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Sample records for acid invertase gene

  1. Characterization of Two Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Invertase Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cotton vacuolar-invertase genes were identified and sequenced. Both genes had 7 exons, including an unusually small second exon typical of acid invertases. These genes encode peptides with many features shared by acid invertases from other species including, leader sequences that probably target...

  2. Differential expression of acid invertase genes in roots of metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Rumex japonicus under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-Xing; Cao, Yi; Huang, Li-Juan; Ren, Cong; Xiong, Zhi-Ting

    2011-09-01

    Recent evidence indicates that during copper (Cu) stress, the roots of metallicolous plants manifest a higher activity of acid invertase enzymes, which are rate-limiting in sucrose catabolism, than non-metallicolous plants. To test whether the higher activity of acid invertases is the result of higher expression of acid invertase genes, we isolated partial cDNAs for acid invertases from two populations of Rumex japonicus (from metalliferous and non-metalliferous soils), determined their nucleotide sequences, and designed primers to measure changes in transcript levels during Cu stress. We also determined the growth of the plants' roots, Cu accumulation, and acid invertase activities. The seedlings of R. japonicus were exposed to control or 20 μM Cu(2+) for 6d under hydroponic conditions. The transcript level and enzyme activity of acid invertases in metallicolous plants were both significantly higher than those in non-metallicolous plants when treated with 20 μM. Under Cu stress, the root length and root biomass of metallicolous plants were also significantly higher than those of non-metallicolous plants. The results suggested that under Cu stress, the expression of acid invertase genes in metallicolous plants of R. japonicus differed from those in non-metallicolous plants. Furthermore, the higher acid invertase activities of metallicolous plants under Cu stress could be due in part to elevated expression of acid invertase genes.

  3. Cloning and characterization of acid invertase genes in the roots of the metallophyte Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino from two populations: Differential expression under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luan; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Xu, Zhong-rui; Liu, Chen; Cai, Shen-wen

    2014-06-01

    The roots of metallophytes serve as the key interface between plants and heavy metal-contaminated underground environments. It is known that the roots of metallicolous plants show a higher activity of acid invertase enzymes than those of non-metallicolous plants when under copper stress. To test whether the higher activity of acid invertases is the result of increased expression of acid invertase genes or variations in the amino acid sequences between the two population types, we isolated full cDNAs for acid invertases from two populations of Kummerowia stipulacea (from metalliferous and non-metalliferous soils), determined their nucleotide sequences, expressed them in Pichia pastoris, and conducted real-time PCR to determine differences in transcript levels during Cu stress. Heterologous expression of acid invertase cDNAs in P. pastoris indicated that variations in the amino acid sequences of acid invertases between the two populations played no significant role in determining enzyme characteristics. Seedlings of K. stipulacea were exposed to 0.3µM Cu(2+) (control) and 10µM Cu(2+) for 7 days under hydroponics׳ conditions. The transcript levels of acid invertases in metallicolous plants were significantly higher than in non-metallicolous plants when under copper stress. The results suggest that the expression of acid invertase genes in metallicolous plants of K. stipulacea differed from those in non-metallicolous plants under such conditions. In addition, the sugars may play an important role in regulating the transcript level of acid invertase genes and acid invertase genes may also be involved in root/shoot biomass allocation.

  4. Systematic analysis of potato acid invertase genes reveals that a cold-responsive member, StvacINV1, regulates cold-induced sweetening of tubers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Zhang, Chi; Ou, Yongbin; Lin, Yuan; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua; Liu, Jun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2011-08-01

    Acid invertase is believed to play a regulatory role during plant developmental processes and to respond to environmental stimuli. The expression profiles of the entire acid invertase family are not yet available for potato. By searching existing databases, it was determined that there are at least six acid invertase genes in potato, including four cell-wall invertase genes and two vacuolar invertase genes. They were subjected to comparative expression profiling in various organs of potato plants and in stored tubers to exploit their potential functions. The results revealed that each gene exhibited a unique expression pattern, which differed in transcript abundance or showed organ-specific features, pointing to the possible involvement of individual genes in plant development. The vacuolar invertase gene StvacINV1 had the highest expression level among three genes detected in the potato tubers. Further storage experiments showed that StvacINV1 was strongly induced by low temperatures, which is consistent with glucose accumulation in cold-stored tubers. Suppression of StvacINV1 by the antisense transformation in potato confirmed that lower StvacINV1 transcript abundance in transgenic tubers is related to lower reducing sugar content and lighter chip color in comparison with the wild type. The evidence strongly suggests that StvacINV1 is a gene involved in regulation of cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers. This provides an avenue for studying the mechanism involved in the regulation of the cold-induced sweetening trait and for agronomic enhancement.

  5. PCR-generated molecular markers for the invertase gene and sucrose accumulation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Hadas, R; Schaffer, A; Miron, D; Fogelman, M; Granot, D

    1995-06-01

    The green-fruited tomato species, Lycopersicon hirsutum, unlike the domesticated red-fruited species, L. esculentum, accumulates sucrose during the final stages of fruit development, concomitant with the loss of soluble acid invertase activity. In order to study the genetic linkage of sucrose accumulation to the invertase gene, part of the invertase gene from L. hirsutum was cloned, sequenced and the sequence compared with the invertase sequence of the red-fruited L. esculentum. Several base changes were found in the coding region of the two invertase genes. Based on these base -pair differences, we developed a species-specific PCR assay capable of determining, in a single PCR reaction, the origin of the invertase gene in segregating seedlings of an interspecific cross. Our results indicate that the invertase gene is genetically linked to sucrose accumulation in the green-fruited L. hirsutum.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of the Invertase Gene Family in Populus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Gao, Kai; Su, Xiaoxing; Rao, Pian; An, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Invertase plays a crucial role in carbohydrate partitioning and plant development as it catalyses the irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. The invertase family in plants is composed of two sub-families: acid invertases, which are targeted to the cell wall and vacuole; and neutral/alkaline invertases, which function in the cytosol. In this study, 5 cell wall invertase genes (PtCWINV1-5), 3 vacuolar invertase genes (PtVINV1-3) and 16 neutral/alkaline invertase genes (PtNINV1-16) were identified in the Populus genome and found to be distributed on 14 chromosomes. A comprehensive analysis of poplar invertase genes was performed, including structures, chromosome location, phylogeny, evolutionary pattern and expression profiles. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two sub-families were both divided into two clades. Segmental duplication is contributed to neutral/alkaline sub-family expansion. Furthermore, the Populus invertase genes displayed differential expression in roots, stems, leaves, leaf buds and in response to salt/cold stress and pathogen infection. In addition, the analysis of enzyme activity and sugar content revealed that invertase genes play key roles in the sucrose metabolism of various tissues and organs in poplar. This work lays the foundation for future functional analysis of the invertase genes in Populus and other woody perennials.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification of the Invertase Gene Family in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaoxing; Rao, Pian; An, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Invertase plays a crucial role in carbohydrate partitioning and plant development as it catalyses the irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. The invertase family in plants is composed of two sub-families: acid invertases, which are targeted to the cell wall and vacuole; and neutral/alkaline invertases, which function in the cytosol. In this study, 5 cell wall invertase genes (PtCWINV1-5), 3 vacuolar invertase genes (PtVINV1-3) and 16 neutral/alkaline invertase genes (PtNINV1-16) were identified in the Populus genome and found to be distributed on 14 chromosomes. A comprehensive analysis of poplar invertase genes was performed, including structures, chromosome location, phylogeny, evolutionary pattern and expression profiles. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two sub-families were both divided into two clades. Segmental duplication is contributed to neutral/alkaline sub-family expansion. Furthermore, the Populus invertase genes displayed differential expression in roots, stems, leaves, leaf buds and in response to salt/cold stress and pathogen infection. In addition, the analysis of enzyme activity and sugar content revealed that invertase genes play key roles in the sucrose metabolism of various tissues and organs in poplar. This work lays the foundation for future functional analysis of the invertase genes in Populus and other woody perennials. PMID:26393355

  8. Post-translational regulation of acid invertase activity by vacuolar invertase inhibitor affects resistance to cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Ashworth, Matthew J; Brummell, David A

    2013-01-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a serious post-harvest problem for potato tubers, which need to be stored cold to prevent sprouting and pathogenesis in order to maintain supply throughout the year. During storage at cold temperatures (below 10 °C), many cultivars accumulate free reducing sugars derived from a breakdown of starch to sucrose that is ultimately cleaved by acid invertase to produce glucose and fructose. When affected tubers are processed by frying or roasting, these reducing sugars react with free asparagine by the Maillard reaction, resulting in unacceptably dark-coloured and bitter-tasting product and generating the probable carcinogen acrylamide as a by-product. We have previously identified a vacuolar invertase inhibitor (INH2) whose expression correlates both with low acid invertase activity and with resistance to CIS. Here we show that, during cold storage, overexpression of the INH2 vacuolar invertase inhibitor gene in CIS-susceptible potato tubers reduced acid invertase activity, the accumulation of reducing sugars and the generation of acrylamide in subsequent fry tests. Conversely, suppression of vacuolar invertase inhibitor expression in a CIS-resistant line increased susceptibility to CIS. The results show that post-translational regulation of acid invertase by the vacuolar invertase inhibitor is an important component of resistance to CIS.

  9. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS.

  10. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  11. Gene encoding a novel invertase from a xerophilic Aspergillus niger strain and production of the enzyme in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Veana, Fabiola; Fuentes-Garibay, José Antonio; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha; Viader-Salvadó, José María

    2014-09-01

    β-Fructofuranosidases or invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) are enzymes that are widely used in the food industry, where fructose is preferred over sucrose, because it is sweeter and does not crystallize easily. Since Aspergillus niger GH1, an xerophilic fungus from the Mexican semi-desert, has been reported to be an invertase producer, and because of the need for new enzymes with biotechnological applications, in this work, we describe the gene and amino acid sequence of the invertase from A. niger GH1, and the use of a synthetic gene to produce the enzyme in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. In addition, the produced invertase was characterized biochemically. The sequence of the invertase gene had a length of 1770 bp without introns, encodes a protein of 589 amino acids, and presented an identity of 93% and 97% with invertases from Aspergillus kawachi IFO 4308 and A. niger B60, respectively. A 4.2 L culture with the constructed recombinant P. pastoris strain showed an extracellular and periplasmic invertase production at 72 h induction of 498 and 3776 invertase units (U), respectively, which corresponds to 1018 U/L of culture medium. The invertase produced had an optimum pH of 5.0, optimum temperature of 60 °C, and specific activity of 3389 U/mg protein, and after storage for 96 h at 4 °C showed 93.7% of its activity. This invertase could be suitable for producing inverted sugar used in the food industry.

  12. Subtle Regulation of Potato Acid Invertase Activity by a Protein Complex of Invertase, Invertase Inhibitor, and SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Tengfei; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Zhang, Huiling; Li, Meng; Sonnewald, Uwe; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2015-08-01

    Slowing down cold-induced sweetening (CIS) of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers is of economic importance for the potato industry to ensure high-quality products. The conversion of sucrose to reducing sugars by the acid invertase StvacINV1 is thought to be critical for CIS. Identification of the specific StvacINV1 inhibitor StInvInh2B and the α- and β-subunits of the interacting protein SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii (SbSnRK1) has led to speculation that invertase activity may be regulated via a posttranslational mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, this study confirmed the protein complex by pairwise interactions. In vitro kinase assays and protein phosphorylation analysis revealed that phosphorylation of SbSnRK1α is causal for StvacINV1 activity and that its active form blocks the inhibition of StInvInh2B by SbSnRK1β, whereas its inactive form restores the function of SbSnRK1β that prevents StInvInh2B from repressing StvacINV1. Overexpression of SbSnRK1α in CIS-sensitive potato confirmed that SbSnRK1α has significant effects on acid invertase-associated sucrose degradation. A higher level of SbSnRK1α expression was accompanied by elevated SbSnRK1α phosphorylation, reduced acid invertase activity, a higher sucrose-hexose ratio, and improved chip color. Our results lend new insights into a subtle regulatory mode of invertase activity and provide a novel approach for potato CIS improvement.

  13. Induction of a Pea Cell-Wall Invertase Gene by Wounding and Its Localized Expression in Phloem.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Cohn, N. S.; Mitchell, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    A full-length cell-wall invertase cDNA obtained from pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings was cloned previously. The gene exhibits tissue-specific expression, and both its transcript and enzyme activities are abundant only in root tissues. Mechanical wounding dramatically induced the accumulation of the cell-wall invertase mRNA in detached or intact leaves, stems, and roots. In both detached and intact tissues mRNA started to accumulate 3 h after wounding and in detached tissues (except root tissues) was much stronger and lasted longer compared with that in intact pea plants. The induction of cell-wall invertase by wounding was not systemic, since no significant increase of transcript was found in the unwounded tissues remote from the site of wounding. Accumulation of this cell-wall invertase was induced by abscisic or jasmonic acid, and in situ hybridization studies show that this invertase mRNA is differentially localized in wounded plant tissue, being most abundant in the phloem. mRNA accumulation was limited mainly to the wounded area; no significant increase was detected in the unwounded portions of the wounded stem segments. The results suggest that, as part of the wounding response, this cell-wall invertase may provide energy through hexose availability to companion cells in the phloem. PMID:12226435

  14. Relationship of acid invertase activities to sugar content in sugarcane internodes during ripening and after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that soluble acid invertase (SAI) and insoluble (cell wall) acid invertase (CWI) influence sucrose accumulation in sugarcane during ripening, and also postharvest deterioration. The activities of SAI and CWI were determined in selected immature and mature internodes during r...

  15. A soluble acid invertase is directed to the vacuole by a signal anchor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rae, Anne L; Casu, Rosanne E; Perroux, Jai M; Jackson, Mark A; Grof, Christopher P L

    2011-06-15

    Enzyme activities in the vacuole have an important impact on the net concentration of sucrose. In sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid), immunolabelling demonstrated that a soluble acid invertase (β-fructofuranosidase; EC 3.2.1.26) is present in the vacuole of storage parenchyma cells during sucrose accumulation. Examination of sequences from sugarcane, barley and rice showed that the N-terminus of the invertase sequence contains a signal anchor and a tyrosine motif, characteristic of single-pass membrane proteins destined for lysosomal compartments. The N-terminal peptide from the barley invertase was shown to be capable of directing the green fluorescent protein to the vacuole in sugarcane cells. The results suggest that soluble acid invertase is sorted to the vacuole in a membrane-bound form.

  16. Cloning, 3D modeling and expression analysis of three vacuolar invertase genes from cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-05-15

    Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (β-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed β-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a β-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the β-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, α and β groups, in which α group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while β group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development.

  17. Ectopic overexpression of the cell wall invertase gene CIN1 leads to dehydration avoidance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Arias, Cintia L; Balibrea, María Encarnación; Bru, Roque; Fragner, Lena; Ghanem, Michel E; González, María de la Cruz; Hernández, Jose A; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; van der Graaff, Eric; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Zellnig, Günther; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Drought stress conditions modify source-sink relations, thereby influencing plant growth, adaptive responses, and consequently crop yield. Invertases are key metabolic enzymes regulating sink activity through the hydrolytic cleavage of sucrose into hexose monomers, thus playing a crucial role in plant growth and development. However, the physiological role of invertases during adaptation to abiotic stress conditions is not yet fully understood. Here it is shown that plant adaptation to drought stress can be markedly improved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by overexpression of the cell wall invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 from Chenopodium rubrum. CIN1 overexpression limited stomatal conductance under normal watering regimes, leading to reduced water consumption during the drought period, while photosynthetic activity was maintained. This caused a strong increase in water use efficiency (up to 50%), markedly improving water stress adaptation through an efficient physiological strategy of dehydration avoidance. Drought stress strongly reduced cwInv activity and induced its proteinaceous inhibitor in the leaves of the wild-type plants. However, the CIN1-overexpressing plants registered 3- to 6-fold higher cwInv activity in all analysed conditions. Surprisingly, the enhanced invertase activity did not result in increased hexose concentrations due to the activation of the metabolic carbohydrate fluxes, as reflected by the maintenance of the activity of key enzymes of primary metabolism and increased levels of sugar-phosphate intermediates under water deprivation. The induced sink metabolism in the leaves explained the maintenance of photosynthetic activity, delayed senescence, and increased source activity under drought stress. Moreover, CIN1 plants also presented a better control of production of reactive oxygen species and sustained membrane protection. Those metabolic changes conferred by CIN1 overexpression were accompanied by increases in the concentrations of the

  18. Gravity-stimulated changes in auxin and invertase gene expression in maize pulvinal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Joanne C.; Zhao, Wei; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Muday, Gloria K.; Huber, Steven C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) stem gravitropism involves differential elongation of cells within a highly specialized region, the stem internodal pulvinus. In the present study, we investigated factors that control gravitropic responses in this system. In the graviresponding pulvinus, hexose sugars (D-Glc and D-Fru) accumulated asymmetrically across the pulvinus. This correlated well with an asymmetric increase in acid invertase activity across the pulvinus. Northern analyses revealed asymmetric induction of one maize acid invertase gene, Ivr2, consistent with transcriptional regulation by gravistimulation. Several lines of evidence indicated that auxin redistribution, as a result of polar auxin transport, is necessary for gravity-stimulated Ivr2 transcript accumulation and differential cell elongation across the maize pulvinus. First, the auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, inhibited gravistimulated curvature and Ivr2 transcript accumulation. Second, a transient gradient of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) across the pulvinus was apparent shortly after initiation of gravistimulation. This temporarily free IAA gradient appears to be important for differential cell elongation and Ivr2 transcript accumulation. This is based on the observation that N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid will not inhibit gravitropic responses when applied to pulvinus tissue after the free IAA gradient peak has occurred. Third, IAA alone can stimulate Ivr2 transcript accumulation in non-gravistimulated pulvini. The gravity- and IAA-stimulated increase in Ivr2 transcripts was sensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Based on these results, a two-phase model describing possible relationships between gravitropic curvature, IAA redistribution, and Ivr2 expression is presented.

  19. Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2013-12-01

    Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants.

  20. Functional characterization of an invertase inhibitor gene involved in sucrose metabolism in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Yan-li; Wang, Zhi-he

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we produced tomato plants overexpressing an invertase inhibitor gene (Sly-INH) from tomato, using a simple and efficient transient transformation system. Compared with control plants, the expression of Sly-INH was highly upregulated in Sly-INH overexpressing plants, as indicated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Physiological analysis revealed that Sly-INH inhibited the activity of cell wall invertase (CWIN), which increased sugar accumulation in tomato fruit. Furthermore, Sly-INH mediated sucrose metabolism by regulating CWIN activity. Our results suggest that invertase activity is potentially regulated by the Sly-INH inhibitor at the post-translational level, and they demonstrate that the transient transformation system is an effective method for determining the functions of genes in tomato.

  1. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Richael, Craig; Chamberlain, Patrick; Busse, James S; Bussan, Alvin J; Jiang, Jiming; Bethke, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv) expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  2. The location of acid invertase activity and sucrose in the vacuoles of storage roots of beetroot (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, R A; Rees, T; Fuller, W A; Banfield, J

    1979-01-01

    Vacuoles were isolated from freshly cut slices of the storage roots of beetroot (Beta vulgaris), and from slices that had been washed in aerated water for 1-3 days. The unique vacuolar location of betanin permitted the use of a correlative method to determine whether sucrose and acid invertase were located in the vacuoles. The specific content (the activity of the enzyme or amount of substrate per mg of protein) and the percentage recoveries for betanin, sucrose and acid invertase were determined for the different fractions obtained during the isolation of the vacuoles. For each fraction the specific content of betanin was plotted against those of sucrose and acid invertase. Similar correlative plots were drawn for the percentage recoveries. For both specific contents and percentage recoveries for correlation coefficients for sucrose and for acid invertase versus betanin were close to unity, and the lines passed near the origins. It is concluded that, in beetroot, most of the sucrose and much of the acid invertase are in the vacuoles. Measurements of vacuolar sucrose and acid invertase in beetroot slices washed for 1-3 days demonstrated an inverse relationship between sucrose content and acid invertase activity. PMID:454363

  3. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one e...

  4. Differential expression of invertase genes in internal and external phloem tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hedley, P E; Maddison, A L; Davidson, D; Machray, G C

    2000-04-01

    The cloning of promoter sequences of two invertase genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is described. Histochemical analysis of series of reporter transgenic lines reveals phloem-specific expression from both promoters, with one expressed preferentially in internal phloem and the other in external phloem of stem vascular bundles.

  5. [Effects of antisense acid invertase gene on reducing sugar and starch contents of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber stored at low temperature].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Li, Xue-Cai

    2005-10-01

    Two transgenic potato lines with antisense AcInv gene and the non-transgenic varieties were used to test the reducing sugar and starch contents. The results indicated that the reducing sugar content increased and total starch content decreased in all samples after tubers were stored at 4 degrees C for 40 d. The reducing sugar content in tubers of transgenic line "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" were lower about 23% and 18% than those of Atlantic and Gannongshu No.2 (Table 1). The total starch and the amylopectin were also decreased by 1% and 1.3% in "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 1.4% and 1.7% in "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" respectively (Table 2). The proportions of amylose and amylopectin were lower in the transgenic lines than the non-transgenic varieties (Figs. 1 and 2). It was only 0.29 for "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 0.38 for "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2". Meanwhile, there are fewer dark blue starch particles in transgenic tuber, which is less than in tuber of the non-transgenic varieties by paraffin-cut section method (Fig. 3). After the tubers were transferred to the storage temperature 15-17 degrees C for 20 d, the reducing sugar contents in tubers of the two transgenic lines were significantly lower than that of non-transgenic varieties. It was 0.23% for "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 0.24% for "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" (Table 1). It is suggested that the trans-antisense AcInv gene in the transgenic potato down-regulates the AcInv gene expression after the tubers were stored under low temperature.

  6. Purification and biochemical characterization of insoluble acid invertase (INAC-INV) from pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Gunsup; Chang, Man; Park, Jongbum; Chung, Youngjae; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2011-10-26

    Invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into D-glucose and D-fructose. Insoluble acid invertase (INAC-INV) was purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) by sequential procedures entailing ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, absorption chromatography, reactive green-19 affinity chromatography, and gel filtration. The purified INAC-INV had a pH optimum of 4.0 and a temperature optimum of 45 °C. The effects of various concentrations of Tris-HCl, HgCl(2), and CuSO(4) on the activities of the purified invertase were examined. INAC-INV was not affected by Tris-HCl and HgCl(2). INAC-INV activity was inhibited by 6.2 mM CuSO(4) up to 50%. The enzymes display typical hyperbolic saturation kinetics for sucrose hydrolysis. The K(m) and V(max) values of INAC-INV were determined to be 4.41 mM and 8.41 U (mg protein)(-1) min(-1), respectively. INAC-INV is a true member of the β-fructofuranosidases, which can react with sucrose and raffinose as substrates. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting were used to determine the molecular mass of INAC-INV to be 69 kDa. The isoelectric point of INAC-INV was estimated to be about pH 8.0. Taken together, INAC-INV is a pea seedling invertase with a stable and optimum activity at lower acid pH and at higher temperature than other invertases.

  7. [Characteristics of extracellular invertase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Heterologous expression of the suc2 gene in Solarium Tuberosum plants].

    PubMed

    Deriabin, A N; Berdichevets, I N; Burakhanova, E A; Trunova, T I

    2014-01-01

    Some properties and activity of extracellular invertase in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts encoded by the suc2 gene in heterologous expression were described. It was shown that the target suc2 gene is actively expressed in the genome of the transformed potato plants and S. cerevisiae invertase synthesized by this gene is transported into the apoplast due to the signal peptide of the proteinase II inhibitor. This enzyme is present in the apoplast in a soluble form and absorbed into the cell wall.

  8. Characterization of the alkaline/neutral invertase gene in Dendrobium officinale and its relationship with polysaccharide accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Cao, X F; Si, J P; Chen, Z Y; Duan, C L

    2016-05-06

    Dendrobium officinale is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines, and polysaccharide is its main active ingredient. Many studies have investigated the synthesis and accumulation mechanisms of polysaccharide, but until recently, little was known about the molecular mechanism of how polysaccharide is synthesized because no related genes have been cloned. In this study, we cloned an alkaline/neutral invertase gene from D. officinale (DoNI) by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. DoNI was 2231 bp long and contained an open reading frame that predicted a 62.8-kDa polypeptide with 554-amino acid residues. An alkaline/neutral invertase conserved domain was predicted from this deduced amino acid sequence, and DoNI had a similar deduced amino acid sequence to Setaria italica and Oryza brachyantha. We also found that DoNI expression in different tissues was closely related to DoNI activity, and more importantly, polysaccharide level. Our results indicate that DoNI is associated with polysaccharide accumulation in D. officinale.

  9. Gene expression patterns of invertase gene families and modulation of the inhibitor gene in tomato sucrose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y L; Zhang, A H; Jiang, J

    2013-01-24

    Patterns of gene expression in the different types of sucrose metabolism in the tomato are highly variable and heritable. This genetic variation causes considerable functional differences. We examined the patterns of expression of invertase (Inv) gene families and an invertase inhibitor (INH) gene involved in elongating roots, hypocotyls, and fruit of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Micro-Tom and L. chmielewskii) through a real-time quantitative PCR analysis. We found that the Lin6 gene plays an important role in the vegetative growth stage. Lin5 and Lin7 did not express in Micro-Tom, but did express in L. chmielewskii. Overall relative expression levels of sucrose Inv gene families were significantly lower in L. chmielewskii during the reproductive growth stage than in Micro-Tom, being up to hundreds of times lower. It was not expressed in the dissepiment in L. chmielewskii. We suggest that differences in sucrose accumulation in tomato fruit is mainly due to differentially expressed invertase gene families at the later fruit growth stages.

  10. Post-translational derepression of invertase activity in source leaves via down-regulation of invertase inhibitor expression is part of the plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Bonfig, Katharina B; Gabler, Andrea; Simon, Uwe K; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Hatz, Martina; Berger, Susanne; Muhammad, Naseem; Zeier, Jürgen; Sinha, Alok K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that pathogens do not only elicit direct defense responses, but also cause pronounced changes in primary carbohydrate metabolism. Cell-wall-bound invertases belong to the key regulators of carbohydrate partitioning and source-sink relations. Whereas studies have focused so far only on the transcriptional induction of invertase genes in response to pathogen infection, the role of post-translational regulation of invertase activity has been neglected and was the focus of the present study. Expression analyses revealed that the high mRNA level of one out of three proteinaceous invertase inhibitors in source leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana is strongly repressed upon infection by a virulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This repression is paralleled by a decrease in invertase inhibitor activity. The physiological role of this regulatory mechanism is revealed by the finding that in situ invertase activity was detectable only upon infection by P. syringae. In contrast, a high invertase activity could be measured in vitro in crude and cell wall extracts prepared from both infected and non-infected leaves. The discrepancy between the in situ and in vitro invertase activity of control leaves and the high in situ invertase activity in infected leaves can be explained by the pathogen-dependent repression of invertase inhibitor expression and a concomitant reduction in invertase inhibitor activity. The functional importance of the release of invertase from post-translational inhibition for the defense response was substantiated by the application of the competitive chemical invertase inhibitor acarbose. Post-translational inhibition of extracellular invertase activity by infiltration of acarbose in leaves was shown to increase the susceptibility to P. syringae. The impact of invertase inhibition on spatial and temporal dynamics of the repression of photosynthesis and promotion of bacterial growth during pathogen infection supports

  11. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form da...

  12. Exploring codon context bias for synthetic gene design of a thermostable invertase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pek, Han Bin; Klement, Maximilian; Ang, Kok Siong; Chung, Bevan Kai-Sheng; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-01-01

    Various isoforms of invertases from prokaryotes, fungi, and higher plants has been expressed in Escherichia coli, and codon optimisation is a widely-adopted strategy for improvement of heterologous enzyme expression. Successful synthetic gene design for recombinant protein expression can be done by matching its translational elongation rate against heterologous host organisms via codon optimization. Amongst the various design parameters considered for the gene synthesis, codon context bias has been relatively overlooked compared to individual codon usage which is commonly adopted in most of codon optimization tools. In addition, matching the rates of transcription and translation based on secondary structure may lead to enhanced protein folding. In this study, we evaluated codon context fitness as design criterion for improving the expression of thermostable invertase from Thermotoga maritima in Escherichia coli and explored the relevance of secondary structure regions for folding and expression. We designed three coding sequences by using (1) a commercial vendor optimized gene algorithm, (2) codon context for the whole gene, and (3) codon context based on the secondary structure regions. Then, the codon optimized sequences were transformed and expressed in E. coli. From the resultant enzyme activities and protein yield data, codon context fitness proved to have the highest activity as compared to the wild-type control and other criteria while secondary structure-based strategy is comparable to the control. Codon context bias was shown to be a relevant parameter for enhancing enzyme production in Escherichia coli by codon optimization. Thus, we can effectively design synthetic genes within heterologous host organisms using this criterion.

  13. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Novel Fructosyltransferases and Invertases from Agave tequilana

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Romero, Celso; Martínez-Hernández, Aída; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Simpson, June

    2012-01-01

    Fructans are the main storage polysaccharides found in Agave species. The synthesis of these complex carbohydrates relies on the activities of specific fructosyltransferase enzymes closely related to the hydrolytic invertases. Analysis of Agave tequilana transcriptome data led to the identification of ESTs encoding putative fructosyltransferases and invertases. Based on sequence alignments and structure/function relationships, two different genes were predicted to encode 1-SST and 6G-FFT type fructosyltransferases, in addition, 4 genes encoding putative cell wall invertases and 4 genes encoding putative vacuolar invertases were also identified. Probable functions for each gene, were assigned based on conserved amino acid sequences and confirmed for 2 fructosyltransferases and one invertase by analyzing the enzymatic activity of recombinant Agave protein s expressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The genome organization of the fructosyltransferase/invertase genes, for which the corresponding cDNA contained the complete open reading frame, was found to be well conserved since all genes were shown to carry a 9 bp mini-exon and all showed a similar structure of 8 exons/7 introns with the exception of a cell wall invertase gene which has 7 exons and 6 introns. Fructosyltransferase genes were strongly expressed in the storage organs of the plants, especially in vegetative stages of development and to lower levels in photosynthetic tissues, in contrast to the invertase genes where higher levels of expression were observed in leaf tissues and in mature plants. PMID:22558253

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of novel fructosyltransferases and invertases from Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Romero, Celso; Martínez-Hernández, Aída; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G; Simpson, June

    2012-01-01

    Fructans are the main storage polysaccharides found in Agave species. The synthesis of these complex carbohydrates relies on the activities of specific fructosyltransferase enzymes closely related to the hydrolytic invertases. Analysis of Agave tequilana transcriptome data led to the identification of ESTs encoding putative fructosyltransferases and invertases. Based on sequence alignments and structure/function relationships, two different genes were predicted to encode 1-SST and 6G-FFT type fructosyltransferases, in addition, 4 genes encoding putative cell wall invertases and 4 genes encoding putative vacuolar invertases were also identified. Probable functions for each gene, were assigned based on conserved amino acid sequences and confirmed for 2 fructosyltransferases and one invertase by analyzing the enzymatic activity of recombinant Agave protein s expressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The genome organization of the fructosyltransferase/invertase genes, for which the corresponding cDNA contained the complete open reading frame, was found to be well conserved since all genes were shown to carry a 9 bp mini-exon and all showed a similar structure of 8 exons/7 introns with the exception of a cell wall invertase gene which has 7 exons and 6 introns. Fructosyltransferase genes were strongly expressed in the storage organs of the plants, especially in vegetative stages of development and to lower levels in photosynthetic tissues, in contrast to the invertase genes where higher levels of expression were observed in leaf tissues and in mature plants.

  15. Suppression of the Vacuolar Invertase Gene Prevents Cold-Induced Sweetening in Potato12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Pudota B.; Wu, Lei; Busse, James S.; Whitty, Brett R.; Hamernik, Andy J.; Jansky, Shelley H.; Buell, C. Robin; Bethke, Paul C.; Jiang, Jiming

    2010-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the third most important food crop in the world. Potato tubers must be stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses, and supply consumers and the processing industry with high-quality tubers throughout the year. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars in tubers. High-temperature processing of these tubers results in dark-colored, bitter-tasting products. Such products also have elevated amounts of acrylamide, a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen. We demonstrate that silencing the potato vacuolar acid invertase gene VInv prevents reducing sugar accumulation in cold-stored tubers. Potato chips processed from VInv silencing lines showed a 15-fold acrylamide reduction and were light in color even when tubers were stored at 4°C. Comparable, low levels of VInv gene expression were observed in cold-stored tubers from wild potato germplasm stocks that are resistant to cold-induced sweetening. Thus, both processing quality and acrylamide problems in potato can be controlled effectively by suppression of the VInv gene through biotechnology or targeted breeding. PMID:20736383

  16. Molecular Basis of the Increase in Invertase Activity Elicited by Gravistimulation of Oat-Shoot Pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liu-Lai; Song, Il; Kim, Donghern; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    An asymmetric (top vs. bottom) increase in invertase activity is elicited by gravistimulation in oatshoot pulvini starting within 3h after treatment. In order to analyze the regulation of invertase gene expression in this system, we examined the effect of gravistimulation on invertase mRNA induction. Total RNA and poly(A)(+)RNA, isolated from oat pulvini, and two oligonucleotide primers, corresponding to two conserved amino-acid sequences (NDPNG and WECPD) found in invertase from other species, were used for the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A partial-length cDNA (550 base pairs) was obtained and characterized. There was a 52 % deduced amino-acid sequence homology to that of carrot beta-fructosi- dase and a 48 % homology to that of tomato invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that there was an obvious transient accumulation of invertase mRNA elicited by gravistimulation of oat pulvini. The mRNA was rapidly induced to a maximum level at 1h following gravistimulation treatment and gradually decreased afterwards. The mRNA level in the bottom half of the oat pulvinus was significantly higher (five-fold) than that in the top half of the pulvinus tissue. The induction of invertase mRNA was consistent with the transient enhancement of invertase activity during the graviresponse of the pulvinus. These data indicate that the expression of the invertase gene(s) could be regulated by gravistimulation at the transcriptional and/or translational levels. Southern blot analysis showed that there were four genomic DNA fragments hybridized to the invertase cDNA. This suggests that an invertase gene family may exist in oat plants.

  17. Differential responses of root growth, acid invertase activity and transcript level to copper stress in two contrasting populations of Elsholtzia haichowensis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shenwen; Xiong, Zhiting; Li, Ling; Li, Minjing; Zhang, Luan; Liu, Chen; Xu, Zhongrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test a hypothesis that acid invertases in root of metallophytes might play important roles in root growth under heavy metal stress. Plants of two contrasting populations, one from an ancient Cu mine (MP) and the other from a non-contaminated site (NMP), of metallophyte Elsholtzia haichowensis were treated with Cu in controlled experiments. The results showed that MP was Cu tolerant under 10 μM Cu2+ treatment. Cu treatment resulted in a higher root/shoot biomass ratio in MP compared to NMP. Scaling exponent in root/shoot allometric function in MP was lower than NMP. More complicated root architecture was observed in MP under Cu stress. Four full-length cDNAs (EhNcwINV, EhCcwINV, EhNvINV and EhCvINV) encoding cell wall and vacuolar invertases were cloned. Both of the transcript level and activity of the acid invertase in MP elevated under Cu treatment. There were positive correlations between root acid invertase transcript level, activity and root/shoot biomass ratio. The results indicated important roles of acid invertase in governing root growth under Cu stress. It also suggested that there was a possible interrelation between acid invertases and Cu tolerance mechanisms in MP of E. haichowensis.

  18. Promoter regions of potato vacuolar invertase gene in response to sugars and hormones.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Liu, Xun; Xie, Conghua; Li, Meng; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Potato vacuolar acid invertase (StvacINV1) (β-fructofuranosidase; EC 3.2.1.26) has been confirmed to play an important role in cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers. However, the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of StvacINV1 are largely unknown. In this study, the 5'-flanking sequence of StvacINV1 was cloned and the cis-acting elements were predicted. Histochemical assay showed that the StvacINV1 promoter governed β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in potato leaves, stems, roots and tubers. Quantitative analysis of GUS expression suggested that the activity of StvacINV1 promoter was suppressed by sucrose, glucose, fructose, and cold, while enhanced by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberellic acid (GA3). Further deletion analysis clarified that the promoter regions from -118 to -551, -551 to -1021, and -1021 to -1521 were required for responding to sucrose/glucose, GA3, and IAA, respectively. These findings provide essential information regarding transcriptional regulation mechanisms of StvacINV1.

  19. Targeting the AtCWIN1 Gene to Explore the Role of Invertases in Sucrose Transport in Roots and during Botrytis cinerea Infection

    PubMed Central

    Veillet, Florian; Gaillard, Cécile; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; La Camera, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall invertases (CWIN) cleave sucrose into glucose and fructose in the apoplast. CWINs are key regulators of carbon partitioning and source/sink relationships during growth, development and under biotic stresses. In this report, we monitored the expression/activity of Arabidopsis cell wall invertases in organs behaving as source, sink, or subjected to a source/sink transition after infection with the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We showed that organs with different source/sink status displayed differential CWIN activities, depending on carbohydrate needs or availabilities in the surrounding environment, through a transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. Loss-of-function mutation of the Arabidopsis cell wall invertase 1 gene, AtCWIN1, showed that the corresponding protein was the main contributor to the apoplastic sucrose cleaving activity in both leaves and roots. The CWIN-deficient mutant cwin1-1 exhibited a reduced capacity to actively take up external sucrose in roots, indicating that this process is mainly dependent on the sucrolytic activity of AtCWIN1. Using T-DNA and CRISPR/Cas9 mutants impaired in hexose transport, we demonstrated that external sucrose is actively absorbed in the form of hexoses by a sugar/H+ symport system involving the coordinated activity of AtCWIN1 with several Sugar Transporter Proteins (STP) of the plasma membrane, i.e., STP1 and STP13. Part of external sucrose was imported without apoplastic cleavage into cwin1-1 seedling roots, highlighting an alternative AtCWIN1-independent pathway for the assimilation of external sucrose. Accordingly, we showed that several genes encoding sucrose transporters of the plasma membrane were expressed. We also detected transcript accumulation of vacuolar invertase (VIN)-encoding genes and high VIN activities. Upon infection, AtCWIN1 was responsible for all the Botrytis-induced apoplastic invertase activity. We detected a transcriptional activation of several AtSUC and AtVIN genes

  20. Targeting the AtCWIN1 Gene to Explore the Role of Invertases in Sucrose Transport in Roots and during Botrytis cinerea Infection.

    PubMed

    Veillet, Florian; Gaillard, Cécile; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; La Camera, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall invertases (CWIN) cleave sucrose into glucose and fructose in the apoplast. CWINs are key regulators of carbon partitioning and source/sink relationships during growth, development and under biotic stresses. In this report, we monitored the expression/activity of Arabidopsis cell wall invertases in organs behaving as source, sink, or subjected to a source/sink transition after infection with the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We showed that organs with different source/sink status displayed differential CWIN activities, depending on carbohydrate needs or availabilities in the surrounding environment, through a transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. Loss-of-function mutation of the Arabidopsis cell wall invertase 1 gene, AtCWIN1, showed that the corresponding protein was the main contributor to the apoplastic sucrose cleaving activity in both leaves and roots. The CWIN-deficient mutant cwin1-1 exhibited a reduced capacity to actively take up external sucrose in roots, indicating that this process is mainly dependent on the sucrolytic activity of AtCWIN1. Using T-DNA and CRISPR/Cas9 mutants impaired in hexose transport, we demonstrated that external sucrose is actively absorbed in the form of hexoses by a sugar/H(+) symport system involving the coordinated activity of AtCWIN1 with several Sugar Transporter Proteins (STP) of the plasma membrane, i.e., STP1 and STP13. Part of external sucrose was imported without apoplastic cleavage into cwin1-1 seedling roots, highlighting an alternative AtCWIN1-independent pathway for the assimilation of external sucrose. Accordingly, we showed that several genes encoding sucrose transporters of the plasma membrane were expressed. We also detected transcript accumulation of vacuolar invertase (VIN)-encoding genes and high VIN activities. Upon infection, AtCWIN1 was responsible for all the Botrytis-induced apoplastic invertase activity. We detected a transcriptional activation of several AtSUC and At

  1. The ABA effect on the accumulation of an invertase inhibitor transcript that is driven by the CAMV35S promoter in ARABIDOPSIS.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Sung June; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hoi Seon; Lee, Hojoung

    2008-09-30

    Invertase (beta-D-fructofuranosidase; EC 3.2.1.26) catalyzes the conversion of sucrose into glucose and fructose and is involved in an array of important processes, including phloem unloading, carbon partitioning, the response to pathogens, and the control of cell differentiation and development. Its importance may have caused the invertases to evolve into a multigene family whose members are regulated by a variety of different mechanisms, such as pH, sucrose levels, and inhibitor proteins. Although putative invertase inhibitors in the Arabidopsis genome are easy to locate, few studies have been conducted to elucidate their individual functions in vivo in plant growth and development because of their high redundancy. In this study we assessed the functional role of the putative invertase inhibitors in Arabidopsis by generating transgenic plants harboring a putative invertase inhibitor gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter. A transgenic plant that expressed high levels of the putative invertase inhibitor transcript when grown under normal conditions was chosen for the current study. To our surprise, the stability of the invertase inhibitor transcripts was shown to be down-regulated by the phytohormone ABA (abscisic acid). It is well established that ABA enhances invertase activity in vivo but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Our results thus suggest that one way ABA regulates invertase activity is by down-regulating its inhibitor.

  2. Grape hexokinases are involved in the expression regulation of sucrose synthase- and cell wall invertase-encoding genes by glucose and ABA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Qin; Zheng, Li-Li; Lin, Hao; Yu, Fei; Sun, Li-Hui; Li, Li-Mei

    2017-02-28

    Hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) is a multifunctional protein that both is involved in catalyzing the first step of glycolysis and plays an important role in sugar signaling. However, the supporting genetic evidence on hexokinases (CsHXKs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries has been lacking. Here, to investigate the role of CsHXK isoforms as glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA) sensors, we cloned two hexokinase isozymes, CsHXK1 and CsHXK2 with highly conserved genomic structure of nine exons and eight introns. We also found adenosine phosphate binding, substrate recognition and connection sites in their putative proteins. During grape berry development, the expression profiles of two CsHXK isoforms, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and cell wall invertase (CWINV) genes increased concomitantly with high levels of endogenous Glc and ABA. Furthermore, we showed that in wild type grape berry calli (WT), glucose repressed the expression levels of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and cell wall invertase (CWINV) genes, while ABA increased their expression levels. ABA could not only effectively improve the expression levels of SuSy and CWINV, but also block the repression induced by glucose on the expression of both genes. However, after silencing CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 in grape calli, SuSy and CWINV expression were enhanced, and the expressions of the two genes are insensitive in response to Glc treatment. Interestingly, exogenous ABA alone could not or less increase SuSy and CWINV expression in silencing CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 grape calli compared to WT. Meantime, ABA could not block the repression induced by glucose on the expression of SuSy and CWINV in CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 mutants. Therefore, Glc signal transduction depends on the regulation of CsHXK1 or CsHXK2. ABA signal was also disturbed by CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 silencing. The present results provide new insights into the regulatory role of Glc and ABA on the enzymes related to sugar metabolism in grape berry.

  3. Change in Invertase Activity of Sweet Potato in Response to Wounding and Purification and Properties of Its Invertases 1

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kazunobu; Uritani, Ikuzo

    1974-01-01

    When root tissue of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) was sliced, acid invertase activity, initially absent in freshly sliced tissue, appeared after a 3- to 6-hour lag phase, rapidly reached a maximum in 18 hours, and thereafter decreased. The increase in invertase activity was accompanied by a decrease in sucrose content of the root tissue. Alkaline invertase activity was present in fresh root tissue, but changed little after wounding. Acid invertase in wounded tissue and alkaline invertase in fresh tissue were purified and their properties were investigated. The acid invertase was a ß-fructofuranosidase and was unaffected by substrate or by any of the cations and several metabolites. The alkaline invertase was more specific for sucrose, was inhibited by glucose and glucose 6-phosphate, and displayed non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics. PMID:16658839

  4. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes.

  5. Phloem sugar flux and jasmonic acid-responsive cell wall invertase control extrafloral nectar secretion in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Millán-Cañongo, Cynthia; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) that attracts predators. The efficiency of the resulting anti-herbivore defense depends on the quantity and spatial distribution of EFN. Thus, according to the optimal defense hypothesis (ODH), plants should secrete EFN on the most valuable organs and when herbivore pressure is high. Ricinus communis plants secreted most EFN on the youngest (i.e., most valuable) leaves and after the simulation of herbivory via the application of jasmonic acid (JA). Here, we investigated the physiological mechanisms that might produce these seemingly adaptive spatiotemporal patterns. Cell wall invertase (CWIN; EC 3.2.1.26) was most active in the hours before peak EFN secretion, its decrease preceded the decrease in EFN secretion, and CWIN activity was inducible by JA. Thus, CWIN appears to be a central player in EFN secretion: its activation by JA is likely to cause the induction of EFN secretion after herbivory. Shading individual leaves decreased EFN secretion locally on these leaves with no effect on CWIN activity in the nectaries, which is likely to be because it decreased the content of sucrose, the substrate of CWIN, in the phloem. Our results demonstrate how the interplay of two physiological processes can cause ecologically relevant spatiotemporal patterns in a plant defense trait.

  6. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  7. Kinetic Induction of Oat Shoot Pulvinus Invertase mRNA by Gravistimulation and Partial cDNA Cloning by the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liu-Lai; Song, Il; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    An asymmetric (top vs. bottom halves of pulvini) induction of invertase mRNA by gravistimulation was analyzed in oat shoot pulvini. Total RNA and poly(A)(+) RNA, isolated from oat pulvini, and two oli-gonucleotide primers, corresponding to two conserved amino acid sequences (NDPNG and WECPD) found in invertase from other species, were used for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A partial length cDNA (550 bp) was obtained and characterized. A 62% nucleotide sequence homology and 58% deduced amino acid sequence homology, as compared to beta-fructosidase of carrot cell wall, was found. Northern blot analysis showed that there was an obviously transient induction of invertase mRNA by gravistimulation in the oat pulvinus system. The mRNA was rapidly induced to a maximum level at 1 hour after gravistimulation treatment and gradually decreased afterwards. The mRNA level in the bottom half of the oat pulvinus was significantly higher than that in the top half of the pulvinus tissue. The kinetic induction of invertase mRNA was consistent with the transient accumulation of invertase activity during the graviresponse of the pulvinus. This indicates that the expression of the invertase gene(s) could be regulated by gravistimulation at the transcriptional level. Southern blot analysis showed that there were two to three genomic DNA fragments which hybridized with the partial-length invertase cDNA.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes and correctly processes human interferon hybrid proteins containing yeast invertase signal peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C N; Matteucci, M; Perry, L J; Wulf, J J; Chen, C Y; Hitzeman, R A

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides coding for the yeast invertase secretion signal peptide were fused to the gene for the mature form of human interferon (huIFN-alpha 2). Two plasmids (E3 and F2) were constructed. E3 contained the invertase signal codons in a reading frame with the mature huIFN-alpha 2 gene. F2 had a deletion of the codon for alanine at amino acid residue-5 in the invertase signal and an addition of a methionine codon located between the coding sequences for the invertase signal and mature huIFN-alpha 2. Both hybrid genes were located adjacent to the promoter from the 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene on the multicopy yeast expression plasmid, YEp1PT. Yeast transformants containing these plasmids produced somewhat more IFN than did the same expression plasmid containing the IFN gene with its human secretion signal sequence. HuIFN-alpha 2, purified from the medium of yeast cells containing E3, was found to be processed at the correct site. The huIFN-alpha 2 made by plasmid F2 was found to be completely processed at the junction between the invertase signal (a variant) and the methionine of methionine-huIFN-alpha 2. These results strongly suggested that the invertase signal (or its variant) attached to huIFN was efficiently recognized by the presumed signal recognition particle and was cleaved by the signal peptidase in the yeast cells. These results also suggested that amino acid changes on the right side of the cleavage site did not necessarily prevent cleavage or secretion. Images PMID:3023906

  9. Invertase immobilization onto radiation-induced graft copolymerized polyethylene pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar; Vitolo, Michele; de Oliveira, Rômulo Cesar; Higa, Olga Zazuco

    1996-06-01

    The graft copolymer poly(ethylene-g-acrylic acid) (LDPE-g-AA) was prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets, and characterized by infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of the grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was established. Invertase was immobilized onto the graft polymer and the thermodynamic parameters of the soluble and immobilized enzyme were determined. The Michaelis constant, Km, and the maximum reaction velocity, Vmax, were determined for the free and the immobilized invertase. The Michaelis constant, Km was larger for the immobilized invertase than for the free enzyme, whereas Vmax was smaller for the immobilized invertase. The thermal stability of the immobilized invertase was higher than that of the free enzyme.

  10. Silencing the vacuolar invertase gene GhVIN1 blocks cotton fiber initiation from the ovule epidermis, probably by suppressing a cohort of regulatory genes via sugar signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cook, Akiko; Patrick, John W; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Cotton fibers, the most important source of cellulose for the global textile industry, are single-celled trichomes derived from the ovule epidermis at or just prior to anthesis. Despite progress in understanding cotton fiber elongation and cell-wall biosynthesis, knowledge regarding the molecular basis of fiber cell initiation, the first step of fiber development determining the fiber yield potential, remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that expression of a vacuolar invertase (VIN) is an early event that is essential for cotton fiber initiation. RNAi-mediated suppression of GhVIN1, a major VIN gene that is highly expressed in wild-type fiber initials, resulted in significant reduction of VIN activity and consequently a fiberless seed phenotype in a dosage dependent manner. The absence of a negative effect on seed development in these fiberless seeds indicates that the phenotype is unlikely to be due to lack of carbon nutrient. Gene expression analyses coupled with in vitro ovule culture experiments revealed that GhVIN1-derived hexose signaling may play an indispensable role in cotton fiber initiation, probably by regulating the transcription of several MYB transcription factors and auxin signaling components that were previously identified as required for fiber initiation. Together, the data represent a significant advance in understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber initiation, and provide the first indication that VIN-mediated hexose signaling may act as an early event modulating the expression of regulatory genes and hence cell differentiation from the ovule epidermis.

  11. The DNA invertase Gin of phage Mu: formation of a covalent complex with DNA via a phosphoserine at amino acid position 9.

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, A; Mertens, G; Patschinsky, T; Kahmann, R

    1988-01-01

    The DNA invertase Gin encoded by bacteriophage Mu catalyses efficient site-specific recombination between inverted repeat sequences (IR) in vivo and in vitro in the presence of the host factor FIS and the recombinational enhancer. We demonstrate that Gin alone is able to introduce single strand breaks into duplex DNA fragments which contain the IR sequence. Strand cleavage is site-specific and can occur on either strand within the IR. Cleaved molecules contain Gin covalently attached to DNA. The covalent complex is formed through linkage of Gin to the 5' DNA phosphate at the site of the break via a phosphoserine. Extensive site-directed mutational analysis showed that all mutants altered at serine position 9 were completely recombination deficient in vivo and in vitro. The mutant proteins bind to DNA but lack topoisomerase activity and are unable to introduce nicks. This holds true even for a conservative amino acid substitution at position 9. We conclude that serine at position 9 is part of the catalytic domain of Gin. The intriguing finding that the DNA invertase Gin has the same catalytic center as the DNA resolvases that promote deletions without recombinational enhancer and host factor FIS is discussed. Images PMID:3042382

  12. Extracellular invertase is involved in the regulation of clubroot disease in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Johannes; González, Maria-Cruz; Wolf, Sebastian; Hofmann, Christina; Greiner, Steffen; DU, Yejie; Rausch, Thomas; Roitsch, Thomas; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2011-04-01

    Clubroot disease of Brassicaceae is caused by an obligate biotrophic protist, Plasmodiophora brassicae. During root gall development, a strong sink for assimilates is developed. Among other genes involved in sucrose and starch synthesis and degradation, the increased expression of invertases has been observed in a microarray experiment, and invertase and invertase inhibitor expression was confirmed using promoter::GUS lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. A functional approach demonstrates that invertases are important for gall development. Different transgenic lines expressing an invertase inhibitor under the control of two root-specific promoters, Pyk10 and CrypticT80, which results in the reduction of invertase activity, showed clearly reduced clubroot symptoms in root tissue with highest promoter expression, whereas hypocotyl galls developed normally. These results present the first evidence that invertases are important factors during gall development, most probably in supplying sugars to the pathogen. In addition, root-specific repression of invertase activity could be used as a tool to reduce clubroot symptoms.

  13. Acrylamide-sepiolite based composite hydrogels for immobilization of invertase.

    PubMed

    Oztop, H Nursevin; Hepokur, Ceylan; Saraydin, Dursun

    2009-09-01

    Novel composite hydrogels, poly(acrylamide)-sepiolite (PAS), poly(acrylamide/acrylic acid)-sepiolite (PAAS), and poly(acrylamide/itaconic acid)-sepiolite (PAIS) were prepared and used for the immobilization of invertase. The parameters of equilibrium swelling, diffusional exponent, and diffusion coefficient of these hydrogels were calculated from swelling experiments. Invertase was immobilized onto PAS, PAAS, and PAIS and immobilized invertases (PASI, PAASI, and PAISI) were prepared. Optimum pH values for free invertase, PASI, PAASI, and PAISI are found to be 5, 5.5, 4.5, and 6, respectively, and the optimum temperatures were 30, 50, 50, and 35 degrees C for free invertase PASI, PAASI, and PAISI. It was found that K(m) values of free invertase, PASI, PAASI, and PAISI were 11.3, 41.0, 94.5, and 56.0 mM, respectively. V(max) values were 2 mumol/min for free invertase, 8.10 mumol/min for PASI, 1.30 mumol/min for PAASI, and 0.42 mumol/min for PAISI, respectively. The invertase immobilized hydrogels showed excellent, temperature, storage, and operational stability.

