived, respectively for S. aureus, C. albicans and P. aeruginosa. Our data showed that 2% concentration of EAW had a bactericidal effect and may be used for the surface disinfection in practice.

  1. Bile Acid Responses in Methane and Non-Methane Producers to Standard Breakfast Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bile acids and their conjugates are important regulators of glucose homeostasis. Previous research has revealed the ratio of cholic acid to deoxycholic acid to affect insulin resistance in humans. Bile acid de-conjugation and intestinal metabolism depend on gut microbes which may be affected by hos...

  2. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  3. A versatile retractor for use in harvesting the internal mammary artery and performing standard cardiac operations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S J; Core, M

    1989-04-01

    A versatile retractor is described that can be used to harvest either mammary artery without disturbing the operative field and can be converted to a standard sternotomy retractor. It uses the principle of elevating the cut sternal edge and applying external pressure to the area of the costochrondal junction to rotate the mammary pedicle into view. We have used this retractor and found it to be very efficient in exposing the mammary pedicle while being atraumatic to the sternum.

  4. Coal quality control in the context of international standards ISO 9000-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Freidina, E.V.; Botvinnik, A.A.; Dvornikova, A.N.

    2008-11-15

    The paper sets forth scientific foundations and organizational-technical environment offered by ISO 9000 standards that are oriented to product quality management and, thus, product quality planning. The authors describe the results of coal product quality planning with using the QFD methodology, present a model of coal quality control through the coal product life cycle and mining technologies. It is proposed to evaluate the quality management efficiency by the coefficient of concordance between the product quality and consumer's demands.

  5. Phosphorylation and Internalization of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Hernández-Méndez, Aurelio; Campos-Martínez, Gisselle A.; Meizoso-Huesca, Aldo; García-Sáinz, J. Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Results The lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 were individually expressed in C9 cells and their signaling and regulation were studied. Agonist-activation increases intracellular calcium concentration in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phorbol myristate acetate markedly inhibited LPA1- and LPA3-mediated effect, whereas that mediated by LPA2 was only partially diminished; the actions of the phorbol ester were inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide I and by overnight incubation with the protein kinase C activator, which leads to down regulation of this protein kinase. Homologous desensitization was also observed for the three LPA receptors studied, with that of LPA2 receptors being consistently of lesser magnitude; neither inhibition nor down-regulation of protein kinase C exerted any effect on homologous desensitization. Activation of LPA1–3 receptors induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation; this effect was markedly attenuated by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting growth factor receptor transactivation in this effect. Lysophosphatidic acid and phorbol myristate acetate were able to induce LPA1–3 phosphorylation, in time- and concentration-dependent fashions. It was also clearly observed that agonists and protein kinase C activation induced internalization of these receptors. Phosphorylation of the LPA2 subtype required larger concentrations of these agents and its internalization was less intense than that of the other subtypes. Conclusion Our data show that these three LPA receptors are phosphoproteins whose phosphorylation state is modulated by agonist-stimulation and protein kinase C-activation and that differences in regulation and cellular localization exist, among the subtypes. PMID:26473723

  6. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    PubMed

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  7. Treatment of Internal Hemorrhoids by Endoscopic Sclerotherapy with Aluminum Potassium Sulfate and Tannic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tomiki, Yuichi; Ono, Seigo; Aoki, Jun; Takahashi, Rina; Ishiyama, Shun; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Yaginuma, Yukihiro; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Okuzawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A new sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids, aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA), is attracting attention as a curative treatment for internal hemorrhoids without resection. The outcome and safety of ALTA sclerotherapy using an endoscope were investigated in the present study. Materials and Methods. Subjects comprised 83 internal hemorrhoid patients (61 males and 22 females). An endoscope was inserted and retroflexed in the rectum, and a 1st-step injection was applied to the upper parts of the hemorrhoids. The retroflexed scope was returned to the normal position, and 2nd–4th-step injections were applied to the middle and lower parts of the hemorrhoids under direct vision. The effects of endoscopic ALTA sclerotherapy were determined by evaluating the condition of the hemorrhoids using an anoscope and interviewing the patient 28 days after the treatment. Results. A cure, improvement, and failure were observed in 54 (65.1%), 27 (32.5%), and 2 (2.4%) patients, respectively, treated with ALTA. Complications developed in 4 patients (mild fever in 3 and hematuria in 1). Recurrence occurred in 9.6%. Conclusions. The results of the present study suggest that endoscopic ALTA has the potential to become a useful and minimally invasive approach for ALTA sclerotherapy. PMID:26246785

  8. Generation of Internal-Image Functional Aptamers of Okadaic Acid via Magnetic-Bead SELEX

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Wang, Dong-Xu; Li, Lin; Hu, Pan; Gong, Sheng; Li, Yan-Song; Cui, Cheng; Wu, Zong-Cheng; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin; Lu, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates and primarily accumulates in bivalves, and this toxin has harmful effects on consumers and operators. In this work, we first report the use of aptamers as novel non-toxic probes capable of binding to a monoclonal antibody against OA (OA-mAb). Aptamers that mimic the OA toxin with high affinity and selectivity were generated by the magnetic bead-assisted systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) strategy. After 12 selection rounds, cloning, sequencing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, four candidate aptamers (O24, O31, O39, O40) were selected that showed high affinity and specificity for OA-mAb. The affinity constants of O24, O31, O39 and O40 were 8.3 × 108 M−1, 1.47 × 109 M−1, 1.23 × 109 M−1 and 1.05 × 109 M−1, respectively. Indirect competitive ELISA was employed to determine the internal-image function of the aptamers. The results reveal that O31 has a similar competitive function as free OA toxin, whereas the other three aptamers did not bear the necessary internal-image function. Based on the derivation of the curvilinear equation for OA/O31, the equation that defined the relationship between the OA toxin content and O31 was Y = 2.185X − 1.78. The IC50 of O31 was 3.39 ng·mL−1, which was close to the value predicted by the OA ELISA (IC50 = 4.4 ng·mL−1); the IC10 was 0.33 ng·mL−1. The above data provides strong evidence that internal-image functional aptamers could be applicable as novel probes in a non-toxic assay. PMID:26694424

  9. International pressure vessels and piping codes and standards. Volume 2: Current perspectives; PVP-Volume 313-2

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.R.; Asada, Yasuhide; Adams, T.M.

    1995-12-01

    The topics in this volume include: (1) Recent or imminent changes to Section 3 design sections; (2) Select perspectives of ASME Codes -- Section 3; (3) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- an international outlook; (4) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- ASME Code Sections 3, 8 and 11; (5) Codes and Standards Perspectives for Analysis; (6) Selected design perspectives on flow-accelerated corrosion and pressure vessel design and qualification; (7) Select Codes and Standards perspectives for design and operability; (8) Codes and Standards perspectives for operability; (9) What`s new in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code?; (10) A look at ongoing activities of ASME Sections 2 and 3; (11) A look at current activities of ASME Section 11; (12) A look at current activities of ASME Codes and Standards; (13) Simplified design methodology and design allowable stresses -- 1 and 2; (14) Introduction to Power Boilers, Section 1 of the ASME Code -- Part 1 and 2. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the individual papers.

  10. A compendium of human mitochondrial DNA control region: development of an international standard forensic database.

    PubMed

    Miller, K W; Budowle, B

    2001-06-01

    A compendium of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region types has been constructed. This updated compilation indexes over 10,000 population-specific mtDNA nucleotide sequences in a standardized format. The sequences represent mtDNA types from the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) mtDNA database and from the public literature. The SWGDAM data are considered to be of higher quality than the public data, particularly for counting the number of times a particular haplotype has been observed. PMID:11387646

  11. International standard for future automotive 42 V supply voltages (PowerNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, Wolfgang

    The development of innovative automotive systems is determined by the demand for cut in fuel consumption and increase in fuel efficiency, reduction of environmental pollution and comfort improvement. A basic condition for such developments is the introduction of a 42 V power supply in future vehicles. The characteristics of future power supplies and the resulting consequences for the system, the components and the whole vehicle power supply architecture need standardisation in different areas. The electrical stress for the vehicle components is addressed in the standard ISO 21848 and this paper gives details about the status of the standardisation work.

  12. Incentives for Organ Donation: Proposed Standards for an Internationally Acceptable System

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than harm. We herein address the second concern and propose for discussion standards and guidelines for an acceptable system of incentives for donation. We believe that if systems based on these guidelines were developed, harms would be no greater than those to today’s conventional donors. Ultimately, until there are trials of incentives, the question of benefits and harms cannot be satisfactorily answered. PMID:22176925

  13. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  14. Determination of six kavalactones in dietary supplements and selected functional foods containing Piper methysticum by isocratic liquid chromatography with internal standard.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lihong; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Ang, Catharina Y W; Dinovi, Michael; Mattia, Antonia

    2005-01-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum) dietary products have been sold worldwide for treatment of nervous anxiety, tension, and restlessness. Recent reports showed potential association of kava usage and liver injuries. This study was conducted to develop simple and reliable methodologies for the extraction and determination of 6 major kavalactones: (+)-methysticin, (+)-dihydromethysticin, (+)-kavain, (+)-dihydrokavain, yangonin, and desmethoxyyangonin. Ultrasonic extraction techniques and isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) were optimized for different types of samples, including capsules containing kava root extract or root powder, raw root material, tea bags, and snack bar. A suitable internal standard, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, was used for LC calibration. Kavalactones were completely separated in 30 min using a Luna C18-2 column at 60 degrees C with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 2-propanol-acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (16 + 16 + 68 + 0.1, v/v/v/v). Within-laboratory, intraday, and interday method variation (% relative standard deviation) for most samples extracted by methanol or methanol-water mixture were <5%. Lower levels of kavalactone contents and higher variations were observed for tea bags from water extraction or infusion as compared to methanol extraction. Labeling information of tea bags based on methanol extraction could be misleading to consumers. Analytical recoveries of snack bar fortified at 10 and 20 microg/g were >84% with RSD values <8%. Methods developed in this study offer a simple and reproducible means for analysis of kavalactones in various matrixes of dietary products. PMID:15759721

  15. Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference to national and international standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, M; Yesudhason, P; Al-Mughairi, S; Al-Rahbi, W A K; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Mazrooei, N A; Al-Habsi, S H

    2011-09-01

    Commercially important fresh (581) and frozen (292) marine fish samples of 10 species were collected from seafood factories and evaluated using AAS and ICP-OES. Metal levels significantly (p<0.05) varied within and between species. However, there were no significant correlations among metals. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and yellowfin tuna had the highest level of cadmium and mercury however, red seabream had maximum numbers above the standards. The metal accumulation significantly varied between bottom feeders of intermediately size locally caught fish. The mean cadmium level ranged from 0.0049 to 0.036 mg kg(-1) and 1.37% of the total samples exceeded the EU and FAO standards. Mean lead content varied between 0.029 and 0.196 mg kg(-1), few samples crossed the EU (2.63%) and FAO (1.6%) limits. Mean mercury level ranged from 0.015 to 0.101 mg kg(-1) and none of the samples exceeded the EU limit. Of the total samples analyzed red seabream (2.06%), yellowfin tuna (1.14%), emperor (0.34%), santer bream (0.22%), king fish (0.11%) and skipjack tuna (0.11%) samples crossed the EU limits. In general, fish from these regions are within the safety levels recommended by various organizations and do not pose a health risk in terms of human diet. PMID:21700309