  14. The Miniature-1 (Mn1) gene product, cell wall invertase-2 (INCW2), is associated with wall-in-growths (WIGs) is basal endosperm transfer cells (BETCs) in developing seeds of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell wall invertases (CWI) are ionically bound to the cell wall in plant cells. A major CWI, INCW2, encoded by the Mn1 gene, provides the gateway to sucrose metabolism in developing seeds as it is entirely and exclusively localized to the BETCs that juxtapose the pedicel. The loss of INCW2 protein ...

  15. A gain-of-function mutation of plastidic invertase alters nuclear gene expression with sucrose treatment partially via GENOMES UNCOUPLED1-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Takanori; Miyazaki, Nozomi; Nosaka, Ryota; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Padilla-Chacon, Daniel; Otori, Kumi; Kimura, Ayako; Tanabe, Noriaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    Plastid gene expression (PGE) is one of the signals that regulate the expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) via GENOMES UNCOUPLED1 (GUN1)-dependent retrograde signaling. We recently isolated Arabidopsis sugar-inducible cotyledon yellow-192 (sicy-192), a gain-of-function mutant of plastidic invertase, and showed that following the treatment of this mutant with sucrose, the expression of PhANGs as well as PGE decreased, suggesting that the sicy-192 mutation activates a PGE-evoked and GUN1-mediated retrograde pathway. To clarify the relationship between the sicy-192 mutation, PGE, and GUN1-mediated pathway, plastid and nuclear gene expression in a double mutant of sicy-192 and gun1-101, a null mutant of GUN1 was studied. Plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP)-dependent PGE was markedly suppressed in the sicy-192 mutant by the sucrose treatment, but the suppression as well as cotyledon yellow phenotype was not mitigated by GUN1 disruption. Microarray analysis revealed that the altered expression of nuclear genes such as PhANG in the sucrose-treated sicy-192 mutant was largely dependent on GUN1. The present findings demonstrated that the sicy-192 mutation alters nuclear gene expression with sucrose treatment via GUN1, which is possibly followed by inhibiting PEP-dependent PGE, providing a new insight into the role of plastid sugar metabolism in nuclear gene expression.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification, 3D Modeling, Expression and Enzymatic Activity Analysis of Cell Wall Invertase Gene Family from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a β-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a β-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker. PMID:24786092

  17. Genome-wide identification, 3D modeling, expression and enzymatic activity analysis of cell wall invertase gene family from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-04-28

    The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a β-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a β-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker.

  18. Cloning of a CACTA transposon-like insertion in intron I of tomato invertase Lin5 gene and identification of transposase-like sequences of Solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Proels, Reinhard K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Very few CACTA transposon-like sequences have been described in Solanaceae species. Sequence information has been restricted to partial transposase (TPase)-like fragments, and no target gene of CACTA-like transposon insertion has been described in tomato to date. In this manuscript, we report on a CACTA transposon-like insertion in intron I of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) invertase gene Lin5 and TPase-like sequences of several Solanaceae species. Consensus primers deduced from the TPase region of the tomato CACTA transposon-like element allowed the amplification of similar sequences from various Solanaceae species of different subfamilies including Solaneae (Solanum tuberosum), Cestreae (Nicotiana tabacum) and Datureae (Datura stramonium). This demonstrates the ubiquitous presence of CACTA-like elements in Solanaceae genomes. The obtained partial sequences are highly conserved, and allow further detection and detailed analysis of CACTA-like transposons throughout Solanaceae species. CACTA-like transposon sequences make possible the evaluation of their use for genome analysis, functional studies of genes and the evolutionary relationships between plant species.

  19. Cloning of a vacuolar invertase from Belgian endive leaves (Cichorium intybus).

    PubMed

    Van Den Ende, Wim; Michiels, An; Le Roy, Katrien; Van Laere, André

    2002-08-01

    Although a lot of vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) cDNAs are available from a diversity of plant species, up to now no sequence information is available on invertases from any dicot fructan-containing species. Therefore, we describe the cloning of vacuolar acid invertase cDNA from etiolated Belgian endive leaves (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum cv. Flash), formed throughout the forcing process of the witloof chicory roots. Full-length cDNA was obtained by a combination of RT-PCR, PCR and 5'- and 3' RACE RT-PCR, starting with primers based on conserved amino acid sequences. The cloned chicory acid invertase groups together with vacuolar type invertases and fructan biosynthetic enzymes. A putative role for vacuolar type invertases in fructan synthesizing plants is discussed.

  20. High acid invertase activity for a prolonged period in developing seeds/podwall of wild chickpea is detrimental to seed filling.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harinderjeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Kaur, Narinder; Sandhu, Jeet Singh

    2012-10-01

    In the present study factors responsible for low seed biomass in wild Cicer species has been investigated. Cicer judaicum and chickpea cultivar PBG-1 were investigated to compare activities of some enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in podwall and seeds during crop development. Seed filling duration in wild species was about 15 days shorter than that of cultivated varieties due to rapid loss of moisture content and hence resulted in earlier maturity and reduced seed biomass. Longer seed filling duration appeared to be an important factor responsible for greater biomass of chickpea seeds. Because of absence of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase from 25-35 days after flowering and low sucrose synthase activities, the podwall of C. judaicum is not in a position to contribute significantly to the sink filling capacity of seeds. High acid invertase, low sucrose synthase activities during seed storage phase cause detrimental effect on seed filling and resulting in highly reduced sink strength and productivity of wild species. Successful transfer of stress tolerance from wild Cicer species to chickpea cultivars need to prevent the transfer of these observed unfavourable biochemical factors so that the productivity of chickpea crop remains unaffected during utilization of wild Cicer species in chickpea improvement.

  1. Aqueous two-phase (PEG4000/Na2SO4) extraction and characterization of an acid invertase from potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Yuzugullu, Yonca; Duman, Yonca Avcı

    2015-01-01

    Invertases are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases have essential roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and stress responses. To study their isolation and purification from potato, an attractive system useful for the separation of biological molecules, an aqueous two-phase system, was used. The influence of various system parameters such as type of phase-forming salts, polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular mass, salt, and polymer concentration was investigated to obtain the highest recovery of enzyme. The PEG4000 (12.5%, w/w)/Na2SO4(15%, w/w) system was found to be ideal for partitioning invertase into the bottom salt-rich phase. The addition of 3% MnSO4 (w/w) at pH 5.0 increased the purity by 5.11-fold with the recovered activity of 197%. The Km and Vmax on sucrose were 3.95 mM and 0.143 U mL(-1) min(-1), respectively. Our data confirmed that the PEG4000/Na2SO4 aqueous two-phase system combined with the presence of MnSO4 offers a low-cost purification of invertase from readily available potato tuber in a single step. The biochemical characteristics of temperature and pH stability for potato invertase prepared from an ATPS make the enzyme a good candidate for its potential use in many research and industrial applications.

  2. A unique, highly conserved secretory invertase is differentially expressed by promastigote developmental forms of all species of the human pathogen, Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Lyda, Todd A; Joshi, Manju B; Andersen, John F; Kelada, Andrew Y; Owings, Joshua P; Bates, Paul A; Dwyer, Dennis M

    2015-06-01

    Leishmania are protozoan pathogens of humans that exist as extracellular promastigotes in the gut of their sand fly vectors and as obligate intracellular amastigotes within phagolysosomes of infected macrophages. Between infectious blood meal feeds, sand flies take plant juice meals that contain sucrose and store these sugars in their crop. Such sugars are regurgitated into the sand fly anterior midgut where they impact the developing promastigote parasite population. In this report we showed that promastigotes of all Leishmania species secreted an invertase/sucrase enzyme during their growth in vitro. In contrast, neither L. donovani nor L. mexicana amastigotes possessed any detectable invertase activity. Importantly, no released/secreted invertase activity was detected in culture supernatants from either Trypanosoma brucei or Trypanosoma cruzi. Using HPLC, the L. donovani secretory invertase was isolated and subjected to amino acid sequencing. Subsequently, we used a molecular approach to identify the LdINV and LmexINV genes encoding the ~72 kDa invertases produced by these organisms. Interestingly, we identified high fidelity LdINV-like homologs in the genomes of all Leishmania sp. but none were present in either T. brucei or T. cruzi. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that these genes were developmentally/differentially expressed in promastigotes but not amastigotes of these parasites. Homologous transfection studies demonstrated that these genes in fact encoded the functional secretory invertases produced by these parasites. Cumulatively, our results suggest that these secretory enzymes play critical roles in the survival/growth/development and transmission of all Leishmania parasites within their sand fly vector hosts.

  3. A unique, highly conserved secretory invertase is differentially expressed by promastigote developmental forms of all species of the human pathogen, Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Lyda, Todd A.; Joshi, Manju B.; Andersen, John F.; Kelada, Andrew Y.; Owings, Joshua P.; Bates, Paul A.; Dwyer, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania are protozoan pathogens of humans that exist as extracellular promastigotes in the gut of their sand fly vectors and as obligate intracellular amastigotes within phagolysosomes of infected macrophages. Between infectious blood meal feeds, sand flies take plant juice meals that contain sucrose and store these sugars in their crop. Such sugars are regurgitated into the sand fly anterior midgut where they impact the developing promastigote parasite population. In this report we showed that promastigotes of all Leishmania species secreted an invertase/sucrase enzyme during their growth in vitro. In contrast, neither L. donovani nor L. mexicana amastigotes possessed any detectable invertase activity. Importantly, no released/secreted invertase activity was detected in culture supernatants from either Trypanosoma brucei or Trypanosoma cruzi. Using HPLC, the L. donovani secretory invertase was isolated and subjected to amino acid sequencing. Subsequently, we used a molecular approach to identify the LdINV and LmexINV genes encoding the ~72 kDa invertases produced by these organisms. Interestingly, we identified high fidelity LdINV-like homologs in the genomes of all Leishmania sp. but none were present in either T. brucei or T. cruzi. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that these genes were developmentally/differentially expressed in promastigotes but not amastigotes of these parasites. Homologous transfection studies demonstrated that these genes in fact encoded the functional secretory invertases produced by these parasites. Cumulatively, our results suggest that these secretory enzymes play critical roles in the survival/growth/development and transmission of all Leishmania parasites within their sand fly vector hosts. PMID:25763714

  4. Simple Practical Investigations Using Invertase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare-Brown, Emma; Bullock, Clive

    1988-01-01

    Describes three activities, substrate inhibition, product inhibition by fructose and glucose, and gel immobilization of invertase for use with undergraduate biochemistry classes. Discusses materials, methods, and results. Stresses the advantages of practical exercises in undergraduate classes. (CW)

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of an invertase secreted by Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Dinis, Cláudia; Magalhães, Frederico; Oliveira, Carla; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Penttilä, Merja; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-06-01

    The repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes natively secreted by the filamentous fungus Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii has been poorly explored. Here, an invertase secreted by this flavinogenic fungus was for the first time molecularly and functionally characterized. Invertase activity was detected in A. gossypii culture supernatants and cell-associated fractions. Extracellular invertase migrated in a native polyacrylamide gel as diffuse protein bands, indicating the occurrence of at least two invertase isoforms. Hydrolytic activity toward sucrose was approximately 10 times higher than toward raffinose. Inulin and levan were not hydrolyzed. Production of invertase by A. gossypii was repressed by the presence of glucose in the culture medium. The A. gossypii invertase was demonstrated to be encoded by the AFR529W (AgSUC2) gene, which is highly homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 (ScSUC2) gene. Agsuc2 null mutants were unable to hydrolyze sucrose, proving that invertase is encoded by a single gene in A. gossypii. This mutation was functionally complemented by the ScSUC2 and AgSUC2 genes, when expressed from a 2-μm-plasmid. The signal sequences of both AgSuc2p and ScSuc2p were able to direct the secretion of invertase into the culture medium in A. gossypii.

  6. Pleiotropy and its limited dissection through a metabolic gene Miniature1 (Mn1) that encodes a cell wall invertase in developing seeds of maize.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mn1-encoded endosperm-specific cell wall invertase is a major determinant of sink strength of developing seeds through its control of both sink size, cell number and cell size, and sink activity via sucrose hydrolysis and release of hexoses essential for energy and signaling functions. Consequen...

  7. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica to express secretory invertase with strong FBA1IN promoter.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Pyo; Seip, John; Walters-Pollak, Dana; Rupert, Ross; Jackson, Raymond; Xue, Zhixiong; Zhu, Quinn

    2012-02-01

    Oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an important host for the production of lipid-derived compounds or heterologous proteins. Selection of strong promoters and effective expression systems is critical for heterologous protein secretion. To search for a strong promoter in Y. lipolytica, activities of FBA1, TDH1 and GPM1 promoters were compared to that of TEF1 promoter by constructing GUS reporter fusions. The FBA1 promoter activity was 2.2 and 5.5 times stronger than the TDH1 and GPM1 promoters, respectively. The FBA1IN promoter (FBA1 sequence of -826 to +169) containing an intron (+64 to +165) showed five-fold higher expression than the FBA1 promoter (-831 to -1). The transcriptional enhancement by the 5'-region within the FBA1 gene was confirmed by GPM1::FBA1 chimeric promoter construction. Using the strong FBA1IN promoter, four different S. cerevisiae SUC2 expression cassettes were tested for the SUC+ phenotype in Y. lipolytica. Functional invertase secretion was facilitated by the Xpr2 prepro-region with an additional 13 amino acids of mature Xpr2, or by the native Suc2 signal sequence. However, these two secretory signals in tandem, or the mature Suc2 with no secretory signal, did not direct secretion of functional invertase. Unlike previously reported Y. lipolytica SUC+ strains, our engineered stains secreted most of invertase into the medium.

  8. Improving the Processing Quality of Existing Cultivars by Suppressing the Vacuolar Acid Invertase Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing potato tubers at low temperatures is highly advantageous in that it prevents sprouting, minimizes disease losses and increases the marketing window. Unfortunately, cold storage of existing cultivars causes an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-indu...

  9. Induction of vacuolar invertase inhibitor mRNA in potato tubers contributes to cold-induced sweetening resistance and includes spliced hybrid mRNA variants.

    PubMed

    Brummell, David A; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Zhang, Huaibi; Hamiaux, Cyril; Kralicek, Andrew V; McKenzie, Marian J

    2011-06-01

    Cold storage of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) compromises tuber quality in many cultivars by the accumulation of hexose sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. This is caused by the breakdown of starch to sucrose, which is cleaved to glucose and fructose by vacuolar acid invertase. During processing of affected tubers, the high temperatures involved in baking and frying cause the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acids, resulting in the accumulation of acrylamide. cDNA clones with deduced proteins homologous to known invertase inhibitors were isolated and the two most abundant forms, termed INH1 and INH2, were shown to possess apoplastic and vacuolar localization, respectively. The INH2 gene showed developmentally regulated alternative splicing, so, in addition to the INH2α transcript encoding the full-length protein, two hybrid mRNAs (INH2β*A and INH2β*B) that encoded deduced vacuolar invertase inhibitors with divergent C-termini were detected, the result of mRNA splicing of an upstream region of INH2 to a downstream region of INH1. Hybrid RNAs are common in animals, where they may add to the diversity of the proteome, but are rarely described in plants. During cold storage, INH2α and the hybrid INH2β mRNAs accumulated to higher abundance in cultivars resistant to cold-induced sweetening than in susceptible cultivars. Increased amounts of invertase inhibitor may contribute to the suppression of acid invertase activity and prevent cleavage of sucrose. Evidence for increased RNA splicing activity was detected in several resistant lines, a mechanism that in some circumstances may generate a range of proteins with additional functional capacity to aid adaptability.

  10. Induction of vacuolar invertase inhibitor mRNA in potato tubers contributes to cold-induced sweetening resistance and includes spliced hybrid mRNA variants

    PubMed Central

    Brummell, David A.; Chen, Ronan K. Y.; Harris, John C.; Zhang, Huaibi; Hamiaux, Cyril; Kralicek, Andrew V.; McKenzie, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Cold storage of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) compromises tuber quality in many cultivars by the accumulation of hexose sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. This is caused by the breakdown of starch to sucrose, which is cleaved to glucose and fructose by vacuolar acid invertase. During processing of affected tubers, the high temperatures involved in baking and frying cause the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acids, resulting in the accumulation of acrylamide. cDNA clones with deduced proteins homologous to known invertase inhibitors were isolated and the two most abundant forms, termed INH1 and INH2, were shown to possess apoplastic and vacuolar localization, respectively. The INH2 gene showed developmentally regulated alternative splicing, so, in addition to the INH2α transcript encoding the full-length protein, two hybrid mRNAs (INH2β*A and INH2β*B) that encoded deduced vacuolar invertase inhibitors with divergent C-termini were detected, the result of mRNA splicing of an upstream region of INH2 to a downstream region of INH1. Hybrid RNAs are common in animals, where they may add to the diversity of the proteome, but are rarely described in plants. During cold storage, INH2α and the hybrid INH2β mRNAs accumulated to higher abundance in cultivars resistant to cold-induced sweetening than in susceptible cultivars. Increased amounts of invertase inhibitor may contribute to the suppression of acid invertase activity and prevent cleavage of sucrose. Evidence for increased RNA splicing activity was detected in several resistant lines, a mechanism that in some circumstances may generate a range of proteins with additional functional capacity to aid adaptability. PMID:21393382

  11. Three-dimensional Structure of Saccharomyces Invertase

    PubMed Central

    Sainz-Polo, M. Angela; Ramírez-Escudero, Mercedes; Lafraya, Alvaro; González, Beatriz; Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Invertase is an enzyme that is widely distributed among plants and microorganisms and that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose into glucose and fructose. Despite the important physiological role of Saccharomyces invertase (SInv) and the historical relevance of this enzyme as a model in early biochemical studies, its structure had not yet been solved. We report here the crystal structure of recombinant SInv at 3.3 Å resolution showing that the enzyme folds into the catalytic β-propeller and β-sandwich domains characteristic of GH32 enzymes. However, SInv displays an unusual quaternary structure. Monomers associate in two different kinds of dimers, which are in turn assembled into an octamer, best described as a tetramer of dimers. Dimerization plays a determinant role in substrate specificity because this assembly sets steric constraints that limit the access to the active site of oligosaccharides of more than four units. Comparative analysis of GH32 enzymes showed that formation of the SInv octamer occurs through a β-sheet extension that seems unique to this enzyme. Interaction between dimers is determined by a short amino acid sequence at the beginning of the β-sandwich domain. Our results highlight the role of the non-catalytic domain in fine-tuning substrate specificity and thus supplement our knowledge of the activity of this important family of enzymes. In turn, this gives a deeper insight into the structural features that rule modularity and protein-carbohydrate recognition. PMID:23430743

  12. Rapid stalk elongation in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) and the combined action of cold-induced invertase and the water-channel protein gammaTIP.

    PubMed

    Balk, P A; de Boer, A D

    1999-09-01

    Many bulbous plants need a low-temperature treatment for flowering. Cold, for example, affects the elongation of the stalk, thereby influencing the quality of the cut flower. How the elongation of the stalk is promoted by cold and which physiological and biochemical mechanisms are involved have remained obscure. As invertase has been shown to be involved in the cold-induced elongation of the flower stalks of tulips (Lambrechts et al., 1994, Plant Physiol 104: 515-520), we further characterized this enzyme by cloning the cDNA and analysing its expression in various tissues of the tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stalk. In addition, the role of sucrose synthase was investigated. Since turgor pressure is an important force driving cell elongation, the role of a water-channel protein (gammaTIP) was studied in relation to these two enzymes. The mRNA level of the invertase found was substantially up-regulated as a result of cold treatment. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of this invertase revealed the presence of a vacuolar targeting signal. Two different forms of sucrose synthase were found, the expression of one of them appeared to be restricted to the vascular tissue while the other form was present in the surrounding tissue. Both sucrose synthases were present in the stalk during the entire period of bulb storage and after planting, but their activities declined during stalk elongation. The expression of the gammaTIP gene was restricted mainly to the vascular tissue and its expression profile was identical to that of invertase. Simultaneous expression of invertase and gammaTIP possibly leads to an increase in osmotic potential and vacuolar water uptake, thus providing a driving force for stretching the stalk cells.

  13. Kinetics study of invertase covalently linked to a new functional nanogel.

    PubMed

    Raj, Lok; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S; Azmi, Wamik; Ahn, J-H; Manuel, James

    2011-02-01

    Nanogels are promising materials as supports for enzyme immobilization. A new hydrogel comprising of methacrylic acid (MAAc) and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (N-VP) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was synthesized and converted to nanogel by an emulsification method. Nanogel was further functionalized by Curtius azide reaction for use as support for the covalent immobilization of invertase (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). As-prepared or invertase-immobilized nanogel was characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM and nitrogen analysis. The characterization of both free and the immobilized-invertase were performed using a spectrophotometric method at 540 nm. The values of V(max), maximum reaction rate, (0.123 unit/mg), k(m), Michaelis constant (7.429 mol/L) and E(a), energy of activation (3.511 kj/mol) for the immobilized-invertase are comparable with those of the free invertase at optimum conditions (time 70 min, pH 6.0 and temperature 45°C). The covalent immobilization enhanced the pH and thermal stability of invertase. The immobilized biocatalyst was efficiently reused up to eight cycles.

  14. The role of hexokinases from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) in regulating the expression of cell wall invertase and sucrose synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Q; Li, L M; Yang, P P; Gong, C L

    2014-02-01

    In plants, hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) involved in hexose phosphorylation, plays an important role in sugar sensing and signaling. In this study, we found that at Phase I of grape berry development, lower hexose (glucose or fructose) levels were concomitant with higher HXK activities and protein levels. After the onset of ripening, we demonstrated a drastic reduction in HXK activity and protein levels accompanied by a rising hexose level. Therefore, our results revealed that HXK activity and protein levels had an inverse relationship with the endogenous glucose or fructose levels during grape berry development. A 51 kDa HXK protein band was detected throughout grape berry development. In addition, HXK located in the vacuoles, cytoplasm, nucleus, proplastid, chloroplast, and mitochondrion of the berry flesh cells. During grape berry development, HXK transcriptional level changed slightly, while cell wall invertase (CWINV) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) expression was enhanced after véraison stage. Intriguingly, when sliced grape berries were incubated in different glucose solutions, CWINV and SuSy expression was repressed by glucose, and the intensity of repression depended on glucose concentration and incubation time. After sliced, grape berries were treated with different glucose analogs, CWINV and SuSy expression analyses revealed that phosphorylation of hexoses by hexokinase was an essential component in the glucose-dependent CWINV and SuSy expression. In the meantime, mannoheptulose, a specific inhibitor of hexokinase, blocked the repression induced by glucose on CWINV and SuSy expression. It suggested that HXK played a major role in regulating CWINV and SuSy expression during grape berry development.

  15. Requirements for mini-exon inclusion in potato invertase mRNAs provides evidence for exon-scanning interactions in plants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C G; Hedley, P E; Watters, J A; Clark, G P; McQuade, C; Machray, G C; Brown, J W

    2000-03-01

    Invertases are responsible for the breakdown of sucrose to fructose and glucose. In all but one plant invertase gene, the second exon is only 9 nt in length and encodes three amino acids of a five-amino-acid sequence that is highly conserved in all invertases of plant origin. Sequences responsible for normal splicing (inclusion) of exon 2 have been investigated in vivo using the potato invertase, invGF gene. The upstream intron 1 is required for inclusion whereas the downstream intron 2 is not. Mutations within intron 1 have identified two sequence elements that are needed for inclusion: a putative branchpoint sequence and an adjacent U-rich region. Both are recognized plant intron splicing signals. The branchpoint sequence lies further upstream from the 3' splice site of intron 1 than is normally seen in plant introns. All dicotyledonous plant invertase genes contain this arrangement of sequence elements: a distal branchpoint sequence and adjacent, downstream U-rich region. Intron 1 sequences upstream of the branchpoint and sequences in exons 1, 2, or 3 do not determine inclusion, suggesting that intron or exon splicing enhancer elements seen in vertebrate mini-exon systems are absent. In addition, mutation of the 3' and 5' splice sites flanking the mini-exon cause skipping of the mini-exon, suggesting that both splice sites are required. The branchpoint/U-rich sequence is able to promote splicing of mini-exons of 6, 3, and 1 nt in length and of a chicken cTNT mini-exon of 6 nt. These sequence elements therefore act as a splicing enhancer and appear to function via interactions between factors bound at the branchpoint/U-rich region and at the 5' splice site of intron 2, activating removal of this intron followed by removal of intron 1. This first example of splicing of a plant mini-exon to be analyzed demonstrates that particular arrangement of standard plant intron splicing signals can drive constitutive splicing of a mini-exon.

  16. Optimized invertase expression and secretion cassette for improving Yarrowia lipolytica growth on sucrose for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Rossignol, Tristan; Verbeke, Jonathan; Crutz-Le Coq, Anne-Marie; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Robak, Małgorzata

    2013-11-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica requires the expression of a heterologous invertase to grow on a sucrose-based substrate. This work reports the construction of an optimized invertase expression cassette composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2p secretion signal sequence followed by the SUC2 sequence and under the control of the strong Y. lipolytica pTEF promoter. This new construction allows a fast and optimal cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose and allows cells to reach the maximum growth rate. Contrary to pre-existing constructions, the expression of SUC2 is not sensitive to medium composition in this context. The strain JMY2593, expressing this new cassette with an optimized secretion signal sequence and a strong promoter, produces 4,519 U/l of extracellular invertase in bioreactor experiments compared to 597 U/l in a strain expressing the former invertase construction. The expression of this cassette strongly improved production of invertase and is suitable for simultaneously high production level of citric acid from sucrose-based media.

  17. Cell wall invertase-2 (INCW2) encoded by Miniature-1 (Mn1) gene is associated with wall-in-growths (WIGs) in basal endosperm transfer cells (BETCs) in developing seeds of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell wall invertases (CWI) are ionically bound to the plant cell walls. A major CWI, INCW2, provides the gateway to sucrose metabolism in developing maize seeds as it is entirely localized to the BETCs that juxtapose the pedicel. The loss of INCW2 protein is the causal basis of the mn1 seed phenoty...

  18. A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Franken, Philipp; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Fischer, Kerstin; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation.

  19. Posttranslational elevation of cell wall invertase activity by silencing its inhibitor in tomato delays leaf senescence and increases seed weight and fruit hexose level.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye; Ni, Di-An; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Invertase plays multiple pivotal roles in plant development. Thus, its activity must be tightly regulated in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that a group of small proteins that inhibit invertase activity in vitro appears to exist in a wide variety of plants. However, little is known regarding their roles in planta. Here, we examined the function of INVINH1, a putative invertase inhibitor, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of a INVINH1:green fluorescent protein fusion revealed its apoplasmic localization. Ectopic overexpression of INVINH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana specifically reduced cell wall invertase activity. By contrast, silencing its expression in tomato significantly increased the activity of cell wall invertase without altering activities of cytoplasmic and vacuolar invertases. Elevation of cell wall invertase activity in RNA interference transgenic tomato led to (1) a prolonged leaf life span involving in a blockage of abscisic acid-induced senescence and (2) an increase in seed weight and fruit hexose level, which is likely achieved through enhanced sucrose hydrolysis in the apoplasm of the fruit vasculature. This assertion is based on (1) coexpression of INVINH1 and a fruit-specific cell wall invertase Lin5 in phloem parenchyma cells of young fruit, including the placenta regions connecting developing seeds; (2) a physical interaction between INVINH1 and Lin5 in vivo; and (3) a symplasmic discontinuity at the interface between placenta and seeds. Together, the results demonstrate that INVINH1 encodes a protein that specifically inhibits the activity of cell wall invertase and regulates leaf senescence and seed and fruit development in tomato by limiting the invertase activity in planta.

  20. Efficient stabilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae external invertase by immobilisation on modified beidellite nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Andjelković, Uroš; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra; Jović-Jovičić, Nataša; Banković, Predrag; Bajt, Teja; Mojović, Zorica; Vujčić, Zoran; Jovanović, Dušan

    2015-02-01

    The external invertase isoform 1 (EINV1) was immobilised on eight differently modified beidellite nanoclays. Modifications were composed of organo-modification with different amounts of surfactant - hexadecyl trimethylammonium cation (HDTMA), pillaring with Al/Fe containing polyhydroxy cations and acid modification of Na-enriched and pillared clays. The modified nanoclays were characterised by XRD, N2-physisorption, SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amount of bound enzyme activity was significantly influenced by the modification of beidellite ranging from 50 to remarkable 2200U/g. Biochemical characterization was performed for five modified nanoclays showing the highest enzyme activity after invertase immobilisation. The investigation demonstrated that after immobilisation the structure and the catalytic properties of invertase were preserved, while Km values were slightly increased from 26 to 37mM. immobilisation significantly improved thermal and storage stability of EINV1. Results indicate that beidellite nanoclays obtained by low cost modifications can be applied as a suitable support for the immobilisation of invertase. The immobilizate can be efficiently engaged in sucrose hydrolysis in batch reactor.

  1. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions.

  2. Invertase-nanogold clusters decorated plant membranes for fluorescence-based sucrose sensor.

    PubMed

    Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2015-04-12

    In the present study, invertase-mediated nanogold clusters were synthesized on onion membranes, and their application for sucrose biosensor fabrication was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy revealed free nanoparticles of various sizes (diameter ~5 to 50 nm) along with clusters of nanogold (~95 to 200 nm) on the surface of inner epidermal membranes of onions (Allium cepa L.). Most of the polydispersed nanoparticles were spherical, although some were square shaped, triangular, hexagonal or rod-shaped. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric observations showed the characteristic peak for nanoparticles decorated invertase-onion membrane at approximately 301 nm. When excited at 320 nm in the presence of sucrose, the membranes exhibited a photoemission peak at 348 nm. The fluorescence lifetime of this nanogold modified onion membrane was 6.20 ns, compared to 2.47 ns for invertase-onion membrane without nanogold. Therefore, a sucrose detection scheme comprised of an invertase/nanogold decorated onion membrane was successfully developed. This fluorescent nanogold-embedded onion membrane drop-test sensor exhibited wide acidic to neutral working pH range (4.0-7.0) with a response time 30 seconds (<1 min). The fabricated quenching-based probe had a low detection limit (2x10(-9) M) with a linear dynamic range of 2.25x10(-9) to 4.25x10(-8) M for sensing sucrose. A microplate designed with an enzyme-nanomaterial-based sensor platform exhibited a high compliance, with acceptable percentage error for the detection of sucrose in green tea samples in comparison to a traditional method. With some further, modifications, this fabricated enzyme-nanogold onion membrane sensor probe could be used to estimate glucose concentrations for a variety of analytical samples. Graphical abstract Synthesis and characterization of invertase assisted nanogold clusters on onion membranes and their application for fluorescence-based sucrose sensor.

  3. RhVI1 is a membrane-anchored vacuolar invertase highly expressed in Rosa hybrida L. petals

    PubMed Central

    Farci, Domenica; Collu, Gabriella; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Esposito, Francesca; Piano, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Invertases are a widespread group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plants invertases and their substrates are essential factors that play an active role in primary metabolism and in cellular differentiation and by these activities they sustain development and growth. Being naturally present in multiple isoforms, invertases are known to be highly differentiated and tissue specific in such a way that every isoform is characteristic of a specific part of the plant. In this work, we report the identification of the invertase RhVI1 that was found to be highly expressed in rose petals. A characterization of this protein revealed that RhVI1 is a glycosylated membrane-anchored protein associated with the cytosolic side of the vacuolar membrane which occurs in vivo in a monomeric form. Purification yields have shown that the levels of expression decreased during the passage of petals from buds to mature and pre-senescent flowers. Moreover, the activity assay indicates RhVI1 to be an acidic vacuolar invertase. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed, suggesting a possible role of this protein during anthesis. PMID:27083698

  4. RhVI1 is a membrane-anchored vacuolar invertase highly expressed in Rosa hybrida L. petals.

    PubMed

    Farci, Domenica; Collu, Gabriella; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Esposito, Francesca; Piano, Dario

    2016-05-01

    Invertases are a widespread group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plants invertases and their substrates are essential factors that play an active role in primary metabolism and in cellular differentiation and by these activities they sustain development and growth. Being naturally present in multiple isoforms, invertases are known to be highly differentiated and tissue specific in such a way that every isoform is characteristic of a specific part of the plant. In this work, we report the identification of the invertase RhVI1 that was found to be highly expressed in rose petals. A characterization of this protein revealed that RhVI1 is a glycosylated membrane-anchored protein associated with the cytosolic side of the vacuolar membrane which occurs in vivo in a monomeric form. Purification yields have shown that the levels of expression decreased during the passage of petals from buds to mature and pre-senescent flowers. Moreover, the activity assay indicates RhVI1 to be an acidic vacuolar invertase. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed, suggesting a possible role of this protein during anthesis.

  5. Slow-growth phenotype of transgenic tomato expressing apoplastic invertase

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.D.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The growth of transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants that express in their apoplast yeast invertase under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter is severely inhibited. The higher the level of invertase, the greater the inhibition of growth. A second phenotypic characteristic of these transgenic plants is the development of yellow and necrotic spots on the leaves, and leaf curling. Again the severity of the symptoms is correlated with the level of invertase. These symptoms do not develop in shaded leaves indicating the need for photosynthesis. Keeping the plants in the dark for a prolonged period (24 hours) results in the disappearance of leaf starch from the control plants, but not from the plants with apoplastic invertase. These results are consistent with the interpretation that apoplastic invertase prevents photosynthate export from source leaves and that phloem loading includes an apoplastic step.

  6. Altered invertase activities of symptomatic tissues on Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) infected Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungan; Kim, Soyeon; Choi, Eunseok; Auh, Chung-Kyun; Park, Jong-Bum; Kim, Dong-Giun; Chung, Young-Jae; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Lee, Sukchan

    2013-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana infected with Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) exhibits systemic symptoms such as stunting of plant growth, callus induction on shoot tips, and curling of leaves and shoot tips. The regulation of sucrose metabolism is essential for obtaining the energy required for viral replication and the development of symptoms in BSCTV-infected A. thaliana. We evaluated the changed transcript level and enzyme activity of invertases in the inflorescence stems of BSCTV-infected A. thaliana. These results were consistent with the increased pattern of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and photosynthetic pigment concentration in virus-infected plants to supply more energy for BSCTV multiplication. The altered gene expression of invertases during symptom development was functionally correlated with the differential expression patterns of D-type cyclins, E2F isoforms, and invertase-related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that sucrose sensing by BSCTV infection may regulate the expression of sucrose metabolism and result in the subsequent development of viral symptoms in relation with activation of cell cycle regulation.

  7. Amino acid regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fafournoux, P; Bruhat, A; Jousse, C

    2000-01-01

    The impact of nutrients on gene expression in mammals has become an important area of research. Nevertheless, the current understanding of the amino acid-dependent control of gene expression is limited. Because amino acids have multiple and important functions, their homoeostasis has to be finely maintained. However, amino-acidaemia can be affected by certain nutritional conditions or various forms of stress. It follows that mammals have to adjust several of their physiological functions involved in the adaptation to amino acid availability by regulating the expression of numerous genes. The aim of the present review is to examine the role of amino acids in regulating mammalian gene expression and protein turnover. It has been reported that some genes involved in the control of growth or amino acid metabolism are regulated by amino acid availability. For instance, limitation of several amino acids greatly increases the expression of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, where C/EBP is CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) and asparagine synthetase. Elevated mRNA levels result from both an increase in the rate of transcription and an increase in mRNA stability. Several observations suggest that the amino acid regulation of gene expression observed in mammalian cells and the general control process described in yeast share common features. Moreover, amino acid response elements have been characterized in the promoters of the CHOP and asparagine synthetase genes. Taken together, the results discussed in the present review demonstrate that amino acids, by themselves, can, in concert with hormones, play an important role in the control of gene expression. PMID:10998343

  8. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated.

  9. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell-wall invertase (CWI) are importan...

  10. Purification and biochemical characterization of a native invertase from the hydrogen-producing Thermotoga neapolitana (DSM 4359).

    PubMed

    Dipasquale, Laura; Gambacorta, Agata; Siciliano, Rosa Anna; Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lama, Licia

    2009-03-01

    This is the first report describing the purification and enzymatic properties of a native invertase (beta-D-fructosidase) in Thermotogales. The invertase of the hydrogen-producing thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana DSM 4359 (hereby named Tni) was a monomer of about 47 kDa having an amino acid sequence quite different from other invertases studied up to now. Its properties and substrates specificity let us classify this protein as a solute-binding protein with invertase activity. Tni was specific for the fructose moiety and the enzyme released fructose from sucrose and raffinose and the fructose polymer inulin was hydrolyzed in an endo-type fashion. Tni had an optimum temperature of 85 degrees C at pH 6.0. At temperatures of 80-85 degrees C, the enzyme retained at least 50% of its initial activity during a 6 h preincubation period. Tni had a K(m) and k(cat)/K(m) values (at 85 degrees C and pH 6.0) of about 14 mM and 5.2 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively.

  11. Structural insights into the pH-controlled targeting of plant cell-wall invertase by a specific inhibitor protein.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Michael; Van den Ende, Wim; Lammens, Willem; Rybin, Vladimir; Scheffzek, Klaus

    2010-10-05

    Invertases are highly regulated enzymes with essential functions in carbohydrate partitioning, sugar signaling, and plant development. Here we present the 2.6 Å crystal structure of Arabidopsis cell-wall invertase 1 (INV1) in complex with a protein inhibitor (CIF, or cell-wall inhibitor of β-fructosidase) from tobacco. The structure identifies a small amino acid motif in CIF that directly targets the invertase active site. The activity of INV1 and its interaction with CIF are strictly pH-dependent with a maximum at about pH 4.5. At this pH, isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that CIF tightly binds its target with nanomolar affinity. CIF competes with sucrose (Suc) for the same binding site, suggesting that both the extracellular Suc concentration and the pH changes regulate association of the complex. A conserved glutamate residue in the complex interface was previously identified as an important quantitative trait locus affecting fruit quality, which implicates the invertase-inhibitor complex as a main regulator of carbon partitioning in plants. Comparison of the CIF/INV1 structure with the complex between the structurally CIF-related pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) and pectin methylesterase indicates a common targeting mechanism in PMEI and CIF. However, CIF and PMEI use distinct surface areas to selectively inhibit very different enzymatic scaffolds.

  12. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).

  13. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  14. Cell wall invertase in developing rice caryopsis: molecular cloning of OsCIN1 and analysis of its expression in relation to its role in grain filling.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tatsuro; Takano, Makoto; Terao, Tomio

    2002-04-01

    To establish the significance of cell wall invertase in grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.), we cloned a cDNA for a cell wall invertase from developing grains of rice. The cDNA, designated OsCIN1, contains an open reading frame of 1731 bp encoding a polypeptide of 577 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed typical features of the cell wall invertases, including a beta-fructosidase motif and a cysteine catalytic site, and shared 78.6 and 73.7% identity with maize cell wall invertases, Incw1 and Incw2, respectively. OsCIN1 is expressed in roots, in sink- and source-leaves, and in panicles. During the course of grain filling in the caryopses, OsCIN1 transcript is detectable only in the very early stage of their development, 1-4 d after flowering, when the cell wall invertase activity is the highest and the increase in caryopsis length is rapid. In situ localization of the mRNA revealed that OsCIN1 is expressed preferentially in the vascular parenchyma of the dorsal vein, integument and its surrounding cells, and is expressed weakly in the nucellar projection and nucellar epidermis. These results suggest that, during the early stage of caryopsis development, OsCIN1 is important for supplying a carbon source to developing filial tissues by cleaving unloaded sucrose in the apoplast.

  15. Down-regulation of a wheat alkaline/neutral invertase correlates with reduced host susceptibility to wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Han, Lina; Huai, Baoyu; Zheng, Peijing; Chang, Qing; Guan, Tao; Li, Dan; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have found that sucrose (Suc) metabolism plays a crucial role in the environmental stress response of many plant species. The majority of Suc metabolism-associated reports refer to acid invertases (Ac-Invs). However, alkaline/neutral Invs (A/N-Invs) have been poorly studied. In this study, a wheat A/N-Inv gene, Ta-A/N-Inv1, with three copies located on chromosomes 4A, 4B, and 4D, was cloned from a wheat-Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) interaction cDNA library. Transcripts of the three Ta-A/N-Inv1 copies were up-regulated in wheat leaves that were infected by Pst or had experienced certain abiotic treatments. Furthermore, the expression of Ta-A/N-Inv1 was decreased by treatment with exogenous hormones. Heterologous mutant complementation and subcellular localization revealed that Ta-A/N-Inv1 is a cytoplasmic invertase. Knocking down all three copies of Ta-A/N-Inv1 using the barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing system reduced the susceptibility of wheat to the Pst virulent pathotype CYR31, which is associated with pathogen-induced H2O2 accumulation and enhanced necrosis. Interestingly, 48h dark treatment of the Ta-A/N-Inv1-knockdown plants immediately after inoculation abrogated their enhanced resistance, suggesting that H2O2 production and its associated cell death and resistance in the Ta-A/N-Inv1-silenced plants require light. Consistent with this observation, photosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes were significantly up-regulated in the Ta-A/N-Inv1-knockdown plants infected by CYR31 under light exposure. These results suggest that Ta-A/N-Inv1 might act as a negative regulator in wheat disease resistance to Pst by increasing cytoplasmic hexose accumulation and downregulating photosynthesis of the leaves to avoid cell death due to excessive ROS production.

  16. Jasmonic acid influences mycorrhizal colonization in tomato plants by modifying the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate partitioning.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Sartorius, Miriam; Martínez de la Vega, Octavio; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2008-06-01

    The role of jasmonic acid (JA) on mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus fasciculatum in tomato plants was examined using mutant plants overexpressing prosystemin (PS) or affected in the synthesis of JA (suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses 2, spr2). The degree of mycorrhizal colonization was determined by measuring frequency (F%) and intensity (M%) of colonization and arbuscule abundance (A%). Gene expression and biochemical analyses were also performed in roots to detect changes in carbon (C) partitioning. Colonization was similar in mycorrhizal PS and wild-type roots, except for a higher A% in the former. Conversely, colonization was severely reduced in roots of spr2 mutants. No association was found between levels of expression of genes coding for systemic wound responsive proteins (or SWRPs) and other defense-related proteins in roots and mycorrhization levels in these plants. On the other hand, the degree of mycorrhizal colonization correlated with changes in the transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in sucrose hydrolysis and transport, cell wall invertase activity and mycorrhizal-specific fatty acid content in roots. The results obtained suggest that one of the mechanisms by which JA might operate to modulate the mycorrhization process could be through its influence on the regulation of C partitioning in the plant. The significant colonization increase observed in mycorrhizal spr2 plants supplied with exogenous methyl jasmonate supports its role as a positive regulator of the symbiosis.

  17. Cell wall invertase as a regulator in determining sequential development of endosperm and embryo through glucose signaling early in seed development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Liao, Shengjin; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Seed development depends on coordination among embryo, endosperm and seed coat. Endosperm undergoes nuclear division soon after fertilization, whereas embryo remains quiescent for a while. Such a developmental sequence is of great importance for proper seed development. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Recent results on the cellular domain- and stage-specific expression of invertase genes in cotton and Arabidopsis revealed that cell wall invertase may positively and specifically regulate nuclear division of endosperm after fertilization, thereby playing a role in determining the sequential development of endosperm and embryo, probably through glucose signaling.

  18. Cell wall invertase as a regulator in determining sequential development of endosperm and embryo through glucose signaling early in seed development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Liao, Shengjin; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Seed development depends on coordination among embryo, endosperm and seed coat. Endosperm undergoes nuclear division soon after fertilization, whereas embryo remains quiescent for a while. Such a developmental sequence is of great importance for proper seed development. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Recent results on the cellular domain- and stage-specific expression of invertase genes in cotton and Arabidopsis revealed that cell wall invertase may positively and specifically regulate nuclear division of endosperm after fertilization, thereby playing a role in determining the sequential development of endosperm and embryo, probably through glucose signaling. PMID:23221750

  19. Invertase proteinaceous inhibitor of Cyphomandra betacea Sendt fruits.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, R M; Isla, M I; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    2000-01-01

    This work describes a new invertase proteinaceous inhibitor from Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. (tomate de arbol) fruits. The proteinaceous inhibitor was isolated and purified from a cell wall preparation. The pH stability, kinetics of the inhibition of the C. betacea invertase, inhibition of several higher plant invertases and lectin nature of the inhibitor were studied. The inhibitor structure involves a single polypeptide (Mr = 19000), as shown by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE determinations. N-terminal aminoacid sequence was determined. The properties and some structural features of the inhibitor are compared with the proteinaceous inhibitors from several plant species (Beta vulgaris L., Ipomoea batatas L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). All these inhibitors share lectinic properties, some common epitopes, some aminoacid sequences and a certain lack of specificity towards invertases of different species, genera and even plant family. In consequence, the inhibitors appear to belong to the same lectin family. It is now known that some lectins are part of the defence mechanism of higher plants against fungi and bacteria and this is a probable role of the proteinaceous inhibitors.

  20. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2013-12-01

    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated.

  1. Ectopic expression of a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor in guard cells confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Fen; Liang, Ke; Yin, Dong-Mei; Ni, Di-An; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-12-01

    There are several hypotheses that explain stomatal behavior. These include the concept of osmoregulation mediated by potassium and its counterions malate and chlorine and the more recent starch-sugar hypothesis. We have previously reported that the activity of the sucrose cleavage enzyme, vacuolar invertase (VIN), is significantly higher in guard cells than in other leaf epidermal cells and its activity is correlated with stomatal aperture. Here, we examined whether VIN indeed controls stomatal movement under normal and drought conditions by transforming Arabidopsis with a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor homolog (Nt-inhh) under the control of an abscisic acid-sensitive and guard cell-specific promoter (AtRab18). The data obtained showed that guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis plants had lower VIN activity, stomatal aperture and conductance than that of wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic plants also displayed higher drought tolerance than wild-type plants. The data indicate that VIN is a promising target for manipulating stomatal function to increase drought tolerance.

  2. Molecular Sieving by Neurospora Cell Walls During Secretion of Invertase Isozymes

    PubMed Central

    Trevithick, John R.; Metzenberg, Robert L.

    1966-01-01

    Trevithick, John R. (University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison), and Robert L. Metzenberg. Molecular sieving by Neurospora cell walls during secretion of invertase isozymes. J. Bacteriol. 92: 1010–1015. 1966.—The secretion of invertase by young mycelia of Neurospora was studied. The process of secretion was found to be dependent upon growth. The results indicate that fractionation of light invertase, the monomer, from heavy invertase, the aggregated form, occurs at the cell wall. Neurospora strains wild type, crisp, osmotic, and the double mutant crisp osmotic were tested. An inverse relation exists between the fraction of the total invertase activity of the culture which the mold secretes into the medium and the degree of fractionation, defined as the ratio of the fraction of the invertase secreted into the medium that is light invertase to the fraction of the invertase remaining associated with the cells that is light invertase. The hypothesis is offered that the increased secretion of invertase and decreased degree of fractionation seen in osmotic mutants, and to a lesser extent in the other mutants, can be explained by an increased porosity of the cell wall. PMID:5927207

  3. CELL WALL INVERTASE 4 is required for nectar production in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ruhlmann, Jeffrey M.; Kram, Brian W.; Carter, Clay J.

    2010-01-01

    To date, no genes have been reported to directly affect the de novo production of floral nectar. In an effort to identify genes involved in nectar production, the Affymetrix® ATH1 GeneChip was previously used to examine global gene expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana nectaries. One of the genes displaying highly enriched expression in nectaries was CELL WALL INVERTASE 4 (AtCWINV4, At2g36190), which encodes an enzyme that putatively catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. RT-PCR was used to confirm the nectary-enriched expression of AtCWINV4, as well as an orthologue from Brassica rapa. To probe biological function, two independent Arabidopsis cwinv4 T-DNA mutants were isolated. Unlike wild-type plants, cwinv4 lines did not produce nectar. While overall nectary morphology appeared to be normal, cwinv4 flowers accumulated higher than normal levels of starch in the receptacle, but not within the nectaries themselves. Conversely, wild-type, but not cwinv4, nectarial stomata stained intensely for starch. Cell wall extracts prepared from mutant flowers displayed greatly reduced invertase activity when compared with wild-type plants, and cwinv4 flowers also accumulated significantly lower levels of total soluble sugar. Cumulatively, these results implicate CWINV4 as an absolutely required factor for nectar production in the Brassicaceae, specifically by maintaining constant sink status within nectaries, thus allowing them to accumulate the sugars necessary for nectar production. In addition, CWINV4 is probably responsible for the hexose-rich composition observed for many Brassicaceae nectars. PMID:19861655

  4. Critical Roles of Vacuolar Invertase in Floral Organ Development and Male and Female Fertilities Are Revealed through Characterization of GhVIN1-RNAi Cotton Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Seed number and quality are key traits determining plant fitness and crop yield and rely on combined competence in male and female fertilities. Sucrose metabolism is central to reproductive success. It remains elusive, though, how individual sucrose metabolic enzymes may regulate the complex reproductive processes. Here, by silencing vacuolar invertase (VIN) genes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) reproductive organs, we revealed diverse roles that VIN plays in multiple reproductive processes. A set of phenotypic and genetic studies showed significant reductions of viable seeds in GhVIN1-RNAi plants, attributed to pollination failure and impaired male and female fertilities. The former was largely owing to the spatial mismatch between style and stamen and delayed pollen release from the anthers, whereas male defects came from poor pollen viability. The transgenic stamen exhibited altered expression of the genes responsible for starch metabolism and auxin and jasmonic acid signaling. Further analyses identified the reduction of GhVIN expression in the seed coat as the major cause for the reduced female fertility, which appeared to disrupt the expression of some key genes involved in trehalose and auxin metabolism and signaling, leading to programmed cell death or growth repression in the filial tissues. Together, the data provide an unprecedented example of how VIN is required to synchronize style and stamen development and the formation of male and female fertilities for seed development in a crop species, cotton. PMID:26969720

  5. Mapping of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Edelhoff, S.; Adler, D.A.; Disteche, C.M.; Grubin, C.E.; Karlsen, A.E.; Lernmark, A.; Foster, D. )

    1993-07-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the synthesis of [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is known as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), but is also present outside the CNS. Recent studies showed that GAD is the major target of autoantibodies associated with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and of the rare stiff man syndrome. Studies of GAD expression have demonstrated multiple transcripts, suggesting several isoforms of GAD. In this study, three different genes were mapped by in situ hybridization to both human and mouse chromosomes. The GAD1 gene was mapped to human chromosome 2q31 and to mouse chromosome 2D in a known region of conservation between human and mouse. GAD2, previously mapped to human chromosome 10p11.2-p12, was mapped to mouse chromosome 2A2-B, which identifies a new region of conservation between human and mouse chromosomes. A potential GAD3 transcript was mapped to human chromosome 22q13 and to mouse chromosome 15E in a known region of conservation between human and mouse. It is concluded that the GAD genes may form a family with as many as three related members. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  6. [Export of an invertase by yeast cells (Candida utilis)].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, O V; Sabirzianova, T A; Celiakh, I O; Kalebina, T S; Kulaev, I S

    2014-01-01

    Export and accumulation of various forms of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) in the cell wall and culture liquid of the yeast Candida utilis was investigated. It was found that the high-molecular-weight CW-form of invertase is present in the cell wall. This form is not exported into the culture liquid, and it is by a third more glycosylated than the previously described exported S-form. It was shown that one of the two liquid forms of invertase exported into the culture-the glycosylated S-form--is retained in the cell wall, while the other one--the nonglycosylated F-form--was not detected in the cell wall. Based on these results, as well as data on the distribution dynamics of the enzyme in the culture liquid and in the cell wall during different growth stages of a yeast culture, we suggested that the nonglycosylated form was exported into the culture liquid via the zone of abnormal cell wall permeability and the glycosylated forms of this enzyme (both exported and nonexported) did not use this pathway (the degree of N-glycosylation is an important factor determining the final localization of the enzyme).

  7. Impaired photoassimilate partitioning caused by phloem-specific removal of pyrophosphate can be complemented by a phloem-specific cytosolic yeast-derived invertase in transgenic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lerchl, J; Geigenberger, P; Stitt, M; Sonnewald, U

    1995-01-01

    Constitutive expression of the Escherichia coli ppa gene encoding inorganic pyrophosphatase resulted in sugar accumulation in source leaves and stunted growth of transgenic tobacco plants. The reason for this phenotype was hypothesized to be reduced sucrose utilization and loading into the phloem. To study the role of PPi in phloem cells, a chimeric gene was constructed using the phloem-specific rolC promoter of Agrobacterium rhizogenes to drive the expression of the ppa gene. Removal of cytosolic PPi in those cells resulted in photoassimilate accumulation in source leaves, chlorophyll loss, and reduced plant growth. From these data, it was postulated that sucrose hydrolysis via sucrose synthase is essential for assimilate partitioning. To bypass the PPi-dependent sucrose synthase step, transgenic plants were produced that express various levels of the yeast suc2 gene, which encodes cytosolic invertase, in their phloem cells. To combine the phloem-specific expression of the ppa gene and the suc2 gene, crosses between invertase- and pyrophosphatase-containing transgenic plants were performed. Analysis of their offspring revealed that invertase can complement the phenotypic effects caused by the removal of PPi in phloem cells. PMID:7734961

  8. Expression patterns, activities and carbohydrate-metabolizing regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and neutral invertase in pineapple fruit during development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.