  16. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  17. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein

  18. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr Un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn's amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB's SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein meals

  19. Production, Purification, and Characterization of 15N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C.; Lowenthal, Mark S.; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA–protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length 15N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of 15N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented. PMID:26791985

  20. Standardized Outcome Measurement for Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Consensus From the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM)

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert L; Spatz, Erica S; Kelley, Thomas A; Stowell, Caleb J; Beltrame, John; Heidenreich, Paul; Tresserras, Ricard; Jernberg, Tomas; Chua, Terrance; Morgan, Louise; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Rosas Ruiz, Alba; Rumsfeld, John S; Sadwin, Lawrence; Schoeberl, Mark; Shahian, David; Weston, Clive; Yeh, Robert; Lewin, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) outcomes consistently improve when they are routinely measured and provided back to physicians and hospitals. However, few centers around the world systematically track outcomes, and no global standards exist. Furthermore, patient-centered outcomes and longitudinal outcomes are under-represented in current assessments. Methods and Results The nonprofit International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) convened an international Working Group to define a consensus standard set of outcome measures and risk factors for tracking, comparing, and improving the outcomes of CAD care. Members were drawn from 4 continents and 6 countries. Using a modified Delphi method, the ICHOM Working Group defined who should be tracked, what should be measured, and when such measurements should be performed. The ICHOM CAD consensus measures were designed to be relevant for all patients diagnosed with CAD, including those with acute myocardial infarction, angina, and asymptomatic CAD. Thirteen specific outcomes were chosen, including acute complications occurring within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, or percutaneous coronary intervention; and longitudinal outcomes for up to 5 years for patient-reported health status (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ-7], elements of Rose Dyspnea Score, and Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-2]), cardiovascular hospital admissions, cardiovascular procedures, renal failure, and mortality. Baseline demographic, cardiovascular disease, and comorbidity information is included to improve the interpretability of comparisons. Conclusions ICHOM recommends that this set of outcomes and other patient information be measured for all patients with CAD. PMID:25991011

  1. [Management of quality in an Intensive Care Unit: implementation of ISO 9001:2008 international standard].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Torrent, R; Sánchez Palacios, M; Santana Cabrera, L; Cobian Martinez, J L; García del Rosario, C

    2010-10-01

    The Quality Management Systems make it possible to prioritize actions to maintain the safety and efficacy of health technologies. The Intensive Care Unit of our hospital has implemented a quality management plan, which has obtained accreditation as "Service Certificate that manages its activities according to UNE-EN ISO 9001:2008" standard. With the application of quality management system, it has been possible to detect the needs that the Service can cover in order to obtain the satisfaction of the patient, relative or health personnel of the other services of the hospital, to improve communications inside and outside of service, to secure greater understanding of the processes of the organization and control of risk, to delimit responsibilities clearly to all the personnel, to make better use of the time and resources and, finally, to improve the motivation of the personnel.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR CONTAINING ANALOGS OF MONOMETHYLARSONIC ACID IN AQUEOUS PHASE STANDARDS AND CARROT EXTRACTS BY IC-ICP-MS AND IC-ESI-MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, sulfur analogs of well known arsenicals have been identified, generating a need for stable species-specific standards. This presentation will focus on the identification and characterization of a novel species, monomethylthioarsonic acid (MMTA), in carrots. A standard...

  3. Pollutant Emissions and Energy Efficiency under Controlled Conditions for Household Biomass Cookstoves and Implications for Metrics Useful in Setting International Test Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and...

  4. Malaria Diagnosis Across the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research: Platforms, Performance, and Standardization.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tamaki; Gamboa, Dionicia; Ndiaye, Daouda; Cui, Liwang; Sutton, Patrick L; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-09-01

    Diagnosis is "the act of identifying a disease, illness, or problem by examining someone or something." When an individual with acute fever presents for clinical attention, accurate diagnosis leading to specific, prompt treatment often saves lives. As applied to malaria, not only individual patient diagnosis is important but also assessing population-level malaria prevalence using appropriate diagnostic methods is essential for public health purposes. Similarly, identifying (diagnosing) fake antimalarial medications prevents the use of counterfeit drugs that can have disastrous effects. Therefore, accurate diagnosis in broad areas related to malaria is fundamental to improving health-care delivery, informing funding agencies of current malaria situations, and aiding in the prioritization of regional and national control efforts. The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR), supported by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has collaborated on global efforts to improve malaria diagnostics by working to harmonize and systematize procedures across different regions where endemicity and financial resources vary. In this article, the different diagnostic methods used across each ICEMR are reviewed and challenges are discussed.

  5. First report of asthma prevalence in Afghanistan using international standardized methods.

    PubMed

    Bemanin, M H; Fallahpour, M; Arshi, S; Nabavi, M; Yousofi, T; Shariatifar, A

    2015-05-19

    No data on the prevalence of asthma in Afghanistan have been published before. In a school-based survey in 2010-2011 the wheezing section of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was completed by a random sample of 1500 children aged 6-7 years and 1500 adolescents aged 13-14 years old. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 12.5% in 6-7-year-olds and 17.3% in 13-14-year-olds (P = 0.002). The prevalence of wheeze in the last 12 months was similar in children and adolescents (19.2% and 21.7% respectively). The prevalence of ever wheezing, night attacks, speech-limiting wheeze and exercise-induced wheeze was 23.1%, 4.8%, 12.2% and 9.6% respectively in children and 30.5%, 4.4%, 13.0% and 13.6% respectively in adolescents. These rates are higher than those in neighbouring countries. This first epidemiological survey of asthma in Afghanistan shows that asthma and wheezing are common in Kabul students.