  9. Linking Expression of Fructan Active Enzymes, Cell Wall Invertases and Sucrose Transporters with Fructan Profiles in Growing Taproot of Chicory (Cichorium intybus): Impact of Hormonal and Environmental Cues

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hongbin; Bausewein, Anja; Steininger, Heike; Su, Tao; Zhao, Hongbo; Harms, Karsten; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In chicory taproot, the inulin-type fructans serve as carbohydrate reserve. Inulin metabolism is mediated by fructan active enzymes (FAZYs): sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; fructan synthesis), fructan:fructan-1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; fructan synthesis and degradation), and fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH1/2a/2b; fructan degradation). In developing taproot, fructan synthesis is affected by source-to-sink sucrose transport and sink unloading. In the present study, expression of FAZYs, sucrose transporter and CWI isoforms, vacuolar invertase and sucrose synthase was determined in leaf blade, petiole and taproot of young chicory plants (taproot diameter: 2 cm) and compared with taproot fructan profiles for the following scenarios: (i) N-starvation, (ii) abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, (iii) ethylene treatment (via 1-aminoyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid [ACC]), and (iv) cold treatment. Both N-starvation and ABA treatment induced an increase in taproot oligofructans. However, while under N-starvation this increase reflected de novo synthesis, under ABA treatment gene expression profiles indicated a role for both de novo synthesis and degradation of long-chain fructans. Conversely, under ACC and cold treatment oligofructans slightly decreased, correlating with reduced expression of 1-SST and 1-FFT and increased expression of FEHs and VI. Distinct SUT and CWI expression profiles were observed, indicating a functional alignment of SUT and CWI expression with taproot fructan metabolism under different source-sink scenarios. PMID:27994611

  10. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sainz-Polo, M Angela; Lafraya, Alvaro; Polo, Aitana; Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2012-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase (ScInv) is an enzyme encoded by the SUC2 gene that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-D-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The native enzyme, which presents a high degree of oligomerization, was crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals belonged to space group P3(1)21, with unit-cell parameters a=268.6, b=268.6, c=224.4 Å. The crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and gave complete data sets using a synchrotron X-ray source.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sainz-Polo, M. Angela; Lafraya, Alvaro; Polo, Aitana; Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase (ScInv) is an enzyme encoded by the SUC2 gene that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-­d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The native enzyme, which presents a high degree of oligomerization, was crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = 268.6, b = 268.6, c = 224.4 Å. The crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and gave complete data sets using a synchrotron X-ray source. PMID:23192042

  13. Characterization of an invertase with pH tolerance and truncation of its N-terminal to shift optimum activity toward neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqin; Pang, Hao; Wang, Zilong; Lu, Jian; Wei, Yutuo; Huang, Ribo

    2013-01-01

    Most invertases identified to date have optimal activity at acidic pH, and are intolerant to neutral or alkaline environments. Here, an acid invertase named uninv2 is described. Uninv2 contained 586 amino acids, with a 100 amino acids N-terminal domain, a catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain. With sucrose as the substrate, uninv2 activity was optimal at pH 4.5 and at 45°C. Removal of N-terminal domain of uninv2 has shifted the optimum pH to 6.0 while retaining its optimum temperaure at 45°C. Both uninv2 and the truncated enzyme retained highly stable at neutral pH at 37°C, and they were stable at their optimum pH at 4°C for as long as 30 days. These characteristics make them far superior to invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is mostly used as industrial enzyme.

  14. Mouse Vk gene classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity.

    PubMed

    Strohal, R; Helmberg, A; Kroemer, G; Kofler, R

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region gene usage in the immune response, estimates of V gene germline complexity, and other nucleic acid hybridization-based studies depend on the extent to which such genes are related (i.e., sequence similarity) and their organization in gene families. While mouse Igh heavy chain V region (VH) gene families are relatively well-established, a corresponding systematic classification of Igk light chain V region (Vk) genes has not been reported. The present analysis, in the course of which we reviewed the known extent of the Vk germline gene repertoire and Vk gene usage in a variety of responses to foreign and self antigens, provides a classification of mouse Vk genes in gene families composed of members with greater than 80% overall nucleic acid sequence similarity. This classification differed in several aspects from that of VH genes: only some Vk gene families were as clearly separated (by greater than 25% sequence dissimilarity) as typical VH gene families; most Vk gene families were closely related and, in several instances, members from different families were very similar (greater than 80%) over large sequence portions; frequently, classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity diverged from existing classifications based on amino-terminal protein sequence similarity. Our data have implications for Vk gene analyses by nucleic acid hybridization and describe potentially important differences in sequence organization between VH and Vk genes.

  15. Evaluation of invertase (B-fructo furanosidase) activity in irradiated Mazafaty dates during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Z.; Sohrabpour, M.; Fazeli, T. Z.; Kohan, K. G.

    2002-10-01

    Invertase activity of irradiated and non-irradiated Mazafaty dates during four months storage time has been studied. There are large differences in invertase activity in different dates cultivars. The soft and good quality dates usually have higher activity compared to dry or semi-dry varieties. Irradiated dates with doses 1-5 kGy, which could be used for decontamination and disinfestations of dates with a dose rate of 1.87 Gy/s were used. The samples were stored in two temperatures of 5°C and 25°C for four months. The activity of invertase enzyme was analysed at different time intervals. Inactivation study of invertase (B-fructo furanosidase) activity showed that the invertase is sensitive to temperature, storage time and also inactivation of enzyme occurred in dose range of 10-50 kGy.

  16. Characterization of a novel low-temperature-active, alkaline and sucrose-tolerant invertase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junpei; He, Limei; Gao, Yajie; Han, Nanyu; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Qian; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-01-01

    A glycoside hydrolase family 32 invertase from Bacillus sp. HJ14 was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme (rInvHJ14) showed typical biochemical properties of low-temperature-active and alkaline enzymes: (i) rInvHJ14 was active and stable in the range of pH 7.0–9.5 with an apparent pH optimum of 8.0; (ii) rInvHJ14 was most active but not stable at 30–32.5 °C, with 19.7, 48.2 and 82.1% of its maximum activity when assayed at 0, 10 and 20 °C, respectively, and the Ea, ΔG* (30 °C), Km (30 °C) and kcat (30 °C) values for hydrolysis of sucrose by rInvHJ14 was 47.6 kJ mol−1, 57.6 kJ mol−1, 62.9 mM and 746.2 s−1, respectively. The enzyme also showed strong sucrose tolerance. rInvHJ14 preserved approximately 50% of its highest activity in the presence of 2045.0 mM sucrose. Furthermore, potential factors for low-temperature-active and alkaline adaptations of rInvHJ14 were presumed. Compared with more thermostable homologs, rInvHJ14 has a higher frequency of glycine residues and a longer loop but a lower frequency of proline residues (especially in a loop) in the catalytic domain. The catalytic pockets of acid invertases were almost negatively charged while that of alkaline rInvHJ14 was mostly positively charged. PMID:27553125

  17. Kinetics of folding and association of differently glycosylated variants of invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kern, G.; Kern, D.; Jaenicke, R.; Seckler, R.

    1993-01-01

    A core-glycosylated form of the dimeric enzyme invertase has been isolated from secretion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae blocked in transport to the Golgi apparatus. This glycosylation variant corresponds to the form that folds and associates during biosynthesis of the protein in vivo. In the present work, its largely homogeneous subunit size and well-defined quaternary structure were utilized to characterize the folding and association pathway of this highly glycosylated protein in comparison with the nonglycosylated cytoplasmic and the high-mannose-glycosylated periplasmic forms of the same enzyme encoded by the suc2 gene. Renaturation of core-glycosylated invertase upon dilution from guanidinium-chloride solutions follows a unibimolecular reaction scheme with consecutive first-order subunit folding and second-order association reactions. The rate constant of the rate-limiting step of subunit folding, as detected by fluorescence increase, is k1 = 1.6 +/- 0.4 x 10(-3) s-1 at 20 degrees C; it is characterized by an activation enthalpy of delta H++ = 65 kJ/mol. The reaction is not catalyzed by peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase of the cyclophilin type. Reactivation of the enzyme depends on protein concentration and coincides with subunit association, as monitored by size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography. The association rate constant, estimated by numerical simulation of reactivation kinetics, increases from 5 x 10(3) M-1 s-1 to 7 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 between 5 and 30 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8268797

  18. Altered carbohydrate metabolism in the storage roots of sweet potato plants overexpressing the SRF1 gene, which encodes a Dof zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Hiroki; Nakatani, Makoto; Tahara, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    In order to characterize the functions of the sweetpotato SRF1 gene, which encodes a Dof zinc finger transcriptional factor preferentially expressed in the storage roots, we isolated its full length cDNA and produced transgenic sweetpotato plants with altered SRF1 expression levels. The isolated cDNA of SRF1 encoded a polypeptide of 497 amino acids and was closely related to the cyclic Dof factors of Arabidopsis and the ascorbate oxidase binding protein of pumpkin. SRF1 was most highly expressed in storage roots, although some expression was also observed in other vegetative tissue. Transgenic plants overexpressing SRF1 showed significantly higher storage root dry matter content compared to the original cultivar Kokei No. 14 or control transgenic plants. In these plants, the starch content per fresh weight of the storage roots was also higher than that of the wild-type plants, while the glucose and fructose content drastically decreased. Among the enzymes involved in the sugar metabolism, soluble acid invertase showed a decreased activity in the transgenic plants. Gene expression analysis showed that the expression of Ibbetafruct2, which encodes an isoform of vacuolar invertase, was suppressed in the transgenic plants overexpressing the SRF1 gene. These data suggest that SRF1 modulates the carbohydrate metabolism in the storage roots through negative regulation of a vacuolar invertase gene.

  19. Physiological responses of biomass allocation, root architecture, and invertase activity to copper stress in young seedlings from two populations of Kummerowia stipulacea (maxim.) Makino.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luan; Pan, Yuxue; Lv, Wei; Xiong, Zhi-ting

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, we hypothesize that mine (metallicolous) populations of metallophytes form a trade-off between the roots and shoots when under copper (Cu) stress to adapt themselves to heavy metal contaminated habitats, and thus, differ from normal (non-metallicolous) populations in biomass allocation. To test the hypothesis, two populations of the metallophyte Kummerowia stipulacea, one from an ancient Cu mine (MP) and the other from a non-contaminated site (NMP), were treated with Cu(2+) in hydroponic conditions. The results showed that MP plants had higher root/shoot biomass allocation and more complicated root system architecture compared to those of the NMP plants when under Cu stress. The net photosynthetic capacity was more inhibited in the NMP plants than in the MP plants when under Cu stress. The sugar (sucrose and hexose) contents and acid invertase activities of MP plants were elevated while those in NMP plants were inhibited after Cu treatment. The neutral/alkaline invertase activities and sucrose synthase level showed no significant differences between the two populations when under Cu stress. The results showed that acid invertase played an important role in biomass allocation and that the physiological responses were beneficial for the high root/shoot biomass allocation, which were advantageous during adaptive evolution to Cu-enriched mine soils.

  20. Enhancement of invertase production by Aspergillus niger OZ-3 using low-intensity static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mesut; Esim, Nevzat; Genisel, Mucip; Ortucu, Serkan; Hasenekoglu, Ismet; Canli, Ozden; Erdal, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of low-intensity static magnetic fields (SMFs) on invertase activity and growth on different newly identified molds. The most positive effect of SMFs on invertase activity and growth was observed for Aspergillus niger OZ-3. The submerged production of invertase was performed with the spores obtained at the different exposure times (120, 144, 168, and 196 hr) and magnetic field intensities (0.45, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mT). The normal magnetic field of the laboratory was assayed as 0.45 mT (control). Optimization of magnetic field intensity and exposure time significantly increased biomass production and invertase activity compared to 0.45 mT. The maximum invertase activity (51.14 U/mL) and biomass concentration (4.36 g/L) were achieved with the spores obtained at the 144 hr exposure time and 5 mT magnetic field intensity. The effect of low-intensity static magnetic fields (SMFs) on invertase activities of molds was investigated for the first time in the present study. As an additional contribution, a new hyper-invertase-producing mold strain was isolated.

  1. Covalent immobilization of invertase on polyurethane, plast-film and ferromagnetic Dacron.

    PubMed

    Cadena, P G; Jeronimo, R A S; Melo, J M; Silva, R A; Lima Filho, J L; Pimentel, M C B

    2010-03-01

    Invertase was covalently immobilized on polyurethane (PU), inox plate covered with plast-film layer and ferromagnetic azide-Dacron. The immobilization processes, physico-chemical parameters and a model for coupling reactions were studied. The preliminary studies for selection of the support showed that the best activity was obtained for PU treated with HCl, polyethylenimine and glutaraldehyde (156.7+/-4.9 U/g support). All plast-film-invertase derivatives did not show activity and the Dacron-invertase derivative showed an activity of 105.39 U/g support. The invertase immobilized in presence of substrate (10% w/v sucrose) was the most efficient (832.74+/-1.48 U/g support). The optimal pH was shifted from 4.5 (free enzyme) to 5.0 (immobilized derivative) and optimal temperature was not affected. Activation energy values of free enzyme, Dacron-invertase and PU-invertase were 32.4+/-0.34 kJ/mol, 33.4+/-0.36 kJ/mol and 44.0+/-0.67 kJ/mol, respectively. The PU-invertase could be used over 2 months without considerable activity loss (68.5% activity retention) and retained 12.6% (287.97+/-27.9U/g support) of the activity after five cycles.

  2. Purification and characterization of the invertase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A comparative analysis with the invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, S; Sanchez, Y; Rodriguez, L

    1990-01-01

    Invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) was purified to homogeneity from exponentially growing cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe fully de-repressed for synthesis of the enzyme, and was shown to be a high-molecular-mass glycoprotein that can be dissociated in the presence of 8 M-urea/1% SDS into identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 205 kDa. The carbohydrate moiety, accounting for 67% of the total mass, is composed of equimolar amounts of mannose and galactose. There is a small amount of glucosamine, which is probably involved in the linkage to the protein moiety, since the enzyme is sensitive to treatment with endoglycosidase H. The composition of the carbohydrate moiety resembles that found in higher-eukaryotic glycoproteins and differs from glycoproteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein portion of each subunit is a polypeptide of molecular mass 60 kDa, very similar to the invertase of Sacch. cerevisiae. Both proteins cross-react with antibodies raised against the protein fractions of the other, indicating that the two enzymes are similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2187435

  3. Detection of mercury compounds using invertase-glucose oxidase-based biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Amine, A.; Cremisini, C.; Palleschi, G.

    1995-12-31

    Mercury compounds have been determined with an electrochemical biosensor based on invertase inhibition. When invertase is in presence of mercury its activity decreases; this causes a decrease of glucose production which is monitored by the glucose sensor and correlated to the concentration of mercury in solution. Parameters as pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and reaction and incubation time were optimized. Mercury compounds determination using soluble or immobilized invertase were reported. Results showed that the inhibition was competitive and reversible. Mercury compounds can be detected directly in aqueous solution in the range 2--10 ppb.

  4. Detection of mercury compounds using invertase-glucose oxidase-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amine, A.; Cremisini, C.; Palleschi, G.

    1995-10-01

    Mercury compounds have been determined with an electrochemical biosensor based on invertase inhibition. When invertase is in the presence of mercury its activity decreases; this causes a decrease of glucose production which is monitored by the glucose sensor and correlated to the concentration of mercury in solution. Parameters as pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and reaction and incubation time were optimized. Mercury compounds determination using soluble or immobilized invertase were reported. Results show that the inhibition was competitive and reversible. Mercury compounds can be detected directly in aqueous solution in the range 2 - 10 ppb.

  5. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  6. Invertase immobilized on macroporous p,lystyrene: properties and kinetic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfeld, J.; Schellenberger, A.

    1987-01-01

    Invertase from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was covalently bound via benzoquinone and glutaraldehyde to a macroporous polystyrene anion exchanger. The behavior of the invertase-polystyrene complexes in batch and packed-bed reactors was characterized kinetically. In addition to kinetic studies on sucrose hydrolysis at low initial substrate concentrations, the dependence of conversion degree on flow rate at high, industrially used substrate concentrations was determined. The described invertase-polystyrene complexes are suitable for technical application in the production of glucose-fructose mixtures because of their high specific and relative activities, as well as the good hydrodynamical and mechanical properties of the polystyrene matrix. 25 references.

  7. Age characteristics of changes in invertase activity of the mucous membrane of the small intestine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakhimov, K. R.; Aleksandrova, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    Rats of varying ages were subjected to stress from heat, cold, and hydrocortisone injection. Invertase activity in homogenates of small intestine mucous membranes was studied following sacrifice. Invertase activity was low in young animals, but increased sharply in 30 day old ones, remaining at a relatively constant level until old age. The study concludes that the stress hormone (corticosteroids, etc.) levels in the blood, which affects the formation of enteric enzyme levels and activities, and that age related peculiarities in invertase activity are a consequence of altered hormone status and epitheliocyte sensitivity.

  8. Gene Expressions for Signal Transduction under Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fukamachi, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Syunsuke; Wang, Xin; Saito, Hiromi; Tagawa, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Although it is now well known that some diseased areas, such as cancer nests, inflammation loci, and infarction areas, are acidified, little is known about cellular signal transduction, gene expression, and cellular functions under acidic conditions. Our group showed that different signal proteins were activated under acidic conditions compared with those observed in a typical medium of around pH 7.4 that has been used until now. Investigations of gene expression under acidic conditions may be crucial to our understanding of signal transduction in acidic diseased areas. In this study, we investigated gene expression in mesothelioma cells cultured at an acidic pH using a DNA microarray technique. After 24 h culture at pH 6.7, expressions of 379 genes were increased more than twofold compared with those in cells cultured at pH 7.5. Genes encoding receptors, signal proteins including transcription factors, and cytokines including growth factors numbered 35, 32, and 17 among the 379 genes, respectively. Since the functions of 78 genes are unknown, it can be argued that cells may have other genes for signaling under acidic conditions. The expressions of 37 of the 379 genes were observed to increase after as little as 2 h. After 24 h culture at pH 6.7, expressions of 412 genes were repressed more than twofold compared with those in cells cultured at pH 7.5, and the 412 genes contained 35, 76, and 7 genes encoding receptors, signal proteins including transcription factors, and cytokines including growth factors, respectively. These results suggest that the signal pathways in acidic diseased areas are different, at least in part, from those examined with cells cultured at a pH of around 7.4. PMID:24705103

  9. Three-dimensional structure of Saccharomyces invertase: role of a non-catalytic domain in oligomerization and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Sainz-Polo, M Angela; Ramírez-Escudero, Mercedes; Lafraya, Alvaro; González, Beatriz; Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2013-04-05

    Invertase is an enzyme that is widely distributed among plants and microorganisms and that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose into glucose and fructose. Despite the important physiological role of Saccharomyces invertase (SInv) and the historical relevance of this enzyme as a model in early biochemical studies, its structure had not yet been solved. We report here the crystal structure of recombinant SInv at 3.3 Å resolution showing that the enzyme folds into the catalytic β-propeller and β-sandwich domains characteristic of GH32 enzymes. However, SInv displays an unusual quaternary structure. Monomers associate in two different kinds of dimers, which are in turn assembled into an octamer, best described as a tetramer of dimers. Dimerization plays a determinant role in substrate specificity because this assembly sets steric constraints that limit the access to the active site of oligosaccharides of more than four units. Comparative analysis of GH32 enzymes showed that formation of the SInv octamer occurs through a β-sheet extension that seems unique to this enzyme. Interaction between dimers is determined by a short amino acid sequence at the beginning of the β-sandwich domain. Our results highlight the role of the non-catalytic domain in fine-tuning substrate specificity and thus supplement our knowledge of the activity of this important family of enzymes. In turn, this gives a deeper insight into the structural features that rule modularity and protein-carbohydrate recognition.

  10. Purification and some properties of rose (Fructus cynosbati) hips invertase.

    PubMed

    Sacan, Ozlem; Yanardag, Refiye

    2012-04-01

    Invertase was purified from rose (Fructus cynosbati) hips by ammonium sulfate fractionation and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. The enzyme was obtained with a yield of 4.25% and about 10.48-fold purification and had a specific activity of 8.59 U/mg protein. The molecular mass of invertase was estimated to be 66.51 kDa by PAGE and 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, indicating that the native enzyme was a homodimer. The enzyme was a glycoprotein and contained 5.86% carbohydrate. The K(m) for sucrose was 14.55 mM and the optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were 4.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Sucrose was the most preferred substrate of the enzyme. The enzyme also hydrolyzed D(+) raffinose, D(+) trehalose and inulin (activity 39.88, 8.12 and 4.94%, respectively of that of sucrose), while D(+) lactose, cellobiose and D(+) maltose showed no effect on the enzyme. The substrate specificity was consistent with that for a beta-fructofuranoside, which is the most popular type in the higher plants. The enzyme was completely inhibited by HgCl2, MnCl2, MnSO4, FeCl3, Pb(NO3)2, ammonium heptamolybdate, iodoacetamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride. It was also inhibited by Ba(NO3)2 (86.32%), NH4Cl (84.91%), MgCl2 (74.45%), urea (71.63%), I2 (69.64%), LiCl (64.99%), BaCl2 (50.30%), Mg(NO3)2 (49.90%), CrCl3 (31.90%) and CuSO4 (21.45%) and but was activated by Tris (73.99%) and methionine (12.47%).

  11. Functional characterization of a vacuolar invertase from Solanum lycopersicum: post-translational regulation by N-glycosylation and a proteinaceous inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Alexandra S; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Lafond, Mickael; Desseaux, Véronique; Reca, Ida Barbara; Perrier, Josette; Bellincampi, Daniela; Fourquet, Patrick; Lévêque, Christian; Giardina, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    Plant vacuolar invertases, which belong to family 32 of glycoside hydrolases (GH32), are key enzymes in sugar metabolism. They hydrolyse sucrose into glucose and fructose. The cDNA encoding a vacuolar invertase from Solanum lycopersicum (TIV-1) was cloned and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The functional role of four N-glycosylation sites in TIV-1 has been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Single mutations to Asp of residues Asn52, Asn119 and Asn184, as well as the triple mutant (Asn52, Asn119 and Asn184), lead to enzymes with reduced specific invertase activity and thermostability. Expression of the N516D mutant, as well as of the quadruple mutant (N52D, N119D, N184D and N516D) could not be detected, indicating that these mutations dramatically affected the folding of the protein. Our data indicate that N-glycosylation is important for TIV-1 activity and that glycosylation of N516 is crucial for recombinant enzyme stability. Using a functional genomics approach a new vacuolar invertase inhibitor of S. lycopersicum (SolyVIF) has been identified. SolyVIF cDNA was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific interactions between SolyVIF and TIV-1 were investigated by an enzymatic approach and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Finally, qRT-PCR analysis of TIV-1 and SolyVIF transcript levels showed a specific tissue and developmental expression. TIV-1 was mainly expressed in flowers and both genes were expressed in senescent leaves.

  12. Production optimization of invertase by Lactobacillus brevis Mm-6 and its immobilization on alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ghada E A; Amer, Hassan; El-Gammal, Eman W; Helmy, Wafaa A; Esawy, Mona A; Elnashar, Magdy M M

    2013-04-02

    A sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs, was employed to enhance the production of invertase by Lactobacillus brevis Mm-6 isolated from breast milk. First, a 2-level Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the bioprocess parameters that significantly influence the invertase production. The second optimization step was performed using fractional factorial design in order to optimize the amounts of variables have the highest positive significant effect on the invertase production. A maximal enzyme activity of 1399U/ml was more than five folds the activity obtained using the basal medium. Invertase was immobilized onto grafted alginate beads to improve the enzyme's stability. Immobilization process increased the operational temperature from 30 to 60°C compared to the free enzyme. The reusability test proved the durability of the grafted alginate beads for 15 cycles with retention of 100% of the immobilized enzyme activity to be more convenient for industrial uses.

  13. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycoprotein invertase in mouse fibroblasts: glycosylation, secretion, and enzymatic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, M.L.E.; Cepko, C.L.; Wolf, D.; Robbins, P.W.

    1987-06-01

    Oligosaccharide processing is controlled by host- and protein-dependent factors. To increase our understanding of the relative contribution of those factors the authors studied the glycosylation of yeast invertase expressed in a heterologous system. Invertase synthesized in psi-2 cells (an NIH 3T3-derived packaging line) is secreted efficiently, enzymatically active, and heavily glycosylated. It was estimated that the protein contains 8 or 9 carbohydrate chains. Two classes can be observed, of an approximate size of 100-110 kDa and 115-130 kDa, respectively. The size differences are due to differences in glycosylation. The smaller class contains two high-mannose carbohydrate chains; the remainder is of the complex type, sialylated and most likely tri- or tetraantennary. This profile parallels the situation observed with invertase glycosylation in yeast, where 2 of 9 or 10 chains remain unprocessed. The larger size class of invertase expressed in mouse fibroblasts has a different profile, since it contains probably only complex-type glycans. There are no apparent differences, however, in the size of the protein backbone between the two size classes. When invertase is synthesized in the presence of the mannosidase inhibitor 1-deoxymannojirimycin, processing is blocked completely. The glucosidase inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin does not inhibit processing completely. The glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin prevents secretion of invertase completely when cells are cultured at 37/sup 0/C. At 26/sup 0/C, however, nonglycosylated invertase can be detected in the medium. These data suggest that glycosylation of invertase seems to be essential for the early steps of the secretory pathway but is less critical for later events.

  14. Highly efficient method towards in situ immobilization of invertase using cryogelation.

    PubMed

    Olcer, Zehra; Ozmen, Mehmet Murat; Sahin, Zeynep M; Yilmaz, Faruk; Tanriseven, Aziz

    2013-12-01

    A novel method was developed for the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase within supermacroporous polyacrylamide cryogel and was used to produce invert sugar. First, the cross-linking of invertase with soluble polyglutaraldehyde (PGA) was carried out prior to immobilization in order to increase the bulkiness of invertase and thus preventing the leakage of the cross-linked enzyme after immobilization by entrapment. And then, in situ immobilization of PGA cross-linked invertase within cryogel synthesis was achieved by free radical polymerization in semi-frozen state. The method resulted in 100 % immobilization and 74 % activity yields. The immobilized invertase retained all the initial activity for 30 days and 30 batch reactions. Immobilization had no effect on optimum temperature and it was 60 °C for both free and immobilized enzyme. However, optimum pH was affected upon immobilization. Optimum pH values for free and immobilized enzyme were 4.5 and 5.0, respectively. The immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme at high pH and temperatures. The kinetic parameters for free and immobilized invertase were also determined. The newly developed method is simple yet effective and could be used for the immobilization of some other enzymes and microorganisms.

  15. Comparative study of stability of soluble and cell wall invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Margetić, Aleksandra; Vujčić, Zoran

    2017-03-16

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most significant source of enzyme invertase. It is mainly used in the food industry as a soluble or immobilized enzyme. The greatest amount of invertase is located in the periplasmic space in yeast. In this work, it was isolated into two forms of enzyme from yeast S. cerevisiae cell, soluble and cell wall invertase (CWI). Both forms of enzyme showed same temperature optimum (60°C), similar pH optimum, and kinetic parameters. The significant difference between these biocatalysts was observed in their thermal stability, stability in urea and methanol solution. At 60°C, CWI had 1.7 times longer half-life than soluble enzyme, while at 70°C CWI showed 8.7 times longer half-life than soluble enzyme. After 2-hr of incubation in 8 M urea solution, soluble invertase and CWI retained 10 and 60% of its initial activity, respectively. During 22 hr of incubation of both enzymes in 30 and 40% methanol, soluble invertase was completely inactivated, while CWI changed its activity within the experimental error. Therefore, soluble invertase and CWI have not shown any substantial difference, but CWI showed better thermal stability and stability in some of the typical protein-denaturing agents.

  16. Gene quantification by the NanoGene assay is resistant to inhibition by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gha-Young; Wang, Xiaofang; Ahn, Hosang; Son, Ahjeong

    2011-10-15

    NanoGene assay is a magnetic bead and quantum dot nanoparticles based gene quantification assay. It relies on a set of probe and signaling probe DNAs to capture the target DNA via hybridization. We have demonstrated the inhibition resistance of the NanoGene assay using humic acids laden genomic DNA (gDNA). At 1 μg of humic acid per mL, quantitiative PCR (qPCR) was inhibited to 0% of its quantification capability whereas NanoGene assay was able to maintain more than 60% of its quantification capability. To further increase the inhibition resistance of NanoGene assay at high concentration of humic acids, we have identified the specific mechanisms that are responsible for the inhibition. We examined five potential mechanisms with which the humic acids can partially inhibit our NanoGene assay. The mechanisms examined were (1) adsorption of humic acids on the particle surface; (2) particle aggregation induced by humic acids; (3) fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by humic acids during hybridization; (4) humic acids mimicking of target DNA; and (5) nonspecific binding between humic acids and target gDNA. The investigation showed that no adsorption of humic acids onto the particles' surface was observed for the humic acids' concentration. Particle aggregation and fluorescence quenching were also negligible. Humic acids also did not mimic the target gDNA except 1000 μg of humic acids per mL and hence should not contribute to the partial inhibition. Four of the above mechanisms were not related to the inhibition effect of humic acids particularly at the environmentally relevant concentrations (<100 μg/mL). However, a substantial amount of nonspecific binding was observed between the humic acids and target gDNA. This possibly results in lesser amount of target gDNA being captured by the probe and signaling DNA.

  17. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  18. Novel acid resistance genes from the metagenome of the Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Morgante, Verónica; Mirete, Salvador; González-Pastor, José E

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms that thrive in acidic environments are endowed with specialized molecular mechanisms to survive under this extremely harsh condition. In this work, we performed functional screening of six metagenomic libraries from planktonic and rhizosphere microbial communities of the Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment, to identify genes involved in acid resistance. This approach has revealed 15 different genes conferring acid resistance to Escherichia coli, most of which encoding putative proteins of unknown function or previously described proteins not known to be related to acid resistance. Moreover, we were able to assign function to one unknown and three hypothetical proteins. Among the recovered genes were the ClpXP protease, the transcriptional repressor LexA and nucleic acid-binding proteins such as an RNA-binding protein, HU and Dps. Furthermore, nine of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis and, remarkably, most of them were able to expand the capability of these bacteria to survive under severe acid stress. From this set of genes, four presented a broad-host range as they enhance the acid resistance of the three different organisms tested. These results expand our knowledge about the different strategies used by microorganisms to survive under extremely acid conditions.

  19. Large-scale analysis of membrane transport in yeast using invertase reporters.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Lauren; Davey, Michael; Conibear, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Transport of membrane proteins between cellular organelles requires the concerted action of many regulatory factors, which aid in cargo recognition and vesicle formation, targeting, and fusion. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a useful model system for studying such regulators, due to the availability of genome-wide mutant collections and reporter proteins that provide sensitive biochemical readouts of individual transport pathways. Here, we describe an enzymatic invertase assay for evaluating endocytic recycling using a chimeric GFP-Snc1-Suc2 reporter. Cell surface levels of this reporter can be measured by a colorimetric assay that monitors sucrose hydrolysis at the plasma membrane, using two different methods. The first is a semiquantitative agar overlay assay followed by image densitometry that is suitable for high-throughput screening of arrayed yeast colonies. In the second, more quantitative assay, an enzymatic solution is added to yeast cultures in a multi-well plate and the absorbance is assessed by a plate reader. Furthermore, the modular nature of the chimeric reporter allows alternate transport signals to be introduced, thereby expanding the range of transport pathways that can be evaluated by this method. Together these techniques can be used to explore the function of genes involved in a variety of cellular trafficking pathways.

  20. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  1. Interplay of sugar, light and gibberellins in expression of Rosa hybrida vacuolar invertase 1 regulation.

    PubMed

    Rabot, Amélie; Portemer, Virginie; Péron, Thomas; Mortreau, Eric; Leduc, Nathalie; Hamama, Latifa; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Atanassova, Rossitza; Sakr, Soulaiman; Le Gourrierec, José

    2014-10-01

    Our previous findings showed that the expression of the Rosa hybrida vacuolar invertase 1 gene (RhVI1) was tightly correlated with the ability of buds to grow out and was under sugar, gibberellin and light control. Here, we aimed to provide an insight into the mechanistic basis of this regulation. In situ hybridization showed that RhVI1 expression was localized in epidermal cells of young leaves of bursting buds. We then isolated a 895 bp fragment of the promoter of RhVI1. In silico analysis identified putative cis-elements involved in the response to sugars, light and gibberellins on its proximal part (595 bp). To carry out functional analysis of the RhVI1 promoter in a homologous system, we developed a direct method for stable transformation of rose cells. 5' deletions of the proximal promoter fused to the uidA reporter gene were inserted into the rose cell genome to study the cell's response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Deletion analysis revealed that the 468 bp promoter fragment is sufficient to trigger reporter gene activity in response to light, sugars and gibberellins. This region confers sucrose- and fructose-, but not glucose-, responsive activation in the dark. Inversely, the -595 to -468 bp region that carries the sugar-repressive element (SRE) is required to down-regulate the RhVI1 promoter in response to sucrose and fructose in the dark. We also demonstrate that sugar/light and gibberellin/light act synergistically to up-regulate β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity sharply under the control of the 595 bp pRhVI1 region. These results reveal that the 127 bp promoter fragment located between -595 and -468 bp is critical for light and sugar and light and gibberellins to act synergistically.

  2. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  3. Genomic organization of the human lysosomal acid lipase gene (LIPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Aslandis, C.; Klima, H.; Lackner, K.J.; Schmitz, G. )

    1994-03-15

    Defects in the human lysosomal acid lipase gene are responsible for cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and Wolman disease. Exon skipping as the cause for CESD has been demonstrated. The authors present here a summary of the exon structure of the entire human lysosomal acid lipase gene consisting of 10 exons, together with the sizes of genomic EcoRI and SacI fragments hybridizing to each exon. In addition, the DNA sequence of the putative promoter region is presented. The EMBL accession numbers for adjacent intron sequences are given. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis gene cluster gene cpaM is required for speradine A biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Tomoki; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Koyama, Akifumi; Iio, Shin-Ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Koyama, Yasuji; Totsuka, Akira; Shindo, Hitoshi; Sato, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Speradine A is a derivative of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) found in culture of an Aspergillus tamarii isolate. Heterologous expression of a predicted methyltransferase gene, cpaM, in the cpa biosynthesis gene cluster of A. tamarii resulted in the speradine A production in a 2-oxoCPA producing A. oryzae strain, indicating cpaM is involved in the speradine A biosynthesis.

  5. Control of mammalian gene expression by amino acids, especially glutamine.

    PubMed

    Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Lavoinne, Alain; Husson, Annie

    2009-04-01

    Molecular data rapidly accumulating on the regulation of gene expression by amino acids in mammalian cells highlight the large variety of mechanisms that are involved. Transcription factors, such as the basic-leucine zipper factors, activating transcription factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, as well as specific regulatory sequences, such as amino acid response element and nutrient-sensing response element, have been shown to mediate the inhibitory effect of some amino acids. Moreover, amino acids exert a wide range of effects via the activation of different signalling pathways and various transcription factors, and a number of cis elements distinct from amino acid response element/nutrient-sensing response element sequences were shown to respond to changes in amino acid concentration. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of glutamine, the most abundant amino acid, which at appropriate concentrations enhances a great number of cell functions via the activation of various transcription factors. The glutamine-responsive genes and the transcription factors involved correspond tightly to the specific effects of the amino acid in the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, and metabolic functions. Indeed, in addition to the major role played by nuclear factor-kappaB in the anti-inflammatory action of glutamine, the stimulatory role of activating protein-1 and the inhibitory role of C/EBP homology binding protein in growth-promotion, and the role of c-myc in cell survival, many other transcription factors are also involved in the action of glutamine to regulate apoptosis and intermediary metabolism in different cell types and tissues. The signalling pathways leading to the activation of transcription factors suggest that several kinases are involved, particularly mitogen-activated protein kinases. In most cases, however, the precise pathways from the entrance of the amino acid into the cell to the activation of gene

  6. Immobilization of invertase through its carbohydrate moiety on Ocimum basilicum seed.

    PubMed

    Melo, J S; D'Souza, S F

    1992-01-01

    Yeast invertase, a glycoprotein, was covalently coupled to Ocimum basilicum seeds either through its protein or carbohydrate moiety. Of the various methods investigated, binding of the enzyme through its carbohydrate moiety resulted in the retention of considerably higher amounts of enzyme activity. Immobilized invertase showed a shift in the pH optimum toward the alkaline side without appreciable change in temperature optimum. However, the immobilized preparation was more thermostable than the free enzyme. Invertase bound to the seeds could be used repeatedly for the hydrolysis of sucrose syrups in a batch process without appreciable loss in activity. The seeds could serve as an inexpensive, ready-to-use, natural pellicular polysaccharide support for immobilizing enzymes.

  7. Reversible immobilization of invertase on Cu-chelated polyvinylimidazole-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Kerem; Çevik, Emre; Şenel, Mehmet; Baykal, Abdülhadi

    2013-12-01

    Polyvinylimidazole (PVI)-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles (PVIgMNP) were prepared by grafting of telomere of PVI on the iron oxide nanoparticles. Different metal ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cr(2+), Ni(2+)) ions were chelated on polyvinylimidazole-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles, and then the metal-chelated magnetic particles were used in the adsorption of invertase. The maximum invertase immobilization capacity of the PVIgMNP-Cu(2+) beads was observed to be 142.856 mg/g (invertase/PVIgMNP) at pH 5.0. The values of the maximum reaction rate (V max) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. The enzyme adsorption-desorption studies, pH effect on the adsorption efficiency, affinity of different metal ions, the kinetic parameters and storage stability of free and immobilized enzymes were evaluated.

  8. Identification of nitrogen-fixing genes and gene clusters from metagenomic library of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhimin; Guo, Xue; Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community.

  9. Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Genes and Gene Clusters from Metagenomic Library of Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community. PMID:24498417

  10. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. elegans, bcmo-1 was expressed in the intestine and was cadmium inducible. Similarly, in Hepa 1–6 cells, Bcmo1 was induced by cadmium. Retinoic acid-mediated signaling increased after 24-h exposures to 5 and 10 μm cadmium in Hepa 1–6 cells. Examination of gene expression demonstrated that the induction of retinoic acid signaling by cadmium may be mediated by overexpression of Bcmo1. Furthermore, cadmium inhibited the expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1, which are involved in retinoic acid degradation. These results indicate that cadmium-induced teratogenicity may be due to the ability of the metal to increase the levels of retinoic acid by disrupting the expression of retinoic acid-metabolizing genes. PMID:19556237

  11. Role of invertase activity in processing quality of potatoes: Effect of storage temperature and duration.

    PubMed

    Bandana; Sharma, Vineet; Singh, Brajesh; Raigond, Pinky; Kaushik, S K

    2016-03-01

    Invertase activity and processing attributes of three potato cultivars were studied to find the reason for deterioration of processing quality during their prolonged storage in commercial cold stores (4°C) as compared to elevated temperature storage (12 ± 0.5°C), with CIPC {Isopropyl-N-(3-Cholorophenyl) carbamate}. Lower storage temperature (4°C) tended to be more effective in increasing invertase activity of potato tubers than elevated temperature. Non-processing cultivar viz., Kufri Pukhraj resulted in accumulation of more invertase activity than relatively two processing cultivars. Kufri Chipsona-1 and Kufri Chipsona-3 at 12 ± 0.5°C possessed basal invertase activity ranging from 39.3 to 79.8 and 54.1 to 93.8 (pmoles hexose h⁻¹ g⁻¹ f.wt.) respectively, during two years. Total invertase activity at 4°C increased abruptly and remained high from 30 to 60 days of storage. The activity progressively reached 90.6 to 106.6 and 81.4 to 101.3 during both the years respectively, after 60 days of storage to that observed initially. Reducing sugar content increased from 23.3 to 105.7 and 389.0 to 1138.2 (mg 100g⁻¹ f.wt.) after 90 days of storage at 12 ± 0.5°C and 4°C, respectively. Studies concluded that basal and total invertase, were responsible for cold-induced sweetening and resulted in deterioration of processing quality of potatoes during storage at 4°C. Since this activity is low at 12 ± 0.5°C, the processing traits remained acceptable to industry and consumers.

  12. Production and characterization of a novel yeast extracellular invertase activity towards improved dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization.

    PubMed

    Arez, Bruno F; Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this work was the production and characterization of a novel invertase activity from Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain Talf1 for further application to biodesulfurization (BDS) in order to expand the exploitable alternative carbon sources to renewable sucrose-rich feedstock. The maximum invertase activity (163 U ml(-1)) was achieved after 7 days of Z. bailii strain Talf1 cultivation at pH 5.5-6.0, 25 °C, and 150 rpm in Yeast Malt Broth with 25 % Jerusalem artichoke pulp as inducer substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the crude enzyme activity were 5.5 and 50 °C, respectively, and moreover, high stability was observed at 30 °C for pH 5.5-6.5. The application of Talf1 crude invertase extract (1 %) to a BDS process by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B at 30 °C and pH 7.5 was carried out through a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) approach in which 10 g l(-1) sucrose and 250 μM dibenzothiophene were used as sole carbon and sulfur sources, respectively. Growth and desulfurization profiles were evaluated and compared with those of BDS without invertase addition. Despite its lower stability at pH 7.5 (loss of activity within 24 h), Talf1 invertase was able to catalyze the full hydrolysis of 10 g l(-1) sucrose in culture medium into invert sugar, contributing to a faster uptake of the monosaccharides by strain 1B during BDS. In SSF approach, the desulfurizing bacterium increased its μmax from 0.035 to 0.070 h(-1) and attained a 2-hydroxybiphenyl productivity of 5.80 μM/h in about 3 days instead of 7 days, corresponding to an improvement of 2.6-fold in relation to the productivity obtained in BDS process without invertase addition.

  13. Covalent immobilization of invertase on PAMAM-dendrimer modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun, K.; Çevik, E.; Şenel, M.; Sözeri, H.; Baykal, A.; Abasıyanık, M. F.; Toprak, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was synthesized on the surface of superparamagnetite nanoparticles to enhance invertase immobilization. The amount of immobilized enzyme on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times (i.e., 250%) as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane. Maximum reaction rate ( V max) and Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. Various characteristics of immobilized invertase such as; the temperature activity, thermal stability, operational stability, and storage stability were evaluated and results revealed that stability of the enzyme is improved upon immobilization.

  14. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding.

  15. Repeats in transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) genes.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Seema

    2013-06-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins (TACC1, 2, and 3) are essential proteins associated with the assembly of spindle microtubules and maintenance of bipolarity. Dysregulation of TACCs is associated with tumorigenesis, but studies of microsatellite instability in TACC genes have not been extensive. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat instability is known to cause many types of cancer. The present in silico analysis of SSRs in human TACC gene sequences shows the presence of mono- to hexa-nucleotide repeats, with the highest densities found for mono- and di-nucleotide repeats. Density of repeats is higher in introns than in exons. Some of the repeats are present in regulatory regions and retained introns. Human TACC genes show conservation of many repeat classes. Microsatellites in TACC genes could be valuable markers for monitoring numerical chromosomal aberrations and or cancer.

  16. Reassessment of an Arabidopsis cell wall invertase inhibitor AtCIF1 reveals its role in seed germination and early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Wolf, Sebastian; Han, Mei; Zhao, Hongbo; Wei, Hongbin; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants, cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) are recognized as essential players in sugar metabolism and sugar signaling, thereby affecting source-sink interactions, plant development and responses to environmental cues. CWI and VI expression levels are transcriptionally controlled; however, both enzymes are also subject to posttranslational control by invertase inhibitor proteins. The physiological significances of inhibitor proteins during seed germination and early seedling development are not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibitor isoform AtCIF1 impacted on seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. The primary target of AtCIF1 was shown to be localized to the apoplast after expressing an AtCIF1 YFP-fusion construct in tobacco epidermis and transgenic Arabidopsis root. The analysis of expression patterns showed that AtCWI1 was co-expressed spatiotemporally with AtCIF1 within the early germinating seeds. Seed germination was observed to be accelerated independently of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in the AtCIF1 loss-of-function mutant cif1-1. This effect coincided with a drastic increase of CWI activity in cif1-1 mutant seeds by 24 h after the onset of germination, both in vitro and in planta. Accordingly, quantification of sugar content showed that hexose levels were significantly boosted in germinating seeds of the cif1-1 mutant. Further investigation of AtCIF1 overexpressors in Arabidopsis revealed a markedly suppressed CWI activity as well as delayed seed germination. Thus, we conclude that the posttranslational modulation of CWI activity by AtCIF1 helps to orchestrate seed germination and early seedling growth via fine-tuning sucrose hydrolysis and, possibly, sugar signaling.

  17. Photosynthetic responses, carbohydrate composition and invertase activity in fructan accumulating bryophytes (Porella platyphylla and Sphagnum flexuosum) under different environmental conditions (carbohydrate treatments, dark starvation, low temperature, desiccation).

    PubMed

    Marschall, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses, the non-structural carbohydrate pool and its alterations, and the acid invertase activity under different environmental conditions in the fructan synthesising Porella platyphylla and Sphagnum flexuosum are discussed. Sucrose and fructan are the major soluble carbohydrates in both species. TLC showed that fructans form a homologous series of increasing DP in a similar manner to fructans in Angiosperms and belong to the inulin type. Exogenous sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) applied in light and dark resulted in down-regulation of photosynthetic activity, but a long period (1 week) of dark starvation did not cause a significant decrease in the photosynthetic capacity. Light and exogenous sugars increased soluble carbohydrate content due to fructan-accumulation. Dark starvation, desiccation and low temperature did not influence significantly the amount of the total soluble carbohydrates, indicating the existence of a well-buffered carbohydrate pool, although changes in the ratio of fructans of different molecular weight can be detected. Alterations in the activity of acid invertase correlated well with the changes of the amount of the main soluble carbohydrates, showing the role of the enzyme in general carbohydrate and fructan metabolism.

  18. [Invertase Overproduction May Provide for Inulin Fermentation by Selection Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S

    2015-01-01

    In some recent publications, the ability of selection strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment inulin was attributed to inulinase activity. The review summarizes the literature data indicating that overproduction of invertase, an enzyme common to S. cerevisiae, may be responsible for this phenomenon.

  19. Purification and characterization of a trehalase-invertase enzyme with dual activity from Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Sagar; Basu, Arghya; Sengupta, Shinjinee; Banerjee, Shakri; Dutta, Trina; Soren, Dhananjay; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda; Ghosh, Anil K

    2012-06-15

    Trehalose and sucrose, two important anti-stress non-reducing natural disaccharides, are catabolized by two enzymes, namely trehalase and invertase respectively. In this study, a 175 kDa enzyme protein active against both substrates was purified from wild type Candida utilis and characterized in detail. Substrate specificity assay and activity staining revealed the enzyme to be specific for both sucrose and trehalose. The ratio between trehalase and invertase activity was found to be constant at 1:3.5 throughout the entire study. Almost 40-fold purification and 30% yield for both activities were achieved at the final step of purification. The presence of common enzyme inhibitors, thermal and pH stress had analogous effects on its trehalase and invertase activity. Km values for two activities were similar while Vmax and Kcat also differed by a factor of 3.5. Competition plot for both substrates revealed the two activities to be occurring at the single active site. N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF data analysis revealed higher similarity of the purified protein to previously known neutral trehalases. While earlier workers mentioned independent purification of neutral trehalase or invertase from different sources, the present study reports the purification of a single protein showing dual activity.

  20. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 μmol/min. The invertase was activated by β-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %.

  1. Invertase SUC2 Is the key hydrolase for inulin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae.

  2. Invertase SUC2 Is the Key Hydrolase for Inulin Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-An

    2013-01-01

    Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23104410

  3. Yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid: acidic conditions caused by the organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures induce expression of intracellular metal metabolism genes regulated by Aft1p.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Miho; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2006-09-01

    Using two types of genome-wide analysis to investigate yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid, we found that the acidic condition affects metal metabolism. The first type is an expression analysis using DNA microarrays to investigate 'acid shock response' as the first step to adapt to an acidic condition, and 'acid adaptation' by maintaining integrity in the acidic condition. The other is a functional screening using the nonessential genes deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression analysis showed that genes involved in stress response, such as YGP1, TPS1 and HSP150, were induced under the acid shock response. Genes such as FIT2, ARN1 and ARN2, involved in metal metabolism regulated by Aft1p, were induced under the acid adaptation. AFT1 was induced under acid shock response and under acid adaptation with lactic acid. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-fused Aft1p was localized to the nucleus in cells grown in media containing lactic acid, acetic acid, or hydrochloric acid. Both analyses suggested that the acidic condition affects cell wall architecture. The depletion of cell-wall components encoded by SED1, DSE2, CTS1, EGT2, SCW11, SUN4 and YNL300W and histone acetyltransferase complex proteins encoded by YID21, EAF3, EAF5, EAF6 and YAF9 increased resistance to lactic acid. Depletion of the cell-wall mannoprotein Sed1p provided resistance to lactic acid, although the expression of SED1 was induced by exposure to lactic acid. Depletion of vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase and high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins caused acid sensitivity. Moreover, our quantitative PCR showed that expression of PDR12 increased under acid shock response with lactic acid and decreased under acid adaptation with hydrochloric acid.

  4. Single amino acid polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini Christy, J; George Priya Doss, C

    2015-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily comprises of 19 genes and 3 pseudogenes. These superfamily genes play a vital role in the formation of molecules that are involved in life processes, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. ALDH superfamily genes associated mutations are implicated in various diseases, such as pyridoxine-dependent seizures, gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, type II Hyperprolinemia, Sjogren-Larsson syndrome including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Accumulation of large DNA variations data especially Single Amino acid Polymorphisms (SAPs) in public databases related to ALDH superfamily genes insisted us to conduct a survey on the disease associated mutations and predict their function impact on protein structure and function. Overall this study provides an update and highlights the importance of pathogenic mutations in associated diseases. Using KD4v and Project HOPE a computational based platform, we summarized all the deleterious properties of SAPs in ALDH superfamily genes by the providing valuable insight into structural alteration rendered due to mutation. We hope this review might provide a way to define the deleteriousness of a SAP and helps to understand the molecular basis of the associated disease and also permits precise diagnosis and treatment in the near future.

  5. Differential Gene Expression of Longan Under Simulated Acid Rain Stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shan; Pan, Tengfei; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2017-03-16

    Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao. This fragment is the transcription factor activated by second messenger substances in longan leaves after signal perception of acid rain.

  6. Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Watson, C.; Milton, J.; Oryhon, J.; Salbego, D.; Milosavljevic, A.; Woloschak, G. E.; CuraGen Corp.

    2000-02-01

    Purpose : Previous work from the authors' group and others has demonstrated that some of the effects of UV irradiation on gene expression are modulated in response to the addition of salicylic acid to irradiated cells. The presumed effector molecule responsible for this modulation is NF-kappaB. In the experiments described here, differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify those cDNAs that are differentially modulated by UV radiation with and without the addition of salicylic acid. Materials and methods : Differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Results : Eight such cDNAs are presented: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-beta), nuclear encoded mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase 24kDa (NDUFV2), elongation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), nuclear dots protein SP100, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IF1), a cDNA similar to a subunit of yeast CCAAT transcription factor HAP5, and two expressed sequence tags (AA187906 and AA513156). Conclusions : Sequences of four of these genes contained NF-kappaB DNA binding sites of the type that may attract transrepressor p55/p55 NF-kappaB homodimers. Down-regulation of these genes upon UV irradiation may contribute to increased cell survival via suppression of p53 independent apoptosis.

  7. Biotransformation of pineapple juice sugars into dietetic derivatives by using a cell free oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis together with commercial invertase.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M G; Michlmayr, H; Kulbe, K D; Del Hierro, A M

    2011-01-05

    An easy procedure for cell free biotransformation of pineapple juice sugars into dietetic derivatives was accomplished using a commercial invertase and an oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis. First, pineapple juice sucrose was quantitatively converted into glucose and fructose by invertase, thus increasing the concentration of each monosaccharide in the original juice to almost twice. In a second step, glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) transformed glucose into gluconolactone, and fructose into the low calorie sweetener sorbitol. The advantage of using GFOR is simultaneous reduction of fructose and oxidation of glucose, allowing the continuous regeneration of the essential coenzyme NADP(H), that is tightly bound to the enzyme. The yield of GFOR catalyzed sugar conversion depends on initial pH and control of pH during the reaction. At optimal conditions (pH control at 6.2) a maximum of 80% (w/v) sugar conversion was obtained. Without pH control, GFOR is inactivated rapidly due to gluconic acid formation. Therefore, conversion yields are relatively low at the natural pH of pineapple juice. The application of this process might be more advantageous on juices of other tropical fruits (papaya, jackfruit, mango) due to their naturally given higher pH.