  6. Malaria Diagnosis Across the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research: Platforms, Performance, and Standardization.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tamaki; Gamboa, Dionicia; Ndiaye, Daouda; Cui, Liwang; Sutton, Patrick L; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-09-01

    Diagnosis is "the act of identifying a disease, illness, or problem by examining someone or something." When an individual with acute fever presents for clinical attention, accurate diagnosis leading to specific, prompt treatment often saves lives. As applied to malaria, not only individual patient diagnosis is important but also assessing population-level malaria prevalence using appropriate diagnostic methods is essential for public health purposes. Similarly, identifying (diagnosing) fake antimalarial medications prevents the use of counterfeit drugs that can have disastrous effects. Therefore, accurate diagnosis in broad areas related to malaria is fundamental to improving health-care delivery, informing funding agencies of current malaria situations, and aiding in the prioritization of regional and national control efforts. The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR), supported by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has collaborated on global efforts to improve malaria diagnostics by working to harmonize and systematize procedures across different regions where endemicity and financial resources vary. In this article, the different diagnostic methods used across each ICEMR are reviewed and challenges are discussed. PMID:26259937

  7. Malaria Diagnosis across the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research: Platforms, Performance, and Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tamaki; Gamboa, Dionicia; Ndiaye, Daouda; Cui, Liwang; Sutton, Patrick L.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis is “the act of identifying a disease, illness, or problem by examining someone or something.” When an individual with acute fever presents for clinical attention, accurate diagnosis leading to specific, prompt treatment often saves lives. As applied to malaria, not only individual patient diagnosis is important but also assessing population-level malaria prevalence using appropriate diagnostic methods is essential for public health purposes. Similarly, identifying (diagnosing) fake antimalarial medications prevents the use of counterfeit drugs that can have disastrous effects. Therefore, accurate diagnosis in broad areas related to malaria is fundamental to improving health-care delivery, informing funding agencies of current malaria situations, and aiding in the prioritization of regional and national control efforts. The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR), supported by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has collaborated on global efforts to improve malaria diagnostics by working to harmonize and systematize procedures across different regions where endemicity and financial resources vary. In this article, the different diagnostic methods used across each ICEMR are reviewed and challenges are discussed. PMID:26259937

  8. Generics Substitution, Bioequivalence Standards, and International Oversight: Complex Issues Facing the FDA.

    PubMed

    Bate, Roger; Mathur, Aparna; Lever, Harry M; Thakur, Dinesh; Graedon, Joe; Cooperman, Tod; Mason, Preston; Fox, Erin R

    2016-03-01

    The regulations for assessing the quality of generic drugs and their bioequivalence to innovator products are outdated and need to be substantially modernized. There are multiple reasons why these changes are needed, including: (i) the regulations remain largely unchanged since the passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act in 1984; (ii) medication therapies have become substantially more complex over the three decades since the passage of the Act; (iii) a switch from an innovator drug to a generic drug, or switching from one generic to another, is not a benign process - there is substantial clinical professional judgment involved and in some instances these decisions should be better informed; and (iv) pharmaceutical ingredients for finished products, whether innovator or generic, are from multiple sources of supply, adding variability in their production, and which may not be accounted for in specification tolerances. When these elements are viewed together, they clearly suggest that more transparency of responsible manufacturers in product labels and updated standards for bioequivalence are required. PMID:26687297

  9. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  10. Ophthalmology residency training in Jordan: an evaluation of quality and comparison with international standards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salem, Khalil M.; Al-Sarayra, Fawwaz A.; Abu Al-Dabaat, Mohammad; Shihadeh, Wisam; Al-Salem, Mohammad M.; Al-Salem, Mahmoud K.; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate Jordanian ophthalmology residency programs in achieving competencies outlined by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and residents' satisfaction with available training programs in Jordan, and to highlight weakness points that may be improved and strengthened. METHODS A closed-ended questionnaire was circulated to all ophthalmologists who completed their training in Jordanian institutions between 2006 and 2011, to measure the quality of residency training and satisfaction level with regards to clinical conferences, journal clubs, scientific lectures, wet lab sessions, simulations, outpatient clinics and operating room training. Barriers to a successful board exam were cited. All ophthalmologists had official residency training in Jordanian Hospitals; this includes military, university, governmental and private sector hospitals. RESULTS Sixty-one questionnaires completed out of 69 circulated. Males (75.4%) were more than females. Mean age was 32.5±3.27y. A total 21 (34.4%) responders expressed an overall satisfaction, 38 (62.3%) were dissatisfied and 2 (3.3%) were equivocal. Respondents reported insufficient exposure to low-vision rehabilitation 57 (93.4%), or refraction and glasses prescription 34 (55.7%). Regarding operative experiences, the mean cataract extraction per-resident was 43 cataracts; the number of phacoemulsification surgery was 2.96 per-resident, 46 (75.4%) of responders never did a single phacoemulsification during residency. Nine (14.8%) had training in refractive surgery, and 15 (24.6%) assisted orbital surgery. Forty-four (72.1%) never assisted in vitreoretinal surgery. Among The graduates surveyed, 14 (23.0%) passed Jordanian licensing board exam at the first attempt, and felt that their residency programs adequately prepared them for the examinations. CONCLUSION Around two thirds (62.3%) of ophthalmologists expressed dissatisfaction with residency training at Jordanian programs, further study is required to assess

  11. Meeting report: Fourth international meeting on G-quadruplex Nucleic Acids (Singapore, July 1-4, 2013).

    PubMed

    Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    The fourth international meeting on G-quadruplex Nucleic Acids was held in the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) of Singapore. Over 150 participants gathered from more than 25 countries. Over 40 talks and 100 posters summarized our current knowledge of these unusual DNA and RNA structures.

  12. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  13. Have all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide replaced all-trans retinoic acid and anthracyclines in APL as standard of care.

    PubMed

    Iland, Harry J; Wei, Andrew; Seymour, John F

    2014-03-01

    Until recently, the standard of care in the treatment of APL has involved the combination of all-trans retinoic acid with anthracycline-based chemotherapy during both induction and consolidation. Additionally, the intensity of consolidation chemotherapy has evolved according to a universally accepted relapse-risk stratification algorithm based on the white cell and platelet counts at presentation. That standard of care is being challenged by the increasing incorporation of arsenic trioxide into front-line treatment protocols, based on two complementary observations. The first is the undoubted anti-leukaemic activity of arsenic trioxide as shown in the relapsed and refractory setting, and in the initial management of low- and intermediate-risk patients. The second is an improved understanding of the action of both all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in mediating APL cell eradication, with increasing recognition that PML-RARA fusion protein degradation rather than direct induction of terminal differentiation is the primary mechanism for their ability to eliminate leukaemia initiating cells. As a result, we believe the standard of care for initial therapy in APL is shifting towards an all-trans retinoic acid plus arsenic trioxide-based approach, with additional chemotherapy reserved for patients with high-risk disease. PMID:24907016

  14. Physiological correlates of multiple-sprint ability and performance in international-standard squash players.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael; Cooke, Matthew; Murray, Stafford; Thompson, Kevin G; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Winter, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    From measures on a battery of fitness tests in elite-standard squash players on different tiers of a national performance program, we examined the relationships among test scores and player rank, and fitness factors important for squash-specific multiple-sprint ability. Thirty-one (20 men, 11 women) squash players from the England Squash performance program participated: n = 12 senior; n = 7 transition; n = 12 talented athlete scholarship scheme (TASS) players. In 1 test session and in a fixed order, the players completed a battery of tests to assess countermovement jump height, reactive strength, change-of-direction speed, and multiple-sprint ability on squash-specific tests and endurance fitness. Two-way analysis of variance compared senior, transition, and TASS players by sex on all measures except jump height where only senior and transition players were compared. Effect size (ES) was calculated for all comparisons. Pearson's correlation examined relationships among test scores and multiple-sprint ability. Spearman's ρ investigated relationships among test scores and players' rank in men and women separately. Regardless of sex, seniors outperformed TASS players on all except the endurance test (p < 0.05, ES at least 1.1). Seniors had better multiple-sprint ability than did transition players (p < 0.01, ES = 1.2). Transition outperformed TASS players on the reactive-strength test (p < 0.05, ES = 1.0). Men outperformed women in all tests at all performance program tiers (p < 0.05, ES at least 0.5). In men, rank was related to multiple-sprint ability, fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition, and change-of-direction speed (ρ = 0.78, 0.86, 0.59, respectively). In women, rank was related to fastest multiple-sprint-test repetition (ρ = 0.65). In men and women, multiple-sprint ability was related to change-of-direction speed (r = 0.9 and 0.84) and fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition (r = 0.96 for both) and to reactive strength in men (r = -0.71). The results

  15. Physiological correlates of multiple-sprint ability and performance in international-standard squash players.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael; Cooke, Matthew; Murray, Stafford; Thompson, Kevin G; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Winter, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    From measures on a battery of fitness tests in elite-standard squash players on different tiers of a national performance program, we examined the relationships among test scores and player rank, and fitness factors important for squash-specific multiple-sprint ability. Thirty-one (20 men, 11 women) squash players from the England Squash performance program participated: n = 12 senior; n = 7 transition; n = 12 talented athlete scholarship scheme (TASS) players. In 1 test session and in a fixed order, the players completed a battery of tests to assess countermovement jump height, reactive strength, change-of-direction speed, and multiple-sprint ability on squash-specific tests and endurance fitness. Two-way analysis of variance compared senior, transition, and TASS players by sex on all measures except jump height where only senior and transition players were compared. Effect size (ES) was calculated for all comparisons. Pearson's correlation examined relationships among test scores and multiple-sprint ability. Spearman's ρ investigated relationships among test scores and players' rank in men and women separately. Regardless of sex, seniors outperformed TASS players on all except the endurance test (p < 0.05, ES at least 1.1). Seniors had better multiple-sprint ability than did transition players (p < 0.01, ES = 1.2). Transition outperformed TASS players on the reactive-strength test (p < 0.05, ES = 1.0). Men outperformed women in all tests at all performance program tiers (p < 0.05, ES at least 0.5). In men, rank was related to multiple-sprint ability, fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition, and change-of-direction speed (ρ = 0.78, 0.86, 0.59, respectively). In women, rank was related to fastest multiple-sprint-test repetition (ρ = 0.65). In men and women, multiple-sprint ability was related to change-of-direction speed (r = 0.9 and 0.84) and fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition (r = 0.96 for both) and to reactive strength in men (r = -0.71). The results

  16. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. Conclusion: AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality. PMID:25250364