  8. Nucleic acid modifications in regulation of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; He, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids carry a wide range of different chemical modifications. In contrast to previous views that these modifications are static and only play fine-tuning functions, recent research advances paint a much more dynamic picture. Nucleic acids carry diverse modifications and employ these chemical marks to exert essential or critical influences in a variety of cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. This review covers several nucleic acid modifications that play important regulatory roles in biological systems, especially in regulation of gene expression: 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidative derivatives, and N6 -methyladenine (6mA) in DNA; N6 -methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine (), and 5-methylcytosine (m5C) in messenger RNA and long non-coding RNA. Modifications in other non-coding RNAs, such as tRNA, miRNA, and snRNA, are also briefly summarized. We provide brief historical perspective of the field, and highlight recent progress in identifying diverse nucleic acid modifications and exploring their functions in different organisms. Overall, we believe that work in this field will yield additional layers of both chemical and biological complexity as we continue to uncover functional consequences of known nucleic acid modifications and discover new ones. PMID:26933737

  9. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  10. Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes for gene delivery and gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Kai K.; Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Leal, Cecília

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are studied worldwide as carriers of DNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA) for gene delivery and gene silencing, and related clinical trials are ongoing. Optimization of transfection efficiency and silencing efficiency by cationic liposome carriers requires a comprehensive understanding of the structures of CL–nucleic acid complexes and the nature of their interactions with cell membranes as well as events leading to release of active nucleic acids within the cytoplasm. Synchrotron x-ray scattering has revealed that CL–nucleic acid complexes spontaneously assemble into distinct liquid crystalline phases including the lamellar, inverse hexagonal, hexagonal, and gyroid cubic phases, and fluorescence microscopy has revealed CL–DNA pathways and interactions with cells. The combining of custom synthesis with characterization techniques and gene expression and silencing assays has begun to unveil structure–function relations in vitro. As a recent example, this review will briefly describe experiments with surface-functionalized PEGylated CL–DNA nanoparticles. The functionalization, which is achieved through custom synthesis, is intended to address and overcome cell targeting and endosomal escape barriers to nucleic acid delivery faced by PEGylated nanoparticles designed for in vivo applications. PMID:25587216

  11. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  12. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  13. A gene network engineering platform for lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wentao; Kapuganti, Venkata S; Lu, Ting

    2016-02-29

    Recent developments in synthetic biology have positioned lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for applications. To achieve the full potential of LAB, one fundamental prerequisite is the capacity for rapid engineering of complex gene networks, such as natural biosynthetic pathways and multicomponent synthetic circuits, into which cellular functions are encoded. Here, we present a synthetic biology platform for rapid construction and optimization of large-scale gene networks in LAB. The platform involves a copy-controlled shuttle for hosting target networks and two associated strategies that enable efficient genetic editing and phenotypic validation. By using a nisin biosynthesis pathway and its variants as examples, we demonstrated multiplex, continuous editing of small DNA parts, such as ribosome-binding sites, as well as efficient manipulation of large building blocks such as genes and operons. To showcase the platform, we applied it to expand the phenotypic diversity of the nisin pathway by quickly generating a library of 63 pathway variants. We further demonstrated its utility by altering the regulatory topology of the nisin pathway for constitutive bacteriocin biosynthesis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid and advanced engineering of gene networks in LAB, fostering their applications in biomedicine and other areas.

  14. One-pot production of fructooligosaccharides by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing an engineered invertase.

    PubMed

    Marín-Navarro, Julia; Talens-Perales, David; Polaina, Julio

    2015-03-01

    We describe a simple, efficient process for the production of 6-kestose, a trisaccharide with well-documented prebiotic properties. A key factor is the use of a yeast transformant expressing an engineered version of Saccharomyces invertase with enhanced transfructosylating activity. When the yeast transformant was grown with 30 % sucrose as the carbon source, 6-kestose accumulated up to ca. 100 g/L in the culture medium. The 6-kestose yield was significantly enhanced (up to 200 g/L) using a two-stage process carried out in the same flask. In the first stage, the culture was grown in 30 % sucrose at physiological temperature (30 °C) to allow overexpression of the invertase. In the second stage, sucrose was added to the culture at high concentration (60 %) and the temperature shifted to 50 °C. In both cases, 6-kestose was synthesized with high specificity, representing more than 95 % of total FOS.

  15. Sucrose and invertases, a part of the plant defense response to the biotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tauzin, Alexandra S.; Giardina, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose is the main form of assimilated carbon which is produced during photosynthesis and then transported from source to sink tissues via the phloem. This disaccharide is known to have important roles as signaling molecule and it is involved in many metabolic processes in plants. Essential for plant growth and development, sucrose is engaged in plant defense by activating plant immune responses against pathogens. During infection, pathogens reallocate the plant sugars for their own needs forcing the plants to modify their sugar content and triggering their defense responses. Among enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose and alter carbohydrate partitioning, invertases have been reported to be affected during plant-pathogen interactions. Recent highlights on the role of invertases in the establishment of plant defense responses suggest a more complex regulation of sugar signaling in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:25002866

  16. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  17. Amino acid regulation of mammalian gene expression in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Brasse-Lagnel, Carole G; Lavoinne, Alain M; Husson, Annie S

    2010-07-01

    Some amino acids exert a wide range of regulatory effects on gene expression via the activation of different signalling pathways and transcription factors, and a number of cis elements were shown to respond to changes in amino acid concentration. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of glutamine and arginine, which modulate a number of cell functions through the activation of various pathways in different tissues. In the intestine, appropriate concentrations of both arginine and/or glutamine contribute to facilitate cell proliferation, to limit the inflammatory response and apoptosis, and to modulate intermediary metabolism through specific transcription factors. Particularly, besides its role as a major fuel for enterocytes, the regulatory effects of glutamine have been extensively studied and the molecular mechanisms involved appear diversified and complex. Indeed, in addition to a major role of NF-kappaB in its anti-inflammatory action and a stimulatory role of AP-1 in its growth-promoting action and cell survival, the involvement of some other transcription factors, such as PPAR-gamma or HSF-1, was shown to maintain intestinal cell integrity. The signalling pathways leading to the activation of transcription factors imply several kinases, particularly MAP kinases in the effect of glutamine and p70 S6 kinase for those of arginine, but in most cases the precise pathways from the entrance of the aminoacid into the cell to the activation of gene transcription has remained elusive.

  18. Formulation and drying of alginate beads for controlled release and stabilization of invertase.

    PubMed

    Santagapita, Patricio R; Mazzobre, M Florencia; Buera, M Pilar

    2011-09-12

    Several alternatives to the conventional alginate beads formulation were studied for encapsulation of invertase. Pectin was added to the alginate/enzyme solution while trehalose and β-cyclodextrin were added to the calcium gelation media. The effect of composition changes, freezing, drying methods (freeze, vacuum, or air drying), and thermal treatment were evaluated on invertase stability and its release kinetics from beads. The enzyme release mechanism from wet beads depended on pH. The addition of trehalose, pectin, and β-cyclodextrin modified the bead structure, leading in some cases to a release mechanism that included the relaxation of the polymer chains, besides Fickian diffusion. Enzyme release from vacuum-dried beads was much faster than from freeze-dried beads, probably due to their higher pore size. The inclusion of β-cyclodextrin and especially of pectin prevented enzyme activity losses during bead generation, and trehalose addition was fundamental for achieving adequate invertase protection during freezing, drying, and thermal treatment. Present results showed that several alternatives such as drying method, composition, as well as pH of the relese medium can be managed to control enzyme release.

  19. Fe(II)-Co(II) Double Salt Incorporated Magnetic Hydrophobic Microparticles for Invertase Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Köse, Kazım; Erol, Kadir; Emniyet, Asiye Aslı; Köse, Dursun Ali; Avcı, Gülçin Alp; Uzun, Lokman

    2015-11-01

    Invertase (β-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.26) is an enzyme widely used in the food industry. Its main function is the formation of glucose and fructose through hydrolysis of sucrose. For the separation and purification of this commercially important enzyme from aqueous solutions, magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-tryptophan), m-poly(HEMA-MATrp) microparticles were developed. Magnetic properties of microparticles are provided using ferromagnetic Fe(II)-Co(II) double salt. Characterization studies of magnetic microparticles were conducted via vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Specific surface area of magnetic microparticles is 6.75 m(2)/g. Because of all experiments performed in this study, the adsorption capability of magnetic microparticles was optimized by variation of different conditions (pH, interaction time, initial invertase concentration, temperature, and ionic strength) and maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 992.64 mg invertase/g magnetic microparticles.

  20. Tris-sucrose buffer system: a new specially designed medium for extracellular invertase production by immobilized cells of isolated yeast Cryptococcus laurentii MT-61.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut; Canli, Ozden; Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Ortucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to isolate new yeasts with high extracellular (exo) invertase activity and to investigate the usability of buffer systems as invertase production media by immobilized yeast cells. Among 70 yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii MT-61 had the highest exo-invertase activity. Immobilization of yeast cells was performed using sodium alginate. Higher exo-invertase activity for immobilized cells was achieved in tris-sucrose buffer system (TSBS) compared to sodium acetate buffer system and potassium phosphate buffer system. TSBS was prepared by dissolving 30 g of sucrose in 1 L of tris buffer solution. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation time for invertase production with immobilized cells were determined as 8.0, 35 °C and 36 h in TSBS, respectively. Under optimized conditions, maximum exo-invertase activity was found to be 28.4 U/mL in sterile and nonsterile TSBS. Immobilized cells could be reused in 14 and 12 successive cycles in sterile and nonsterile TSBS without any loss in the maximum invertase activity, respectively. This is the first report which showed that immobilized microbial cells could be used as a biocatalyst for exo-invertase production in buffer system. As an additional contribution, a new yeast strain with high invertase activity was isolated.

  1. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of new gene for chlorogenic acid biosynthesis of Lonicera hypoglauca].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shu-lin; Huang, Lu-qi; Yuan, Yuan; Qi, Lin-jie; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-03-01

    To obtain the key genes for chlorogenic acid biosynthesis of Lonicera hypoglauca, four new genes ware obtained from the our dataset of L. hypoglauca. And we also predicted the structure and function of LHPAL4, LHHCT1 , LHHCT2 and LHHCT3 proteins. The phylogenetic tree showed that LHPAL4 was closely related with LHPAL1, LHHCT1 was closely related with LHHCT3, LHHCT2 clustered into a single group. By Real-time PCR to detect the gene expressed level in different organs of L. hypoglauca, we found that the transcripted level of LHPAL4, LHHCT1 and LHHCT3 was the highest in defeat flowers, and the transcripted level of LHHCT2 was the highest in leaves. These result provided a basis to further analysis the mechanism of active ingredients in different organs, as well as the element for in vitro biosynthesis of active ingredients.

  2. Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant's circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source-sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant-nematode interactions.

  3. Oxalic acid production by citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger overexpressing the oxaloacetate hydrolase gene oahA.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used worldwide in the industrial production of citric acid. However, under specific cultivation conditions, citric acid-producing strains of A. niger accumulate oxalic acid as a by-product. Oxalic acid is used as a chelator, detergent, or tanning agent. Here, we sought to develop oxalic acid hyperproducers using A. niger as a host. To generate oxalic acid hyperproducers by metabolic engineering, transformants overexpressing the oahA gene, encoding oxaloacetate hydrolase (OAH; EC 3.7.1.1), were constructed in citric acid-producing A. niger WU-2223L as a host. The oxalic acid production capacity of this strain was examined by cultivation of EOAH-1 under conditions appropriate for oxalic acid production with 30 g/l glucose as a carbon source. Under all the cultivation conditions tested, the amount of oxalic acid produced by EOAH-1, a representative oahA-overexpressing transformant, exceeded that produced by A. niger WU-2223L. A. niger WU-2223L and EOAH-1 produced 15.6 and 28.9 g/l oxalic acid, respectively, during the 12-day cultivation period. The yield of oxalic acid for EOAH-1 was 64.2 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Our method for oxalic acid production gave the highest yield of any study reported to date. Therefore, we succeeded in generating oxalic acid hyperproducers by overexpressing a single gene, i.e., oahA, in citric acid-producing A. niger as a host.

  4. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  5. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  6. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  7. Cell Wall Invertase Promotes Fruit Set under Heat Stress by Suppressing ROS-Independent Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced cell wall invertase (CWIN) activity has been shown to be associated with poor seed and fruit set under abiotic stress. Here, we examined whether genetically increasing native CWIN activity would sustain fruit set under long-term moderate heat stress (LMHS), an important factor limiting crop production, by using transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with its CWIN inhibitor gene silenced and focusing on ovaries and fruits at 2 d before and after pollination, respectively. We found that the increase of CWIN activity suppressed LMHS-induced programmed cell death in fruits. Surprisingly, measurement of the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde and the activities of a cohort of antioxidant enzymes revealed that the CWIN-mediated inhibition on programmed cell death is exerted in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner. Elevation of CWIN activity sustained Suc import into fruits and increased activities of hexokinase and fructokinase in the ovaries in response to LMHS. Compared to the wild type, the CWIN-elevated transgenic plants exhibited higher transcript levels of heat shock protein genes Hsp90 and Hsp100 in ovaries and HspII17.6 in fruits under LMHS, which corresponded to a lower transcript level of a negative auxin responsive factor IAA9 but a higher expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene ToFZY6 in fruits at 2 d after pollination. Collectively, the data indicate that CWIN enhances fruit set under LMHS through suppression of programmed cell death in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner that could involve enhanced Suc import and catabolism, HSP expression, and auxin response and biosynthesis. PMID:27462084

  8. Characterization of the co-purified invertase and β-glucosidase of a multifunctional extract from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Marielle Aleixo; Gonçalves, Heloísa Bressan; Furriel, Rosa Dos Prazeres Melo; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2014-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus secretes both invertase and β-glucosidase when grown under submerged fermentation containing rye flour as the carbon source. The aim of this study was to characterize the co-purified fraction, especially the invertase activity. An invertase and a β-glucosidase were co-purified by two chromatographic steps, and the isolated enzymatic fraction was 139-fold enriched in invertase activity. SDS-PAGE analysis of the co-purified enzymes suggests that the protein fraction with invertase activity was heterodimeric, with subunits of 47 and 27 kDa. Maximal invertase activity, which was determined by response surface methodology, occurred in pH and temperature ranges of 4.0-6.0 and 55-65 °C, respectively. The invertase in co-purified enzymes was stable for 1 h at pH 3.0-10.0 and maintained full activity for up to 1 h at 55 °C when diluted in water. Invertase activity was stimulated by 1 mM concentrations of Mn²⁺ (161 %), Co²⁺ (68 %) and Mg²⁺ (61 %) and was inhibited by Al³⁺, Ag⁺, Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺. In addition to sucrose, the co-purified enzymes hydrolyzed cellobiose, inulin and raffinose, and the apparent affinities for sucrose and cellobiose were quite similar (K(M) = 22 mM). However, in the presence of Mn²⁺, the apparent affinity and V(max) for sucrose hydrolysis increased approximately 2- and 2.9-fold, respectively, while for cellobiose, a 2.6-fold increase in V(max) was observed, but the apparent affinity decreased 5.5-fold. Thus, it is possible to propose an application of this multifunctional extract containing both invertase and β-glucosidase to degrade plant biomass, thus increasing the concentration of monosaccharides obtained from sucrose and cellobiose.

  9. Intensified fractionation of brewery yeast waste for the recovery of invertase using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    De León-González, Grecia; González-Valdez, José; Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2016-11-01

    The potential recovery of high-value products from brewery yeast waste confers value to this industrial residue. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have demonstrated to be an attractive alternative for the primary recovery of biological products and are therefore suitable for the recovery of invertase from this residue. Sixteen different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-potassium phosphate ATPS were tested to evaluate the effects of PEG molecular weight (MW) and tie-line length (TLL) upon the partition behavior of invertase. Concentrations of crude extract from brewery yeast waste were then varied in the systems that presented the best behaviors to intensify the potential recovery of the enzyme. Results show that the use of a PEG MW 400 g mol(-1) system with a TLL of 45.0% (w/w) resulted in an invertase bottom phase recovery with a purification factor of 29.5 and a recovery yield of up to 66.2% after scaling the system to a total weight of 15.0 g. This represents 15.1 mg of invertase per mL of processed bottom phase. With these results, a single-stage ATPS process for the recovery of invertase is proposed.

  10. Contributions of sucrose synthase and invertase to the metabolism of sucrose in developing leaves: estimation by alternate substrate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Hitz, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    The relative contributions of invertase and sucrose synthase to initial cleavage of phloem-imported sucrose was calculated for sink leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv Wye) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. monohybrid). Invertase from yeast hydrolyzed sucrose 4200 times faster than 1'-deoxy-1'-fluorosucrose (FS) while sucrose cleavage by sucrose synthase from developing soybean leaves proceeded only 3.6 times faster than cleavage of FS.(/sup 14/C)Sucrose and (/sup 14/C)FS, used as tracers of sucrose, were transported at identical rates to developing leaves through the phloem. The rate of label incorporation into insoluble products varied with leaf age from 3.4 to 8.0 times faster when (/sup 14/C)sucrose was supplied than when (/sup 14/C)FS was supplied. The discrimination in metabolism was related to enzymatic discriminations against FS to calculate the relative contributions of invertase and sucrose synthase to sucrose cleavage. In the youngest soybean leaves measured, 4% of final laminar length (FLL), all cleavage was by sucrose synthase. Invertase contribution to sucrose metabolism was 47% by 7.6% FLL, increased to 54% by 11% FLL, then declined to 42% for the remainder of the import phase. In sugar beet sink leaves at 30% FLL invertase contribution to sucrose metabolism was 58%.

  11. Structural gene and complete amino acid sequence of Vibrio alginolyticus collagenase.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, H; Shibano, Y; Morihara, K; Fukushima, J; Inami, S; Keil, B; Gilles, A M; Kawamoto, S; Okuda, K

    1992-01-01

    The DNA encoding the collagenase of Vibrio alginolyticus was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. When the cloned gene was ligated to pUC18, the Escherichia coli expression vector, bacteria carrying the gene exhibited both collagenase antigen and collagenase activity. The open reading frame from the ATG initiation codon was 2442 bp in length for the collagenase structural gene. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature collagenase consists of 739 amino acids with an Mr of 81875. The amino acid sequences of 20 polypeptide fragments were completely identical with the deduced amino acid sequences of the collagenase gene. The amino acid composition predicted from the DNA sequence was similar to the chemically determined composition of purified collagenase reported previously. The analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences of the collagenase gene were rigorously performed, but we could not detect any significant sequence similarity to other collagenases. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1311172

  12. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2014-06-05

    Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago.

  13. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2Δmutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid.

  14. The rice OsLpa1 gene encodse a novel protein involved in phytic acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice low phytic acid 1 (OsLpa1) gene was originally identified using a forward genetics approach. Mutation of this gene resulted in a 45% reduction in rice seed phytic acid with a molar-equivalent increase in inorganic phosphorus; however, the rice lpa1 mutant does not appear to differ significa...

  15. Molecular evolution of monotreme and marsupial whey acidic protein genes.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Lefèvre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP), a major whey protein present in milk of a number of mammalian species has characteristic cysteine-rich domains known as four-disulfide cores (4-DSC). Eutherian WAP, expressed in the mammary gland throughout lactation, has two 4-DSC domains, (DI-DII) whereas marsupial WAP, expressed only during mid-late lactation, contains an additional 4-DSC (DIII), and has a DIII-D1-DII configuration. We report the expression and evolution of echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and platypus (Onithorhynchus anatinus) WAP cDNAs. Predicted translation of monotreme cDNAs showed echidna WAP contains two 4-DSC domains corresponding to DIII-DII, whereas platypus WAP contains an additional domain at the C-terminus with homology to DII and has the configuration DIII-DII-DII. Both monotreme WAPs represent new WAP protein configurations. We propose models for evolution of the WAP gene in the mammalian lineage either through exon loss from an ancient ancestor or by rapid evolution via the process of exon shuffling. This evolutionary outcome may reflect differences in lactation strategy between marsupials, monotremes, and eutherians, and give insight to biological function of the gene products. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (WFDC2) proteins were also identified in echidna, platypus and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) lactating mammary cells. WFDC2 proteins are secreted proteins not previously associated with lactation. Mammary gland expression of tammar WFDC2 during the course of lactation showed WFDC2 was elevated during pregnancy, reduced in early lactation and absent in mid-late lactation.

  16. Hyaluronic acid enhances gene delivery into the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji B; Cortez, Sarah R; Wiler, James A; Swiderski, Donald L; Raphael, Yehoash

    2012-03-01

    Cochlear gene therapy can be a new avenue for the treatment of severe hearing loss by inducing regeneration or phenotypic rescue. One necessary step to establish this therapy is the development of a safe and feasible inoculation surgery, ideally without drilling the bony cochlear wall. The round window membrane (RWM) is accessible in the middle-ear space, but viral vectors placed on this membrane do not readily cross the membrane to the cochlear tissues. In an attempt to enhance permeability of the RWM, we applied hyaluronic acid (HA), a nontoxic and biodegradable reagent, onto the RWM of guinea pigs, prior to delivering an adenovirus carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene (Ad-eGFP) at the same site. We examined distribution of eGFP in the cochlea 1 week after treatment, comparing delivery of the vector via the RWM, with or without HA, to delivery by a cochleostomy into the perilymph. We found that cochlear tissue treated with HA-assisted delivery of Ad-eGFP demonstrated wider expression of transgenes in cochlear cells than did tissue treated by cochleostomy injection. HA-assisted vector delivery facilitated expression in cells lining the scala media, which are less accessible and not transduced after perilymphatic injection. We assessed auditory function by measuring auditory brainstem responses and determined that thresholds were significantly better in the ears treated with HA-assisted Ad-eGFP placement on the RWM as compared with cochleostomy. Together, these data demonstrate that HA-assisted delivery of viral vectors provides an atraumatic and clinically feasible method to introduce transgenes into cochlear cells, thereby enhancing both research methods and future clinical application.

  17. Effect of chromium salts on invertase immobilization onto carboxymethyl-cellulose-gelatine carrier system.

    PubMed

    Emregül, E; Sungur, S; Akbulut, U

    1996-07-01

    The carboxymethylcellulose-gelatine carrier system was investigated for invertase immobilization. Chromium (III) acetate, chromium (III) sulphate and potassium chromium (III) sulphate were used as cross-linking agents. Effect of carboxymethylcellulose-gelatine ratio and cross-linker concentration on immobilized enzyme activity were analysed. Reusability of immobilized enzyme was also investigated. Maximum immobilized enzyme activities were obtained with cross-linkers chromium (III) sulphate (0.004 mol dm-3) and potassium chromium (III) sulphate (0.001 mol dm-3) for a carrier composition of carboxymethylcellulose-gelatine ratio 0.111 (w/w) as 78%.

  18. Effect of hypokinesia on invertase activity of the mucosa of the small intestine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdusattarov, A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged hypokinesia on the enzyme activity of the middle portion of the small intestine was investigated. Eighty-four mongrel white male rats weighing 170-180 g were divided into two equal groups. The experimental group were maintained in single cages under 30 days of hypokinetic conditions and the control animals were maintained under ordinary laboratory conditions. It is concluded that rates of invertase formation and its inclusion in the composition if the cellular membrane, if judged by the enzyme activity studied in sections of the small intestine, are subject to phase changes in the course of prolonged hypokinesia.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of a cell-wall invertase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaest, Maureen; Le Roy, Katrien; Sansen, Stefaan; De Coninck, Barbara; Lammens, Willem; De Ranter, Camiel J.; Van Laere, André; Van den Ende, Wim; Rabijns, Anja

    2005-08-01

    Crystals suitable for structural analysis have been prepared from a cell-wall invertase from A. thaliana. Cell-wall invertase 1 (AtcwINV1), a plant protein from Arabidopsis thaliana which is involved in the breakdown of sucrose, has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. Crystal form I grows in space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}, whereas crystal form II grows in space group C222{sub 1}. Data sets were collected for crystal forms I and II to resolution limits of 2.40 and 2.15 Å, respectively.

  20. Identification of a 12-gene fusaric acid biosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium species through comparative and functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes involved in biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite (SM) are often located adjacent to one another in the genome and are coordinately regulated. These SM biosynthetic gene clusters typically encode enzymes, one or more transcription factors, and a transport protein. Fusaric acid is a ...

  1. Molecular characterization of the acid-inducible asr gene of Escherichia coli and its role in acid stress response.

    PubMed

    Seputiene, Vaida; Motiejūnas, Domantas; Suziedelis, Kestutis; Tomenius, Henrik; Normark, Staffan; Melefors, Ojar; Suziedeliene, Edita

    2003-04-01

    Enterobacteria have developed numerous constitutive and inducible strategies to sense and adapt to an external acidity. These molecular responses require dozens of specific acid shock proteins (ASPs), as shown by genomic and proteomic analysis. Most of the ASPs remain poorly characterized, and their role in the acid response and survival is unknown. We recently identified an Escherichia coli gene, asr (acid shock RNA), encoding a protein of unknown function, which is strongly induced by high environmental acidity (pH < 5.0). We show here that Asr is required for growth at moderate acidity (pH 4.5) as well as for the induction of acid tolerance at moderate acidity, as shown by its ability to survive subsequent transfer to extreme acidity (pH 2.0). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western analysis of acid-shocked E. coli cells harboring a plasmid-borne asr gene demonstrated that the Asr protein is synthesized as a precursor with an apparent molecular mass of 18 kDa. Mutational studies of the asr gene also demonstrated the Asr preprotein contains 102 amino acids. This protein is subjected to an N-terminal cleavage of the signal peptide and a second processing event, yielding 15- and 8-kDa products, respectively. Only the 8-kDa polypeptide was detected in acid-shocked cells containing only the chromosomal copy of the asr gene. N-terminal sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis revealed the two processing sites in the Asr protein precursor. Deletion of amino acids encompassing the processing site required for release of the 8-kDa protein resulted in an acid-sensitive phenotype similar to that observed for the asr null mutant, suggesting that the 8-kDa product plays an important role in the adaptation to acid shock. Analysis of Asr:PhoA fusions demonstrated a periplasmic location for the Asr protein after removal of the signal peptide. Homologues of the asr gene from other Enterobacteriaceae were cloned and shown to be induced in E. coli

  2. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acids are one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavor compounds. However, the molecular-genetic control of acid accumulation in fruit is poorly understood and, to date, no genes responsible for acid accumulation in fleshy fruit have been function...

  3. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Mihálik, Daniel; Klčová, Lenka; Ondreičková, Katarína; Hudcovicová, Martina; Gubišová, Marcela; Klempová, Tatiana; Čertík, Milan; Pauk, János; Kraic, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v) and 0%–1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat. PMID:26694368

  4. Real-time monitoring of invertase activity immobilized in nanoporous aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Dhathathreyan, A

    2011-05-26

    In this work, we demonstrate the activity of enzyme invertase immobilized in the pores of nanoporous anodized 3 μm thick aluminum oxide (AA). The porous anodic alumina has uniform nanosized pores with an interpore distance of p = 100 nm, with pore diameters on the order of 60-65 nm. The pores trap the enzyme and continuous monitoring of the activity is carried out in a flow cell where the substrate is made to flow and the product is detected. The activity of the immobilized enzyme has been determined for the different concentrations of sucrose and for pH ranging from 3 to 6.5. Maximum activity was found for pH 4.5. Adsorption of the enzyme followed by its interaction with the substrate have been analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPR) and the results obtained show excellent correlation. SPR results show a biphasic kinetics for the adsorption of the enzyme as well as its interaction with the substrate with rates of adsorption for the enzyme at k = 2.9 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 1.17 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The rate of interaction of the substrate with the invertase is initially rapid with k = 4.49 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) followed by a slower rate 1.43 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1).

  5. Differential roles of alkaline/neutral invertases in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120: Inv-B isoform is essential for diazotrophic growth.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Walter A; Nishi, Carolina N; Giarrocco, Laura E; Salerno, Graciela L

    2011-01-01

    The presence of two alkaline/neutral invertases (Inv-A and Inv-B) in the filaments of Nostoc (also named Anabaena) sp. strain PCC 7120 and the involvement of sucrose metabolism in nitrogen fixation led us to investigate the physiological function of those isoforms in cells growing under different nitrogen sources. The highest expression level of each encoding gene was obtained in the presence of ammonium. These results were paralleled by polypeptide and enzyme activity level. In cells of N(2)-fixing filaments, localization of gene expression and subcellular enzyme activity assays demonstrated that invA gene (alr1521) expresses only in vegetative cells, whereas for invB (alr0819), expression is detected in both vegetative cells and heterocysts. In contrast to invA, when invB was knocked out, the filaments were unable to grow on diazotrophic conditions and the accumulation of sucrose and glycogen was altered. Our results demonstrate an essential role for Inv-B for diazotrophic growth and that Inv-B plays a key role in the coordination of sucrose and glycogen metabolism. We can also suggest that invB is likely to integrate the repertoire of genes regulated by a cyanobacterial transcription factor (NtcA) that plays a central role in global nitrogen control.

  6. Acid environments affect biofilm formation and gene expression in isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Denis; McCabe, Evonne M; McCusker, Matthew P; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-08-03

    The aim of this study was to examine the survival and potential virulence of biofilm-forming Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 under mild acid conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 employs an acid tolerance response (ATR) allowing it to adapt to acidic environments. The threat that these acid adapted cells pose to food safety could be enhanced if they also produce biofilms in acidic conditions. The cells were acid-adapted by culturing them in 1% glucose and their ability to form biofilms on stainless steel and on the surface of Luria Bertani (LB) broth at pH7 and pH5 was examined. Plate counts were performed to examine cell survival. RNA was isolated from cells to examine changes in the expression of genes associated with virulence, invasion, biofilm formation and global gene regulation in response to acid stress. Of the 4 isolates that were examined only one (1481) that produced a rigid biofilm in LB broth at pH7 also formed this same structure at pH5. This indicated that the lactic acid severely impeded the biofilm producing capabilities of the other isolates examined under these conditions. Isolate 1481 also had higher expression of genes associated with virulence (hilA) and invasion (invA) with a 24.34-fold and 13.68-fold increase in relative gene expression respectively at pH5 compared to pH7. Although genes associated with biofilm formation had increased expression in response to acid stress for all the isolates this only resulted in the formation of a biofilm by isolate 1481. This suggests that in addition to the range of genes associated with biofilm production at neutral pH, there are genes whose protein products specifically aid in biofilm production in acidic environments. Furthermore, it highlights the potential for the use of lactic acid for the inhibition of Salmonella biofilms.

  7. Concanavalin A immobilized poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) based affinity cryogel matrix and usability of invertase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Murat; Uygun, Deniz Aktaş; Ozçalışkan, Emir; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2012-03-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) immobilized supermacroporous poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(EGDMA)] monolithic cryogel column was prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of EGDMA as a monomer and N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide as a crosslinker. Bioligand Con A was then immobilized by covalent binding onto poly(EGDMA) cryogel via glutaraldehyde activation [Con A-poly(EGDMA)]. Con A-poly(EGDMA) cryogel was characterized by swelling studies and scanning electron microscopy. The monolithic cryogel contained a continuous polymeric matrix having interconnected pores of 10-50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of the cryogel was 15.01 g H₂O/g dry cryogel. Con A-poly(EGDMA) cryogel was used in the adsorption/desorption of invertase from aqueous solutions. The maximum amount of invertase adsorption from aqueous solution in acetate buffer was 55.45 mg/g polymer at pH 5.0. Con A-poly(EGDMA) cryogels were used for repetitive adsorption/desorption of invertase without noticeable loss in invertase adsorption capacity after 10 cycles.

  8. Student Collaboration in a Series of Integrated Experiments to Study Enzyme Reactor Modeling with Immobilized Cell-Based Invertase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taipa, M. A^ngela; Azevedo, Ana M.; Grilo, Anto´nio L.; Couto, Pedro T.; Ferreira, Filipe A. G.; Fortuna, Ana R. M.; Pinto, Ine^s F.; Santos, Rafael M.; Santos, Susana B.

    2015-01-01

    An integrative laboratory study addressing fundamentals of enzyme catalysis and their application to reactors operation and modeling is presented. Invertase, a ß-fructofuranosidase that catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose, is used as the model enzyme at optimal conditions (pH 4.5 and 45 °C). The experimental work involves 3 h of laboratory time…

  9. The Isolation of Invertase from Baker's Yeast: A Four-Part Exercise in Protein Purification and Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timerman, Anthony P.; Fenrick, Angela M.; Zamis, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    A sequence of exercises for the isolation and characterization of invertase (E.C. 3.1.2.26) from baker's yeast obtained from a local grocery store is outlined. Because the enzyme is colorless, the use of colored markers and the sequence of purification steps are designed to "visualize" the process by which a colorless protein is selectively…

  10. Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Barberá, Maria José; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5' enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte differentiation, such as UCP1, adipocyte lipid-binding protein aP2, lipoprotein lipase, the glucose transporter GLUT4 or subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It constitutes a potential nutritional signal linking dietary status to adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:11829740

  11. Sulla carnosa modulates root invertase activity in response to the inhibition of long-distance sucrose transport under magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N; Smaoui, A; Maurousset, L; Porcheron, B; Lemoine, R; Abdelly, C; Rabhi, M

    2016-11-01

    Being the principal product of photosynthesis, sucrose is involved in many metabolic processes in plants. As magnesium (Mg) is phloem mobile, an inverse relationship between Mg shortage and sugar accumulation in leaves is often observed. Mg deficiency effects on carbohydrate contents and invertase activities were determined in Sulla carnosa Desf. Plants were grown hydroponically at different Mg concentrations (0.00, 0.01, 0.05 and 1.50 mM Mg) for one month. Mineral analysis showed that Mg contents were drastically diminished in shoots and roots mainly at 0.01 and 0.00 mM Mg. This decline was adversely associated with a significant increase of sucrose, fructose and mainly glucose in shoots of plants exposed to severe deficiency. By contrast, sugar contents were severely reduced in roots of these plants indicating an alteration of carbohydrate partitioning between shoots and roots of Mg-deficient plants. Cell wall invertase activity was highly enhanced in roots of Mg-deficient plants, while the vacuolar invertase activity was reduced at 0.00 mM Mg. This decrease of vacuolar invertase activity may indicate the sensibility of roots to Mg starvation resulting from sucrose transport inhibition. (14) CO2 labeling experiments were in accordance with these findings showing an inhibition of sucrose transport from source leaves to sink tissues (roots) under Mg depletion. The obtained results confirm previous findings about Mg involvement in photosynthate loading into phloem and add new insights into mechanisms evolved by S. carnosa to cope with Mg shortage in particular the increase of the activity of cell wall invertase.

  12. Cloning of L-amino acid deaminase gene from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, E; Ito, K; Yoshimoto, T

    1999-12-01

    The L-amino acid degrading enzyme gene from Proteus vulgaris was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the enzyme gene was clarified. An open reading frame of 1,413 bp starting at an ATG methionine codon was found, which encodes a protein of 471 amino acid residues, the calculated molecular weight of which is 51,518. The amino acid sequence of P. vulgaris was 58.6% identical with the L-amino acid deaminase of P. mirabilis. A significantly conserved sequence was found around the FAD-binding sequence of flavo-proteins. The partially purified wild and recombinant enzymes had the same substrate specificity for L-amino acids to form the respective keto-acids, however not for D-amino acids.

  13. Zoledronic acid and geranylgeraniol regulate cellular behaviour and angiogenic gene expression in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zafar, S; Coates, D E; Cullinan, M P; Drummond, B K; Milne, T; Seymour, G J

    2014-10-01

    The mevalonate pathway (MVP) and the anti-angiogenic effect of bisphosphonates have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). This study determined the effect of the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid and the replenishment of the MVP by geranylgeraniol on human gingival fibroblasts. Cell viability, apoptosis, morphological analysis using transmission electron microscopy, and gene expression for vascular endothelial growth factor A, bone morphogenic protein 2, ras homologue gene family member B, epiregulin and interferon-alpha were conducted. Results showed cellular viability was decreased in the presence of zoledronic acid and the co-addition of zoledronic acid with geranylgeraniol restored cell viability to control levels. Caspase 3/7 was detected in zoledronic-acid-treated cells indicating apoptosis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum with zoledronic acid and the appearance of multiple lipid-like vesicles following the addition of geranylgeraniol. Zoledronic acid significantly (P < 0.05, FR > ± 2) up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor A, bone morphogenic protein 2, ras homologue gene family member B and epiregulin at one or more time points but not interferon-alpha. Addition of geranylgeraniol resulted in a reduction in the expression of all five genes compared with zoledronic-acid-treated human gingival fibroblasts. The study concluded geranylgeraniol partially reversed the effects of zoledronic acid in human gingival fibroblasts both at the cellular and genetic levels, suggesting the regulation of these genes is mediated via the mevalonate pathway.

  14. Nucleic acid binding property of the gene products of rice stripe virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Delin; Ma, Xiangqiang; Qu, Zhicai; Hull, Roger

    2005-10-01

    GST fusion proteins of the six gene products from RNAs 2,3 and 4 of the tenuivirus, Rice stripe virus (RSV), were used to study the nucleic acid binding activities in vitro. Three of the proteins, p3, pc3 and pc4, bound both single- and double-stranded cDNA of RSV RNA4 and also RNA3 transcribed from its cDNA clone, while p2, pc2-N (the N-terminal part of pc2) nor p4 bound the cDNA or RNA transcript. The binding activity of p3 is located in the carboxyl-terminus amino acid 154-194, which contains basic amino acid rich beta-sheets. The acidic amino acid-rich amino-terminus (amino acids 1-100) of p3 did not have nucleic acid binding activity. The related analogous gene product of the tenuivirus, Rice hoja blanca virus, is a suppressor of gene silencing and the possibility of the nucleic acid binding ability of RSV p3 being associated with this property is discussed. The C-terminal part of the RSV nucleocapsid protein, which also contains a basic region, binds nucleic acids, which is consistent with its function. The central and C-terminal regions of pc4 bind nucleic acid. It has been suggested that this protein is a cell-to-cell movement protein and nucleic acid binding would be in accord with this function.

  15. Piv site-specific invertase requires a DEDD motif analogous to the catalytic center of the RuvC Holliday junction resolvases.

    PubMed

    Buchner, John M; Robertson, Anne E; Poynter, David J; Denniston, Shelby S; Karls, Anna C

    2005-05-01

    Piv, a unique prokaryotic site-specific DNA invertase, is related to transposases of the insertion elements from the IS110/IS492 family and shows no similarity to the site-specific recombinases of the tyrosine- or serine-recombinase families. Piv tertiary structure is predicted to include the RNase H-like fold that typically encompasses the catalytic site of the recombinases or nucleases of the retroviral integrase superfamily, including transposases and RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvases. Analogous to the DDE and DEDD catalytic motifs of transposases and RuvC, respectively, four Piv acidic residues D9, E59, D101, and D104 appear to be positioned appropriately within the RNase H fold to coordinate two divalent metal cations. This suggests mechanistic similarity between site-specific inversion mediated by Piv and transposition or endonucleolytic reactions catalyzed by enzymes of the retroviral integrase superfamily. The role of the DEDD motif in Piv catalytic activity was addressed using Piv variants that are substituted individually or multiply at these acidic residues and assaying for in vivo inversion, intermolecular recombination, and DNA binding activities. The results indicate that all four residues of the DEDD motif are required for Piv catalytic activity. The DEDD residues are not essential for inv recombination site recognition and binding, but this acidic tetrad does appear to contribute to the stability of Piv-inv interactions. On the basis of these results, a working model for Piv-mediated inversion that includes resolution of a Holliday junction is presented.

  16. HbNIN2, a cytosolic alkaline/neutral-invertase, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujin; Lan, Jixian; Zhou, Binhui; Qin, Yunxia; Zhou, Yihua; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Jianghua; Gou, Jiqing; Qi, Jiyan; Huang, Yacheng; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-04-01

    In Hevea brasiliensis, an alkaline/neutral invertase (A/N-Inv) is responsible for sucrose catabolism in latex (essentially the cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers, the source of natural rubber) and implicated in rubber yield. However, neither the gene encoding this enzyme nor its molecular and biochemical properties have been well documented. Three Hevea A/N-Inv genes, namely HbNIN1, 2 and 3, were first cloned and characterized in planta and in Escherichia coli. Cellular localizations of HbNIN2 mRNA and protein were probed. From latex, active A/N-Inv proteins were purified, identified, and explored for enzymatic properties. HbNIN2 was identified as the major A/N-Inv gene functioning in latex based on its functionality in E. coli, its latex-predominant expression, the conspicuous localization of its mRNA and protein in the laticifers, and its expressional correlation with rubber yield. An active A/N-Inv protein was partially purified from latex, and determined as HbNIN2. The enhancement of HbNIN2 enzymatic activity by pyridoxal is peculiar to A/N-Invs in other plants. We conclude that HbNIN2, a cytosolic A/N-Inv, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber laticifers. The results contribute to the studies of sucrose catabolism in plants as a whole and natural rubber synthesis in particular.

  17. Regulation of cell wall-bound invertase in pepper leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria type three effectors.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P R; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ΔxopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ΔxopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar

  18. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  19. Oleic acid attenuates trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated inflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10,cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a δ-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 days, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis.

  20. Effect of repeated applications of buprofezin and acephate on soil cellulases, amylase, and invertase.

    PubMed

    Raju, M Naga; Venkateswarlu, K

    2014-10-01

    The impact of repeated applications of buprofezin and acephate, at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 kg ha(-1), on activities of cellulases, amylase, and invertase in unamended and nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) fertilizer-amended soil planted with cotton was studied. The nontarget effect of selected insecticides, when applied once, twice, or thrice on soil enzyme activities, was dose-dependent; the activities decreased with increasing concentrations of insecticides. However, there was a rapid decline in activities of enzymes after three repeated applications of insecticides in unamended or NPK-amended soil. Our data clearly suggest that insecticides must be applied judiciously in pest management in order to protect the enzymes largely implicated in soil fertility.

  1. IMP2, a gene involved in the expression of glucose-repressible genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lodi, T; Goffrini, P; Ferrero, I; Donnini, C

    1995-09-01

    Two mutants carrying different deletions of the IMP2 coding sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, delta T1, which encodes a protein lacking the last 26 C-terminal amino acids, and delta T2, which completely lacks the coding region, were analysed for derepression of glucose-repressible maltose, galactose, raffinose and ethanol utilization pathways in response to glucose limitation. The role of the IMP2 gene product in the regulation of carbon catabolite repressible enzymes maltase, invertase, alcohol dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) and L-lactate:ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase (L-LCR) was also analysed. The IMP2 gene product is required for the rapid glucose derepression of all above-mentioned carbon source utilization pathways and of all the enzymes except for L-LCR. NAD-GDH is regulated by IMP2 in the opposite way and, in fact, this enzyme was released at higher levels in both imp2 mutants than in the wild-type strain. Therefore, the product of IMP2 appears to be involved in positive and negative regulation. Both deletions result in growth and catalytic defects; in some cases partial modification of the gene product yielded more dramatic effects than its complete absence. Moreover, evidence is provided that the IMP2 gene product regulates galactose- and maltose-inducible genes at the transcriptional level and is a positive regulator of maltase, maltose permease and galactose permease gene expression.

  2. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHOLORACETC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid COCA) is a major by-product ofwater disinfection by cWorination. Several
    studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinkmg wate...

  3. recA gene product is responsible for inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis after ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Trgovcević, Z; Petranović, D; Petranović, M; Salaj-Smic, E

    1980-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis after ultraviolet irradiation was studied in wild-type, uvrA, recB, recA recB, and recA Escherichia coli strains. Inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, which occurs almost immediately after exposing the cells to ultraviolet radiation, depends on the functional gene recA. PMID:6997276

  4. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory


    MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...

  5. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinking wate...

  6. Regulation of the expression of key genes involved in HDL metabolism by unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects, and possible mechanisms of action, of unsaturated fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in HDL metabolism in HepG2 cells. The mRNA concentration of target genes was assessed by real time PCR. Protein concentrations were determined by wes...

  7. Prediction of Bacillus weihenstephanensis acid resistance: the use of gene expression patterns to select potential biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Desriac, N; Postollec, F; Coroller, L; Sohier, D; Abee, T; den Besten, H M W

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to mild stress conditions can activate stress adaptation mechanisms and provide cross-resistance towards otherwise lethal stresses. In this study, an approach was followed to select molecular biomarkers (quantitative gene expressions) to predict induced acid resistance after exposure to various mild stresses, i.e. exposure to sublethal concentrations of salt, acid and hydrogen peroxide during 5 min to 60 min. Gene expression patterns of unstressed and mildly stressed cells of Bacillus weihenstephanensis were correlated to their acid resistance (3D value) which was estimated after exposure to lethal acid conditions. Among the twenty-nine candidate biomarkers, 12 genes showed expression patterns that were correlated either linearly or non-linearly to acid resistance, while for the 17 other genes the correlation remains to be determined. The selected genes represented two types of biomarkers, (i) four direct biomarker genes (lexA, spxA, narL, bkdR) for which expression patterns upon mild stress treatment were linearly correlated to induced acid resistance; and (ii) nine long-acting biomarker genes (spxA, BcerKBAB4_0325, katA, trxB, codY, lacI, BcerKBAB4_1716, BcerKBAB4_2108, relA) which were transiently up-regulated during mild stress exposure and correlated to increased acid resistance over time. Our results highlight that mild stress induced transcripts can be linearly or non-linearly correlated to induced acid resistance and both approaches can be used to find relevant biomarkers. This quantitative and systematic approach opens avenues to select cellular biomarkers that could be incremented in mathematical models to predict microbial behaviour.

  8. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  9. Properties of bacteriophage T4 mutants defective in gene 30 (deoxyribonucleic acid ligase) and the rII gene.

    PubMed

    Karam, J D; Barker, B

    1971-02-01

    In Escherichia coli K-12 strains infected with phage T4 which is defective in gene 30 [deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ligase] and in the rII gene (product unknown), near normal levels of DNA and viable phage were produced. Growth of such T4 ligase-rII double mutants was less efficient in E. coli B strains which show the "rapidlysis" phenotype of rII mutations. In pulse-chase experiments coupled with temperature shifts and with inhibition of DNA synthesis, it was observed that DNA synthesized by gene 30-defective phage is more susceptible to breakdown in vivo when the phage is carrying a wild-type rII gene. Breakdown was delayed or inhibited by continued DNA synthesis. Mutations of the rII gene decreased but did not completely abolish the breakdown. T4 ligase-rII double mutants had normal sensitivity to ultraviolet irradiation.

  10. Minimal Streptomyces sp. strain C5 daunorubicin polyketide biosynthesis genes required for aklanonic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rajgarhia, V B; Strohl, W R

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the Streptomyces sp. strain C5 daunorubicin type II polyketide synthase (PKS) gene region is different from that of other known type II PKS gene clusters. Directly downstream of the genes encoding ketoacylsynthase alpha and beta (KS alpha, KS beta) are two genes (dpsC, dpsD) encoding proteins of unproven function, both absent from other type II PKS gene clusters. Also in contrast to other type II PKS clusters, the gene encoding the acyl carrier protein (ACP), dpsG, is located about 6.8 kbp upstream of the genes encoding the daunorubicin KS alpha and KS beta. In this work, we demonstrate that the minimal genes required to produce aklanonic acid in heterologous hosts are dpsG (ACP), dauI (regulatory activator), dpsA (KS alpha), dpsB (KS beta), dpsF (aromatase), dpsE (polyketide reductase), and dauG (putative deoxyaklanonic acid oxygenase). The two unusual open reading frames, dpsC (KASIII homolog lacking a known active site) and dpsD (acyltransferase homolog), are not required to synthesize aklanonic acid. Additionally, replacement of dpsD or dpsCD in Streptomyces sp. strain C5 with a neomycin resistance gene (aphI) results in mutant strains that still produced anthracyclines. PMID:9098068

  11. Investigation of yeast invertase immobilization onto cupric ion-chelated, porous, and biocompatible poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-n-vinyl imidazole) microspheres.

    PubMed

    Sari, Müfrettin Murat

    2011-04-01

    Cupric ion-chelated poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-n-vinyl imidazole) (poly(HEMA-VIM)) microspheres prepared by suspension polymerization were investigated as a specific adsorbent for immobilization of yeast invertase in a batch system. They were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, surface area, and pore size measurements. They have spherical shape and porous structure. The specific surface area of the p(HEMA-VIM) spheres was found to be 81.2 m²/g with a size range of 70-120 μm in diameter, and the swelling ratio was 86.9%. Then, Cu(II) ion chelated on the microspheres (546 μmol Cu(II)/g), and they were used in the invertase adsorption. Maximum invertase adsorption was 51.2 mg/g at pH 4.5. Cu(II) chelation increases the tendency from Freundlich-type to Langmuir-type adsorption model. The optimum activity for both free and adsorbed invertase was observed at pH 4.5. The optimum temperature for the poly(HEMA-VIM)/Cu(II)-invertase system was found to be at 55 °C, 10 °C higher than that of the free enzyme at 45 °C. V(max) values were determined as 342 and 304 U/mg enzyme, for free and adsorbed invertase, respectively. K(m) values were found to be same for free and adsorbed invertase (20 mM). Thermal and pH stability and reusability of invertase increased with immobilization.

  12. Sugar homeostasis mediated by cell wall invertase GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 1 (GIF1) plays a role in pre-existing and induced defence in rice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Yang, Dong-lei; Kong, Yu; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiao-Zun; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Wang, Er-Tao; He, Zu-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Sugar metabolism and sugar signalling are not only critical for plant growth and development, but are also important for stress responses. However, how sugar homeostasis is involved in plant defence against pathogen attack in the model crop rice remains largely unknown. In this study, we observed that the grains of gif1, a loss-of-function mutant of the cell wall invertase gene GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 1 (GIF1), were hypersusceptible to postharvest fungal pathogens, with decreased levels of sugars and a thinner glume cell wall in comparison with the wild-type. Interestingly, constitutive expression of GIF1 enhanced resistance to both the rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The GIF1-overexpressing (GIF1-OE) plants accumulated higher levels of glucose, fructose and sucrose compared with the wild-type plants. More importantly, higher levels of callose were deposited in GIF1-OE plants during pathogen infection. Moreover, the cell wall was much thicker in the infection sites of the GIF1-OE plants when compared with the wild-type plants. We also found that defence-related genes were constitutively activated in the GIF1-OE plants. Taken together, our study reveals that sugar homeostasis mediated by GIF1 plays an important role in constitutive and induced physical and chemical defence.

  13. Gene Expression Analysis of Alfalfa Seedlings Response to Acid-Aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Aimin; Wang, Shengyin; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Acid-Aluminum (Al) is toxic to plants and greatly affects crop production worldwide. To understand the responses of plants to acid soils and Aluminum toxicity, we examined global gene expression using microarray data in alfalfa seedlings with the treatment of acid-Aluminum. 3,926 genes that were identified significantly up- or downregulated in response to Al3+ ions with pH 4.5 treatment, 66.33% of which were found in roots. Their functional categories were mainly involved with phytohormone regulation, reactive oxygen species, and transporters. Both gene ontology (GO) enrichment and KEGG analysis indicated that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and flavonoid biosynthesis played a critical role on defense to Aluminum stress in alfalfa. In addition, we found that transcription factors such as the MYB and WRKY family proteins may be also involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species reactions and flavonoid biosynthesis. Thus, the finding of global gene expression profile provided insights into the mechanisms of plant defense to acid-Al stress in alfalfa. Understanding the key regulatory genes and pathways would be advantageous for improving crop production not only in alfalfa but also in other crops under acid-Aluminum stress. PMID:28074175

  14. Folic acid rivals methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene-silencing effect on MEPM cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen-Lin; Wu, Min; Shi, Bing

    2006-11-01

    It's clear that environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of orofacial clefting (OFC) and an important area of future research will be to unravel interactions that occur between candidate genes and environmental factors during early development of the embryo. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation may reduce the risk of OFC. Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene reduce availability of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, the predominant circulating form of folic acid. To determine the effect of MTHFR gene mutation on murine embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM) cells and the interaction with folic acid supplement, we used RNAi study in the primary cultures of MEPM cells. The cells of MTHFR gene silencing grew slower and the apoptosis cell number was more than the cells of control. Supplement with 20 microg/ml folic acid was the best to preventing teratogenic effect of MTHFR gene silencing. By flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle, results were shown that the MEPM cells were retarded in G(0)/G(1) after MTHFR gene silencing. While using 20 microg/ml folic acid supplements could make cell transit the G(1)/S restriction point and the cells growth was close to normal level.

  15. Gene expression levels are correlated with synonymous codon usage, amino acid composition, and gene architecture in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Williford, Anna; Demuth, Jeffery P

    2012-12-01

    Gene expression levels correlate with multiple aspects of gene sequence and gene structure in phylogenetically diverse taxa, suggesting an important role of gene expression levels in the evolution of protein-coding genes. Here we present results of a genome-wide study of the influence of gene expression on synonymous codon usage, amino acid composition, and gene structure in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Consistent with the action of translational selection, we find that synonymous codon usage bias increases with gene expression. However, the correspondence between tRNA gene copy number and optimal codons is weak. At the amino acid level, translational selection is suggested by the positive correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid usage, which is stronger for highly expressed genes. In addition, there is a clear trend for increased use of metabolically cheaper, less complex amino acids as gene expression increases. tRNA gene numbers also correlate negatively with amino acid size/complexity (S/C) score indicating the coupling between translational selection and selection to minimize the use of large/complex amino acids. Interestingly, the analysis of 10 additional genomes suggests that the correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid S/C score is widespread and might be explained by selection against negative consequences of protein misfolding. At the level of gene structure, three major trends are detected: 1) complete coding region length increases across low and intermediate expression levels but decreases in highly expressed genes; 2) the average intron size shows the opposite trend, first decreasing with expression, followed by a slight increase in highly expressed genes; and 3) intron density remains nearly constant across all expression levels. These changes in gene architecture are only in partial agreement with selection favoring reduced cost of biosynthesis.

  16. Regulatory Genes Controlling Fatty Acid Catabolism and Peroxisomal Functions in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans†

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Duncan, Anna; Khew, Gillian S.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2006-01-01

    The catabolism of fatty acids is important in the lifestyle of many fungi, including plant and animal pathogens. This has been investigated in Aspergillus nidulans, which can grow on acetate and fatty acids as sources of carbon, resulting in the production of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized via the glyoxalate bypass, located in peroxisomes, enabling gluconeogenesis. Acetate induction of enzymes specific for acetate utilization as well as glyoxalate bypass enzymes is via the Zn2-Cys6 binuclear cluster activator FacB. However, enzymes of the glyoxalate bypass as well as fatty acid beta-oxidation and peroxisomal proteins are also inducible by fatty acids. We have isolated mutants that cannot grow on fatty acids. Two of the corresponding genes, farA and farB, encode two highly conserved families of related Zn2-Cys6 binuclear proteins present in filamentous ascomycetes, including plant pathogens. A single ortholog is found in the yeasts Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica, but not in the Ashbya, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces lineage. Northern blot analysis has shown that deletion of the farA gene eliminates induction of a number of genes by both short- and long-chain fatty acids, while deletion of the farB gene eliminates short-chain induction. An identical core 6-bp in vitro binding site for each protein has been identified in genes encoding glyoxalate bypass, beta-oxidation, and peroxisomal functions. This sequence is overrepresented in the 5′ region of genes predicted to be fatty acid induced in other filamentous ascomycetes, C. albicans, D. hansenii, and Y. lipolytica, but not in the corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:16682457

  17. Developing cold-chipping potato varieties by silencing the vacuolar invertase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage is a persistent and costly problem for the potato processing industry. High temperature processing of potato tubers with elevated amounts of reducing sugars results in potato chips, fries and other products that are unacceptable to consumers becaus...

  18. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers at cold temperatures prevents sprouting and minimizes losses due to disease. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening (CIS). High-temperature processing of potato tubers wit...

  19. Linoleic acid isomerase gene FgLAI12 affects sensitivity to salicylic acid, mycelial growth and virulence of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Wei, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Cai-Hong; Chen, Qing; Xu, Bin-Jie; Guo, Zhen-Ru; Cao, Yong-Li; Wang, Yan; Han, Ya-Nan; Chen, Chen; Feng, Xiang; Qiao, Yuan-Yuan; Zong, Lu-Juan; Zheng, Ting; Deng, Mei; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Li, Wei; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming; Qi, Peng-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of fusarium head blight in wheat, a serious disease worldwide. Linoleic acid isomerase (LAI) catalyses the transformation of linoleic acid (LA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is beneficial for human health. We characterised a cis-12 LAI gene of F. graminearum (FGSG_02668; FgLAI12), which was downregulated by salicylic acid (SA), a plant defence hormone. Disruption of FgLAI12 in F. graminearum resulted in decreased accumulation of cis-9,trans-11 CLA, enhanced sensitivity to SA, and increased accumulation of LA and SA in wheat spikes during infection. In addition, mycelial growth, accumulation of deoxynivalenol, and pathogenicity in wheat spikes were reduced. Re-introduction of a functional FgLAI12 gene into ΔFgLAI12 recovered the wild-type phenotype. Fluorescent microscopic analysis showed that FgLAI12 protein was usually expressed in the septa zone of conidia and the vacuole of hyphae, but was expressed in the cell membrane of hyphae in response to exogenous LA, which may be an element of LA metabolism during infection by F. graminearum. The cis-12 LAI enzyme encoded by FgLAI12 is critical for fungal response to SA, mycelial growth and virulence in wheat. The gene FgLAI12 is potentially valuable for biotechnological synthesis of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. PMID:28387243

  20. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, André; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

    2013-05-07

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

  1. ALTERED GENE EXPRESSION IN MOUSE LIVERS AFTER DICHLOROACETIC ACID EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated that DCA exhibits hepatocarcinogenic effects in rodents when administered in drinking water. The mechanism(s) involved in DCA induction of cancer are not clear...

  2. Metarhizium robertsii Produces an Extracellular Invertase (MrINV) That Plays a Pivotal Role in Rhizospheric Interactions and Root Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xinggang; Fang, Weiguo; Lin, Liangcai; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Leger, Raymond J. St.

    2013-01-01

    As well as killing pest insects, the rhizosphere competent insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii also boosts plant growth by providing nitrogenous nutrients and increasing resistance to plant pathogens. Plant roots secrete abundant nutrients but little is known about their utilization by Metarhizium spp. and the mechanistic basis of Metarhizium-plant associations. We report here that M. robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrInv) on plant roots. Deletion of MrInv (⊿MrInv) reduced M. robertsii growth on sucrose and rhizospheric exudates but increased colonization of Panicum virgatum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. This could be accounted for by a reduction in carbon catabolite repression in ⊿MrInv increasing production of plant cell wall-degrading depolymerases. A non-rhizosphere competent scarab beetle specialist Metarhizium majus lacks invertase which suggests that rhizospheric competence may be related to the sugar metabolism of different Metarhizium species. PMID:24205119

  3. Metarhizium robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrINV) that plays a pivotal role in rhizospheric interactions and root colonization.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xinggang; Fang, Weiguo; Lin, Liangcai; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; St Leger, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    As well as killing pest insects, the rhizosphere competent insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii also boosts plant growth by providing nitrogenous nutrients and increasing resistance to plant pathogens. Plant roots secrete abundant nutrients but little is known about their utilization by Metarhizium spp. and the mechanistic basis of Metarhizium-plant associations. We report here that M. robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrInv) on plant roots. Deletion of MrInv (ΔMrInv) reduced M. robertsii growth on sucrose and rhizospheric exudates but increased colonization of Panicum virgatum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. This could be accounted for by a reduction in carbon catabolite repression in ΔMrInv increasing production of plant cell wall-degrading depolymerases. A non-rhizosphere competent scarab beetle specialist Metarhizium majus lacks invertase which suggests that rhizospheric competence may be related to the sugar metabolism of different Metarhizium species.

  4. Impact of supramolecular interactions of dextran-β-cyclodextrin polymers on invertase activity in freeze-dried systems.

    PubMed

    Santagapita, Patricio R; Mazzobre, M Florencia; Buera, M Pilar; Ramirez, Héctor L; Brizuela, Leissy Gómez; Corti, Horacio R; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD)-grafted dextrans with spacer arms of different length were employed to evaluate the impact of supramolecular interactions on invertase activity. The modified dextrans were used as single additives or combined with trehalose in freeze-dried formulations containing invertase. Enzyme activity conservation was analyzed after freeze-drying and thermal treatment. The change of glass transition temperature (Tg ) was also evaluated and related to effective interactions. Outstanding differences on enzyme stability were mainly related to the effect of the spacer arm length on polymer-enzyme interactions, since both the degree of substitution and the molecular weight were similar for the two polymers. This change of effective interactions was also manifested in the pronounced reduction of Tg values, and were related to the chemical modification of the backbone during oxidation, and to the attachment of the β-CD units with spacer arms of different length on dextran.

  5. Interfering ribonucleic acids that suppress expression of multiple unrelated genes

    PubMed Central

    Passioura, Toby; Gozar, Mary M; Goodchild, Amber; King, Andrew; Arndt, Greg M; Poidinger, Michael; Birkett, Donald J; Rivory, Laurent P

    2009-01-01

    Background Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have become the research tool of choice for gene suppression, with human clinical trials ongoing. The emphasis so far in siRNA therapeutics has been the design of one siRNA with complete complementarity to the intended target. However, there is a need for multi-targeting interfering RNA in diseases in which multiple gene products are of importance. We have investigated the possibility of using a single short synthetic duplex RNA to suppress the expression of VEGF-A and ICAM-1; genes implicated in the progression of ocular neovascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. Results Duplex RNA were designed to have incomplete complementarity with the 3'UTR sequences of both target genes. One such duplex, CODEMIR-1, was found to suppress VEGF and ICAM-1 by 90 and 60%, respectively in ARPE-19 cells at a transfected concentration of 40 ng/mL. Use of a cyan fusion reporter with target sites constructed in its 3'UTR demonstrated that the repression of VEGF and ICAM-1 by CODEMIR-1 was indeed due to interaction with the target sequence. An exhaustive analysis of sequence variants of CODEMIR-1 demonstrated a clear positive correlation between activity against VEGF (but not ICAM-1) and the length of the contiguous complementary region (from the 5' end of the guide strand). Various strategies, including the use of inosine bases at the sites of divergence of the target sequences were investigated. Conclusion Our work demonstrates the possibility of designing multitargeting dsRNA to suppress more than one disease-altering gene. This warrants further investigation as a possible therapeutic approach. PMID:19531249

  6. Utilization of lactic acid bacterial genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in the production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Ancy; Aikawa, Shimpei; Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Matsuda, Fumio; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic pathway engineering of cyanobacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals from atmospheric CO2 has generated interest recently. Here, we engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to produce lactic acid using a lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene from various lactic acid-producing bacteria, Lactococcus lactis (ldhB and ldhX), Lactobacillus plantarum (ldhL and ldh), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ldhL). The lactic acid was secreted outside the cell using a transporter (lldp) gene from L. plantarum. Expression of each ldh in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 was ascertained by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Five transformants led to the production of L-lactic acid. Co-expression of lldp with ldhB from L. plantarum or ldhL from L. rhamnosus led to the secretion of lactic acid into the medium at concentration of 0.17 ± 0.02 or 0.14 ± 0.02 mM after 18 d of cultivation.

  7. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Bastress, Kristen L.; Ruegger, Max O.; Denault, Jeff W.; Chapple, Clint

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall–esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

  8. Tissue Specific Expression Levels of Apoptosis Involved Genes Have Correlations with Codon and Amino Acid Usage

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Iman; Salavaty, Abbas; Nasiri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Different mechanisms, including transcriptional and post transcriptional processes, regulate tissue specific expression of genes. In this study, we report differences in gene/protein compositional features between apoptosis involved genes selectively expressed in human tissues. We found some correlations between codon/amino acid usage and tissue specific expression level of genes. The findings can be significant for understanding the translational selection on these features. The selection may play an important role in the differentiation of human tissues and can be considered for future studies in diagnosis of some diseases such as cancer. PMID:28154517

  9. Light modulated activity of root alkaline/neutral invertase involves the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; van Kleeff, Paula J M; Oecking, Claudia; Li, Ka Wan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; de Boer, Albertus H

    2014-12-01

    Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Invs) are now recognized as essential proteins in plant life. They catalyze the irreversible breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose and thus supply the cells with energy as well as signaling molecules. In this study we report on a mechanism that affects the activity of the cytosolic invertase AtCINV1 (At-A/N-InvG or AT1G35580). We demonstrate that Ser547 at the extreme C-terminus of the AtCINV1 protein is a substrate of calcium-dependent kinases (CPK3 and 21) and that phosphorylation creates a high-affinity binding site for 14-3-3 proteins. The invertase as such has basal activity, but we provide evidence that interaction with 14-3-3 proteins enhances its activity. The analysis of three quadruple 14-3-3 mutants generated from six T-DNA insertion mutants of the non-epsilon family shows both specificity as well as redundancy for this function of 14-3-3 proteins. The strong reduction in hexose levels in the roots of one 14-3-3 quadruple mutant plant is in line with the activating function of 14-3-3 proteins. The physiological relevance of this mechanism that affects A/N-invertase activity is underscored by the light-induced activation and is another example of the central role of 14-3-3 proteins in mediating dark/light signaling. The nature of the light-induced signal that travels from the shoot to root and the question whether this signal is transmitted via cytosolic Ca(++) changes that activate calcium-dependent kinases, await further study.

  10. [Soil Microbial Respiration Under Different Soil Temperature Conditions and Its Relationship to Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon and Invertase].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Shu-tao; Hu, Zheng-hua; Zhang, Xu

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the soil microbial respiration under different temperature conditions and its relationship to soil dissolved organic carbon ( DOC) and invertase, an indoor incubation experiment was performed. The soil samples used for the experiment were taken from Laoshan, Zijinshan, and Baohuashan. The responses of soil microbial respiration to the increasing temperature were studied. The soil DOC content and invertase activity were also measured at the end of incubation. Results showed that relationships between cumulative microbial respiration of different soils and soil temperature could be explained by exponential functions, which had P values lower than 0.001. The coefficient of temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) varied from 1.762 to 1.895. The Q10 value of cumulative microbial respiration decreased with the increase of soil temperature for all soils. The Q10 value of microbial respiration on 27 days after incubation was close to that of 1 day after incubation, indicating that the temperature sensitivity of recalcitrant organic carbon may be similar to that of labile organic carbon. For all soils, a highly significant ( P = 0.003 ) linear relationship between cumulative soil microbial respiration and soil DOC content could be observed. Soil DOC content could explain 31.6% variances of cumulative soil microbial respiration. For the individual soil and all soils, the relationship between cumulative soil microbial respiration and invertase activity could be explained by a highly significant (P < 0.01) linear regression function, which suggested that invertase was a good indicator of the magnitude of soil microbial respiration.

  11. Multiplexed analysis of genes using nucleic acid-stabilized silver-nanocluster quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Enkin, Natalie; Wang, Fuan; Sharon, Etery; Albada, H Bauke; Willner, Itamar

    2014-11-25

    Luminescent nucleic acid-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) are applied for the optical detection of DNA and for the multiplexed analysis of genes. Two different sensing modules including Ag NCs as luminescence labels are described. One sensing module involves the assembly of a three-component sensing module composed of a nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NC and a quencher-modified nucleic acid hybridized with a nucleic acid scaffold that is complementary to the target DNA. The luminescence of the Ag NCs is quenched in the sensing module nanostructure. The strand displacement of the scaffold by the target DNA separates the nucleic acid-functionalized Ag NCs, leading to the turned-on luminescence of the NCs and to the optical readout of the sensing process. By implementing two different-sized Ag NC-modified sensing modules, the parallel multiplexed analysis of two genes (the Werner Syndrome gene and the HIV, human immunodeficiency, gene), using 615 and 560 nm luminescent Ag NCs, is demonstrated. The second sensing module includes the nucleic acid functionalized Ag NCs and the quencher-modified nucleic acid hybridized with a hairpin DNA scaffold. The luminescence of the Ag NCs is quenched in the sensing module. Opening of the hairpin by the target DNA triggers the luminescence of the Ag NCs, due to the spatial separation of the Ag NCs/quencher units. The system is applied for the optical detection of the BRAC1 gene. In addition, by implementing two-sized Ag NCs, the multiplexed analysis of two genes by the hairpin sensing module approach is demonstrated.

  12. The expansion of amino-acid repeats is not associated to adaptive evolution in mammalian genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The expansion of amino acid repeats is determined by a high mutation rate and can be increased or limited by selection. It has been suggested that recent expansions could be associated with the potential of adaptation to new environments. In this work, we quantify the strength of this association, as well as the contribution of potential confounding factors. Results Mammalian positively selected genes have accumulated more recent amino acid repeats than other mammalian genes. However, we found little support for an accelerated evolutionary rate as the main driver for the expansion of amino acid repeats. The most significant predictors of amino acid repeats are gene function and GC content. There is no correlation with expression level. Conclusions Our analyses show that amino acid repeat expansions are causally independent from protein adaptive evolution in mammalian genomes. Relaxed purifying selection or positive selection do not associate with more or more recent amino acid repeats. Their occurrence is slightly favoured by the sequence context but mainly determined by the molecular function of the gene. PMID:20021652

  13. Analysis of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway using mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A

    2002-01-01

    Amino acid metabolism is a fundamental process for plant growth and development. Although a considerable amount of information is available, little is known about the genetic control of enzymatic steps or regulation of several pathways. Much of the information about biochemical pathways has arisen from the use of mutants lacking key enzymes. Although mutants were largely used already in the 60's, by bacterial and fungal geneticists, it took plant research a long time to catch up. The advance in this area was rapid in the 80's, which was followed in the 90's by the development of techniques of plant transformation. In this review we present an overview of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway, the key regulatory enzymes and the mutants and transgenic plants produced for lysine and threonine metabolism. We also discuss and propose a new study of high-lysine mutants.

  14. StInvInh2 as an inhibitor of StvacINV1 regulates the cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers by specifically capping vacuolar invertase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Song, Botao; Ou, Yongbin; Zhang, Huiling; Li, Meng; Xie, Conghua

    2013-06-01

    Reducing sugar (RS) accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers, known as cold-induced sweetening (CIS), is a crucial factor causing unacceptable colour changes and acrylamide formation of fried products. The activity of vacuolar invertase (StvacINV1) is proved important for the CIS process, and invertase inhibitors are speculated to play roles in the post-translational regulation of StvacINV1 activity. In our previous research, two putative inhibitors (StInvInh2A and StInvInh2B) of StvacINV1 were implied to be involved in potato CIS. Here, we further reported that StInvInh2A and StInvInh2B had similar function that specifically inhibited StvacINV1 activity in potatoes. The genetic transformation of these inhibitor genes in potatoes by overexpression in CIS-sensitive and RNAi-silenced in CIS-resistant genotypes showed that StvacINV1 activity was strongly regulated by alteration of the transcripts of the inhibitors without impacting on the expression of StvacINV1. A negative power relationship was found between the transcripts of the inhibitors and StvacINV1 activity, suggesting 1) a transcriptional determination of the inhibitory capacity of StInvInh2A and StInvInh2B and 2) a significant inhibitory role of these inhibitors in post-translational modulation of StvacINV1. The results also demonstrated that depression of StvacINV1 activity through overexpression of StInvInh2A and StInvInh2B weakened accumulation of RS and acrylamide in cold-stored tubers and consequently improved the chip quality. The present research strongly suggest that both StInvInh2A and StInvInh2B function as inhibitors of StvacINV1 and play similar roles in regulating potato CIS by capping StvacINV1 activity. These inhibitors could be novel genetic resources applicable for improving quality of potato processing products.

  15. In-depth glycoproteomic characterisation of grape berry vacuolar invertase using a combination of mass spectrometry-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Hovasse, Agnès; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Marchal, Richard; Jégou, Sandrine; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sugar metabolism in grape berries. A full characterisation of this highly N-glycosylated protein is required to help understand its biological and biochemical significance in grapes. We have developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomic approach wherein deglycosylated peptides are analysed by LC-MS/MS, while intact glycopeptides are characterised using a dedicated MS method to determine the attachment sites and micro-heterogeneity. For grape invertase, in parallel with deglycosylated peptides analysis, different enzymatic digestions were performed and glycopeptide detection was improved by enrichment method, nanoLC-MS and oxonium glycan ions. This MS-based glycoproteomic approach demonstrates that vacuolar invertase is glycosylated at all twelve potential N-glycosylation sites. Glycosylation is heterogeneous, with twelve glycoforms identified at six of the sites. The identification of several types of N-glycans is a major result to correlate with the surface and foaming properties of wine, the solubility, allergenicity, and protease resistance of wine proteins.

  16. Improvement stability and performance of invertase via immobilization on to silanized and polymer brush grafted magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Doz, Tugce; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup

    2017-04-15

    In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were modified sequentially with silica (Fe3O4@SiO2), glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and hexamethylene diamine (as a spacer arm). The p(GMA) grafted and SA modified form (i.e., Fe3O4@SiO2@pGMA-SA-3) was used for covalent immobilization of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26). The amount of immobilized enzyme on Fe3O4@SiO2@p(GMA) and Fe3O4@SiO2@p(GMA)-SA-3 was 36.1±0.9 and 33.4±1.3mg/g, respectively. The Km and Vmax values of immobilized invertase were found to be 39.4mmol/L and 349.5mmol/L min, and not significantly changed compared with free form (34.3mmol/L and 387.2mmol/Lmin), respectively, revealed that the applied protocol did not have any detrimental effect on the retained activity of immobilized invertase.

  17. Foreign gene recruitment to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Baglivi, Francesca L; Jenkins, Christina E; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2013-09-01

    Diatoms are highly successful marine and freshwater algae that contribute up to 20% of global carbon fixation. These species are leading candidates for biofuel production owing to ease of culturing and high fatty acid content. To assist in strain improvement and downstream applications for potential use as a biofuel, it is important to understand the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms. The evolutionary history of diatoms is however complicated by likely multiple endosymbioses involving the capture of foreign cells and horizontal gene transfer into the host genome. Using a phylogenomic approach, we assessed the evolutionary history of 12 diatom genes putatively encoding functions related to lipid biosynthesis. We found evidence of gene transfer likely from a green algal source for seven of these genes, with the remaining showing either vertical inheritance or evolutionary histories too complicated to interpret given current genome data. The functions of horizontally transferred genes encompass all aspects of lipid biosynthesis (initiation, biosynthesis, and desaturation of fatty acids) as well as fatty acid elongation, and are not restricted to plastid-targeted proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the transfer, duplication, and subfunctionalization of genes were key steps in the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms and other photosynthetic eukaryotes. This target pathway for biofuel research is highly chimeric and surprisingly, our results suggest that research done on related genes in green algae may have application to diatom models.

  18. Mutations of the Corynebacterium glutamicum NCgl1221 gene, encoding a mechanosensitive channel homolog, induce L-glutamic acid production.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Jun; Hirano, Seiko; Ito, Hisao; Wachi, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotroph that secretes L-glutamic acid in response to biotin limitation; this process is employed in industrial L-glutamic acid production. Fatty acid ester surfactants and penicillin also induce L-glutamic acid secretion, even in the presence of biotin. However, the mechanism of L-glutamic acid secretion remains unclear. It was recently reported that disruption of odhA, encoding a subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, resulted in L-glutamic acid secretion without induction. In this study, we analyzed odhA disruptants and found that those which exhibited constitutive L-glutamic acid secretion carried additional mutations in the NCgl1221 gene, which encodes a mechanosensitive channel homolog. These NCgl1221 gene mutations lead to constitutive L-glutamic acid secretion even in the absence of odhA disruption and also render cells resistant to an L-glutamic acid analog, 4-fluoroglutamic acid. Disruption of the NCgl1221 gene essentially abolishes L-glutamic acid secretion, causing an increase in the intracellular L-glutamic acid pool under biotin-limiting conditions, while amplification of the wild-type NCgl1221 gene increased L-glutamate secretion, although only in response to induction. These results suggest that the NCgl1221 gene encodes an L-glutamic acid exporter. We propose that treatments that induce L-glutamic acid secretion alter membrane tension and trigger a structural transformation of the NCgl1221 protein, enabling it to export L-glutamic acid.

  19. Acidic duodenal pH alters gene expression in the cystic fibrosis mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simran; Norkina, Oxana; Ziemer, Donna; Samuelson, Linda C; De Lisle, Robert C

    2004-08-01

    The duodenum is abnormally acidic in cystic fibrosis (CF) due to decreased bicarbonate ion secretion that is dependent on the CF gene product CFTR. In the CFTR null mouse, the acidic duodenum results in increased signaling from the intestine to the exocrine pancreas in an attempt to stimulate pancreatic bicarbonate ion secretion. Excess stimulation is proposed to add to the stress/inflammation of the pancreas in CF. DNA microarray analysis of the CF mouse revealed altered pancreatic gene expression characteristic of stress/inflammation. When the duodenal pH was corrected genetically (crossing CFTR null with gastrin null mice) or pharmacologically (use of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole), expression levels of genes measured by quantitative RT-PCR were significantly normalized. It is concluded that the acidic duodenal pH in CF contributes to the stress on the exocrine pancreas and that normalizing duodenal pH reduces this stress.

  20. Dynamic changes in prefrontal cortex gene expression following lysergic acid diethylamide administration.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Garcia, Efrain E; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2003-03-17

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a psychoactive drug that transiently alters human perception, behavior, and mood at extremely low doses. Certain aspects of the behavior elicited by acute doses of LSD closely resemble symptoms of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Characterizing gene expression profiles after LSD will be important for understanding how it alters behavior, and will lead to novel insights into disorders, such as schizophrenia, whose behavioral symptoms resemble the temporary effects of hallucinogenic drugs. We previously identified a small collection of genes within the rat prefrontal cortex that respond to LSD. Many of the products of these genes are involved in the process of synaptic plasticity. In the current report, we present a detailed analysis of the expression of these genes within the brain using RNase protection analysis. We find that the gene response to LSD is quite dynamic. The expression of some genes increases rapidly and decreases rapidly, while other genes change more gradually. Dose-response studies show two classes of expression; gene expression maximally stimulated at lower doses, versus gene expression that continues to rise at the higher doses. The role of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor in mediating the increases in gene expression was examined in a series of experiments using receptor specific antagonists. Most expression increases were due to activation of the 5-HT(2A) receptor, however expression of two genes had neither a 5-HT(1A) nor a 5-HT(2A) receptor component.

  1. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  2. Heterogenous expression of poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex gene of Bacillus licheniformis WBL-3.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Yang, G; Che, C; Liu, Y

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis WBL-3, one of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) producers, depends on the existence of glutamate in the medium. In this paper, gamma-PGA synthetase complex gene (pgsBCA) was cloned from Bacillus licheniformis WBL-3. pgsBCA gene of B. licheniformis WBL-3 was highly homologous with pgsBCA gene of B. licheniformis 14580. The similarity was 97%, but the similarity of pgsBCA gene between B. licheniformis WBL-3 and Bacillus subtilis IF03336 was only 74%. However, when pgsBCA was expressed in Escherichia coli, the E. coli clone produced gamma-PGA extracellularly. The yield of gamma-PGA was 8.624 g/l. This result infers that B. licheniformis and B. subtilis has the similar gamma-PGA biosynthesis mechanism, namely, glutamic acid is catalyzed by an ATP-dependent amide ligase to synthesize gamma-PGA.

  3. Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68.

    PubMed

    Samadlouie, Hamid-Reza; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Alavi, Seyed-Mehdi; Varastegani, Boshra

    2014-01-01

    The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase.

  4. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of a fatty acid elongase gene from Nannochloropsis oculata CS179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kehou; Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Baohua; Yang, Guanpin

    2009-12-01

    Nannochloropsis oculata CS179, a unicellular marine microalga, is rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Elongase and desaturase play a key role in the biosynthesis of PUFAs. A new elongase gene, which encodes 322 amino acids, was identified via RT-PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. The sequence of the elongase gene was blast-searched in the NCBI GenBank and showed a similarity to those of the cryptosporidium. But the NJ-tree revealed that the N. oculata CS179 elongase clustered with those of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Ostreococcus tauri and Thalassiosira pseudonana.

  5. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  6. Salicylic acid and gentisic acid induce RNA silencing-related genes and plant resistance to RNA pathogens.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Granell, Pablo; Tárraga, Susana; López-Gresa, Pilar; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María; Rodrigo, Ismael; Lisón, Purificación

    2014-04-01

    We have observed that treatments with salicylic acid (SA) or gentisic acid (GA) induced resistance to RNA pathogens such as ToMV and CEVd in tomato and Gynura auriantiaca, respectively. Accumulation of SA and GA has been found to occur in plants infected by these pathogens, thus pointing out a possible defence role of both molecules. To study the molecular basis of the observed induced resistance to RNA pathogens the induction of silencing-related genes by SA and GA was considered. For that purpose, we searched for tomato genes which were orthologous to those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as AtDCL1, AtDCL2, AtDCL4, AtRDR1, AtRDR2 and AtRDR6, and we tracked their induction in tomato along virus and viroid infections. We observed that CEVd significantly induced all these genes in tomato, with the exception of ToRDR6, being the induction of ToDCL4 the most outstanding. Regarding the ToMV asymptomatic infection, with the exception of ToRDR2, we observed a significant induction of all the indicated silencing-related genes, being ToDCL2 the most induced gene. Subsequently, we analyzed their transcriptional activation by SA and at the time when ToMV was inoculated on plants. ToDCL2, ToRDR1 and ToRDR2 were significantly induced by both SA and GA, whereas ToDCL1 was only induced by SA. Such an induction resulted more effective by SA treatment, which is in agreement with the stronger SA-induced resistance observed. Our results suggest that the observed delay in the RNA pathogen accumulation could be due to the pre-induction of RNA silencing-related genes by SA or GA.

  7. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 μM. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction.

  8. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. PMID:25255382

  9. Antitumor Molecular Mechanism of Chlorogenic Acid on Inducting Genes GSK-3β and APC and Inhibiting Gene β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ruoshi; Kang, Qiumei; Ren, Jie; Li, Zukun; Xu, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Inhibiting gene β-catenin and inducting genes GSK-3β and APC, promoting the tumor cell apoptosis in Wnt pathway, by chlorogenic acid were discussed (CGA). Method. The different genes were scanned by the 4∗44K mouse microarray chips. The effect of the three genes was confirmed by RT-PCR technique with CGA dosage of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. Result. The expression of GSK-3β and APC was upregulated in group of 20 mg/kg dosage (P < 0.05) and the expression of β-catenin was downregulated in the same dosage (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The results infer that the multimeric protein complex of β-catenin could be increased by CGA upregulated genes GSK-3β and APC, which could inhibit the free β-catenin into the nucleus to connect with TCF. So the transcriptional expression of the target genes will be cut to abnormal cell proliferation. It is probably one of the ways that can stop the tumor increase by CGA. PMID:23844319

  10. Unconjugated Bile Acids Influence Expression of Circadian Genes: A Potential Mechanism for Microbe-Host Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Kalaimathi; MacSharry, John; Casey, Patrick G.; Shanahan, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression. We utilised a synchronised Caco-2 epithelial colorectal cell model and demonstrated that unconjugated bile acids, but not the equivalent tauro-conjugated bile salts, enhance the expression levels of genes involved in circadian rhythm. In addition oral administration of mice with unconjugated bile acids significantly altered expression levels of circadian clock genes in the ileum and colon as well as the liver with significant changes to expression of hepatic regulators of circadian rhythm (including Dbp) and associated genes (Per2, Per3 and Cry2). The data demonstrate a potential mechanism for microbe-host crosstalk that significantly impacts upon host circadian gene expression. PMID:27907092

  11. Gene expression profiles of murine fatty liver induced by the administration of valproic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho; Hong, Il; Kim, Mingoo; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Ju-Han; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-Il; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu; Lee, Mi-Ock . E-mail: molee@snu.ac.kr

    2007-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used as anticonvulsants, however, it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis and necrosis in the liver. To explore the mechanisms of VPA-induced steatosis, we profiled the gene expression patterns of the mouse liver that were altered by treatment with VPA using microarray analysis. VPA was orally administered as a single dose of 100 mg/kg (low-dose) or 1000 mg/kg (high-dose) to ICR mice and the animals were killed at 6, 24, or 72 h after treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were not significantly altered in the experimental animals. However, symptoms of steatosis were observed at 72 h with low-dose and at 24 h and 72 h with high-dose. After microarray data analysis, 1910 genes were selected by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) as VPA-responsive genes. Hierarchical clustering revealed that gene expression changes depended on the time rather than the dose of VPA treatment. Gene profiling data showed striking changes in the expression of genes associated with lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism, oncogenesis, signal transduction, and development. Functional categorization of 1156 characteristically up- and down-regulated genes (cutoff > 1.5-fold) revealed that 60 genes were involved in lipid metabolism that was interconnected with biological pathways for biosynthesis of triglyceride and cholesterol, catabolism of fatty acid, and lipid transport. This gene expression profile may be associated with the known steatogenic hepatotoxicity of VPA and it may provide useful information for prediction of hepatotoxicity of unknown chemicals or new drug candidates through pattern recognition.

  12. Human-specific amino acid changes found in 103 protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Takashi; Liu, Yu-Hua; Ueda, Shintaroh; Saitou, Naruya

    2004-05-01

    We humans have many characteristics that are different from those of the great apes. These human-specific characters must have arisen through mutations accumulated in the genome of our direct ancestor after the divergence of the last common ancestor with chimpanzee. Gene trees of human and great apes are necessary for extracting these human-specific genetic changes. We conducted a systematic analysis of 103 protein-coding genes for human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. Nucleotide sequences for 18 genes were newly determined for this study, and those for the remaining genes were retrieved from the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank database. The total number of amino acid changes in the human lineage was 147 for 26,199 codons (0.56%). The total number of amino acid changes in the human genome was, thus, estimated to be about 80,000. We applied the acceleration index test and Fisher's synonymous/nonsynonymous exact test for each gene tree to detect any human-specific enhancement of amino acid changes compared with ape branches. Six and two genes were shown to have significantly higher nonsynonymous changes at the human lineage from the acceleration index and exact tests, respectively. We also compared the distribution of the differences of the nonsynonymous substitutions on the human lineage and those on the great ape lineage. Two genes were more conserved in the ape lineage, whereas one gene was more conserved in the human lineage. These results suggest that a small proportion of protein-coding genes started to evolve differently in the human lineage after it diverged from the ape lineage.

  13. A Systems Genetics Approach Identifies Gene Regulatory Networks Associated with Fatty Acid Composition in Brassica rapa Seed1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Jin, Mina; Boyle, Kerry; Fobert, Pierre; Maliepaard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids in seeds affect seed germination and seedling vigor, and fatty acid composition determines the quality of seed oil. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fatty acid and transcript abundance was integrated with gene network analysis to unravel the genetic regulation of seed fatty acid composition in a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population from a cross between a yellow sarson oil type and a black-seeded pak choi. The distribution of major QTLs for fatty acids showed a relationship with the fatty acid types: linkage group A03 for monounsaturated fatty acids, A04 for saturated fatty acids, and A05 for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using a genetical genomics approach, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) hotspots were found at major fatty acid QTLs on linkage groups A03, A04, A05, and A09. An eQTL-guided gene coexpression network of lipid metabolism-related genes showed major hubs at the genes BrPLA2-ALPHA, BrWD-40, a number of seed storage protein genes, and the transcription factor BrMD-2, suggesting essential roles for these genes in lipid metabolism. Three subnetworks were extracted for the economically important and most abundant fatty acids erucic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. Network analysis, combined with comparison of the genome positions of cis- or trans-eQTLs with fatty acid QTLs, allowed the identification of candidate genes for genetic regulation of these fatty acids. The generated insights in the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and the underlying complex gene regulatory networks in B. rapa seeds are discussed. PMID:26518343

  14. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  15. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Bi-Bo

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to screen for and isolate a novel enzyme with the specific activity of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, R. oryzae was identified as a novel fungal species that produces large amounts of γ-linolenic acid. A full-length cDNA, designated here as RoD6D, with high homology to fungal Δ6-fatty acid desaturase genes was isolated from R. oryzae by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. It had an open reading frame of 1176 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 391 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis characterized the putative RoD6D protein as a typical membrane-bound desaturase, including three conserved histidine-rich motifs, a hydropathy profile, and a cytochrome b5 -like domain in the N terminus. When the coding sequence was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl, the encoded product of RoD6D exhibited Δ6-fatty acid desaturase activity that led to the accumulation of γ-linolenic acid. The corresponding genomic sequence of RoD6D was 1565 bp in length, with five introns. This is the first report on the characterization and gene cloning of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase of R. oryzae from Douchi.

  17. Regulation of invertase activity in different root zones of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in the course of osmotic adjustment under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Königshofer, Helga; Löppert, Hans-Georg

    2015-07-01

    Osmotic adjustment of roots is an essential adaptive mechanism to sustain water uptake and root growth under water deficit. In this paper, the role of invertases (β-fructofuranosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) in osmotic adjustment was investigated in the root tips (cell division and elongation zone) and the root maturation zone of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Josef) in the course of osmotic stress imposed by 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The two root zones investigated differed distinctly in the response of invertases to water deprivation. In the root tips, the activity of the vacuolar and cell wall-bound invertases increased markedly under water stress resulting in the accumulation of hexoses (glucose and fructose) that contributed significantly to osmotic adjustment. A transient rise in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) preceded the enhancement of invertases upon exposure to osmotic stress. Treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished the stress induced H2O2 production and suppressed the stimulation of the vacuolar invertase activity, whereas the activity of the cell wall-bound invertase was not influenced by DPI. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect of DPI on the vacuolar invertase, hexose levels and osmotic adjustment were also markedly decreased in the root tips under water deficit in the presence of DPI. These data suggest that H2O2 probably generated by a NADPH oxidase is required as a signalling molecule for the up-regulation of the vacuolar invertase activity in the root tips under osmotic stress, thereby enhancing the capacity for osmotic adjustment. In the root maturation zone, an early H2O2 signal could not be detected in response to PEG application. Only an increase in the glucose level that was not paralleled by fructose and a slight stimulation of the activity of the vacuolar invertase occurred in the maturation zone after water deprivation. The stress induced accumulation of glucose in the maturation zone was not

  18. Monitoring Gene Expression In Vivo with Nucleic Acid Molecular Switches

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Ward; Patricia Bray-Ward

    2005-01-26

    The overall objectives of this project were (1) to develop allosteric ribozymes capable of acting as molecular switches for monitoring the levels of both wild-type and mutant mRNA species in living cells and whole animals and (2) to develop highly efficient reagents to deliver nucleic acid molecular switches into living cells, tissues and animals with the ultimate goal of expression profiling specific mRNAs of diagnostic or prognostic value within tumors in animals. During the past year, we have moved our laboratory to Nevada and in the moving process we have lost electronic and paper copies of prior progress reports concerning the construction and biological properties of the molecular switches. Since there was minimal progress during the last year on molecular switches, we are relying on past project reports to provide a summary of our data on this facet of the grant. Here we are summarizing the work done on the delivery reagents and their application to inducing mutations in living cells, which will include work done during the no cost extension.

  19. Bugs, genes, fatty acids, and serotonin: Unraveling inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Kaunitz, Jonathan; Nayyar, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    The annual incidence of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease has increased at an alarming rate. Although the specific pathophysiology underlying IBD continues to be elusive, it is hypothesized that IBD results from an aberrant and persistent immune response directed against microbes or their products in the gut, facilitated by the genetic susceptibility of the host and intrinsic alterations in mucosal barrier function. In this review, we will describe advances in the understanding of how the interaction of host genetics and the intestinal microbiome contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on bacterial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as possible key signaling molecules.  In particular, we will describe alterations of the intestinal microbiota in IBD, focusing on how genetic loci affect the gut microbial phylogenetic distribution and the production of their major microbial metabolic product, SCFAs. We then describe how enteroendocrine cells and myenteric nerves express SCFA receptors that integrate networks such as the cholinergic and serotonergic neural systems and the glucagon-like peptide hormonal pathway, to modulate gut inflammation, permeability, and growth as part of an integrated model of IBD pathogenesis.  Through this integrative approach, we hope that novel hypotheses will emerge that will be tested in reductionist, hypothesis-driven studies in order to examine the interrelationship of these systems in the hope of better understanding IBD pathogenesis and to inform novel therapies. PMID:27508055

  20. Disruption of multiple genes whose deletion causes lactic-acid resistance improves lactic-acid resistance and productivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Kambe, Hiromi; Obata, Shusei; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Haruo; Harashima, Satoshi

    2013-05-01

    To create strains that have high productivity of lactic acid without neutralization, a genome-wide screening for strains showing hyper-resistance to 6% l-lactic acid (pH 2.6) was performed using the gene deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 94 genes whose disruption led to resistance to 6% lactic acid in rich medium. We also found that multiple combinations of Δdse2, Δscw11, Δeaf3, and/or Δsed1 disruption led to enhanced resistance to lactic acid depending upon their combinations. In particular, the quadruple disruptant Δdse2Δscw11Δeaf3Δsed1 grew well in 6% lactic acid with the shortest lag phase. We then introduced an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH) into those single and multiple disruptants to evaluate their productivity of lactic acid. It was found that the quadruple disruptant displaying highest lactic-acid resistance showed a 27% increase of lactic-acid productivity as compared with the LDH-harboring wild-type strain. These observations suggest that disruption of multiple genes whose deletion leads to lactic-acid resistance is an effective way to enhance resistance to lactic acid, leading to high lactic-acid productivity without neutralization.

  1. Enzymatic Kolbe-Schmitt reaction to form salicylic acid from phenol: enzymatic characterization and gene identification of a novel enzyme, Trichosporon moniliiforme salicylic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Gunji, Hiroaki; Wakayama, Rumiko; Hattori, Takasumi; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2010-04-02

    Salicylic acid decarboxylase (Sdc) can produce salicylic acid from phenol; it was found in the yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme WU-0401 and was for the first time enzymatically characterized, with the sdc gene heterologously expressed. Sdc catalyzed both reactions: decarboxylation of salicylic acid to phenol and the carboxylation of phenol to form salicylic acid without any byproducts. Both reactions were detected without the addition of any cofactors and occurred even in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that this Sdc is reversible, nonoxidative, and oxygen insensitive. Therefore, it is readily applicable in the selective production of salicylic acid from phenol, the enzymatic Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene, sdc, encoding Sdc comprises 350 amino acid residues corresponding to a 40-kDa protein. The recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing sdc converted phenol to salicylic acid with a 27% (mol/mol) yield at 30 degrees C for 9h.

  2. Identification, biochemical characterization, and in-vivo expression of the intracellular invertase BfrA from the pathogenic parasite Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Belaz, Sorya; Rattier, Thibault; Lafite, Pierre; Moreau, Philippe; Routier, Françoise H; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Daniellou, Richard

    2015-10-13

    The parasitic life cycle of Leishmania includes an extracellular promastigote stage that occurs in the gut of the insect vector. During that period, the sucrose metabolism and more specifically the first glycosidase of this pathway are essential for growth and survival of the parasite. We investigated the expression of the invertase BfrA in the promastigote and amastigote stages of three parasite species representative of the three various clinical forms and of various geographical areas, namely Leishmania major, L. donovani and L. braziliensis. Thereafter, we cloned, overexpressed and biochemically characterized this invertase BfrA from L. major, heterologously expressed in both Escherichia coli and L. tarentolae. For all species, expression levels of BfrA mRNA were correlated to the time of the culture and the parasitic stage (promastigotes > amastigotes). BfrA exhibited no activity when expressed as a glycoprotein in L. tarentolae but proved to be an invertase when not glycosylated, yet owing low sequence homology with other invertases from the same family. Our data suggest that BfrA is an original invertase that is located inside the parasite. It is expressed in both parasitic stages, though to a higher extent in promastigotes. This work provides new insight into the parasite sucrose metabolism.

  3. Poly(glycidylmethacrylate) brushes generated on poly(VBC) beads by SI-ATRP technique: hydrazine and amino groups functionalized for invertase adsorption and purification.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Erdem; Bayramoğlu, Gülay; Senkal, B Filiz; Arica, M Yakup

    2009-05-15

    Crosslinked-poly(vinylbenzylchloride), poly(VBC), beads were prepared by suspension polymerization and poly(glycidylmethacrylate) was grafted by surface-initiated-atom radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) technique. Epoxy groups of the grafted poly(GMA) were reacted with hydrazine and ammonia to create an affinity binding sites. The hydrazine and amine functionalized poly(VBC-g-GMA) beads were used as an affinity support for adsorption of invertase from solution and yeast crude extract. The influence of pH, equilibrium time, ionic strength and initial invertase concentration on the adsorption capacities of both hydrazine and amine functionalized beads has been investigated. Maximum invertase adsorptions onto hydrazine and amine functionalized beads, were 86.7 and 30.4 mg/g at pH 4.0 and 5.5, respectively. The experimental equilibrium data fitted well to the Temkin isotherm model. Finally, the hydrazine functionalized poly(VBC-g-GMA) beads were used for the purification of invertase from crude yeast extract in a batch system and the purity of the eluted invertase from the hydrazine functionalized beads was determined as 92% by HPLC from single step purification protocol.

  4. Demonstration of an intramitochondrial invertase activity and the corresponding sugar transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Szarka, András; Horemans, Nele; Passarella, Salvatore; Tarcsay, Akos; Orsi, Ferenc; Salgó, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2008-10-01

    Genetic evidences indicate that alkaline/neutral invertases are present in plant cell organelles, and they might have a novel physiological function in mitochondria. The present study demonstrates an invertase activity in the mitochondrial matrix of Helianthus tuberosus tubers. The pH optimum, the kinetic parameters and the inhibitor profile of the invertase activity indicated that it belongs to the neutral invertases. In accordance with this topology, transport activities responsible for the mediation of influx/efflux of substrate/products were studied in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The transport of sucrose, glucose and fructose was shown to be bidirectional, saturable and independent of the mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential. Sucrose transport was insensitive to the inhibitors of the proton-sucrose symporters. The different kinetic parameters and inhibitors as well as the absence of cross-inhibition suggest that sucrose, glucose and fructose transport are mediated by separate transporters in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial invertase system composed by an enzyme activity in the matrix and the corresponding sugar transporters might have a role in both osmoregulation and intermediary metabolism.

  5. Expressing yeast SAMdc gene confers broad changes in gene expression and alters fatty acid composition in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Kolotilin, Igor; Koltai, Hinanit; Bar-Or, Carmiya; Chen, Lea; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Levin, Ilan; Reuveni, Moshe

    2011-07-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits expressing a yeast S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) gene under control of a ripening-induced promoter show altered phytonutrient content and broad changes in gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional alterations in pericarp tissues of the ySAMdc-expressing fruits are shown. Consistent with the ySAMdc expression pattern from the ripening-induced promoter, very minor transcriptional alterations were detected at the mature green developmental stage. At the breaker and red stages, altered levels of numerous transcripts were observed with a general tendency toward upregulation in the transgenic fruits. Ontological analysis of up- and downregulated transcript groups revealed various affected metabolic processes, mainly carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis, which appeared to be intensified in the ripening transgenic fruits. Other functional ontological categories of altered transcripts represented signal transduction, transcription regulation, RNA processing, molecular transport and stress response, as well as metabolism of lipids, glycans, xenobiotics, energy, cofactors and vitamins. In addition, transcript levels of genes encoding structural enzymes for several biosynthetic pathways showed strong correlations to levels of specific metabolites that displayed altered levels in transgenic fruits. Increased transcript levels of fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes were accompanied by a change in the fatty acid profile of transgenic fruits, most notably increasing ω-3 fatty acids at the expense of other lipids. Thus, SAMdc is a prime target in manipulating the nutritional value of tomato fruits. Combined with analyses of selected metabolites in the overripe fruits, a model of enhanced homeostasis of the pericarp tissue in the polyamine-accumulating tomatoes is proposed.

  6. Identification and transcriptional profiling of Pseudomonas putida genes involved in furoic acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural (2-furaldehyde) is a furan formed by dehydration of pentose sugars. Pseudomonas putida Fu1 metabolizes furfural through a pathway involving conversion to 2-oxoglutarate, via 2-furoic acid and Coenzyme A intermediates. To identify genes involved in furan metabolism, two P. putida transposo...

  7. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

  8. Differential influence of distinct fatty acids on cardiomyocyte metabolic gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus increases risk for cardiovascular disease, and exposes the heart to high plasma fatty acid (FA) levels, which induce genes promoting FA oxidation (e.g., malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; mcd), as well as those suppressing carbohydrate oxidation (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; pdk4...

  9. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  10. Gene cloning of an efficiency oleate hydratase from Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens for polyunsaturated fatty acids and its application in the conversion of plant oils to 10-hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo-Ri; Seo, Min-Ju; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Park, Jin-Byung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are used as precursors of lactones and dicarboxylic acids, as starting materials of polymers, and as additives in coatings and paintings. Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens efficiently converts cis-9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to 10-hydroxy fatty acids. However, gene encoding enzyme involved in this conversion has not been identified to date. We purified a putative fatty acid double-bond hydratase from S. nitritireducens by ultrafiltration and HiPrep DEAE FF and Resource Q ion exchange chromatographies. Peptide sequences of the purified enzyme were obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sequence of the partial gene encoding this putative fatty acid double-bond hydratase was determined by degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the peptide sequences. The remaining gene sequence was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends using cDNA of S. nitritireducens as a template, and the full-length gene was cloned subsequently. The expressed enzyme was identified as an oleate hydratase by determining its kinetic parameters toward unsaturated fatty acids. S. nitritireducens oleate hydratase showed higher activity toward PUFAs compared with other available oleate hydratases. This suggested that the enzyme could be used effectively to convert plant oils to 10-hydroxy fatty acids because these oils contained unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid and/or γ-linolenic acid. The enzyme converted soybean oil and perilla seed oil hydrolyzates containing 10 mM total unsaturated fatty acids, including OA, LA, and ALA, to 8.87 and 8.70 mM total 10-hydroxy fatty acids, respectively, in 240 min. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the biotechnological conversion of PUFA-containing oils to hydroxy fatty acids. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 74-82. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Exploring the diversity of arsenic resistance genes from acid mine drainage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Morgante, Verónica; Mirete, Salvador; de Figueras, Carolina G; Postigo Cacho, Marina; González-Pastor, José E

    2015-06-01

    The microbial communities from the Tinto River, a natural acid mine drainage environment, were explored to search for novel genes involved in arsenic resistance using a functional metagenomic approach. Seven pentavalent arsenate resistance clones were selected and analysed to find the genes responsible for this phenotype. Insights about their possible mechanisms of resistance were obtained from sequence similarities and cellular arsenic concentration. A total of 19 individual open reading frames were analysed, and each one was individually cloned and assayed for its ability to confer arsenic resistance in Escherichia coli cells. A total of 13 functionally active genes involved in arsenic resistance were identified, and they could be classified into different global processes: transport, stress response, DNA damage repair, phospholipids biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis and RNA-modifying enzymes. Most genes (11) encode proteins not previously related to heavy metal resistance or hypothetical or unknown proteins. On the other hand, two genes were previously related to heavy metal resistance in microorganisms. In addition, the ClpB chaperone and the RNA-modifying enzymes retrieved in this work were shown to increase the cell survival under different stress conditions (heat shock, acid pH and UV radiation). Thus, these results reveal novel insights about unidentified mechanisms of arsenic resistance.

  12. Gene organization around the phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase locus in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Comer, M M

    1981-01-01

    The organization of seven genes located at about 38 min on the genetic map of Escherichia coli was examined; these genes included pheS and pheT, which code for the alpha and beta subunits of phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase, and thrS, the structural gene for threonyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase. Deletion mutants were isolated from an F-prime-containing merodiploid strain and were characterized genetically. Seventeen different kinds of deletions extending into pheS of pheT were identified. These deletions unambiguously defined the gene order as aroD pps himA pheT pheS thrS pfkB. Mutants with deletions covering either pheS or pheT, but not both, were analyzed further by assay of phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase. The phenotype of the mutants with a deletion from pfkB through pheS was anomalous; although the pheT gene was apparently still present, its product, the beta subunit, was much reduced in activity. PMID:7012115

  13. Characterization of the lys2 gene of Penicillium chrysogenum encoding alpha-aminoadipic acid reductase.

    PubMed

    Casqueiro, J; Gutiérrez, S; Bañuelos, O; Fierro, F; Velasco, J; Martín, J F

    1998-09-01

    A DNA fragment containing a gene homologous to LYS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned from a genomic DNA library of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78. It encodes a protein of 1409 amino acids (Mr 154859) with strong similarity to the S. cerevisiae (49.9% identity) Schizosaccharomyces pombe (51.3% identity) and Candida albicans (48.12% identity) alpha-aminoadipate reductases and a lesser degree of identity to the amino acid-activating domains of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, including the alpha-aminoadipate-activating domain of the alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase of P. chrysogenum (12.4% identical amino acids). The lys2 gene contained one intron in the 5'-region and other in the 3'-region, as shown by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and genomic DNA, and was transcribed as a 4.7-kb monocistronic mRNA. The lys2 gene was localized on chromosome III (7.5 Mb) in P. chrysogenum AS-P-78 and on chromosome IV (5.6 Mb) in strain P2, whereas the penicillin gene cluster is known to be located in chromosome I in both strains. The lys2-encoded protein is a member of the aminoacyladenylate-forming enzyme family with a reductase domain in its C-terminal region.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82Δ, ato2Δ, and ssa3Δ) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance.

  15. Transcriptional Analysis of Essential Genes of the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster by Functional Replacement with the Analogous Salmonella typhimurium Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Cronan, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The genes encoding several key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes (called the fab cluster) are clustered in the order plsX-fabH-fabD-fabG-acpP-fabF at min 24 of the Escherichia coli chromosome. A difficulty in analysis of the fab cluster by the polar allele duplication approach (Y. Zhang and J. E. Cronan, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 178:3614–3620, 1996) is that several of these genes are essential for the growth of E. coli. We overcame this complication by use of the fab gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium, a close relative of E. coli, to provide functions necessary for growth. The S. typhimurium fab cluster was isolated by complementation of an E. coli fabD mutant and was found to encode proteins with >94% homology to those of E. coli. However, the S. typhimurium sequences cannot recombine with the E. coli sequences required to direct polar allele duplication via homologous recombination. Using this approach, we found that although approximately 60% of the plsX transcripts initiate at promoters located far upstream and include the upstream rpmF ribosomal protein gene, a promoter located upstream of the plsX coding sequence (probably within the upstream gene, rpmF) is sufficient for normal growth. We have also found that the fabG gene is obligatorily cotranscribed with upstream genes. Insertion of a transcription terminator cassette (Ω-Cm cassette) between the fabD and fabG genes of the E. coli chromosome abolished fabG transcription and blocked cell growth, thus providing the first indication that fabG is an essential gene. Insertion of the Ω-Cm cassette between fabH and fabD caused greatly decreased transcription of the fabD and fabG genes and slower cellular growth, indicating that fabD has only a weak promoter(s). PMID:9642179

  16. Evolutionary Pattern of the FAE1 Gene in Brassicaceae and Its Correlation with the Erucic Acid Trait

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mimi; Peng, Bin; Guo, Haisong; Yan, Qinqin; Hang, Yueyu

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene catalyzes the initial condensation step in the elongation pathway of VLCFA (very long chain fatty acid) biosynthesis and is thus a key gene in erucic acid biosynthesis. Based on a worldwide collection of 62 accessions representing 14 tribes, 31 genera, 51 species, 4 subspecies and 7 varieties, we conducted a phylogenetic reconstruction and correlation analysis between genetic variations in the FAE1 gene and the erucic acid trait, attempting to gain insight into the evolutionary patterns and the correlations between genetic variations in FAE1 and trait variations. The five clear, deeply diverged clades detected in the phylogenetic reconstruction are largely congruent with a previous multiple gene-derived phylogeny. The Ka/Ks ratio (<1) and overall low level of nucleotide diversity in the FAE1 gene suggest that purifying selection is the major evolutionary force acting on this gene. Sequence variations in FAE1 show a strong correlation with the content of erucic acid in seeds, suggesting a causal link between the two. Furthermore, we detected 16 mutations that were fixed between the low and high phenotypes of the FAE1 gene, which constitute candidate active sites in this gene for altering the content of erucic acid in seeds. Our findings begin to shed light on the evolutionary pattern of this important gene and represent the first step in elucidating how the sequence variations impact the production of erucic acid in plants. PMID:24358289

  17. The Effect of Multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Folic Acid Pathway Genes on Homocysteine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuang; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Wang, Huijun; Qian, Yanyan; Ma, Duan; Tian, Weidong; Persaud-Sharma, Vishwani; Yu, Chen; Ren, Yunyun; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the joint effects of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in the folic acid pathway on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Methods. Four hundred women with normal pregnancies were enrolled in this study. SNPs were identified by MassARRAY. Serum folic acid and Hcy concentration were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and support vector machine (SVM) regressions were used to analyze the joint effects of SNPs on the Hcy level. Results. SNPs of MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs3733965) were significantly associated with maternal serum Hcy level. In the different genotypes of MTHFR (rs1801133), SNPs of RFC1 (rs1051266), TCN2 (rs9606756), BHMT (rs3733890), and CBS (rs234713 and rs2851391) were linked with the Hcy level adjusted for folic acid concentration. The integrated SNPs scores were significantly associated with the residual Hcy concentration (RHC) (r = 0.247). The Hcy level was significantly higher in the group with high SNP scores than that in other groups with SNP scores of less than 0.2 (P = 0.000). Moreover, this difference was even more significant in moderate and high levels of folic acid. Conclusion. SNPs of genes in the folic acid pathway possibly affect the Hcy metabolism in the presence of moderate and high levels of folic acid. PMID:24524080

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid regulates gene expression in HUVEC cells treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Czepiel, Jacek; Totoń-Żurańska, Justyna; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Perucki, William; Wołkow, Paweł

    2015-07-16

    The molecular mechanism of inflammation and carcinogenesis induced by exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is not clearly understood. Our study was undertaken due to the strong pro-carcinogenic potential and reactivity of PAH-metabolites, as well as the susceptibility of polyunsaturated fatty acids to oxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of n-3 docosahexaenoic acid on human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We analysed the influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or PAHs supplementation on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes, on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and glutathione S transferase Mu1 (GSTM1) protein expression as well as on the prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2), AHR, GSTM1, PLA2G4A, and cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 gene expression. We observed that COX-2 and AHR protein expression was increased while GSTM1 expression was decreased in cells exposed to DHA and PAHs. Docosahexaenoic acid down-regulated CYP1A1 and up-regulated the AHR and PTGS2 genes. Our findings suggested that DHA contributes significantly to alleviate the harmful effects caused by PAHs in endothelial cells. Moreover, these results suggest that a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids is helpful to reduce the harmful effects of PAHs exposure on human living in heavily polluted areas.