  17. Intercomparison of Nine National High-vacuum Standards under the Auspices of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, G.; Jitschin, W.; Rubet, L.; Calcatelli, A.; Redgrave, F. J.; Keprt, A.; Wei-nan, Fei; Sharma, J. K. N.; Dittmann, S.; Ono, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures has initiated world-wide intercomparisons of pressure standards. The intercomparison in the regime of very low pressures, i.e. 10-4 to 1 Pa, using Ar as the test gas, has now been completed with the participation of laboratories in nine countries (in alphabetical order): Czechoslovakia, Federal Republic of Germany, France, India, Italy, Japan, People's Republic of China, UK and United States of America. In addition, five of these laboratories made measurements using H2 as the test gas. Four spinning-rotor gauges were employed as transfer standards. The achieved transfer uncertainty between the pilot laboratory (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) and a participating laboratory lies between 0.16% and 0.30% (1σ) for Ar and has allowed an intercomparison at this level of accuracy. At all investigated pressures the standards in the various laboratories lie within an interval of +/-3% around the standard of the pilot laboratory. For a brief synopsis of the intercomparison results, the calibration data of each laboratory for one gas species are reduced to a single number, i.e., the average over the pressure range 10-3 to 1 Pa, although this procedure is somewhat arbitrary and obscures scatter and pressure-dependence of some calibration results. These averages deviate from their mean by not more than about 1%. Systematic deviations between some laboratories are clearly identifiable: however, for most of the laboratories it appears that these are compatible with the estimated uncertainties of the pressure generation and the transfer uncertainty.

  18. The human capital characteristics and household living standards of returning international migrants in Eastern and Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s experience with return migration is not new. However, few empirical studies have examined the social and economic characteristics of returning migrants within the continent. In this study, the human capital endowments and household living standards of returning migrants in Uganda and South Africa are examined using recently available data. The study compares returnees in both countries with immigrants as well as the native-born population with no international migration experience. It also investigates how factors such as previous country of residence, year of arrival, and other demographic factors predict levels of education and living standards among returning migrants. In Uganda, the results show that recently arrived returning migrants had better educational endowments than both immigrants and non-migrants. Migrants who returned to Uganda following the fall of Idi Amin’s regime had the lowest educational levels and lowest living standards compared to other returnees. Furthermore, the results indicate that previous residence in countries in the West was associated with four additional years of schooling while returning migrants arriving from other African countries had the lowest levels of schooling among returning migrants. In South Africa, the study finds that returnees arriving almost immediately following the end of Apartheid had the highest levels of education compared to either immigrants or non-migrants. Returnees on average also had the highest household living standards in South Africa. Among South African immigrants, the results indicate that those arriving towards the end of the century had lower educational endowments compared to immigrants who arrived in the country two to four years after the end of Apartheid. PMID:24970950

  19. Australian Universities and International Standards: Australian Compliance with the 1997 UNESCO "Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Soft law, that is, regulation which is technically unenforceable, is one means whereby international ethical and professional standards are now increasingly enunciated. This paper looks at one specific standard-setting instrument, the 1997 UNESCO "Recommendation concerning the status of higher education teaching personnel," and compliance with…

  20. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple. PMID:26007196

  1. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    PubMed

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  2. Simultaneous gas-chromatographic analysis for diazepam and its major metabolite, desmethyldiazepam, with use of double internal standardization.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, D J

    1978-10-01

    Electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography was used for simultaneous quantitation of plasma diazepam (I) and its major metabolite, desmethyldiazepam(II). Because concentrations of I can greatly exceed those of II after single doses of I, two benzodiazepine-analog internal standards were added to all samples, thereby allowing reliable quantitation of high concentrations of I and low concentrations of II. After extraction at neutral pH with benzene (containing isoamyl alcohol), the organic extract is evaporated and the residue is reconstituted in a small volume of solvent and chromatographed on a 3% OV-17 column. The sensitivity limits are 2 to 3 ng of I or II per milliliter of original sample, with a CV for identical samples of less than 5%. The applicability of the method to single-dose pharmacokinetic studies of I in humans is illustrated.

  3. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  4. [Development of anti-malarial vaccines and need for clinical trials in accordance with international standards in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Doumbo, O K; Djimdé, A A; Théra, M A

    2008-06-01

    In the 20th century malaria remains a major problem of public health in sub-Saharan Africa. This haemosporidium discovered in Africa by Laveran in 1880, kills one child every 30 seconds which amounts to three "tsunami" flowing each year into the African continent. The current international solidarity raises new hopes as regards the possibility to suppress the morbidity effects on the population's health condition. In order to be efficient, today's strategies (impregnated mosquito nets, intermittent preventive treatments, artemisinin based combination therapy) should reach at least 80% of the targeted population (pregnant women and children). By 2025, the uncontrolled urbanization of the African population and the social disorders will make a new population a target for malaria. The new data of functional genomics and proteonics open new avenues of research for new mechanisms, new therapeutics and vaccine targets and new tools of diagnosis and prognosis. The current candidate vaccines of the first generation have allowed the development of African competences in clinical trials of international standard. Although they represent scientific advances they will not resolve the problem of public health. Research on candidate vaccines of 2nd and 3rd generation remains a challenge for the international scientific community. Africa should play a determining role in this process. Scientific information on the field remains essential for these generations of new anti-malarial vaccines. The ethical aspects regarding those clinical trials and actions of public health and research remain an universal necessity Deontology and ethics are two complementary approaches for the good practice of medicine and research of a good practitioner. For the protection and advantages of the patient and/or volunteer of the research are the cornerstones of the ethical approach. The scientific quality of a research protocol submitted to an independent research ethics committee and the volunteer 's

  5. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain. PMID:22986206

  6. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain.

  7. Fetal, neonatal, infant, and child international growth standards: an unprecedented opportunity for an integrated approach to assess growth and development.

    PubMed

    Garza, Cutberto

    2015-07-01

    The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age.