  19. An apparent Bacillus subtilis folic acid biosynthetic operon containing pab, an amphibolic trpG gene, a third gene required for synthesis of para-aminobenzoic acid, and the dihydropteroate synthase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Slock, J; Stahly, D P; Han, C Y; Six, E W; Crawford, I P

    1990-01-01

    McDonald and Burke (J. Bacteriol. 149:391-394, 1982) previously cloned a sulfanilamide-resistance gene, sul, residing on a 4.9-kb segment of Bacillus subtilis chromosomal DNA, into plasmid pUB110. In this study we determined the nucleotide sequence of the entire 4.9-kb fragment. Genes identified on the fragment include pab, trpG, pabC, sul, one complete unidentified open reading frame, and one incomplete unidentified open reading frame. The first three of these genes, pab, trpG, and pabC, are required for synthesis of p-aminobenzoic acid. The trpG gene encodes an amphibolic glutamine amidotransferase required for synthesis of both p-aminobenzoate and anthranilate, the latter an intermediate in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. The pabC gene may encode a B. subtilis analog of enzyme X, an enzyme needed for p-aminobenzoate synthesis in Escherichia coli. The sul gene probably encodes dihydropteroate synthase, the enzyme responsible for formation of 7,8-dihydropteroate, the immediate precursor of folic acid. All six of the cloned genes are arranged in a single operon. Since all four of the identified genes are needed for folate biosynthesis, we refer to this operon as a folic acid operon. Expression of the trpG gene is known to be negatively controlled by tryptophan. We propose that this regulation is at the level of translation. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of an apparent Mtr-binding site which overlaps with the trpG ribosome-binding site. PMID:2123867

  20. Enhanced gene expression in epithelial cells transfected with amino acid-substituted gemini nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Singh, Jagbir; Wettig, Shawn; Foldvari, Marianna; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko

    2010-08-01

    Gemini surfactants are versatile gene delivery agents because of their ability to bind and compact DNA and their low cellular toxicity. Through modification of the alkyl tail length and the chemical nature of the spacer, new compounds can be generated with the potential to improve the efficiency of gene delivery. Amino acid (glycine and lysine) and dipeptide (glycyl-lysine and lysyl-lysine) substituted spacers of gemini surfactants were synthesized, and their efficiency of gene delivery was assessed in epithelial cells for topical cutaneous and mucosal applications. Three different epithelial cell lines, COS-7, PAM212 and Sf 1Ep cells, were transfected with plasmid DNA encoding for interferon gamma and green fluorescent protein complexed with the amino acid-substituted gemini compounds in the presence of 1,2 dioleyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine as a helper lipid. Gene expression was quantified by ELISA. Size, zeta potential and circular dichroism measurements were used to characterize the plasmid-gemini (PG) and plasmid-gemini surfactant-helper lipid (PGL) complexes. Gene expression was found to increase up to 72h and then declined by the 7th day. In general, the glycine-substituted surfactant showed consistently high gene expression in all three cell lines. Results of physicochemical and spectroscopic studies of the complexes indicate that substitution of the gemini spacer does not interfere with compaction of the DNA. The superior performance of these spacer-substituted gemini surfactants might be attributed to their better biocompatibility compared to the surfactants possessing unsubstituted spacers.

  1. Phylogenetic, Molecular, and Biochemical Characterization of Caffeic Acid o-Methyltransferase Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianting; Wu, Jiajie; Luo, Yangfan; Bragg, Jennifer; Anderson, Olin; Vogel, John; Gu, Yong Q.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeic acid o-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the important enzymes controlling lignin monomer production in plant cell wall synthesis. Analysis of the genome sequence of the new grass model Brachypodium distachyon identified four COMT gene homologs, designated as BdCOMT1, BdCOMT2, BdCOMT3, and BdCOMT4. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that they belong to the COMT gene family, whereas syntenic analysis through comparisons with rice and sorghum revealed that BdCOMT4 on Chromosome 3 is the orthologous copy of the COMT genes well characterized in other grass species. The other three COMT genes are unique to Brachypodium since orthologous copies are not found in the collinear regions of rice and sorghum genomes. Expression studies indicated that all four Brachypodium COMT genes are transcribed but with distinct patterns of tissue specificity. Full-length cDNAs were cloned in frame into the pQE-T7 expression vector for the purification of recombinant Brachypodium COMT proteins. Biochemical characterization of enzyme activity and substrate specificity showed that BdCOMT4 has significant effect on a broad range of substrates with the highest preference for caffeic acid. The other three COMTs had low or no effect on these substrates, suggesting that a diversified evolution occurred on these duplicate genes that not only impacted their pattern of expression, but also altered their biochemical properties. PMID:23431288

  2. Fatty acid regulates gene expression and growth of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Chen, Y.; Tjandrawinata, R. R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that the omega-6 fatty acids increase the rate of tumor growth. Here we test that hypothesis in the PC-3 human prostate tumor. We found that the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA), and the AA metabolite PGE(2) stimulate tumor growth while oleic acid (OA) and the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibited growth. In examining the role of AA in growth response, we extended our studies to analyze changes in early gene expression induced by AA. We demonstrate that c-fos expression is increased within minutes of addition in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the immediate early gene cox-2 is also increased in the presence of AA in a dose-dependent manner, while the constitutive cox-1 message was not increased. Three hours after exposure to AA, the synthesis of PGE(2) via COX-2 was also increased. Previous studies have demonstrated that AA was primarily delivered by low density lipoprotein (LDL) via its receptor (LDLr). Since it is known that hepatomas, acute myelogenous leukemia and colorectal tumors lack normal cholesterol feedback, we examined the role of the LDLr in growth regulation of the PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Analysis of ldlr mRNA expression and LDLr function demonstrated that human PC-3 prostate cancer cells lack normal feedback regulation. While exogenous LDL caused a significant stimulation of cell growth and PGE(2) synthesis, no change was seen in regulation of the LDLr by LDL. Taken together, these data show that normal cholesterol feedback of ldlr message and protein is lost in prostate cancer. These data suggest that unregulated over-expression of LDLr in tumor cells would permit increased availability of AA, which induces immediate early genes c-fos and cox-2 within minutes of uptake.

  3. Network-Guided GWAS Improves Identification of Genes Affecting Free Amino Acids1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Deason, Nicholas; DellaPenna, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids are essential for proper growth and development in plants. Amino acids serve as building blocks for proteins but also are important for responses to stress and the biosynthesis of numerous essential compounds. In seed, the pool of free amino acids (FAAs) also contributes to alternative energy, desiccation, and seed vigor; thus, manipulating FAA levels can significantly impact a seed’s nutritional qualities. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on branched-chain amino acids have identified some regulatory genes controlling seed FAAs, the genetic regulation of FAA levels, composition, and homeostasis in seeds remains mostly unresolved. Hence, we performed GWAS on 18 FAAs from a 313-ecotype Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) association panel. Specifically, GWAS was performed on 98 traits derived from known amino acid metabolic pathways (approach 1) and then on 92 traits generated from an unbiased correlation-based metabolic network analysis (approach 2), and the results were compared. The latter approach facilitated the discovery of additional novel metabolic interactions and single-nucleotide polymorphism-trait associations not identified by the former approach. The most prominent network-guided GWAS signal was for a histidine (His)-related trait in a region containing two genes: a cationic amino acid transporter (CAT4) and a polynucleotide phosphorylase resistant to inhibition with fosmidomycin. A reverse genetics approach confirmed CAT4 to be responsible for the natural variation of His-related traits across the association panel. Given that His is a semiessential amino acid and a potent metal chelator, CAT4 orthologs could be considered as candidate genes for seed quality biofortification in crop plants. PMID:27872244

  4. Gene Overexpression and Biochemical Characterization of the Biotechnologically Relevant Chlorogenic Acid Hydrolase from Aspergillus niger▿

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Isabelle; Asther, Michèle; Bourne, Yves; Navarro, David; Canaan, Stéphane; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Herweijer, Marga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Asther, Marcel; Record, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The full-length gene that encodes the chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger CIRM BRFM 131 was cloned by PCR based on the genome of the strain A. niger CBS 513.88. The complete gene consists of 1,715 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 512 amino acids with a molecular mass of 55,264 Da and an acidic pI of 4.6. The gene was successfully cloned and overexpressed in A. niger to yield 1.25 g liter−1, i.e., 330-fold higher than the production of wild-type strain A. niger CIRM BRFM131. The histidine-tagged recombinant ChlE protein was purified to homogeneity via a single chromatography step, and its main biochemical properties were characterized. The molecular size of the protein checked by mass spectroscopy was 74,553 Da, suggesting the presence of glycosylation. ChlE is assembled in a tetrameric form with several acidic isoforms with pIs of around 4.55 and 5.2. Other characteristics, such as optimal pH and temperature, were found to be similar to those determined for the previously characterized chlorogenic acid hydrolase of A. niger CIRM BRFM 131. However, there was a significant temperature stability difference in favor of the recombinant protein. ChlE exhibits a catalytic efficiency of 12.5 × 106 M−1 s−1 toward chlorogenic acid (CGA), and its ability to release caffeic acid from CGA present in agricultural by-products such as apple marc and coffee pulp was clearly demonstrated, confirming the high potential of this enzyme. PMID:17630312

  5. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho |; Kim, Mingoo |; Lee, Byung-Hoon |; Kim, Ju-Han |; Kang, Kyung-Sun |; Kim, Hyung-Lae |; Yoon, Byung-Il |; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu |; Lee, Mi-Ock ||

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  6. Expanding Duplication of Free Fatty Acid Receptor-2 (GPR43) Genes in the Chicken Genome.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Camille; Desert, Colette; Callebaut, Isabelle; Djari, Anis; Klopp, Christophe; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Martin, Pascal; Froment, Pascal; Guilbert, Edith; Gondret, Florence; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Monget, Philippe

    2015-04-24

    Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) belong to a family of five G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, so that their loss of function increases the risk of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the expansion of genes encoding paralogs of FFAR2 in the chicken, considered as a model organism for developmental biology and biomedical research. By estimating the gene copy number using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genomic DNA resequencing, and RNA sequencing data, we showed the existence of 23 ± 1.5 genes encoding FFAR2 paralogs in the chicken genome. The FFAR2 paralogs shared an identity from 87.2% up to 99%. Extensive gene conversion was responsible for this high degree of sequence similarities between these genes, and this concerned especially the four amino acids known to be critical for ligand binding. Moreover, elevated nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios on some amino acids within or in close-vicinity of the ligand-binding groove suggest that positive selection may have reduced the effective rate of gene conversion in this region, thus contributing to diversify the function of some FFAR2 paralogs. All the FFAR2 paralogs were located on a microchromosome in a same linkage group. FFAR2 genes were expressed in different tissues and cells such as spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal adipose tissue, intestine, and lung, with the highest rate of expression in testis. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these chicken-specific events along evolution are the consequence of domestication and may play a role in regulating lipid metabolism in this species.

  7. Nutrient uptake by marine invertebrates: cloning and functional analysis of amino acid transporter genes in developing sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eli; Manahan, Donal T

    2009-08-01

    Transport of amino acids from low concentrations in seawater by marine invertebrates has been extensively studied, but few of the genes involved in this physiological process have been identified. We have characterized three amino acid transporter genes cloned from embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. These genes show phylogenetic proximity to classical amino acid transport systems, including Gly and B0+, and the inebriated gene (INE). Heterologous expression of these genes in frog oocytes induced a 40-fold increase in alanine transport above endogenous levels, demonstrating that these genes mediate alanine transport. Antibodies specific to one of these genes (Sp-AT1) inhibited alanine transport, confirming the physiological activity of this gene in larvae. Whole-mount antibody staining of larvae revealed expression of Sp-AT1 in the ectodermal tissues associated with amino acid transport, as independently demonstrated by autoradiographic localization of radioactive alanine. Maximum rates of alanine transport increased 6-fold during early development, from embryonic to larval stages. Analysis of gene expression during this developmental period revealed that Sp-AT1 transcript abundance remained nearly constant, while that of another transporter gene (Sp-AT2) increased 11-fold. The functional characterization of these genes establishes a molecular biological basis for amino acid transport by developmental stages of marine invertebrates.

  8. Up-regulation of the expression of the gene for liver fatty acid-binding protein by long-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Meunier-Durmort, C; Poirier, H; Niot, I; Forest, C; Besnard, P

    1996-01-01

    The role of fatty acids in the expression of the gene for liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was investigated in the well-differentiated FAO rat hepatoma cell line. Cells were maintained in serum-free medium containing 40 microM BSA/320 microM oleate. Western blot analysis showed that oleate triggered an approx. 4-fold increase in the cytosolic L-FABP level in 16 h. Oleate specifically stimulated L-FABP mRNA in time-dependent and dose-dependent manners with a maximum 7-fold increase at 16 h in FAO cells. Preincubation of FAO cells with cycloheximide prevented the oleate-mediated induction of L-FABP mRNA, showing that protein synthesis was required for the action of fatty acids. Run-on transcription assays demonstrated that the control of L-FABP gene expression by oleate was, at least in part, transcriptional. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were similarly potent whereas octanoic acid was inefficient. This regulation was also found in normal hepatocytes. Therefore long-chain fatty acids are strong inducers of L-FABP gene expression. FAO cells constitute a useful tool for studying the underlying mechanism of fatty acid action. PMID:8912685

  9. Mathematical modeling of the central carbohydrate metabolism in Arabidopsis reveals a substantial regulatory influence of vacuolar invertase on whole plant carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nägele, Thomas; Henkel, Sebastian; Hörmiller, Imke; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Heyer, Arnd G

    2010-05-01

    A mathematical model representing metabolite interconversions in the central carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was developed to simulate the diurnal dynamics of primary carbon metabolism in a photosynthetically active plant leaf. The model groups enzymatic steps of central carbohydrate metabolism into blocks of interconverting reactions that link easily measurable quantities like CO(2) exchange and quasi-steady-state levels of soluble sugars and starch. When metabolite levels that fluctuate over diurnal cycles are used as a basic condition for simulation, turnover rates for the interconverting reactions can be calculated that approximate measured metabolite dynamics and yield kinetic parameters of interconverting reactions. We used experimental data for Arabidopsis wild-type plants, accession Columbia, and a mutant defective in vacuolar invertase, AtbetaFruct4, as input data. Reducing invertase activity to mutant levels in the wild-type model led to a correct prediction of increased sucrose levels. However, additional changes were needed to correctly simulate levels of hexoses and sugar phosphates, indicating that invertase knockout causes subsequent changes in other enzymatic parameters. Reduction of invertase activity caused a decline in photosynthesis and export of reduced carbon to associated metabolic pathways and sink organs (e.g. roots), which is in agreement with the reported contribution of vacuolar invertase to sink strength. According to model parameters, there is a role for invertase in leaves, where futile cycling of sucrose appears to have a buffering effect on the pools of sucrose, hexoses, and sugar phosphates. Our data demonstrate that modeling complex metabolic pathways is a useful tool to study the significance of single enzyme activities in complex, nonintuitive networks.

  10. Determination of the grape invertase content (using PTA-ELISA) following various fining treatments versus changes in the total protein content of wine. relationships with wine foamability.

    PubMed

    Dambrouck, Thierry; Marchal, Richard; Cilindre, Clara; Parmentier, Maryline; Jeandet, Philippe

    2005-11-02

    Proteins have proven to play a major role in the stabilization of foam in Champagne wines despite their low concentration that ranges from 4 to 20 mg/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fining on total protein and grape invertase contents of champenois base wines and their foaming properties. Data showed that fining and especially the use of bentonite at doses ranging from 10 to 50 g/hL leads to a significant decrease in the total protein content of wines together with that of the grape invertase content, with such a decrease being very detrimental to the foaming properties of the treated wines in terms of foam height (HM) and foam stability (HS). Only a slight decrease in the total protein content, in the grape invertase concentration, and in the foam quality of wines was observed when using casein (10 and 20 g/hL) or bentonite combined with casein (both at 20 g/hL). Our study thus clearly establishes the good correlation existing between the wine protein concentration and its foaming properties. A remarkable correlation was observed between the decrease in the grape invertase content and the total protein content of wines, following bentonite treatments, suggesting that the grape invertase (which represents at least 10-20% of the wine proteins) follows a similar behavior upon fining to other proteins of Champagne wines, despite the high molecular mass and the highly glycosylated structure of this particular protein. Moreover, the decrease in total protein and grape invertase contents of wine after fining with bentonite was found to be correlated with a decrease in the foaming properties of the corresponding wines (with respectively R(2) = 0.89 and 0.95).

  11. Controllably local gene delivery mediated by polyelectrolyte multilayer films assembled from gene-loaded nanopolymersomes and hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Wei; Wang, Qinmei; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hongzhang

    2014-01-01

    To explore a spatiotemporally controllable gene delivery system with high efficiency and safety, polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films were constructed on titanium or quartz substrates via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique by using plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid-loaded lipopolysaccharide–amine nanopolymersomes (pNPs) as polycations and hyaluronic acid (HA) as polyanions. pNPs were chosen because they have high transfection efficiency (>95%) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induce significant angiogenesis in zebrafish in conventional bolus transfection. The assembly process of PEM films was confirmed by analyses of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared, contact angle, and zeta potential along with atomic force microscopy observation. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation analysis reveals that this film grows in an exponential mode, pNPs are the main contributor to the film mass, and the film mass can be modulated in a relatively wide range (1.0–29 μg/cm2) by adjusting the deposition layer number. Atomic force microscopy observation shows that the assembly leads to the formation of a patterned film with three-dimensional tree-like nanostructure, where the branches are composed of beaded chains (pNP beads are strung on HA molecular chains), and the incorporated pNPs keep structure intact. In vitro release experiment shows that plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid can be gradually released from films over 14 days, and the released plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid exists in a complex form. In vitro cell experiments demonstrate that PEM films can enhance the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs and efficiently transfect MSCs in situ in vitro for at least 4 days. Our results suggest that a (pNPs/HA)n system can mediate efficient transfection in stem cells in a spatially and temporally controllable pattern, highlighting its huge potential in local gene therapy. PMID:25378927

  12. Cloning and characterization of the gene for L-amino acid oxidase in hybrid tilapia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yubang; Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-12-01

    Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes. Identification of DNA markers significantly associated with important traits in candidate genes may speed up genetic improvement. L-Amino acid oxidase (LAO) plays a crucial role in the innate immune defences of animals. Previously, whether LAO variants were associated with economic traits had not been studied in fish. We characterized the cDNA sequence of the LAO gene of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Its ORF was 1536 bp, encoding a flavoenzyme of 511 amino acids. This gene consisted of seven exons and six introns. Its expression was detected in the intestine, blood, kidney, skin, liver. It was highly expressed in the intestine. After a challenge with a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae, its expression was up-regulated significantly in the liver, intestine and spleen (P < 0.05). We identified one SNP in the genomic sequence of the gene and found that this SNP was associated significantly with body length (P < 0.05), but not with resistance to S. agalactiae. The results of this study suggest that the LAO gene plays an important role in innate immune responses to the bacterial pathogen in tilapia. The investigation of relationship between polymorphism of LAO gene and disease resistance and growth in tilapia showed that one SNP was associated significantly with body length. Further experiments on whether SNPs in the LAO gene are associated with growth in tilapia and other populations could be useful in understanding more functions of the LAO gene.

  13. Transcriptome analysis and identification of genes associated with omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens (L.) var. frutescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) var frutescens) produces high levels of a-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid important to health and development. To uncover key genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in perilla, we conducted deep sequencing of cD...

  14. Retinoic acid regulates several genes in bile acid and lipid metabolism via upregulation of small heterodimer partner in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mamoon, Abulkhair; Subauste, Angela; Subauste, Maria C; Subauste, Jose

    2014-10-25

    Retinoic acid (RA) affects multiple aspects of development, embryogenesis and cell differentiation processes. The liver is a major organ that stores RA suggesting that retinoids play an important role in the function of hepatocytes. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated the involvement of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in RA-induced signaling in a non-transformed hepatic cell line AML 12. In the present study, we have identified several critical genes in lipid homeostasis (Apoa1, Apoa2 and ApoF) that are repressed by RA-treatment in a SHP dependent manner, in vitro and also in vivo with the use of the SHP null mice. In a similar manner, RA also represses several critical genes involved in bile acid metabolism (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, Mdr2, Bsep, Baat and Ntcp) via upregulation of SHP. Collectively our data suggest that SHP plays a major role in RA-induced potential changes in pathophysiology of metabolic disorders in the liver.

  15. Overexpression of a Gene Involved in Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Substantially Increases Phytic Acid and Total Phosphorus in Rice Seeds.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Yusuke; Shimizu, Tomoe; Miyamoto, Masanobu; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-04-24

    The manipulation of seed phosphorus is important for seedling growth and environmental P sustainability in agriculture. The mechanism of regulating P content in seed, however, is poorly understood. To study regulation of total P, we focused on phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP₆) biosynthesis-related genes, as InsP₆ is a major storage form of P in seeds. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) low phytic acid mutant lpa1-1 has been identified as a homolog of archael 2-phosphoglycerate kinase. The homolog might act as an inositol monophosphate kinase, which catalyzes a key step in InsP₆ biosynthesis. Overexpression of the homolog in transgenic rice resulted in a significant increase in total P content in seed, due to increases in InsP₆ and inorganic phosphates. On the other hand, overexpression of genes that catalyze the first and last steps of InsP₆ biosynthesis could not increase total P levels. From the experiments using developing seeds, it is suggested that the activation of InsP₆ biosynthesis in both very early and very late periods of seed development increases the influx of P from vegetative organs into seeds. This is the first report from a study attempting to elevate the P levels of seed through a transgenic approach.

  16. A Role of AREB in the Regulation of PACC-Dependent Acid-Expressed-Genes and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Ment, Dana; Alkan, Noam; Luria, Neta; Bi, Fang-Cheng; Reuveni, Eli; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression regulation by pH in filamentous fungi and yeasts is controlled by the PACC/RIM101 transcription factor. In Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, PACC is known to act as positive regulator of alkaline-expressed genes, and this regulation was shown to contribute to fungal pathogenicity. PACC is also a negative regulator of acid-expressed genes, however; the mechanism of downregulation of acid-expressed genes by PACC and their contribution to C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity is not well understood. RNA sequencing data analysis was employed to demonstrate that PACC transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) are significantly overrepresented in the promoter of PACC-upregulated, alkaline-expressed genes. In contrast, they are not overrepresented in the PACC-downregulated, acid-expressed genes. Instead, acid-expressed genes showed overrepresentation of AREB GATA TFBS in C. gloeosporioides and in homologs of five other ascomycetes genomes. The areB promoter contains PACC TFBS; its transcript was upregulated at pH 7 and repressed in ΔpacC. Furthermore, acid-expressed genes were found to be constitutively upregulated in ΔareB during alkalizing conditions. The areB mutants showed significantly reduced ammonia secretion and pathogenicity on tomato fruit. Present results indicate that PACC activates areB expression, thereby conditionally repressing acid-expressed genes and contributing critically to C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity.

  17. Characterization of the bovine gene LIPE and possible influence on fatty acid composition of meat

    PubMed Central

    Goszczynski, Daniel Estanislao; Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Ripoli, María Verónica; Villarreal, Edgardo Leopoldo; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Mezzadra, Carlos Alberto; Melucci, Lilia Magdalena; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    LIPE is an intracellular neutral lipase, which is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters and plays a key role in the mobilization of fatty acids from diacylglycerols. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic polymorphism of bovine LIPE gene and to evaluate the possible association between three SNPs in the coding regions of this gene with the fatty acid composition of meat in a cattle population. Forty-three unrelated animals from different cattle breeds were re-sequenced and 21 SNPs were detected over approximately 2600 bp, five of these SNPs were novel. Three SNPs were selected, on the basis of evolutionary conservation, to perform validation and association studies in a crossbred cattle population. Our results may suggest a possible association of SNP1 with contents of oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), and SNP2 and SNP3 with Heneicosylic acid content (p < 0.01), may be helpful to improve the quality of meat and improve health. PMID:25606458

  18. Positive selection systems for discovery of novel polyester biosynthesis genes based on fatty acid detoxification.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, R G; Gabbert, K K; Madigan, M T

    1997-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can grow with short- to long-chain fatty acids as the sole carbon source (R. G. Kranz, K. K. Gabbert, T. A. Locke, and M. T. Madigan, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3003-3009, 1997). Concomitant with growth on fatty acids is the production to high levels of the polyester storage compounds called polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Here, we describe colony screening and selection systems to analyze the production of PHAs in R. capsulatus. A screen with Nile red dissolved in acetone distinguishes between PHA producers and nonproducers. Unlike the wild type, an R. capsulatus PhaC- strain with the gene encoding PHA synthase deleted is unable to grow on solid media containing high concentrations of certain fatty acids. It is proposed that this deficiency is due to the inability of the PhaC- strain to detoxify the surrounding medium by consumption of fatty acids and their incorporation into PHAs. This fatty acid toxicity phenotype is used in selection for the cloning and characterization of heterologous phaC genes. PMID:9251190

  19. Bioplex technology: novel synthetic gene delivery pharmaceutical based on peptides anchored to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Oscar E; Svahn, Mathias G; Törnquist, Elisabeth; Lundin, Karin E; Smith, C I E

    2005-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery is an important approach in order to establish safe in vivo gene therapy in the clinic. Although viral vectors currently exhibit superior gene transfer efficacy, the safety aspect of viral gene delivery is a concern. In order to improve non-viral in vivo gene delivery we have designed a pharmaceutical platform called Bioplex (biological complex). The concept of Bioplex is to link functional entities via hybridising anchors, such as Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA), directly to naked DNA. In order to promote delivery functional entities consisting of biologically active peptides or carbohydrates, are linked to the PNA anchor. The PNA acts as genetic glue and hybridises with DNA in a sequence specific manner. By using functional entities, which elicit receptor-mediated endocytosis, improved endosomal escape and enhance nuclear entry we wish to improve the transfer of genetic material into the cell. An important aspect is that the functional entities should also have tissue-targeting properties in vivo. Examples of functional entities investigated to date are the Simian virus 40 nuclear localisation signal to improve nuclear uptake and different carbohydrate ligands in order to achieve receptor specific uptake. The delivery system is also endowed with regulatory capability, since the release of functional entities can be controlled. The aim is to create a safe, pharmaceutically defined and stable delivery system for nucleic acids with enhanced transfection properties that can be used in the clinic.

  20. Differential expression of fatty acid synthase genes, Acl, Fat and Kas, in Capsicum fruit.

    PubMed

    Aluru, Maneesha R; Mazourek, Michael; Landry, Laurie G; Curry, Jeanne; Jahn, Molly; O'Connell, Mary A

    2003-07-01

    The biosynthesis of capsaicinoids in the placenta of chilli fruit is modelled to require components of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex. Three candidate genes for subunits in this complex, Kas, Acl, and Fat, isolated based on differential expression, were characterized. Transcription of these three genes was placental-specific and RNA abundance was positively correlated with degree of pungency. Kas and Acl were mapped to linkage group 1 and Fat to linkage group 6. None of the genes is linked to the pungency locus, C, on linkage group 2. KAS accumulation was positively correlated with pungency. Western blots of placental extracts and histological sections both demonstrated that the accumulation of this enzyme was correlated with fruit pungency and KAS was immunolocalized to the expected cell layer, the placental epidermis. Enzyme activity of the recombinant form of the placental-specific KAS was confirmed using crude cell extracts. These FAS components are fruit-specific members of their respective gene families. These genes are predicted to be associated with Capsicum fruit traits, for example, capsaicinoid biosynthesis or fatty acid biosynthesis necessary for placental development.

  1. Nucleic acid vaccination of Brucella abortus ribosomal L7/L12 gene elicits immune response.

    PubMed

    Kurar, E; Splitter, G A

    1997-12-01

    Nucleic acid vaccines provide an exciting approach for antigen presentation to the immune system. As a test of this new methodology, the immune response to the in vivo-expressed Brucella abortus ribosomal L7/12 gene in the muscle cells of mice was examined. To accomplish this goal the eukaryotic expression systems pcDNA3 and p6 were used. Single intramuscular injection of the L7/L12 gene driven by the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (pcDNA3) or bovine MHC 1 promoter (p6) resulted in intracellular expression of the B. abortus L7/L12 immunodominant protein encoded by this gene. This application facilitated directed antigen presentation to the immune system and established specific antibody and T-cell responses compared with vector only (pcDNA3) negative controls and B. abortus S19 injected positive controls. Although pcDNA3-encoded L7/L12 gene-inoculated mice possessed significant protection, p6-L7/L12 did not engender significant protection against B. abortus S2308 infection compared to positive control mice. These data suggest a promising antigen-specific response, and L7/L12 nucleic acid vaccination may be an initial step in the development of genetically engineered candidate vaccines against brucellosis. This study for the first time focuses on DNA immunization of a gene from B. abortus.

  2. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-80-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, R; del Arco, A; Cabrera, H L; Arribas, C

    1994-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila, as in all eukaryotes examined so far, some ubiquitin-coding sequences appear fused to unrelated open reading frames. Two of these fusion genes have been previously described (the homologues of UBI1-UBI2 and UBI4 in yeast), and we report here the organization and expression of a third one, the DUb80 gene (the homologue of UBI3 in yeast). This gene encodes a ubiquitin monomer fused to an 80-amino-acid extension which is homologous with the ribosomal protein encoded by the UB13 gene. The 5' regulatory region of DUb80 shares common features with another ubiquitin fusion gene, DUb52, and with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse. We also find helix-loop-helix protein-binding sequences (E-boxes). The DUb80 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA which is particularly abundant under conditions of high protein synthesis, such as in ovaries and exponentially growing cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8068011

  3. The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spt7 Gene Encodes a Very Acidic Protein Important for Transcription in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gansheroff, L. J.; Dollard, C.; Tan, P.; Winston, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in the SPT7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originally were identified as suppressors of Ty and {delta small} insertion mutations in the 5' regions of the HIS4 and LYS2 genes. Other genes that have been identified in mutant hunts of this type have been shown to play a role in transcription. In this work we show that SPT7 is also important for proper transcription in vivo. We have cloned and sequenced the SPT7 gene and have shown that it encodes a large, acidic protein that is localized to the nucleus. The SPT7 protein contains a bromodomain sequence; a deletion that removes the bromodomain from the SPT7 protein causes no detectable mutant phenotype. Strains that contain an spt7 null mutation are viable but grow very slowly and have transcriptional defects at many loci including insertion mutations, Ty elements, the INO1 gene and the MFA1 gene. These transcriptional defects and other mutant phenotypes are similar to those caused by certain mutations in SPT15, which encodes the TATA binding protein (TBP). The similarity of the phenotypes of spt7 and spt15 mutants, including effects of spt7 mutations on the transcription start site of certain genes, suggests that SPT7 plays an important role in transcription initiation in vivo. PMID:7713415

  4. Effect of chronic valproic Acid treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in wfs1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Punapart, Marite; Eltermaa, Mall; Oflijan, Julia; Sütt, Silva; Must, Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero; Soomets, Ursel; Terasmaa, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300 mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype.

  5. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Mycophenolic Acid Gene Cluster of Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Del-Cid, Abdiel; Gil-Durán, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Rojas-Aedo, Juan F; García-Rico, Ramón O; Levicán, Gloria; Chávez, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is widely known as the ripening agent of blue-veined cheeses. Additionally, this fungus is able to produce several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound mycophenolic acid (MPA). Cheeses ripened with P. roqueforti are usually contaminated with MPA. On the other hand, MPA is a commercially valuable immunosuppressant. However, to date the molecular basis of the production of MPA by P. roqueforti is still unknown. Using a bioinformatic approach, we have identified a genomic region of approximately 24.4 kbp containing a seven-gene cluster that may be involved in the MPA biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of these seven genes (named mpaA, mpaB, mpaC, mpaDE, mpaF, mpaG and mpaH) resulted in dramatic reductions in MPA production, confirming that all of these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of the compound. Interestingly, the mpaF gene, originally described in P. brevicompactum as a MPA self-resistance gene, also exerts the same function in P. roqueforti, suggesting that this gene has a dual function in MPA metabolism. The knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of MPA in P. roqueforti will be important for the future control of MPA contamination in cheeses and the improvement of MPA production for commercial purposes.

  6. Bioinformatics analysis of the oxidosqualene cyclase gene and the amino acid sequence in mangrove plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.

    2017-01-01

    This study described the bioinformatics methods to analyze seven oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) genes from mangrove plants on DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, similarity, subcellular localization and phylogenetic. The physical and chemical properties of seven mangrove OSC showed variation among the genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of seven mangrove OSC genes followed the order of a helix > random coil > extended chain structure. The values of chloroplast or signal peptide were too low, indicated that no chloroplast transit peptide or signal peptide of secretion pathway in mangrove OSC genes. The target peptide value of mitochondria varied from 0.163 to 0.430, indicated it was possible to exist. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity and functional of properties of the different amino acids in mangrove OSC genes. To clarify the relationship among the mangrove OSC gene, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic tree shows that there are three clusters, Kandelia KcMS join with Bruguiera BgLUS, Rhizophora RsM1 was close to Bruguiera BgbAS, and Rhizophora RcCAS join with Kandelia KcCAS. The present study, therefore, supported the previous results that plant OSC genes form distinct clusters in the tree.

  7. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Mycophenolic Acid Gene Cluster of Penicillium roqueforti

    PubMed Central

    Del-Cid, Abdiel; Gil-Durán, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Rojas-Aedo, Juan F.; García-Rico, Ramón O.; Levicán, Gloria; Chávez, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is widely known as the ripening agent of blue-veined cheeses. Additionally, this fungus is able to produce several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound mycophenolic acid (MPA). Cheeses ripened with P. roqueforti are usually contaminated with MPA. On the other hand, MPA is a commercially valuable immunosuppressant. However, to date the molecular basis of the production of MPA by P. roqueforti is still unknown. Using a bioinformatic approach, we have identified a genomic region of approximately 24.4 kbp containing a seven-gene cluster that may be involved in the MPA biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of these seven genes (named mpaA, mpaB, mpaC, mpaDE, mpaF, mpaG and mpaH) resulted in dramatic reductions in MPA production, confirming that all of these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of the compound. Interestingly, the mpaF gene, originally described in P. brevicompactum as a MPA self-resistance gene, also exerts the same function in P. roqueforti, suggesting that this gene has a dual function in MPA metabolism. The knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of MPA in P. roqueforti will be important for the future control of MPA contamination in cheeses and the improvement of MPA production for commercial purposes. PMID:26751579

  8. Identification of soybean purple acid phosphatase genes and their expression responses to phosphorus availability and symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengchen; Gui, Shunhua; Yang, Tao; Walk, Thomas; Wang, Xiurong; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are members of the metallo-phosphoesterase family and have been known to play important roles in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. Low P availability is a major constraint to growth and production of soybean, Glycine max. Comparative studies on structure, transcription regulation and responses to phosphate (Pi) deprivation of the soybean PAP gene family should facilitate further insights into the potential physiological roles of GmPAPs. Methods BLAST searches were performed to identify soybean PAP genes at the phytozome website. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to investigate their gene structure, conserve motifs and phylogenetic relationships. Hydroponics and sand-culture experiments were carried out to obtain the plant materials. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyse the expression patterns of PAP genes in response to P deficiency and symbiosis. Key Results In total, 35 PAP genes were identified from soybean genomes, which can be classified into three distinct groups including six subgroups in the phylogenetic tree. The expression pattern analysis showed flowers possessed the largest number of tissue-specific GmPAP genes under normal P conditions. The expression of 23 GmPAPs was induced or enhanced by Pi starvation in different tissues. Among them, nine GmPAP genes were highly expressed in the Pi-deprived nodules, whereas only two GmPAP genes showed significantly increased expression in the arbuscular mycorrhizal roots under low-P conditions. Conclusions Most GmPAP genes are probably involved in P acquisition and recycling in plants. Also we provide the first evidence that some members of the GmPAP gene family are possibly involved in the response of plants to symbiosis with rhizobia or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under P-limited conditions. PMID:21948626

  9. Comparative Studies of Mammalian Acid Lipases: Evidence for a New Gene Family in Mouse and Rat (Lipo)

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S; Cox, Laura A; VandeBerg, John L

    2010-01-01

    At least six families of mammalian acid lipases (E.C. 3.1.1.-) catalyse the hydrolysis of triglycerides in the body, designated as LIPA (lysosomal), LIPF (gastric), LIPJ (testis) and LIPK, LIPM and LIPN (epidermal), which belong to the AB hydrolase superfamily. In this study, in silico methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, and gene locations for acid lipase genes and encoded proteins using data from several mammalian genome projects. Mammalian acid lipase genes were located within a gene cluster for each of the 8 mammalian genomes examined, including human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pons troglodytes), rhesus monkey (Macacca mulatta), mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), cow (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus) and dog (Canis familaris), with each containing 9 coding exons. Human and mouse acid lipases shared 44-87% sequence identity and exhibited sequence alignments and identities for key amino acid residues and conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for human gastric lipase (LIPF) (Roussel et al., 1999). Evidence for a new family of acid lipase genes is reported for mouse and rat genomes, designated as Lipo. Mouse acid lipase genes are subject to differential mRNA tissue expression, with Lipa showing wide tissue expression, while others have a more restricted tissue expression in the digestive tract (Lipf), salivary gland (Lipo) and epidermal tissues (Lipk, Lipm and Lipn). Phylogenetic analyses of the mammalian acid lipase gene families suggested that these genes are products of gene duplication events prior to eutherian mammalian evolution and derived from an ancestral vertebrate LIPA gene, which is present in the frog, Xenopus tropicalis. PMID:20598663

  10. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    DOE PAGES

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; ...

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterizemore » the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level in three species, showing relatively ancient establishment of the gene family prior

  11. Identification of a retinoic acid-responsive neural enhancer in the Ciona intestinalis Hox1 gene.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Miyuki; Ikeda, Taku; Fujiwara, Shigeki

    2013-02-01

    The Hox1 gene in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (Ci-Hox1) is expressed in the nerve cord and epidermis. We identified a nerve cord enhancer in the second intron of Ci-Hox1, and demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA) plays a major role in activating this enhancer. The enhancer contained a putative retinoic acid-response element (RARE). Mutation of the RARE in the Ci-Hox1 nerve cord enhancer only partially abolished the enhancer activity. Genes encoding RA synthase and the RA receptor were knocked down using specific antisense morpholino oligos (MOs), and injection of embryos with these MOs resulted in the complete disappearance of epidermal expression of Ci-Hox1 and reduction of neural expression. However, nerve cord expression was not completely repressed. These results suggest that the nerve cord enhancer is activated by two partially redundant pathways; one RA-dependent and one RA-independent.

  12. Position effect variegation of an acid phosphatase gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Frisardi, M C; MacIntyre, R J

    1984-01-01

    X-ray mutagenesis has produced a series of deficiencies in a duplication of part of the third chromosome containing the acid phosphatase gene (Acph-1) in Drosophila melanogaster. In one of these deficiencies, Acph-1 is shown to be undergoing position effect variegation. Naturally occurring electrophoretic variants of the enzyme were used to visualize and determine quantitatively the extent of variegation of the allele which is cis to the heterochromatic breakpoint. Alteration of genotypic background and temperature provided further evidence for position effect. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to correlate the levels of acid phosphatase activity and protein in flies containing the deficiency. A novel result indicates that the variegation is not the consequence of an averaging of active and inactive cells, but rather due to a quantitative alteration of gene activity within at least some individual cells.

  13. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'.

  14. Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit

  15. Analysis of ldh genes in Lactobacillus casei BL23: role on lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Rico, Juan; Yebra, María Jesús; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

    2008-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium that produces L-lactate as the main product of sugar fermentation via L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh1) activity. In addition, small amounts of the D-lactate isomer are produced by the activity of a D-hydroxycaproate dehydrogenase (HicD). Ldh1 is the main L-lactate producing enzyme, but mutation of its gene does not eliminate L-lactate synthesis. A survey of the L. casei BL23 draft genome sequence revealed the presence of three additional genes encoding Ldh paralogs. In order to study the contribution of these genes to the global lactate production in this organism, individual, as well as double mutants (ldh1 ldh2, ldh1 ldh3, ldh1 ldh4 and ldh1 hicD) were constructed and lactic acid production was assessed in culture supernatants. ldh2, ldh3 and ldh4 genes play a minor role in lactate production, as their single mutation or a mutation in combination with an ldh1 deletion had a low impact on L-lactate synthesis. A Deltaldh1 mutant displayed an increased production of D-lactate, which was probably synthesized via the activity of HicD, as it was abolished in a Deltaldh1 hicD double mutant. Contrarily to HicD, no Ldh1, Ldh2, Ldh3 or Ldh4 activities could be detected by zymogram assays. In addition, these assays revealed the presence of extra bands exhibiting D-/L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, which could not be attributed to any of the described genes. These results suggest that L. casei BL23 possesses a complex enzymatic system able to reduce pyruvic to lactic acid.

  16. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase regulates retinoic acid receptor-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Le May, Nicolas; Iltis, Izarn; Amé, Jean-Christophe; Zhovmer, Alexander; Biard, Denis; Egly, Jean-Marc; Schreiber, Valérie; Coin, Frédéric

    2012-12-14

    Poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a catabolic enzyme that cleaves ADP-ribose polymers synthesized by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Here, transcriptome profiling and differentiation assay revealed a requirement of PARG for retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated transcription. Mechanistically, PARG accumulates early at promoters of RAR-responsive genes upon retinoic acid treatment to promote the formation of an appropriate chromatin environment suitable for transcription. Silencing of PARG or knockout of its enzymatic activity maintains the H3K9me2 mark at the promoter of the RAR-dependent genes, leading to the absence of preinitiation complex formation. In the absence of PARG, we found that the H3K9 demethylase KDM4D/JMJD2D became PARsylated. Mutation of two glutamic acids located in the Jumonji N domain of KDM4D inhibited PARsylation. PARG becomes dispensable for ligand-dependent transcription when either a PARP inhibitor or a non-PARsylable KDM4D/JMJD2D mutant is used. Our results define PARG as a coactivator regulating chromatin remodeling during RA-dependent gene expression.

  17. [Analysis of critical genes expression of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosyntheses in Lonicera confusa].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Li-Ying

    2014-07-01

    This study analysed the tissue specific expression of critical genes involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis, for exploiting the molecular mechanism of components biosynthesis in Lonicera confusa. Expression of PAL, 4CL, C4H, CHS, CHI, FNS and HQT gene families of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes in buds and leaves of L. confusa were analyed by Real-time PCR. Expressions of PAL1, C4H1, 4CL1, CHS1, CHI3 and HQT2 in buds were lower than that in leaves, and expressions of PAL3, 4CL2, CHI2 and FNS2 in buds were higher than that in leaves. The results indicated that that PAL3 and 4CL2 may be associated with accumulation of chlorogenic acid, and the expression patterns of PAL1, CHS1, CHI3 and HQT2 in buds and leaves of L. confusa were different with L. japonica. This study provided some theoretical basis for the further research on genetic mechanism of active components differences in L. confusa and L. japonica.

  18. Kinetic and Energetic Parameters of Carob Wastes Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Crabtree Effect, Ethanol Toxicity, and Invertase Repression.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B; Peinado, J M; Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Quintas, C; Lima-Costa, M E

    2015-06-01

    Carob waste is a useful raw material for the second-generation ethanol because 50% of its dry weight is sucrose, glucose, and fructose. To optimize the process, we have studied the influence of the initial concentration of sugars on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With initial sugar concentrations (S0) of 20 g/l, the yeasts were derepressed and the ethanol produced during the exponential phase was consumed in a diauxic phase. The rate of ethanol consumption decreased with increasing S0 and disappeared at 250 g/l when the Crabtree effect was complete and almost all the sugar consumed was transformed into ethanol with a yield factor of 0.42 g/g. Sucrose hydrolysis was delayed at high S0 because of glucose repression of invertase synthesis, which was triggered at concentrations above 40 g/l. At S0 higher than 250 g/l, even when glucose had been exhausted, sucrose was hydrolyzed very slowly, probably due to an inhibition at this low water activity. Although with lower metabolic rates and longer times of fermentation, 250 g/l is considered the optimal initial concentration because it avoids the diauxic consumption of ethanol and maintains enough invertase activity to consume all the sucrose, and also avoids the inhibitions due to lower water activities at higher S0.

  19. Production of thermostable invertases by Aspergillus caespitosus under submerged or solid state fermentation using agroindustrial residues as carbon source

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Ana Cláudia Paiva; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria; Terenzi, Héctor Francisco; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus caespitosus was a good producer of intracellular and extracellular invertases under submerged (SbmF) or solid-state fermentation (SSF), using agroindustrial residues, such as wheat bran, as carbon source. The production of extracellular enzyme under SSF at 30°C, for 72h, was enhanced using SR salt solution (1:1, w/v) to humidify the substrate. The extracellular activity under SSF using wheat bran was around 5.5-fold higher than that obtained in SbmF (Khanna medium) with the same carbon source. However, the production of enzyme with wheat bran plus oat meal was 2.2-fold higher than wheat bran isolated. The enzymatic production was affected by supplementation with nitrogen and phosphate sources. The addition of glucose in SbmF and SSF promoted the decreasing of extracellular activity, but the intracellular form obtained in SbmF was enhanced 3-5-fold. The invertase produced in SSF exhibited optimum temperature at 50°C while the extra- and intracellular enzymes produced in SbmF exhibited maximal activities at 60°C. All enzymatic forms exhibited maximal activities at pH 4.0-6.0 and were stable up to 1 hour at 50°C. PMID:24031406

  20. Transport and metabolism of a sucrose analog (1'-fluorosucrose) into Zea mays L. Endosperm without invertase hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Hitz, W.D.

    1987-12-01

    1'-fluorosucrose (FS), a sucrose analog resistant to hydrolysis by invertase, was transported from husk leaves into maize (Zea mays L.) kernels with the same magnitude and kinetics as sucrose. /sup 14/C-Label from (/sup 14/C)FS and (/sup 14/C)sucrose in separate experiments was distributed similarly between the pedicel, endosperm, and embryo with time. FS passed through maternal tissue and was adsorbed intact into the endosperm where it was metabolized and used in synthesis of sucrose and methanol-chloroform-water insolubles. Accumulation of (/sup 14/C)sucrose from supplied (/sup 14/C)glucosyl-FS indicated that the glucose moiety from the breakdown of sucrose (here FS), which normally occurs in the process of starch synthesis in maize endosperm, was available to the pool of substrates for resynthesis of sucrose. Uptake of FS into maize endosperm without hydrolysis suggest that despite the presence of invertase in maternal tissues and the hydrolysis of a large percentage of sucrose unloaded form the phloem, hexoses are not specifically needed for uptake into maize endosperm.

  1. Cytokinins and Expression of SWEET, SUT, CWINV and AAP Genes Increase as Pea Seeds Germinate

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Paula E.; Dhandapani, Pragatheswari; Novak, Ondrej; Song, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    Transporter genes and cytokinins are key targets for crop improvement. These genes are active during the development of the seed and its establishment as a strong sink. However, during germination, the seed transitions to being a source for the developing root and shoot. To determine if the sucrose transporter (SUT), amino acid permease (AAP), Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET), cell wall invertase (CWINV), cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT), activation (LOG) and degradation (CKX) gene family members are involved in both the sink and source activities of seeds, we used RT-qPCR to determine the expression of multiple gene family members, and LC-MS/MS to ascertain endogenous cytokinin levels in germinating Pisum sativum L. We show that genes that are actively expressed when the seed is a strong sink during its development, are also expressed when the seed is in the reverse role of being an active source during germination and early seedling growth. Cytokinins were detected in the imbibing seeds and were actively biosynthesised during germination. We conclude that, when the above gene family members are targeted for seed yield improvement, a downstream effect on subsequent seed germination or seedling vigour must be taken into consideration. PMID:27916945

  2. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-29

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production.

  3. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  4. Styrene lower catabolic pathway in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST: identification and characterization of genes for phenylacetic acid degradation.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Ferrara, Silvia; Ronco, Ilaria; Galli, Enrica; Sello, Guido; Papacchini, Maddalena; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2007-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ST is a styrene degrading microorganism that, by the sequential oxidation of the vinyl side chain, converts styrene to phenylacetic acid. The cluster of styrene upper pathway catabolic genes (sty genes) has been previously localized on a chromosomal region. This report describes the isolation, sequencing and analysis of a new chromosomal fragment deriving from the ST strain genomic bank that contains the styrene lower degradative pathway genes (paa genes), involved in the metabolism of phenylacetic acid. Analysis of the paa gene cluster led to the description of 14 putative genes: a gene encoding a phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (paaF), the enzyme required for the activation of phenylacetic acid; five ORFs encoding the subunits of a ring hydroxylation multienzymatic system (paaGHIJK); the gene paaW encoding a membrane protein of unknown function; five genes for a beta-oxidation-like system (paaABCDE), involved in the steps following the aromatic ring cleavage; a gene encoding a putative permease (paaL) and a gene (paaN) probably involved in the aromatic ring cleavage. The function of some of the isolated genes has been proved by means of biotransformation experiments.

  5. Glutamic acid promotes monacolin K production and monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Chai, Shiyuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l(-1), monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction. Our findings demonstrated that mokA was not a key gene responsible for the quantity of monacolin K production in the presence of glutamic acid. Observation of Monascus mycelium morphology using Scanning Electron Microscope showed glutamic acid significantly increased the content of Monascus mycelium, altered the permeability of Monascus mycelium, enhanced secretion of monacolin K from the cell, and reduced the monacolin K content in Monascus mycelium, thereby enhancing monacolin K production.

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis Gene Expressionfollowing Exposure to Acidic and Alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, Adam B.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Huang, Katherine; Alm,Eric; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Arkin, Adam P.; Brown, Steven D.; Wu, Liyou; Yan,Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Wickham, Gene S.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-04-02

    The molecular response of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 tovariations in extracellular pH was investigated based on genomewide geneexpression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed that cells elicitedboth general and specific transcriptome responses when challenged withenvironmental acid (pH 4) or base (pH 10) conditions over a 60-minperiod. Global responses included the differential expression of genesfunctionally linked to amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulationand signal transduction, transport, cell membrane structure, andoxidative stress protection. Response to acid stress included theelevated expression of genes encoding glycogen biosynthetic enzymes,phosphate transporters, and the RNA polymerase sigma-38 factor (rpoS),whereas the molecular response to alkaline pH was characterized byupregulation of nhaA and nhaR, which are predicted to encode an Na+/H+antiporter and transcriptional activator, respectively, as well assulfate transport and sulfur metabolism genes. Collectively, theseresults suggest that S. oneidensis modulates multiple transporters, cellenvelope components, and pathways of amino acid consumption and centralintermediary metabolism as part of its transcriptome response to changingexternal pH conditions.

  7. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  8. Detection of arc genes related with the ethyl carbamate precursors in wine lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Araque, Isabel; Gil, Joana; Carreté, Ramon; Bordons, Albert; Reguant, Cristina

    2009-03-11

    Trace amounts of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate can appear in wine by the reaction of ethanol with compounds such as citrulline and carbamyl phosphate, which are produced from arginine degradation by some wine lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this work, the presence of arc genes for the arginine-deiminase pathway was studied in several strains of different species of LAB. Their ability to degrade arginine was also studied. To detect the presence of arc genes, degenerate primers were designed from the alignment of protein sequences in already sequenced LAB. The usefulness of these degenerate primers has been proven by sequencing some of the amplified PCR fragments and searching for homologies with published sequences of the same species and related ones. Correlation was found between the presence of genes and the ability to degrade arginine. Degrading strains included all heterofermentative lactobacilli, Oenococcus oeni , Pediococcus pentosaceus , and some strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum .

  9. Hyaluronic acid pretreatment for Sendai virus-mediated cochlear gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, T; Mizutari, K; Niwa, K; Fukumori, T; Inoue, M; Hasegawa, M; Shiotani, A

    2016-02-01

    Gene therapy with viral vectors is one of the most promising strategies for sensorineural hearing loss. However, safe and effective administration of the viral vector into cochlear tissue is difficult because of the anatomical isolation of the cochlea. We investigated the efficiency and safety of round window membrane (RWM) application of Sendai virus, one of the most promising non-genotoxic vectors, after pretreatment with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the RWM to promote efficient viral translocation into the cochlea. Sendai virus expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene was detected throughout cochlear tissues following application combined with HA pretreatment. Quantitative analysis revealed that maximum expression was reached 3 days after treatment. The efficiency of transgene expression was several 100-fold greater with HA pretreatment than that without. Furthermore, unlike the conventional intracochlear delivery methods, this approach did not cause hearing loss. These findings reveal the potential utility of gene therapy with Sendai virus and HA for treatment of sensorineural hearing loss.

  10. Coordinate regulation of glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Jump, D B; Clarke, S D; Thelen, A; Liimatta, M

    1994-06-01

    Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we have investigated the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the expression of several genes encoding proteins involved in hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis. Meal-training rats to a high glucose diet containing 10% triolein led to a significant induction of hepatic mRNAs encoding glucokinase (GK), pyruvate kinase (PK), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME), and the S14 protein (S14), but had no effect on thyroid hormone receptor-beta 1 (TR beta 1) and c/EBP alpha gene expression. Replacing triolein with menhaden oil attenuated (by 50-90%) the induction of mRNA encoding GK, ME, PK, FAS, and S14. This effect was rapid (within hours) and for FAS and S14, directed at the transcriptional level. The mRNAs encoding TR beta 1, c/EBP alpha and beta-actin were unaffected by menhaden oil. Studies with cultured primary hepatocytes showed that C18:3,omega 3 (n-3), C18:3,omega 6 (n-6), C20:4, omega 6 (n-6), and C20:5,omega 3 (n-3) were all equally effective at suppressing the level of mRNAs encoding FAS, S14, and PK. This effect was specific for glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes, as expression of beta-actin was not affected by these fatty acids. Moreover, the fatty acids had only marginal effects on cell viability as judged by lactate dehydrogenase release. These data indicate that polyunsaturated fatty acids coordinately regulate the expression of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The mechanism of control does not require extrahepatic factors or fatty acid metabolism.

  11. Bioinformatics study of delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) gene in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh; Yarizade, Kazem

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acid desaturases constitute a group of enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids. In plants, seed-specific delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the high content of linoleic acid by inserting a double bond at the delta-12 (omega-6) position of oleic acid. In this study, sixteen FAD2 and FAD2-2 protein sequences from oilseeds were analyzed by computational tools including two databases of the NCBI and EXPASY and data management tools such as SignalP, TMHMM, Psort, ProtParam, TargetP, PLACE and PlantCARE. These services were used to predict the protein properties such as molecular mass, pI, signal peptide, transmembrane and conserved domains, secondary and spatial structures. The polypeptide sequences were aligned and a neighbour-joining tree was constructed using MEGA5.1 to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among FAD2 genes. Based on the phylogenetic analysis species with high similarity in FAD2 sequence grouped together. FAD2 proteins include highly conserved histidine-rich motifs (HECGHH, HRRHH and HV[A/C/T]HH) that are located by three to five transmembrane anchors. For further investigations Sesamum indicum FAD2 was selected and analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Analysis showed no N-terminal signal peptide for probable localization of FAD2 protein in cytoplasmic organelles such as chloroplast, mitochondria and Golgi. Instead the C-terminal signaling motif YNNKL, Y(K/N)NKF or YRNKI allows FAD2 protein to selectively bind to and embed in the endoplasmic reticulum. FAD2 promoter contains different cis-regulatory elements involve in the biotic and abiotic stresses response or control of gene expression specifically in seeds.

  12. Screening and identification of differentially expressed genes in goose hepatocytes exposed to free fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhixiong; Wang, Jiwen; Kang, Bo; Lu, Lizhi; Han, Chunchun; Tang, Hui; Li, Liang; Xu, Feng; Zhou, Zehui; Lv, Jia

    2010-12-15

    The overaccumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes induces hepatic steatosis; however, little is known about the mechanism of goose hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to define an experimental model of hepatocellular steatosis with TG overaccumulation and minimal cytotoxicity, using a mixture of various proportions of oleate and palmitate free fatty acids (FFAs) to induce fat-overloading, then using suppressive subtractive hybridization and a quantitative PCR approach to identify genes with higher or lower expression levels after the treatment of cells with FFA mixtures. Overall, 502 differentially expressed clones, representing 21 novel genes and 87 known genes, were detected by SSH. Based on functional clustering, up- and down-regulated genes were mostly related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, enzyme activity and signal transduction. The expression of 20 selected clones involved with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism pathways was further studied by quantitative PCR. The data indicated that six clones similar to the genes ChREBP, FoxO1, apoB, IHPK2, KIF1B, and FSP27, which participate in de novo synthesis of fatty acid and secretion of very low density lipoproteins, had significantly lower expression levels in the hepatocytes treated with FFA mixtures. Meanwhile, 13 clones similar to the genes DGAT-1, ACSL1, DHRS7, PPARα, L-FABP, DGAT-2, PCK, ACSL3, CPT-1, A-FABP, PPARβ, MAT, and ALDOB had significantly higher expression levels in the hepatocytes treated with FFA mixtures. These results suggest that several metabolic pathways are altered in goose hepatocytes, which may be useful for further research into the molecular mechanism of goose hepatic steatosis.

  13. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD) 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE) 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general development of C. sativa should

  14. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed.

  15. Expression of a cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase gene results in {gamma}-linolenic acid production in transgenic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.; Thomas, T.L.

    1996-05-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a nutritionally important fatty acid in human and animal diets, is not produced in oil seed crops. Many oil seed plants, however, produce significant quantities of linoleic acid, a fatty acid that could be converted to GLA by the enzyme {del}{sup 6}-desaturase if it were present. As a first step to producing GLA in oil seed crops, we have cloned a cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase gene. Expression of this gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in GLA accumulation. Octadecatetraenoic acid, a highly unsaturated, industrially important fatty acid, was also found in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase. This is the first example of engineering the production of `novel` polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Stress-Survival Gene Identification From an Acid Mine Drainage Algal Mat Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Fujishima, K.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Rothschild-Mancinelli, B.; Rothschild, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities from acid mine drainage environments are exposed to multiple stressors to include low pH, high dissolved metal loads, seasonal freezing, and desiccation. The microbial and algal communities that inhabit these niche environments have evolved strategies that allow for their ecological success. Metagenomic analyses are useful in identifying species diversity, however they do not elucidate the mechanisms that allow for the resilience of a community under these extreme conditions. Many known or predicted genes encode for protein products that are unknown, or similarly, many proteins cannot be traced to their gene of origin. This investigation seeks to identify genes that are active in an algal consortium during stress from living in an acid mine drainage environment. Our approach involves using the entire community transcriptome for a functional screen in an Escherichia coli host. This approach directly targets the genes involved in survival, without need for characterizing the members of the consortium.The consortium was harvested and stressed with conditions similar to the native environment it was collected from. Exposure to low pH (< 3.2), high metal load, desiccation, and deep freeze resulted in the expression of stress-induced genes that were transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). These mRNA transcripts were harvested to build complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries in E. coli. The transformed E. coli were exposed to the same stressors as the original algal consortium to select for surviving cells. Successful cells incorporated the transcripts that encode survival mechanisms, thus allowing for selection and identification of the gene(s) involved. Initial selection screens for freeze and desiccation tolerance have yielded E. coli that are 1 order of magnitude more resistant to freezing (0.01% survival of control with no transcript, 0.2% survival of E. coli with transcript) and 3 orders of magnitude more resistant to desiccation (0.005% survival of

  17. Study of Lateral Gene Transfer in an Acid Mine Drainage Community Enabled by Comparative Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, P.; Croft, L.; Tyson, G. W.; Baker, B. J.; Detter, C.; Richardson, P. M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is thought to play a crucial role in the ecology and evolution of prokaryotes. We are investigating the role of LGT in an acid mine drainage community hosted in a pyrite-dominated metal sulfide deposit at the Richmond mine at Iron Mountain, CA. Due to biologically-mediated pyrite dissolution, the prevailing conditions within the mine are extremely low pH (< 1.0), very high ionic concentrations (molar concentrations of iron sulfate and mM concentrations of arsenic, copper and zinc), and moderate to high temperatures (30 to >50 C). These conditions are thought to largely isolate the community from potential external gene donors since naked DNA, phage and prokaryotes native to neutral pH habitats do not persist at pH <1.0 precluding an external influx of genes by transformation, transduction and conjugation, respectively. Microbial communities exist in several distinct habitats within Richmond mine including biofilms (subaqueous slime streamers and subaerial slimes) and cells attached directly to pyrite granules. This, however, belies an unusual simplicity in community composition. All communities investigated to date comprise only a handful of phylogenetically distinct organisms, typically dominated by the iron-oxidizing genera Leptospirillum and Ferroplasma. We have undertaken a community genomics analysis of a subaerial biofilm dominated by a Leptospirillum population to facilitate the study of LGT in this type of environment. The genome of Ferroplasma acidarmanus fer1, a minor component of the target community (but a major component of other Richmond mine communities), has been sequenced. Comparative genome analyses indicate that F. acidarmanus and the ancestor of two acidophilic Thermoplasma species belonging to the Euryarchaeota have traded many genes with phylogenetically remote acidophilic Sulfolobus species (Crenarchaeota). The putatively transferred sets of Sulfolobus genes in Ferroplasma and the Thermoplasma ancestor are distinct

  18. Sugar - hormone crosstalk in seed development: Two redundant pathways of IAA biosynthesis are regulated differentially in the invertase-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The miniature1 (mn1) seed phenotype is a loss-of-function mutation at the Mn1 locus that encodes a cell wall invertase; its deficiency leads to pleiotropic changes including altered sugar levels and decreased levels of IAA throughout seed development. To understand the molecular details of such suga...

  19. Miniature1-encoded cell wall invertase is essential for assembly and function of wall-in-growth in the maize endosperm transfer cell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The miniature1 (mn1) seed phenotype in maize is due to a loss-of-function mutation at the Mn1 locus that encodes a cell wall invertase, INCW2, which localizes exclusively to the basal endosperm transfer cells (BETC) of developing seeds. A common feature of all transfer cells is the labyrinth-like wa...

  20. Effect of pH, aeration and sucrose feeding on the invertase activity of intact S. cerevisiae cells grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, M; Duranti, M A; Pellegrim, M B

    1995-08-01

    S. cerevisiae was grown in a blackstrap molasses containing medium in batch and fed-batch cultures. The following parameters were varied: pH (from 4.0 to 6.5), dissolved oxygen (DO) (from 0 to 5.0 mg O2 L-1) and sucrose feeding rate. When glucose concentration (S) was higher than 0.5 g L-1 a reduction in the specific invertase activity of intact cells (v) and an oscillatory behavior of v values during fermentation were observed. Both the invertase reduction and the oscillatory behavior of v values could be related to the glucose inhibitory effect on invertase biosynthesis. The best culture conditions for attaining S. cerevisiae cells suitable for invertase production were: temperature = 30 degrees C; pH = 5.0; DO = 3.3 mg O2 L-1; (S) = 0.5 g L-1 and sucrose added into the fermenter according to the equations: (V-Vo) = t2/16 or (V - Vo) = (Vf - Vo).(e0.6t-1)/10.

  1. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-α-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Morimoto, Kyoko; Oshima, Nana; Yamada, Yuriko; Fu, Liwei; Taketani, Shigeru; Ando, Masayoshi; Kataoka, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-κB signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-α-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24970122

  2. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-04-03

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels.

  3. Regulation of the hemA gene during 5-aminolevulinic acid formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Hungerer, C; Troup, B; Römling, U; Jahn, D

    1995-01-01

    The general tetrapyrrole precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid is formed in bacteria via two different biosynthetic pathways. Members of the alpha group of the proteobacteria use 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase for the condensation of succinyl-coenzyme A and glycine, while other bacteria utilize a two-step pathway from aminoacylated tRNA(Glu). The tRNA-dependent pathway, involving the enzymes glutamyl-tRNA reductase (encoded by hemA) and glutamate-1-semialdehyde-2,1-aminomutase (encoded by hemL), was demonstrated to be used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Comamonas testosteroni, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. To study the regulation of the pathway, the glutamyl-tRNA reductase gene (hemA) from P. aeruginosa was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli hemA mutant. The hemA gene was mapped to the SpeI A fragment and the DpnIL fragment of the P. aeruginosa chromosome corresponding to min 24.1 to 26.8. The cloned hemA gene, coding for a protein of 423 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46,234 Da, forms an operon with the gene for protein release factor 1 (prf1). This translational factor mediates the termination of the protein chain at the ribosome at amber and ochre codons. Since the cloned hemA gene did not possess one of the appropriate stop codons, an autoregulatory mechanism such as that postulated for the enterobacterial system was ruled out. Three open reading frames of unknown function transcribed in the opposite direction to the hemA gene were found. hemM/orf1 and orf2 were found to be homologous to open reading frames located in the 5' region of enterobacterial hemA genes. Utilization of both transcription start sites was changed in a P. aeruginosa mutant missing the oxygen regulator Anr (Fnr analog), indicating the involvement of the transcription factor in hemA expression. DNA sequences homologous to one half of an Anr binding site were detected at one of the determined

  4. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  5. Highly expressed amino acid biosynthesis genes revealed by global gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during growth in whole egg are not essential for this growth.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-05-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the most common cause of egg borne salmonellosis in many parts of the world. This study analyzed gene expression of this bacterium during growth in whole egg, and whether highly expressed genes were essential for the growth. High quality RNA was extracted from S. Enteritidis using a modified RNA-extraction protocol. Global gene expression during growth in whole egg was compared to growth in LB-medium using DNA array method. Twenty-six genes were significantly upregulated during growth in egg; these belonged to amino acid biosynthesis, di/oligopeptide transport system, biotin synthesis, ferrous iron transport system, and type III secretion system. Significant downregulation of 15 genes related to formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) and trehalose metabolism was observed. The results suggested that S. Enteritidis is starved for amino-acids, biotin and iron when growing in egg. However, site specific mutation of amino acid biosynthesis genes asnA (17.3 fold upregulated), asnB (18.6 fold upregulated), asnA/asnB and, serA (12.0 fold upregulated) and gdhA (3.7 fold upregulated), did not result in growth attenuation, suggesting that biosynthesis using the enzymes encoded from these genes may represent the first choice for S. Enteritidis when growing in egg, but when absent, the bacterium could use alternative ways to obtain the amino acids.

  6. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of phenolic acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis RM84.

    PubMed

    Landete, José María; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; de las Rivas, Blanca; Mancheño, José Miguel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) catalyzes the synthesis of vinyl phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids. The gene encoding PAD from Lactobacillus brevis was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant PAD enzyme is a heat-labile enzyme that functions optimally at 22 degrees C and pH 6.0. The purified enzyme did not show thermostability at temperatures above 22 degrees C. L. brevis PAD is able to decarboxylate exclusively the hydroxycinnamic acids, such as p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids, with K (m) values of 0.98, 0.96, and 0.78 mM, respectively. The substrate specificity exhibited by L. brevis PAD is similar to the PAD isolated from Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus, but different from that of L. plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. As the C-terminal region may be involved in determining PAD substrate specificity and catalytic capacity, amino acid differences among these proteins could explain the differences observed. The substrate specificity shown by L. brevis PAD shows promise for the synthesis of high-added value products from plant wastes.

  7. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-52-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, H L; Barrio, R; Arribas, C

    1992-01-01

    Ubiquitin belongs to a multigene family. In Drosophila two members of this family have been previously described. We report here the organization and expression of a third member, the DUb52 gene, isolated by screening a Drosophila melanogaster genomic library. This gene encodes an ubiquitin monomer fused to a 52-amino acid extension protein. There are no introns interrupting the coding sequence. Recently, it has been described that this extension encodes a ribosomal protein in Saccharomyces, Dictyostelium, and Arabidopsis. The present results show that the 5' regulatory region of DUb52 shares common features with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse, including GC- and pyrimidine-rich regions. Moreover, sequences similar to the consensus Ribo-box in Neurospora crassa have been identified. Furthermore, a sequence has been found that is similar to the binding site for the TFIIIA distal element factor from Xenopus laevis. The DUb52 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA that is expressed constitutively throughout development and is particularly abundant in ovaries. In addition, the DUb52 gene has been found to be preferentially transcribed in exponentially growing Drosophila cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1381584

  8. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases.

  9. Identification of Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that Are Haploinsufficient for Overcoming Amino Acid Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Nancy S.; Seberg, Andrew P.; Carroll, Leslie P.; Swanson, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to amino acid deprivation by activating a pathway conserved in eukaryotes to overcome the starvation stress. We have screened the entire yeast heterozygous deletion collection to identify strains haploinsufficient for growth in the presence of sulfometuron methyl, which causes starvation for isoleucine and valine. We have discovered that cells devoid of MET15 are sensitive to sulfometuron methyl, and loss of heterozygosity at the MET15 locus can complicate screening the heterozygous deletion collection. We identified 138 cases of loss of heterozygosity in this screen. After eliminating the issues of the MET15 loss of heterozygosity, strains isolated from the collection were retested on sulfometuron methyl. To determine the general effect of the mutations for a starvation response, SMM-sensitive strains were tested for the ability to grow in the presence of canavanine, which induces arginine starvation, and strains that were MET15 were also tested for growth in the presence of ethionine, which causes methionine starvation. Many of the genes identified in our study were not previously identified as starvation-responsive genes, including a number of essential genes that are not easily screened in a systematic way. The genes identified span a broad range of biological functions, including many involved in some level of gene expression. Several unnamed proteins have also been identified, giving a clue as to possible functions of the encoded proteins. PMID:28209762

  10. Nucleic acids electrotransfer-based gene therapy (electrogenetherapy): past, current, and future.

    PubMed

    Mir, L M

    2009-10-01

    About 25 years after the publication of the first report on gene transfer in vitro in cultured cells by the means of electric pulses delivery, reversible cell electroporation for gene transfer and gene therapy (DNA electrotransfer) is at a cross in its development. Present knowledge on the effects of cell exposure to appropriate electric field pulses, particularly at the level of the cell membrane, is reported here. The importance of the models of electric field distribution in tissues and of the correct choice of electrodes and applied voltages is highlighted. The mechanisms involved in DNA electrotransfer, which include cell electropermeabilization and DNA electrophoresis, are also surveyed. This knowledge has allowed developing new nucleic acids electrotransfer conditions using combinations of permeabilizing pulses of high voltage and short duration, and of electrophoretic pulses of low voltage and long duration, which are very efficient and safer. Feasibility of electric pulses delivery for gene transfer in humans is discussed taking into account that electric pulses delivery is already regularly used for localized drug delivery in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous solid tumors by electrochemotherapy. Because recent technological developments made DNA electrotransfer more and more efficient and safer, this non-viral gene therapy approach is now ready to reach the clinical stage. A good understanding of DNA electrotransfer principles and the respect of safe procedures will be key elements for a successful future transfer DNA electrotransfer into the clinics.

  11. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Yao, Jianzhuang; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Li, Guanglin; Guan, Ju; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175 lM and 341 lM, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.

  12. The Glucuronic Acid Utilization Gene Cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6

    PubMed Central

    Shulami, Smadar; Gat, Orit; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Shoham, Yuval

    1999-01-01

    A λ-EMBL3 genomic library of Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 was screened for hemicellulolytic activities, and five independent clones exhibiting β-xylosidase activity were isolated. The clones overlap each other and together represent a 23.5-kb chromosomal segment. The segment contains a cluster of xylan utilization genes, which are organized in at least three transcriptional units. These include the gene for the extracellular xylanase, xylanase T-6; part of an operon coding for an intracellular xylanase and a β-xylosidase; and a putative 15.5-kb-long transcriptional unit, consisting of 12 genes involved in the utilization of α-d-glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The first four genes in the potential GlcUA operon (orf1, -2, -3, and -4) code for a putative sugar transport system with characteristic components of the binding-protein-dependent transport systems. The most likely natural substrate for this transport system is aldotetraouronic acid [2-O-α-(4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronosyl)-xylotriose] (MeGlcUAXyl3). The following two genes code for an intracellular α-glucuronidase (aguA) and a β-xylosidase (xynB). Five more genes (kdgK, kdgA, uxaC, uxuA, and uxuB) encode proteins that are homologous to enzymes involved in galacturonate and glucuronate catabolism. The gene cluster also includes a potential regulatory gene, uxuR, the product of which resembles repressors of the GntR family. The apparent transcriptional start point of the cluster was determined by primer extension analysis and is located 349 bp from the initial ATG codon. The potential operator site is a perfect 12-bp inverted repeat located downstream from the promoter between nucleotides +170 and +181. Gel retardation assays indicated that UxuR binds specifically to this sequence and that this binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by MeGlcUAXyl3, the most likely molecular inducer. PMID:10368143

  13. Association between SLC2A9 transporter gene variants and uric acid phenotypes in African American and white families

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Mariza; Matsumoto, Martha; Mosley, Tom H.; Kardia, Sharon; Turner, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. SLC2A9 gene variants associate with serum uric acid in white populations, but little is known about African American populations. Since SLC2A9 is a transporter, gene variants may be expected to associate more closely with the fractional excretion of urate, a measure of renal tubular transport, than with serum uric acid, which is influenced by production and extrarenal clearance. Methods. Genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the SLC2A9 gene were obtained in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy cohorts. The associations of SNPs with serum uric acid, fractional excretion of urate and urine urate-to-creatinine ratio were assessed with adjustments for age, sex, diuretic use, BMI, homocysteine and triglycerides. Results. We identified SLC2A9 gene variants that were associated with serum uric acid in 1155 African American subjects (53 SNPs) and 1132 white subjects (63 SNPs). The most statistically significant SNPs in African American subjects (rs13113918) and white subjects (rs11723439) were in the latter half of the gene and explained 2.7 and 2.8% of the variation in serum uric acid, respectively. After adjustment for this SNP in African Americans, 0.9% of the variation in serum uric acid was explained by an SNP (rs1568318) in the first half of the gene. Unexpectedly, SLC2A9 gene variants had stronger associations with serum uric acid than with fractional excretion of urate. Conclusions. These findings support two different loci by which SLC2A9 variants affect uric acid levels in African Americans and suggest SLC2A9 variants affect serum uric acid level via renal and extrarenal clearance. PMID:21186168

  14. Effect of retinoic acid on midkine gene expression in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2017-04-07

    Retinoic acid (RA) is converted from retinal by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic and adult tissue. We previously reported that RALDH1 was produced in the rat anterior pituitary gland and hypothesized that RA was generated in the gland. Midkine (MK) is an RA-inducible growth factor, and MK production in the rat anterior pituitary gland was recently reported. However, the mechanism that regulates gene expression of MK in the pituitary gland has not been determined. To investigate regulation of MK production in the anterior pituitary gland, we analyzed changes in MK mRNA in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. We identified MK-expressing cells by double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques for RALDH1. MK mRNA was expressed in RALDH1-producing cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effect of RA on gene expression of MK. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 72 h exposure to a concentration of 10(-6) M of retinal and all-trans retinoic acid increased MK mRNA levels by about 2-fold. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of all-trans retinoic acid was mimicked by the RA receptor agonist Am80. This is the first report to show that RA is important in regulating MK expression in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  15. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kiyohito; Hashimoto, Mikako; Hori, Ryuji; Adachi, Takumi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Nagamine, Tadashi; Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Morita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed. PMID:27187420

  16. Overproduction of α-Lipoic Acid by Gene Manipulated Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yirong; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Jincheng; Pang, Hongshen; Wang, Haihong

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is an important enzyme cofactor widely used by organisms and is also a natural antioxidant for the treatment of pathologies driven by low levels of endogenous antioxidants. In order to establish a safer and more efficient process for LA production, we developed a new biological method for LA synthesis based on the emerging knowledge of lipoic acid biosynthesis. We first cloned the lipD gene, which encodes the lipoyl domain of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase, allowing high levels of LipD production. Plasmids containing genes for the biosynthesis of LA were subsequently constructed utilizing various vectors and promotors to produce high levels of LA. These plasmids were transformed into the Escherichia coli strain BL21. Octanoic acid (OA) was used as the substrate for LA synthesis. One transformant, YS61, which carried lipD, lplA, and lipA, produced LA at levels over 200-fold greater than the wild-type strain, showing that LA could be produced efficiently in E. coli using genetic engineering methods. PMID:28068366

  17. Colored petri nets to model gene mutation and amino acids classification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinliang; Gao, Rui; Meng, Max Q-H; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2012-05-07

    The genetic code is the triplet code based on the three-letter codons, which determines the specific amino acid sequences in proteins synthesis. Choosing an appropriate model for processing these codons is a useful method to study genetic processes in Molecular Biology. As an effective modeling tool of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS), colored petri net (CPN) has been used for modeling several biological systems, such as metabolic pathways and genetic regulatory networks. According to the genetic code table, CPN is employed to model the process of genetic information transmission. In this paper, we propose a CPN model of amino acids classification, and further present the improved CPN model. Based on the model mentioned above, we give another CPN model to classify the type of gene mutations via contrasting the bases of DNA strands and the codons of amino acids along the polypeptide chain. This model is helpful in determining whether a certain gene mutation will cause the changes of the structures and functions of protein molecules. The effectiveness and accuracy of the presented model are illustrated by the examples in this paper.

  18. Sesamin modulates gene expression without corresponding effects on fatty acids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Schiller Vestergren, A; Wagner, L; Pickova, J; Rosenlund, G; Kamal-Eldin, A; Trattner, S

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of sesamin inclusion in vegetable oil-based diets fed to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The diets used differed in n-6/n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio (0.5 and 1) and sesamin content (high 5.8 g/kg, low 1.16 g/kg and no sesamin). The oils used in the feeds were a mixture of rapeseed, linseed and palm oil. Fish were fed for 4 months. Fatty acids and expression of hepatic genes involved in transcription, lipid uptake, desaturation, elongation and β-oxidation were measured. No major effects on the percentage of DHA in white muscle, liver triacylglycerol and phospholipid fraction were detected. Genes involved in β-oxidation, elongation and desaturation were affected by sesamin addition. Limited effects were seen on any of the transcription factors tested and no effect was seen on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). Expression of both SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 increased with sesamin addition. It was concluded that supplementation of fish feed with a high level of sesamin had a negative effect on the growth rate and live weight and did not alter the proportions of DHA in tissues even though gene expression was affected. Thus, more studies are needed to formulate a diet that would increase the percentage of DHA in fish without negative effects on fish growth.

  19. Suppression of rat hepatic fatty acid synthase and S14 gene transcription by dietary polyunsaturated fat.

    PubMed

    Blake, W L; Clarke, S D

    1990-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA levels by altering FAS gene transcription. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were meal-fed for 10 d a high glucose diet supplemented with 20% digestible energy as menhaden oil or tripalmitin. The transcription rate for FAS was determined by nuclear run-on analysis in hepatic nuclei isolated from rats 2 h postmeal. The values for transcription rates of FAS and S14 (a putative lipogenic protein) in rats fed menhaden oil were only 6 and 21%, respectively, of the rates in rats fed the tripalmitin diet (p less than 0.02). Gene transcription for beta-actin and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase did not differ between treatments. The reduction in hepatic FAS mRNA levels caused by dietary polyunsaturated fats appears to be caused primarily by an inhibition of FAS transcription. The control of transcription by polyunsaturated fats appears not to be mediated by cAMP because the transcription rate for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (whose gene is very sensitive to cAMP stimulation) was unaffected by the source of dietary fat.

  20. Novel Nickel Resistance Genes from the Rhizosphere Metagenome of Plants Adapted to Acid Mine Drainage▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mirete, Salvador; de Figueras, Carolina G.; González-Pastor, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Metal resistance determinants have traditionally been found in cultivated bacteria. To search for genes involved in nickel resistance, we analyzed the bacterial community of the rhizosphere of Erica andevalensis, an endemic heather which grows at the banks of the Tinto River, a naturally metal-enriched and extremely acidic environment in southwestern Spain. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of rhizosphere DNA revealed the presence of members of five phylogenetic groups of Bacteria and the two main groups of Archaea mostly associated with sites impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). The diversity observed and the presence of heavy metals in the rhizosphere led us to construct and screen five different metagenomic libraries hosted in Escherichia coli for searching novel nickel resistance determinants. A total of 13 positive clones were detected and analyzed. Insights about their possible mechanisms of resistance were obtained from cellular nickel content and sequence similarities. Two clones encoded putative ABC transporter components, and a novel mechanism of metal efflux is suggested. In addition, a nickel hyperaccumulation mechanism is proposed for a clone encoding a serine O-acetyltransferase. Five clones encoded proteins similar to well-characterized proteins but not previously reported to be related to nickel resistance, and the remaining six clones encoded hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins of uncertain functions. This is the first report documenting nickel resistance genes recovered from the metagenome of an AMD environment. PMID:17675438

  1. Cell cycle regulatory effects of retinoic Acid and forskolin are mediated by the cyclin C gene.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Katri M; Malinen, Marjo; Ropponen, Antti; Väisänen, Sami; Carlberg, Carsten

    2009-10-23

    As a partner of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 3, Cyclin C controls cellular proliferation and, together with CDK8, represses gene transcription. In this study, we showed that the highly expressed Cyclin C gene is a direct target of the nuclear hormone all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in HEK293 human embryonal kidney cells. The RA receptor (RAR) gamma associates with a Cyclin C promoter region containing two RAR binding sites. The Cyclin C gene also directly responds to the cAMP activator Forskolin via the transcription factor CREB1 (cAMP response element-binding protein 1), for which we identified four binding sites within the first 2250 bp of its promoter. RARgamma and CREB1 show functional convergence via the corepressor NCoR1, which controls in particular the Forskolin response of Cyclin C. The histone deacetylases 1, 5, 6, 7 and 11 are involved in the basal expression of Cyclin C, but in HEK293 and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells the antiproliferative effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) are not mediated by Cyclin C. However, cell cycle progressing effects of all-trans RA and Forskolin are dependent on Cyclin C expression levels. This suggests that the primary regulation of Cyclin C by all-trans RA and Forskolin mediates some of the cell cycle control actions of these compounds.

  2. Enhanced Acid Tolerance in Bifidobacterium longum by Adaptive Evolution: Comparison of the Genes between the Acid-Resistant Variant and Wild-Type Strain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyun; Ren, Fazheng; Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Guo, Huiyuan; Hou, Caiyun

    2016-03-01

    Acid stress can affect the viability of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium. This study aimed to improve the acid tolerance of Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 using adaptive evolution. The stress response, and genomic differences of the parental strain and the variant strain were compared by acid stress. The highest acid-resistant mutant strain (BBMN68m) was isolated from more than 100 asexual lines, which were adaptive to the acid stress for 10(th), 20(th), 30(th), 40(th), and 50(th) repeats, respectively. The variant strain showed a significant increase in acid tolerance under conditions of pH 2.5 for 2 h (from 7.92 to 4.44 log CFU/ml) compared with the wildtype strain (WT, from 7.87 to 0 log CFU/ml). The surface of the variant strain was also smoother. Comparative whole-genome analysis showed that the galactosyl transferase D gene (cpsD, bbmn68_1012), a key gene involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, was altered by two nucleotides in the mutant, causing alteration in amino acids, pI (from 8.94 to 9.19), and predicted protein structure. Meanwhile, cpsD expression and EPS production were also reduced in the variant strain (p < 0.05) compared with WT, and the exogenous WT-EPS in the variant strain reduced its acid-resistant ability. These results suggested EPS was related to acid responses of BBMN68.

  3. Identification of the gene for β-fructofuranosidase from Ceratocystis moniliformis CMW 10134 and characterization of the enzyme expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background β-Fructofuranosidases (or invertases) catalyse the commercially-important biotransformation of sucrose into short-chain fructooligosaccharides with wide-scale application as a prebiotic in the functional foods and pharmaceutical industries. Results We identified a β-fructofuranosidase gene (CmINV) from a Ceratocystis moniliformis genome sequence using protein homology and phylogenetic analysis. The predicted 615 amino acid protein, CmINV, grouped with an existing clade within the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 32 and showed typical conserved motifs of this enzyme family. Heterologous expression of the CmINV gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742∆suc2 provided further evidence that CmINV indeed functions as a β-fructofuranosidase. Firstly, expression of the CmINV gene complemented the inability of the ∆suc2 deletion mutant strain of S. cerevisiae to grow on sucrose as sole carbohydrate source. Secondly, the recombinant protein was capable of producing short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) when incubated in the presence of 10% sucrose. Purified deglycosylated CmINV protein showed a molecular weight of ca. 66 kDa and a Km and Vmax on sucrose of 7.50 mM and 986 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Its optimal pH and temperature conditions were determined to be 6.0 and 62.5°C, respectively. The addition of 50 mM LiCl led to a 186% increase in CmINV activity. Another striking feature was the relatively high volumetric production of this protein in S. cerevisiae as one mL of supernatant was calculated to contain 197 ± 6 International Units of enzyme. Conclusion The properties of the CmINV enzyme make it an attractive alternative to other invertases being used in industry. PMID:24225070

  4. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  5. Identification of genes and pathways involved in the synthesis of Mead acid (20:3n-9), an indicator of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ichi, Ikuyo; Kono, Nozomu; Arita, Yuka; Haga, Shizuka; Arisawa, Kotoko; Yamano, Misato; Nagase, Mana; Fujiwara, Yoko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (Mead acid, 20:3n-9) is synthesized from oleic acid during a state of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Mead acid is thought to be produced by the same enzymes that synthesize arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but the genes and the pathways involved in the conversion of oleic acid to Mead acid have not been fully elucidated. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cultured cells are generally very low compared to those in mammalian tissues. In this study, we found that cultured cells, such as NIH3T3 and Hepa1-6 cells, have significant levels of Mead acid, indicating that cells in culture are in an EFAD state under normal culture conditions. We then examined the effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of fatty acid desaturases and elongases on the level of Mead acid, and found that knockdown of Elovl5, Fads1, or Fads2 decreased the level of Mead acid. This and the measured levels of possible intermediate products for the synthesis of Mead acid such as 18:2n-9, 20:1n-9 and 20:2n-9 in the knocked down cells indicate two pathways for the synthesis of Mead acid: pathway 1) 18:1n-9→(Fads2)→18:2n-9→(Elovl5)→20:2n-9→(Fads1)→20:3n-9 and pathway 2) 18:1n-9→(Elovl5)→20:1n-9→(Fads2)→20:2n-9→(Fads1)→20:3n-9.

  6. Exploiting genes and functional diversity of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosyntheses in Lonicera japonica and their substitutes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhouyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-25

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and luteolin are active compounds in Lonicera japonica, a plant of high medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a comprehensive overview of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis in L. japonica, as well as its substitutes Lonicera hypoglauca and Lonicera macranthoides. The gene sequence feature and gene expression patterns in various tissues and buds of the species were characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 14 chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes were identified from the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the function of individual gene could be differentiation and induce active compound diversity. Their orthologous genes were also recognized in L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides genomic datasets, except for LHCHS1 and LMC4H2. The expression patterns of these genes are different in the tissues of L. japonica, L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides. Results also showed that CGAs were controlled in the first step of biosynthesis, whereas both steps controlled luteolin in the bud of L. japonica. The expression of LJFNS2 exhibited positive correlation with luteolin levels in L. japonica. This study provides significant information for understanding the functional diversity of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and the luteolin biosynthesis, active compound diversity of L. japonica and its substitutes, and the different usages of the three species.

  7. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  8. Amino acids in Tobamovirus coat protein controlling pepper L(1a) gene-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Ikumi; Shimomoto, Yoshifumi; Sawada, Hiromasa; Tomita, Reiko; Sekine, Ken-Taro; Kiba, Akinori; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Kobayashi, Kappei; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2012-10-01

    In pepper plants (genus Capsicum), the resistance against Tobamovirus spp. is conferred by L gene alleles. The recently identified L variant L(1a) can recognize coat proteins (CPs) of Tobacco mild green mosaic virus Japanese strain (TMGMV-J) and Paprika mild mottle virus Japanese strain (PaMMV-J), but not of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), as the elicitor to induce resistance at 24 °C. Interestingly, L(1a) gene-mediated resistance against TMGMV-J, but not PaMMV-J, is retained at 30 °C. This observation led us to speculate that L(1a) can discriminate between CPs of TMGMV-J and PaMMV-J. In this study, we aimed to determine the region(s) in CP by which L(1a) distinguishes TMGMV-J from PaMMV-J. By using chimeric CPs consisting of TMGMV-J and PaMMV-J, we found that the chimeric TMGMV-J CP, whose residues in the β-sheet domain were replaced by those of PaMMV-J, lost its ability to induce L(1a) gene-mediated resistance at 30 °C. In contrast, the chimeric PaMMV-J CP with the β-sheet domain replaced by TMGMV-J CP was able to induce L(1a) gene-mediated resistance at 30 °C. Furthermore, viral particles were not detected in the leaves inoculated with either chimeric virus. These observations indicated that the amino acids within the β-sheet domain were involved in both the induction of L(1a) gene-mediated resistance and virion formation. Further analyses using chimeric CPs of TMGMV-J and PMMoV indicated that amino acids within the β-sheet domain alone were not sufficient for the induction of L(1a) gene-mediated resistance by TMGMV-J CP. These results suggest that multiple regions in Tobamovirus CP are implicated in the induction of L(1a) gene-mediated resistance.

  9. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity.

  10. Comparative nucleic acid transfection efficacy in primary hepatocytes for gene silencing and functional studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary hepatocytes are the best resource for in vitro studies directed at understanding hepatic processes at the cellular and molecular levels, necessary for novel drug development to treat highly prevalent diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There is a need to identify simple methods to genetically manipulate primary hepatocytes and conduct functional studies with plasmids, small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). New lipofection reagents are available that have the potential to yield higher levels of transfection with reduced toxicity. Findings We have tested several liposome-based transfection reagents used in molecular biology research. We show that transfection efficiency with one of the most recently developed formulations, Metafectene Pro, is high with plasmid DNA (>45% cells) as well as double stranded RNA (>90% with siRNA or microRNA). In addition, negligible cytotoxicity was present with all of these nucleic acids, even if cells were incubated with the DNA:lipid complex for 16 hours. To provide the proof of concept that these conditions can be used not only for overexpression of a gene of interest, but also in RNA interference applications, we targeted two liver expressed genes, Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-1 and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 using plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA expression. In addition, similar transfection conditions were used to optimally deliver siRNA and microRNA. Conclusions We have identified a lipid-based reagent for primary hepatocyte transfection of nucleic acids currently used in molecular biology laboratories. The conditions described here can be used to expedite a large variety of research applications, from gene function studies to microRNA target identification. PMID:21244687

  11. Nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene encoding fatty acid reductase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1993-02-26

    The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (EMBL Accession No. 65156) encoding fatty acid reductase (FAR) of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the encoded amino acid sequence deduced. The fatty acid reductase is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex. The complex is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde which serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reaction. The protein comprises 478 amino acid residues and has a calculated M(r) of 53,858. Alignment and comparison of the fatty acid reductase of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio harveyi B392 and Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 shows that there is 70% and 59% amino acid residues identity, respectively.

  12. Polymer production by Klebsiella pneumoniae 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid hydroxylase genes cloned in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gibello, A; Ferrer, E; Sanz, J; Martin, M

    1995-01-01

    The expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae hpaA and hpaH genes, which code for 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid hydroxylase in Escherichia coli K-12 derivative strains, is associated with the production of a dark brown pigment in the cultures. This pigment has been identified as a polymer which shows several of the characteristics reported for microbial melanins and results from the oxidative activity of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid hydroxylase on some dihydroxylated compounds to form o-quinones. A dibenzoquinone is formed from the oxidation of different mono- or dihydroxylated aromatic compounds by the enzyme prior to polymerization. We report a hydroxylase activity, other than tyrosinase, that is associated with the synthesis of a bacterial melanin. PMID:8534083

  13. A single dose of lysergic acid diethylamide influences gene expression patterns within the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have profound effects on humans including hallucinations and detachment from reality. These remarkable behavioral effects have many similarities to the debilitating symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. The effects of hallucinogens are thought to be mediated by serotonin receptor activation; however, how these drugs elicit the unusual behavioral effects remains largely a mystery, despite much research. We have undertaken the first comprehensive analysis of gene expression influenced by acute LSD administration in the mammalian brain. These studies represent a novel approach to elucidate the mechanism of action of this class of drugs. We have identified a number of genes that are predicted to be involved in the processes of synaptic plasticity, glutamatergic signaling and cytoskeletal architecture. Understanding these molecular events will lead to new insights into the etiology of disorders whose behavioral symptoms resemble the temporary effects of hallucinogenic drugs, and also may ultimately result in new therapies.

  14. Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Tierney, M L; Mullet, J E

    1992-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant lipid derivatives that resemble mammalian eicosanoids in structure and biosynthesis. These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. Here we report the quantitative determination of JA/MeJA in planta by a procedure based on the use of [13C,2H3]MeJA as an internal standard. Wounded soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. cv. Williams) stems rapidly accumulated MeJA and JA. Addition of MeJA to soybean suspension cultures also increased mRNA levels for three wound-responsive genes (chalcone synthase, vegetative storage protein, and proline-rich cell wall protein) suggesting a role for MeJA/JA in the mediation of several changes in gene expression associated with the plants' response to wounding.

  15. Novel hyaluronic acid-chitosan nanoparticles as non-viral gene delivery vectors targeting osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Ding; Zhao, Hui-Qing; Wang, Kun; Lv, Lu-Lu

    2011-11-28

    Gene therapy is a promising new treatment strategy for common joint-disorders such as osteoarthritis. The development of safe, effective, targeted non-viral gene carriers is important for the clinical success of gene therapy. The present work describes the use of hybrid hyaluronic acid (HA)/chitosan (CS) nanoparticles as novel non-viral gene delivery vectors capable of transferring exogenous genes into primary chondrocytes for the treatment of joint diseases. HA/CS plasmid-DNA nanoparticles were synthesized through the complex coacervation of the cationic polymers with pEGFP. Particle size and zeta potential were related to the weight ratio of CS to HA, where increases in nanoparticle size and decreases in surface charge were observed as HA content increased. The particle size and the zeta potential varied according to pH. Transfection of primary chondrocytes was performed under different conditions to examine variations in the pH of the transfection medium, different N/P ratios, different plasmid concentrations, and different molecular weights of chitosan. Transfection efficiency was maximized for a medium pH of approximately 6.8, an N/P ratio of 5, plasmid concentration of 4 μg/ml, and a chitosan molecular weight of 50 kDa. The transfection efficiency of HA/CS-plasmid nanoparticles was significantly higher than that of CS-plasmid nanoparticles under the same conditions. The average viability of cells transfected with HA/CS-plasmid nanoparticles was over 90%. These results suggest that HA/CS-plasmid nanoparticles could be an effective non-viral vector suitable for gene delivery to chondrocytes.

  16. Induction of YdeO, a regulator for acid resistance genes, by ultraviolet irradiation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Ishihama, Akira; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi

    2012-01-01

    YdeO, an AraC-type transcription factor, is an important regulator in the induction of acid-resistance genes in Escherichia coli. In this study, we found that ydeO expression was induced 20 min after exposure to UV irradiation. This required the evgA and gadE genes in vivo. YdeO, induced by UV, controls the expression of a total of 21 genes. This accompanies SOS response in E. coli.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of the acid-inducible asr gene in enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Seputiene, Vaida; Suziedelis, Kestutis; Normark, Staffan; Melefors, Ojar; Suziedeliene, Edita

    2004-09-01

    We show here that transcription of the asr gene in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae is strongly dependent on the acidification level of the growth medium, with maximal induction at pH 4.0-4.5 as determined by Northern hybridization analysis. Previous gene array analyses have also shown that asr is the most acid-induced gene in the E. coli genome. Sequence alignment of the asr promoters from different enterobacterial species identified a highly conserved region located at position -70 to -30 relative to the asr transcriptional start site. By deletion of various segments of this region in the E. coli asr promoter it was shown that sequences upstream from the -40 position were important for induction. Transcription from the E. coli asr promoter was demonstrated to be growth-phase-dependent and to require the alternative sigma factor RpoS (sigma(S)) in stationary phase. Transcription of the asr gene was also found to be subject to negative control by the nucleoid protein H-NS.

  18. Polycomb recruitment attenuates retinoic acid-induced transcription of the bivalent NR2F1 gene.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Kristian B; Mongan, Nigel P; Zhuang, Yong; Ng, Mary M; Benoit, Yannick D; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2013-07-01

    Polycomb proteins play key roles in mediating epigenetic modifications that occur during cell differentiation. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates the tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). In this study, we identify a distinguishing feature of two classes of PRC2 target genes, represented by the Nr2F1 (Coup-TF1) and the Hoxa5 gene, respectively. Both genes are transcriptionally activated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and display increased levels of the permissive H3K9/K14ac and tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 4 epigenetic marks in response to RA. However, while in response to RA the PRC2 and H3K27me3 marks are greatly decreased at the Hoxa5 promoter, these marks are initially increased at the Nr2F1 promoter. Functional depletion of the essential PRC2 protein Suz12 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology enhanced the RA-associated transcription of Nr2F1, Nr2F2, Meis1, Sox9 and BMP2, but had no effect on the Hoxa5, Hoxa1, Cyp26a1, Cyp26b1 and RARβ2 transcript levels in wild-type embryonic stem cells. We propose that PRC2 recruitment attenuates the RA-associated transcriptional activation of a subset of genes. Such a mechanism would permit the fine-tuning of transcriptional networks during differentiation.

  19. Chitosan-thioglycolic acid conjugate: an alternative carrier for oral nonviral gene delivery?

    PubMed

    Martien, Ronny; Loretz, Brigitta; Thaler, Marlene; Majzoob, Sayeh; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    Regarding safety concerns, nonviral gene delivery vehicles that have the required efficiency and safety for use in human gene therapy are being widely investigated. The aim of this study was to synthesize and evaluate a thiolated chitosan to improve the efficacy of oral gene delivery systems. Thiolated chitosan was synthesized by introducing thioglycolic acid (TGA) to chitosan via amide bond formation mediated by a carbodiimide. Based on this conjugate, nanoparticles with pDNA were generated at pH 4.0 and 5.0. Cytotoxicity of the thiolated chitosan/pDNA nanoparticles on Caco-2 cells was evaluated. The diameter of thiolated chitosan/pDNA nanoparticles was in the range of 100-200 nm. The zeta potential was determined to be 5-6 mV. Due to stability toward nucleases, the transfection rate of thiolated chitosan/pDNA nanoparticles was fivefold higher than that of unmodified chitosan/pDNA nanoparticles. Lactate dehydrogenase tests for thiolated chitosan/pDNA (pH 4.0 and 5.0) showed that (3.79 +/- 0.23)% and (2.9 +/- 0.13)% cell damage. According to these results, thiolated chitosan represents promising excipients for preparation DNA nanoparticles in nonviral gene delivery system.

  20. An additional Meyerozyma guilliermondii IMH3 gene confers mycophenolic acid resistance in fungal CTG clade species.

    PubMed

    Defosse, Tatiana A; Mélin, Céline; Clastre, Marc; Besseau, Sébastien; Lanoue, Arnaud; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Oudin, Audrey; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Vandeputte, Patrick; Linder, Tomas; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Courdavault, Vincent; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Papon, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The fungal CTG clade comprises a number of well-known yeasts that impact human health or with high biotechnological potential. To further extend the set of molecular tools dedicated to these microorganisms, the initial focus of this study was to develop a mycophenolic acid (MPA) resistance cassette. Surprisingly, while we were carrying out preliminary susceptibility testing experiments in a set of yeast species, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, although not being a MPA producer, was found to be primarily resistant toward this drug, whereas a series of nine related species were susceptible to MPA. Using comparative and functional genomic approaches, we demonstrated that all MPA-susceptible CTG clade species display a single gene, referred to as IMH3.1, encoding the MPA target inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and that MPA resistance relies on the presence in the M. guilliermondii genome of an additional IMPDH-encoding gene (IMH3.2). The M. guilliermondii IMH3.2 gene displays marked differences compared to IMH3.1 including the lack of intron, a roughly 160-fold higher transcription level and a serine residue at position 251. Placed under the control of the M. guilliermondii actin 1 gene promoter, IMH3.2 was successfully used to transform Lodderomyces elongisporus, Clavispora lusitaniae, Scheffersomyces stipitis and Candida parapsilosis.

  1. Regulation of basal and oxidative stress-triggered jasmonic acid-related gene expression by glutathione.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Glutathione is a determinant of cellular redox state with roles in defence and detoxification. Emerging concepts suggest that this compound also has functions in cellular signalling. Here, we report evidence that glutathione plays potentially important roles in setting signalling strength through the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Firstly, we show that basal expression of JA-related genes is correlated with leaf glutathione content when the latter is manipulated either genetically or pharmacologically. Secondly, analyses of an oxidative stress signalling mutant, cat2, reveal that up-regulation of the JA pathway triggered by intracellular oxidation requires accompanying glutathione accumulation. Genetically blocking this accumulation in a cat2 cad2 line largely annuls H2 O2 -induced expression of JA-linked genes, and this effect can be rescued by exogenously supplying glutathione. While most attention on glutathione functions in biotic stress responses has been focused on the thiol-regulated protein NPR1, a comparison of JA-linked gene expression in cat2 cad2 and cat2 npr1 double mutants provides evidence that glutathione acts through other components to regulate the response of this pathway to oxidative stress. Our study provides new information implicating glutathione as a factor determining basal JA gene expression and suggests novel glutathione-dependent control points that regulate JA signalling in response to intracellular oxidation.

  2. Abscisic acid stimulated ripening and gene expression in berry skins of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya; Sadamatsu, Keiko; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application on the transcriptome as well as the phenolic profiles in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown on the vine and cultured in vitro. ABA application rapidly induced the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol. Correlatively, the structural genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, their transcriptional regulators, as well as genes considered to be involved in the acylation and transport of anthocyanin into the vacuole, were upregulated by ABA treatment. The Genechip analysis showed that the ABA treatment significantly up- or downregulated a total of 345 and 1,482 transcripts in the skins of berries grown on the vine and cultured in vitro, respectively. Exogenous ABA modulated the transcripts associated with osmotic responses, stress responses, cell wall modification, auxin and ethylene metabolism and responses, in addition to the induction of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, and reduced those associated with photosynthesis; approximately half of these transcripts were identical to the previously reported ripening-specific genes.

  3. Polyethylenimine-polyacrylic acid nanocomposites: Type of bonding does influence the gene transfer efficacy and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sushil K; Ahmadi, Zeba; Gupta, Kailash C; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    The main aim of the current study is to compare the physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and gene-transfer ability of electrostatically and covalently linked nanocomposites of polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) on mammalian cells. Two series of nanocomposites, ionic PEI-PAA (iPP) and covalent PEI-PAA (cPP), were synthesized by varying the amounts of polyacrylic acid (PAA). Physicochemical characterization revealed that iPP nanopcomposites were of bigger sized than cPP nanocomposites with zeta potential almost comparable. Nucleic acid binding assay displayed that iPP and cPP nanocomposites, having sufficient cationic charge, efficiently interacted with plasmid DNA and completely retarded its electrophoretic mobility on agarose gel. In vitro MTT assay showed slightly higher cell viability of cPP/pDNA complexes over their ionic counterparts. Both the series of nanocomposite/pDNA complexes exhibited considerably higher transfection efficacy compared to pDNA complexes of native bPEI and the standard transfection reagent, Lipofectamine, with cPP/pDNA complexes performed much better than iPP/pDNA complexes. Flow cytometry further confirmed these findings where cPP-4/pDNA complex showed transfection in ∼ 85% HEK293 cells, while iPP-2/pDNA complex transfected ∼ 67% HEK293 cells. Lipofectamine/pDNA and bPEI/pDNA complexes could transfect just ∼ 35% and ∼ 26% HEK293 cells. All these results demonstrate the superiority of covalently linked nanocomposites (cPP) which could be used as efficient carriers for nucleic acids in future gene delivery applications.