  8. First international comparison of primary absorbed dose to water standards in the medium-energy X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, Ludwig; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Pimpinella, Maria; Pinto, Massimo; de Pooter, Jacco; de Prez, Leon; Jansen, Bartel; Denoziere, Marc; Rapp, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first international comparison of primary measurement standards of absorbed dose to water for the medium-energy X-ray range. Three of the participants (VSL, PTB, LNE-LNHB) used their existing water calorimeter based standards and one participant (ENEA) recently developed a new standard based on a water-graphite calorimeter. The participants calibrated three transfer chambers of the same type in terms of absorbed dose to water (NDw) and in addition in terms of air kerma (NK) using the CCRI radiation qualities in the range 100 kV to 250 kV. The additional NK values were intended to be used for a physical analysis of the ratios NDw/NK. All participants had previously participated in the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of air kerma standards. Ratios of pairs of NMI's NK results of the current comparison were found to be consistent with the corresponding key comparison results within the expanded uncertainties of 0.6 % - 1 %. The NDw results were analysed in terms of the degrees of equivalence with the comparison reference values which were calculated for each beam quality as the weighted means of all results. The participant's results were consistent with the reference value within the expanded uncertainties. However, these expanded uncertainties varied significantly and ranged between about 1-1.8 % for the water calorimeter based standards and were estimated at 3.7 % for the water-graphite calorimeter. It was shown previously that the ratios NDw/NK for the type of ionization chamber used as transfer chamber in this comparison were very close (within less than 1 %) to the calculated values of (bar muen/ρ)w,ad, the mean values of the water-to-air ratio of the mass-energy-absorption coefficients at the depth d in water. Some of the participant's results deviated significantly from the expected behavior. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of

  9. Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned ...

  10. Surgical management of morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis: the usefulness of a standardized international clinical classification of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Capuano, G P; Capuano, C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results.

  11. Identification of a Set of Conserved Eukaryotic Internal Retention Time Standards for Data-independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sarah J; Rost, Hannes; Rosenberger, George; Collins, Ben C; Malmström, Lars; Amodei, Dario; Venkatraman, Vidya; Raedschelders, Koen; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of retention time (RT) in liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry data facilitates peptide identification, quantification, and multiplexing in targeted and discovery-based workflows. Retention time prediction is particularly important for peptide analysis in emerging data-independent acquisition (DIA) experiments such as SWATH-MS. The indexed RT approach, iRT, uses synthetic spiked-in peptide standards (SiRT) to set RT to a unit-less scale, allowing for normalization of peptide RT between different samples and chromatographic set-ups. The obligatory use of SiRTs can be costly and complicates comparisons and data integration if standards are not included in every sample. Reliance on SiRTs also prevents the inclusion of archived mass spectrometry data for generation of the peptide assay libraries central to targeted DIA-MS data analysis. We have identified a set of peptide sequences that are conserved across most eukaryotic species, termed Common internal Retention Time standards (CiRT). In a series of tests to support the appropriateness of the CiRT-based method, we show: (1) the CiRT peptides normalized RT in human, yeast, and mouse cell lysate derived peptide assay libraries and enabled merging of archived libraries for expanded DIA-MS quantitative applications; (2) CiRTs predicted RT in SWATH-MS data within a 2-min margin of error for the majority of peptides; and (3) normalization of RT using the CiRT peptides enabled the accurate SWATH-MS-based quantification of 340 synthetic isotopically labeled peptides that were spiked into either human or yeast cell lysate. To automate and facilitate the use of these CiRT peptide lists or other custom user-defined internal RT reference peptides in DIA workflows, an algorithm was designed to automatically select a high-quality subset of datapoints for robust linear alignment of RT for use. Implementations of this algorithm are available for the OpenSWATH and Skyline platforms. Thus, CiRT peptides can

  12. Controlling Internal Organization of Multilayer Poly(methacrylic acid) Hydrogels with Polymer Molecular Weight

    DOE PAGES

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Ankner, John F.; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2015-11-16

    Here, we report on tailoring the internal architecture of multilayer-derived poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) hydrogels by controlling the molecular weight of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) in hydrogen-bonded (PMAA/PVPON) layer-by-layer precursor films. The hydrogels are produced by cross-linking PMAA in the spin-assisted multilayers followed by PVPON release. We found that the thickness, morphology, and architecture of hydrogen-bonded films and the corresponding hydrogels are significantly affected by PVPON chain length. For all systems, an increase in PVPON molecular weight from Mw = 2.5 to 1300 kDa resulted in increased total film thickness. We also show that increasing polymer Mw smooths the hydrogen-bonded film surfaces butmore » roughens those of the hydrogels. Using deuterated dPMAA marker layers in neutron reflectometry measurements, we found that hydrogen-bonded films reveal a high degree of stratification which is preserved in the cross-linked films. We observed dPMAA to be distributed more widely in the hydrogen-bonded films prepared with small Mw PVPON due to the greater mobility of short-chain PVPON. Furthermore, these variations in the distribution of PMAA are erased after cross-linking, resulting in a distribution of dPMAA over about two bilayers for all Mw but being somewhat more widely distributed in the films templated with higher Mw PVPON. Finally, our results yield new insights into controlling the organization of nanostructured polymer networks using polymer molecular weight and open opportunities for fabrication of thin films with well-organized architecture and controllable function.« less

  13. Controlling Internal Organization of Multilayer Poly(methacrylic acid) Hydrogels with Polymer Molecular Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Ankner, John F.; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2015-11-16

    Here, we report on tailoring the internal architecture of multilayer-derived poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) hydrogels by controlling the molecular weight of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) in hydrogen-bonded (PMAA/PVPON) layer-by-layer precursor films. The hydrogels are produced by cross-linking PMAA in the spin-assisted multilayers followed by PVPON release. We found that the thickness, morphology, and architecture of hydrogen-bonded films and the corresponding hydrogels are significantly affected by PVPON chain length. For all systems, an increase in PVPON molecular weight from Mw = 2.5 to 1300 kDa resulted in increased total film thickness. We also show that increasing polymer Mw smooths the hydrogen-bonded film surfaces but roughens those of the hydrogels. Using deuterated dPMAA marker layers in neutron reflectometry measurements, we found that hydrogen-bonded films reveal a high degree of stratification which is preserved in the cross-linked films. We observed dPMAA to be distributed more widely in the hydrogen-bonded films prepared with small Mw PVPON due to the greater mobility of short-chain PVPON. Furthermore, these variations in the distribution of PMAA are erased after cross-linking, resulting in a distribution of dPMAA over about two bilayers for all Mw but being somewhat more widely distributed in the films templated with higher Mw PVPON. Finally, our results yield new insights into controlling the organization of nanostructured polymer networks using polymer molecular weight and open opportunities for fabrication of thin films with well-organized architecture and controllable function.

  14. A combined tryptic peptide and winged peptide internal standard approach for the determination of α-lactalbumin in dairy products by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shiyun; Zhang, Jingshun; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Qi; Huang, Baifen; Ren, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    A robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method at peptide level was established for measuring α-lactalbumin in various dairy products. An isotope-labeled winged peptide (VKKILDKVG*INYW*LAHKALCSEKL) with extra amino acids of the sequence of signature peptide concatenated at each end as the internal standard was spiked in samples to participate in the whole tryptic digestion process. The peptide VG*INYW*LAHK that resulted from the isotope-labeled winged peptide was used as the final isotopically labeled internal standard of the α-lactalbumin signature peptide (VGINYWLAHK) during the quantitative analysis. The contents of α-lactalbumin in samples were calculated based on the equimolar relationship between the α-lactalbumin protein and signature peptide. The optimized molar ratio of trypsin to protein (1:60) and enzymatic digestion time (5 h) could not only improve the digestion efficiency and reduce the cost, but also minimize the period of sample pretreatment. Considering the robustness of the current method using the isotopically labeled internal standard and acceptable measurement cost, its application may promote the development of nutrient investigation and quality control of α-lactalbumin in dairy products. This protein analysis method might provide a new reference strategy for food analysis and quantitative protein analysis.

  15. International Docking Standardization NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahoe, Stanley; Lewis, J.; Carroll, M.; Le, T.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the different types of docking types. The objective is the pressurized vehicle connection and crew transfer. Androgynous Docking is defined as the joining or coming together of two free flying space vehicles with alike interfaces. Androgynous mating allows for collaboration between any two vehicles. The subsytems of an androgynous mating system are reviewed, including: Hard docking subsystems: latch system, tunnel housing, alignment system and seal.

  16. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system: a standardized approach for immunogenetics and immunoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2005-09-20

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system http://imgt.cines.fr, was created in 1989 by the Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire (LIGM) (Université Montpellier II and CNRS) at Montpellier, France. IMGT is a high quality integrated knowledge resource specialized in immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, and related proteins of the immune system (RPI) of any species which belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and to the MHC superfamily (MhcSF). IMGT consists of five databases, ten on-line tools and more than 8,000 HTML pages of Web resources. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data from genome, genetics, proteome and three-dimensional structures. The accuracy and the consistency of IMGT data are based on IMGT-ONTOLOGY, a semantic specification of terms to be used in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. IMGT-ONTOLOGY comprises six main concepts: IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, DESCRIPTION, NUMEROTATION, ORIENTATION and OBTENTION. Based on these concepts, the controlled vocabulary and the annotation rules necessary for the immunogenetics data identification, classification, description and numbering and for the management of IMGT knowledge are defined in the IMGT Scientific chart. IMGT is the international reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics for medical research (repertoire analysis of the IG antibody sites and of the TR recognition sites in autoimmune and infectious diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas, myelomas), veterinary research (IG and TR repertoires in farm and wild life species), genome diversity and genome evolution studies of the adaptive immune responses, biotechnology related to antibody engineering (single chain Fragment variable (scFv), phage displays, combinatorial libraries, chimeric, humanized and human antibodies), diagnostics (detection and follow up of residual diseases) and therapeutical approaches (grafts

  17. Determination of Free Acid by Standard Addition with Potassium Thiocyanate as Complexant

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    2001-05-29

    A method is described for determination of free acid in solutions containing the hydrolyzable ions Al (III), Cr(III), Fe(III), Hg(II), Ni(II), Th(IV), and U(VI). The concentration of the sample is calculated either by solving three simultaneous Nernst equations, by the Gran plot procedure, or by means of a microprocessor pH meter. Molar concentrations of metal ion up to 2.5 times that of the acid can be tolerated. The method has been applied to analysis of nuclear processing solutions that contain Pu(III), in addition to the ions listed above.

  18. 77 FR 48433 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Federal Register on December 23, 1971 (36 FR 24881). The first review of the Nitric Acid Plants NSPS was completed on June 19, 1979 (44 FR 35265). An additional review was completed on April 5, 1984 (49 FR 13654... were made during three reviews since the original promulgation in 1971 (October 6, 1975 (40 FR...

  19. 76 FR 63878 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ..., Subpart G) were promulgated in the Federal Register on December 23, 1971 (36 FR 24881). The first review of the Nitric Acid Plants NSPS was completed on June 19, 1979 (44 FR 35265). An additional review was completed on April 5, 1984 (49 FR 13654). No changes were made to the NSPS as a result of those...

  20. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles. PMID:24437520