  4. Genetic diversity analysis of buffalo fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and its differential expression among bovines.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Kumari, N; Mishra, S K; Mukesh, M; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-10

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene seems to be structurally and functionally different in bovines in view of their distinctive fatty acid synthesis process. Structural variation and differential expression of FASN gene is reported in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), a bovine species close to cattle, in this study. Amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of functionally important thioesterase (TE) domain of FASN revealed its conserved nature across mammals. Amino acid residues at TE domain, responsible for substrate binding and processing, were found to be invariant in all the mammalian species. A total of seven polymorphic nucleotide sites, including two in coding region of TE domain were identified across the 10 buffalo populations of riverine and swamp types. G and C alleles were found almost fixed at g18996 and g19056 loci, respectively in riverine buffaloes. Principal component analysis of three SNPs (g18433, g18996 and g19056) revealed distinct classification of riverine and swamp buffalo populations. Reverse Transcription-PCR amplification of mRNA corresponding to exon 8-10 region of buffalo FASN helped in identification of two transcript variants; one transcript of 565 nucleotides and another alternate transcript of 207 nucleotides, seems to have arisen through alternative splicing. Both the transcripts were found to be expressed in most of the vital tissues of buffalo with the highest expression in mammary gland. Semi-quantitative and real-time expression analysis across 13 different buffalo tissues revealed its highest expression in lactating mammary gland. When compared, expression of FASN was also found to be higher in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle of buffalo tissues, than cattle. However, the FASN expression was highest in adipose among the three tissues in both the species. Results indicate structural and functional distinctiveness of bovine FASN. Presence of alternate splicing in buffalo FASN also seems to be a unique phenomenon to the bovines

  5. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus), a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella) possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1) part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2) evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change. PMID:20482872

  6. Processing and amino acid sequence analysis of the mouse mammary tumor virus env gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, L O; Copeland, T D; Oroszlan, S; Schochetman, G

    1982-01-01

    The envelope proteins of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) are synthesized from a subgenomic 24S mRNA as a 75,000-dalton glycosylated precursor polyprotein which is eventually processed to the mature glycoproteins gp52 and gp36. In vivo synthesis of this env precursor in the presence of the core glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin yielded a precursor of approximately 61,000 daltons (P61env). However, a 67,000-dalton protein (P67env) was obtained from cell-free translation with the MMTV 24S mRNA as the template. To determine whether the portion of the protein cleaved from P67env to give P61env was removed from the NH2-terminal end of P67env and as such would represent a leader sequence, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the terminal peptide gp52 was determined. Glutamic acid, and not methionine, was found to be the amino-terminal residue of gp52, indicating that the cleaved portion was derived from the NH2-terminal end of P67env. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of gp52's from endogenous and exogenous C3H MMTVs were determined though 46 residues and found to be identical. However, amino acid composition and type-specific gp52 radioimmunoassays from MMTVs grown in heterologous cells indicated primary structure differences between gp52's of the two viruses. The nucleic acid sequence of cloned MMTV DNA fragments (J. Majors and H. E. Varmus, personal communication) in conjunction with the NH2-terminal sequence of gp52 allowed localization of the env gene in the MMTV genome. Nucleotides coding for the NH2 terminus of gp52 begin approximately 0.8 kilobase to the 3' side of the single EcoRI cleavage site. Localization of the env gene at that point agrees with the proposed gene order -gag-pol-env- and also allows sufficient coding potential for the glycoprotein precursor without extending into the long terminal repeat. Images PMID:6281457

  7. RNAi targeting putative genes in phosphatidylcholine turnover results in significant change in fatty acid composition in Crambe abyssinica seed oil.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Li, Xueyuan; Hofvander, Per; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Danni; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of three enzymes, LPCAT, PDCT and PDAT, involved in acyl turnover in phosphatidylcholine in order to explore the possibility of further increasing erucic acid (22:1) content in Crambe seed oil. The complete coding sequences of LPCAT1-1 and LPCAT1-2 encoding lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), PDCT1 and PDCT2 encoding phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), and PDAT encoding phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) were cloned from developing Crambe seeds. The alignment of deduced amino acid sequences displayed a high similarity to the Arabidopsis homologs. Transgenic lines expressing RNA interference (RNAi) targeting either single or double genes showed significant changes in the fatty acid composition of seed oil. An increase in oleic acid (18:1) was observed, to varying degrees, in all of the transgenic lines, and a cumulative effect of increased 18:1 was shown in the LPCAT-PDCT double-gene RNAi. However, LPCAT single-gene RNAi led to a decrease in 22:1 accumulation, while PDCT or PDAT single-gene RNAi had no obvious effect on the level of 22:1. In agreement with the abovementioned oil phenotypes, the transcript levels of the target genes in these transgenic lines were generally reduced compared to wild-type levels. In this paper, we discuss the potential to further increase the 22:1 content in Crambe seed oil through downregulation of these genes in combination with fatty acid elongase and desaturases.

  8. Iron-biofortification in rice by the introduction of three barley genes participated in mugineic acid biosynthesis with soybean ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Michiko; Aung, May S; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a serious problem around the world, especially in developing countries. The production of iron-biofortified rice will help ameliorate this problem. Previously, expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, in rice using an endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a two-fold increase in iron concentration in the resultant transgenic seeds. However, further over expression of ferritin did not produce an additional increase in the seed iron concentration, and symptoms of iron deficiency were noted in the leaves of the transgenic plants. In the present study, we aimed to further increase the iron concentration in rice seeds without increasing the sensitivity to iron deficiency by enhancing the uptake and transport of iron via a ferric iron chelator, mugineic acid. To this end, we introduced the soybean ferritin gene (SoyferH2) driven by two endosperm-specific promoters, along with the barley nicotianamine synthase gene (HvNAS1), two nicotianamine aminotransferase genes (HvNAAT-A and -B), and a mugineic acid synthase gene (IDS3) to enhance mugineic acid production in rice plants. A marker-free vector was utilized as a means of increasing public acceptance. Representative lines were selected from 102 transformants based on the iron concentration in polished seeds and ferritin accumulation in the seeds. These lines were grown in both commercially supplied soil (iron-sufficient conditions) and calcareous soil (iron-deficient conditions). Lines expressing both ferritin and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes showed signs of iron-deficiency tolerance in calcareous soil. The iron concentration in polished T3 seeds was increased by 4 and 2.5 times, as compared to that in non-transgenic lines grown in normal and calcareous soil, respectively. These results indicate that the concomitant introduction of the ferritin gene and mugineic acid biosynthetic genes effectively increased the seed iron level without causing iron sensitivity under iron-limited conditions.

  9. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers. PMID:26725848

  10. High affinity of acid phosphatase encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for thiamin phosphates.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, K

    1990-02-09

    The enzymatic properties of acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is repressed by thiamin and has thiamin-binding activity at pH 5.0, were investigated to study physiological functions. The following results led to the conclusion that thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase physiologically catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiamin phosphates in the periplasmic space of S. cerevisiae, thus participating in utilization of the thiamin moiety of the phosphates by yeast cells: (a) thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase showed Km values of 1.6 and 1.7 microM at pH 5.0 for thiamin monophosphate and thiamin pyrophosphate, respectively. These Km values were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those (0.61 and 1.7 mM) for p-nitrophenyl phosphate; (b) thiamin exerted remarkable competitive inhibition in the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate (Ki 2.2 microM at pH 5.0), whereas the activity for p-nitrophenyl phosphate was slightly affected by thiamin; (c) the inhibitory effect of inorganic phosphate, which does not repress the thiamin-repressible enzyme, on the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate was much smaller than that of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Moreover, the modification of thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase of S. cerevisiae with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide resulted in the complete loss of thiamin-binding activity and the Km value of the modified enzyme for thiamin monophosphate increased nearly to the value of the native enzyme for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. These results also indicate that the high affinity of the thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase for thiamin phosphates is due to the thiamin-binding properties of this enzyme.

  11. Interactions Between Fatty Acid Transport Proteins, Genes That Encode for Them, and Exercise: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, Avindra F; Mavros, Yorgi; Reeves, Anneliese; Hancock, Dale P; Gwinn, Tom; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-08-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) movement into skeletal muscle involves a highly mediated process in which lipid rafts are utilized in the cellular membrane, involving numerous putative plasma membrane-associated LCFA transport proteins. The process of LCFA uptake and oxidation is of particular metabolic significance both at rest and during light to moderate exercise. A comprehensive systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to investigate whether exercise alters protein and/or gene expression of putative LCFA transport proteins. There were 31 studies meeting all eligibility criteria, of these 13 utilized an acute exercise protocol and 18 examined chronic exercise adaptations. Seventeen involved a study design incorporating an exercise stimulus, while the remaining 14 incorporated a combined exercise and diet stimulus. Divergent data relating to acute exercise, as well as prolonged exercise training (≥3 weeks), on protein content (PC) response was identified for proteins CD36, FABPpm and CAV1. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) data did not always correspond to functional PC, supporting previous suggestions of a disconnect due to potentially limiting factors post gene expression. The large array of study designs, cohorts, and primary dependent variables within the studies included in the present review elucidate the complexity of the interaction between exercise and LCFA transport proteins. Summary of the results in the present review validate the need for further targeted investigation within this topic, and provide an important information base for such research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1671-1687, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acid-induced gene expression in Helicobacter pylori: study in genomic scale by microarray.

    PubMed

    Ang, S; Lee, C Z; Peck, K; Sindici, M; Matrubutham, U; Gleeson, M A; Wang, J T

    2001-03-01

    To understand the RNA expression in response to acid stress of Helicobacter pylori in genomic scale, a microarray membrane containing 1,534 open reading frames (ORFs) from strain 26695 was used. Total RNAs of H. pylori under growth conditions of pH 7.2 and 5.5 were extracted, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and labeled with biotin. Each microarray membrane was hybridized with cDNA probe from the same strain under two different pH conditions and developed by a catalyzed reporter deposition method. Gene expression of all ORFs was measured by densitometry. Among the 1,534 ORFs, 53 ORFs were highly expressed (> or = 30% of rRNA control in densitometry ratios). There were 445 ORFs which were stably expressed (<30% of rRNA in densitometry) under both pH conditions without significant variation. A total of 80 ORFs had significantly increased expression levels at low pH, while expressions of 4 ORFs were suppressed under acidic condition. The remaining 952 ORFs were not detectable under either pH condition. These data were highly reproducible and comparable to those obtained by the RNA slot blot method. Our results suggest that microarray can be used in monitoring prokaryotic gene expression in genomic scale.

  13. Molecular cloning, encoding sequence, and expression of vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J F; Kahn, J S; Esteban, M

    1986-01-01

    A rabbit poxvirus genomic library contained within the expression vector lambda gt11 was screened with polyclonal antiserum prepared against vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)-I enzyme. Five positive phage clones containing from 0.72- to 2.5-kilobase-pair (kbp) inserts expressed a beta-galactosidase fusion protein that was reactive by immunoblotting with the NTPase-I antibody. Hybridization analysis allowed the location of this gene within the vaccinia HindIIID restriction fragment. From the known nucleotide sequence of the 16-kbp vaccinia HindIIID fragment, we identified a region that contains a 1896-base open reading frame coding for a 631-amino acid protein. Analysis of the complete sequence revealed a highly basic protein, with hydrophilic COOH and NH2 termini, various hydrophobic domains, and no significant homology to other known proteins. Translational studies demonstrate that NTPase-I belongs to a late class of viral genes. This protein is highly conserved among Orthopoxviruses. Images PMID:3025846

  14. Mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene during progression of lung tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Takanori; Obo, Yumi; Furukawa, Mami; Hotta, Mayuko; Yamasaki, Ayako; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2009-01-16

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. In this study, mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 (LPA1) gene were investigated to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung tumors induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) in rats. Male Wistar rats, 6 weeks of age, were given 2000 ppm BHP in their drinking water for 12 weeks and then maintained without further treatment until sacrifice at 25 weeks. Genomic DNAs were extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and exons 2-4 were examined for mutations, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. No LPA1 mutations were detected in 15 hyperplasias, but 2 out of 12 adenomas (16.7%) and 7 out of 17 adenocarcinomas (41.2%). These results suggest that mutations of LPA1 gene may be involved in the acquisition of growth advantage from adenomas to adenocarcinomas in lung carcinogenesis induced in rats by BHP.

  15. Ethacrynic and alpha-lipoic acids inhibit vaccinia virus late gene expression.

    PubMed

    Spisakova, Martina; Cizek, Zdenek; Melkova, Zora

    2009-02-01

    Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980. However recently, the need of agents effective against poxvirus infection has emerged again. In this paper, we report an original finding that two redox-modulating agents, the ethacrynic and alpha-lipoic acids (EA, LA), inhibit growth of vaccinia virus (VACV) in vitro. The effect of EA and LA was compared with those of beta-mercaptoethanol, DTT and ascorbic acid, but these agents increased VACV growth in HeLa G cells. The inhibitory effects of EA and LA on the growth of VACV were further confirmed in several cell lines of different embryonic origin, in epithelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Finally, we have analyzed the mechanism of action of the two agents. They both decreased expression of VACV late genes, as demonstrated by western blot analysis and activity of luciferase expressed under control of different VACV promoters. In contrast, they did not inhibit virus entry into the cell, expression of VACV early genes or VACV DNA synthesis. The results suggest new directions in development of drugs effective against poxvirus infection.

  16. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-conjugated hyaluronic acid/protamine nanocomplexes for intracellular gene inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hyejung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Tae Gwan

    2007-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) was covalently conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA) via a reducible disulfide linkage, and the HA-ODN conjugate was complexed with protamine to increase the extent of cellular uptake and enhance the gene inhibition efficiency of GFP expression. The HA-ODN conjugate formed more stable polyelectrolyte complexes with protamine as compared to naked ODN, probably because of its increased charge density. The higher cellular uptake of protamine/HA-ODN complexes than that of protamine/naked ODN complexes was attributed to the formation of more compact nanosized complexes (approximately 200 nm in diameter) in aqueous solution. Protamine/HA-ODN complexes also showed a comparable level of GFP gene inhibition to that of cytotoxic polyethylenimine (PEI)/ODN complexes. Since both HA and protamine are naturally occurring biocompatible materials, the current formulation based on a cleavable conjugation strategy of ODN to HA could be potentially applied as safe and effective nonviral carriers for ODN and siRNA nucleic acid therapeutics.

  17. A Δ-9 Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene in the Microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl: Cloning and Functional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen-Bin; Liu, Fan; Sun, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-Gang

    2016-07-16

    The green alga Myrmecia incisa is one of the richest natural sources of arachidonic acid (ArA). To better understand the regulation of ArA biosynthesis in M. incisa, a novel gene putatively encoding the Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) was cloned and characterized for the first time. Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was employed to yield a full length cDNA designated as MiΔ9FAD, which is 2442 bp long in sequence. Comparing cDNA open reading frame (ORF) sequence to genomic sequence indicated that there are 8 introns interrupting the coding region. The deduced MiΔ9FAD protein is composed of 432 amino acids. It is soluble and localized in the chloroplast, as evidenced by the absence of transmembrane domains as well as the presence of a 61-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide. Multiple sequence alignment of amino acids revealed two conserved histidine-rich motifs, typical for Δ9 acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases. To determine the function of MiΔ9FAD, the gene was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain with impaired desaturase activity. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that MiΔ9FAD was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, generating palmitoleic acid and oleic acid through the addition of a double bond in the Δ9 position of palmitic acid and stearic acid, respectively.

  18. A Δ-9 Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene in the Microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl: Cloning and Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wen-Bin; Liu, Fan; Sun, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Myrmecia incisa is one of the richest natural sources of arachidonic acid (ArA). To better understand the regulation of ArA biosynthesis in M. incisa, a novel gene putatively encoding the Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) was cloned and characterized for the first time. Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was employed to yield a full length cDNA designated as MiΔ9FAD, which is 2442 bp long in sequence. Comparing cDNA open reading frame (ORF) sequence to genomic sequence indicated that there are 8 introns interrupting the coding region. The deduced MiΔ9FAD protein is composed of 432 amino acids. It is soluble and localized in the chloroplast, as evidenced by the absence of transmembrane domains as well as the presence of a 61-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide. Multiple sequence alignment of amino acids revealed two conserved histidine-rich motifs, typical for Δ9 acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases. To determine the function of MiΔ9FAD, the gene was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain with impaired desaturase activity. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that MiΔ9FAD was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, generating palmitoleic acid and oleic acid through the addition of a double bond in the Δ9 position of palmitic acid and stearic acid, respectively. PMID:27438826

  19. Soya protein hydrolysates modify the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes induced by fatty acids in ovine phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Politis, Ioannis; Theodorou, Georgios; Lampidonis, Antonios D; Chronopoulou, Roubini; Baldi, Antonella

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fatty acids are the circulating mediators acting in a pro-inflammatory manner towards activated circulating ovine monocyte/macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, whether soya protein hydrolysates (SPH) inhibit the fatty acid-induced increase in the production of pro-inflammatory responses by ovine phagocytes was tested in vitro. All the fatty acids tested (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic) increased (P<0·01; C18>C16>C14) membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) and u-PA free binding sites in cell membranes of activated ovine blood monocytes/macrophages, but only the C18 fatty acids (stearic, oleic) were effective towards blood neutrophils. The C18 fatty acids up-regulated (P<0·05) the gene expression of u-PA, u-PA receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and inducible NO synthase (in monocytes) but not that of cyclo-oxygenase-2, integrin α X and plasminogen activator inhibitor types 1 and 2 by ovine phagocytes. SPH blocked completely or partially all C18 fatty acid-induced changes in the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes. In conclusion, fatty acids selectively 'activate' ovine phagocytes, suggesting that these cells 'sense' metabolic signals derived from adipocytes. Soya protein peptides inhibit all changes in gene expression induced by fatty acids in ovine phagocytes in vitro. This constitutes a novel mechanism of action.

  20. Inhibition of retinoic acid-induced activation of 3' human HOXB genes by antisense oligonucleotides affects sequential activation of genes located upstream in the four HOX clusters.

    PubMed Central

    Faiella, A; Zappavigna, V; Mavilio, F; Boncinelli, E

    1994-01-01

    Most homeobox genes belonging to the Hox family are sequentially activated in embryonal carcinoma cells upon treatment with retinoic acid. Genes located at the 3' end of each one of the four Hox clusters are activated first, whereas upstream Hox genes are activated progressively later. This activation has been extensively studied for human HOX genes in the NT2/D1 cell line and shown to take place at the transcriptional level. To understand the molecular mechanisms of sequential HOX gene activation in these cells, we tried to modulate the expression of 3' HOX genes through the use of antisense oligonucleotides added to the culture medium. We chose the HOXB locus. A 5- to 15-fold reduction of the expression of HOXB1 and HOXB3 was sufficient to produce a significant inhibition of the activation of the upstream HOXB genes, as well as of their paralogs in the HOXA, HOXC, and HOXD clusters. Conversely, no effect was detectable on downstream HOX genes. The extent of this inhibition increased for progressively more-5' genes. The stability of the corresponding mRNAs appeared to be unaffected, supporting the idea that the observed effect might be mediated at the transcriptional level. These data suggest a cascade model of progressive activation of Hox genes, with a 3'-to-5' polarity. Images PMID:7911240

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tous, N; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPARα transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

  2. Retinoic acid is a negative regulator of AP-1-responsive genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, R; Rangarajan, P; Yang, N; Kliewer, S; Ransone, L J; Bolado, J; Verma, I M; Evans, R M

    1991-01-01

    We present evidence that retinoic acid can down-regulate transcriptional activation by the nuclear protooncogene c-jun. All three members of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subfamily (RAR alpha, RAR beta, and RAR gamma) can repress transcriptional induction of the human collagenase gene or a heterologous promoter that contains the collagenase promoter AP-1-binding site. In contrast, the retinoid X receptor fails to repress Jun/AP-1 activity, demonstrating a significant difference between the two regulatory systems through which retinoids exert their transcriptional control. Analysis of RAR alpha mutants in transfection studies reveals that the DNA-binding domain is important for the inhibition of Jun/AP-1 activity, even though the RAR does not bind the collagenase AP-1 site. Rather, gel-retardation assays reveal that bacterially expressed full-length RAR alpha inhibits binding of Jun protein to target DNA. These data suggest that the RAR alpha may form a nonproductive complex with c-Jun and provides a simple mechanisms by which retinoic acid may limit cell growth and possibly malignant progression. Images PMID:1648728

  3. Ascorbic acid contents in transgenic potato plants overexpressing two dehydroascorbate reductase genes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Aiguo; Shi, Qinghua; Yu, Xianchang

    2011-03-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) is one of the most important nutritional quality factors in many horticultural crops and has many biological activities in the human body. Dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1; DHAR) plays an important role in maintaining the normal level of ascorbic acid (AsA) by recycling oxidized ascorbic acid. To increase AsA content of potato, we isolated and characterized the cDNAs encoding two isoform DHARs localized in cytosol and chloroplast from potato, and developed two types of transgenic potato plants overexpressing cytosolic DHAR gene and chloroplastic DHAR, respectively. Incorporation of the transgene in the genome of potato was confirmed by PCR and real time RT-PCR. The overexpression of cytosolic DHAR significantly increased DHAR activities and AsA contents in potato leaves and tubers, whereas chloroplastic DHAR overexpression only increased DHAR activities and AsA contents in leaves, and did not change them in tubers. These results indicated that AsA content of potato can be elevated by enhancing recycling ascorbate via DHAR overexpression, moreover, cytosolic DHAR might play main important roles in improving the AsA contents of potato tubers.

  4. Enhancement of ganoderic acid production by constitutively expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Jun; He, Yi-Long; Zhang, De-Huai; Yue, Tong-Hui; Jiang, Lu-Xi; Li, Na; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-06-10

    The Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene was expressed in Ganoderma lucidum to enhance antitumor ganoderic acid (GA) production. The effects of VHb expression on the accumulation of GAs and lanosterol (intermediate) and the transcription of GA biosynthesis genes were also investigated. In VHb-expressing G. lucidum, the maximum concentrations of four individual GAs (GA-S, GA-T, GA-Mk and GA-Me) were 19.1±1.8, 34.6±2.1, 191.5±13.1 and 45.2±2.8μg/100mg dry weight, respectively, which were 1.4-, 2.2, 1.9- and 2.0-fold higher than those obtained in the wild-type strain. Moreover, the maximum lanosterol concentration in the strain expressing VHb was 1.28-fold lower than that in the wild-type strain. The transcription levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, squalene synthase, and lanosterol synthase genes were up-regulated by 1.6-, 1.5-, and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the strain expressing VHb. This work is beneficial in developing an efficient fermentation process for the hyperproduction of GAs.

  5. Influence of Different Levels of Lipoic Acid Synthase Gene Expression on Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longquan; Hiller, Sylvia; Simington, Stephen; Nickeleit, Volker; Maeda, Nobuyo; James, Leighton R.; Yi, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) but outcomes of many clinical trials are controversial. To define the role of antioxidants in kidney protection during the development of diabetic nephropathy, we have generated a novel genetic antioxidant mouse model with over- or under-expression of lipoic acid synthase gene (Lias). These models have been mated with Ins2Akita/+ mice, a type I diabetic mouse model. We compare the major pathologic changes and oxidative stress status in two new strains of the mice with controls. Our results show that Ins2Akita/+ mice with under-expressed Lias gene, exhibit higher oxidative stress and more severe DN features (albuminuria, glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial matrix expansion). In contrast, Ins2Akita/+ mice with highly-expressed Lias gene display lower oxidative stress and less DN pathologic changes. Our study demonstrates that strengthening endogenous antioxidant capacity could be an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of DN. PMID:27706190

  6. Immediate effects of retinoic acid on gene expression in primary murine osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Yorgan, Timur A; Heckt, Timo; Rendenbach, Carsten; Helmis, Christina; Seitz, Sebastian; Streichert, Thomas; Amling, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten

    2016-03-01

    Consistent with clinical observations demonstrating that hypervitaminosis A is associated with increased skeletal fracture risk, we have previously found that dietary retinol deprivation partially corrects the bone mineralization defects in a mouse model of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. That retinol-dependent signaling pathways impact the skeleton is further supported by various findings demonstrating a negative influence of retinoic acid (RA) on bone-forming osteoblasts. We hypothesized that RA would directly regulate the expression of specific target genes in osteoblasts, and we aimed to identify these by genome-wide expression analyses. Here we show that high dietary retinol intake in mice causes low bone mass associated with increased osteoclastogenesis and decreased osteoblastogenesis, but intact bone matrix mineralization. We additionally found that short-term treatment of primary osteoblasts with RA causes a rapid induction of specific genes involved in either retinol-dependent signaling (i.e. Rara, Crabp2) or skeletal remodeling (i.e. Twist2, Tnfsf11). In contrast, neither expression of established osteoblast differentiation markers nor the proliferation rate was immediately affected by RA administration. Collectively, our data suggest that the negative effects of vitamin A on skeletal integrity are explainable by an immediate influence of RA signaling on specific genes in osteoblasts that in turn influence bone remodeling.

  7. Influence of the dairy environment on gene expression and substrate utilization in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klaenhammer, Todd R; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2007-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the industrial production of fermented dairy products and form a group of related low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria. The major species used in dairy manufacturing are Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc. Traditionally most are applied as starter cultures for dairy fermentations or used as probiotic cultures, delivered in dairy vehicles. The appearance of the genomes of Lactococcus lactis, Bidifobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, 2 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, and pending completion of many draft genomic sequences, is now promoting in-depth investigation into the comparative genetic content of LAB. Moreover, whole-genome transcriptional arrays are quickly revealing critical genes/operons that are coordinately expressed and the impact of environmental factors on expression of multiple gene sets. Comparative genomics between multiple genomes is providing insights into genes that are important in metabolic, physiological, and functional roles for different LAB in the environments they inhabit, ranging from the gastrointestinal tract to milk and acidified dairy products.

  8. Genes associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Perez, R; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) influence meat tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and are beneficial to human health. The percentage of long-chain n-3 FAs in total FAs is termed the omega-3 index (O3I). It is thus of great interest to favor rising this index in bovine skeletal muscle, to obtain healthier, tastier, and more nutritive meat. This study was aimed to detect transcriptomic variations related to O3I in muscles in 15-month-old males of 4 Spanish cattle breeds raised under the same conditions. Through the analysis of extreme O3I phenotypes, 3 genes of interest (AANAT, UCP2 and AHA1) were identified. AANAT and UCP2 were strongly up-regulated, while AHA1 was repressed in animals with a high O3I. Moreover, gene expression differed between GDF8-null animal muscles (tested for nt821del11 and Q204X mutations) and the wild-type muscles for genes GDH1, IGF2R, FADS1, ASPH, and AIM1, all showing down-regulation in Asturiana de los Valles calves with muscle hypertrophy (GDF8-null). This shows that in GDF8-null animals other pathways are used for FA synthesis.

  9. Hybridization assay of insect antifreezing protein gene by novel multilayered porous silicon nucleic acid biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liangliang; Zhang, Hongyan; Mo, Jiaqing; Zhong, Furu; Lv, Changwu; Ma, Ji; Jia, Zhenhong

    2013-01-15

    A fabrication of a novel simple porous silicon polybasic photonic crystal with symmetrical structure has been reported as a nucleic acid biosensor for detecting antifreeze protein gene in insects (Microdera puntipennis dzhungarica), which would be helpful in the development of some new transgenic plants with tolerance of freezing stress. Compared to various porous silicon-based photonic configurations, porous silicon polytype layered structure is quite easy to prepare and shows more stability; moreover, polybasic photonic crystals with symmetrical structure exhibit interesting optical properties with a sharp resonance in the reflectance spectrum, giving a higher Q factor which causes higher sensitivity for sensing performance. In this experiment, DNA oligonucleotides were immobilized into the porous silicon pores using a standard crosslink chemistry method. The porous silicon polybasic symmetrical structure sensor possesses high specificity in performing controlled experiments with non-complementary DNA. The detection limit was found to be 21.3nM for DNA oligonucleotides. The fabricated multilayered porous silicon-based DNA biosensor has potential commercial applications in clinical chemistry for determination of an antifreeze protein gene or other genes.

  10. A novel gene therapy vector based on hyaluronic acid and solid lipid nanoparticles for ocular diseases.

    PubMed

    Apaolaza, Paola Stephanie; Delgado, Diego; del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Gascón, Alicia Rodríguez; Solinís, M Ángeles

    2014-04-25

    The introduction of therapeutic genes in target tissues is considered as a novel tool for the treatment of several diseases. We have developed nanoparticles consisting on SLNs, protamine (P) and hyaluronic acid (HA) as carrier for gene therapy. Stable complexes positively charged and with a particle size ranging from 240 nm to 340 nm were obtained. Transfection studies in ARPE-19 and HEK-293 cells showed the versatility of vectors to efficiently transfect cells with different division rate, widening the potential applications of SLN-based vectors. In ARPE 19cells, the incorporation of P and HA induced almost a 7-fold increase in the transfection capacity of SLNs. The CD44 inhibition studies suggested the participation of this receptor in the internalization of the vectors in this cell line. The intracellular disposition of DNA showed that the HA is able to modulate the high degree of condensation of DNA due to the protamine inside the cells; an important fact, if the vector is uptaken via non-degradative endocytosis. Besides, the therapeutic plasmid which encodes the protein retinoschisin was employed achieving a positive transfection in ARPE-19 cells, showing a promising application of this new non-viral system for the treatment of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis by gene therapy.

  11. Circulating n-3 fatty acids and trans-fatty acids, PLA2G2A gene variation and sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Bartz, Traci M; King, Irena B; Brody, Jennifer A; McKnight, Barbara; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; Johnson, Catherine O; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hesselson, Stephanie; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Siscovick, David S

    2016-01-01

    Whether genetic factors influence the associations of fatty acids with the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is largely unknown. To investigate possible gene-fatty acid interactions on SCA risk, we used a case-only approach and measured fatty acids in erythrocyte samples from 1869 SCA cases in a population-based repository with genetic data. We selected 191 SNP in ENCODE-identified regulatory regions of fifty-five candidate genes in fatty acid metabolic pathways. Using linear regression and additive genetic models, we investigated the association of the selected SNP with erythrocyte levels of fatty acids, including DHA, EPA and trans-fatty acids among the SCA cases. The assumption of no association in non-cases was supported by analysis of publicly available datasets containing over 8000 samples. None of the SNP-fatty acid associations tested among the cases reached statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. One SNP, rs4654990 near PLA2G2A, with an allele frequency of 0·33, was nominally associated with lower levels of DHA and EPA and higher levels of trans-fatty acids. The strongest association was with DHA levels (exponentiated coefficient for one unit (1 % of total fatty acids), 0·90, 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97; P = 0·003), indicating that for subjects with a coded allele, the OR of SCA associated with one unit higher DHA is about 90 % what it is for subjects with one fewer coded allele. These findings suggest that the associations of circulating n-3 and trans-fatty acids with SCA risk may be more pronounced in carriers of the rs4654990 G allele.

  12. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae.

  13. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  14. Patterns of evolutionary conservation of ascorbic acid-related genes following whole-genome triplication in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Du, Jianchang; Li, Ying

    2014-12-31

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important antioxidant in plants and an essential vitamin for humans. Extending the study of AsA-related genes from Arabidopsis thaliana to Brassica rapa could shed light on the evolution of AsA in plants and inform crop breeding. In this study, we conducted whole-genome annotation, molecular-evolution and gene-expression analyses of all known AsA-related genes in B. rapa. The nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) gene family and AsA l-galactose pathway genes were also compared among plant species. Four important insights gained are that: 1) 102 AsA-related gene were identified in B. rapa and they mainly diverged 12-18 Ma accompanied by the Brassica-specific genome triplication event; 2) during their evolution, these AsA-related genes were preferentially retained, consistent with the gene dosage hypothesis; 3) the putative proteins were highly conserved, but their expression patterns varied; and 4) although the number of AsA-related genes is higher in B. rapa than in A. thaliana, the AsA contents and the numbers of expressed genes in leaves of both species are similar, the genes that are not generally expressed may serve as substitutes during emergencies. In summary, this study provides genome-wide insights into evolutionary history and mechanisms of AsA-related genes following whole-genome triplication in B. rapa.

  15. Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Ascorbic Acid-Related Genes Following Whole-Genome Triplication in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Du, Jianchang; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important antioxidant in plants and an essential vitamin for humans. Extending the study of AsA-related genes from Arabidopsis thaliana to Brassica rapa could shed light on the evolution of AsA in plants and inform crop breeding. In this study, we conducted whole-genome annotation, molecular-evolution and gene-expression analyses of all known AsA-related genes in B. rapa. The nucleobase–ascorbate transporter (NAT) gene family and AsA l-galactose pathway genes were also compared among plant species. Four important insights gained are that: 1) 102 AsA-related gene were identified in B. rapa and they mainly diverged 12–18 Ma accompanied by the Brassica-specific genome triplication event; 2) during their evolution, these AsA-related genes were preferentially retained, consistent with the gene dosage hypothesis; 3) the putative proteins were highly conserved, but their expression patterns varied; and 4) although the number of AsA-related genes is higher in B. rapa than in A. thaliana, the AsA contents and the numbers of expressed genes in leaves of both species are similar, the genes that are not generally expressed may serve as substitutes during emergencies. In summary, this study provides genome-wide insights into evolutionary history and mechanisms of AsA-related genes following whole-genome triplication in B. rapa. PMID:25552535

  16. Metabolite gene regulation of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli with indoleacetic acid and other indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kline, E L; Brown, C S; Bankaitis, V; Montefiori, D C; Craig, K

    1980-04-01

    The ability of indole derivatives to facilitate RNA polymerase transcription of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli was shown to require the catabolite activator protein (CAP) as well as the araC gene product. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) was not obligatory for araBAD transcription when the cells were grown in the presence of 1 mM indole-3-acetic acid or in the presence of indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, or 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. However, these indole derivatives were unable to circumvent the cAMP requirement for the induction of the lactose and the maltose operons. Catabolic repression occurred when glucose was added to cells grown in the presence of L-arabinose and 1 mM indoleacetic acid or 1 mM cAMP. This effect was reversed at higher concentrations of indoleacetic acid or cAMP. The induction and the catabolite repression phenomena were quantitated by measuring the differential rate of synthesis of L-arabinose isomerase (the araA gene product). These results indicated that indole metabolites from various living systems may regulate gene expression and may be involved in "metabolite gene regulation."

  17. The mae1 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes a permease for malate and other C4 dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Grobler, J; Bauer, F; Subden, R E; Van Vuuren, H J

    1995-12-01

    The mae1 gene of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was identified on the basis of its ability to complement a mutant defective in the transport of malic acid. Analysis of the DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 1314 base pairs, encoding a polypeptide of 438 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 49 kDa. A hydropathy profile of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed a protein with ten membrane-spanning or associated domains and hydrophilic N- and C- termini. The predicted secondary structure of the protein in similar to models proposed for other integral membrane proteins from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The S. pombe mae1 gene encodes a single mRNA of 1.5 kb. The mea1 gene is expressed constitutively and is not subject to catabolite repression as was previously reported for the malate permease systems of Candida utilis and Hansenula anomala. The mae1 gene was mapped 2842 bp 5' to the MFml gene on chromosome I. Transport assays revealed that the mae1 gene encodes a permease involved in the uptake of L-malate, succinate and malonic acid.

  18. Isolation and dynamic expression of four genes involving in shikimic acid pathway in Camellia sinensis 'Baicha 1' during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xu-Jun; Zhao, Zhen; Xin, Hua-Hong; Wang, Ming-Le; Wang, Wei-Dong; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xing-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Flavonoids are the main flavor components and functional ingredients in tea, and the shikimic acid pathway is considered as one of the most important pathways in flavonoid biosynthesis, but little was known about the function of regulatory genes in the metabolism phenolic compounds in tea plant (Camellia sinensis), especially related genes in shikimic acid pathway. The dynamic changes of catechin (predominant flavonoid) contents were analyzed in this study, and four genes (CsPPT, CsDAHPS, CsSDH and CsCS) involving in shikimic acid pathway in C. sinensis albino cultivar 'Baicha 1' were cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA sequences of these genes were obtained using reverse transcription-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. At the albinistic stage, the amounts of all catechins decreased to the lowest levels, when epigallocatechin gallate was the highest, whereas gallocatechin-3-O-gallate the lowest. Gene expression patterns analyzed by qRT-PCR showed that CsPPT and CsDAHPS were highly expressed in flowers and buds, while CsSDH and CsCS showed high expression levels in buds and leaves. It was also found that the transcript abundance of shikimic acid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. The transcript levels of CsPPT and CsDAHPS were decreased at albinistic stage followed elevated expression, whereas CsSDH and CsCS were increased only at re-greening stage. Taken together, these findings suggested that these four genes in C. sinensis may play different roles in shikimic acid biosynthesis and these genes may have divergent functions.

  19. Systematic identification of genes involved in metabolic acid stress resistance in yeast and their potential as cancer targets

    PubMed Central

    Shin, John J.; Aftab, Qurratulain; Austin, Pamela; McQueen, Jennifer A.; Poon, Tak; Li, Shu Chen; Young, Barry P.; Roskelley, Calvin D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hallmark of all primary and metastatic tumours is their high rate of glucose uptake and glycolysis. A consequence of the glycolytic phenotype is the accumulation of metabolic acid; hence, tumour cells experience considerable intracellular acid stress. To compensate, tumour cells upregulate acid pumps, which expel the metabolic acid into the surrounding tumour environment, resulting in alkalization of intracellular pH and acidification of the tumour microenvironment. Nevertheless, we have only a limited understanding of the consequences of altered intracellular pH on cell physiology, or of the genes and pathways that respond to metabolic acid stress. We have used yeast as a genetic model for metabolic acid stress with the rationale that the metabolic changes that occur in cancer that lead to intracellular acid stress are likely fundamental. Using a quantitative systems biology approach we identified 129 genes required for optimal growth under conditions of metabolic acid stress. We identified six highly conserved protein complexes with functions related to oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III and IV), mitochondrial tRNA biosynthesis [glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase complex], histone methylation (Set1C–COMPASS), lysosome biogenesis (AP-3 adapter complex), and mRNA processing and P-body formation (PAN complex). We tested roles for two of these, AP-3 adapter complex and PAN deadenylase complex, in resistance to acid stress using a myeloid leukaemia-derived human cell line that we determined to be acid stress resistant. Loss of either complex inhibited growth of Hap1 cells at neutral pH and caused sensitivity to acid stress, indicating that AP-3 and PAN complexes are promising new targets in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, our data suggests that tumours may be genetically sensitized to acid stress and hence susceptible to acid stress-directed therapies, as many tumours accumulate mutations in mitochondrial

  20. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  1. All-trans retinoic acid enhances bystander effect of suicide-gene therapy against medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoyi; Gao, Yun; Pu, Ke; Ma, Li; Song, Xiaofu; Liu, Yunhui

    2011-10-03

    In our previous study we evaluated the antitumor effect of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) on human medulloblastomas (MBs) in a therapeutic delivery system using the immortalized neural stem cell (NSC) line C17.2. However, our findings indicated that the bystander effect between C17.2tk and Daoy MB cells was weak compared to the bystander effect between NSCtk and C6 glioma cells. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is the main mechanism mediating the bystander effect in HSV-tk gene therapy. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to up-regulate the expression of Connexin43 and GJIC. In this study we investigated the synergistic effect of ATRA and HSV-tk gene therapy in the treatment of MBs. We found that the expression of Connexin43 in Daoy cells was significantly increased when cells were exposed to 3μmol/l of ATRA (P<0.05). After co-culturing C17.2tk cells with Daoy cells at different ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:16, ATRA significantly increased the bystander anti-tumor effect compared to ATRA-untreated cells (P<0.05). In intracranial co-implantation experiments, mice co-implanted with C17.2tk/Daoy cells and treated with a combination of ATRA and GCV had significantly smaller tumors compared to the animals treated with GCV alone (P<0.05). Together, our results show that ATRA enhanced the tumoricidal effect in HSVtk/GCV suicide gene therapy against Daoy MB cells by strengthening the bystander effect in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Transcriptional analysis of different stress response genes in Escherichia coli strains subjected to sodium chloride and lactic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Tasara, Taurai

    2014-12-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli in food depends on its ability to adapt against encountered stress typically involving induction of stress response genes. In this study, the transcriptional induction of selected acid (cadA, speF) and salt (kdpA, proP, proW, otsA, betA) stress response genes was investigated among five E. coli strains, including three Shiga toxin-producing strains, exposed to sodium chloride or lactic acid stress. Transcriptional induction upon lactic acid stress exposure was similar in all but one E. coli strain, which lacked the lysine decarboxylase gene cadA. In response to sodium chloride stress exposure, proW and otsA were similarly induced, while significant differences were observed between the E. coli strains in induction of kdpA, proP and betA. The kdpA and betA genes were significantly induced in four and three strains, respectively, whereas one strain did not induce these genes. The proP gene was only induced in two E. coli strains. Interestingly, transcriptional induction differences in response to sodium chloride stress exposure were associated with survival phenotypes observed for the E. coli strains in cheese as the E. coli strain lacking significant induction in three salt stress response genes investigated also survived poorly compared to the other E. coli strains in cheese.

  3. Genome-Wide Methylation and Gene Expression Changes in Newborn Rats following Maternal Protein Restriction and Reversal by Folic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Stupka, Elia; Clark, Adrian J. L.; Langley-Evans, Simon

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the maternal diet during pregnancy can programme physiological and metabolic functions in the developing fetus, effectively determining susceptibility to later disease. The mechanistic basis of such programming is unclear but may involve resetting of epigenetic marks and fetal gene expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the livers of newborn rats exposed to maternal protein restriction. On day one postnatally, there were 618 differentially expressed genes and 1183 differentially methylated regions (FDR 5%). The functional analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant effect on DNA repair/cycle/maintenance functions and of lipid, amino acid metabolism and circadian functions. Enrichment for known biological functions was found to be associated with differentially methylated regions. Moreover, these epigenetically altered regions overlapped genetic loci associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both expression changes and DNA methylation changes were largely reversed by supplementing the protein restricted diet with folic acid. Although the epigenetic and gene expression signatures appeared to underpin largely different biological processes, the gene expression profile of DNA methyl transferases was altered, providing a potential link between the two molecular signatures. The data showed that maternal protein restriction is associated with widespread differential gene expression and DNA methylation across the genome, and that folic acid is able to reset both molecular signatures. PMID:24391732

  4. Jasmonic acid-dependent and -independent signaling pathways control wound-induced gene activation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Titarenko, E; Rojo, E; León, J; Sánchez-Serrano, J J

    1997-01-01

    Plant response to mechanical injury includes gene activation both at the wound site and systemically in nondamaged tissues. The model developed for the wound-induced activation of the proteinase inhibitor II (Pin2) gene in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) establishes the involvement of the plant hormones abscisic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) as key components of the wound signal transduction pathway. To assess in Arabidopsis thaliana the role of these plant hormones in regulating wound-induced gene expression, we isolated wound- and JA-inducible genes by the differential mRNA display technique. Their patterns of expression upon mechanical wounding and hormonal treatments revealed differences in the spatial distribution of the transcripts and in the responsiveness of the analyzed genes to abscisic acid and JA. A correlation can be established between sensitivity to JA and the accumulation of the transcripts in systemic tissues upon wounding. A comparative study of the wound response in wild-type and JA-insensitive coi1 mutant plants indicated that in A. thaliana wound signals are transmitted via at least two different pathways. One of them does not involve JA as a mediator and is preferentially responsible for gene activation in the vicinity of the wound site, whereas the other requires JA perception and activates gene expression throughout the aerial part of the plant. PMID:9342878

  5. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced changes in oil content, fatty acid profiles and expression of four fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris at early stationary growth phase.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Malinna; Loh, Saw Hong; Chuah, Tse Seng; Aziz, Ahmad; Cha, Thye San

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.

  6. Genes Specific for the Biosynthesis of Clavam Metabolites Antipodal to Clavulanic Acid Are Clustered with the Gene for Clavaminate Synthase 1 in Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Roy H.; Paradkar, Ashish S.; Anders, Cecilia; Barton, Barry; Jensen, Susan E.

    1999-01-01

    Portions of the Streptomyces clavuligerus chromosome flanking cas1, which encodes the clavaminate synthase 1 isoenzyme (CAS1), have been cloned and sequenced. Mutants of S. clavuligerus disrupted in cvm1, the open reading frame located immediately upstream of cas1, were constructed by a gene replacement procedure. Similar techniques were used to generate S. clavuligerus mutants carrying a deletion that encompassed portions of the two open reading frames, cvm4 and cvm5, located directly downstream of cas1. Both classes of mutants still produced clavulanic acid and cephamycin C but lost the ability to synthesize the antipodal clavam metabolites clavam-2-carboxylate, 2-hydroxymethyl-clavam, and 2-alanylclavam. These results suggested that cas1 is clustered with genes essential and specific for clavam metabolite biosynthesis. When a cas1 mutant of S. clavuligerus was constructed by gene replacement, it produced lower levels of both clavulanic acid and most of the antipodal clavams except for 2-alanylclavam. However, a double mutant of S. clavuligerus disrupted in both cas1 and cas2 produced neither clavulanic acid nor any of the antipodal clavams, including 2-alanylclavam. This outcome was consistent with the contribution of both CAS1 and CAS2 to a common pool of clavaminic acid that is shunted toward clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:10223939

  7. Inducible overexpression of the FUM1 gene in saccharomyces cerevisiae: Localization of fumarase and efficient fumaric acid bioconversion to L-Malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Peleg, Y.; Rokem, J.S.; Goldberg, I.; Pines, O. )

    1990-09-01

    Cloning of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FUM1 gene downstream of the strong GAL10 promoter resulted in inducible overexpression of fumarase in the yeast. The overproducing strain exhibited efficient bioconversion of fumaric acid to L-malic acid with an apparent conversion value of 88% and a conversion rate of 80.4 mmol of fumaric acid/h per g of cell wet weight, both of which are much higher than parameters known for industrial bacterial strains. The only product of the conversion reaction was L-malic acid, which was essentially free of the unwanted by-product succinic acid. The GAL10 promoter situated upstream of a promoterless FUM1 gene led to production and correct distribution of the two fumarase isoenzyme activities between cytosolic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. The amino-terminal sequence of fumarase contains the mitochondrial signal sequence since (i) 92 of 463 amino acid residues from the amino terminus of fumarase are sufficient to localize fumarase-lacZ fusions to mitochondria and (ii) fumarase and fumarase-lacZ fusions lacking the amino-terminal sequence are localized exclusively in the cytosol. The possibility that both mitochondrial and cytosolic fumarases are derived from the same initial translation product is discussed.

  8. Cloning and characterization of the NapA acid phosphatase/phosphotransferase of Morganella morganii: identification of a new family of bacterial acid-phosphatase-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Thaller, M C; Lombardi, G; Berlutti, F; Schippa, S; Rossolini, G M

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding a minor phosphate-irrepressible acid phosphatase (named NapA) of Morganella morganii was cloned and sequenced, and its product characterized. NapA is a secreted acid phosphatase composed of four 27 kDa polypeptide subunits. The enzyme is active on several organic phosphate monoesters but not on diesters, and is also endowed with transphosphorylating activity from organic phosphoric acid esters to nucleosides and other compounds with free hydroxyl groups. Its activity is inhibited by EDTA, inorganic phosphate, nucleosides and Ca2+, but not by fluoride or tartrate, and is enhanced by Mg2+, Co2+ and Zn2+. At the sequence level, the NapA enzyme did not show similarities to any other sequenced bacterial phosphatases. However, a search for homologous genes in sequence databases allowed identification of two open reading frames located within sequenced regions of the Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis genomes respectively, encoding proteins of unknown function which are highly homologous to the Morganella enzyme. Moreover, the properties of the NapA enzyme are very similar to those reported for the periplasmic nonspecific acid phosphatase II of Salmonella typhimurium (for which no sequence data are available). These data point to the existence of a new family of bacterial acid phosphatases, which we propose designating class B bacterial acid phosphatases.

  9. Inactivation of the lys7 gene, encoding saccharopine reductase in Penicillium chrysogenum, leads to accumulation of the secondary metabolite precursors piperideine-6-carboxylic acid and pipecolic acid from alpha-aminoadipic acid.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Leopoldo; Martín de Valmaseda, Eva; Casqueiro, Javier; Ullán, Ricardo V; Lamas-Maceiras, Mónica; Bañuelos, Oscar; Martín, Juan F

    2004-02-01

    Pipecolic acid serves as a precursor of the biosynthesis of the alkaloids slaframine and swainsonine (an antitumor agent) in some fungi. It is not known whether other fungi are able to synthesize pipecolic acid. Penicillium chrysogenum has a very active alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway that is used for the synthesis of this precursor of penicillin. The lys7 gene, encoding saccharopine reductase in P. chrysogenum, was target inactivated by the double-recombination method. Analysis of a disrupted strain (named P. chrysogenum SR1-) showed the presence of a mutant lys7 gene lacking about 1,000 bp in the 3'-end region. P. chrysogenum SR1- lacked saccharopine reductase activity, which was recovered after transformation of this mutant with the intact lys7 gene in an autonomously replicating plasmid. P. chrysogenum SR1- was a lysine auxotroph and accumulated piperideine-6-carboxylic acid. When mutant P. chrysogenum SR1- was grown with L-lysine as the sole nitrogen source and supplemented with DL-alpha-aminoadipic acid, a high level of pipecolic acid accumulated intracellularly. A comparison of strain SR1- with a lys2-defective mutant provided evidence showing that P. chrysogenum synthesizes pipecolic acid from alpha-aminoadipic acid and not from L-lysine catabolism.

  10. Influence of invertase activity and glycerol synthesis and retention on fermentation of media with a high sugar concentration by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, D K; Lawlor, D T; Attfield, P V

    1997-01-01

    In the past, the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in substrates with a high concentration of sucrose (HSuc), such as sweet bread doughs, has been linked inversely to invertase activity of yeast strains. The present work defines the limits of the relationship between invertase activity and fermentation in hyperosmotic HSuc medium. Fourteen polyploid, wild-type strains of S. cerevisiae with different invertase levels gave a similar ranking of fermentation activity in HSuc and in medium in which glucose and fructose replaced sucrose (HGF medium). Thus, invertase is unlikely to be the most important determinant of fermentation in sweet doughs. Yeasts produce the compatible solute-osmoprotective compound glycerol when exposed to hyperosmotic environments. Under low sugar concentrations (and nonstressing osmotic pressure), there was no correlation between glycerol and fermentation activities. However, there was a strong correlation between the ability of yeasts to ferment in HSuc or HGF medium and their capacity to produce and retain glycerol intracellularly. There was also a strong correlation between intracellular glycerol and fermentation activity of yeasts in a medium in which the nonfermentable sugar alcohol sorbitol replaced most of the sugars (HSor), but the ability to produce and retain glycerol was greater when yeasts were incubated in HGF medium under the same osmotic pressure. The difference between the amounts of glycerol produced and retained in HSor and in HGF media varied with strains. This implies that high fermentable sugar concentrations cause physiological conditions that allow for enhanced glycerol production and retention, the degree of which is strain dependent. In conclusion, one important prerequisite for yeast strains to ferment media with high concentrations of sugar is the ability to synthesize glycerol and especially to retain it. PMID:8979348

  11. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  12. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. PMID:26450705

  13. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  14. A cytoskeleton-related gene, uso1, is required for intracellular protein transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains blocked in the protein secretion pathway are not able to induce sexual aggregation. We have utilized the defect of aggregation to concentrate the secretion- deficient cells and identified a new gene which functions in the process of intracellular protein transport. The new mutant, uso1, is temperature sensitive for growth and protein secretion. At the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C), uso1 mutant accumulated the core-glycosylated precursor form of the exported protein invertase in the cells. Ultrastructural study of the mutant fixed by the freeze- substitution method revealed expansion of the nuclear envelope lumen and accumulation of the ER at the restrictive temperature. Abnormally oriented bundles of microtubules were often found in the nucleus. The USO1 gene was cloned by complementation of the uso1 temperature- sensitive growth defect. DNA sequence analysis revealed a hydrophilic protein of 1790 amino acids with a COOH-terminal 1,100-amino acid-long alpha-helical structure characteristic of the coiled-coil rod region of the cytoskeleton-related proteins. These observations suggest that Uso1 protein plays a role as a cytoskeletal component in the protein transport from the ER to the later secretory compartments. PMID:2010462

  15. Gene expression studies for the analysis of domoic acid production in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle (Hasle) (Ps-n) is distinctive among the ecologically important marine diatoms because it produces the neurotoxin domoic acid. Although the biology of Ps-n has been investigated intensely, the characterization of the genes and biochemical pathways leading to domoic acid biosynthesis has been limited. To identify transcripts whose levels correlate with domoic acid production, we analyzed Ps-n under conditions of high and low domoic acid production by cDNA microarray technology and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) methods. Our goals included identifying and validating robust reference genes for Ps-n RNA expression analysis under these conditions. Results Through microarray analysis of exponential- and stationary-phase cultures with low and high domoic acid production, respectively, we identified candidate reference genes whose transcripts did not vary across conditions. We tested eleven potential reference genes for stability using RT-qPCR and GeNorm analyses. Our results indicated that transcripts encoding JmjC, dynein, and histone H3 proteins were the most suitable for normalization of expression data under conditions of silicon-limitation, in late-exponential through stationary phase. The microarray studies identified a number of genes that were up- and down-regulated under toxin-producing conditions. RT-qPCR analysis, using the validated controls, confirmed the up-regulation of transcripts predicted to encode a cycloisomerase, an SLC6 transporter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, a small heat shock protein, and an aldo-keto reductase, as well as the down-regulation of a transcript encoding a fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a-c binding protein, under these conditions. Conclusion Our results provide a strong basis for further studies of RNA expression levels in Ps-n, which will contribute to our understanding of genes involved in the production and release of domoic acid, an important

  16. Identification and expression of a stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene responsible for oleic acid accumulation in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Qiuqi; Li, Rufang; Xia, Xinli; Qin, Xiaowei; Guo, Huihong

    2015-02-01

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an oilseed tree that grows well on barren lands in dry climate. Its seeds contain a large amount of oil rich in oleic acid (18:1(Δ9)) and linoleic acid (18:2(Δ9, 12)). However, the molecular regulation of oil biosynthesis in X. sorbifolia seeds is poorly understood. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD, EC 1.14.99.6) is a plastid-localized soluble desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid, which plays a key role in determining the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, a full-length cDNA of XsSAD was isolated from developing X. sorbifolia embryos. The XsSAD open reading frame had 1194-bp, encoding a polypeptide of 397 amino acids. XsSAD expression in Escherichia coli cells resulted in increased 18:1(Δ9) level, confirming the biological activity of the enzyme encoded by XsSAD. XsSAD expression in Arabidopsis ssi2 mutants partially restored the morphological phenotype and effectively increased the 18:1(Δ9) level. The levels of other unsaturated fatty acids synthesized with 18:1(Δ9) as the substrate also increased to some degree. XsSAD in X. sorbifolia had a much higher expression in embryos than in leaves and petals. XsSAD expression also correlated well with the oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid levels in developing embryos. These data suggested that XsSAD determined the synthesis of oleic acid and contributed to the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid and total oil in X. sorbifolia seeds. A preliminary tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing system established in X. sorbifolia can also be helpfu