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Sample records for acid ion2 common

  1. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  2. Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sam H.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the roots of the common names of organic compounds most likely to be encountered by undergraduate organic chemistry students. Includes information for 19 amino acids, 17 aromatic compounds, and 21 carboxylic acids. (WRM)

  3. Association of Amino Acids with Common Complications of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Dagle, John M; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Ehinger, Noah; Poole, Stanley D.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Reese, Jeff; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed as a method of diagnosing or predicting the development of common complex neonatal diseases. Our objective was to identify metabolites associated with common complications of prematurity. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of medical data and metabolite measurements from routine neonatal screening on 689 preterm (<37 weeks of gestational age) neonates. Results We observed higher levels of phenylalanine in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS; P=1.7×10−5), the only association that was significant after correction for multiple testing. We found suggestive significance (P<0.001) of higher essential amino acids in infants with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Functionality of these findings was explored in the ductus arteriosus (DA) isolated from term and preterm mouse pups. None of the amino acids had a direct vasodilatory effect on the isolated DA. Conclusion We found newborns with RDS had higher levels of phenylalanine that may be due to impaired phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. We also detected marginally higher levels of all measured essential amino acids in infants with PDA. We did not find dilation of the mouse ductus for these metabolites indicating that instead of potentially causing PDA they are likely serving as markers of catabolism. PMID:23481552

  4. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  5. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  6. ELEVATED METHYLMALOIC ACID CONCENTRATIONS ARE COMMON AMONG ELDERLY AMERICANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To describe serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations of elderly Americans and examine relations between serum MMA and other factors, we used surplus sera collected from elderly (n=1,145) and young-adult (n=1,026) participants in Phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur...

  7. Common amino acid domain among endopolygalacturonases of ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Keon, J P; Waksman, G

    1990-01-01

    The endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) enzymes produced in vitro by three ascomycete fungi, Aspergillus niger, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were studied by using thin-layer isoelectric focusing and activity stain overlay techniques. The polygalacturonases from A. niger and S. sclerotiorum consisted of numerous isoforms, whereas the endopolygalacturonase from C. lindemuthianum consisted of a single protein species. The most abundant endopolygalacturonase isoform produced by each of these organisms was purified and characterized. Biochemical parameters, including molecular weight, isoelectric point, kinetic parameters, temperature and pH optima, and thermal stability, were determined. Considerable differences in physical and chemical properties were demonstrated among these fungal polygalacturonases. Antibodies raised against individual proteins exhibited little cross-reaction, suggesting that these enzymes differ structurally as well as biochemically. In contrast, the analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three proteins showed extensive homology, particularly in a region labeled domain 1 in which 84% of the amino acids were conserved. Images PMID:2403258

  8. Thermochemistry and dissociation dynamics of state-selected C/sub 4/H/sub 8/O/sub 2//sup +/ ions. 2. Butanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.J.; Fraser-Monteiro, M.L.; Fraser-Monteiro, L.; Baer, T.; Hass, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Photoionization efficiency curves and appearance energies for C/sub 4/H/sub 8/O/sub 2//sup +/, C/sub 3/H/sub 5/O/sub 2//sup +/, C/sub 2/H/sub 7/O/sup +/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/O/sub 2//sup +/, C/sub 3/H/sub 7//sup +/, C/sub 3/H/sub 6//sup +/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5//sup +/, and C/sub 2/H/sub 4//sup +/ from butanoic acid have been obtained. Structures and heats of formation for some of the ions are proposed. No evidence for metastable C/sub 4/H/sub 8/O/sub 2//sup +/ ions forming C/sub 3/H/sub 5/O/sub 2//sup +/ (m/e 73) and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/O/sub 2//sup +/ (m/e 60) was found in the photoion-photoelectron coincidence (PIPECO) results. An upper limit to the parent ion lifetimes is 0.1 ..mu..s. In constrast, to the photoionization results, electron impact ionization produces strong C/sub 4/H/sub 8/O/sub 2//sup +/ metastables with lifetimes in the 10-..mu..s range. This paradox can be resolved by postulating that photoionization produces only rapidly dissociating butanoic acid ions, while a long-lived isomerized structure (or structures), such as the enol form are accessible by electron impact.

  9. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages. PMID:16937334

  10. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration. PMID:25308636

  11. An Experimental and Computational Study of the Gas-Phase Acidities of the Common Amino Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Chelsea E; Stover, Michele L; Bokatzian, Samantha S; Davis, John T M; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2015-07-30

    Using proton-transfer reactions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and correlated molecular orbital theory at the G3(MP2) level, gas-phase acidities (GAs) and the associated structures for amides corresponding to the common amino acids have been determined for the first time. These values are important because amino acid amides are models for residues in peptides and proteins. For compounds whose most acidic site is the C-terminal amide nitrogen, two ions populations were observed experimentally with GAs that differ by 4-7 kcal/mol. The lower energy, more acidic structure accounts for the majority of the ions formed by electrospray ionization. G3(MP2) calculations predict that the lowest energy anionic conformer has a cis-like orientation of the [-C(═O)NH](-) group whereas the higher energy, less acidic conformer has a trans-like orientation of this group. These two distinct conformers were predicted for compounds with aliphatic, amide, basic, hydroxyl, and thioether side chains. For the most acidic amino acid amides (tyrosine, cysteine, tryptophan, histidine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid amides) only one conformer was observed experimentally, and its experimental GA correlates with the theoretical GA related to side chain deprotonation. PMID:26196065

  12. Mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common organic acids: Dosage and time effects.

    PubMed

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common low-molecular-weight organic acids with a focus on dosage and time effects. The results show that oxalic acid behaved differently from citric acid and malic acid in terms of mobilizing As that was bound to iron compounds. At an equivalent molar concentration, reactions between oxalic acid and soil-borne Fe were kinetically more favourable, as compared to those between either citric acid or malic acid and the soil-borne Fe. It was found that reductive dissolution of soil-borne Fe played a more important role in liberating As, as compared to non-reductive reactions. Prior to the 7th day of the experiment, As mobility increased with increasing dose of oxalic acid while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in mobilized As among the treatments with different doses of citric acid or malic acid. The dosage effect on soil-borne As mobilization in the citric acid and malic acid treatments became clear only after the 7th day of the experiment. Soluble Ca present in the soils could cause re-immobilization of As by competing with solution-borne Fe for available organic ligands to form practically insoluble organic compounds of calcium (i.e. calcium oxalate). This resulted in transformation of highly soluble organic complexes of iron (i.e. iron oxalate complexes) into slightly soluble organic compounds of iron (i.e. iron oxalate) or free ferric ion, which then reacted with the solution-borne arsenate ions to form practically insoluble iron arsenates in the latter part of the experiment. PMID:26774299

  13. The alpha-linolenic acid content of green vegetables commonly available in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C; Li, D; Sinclair, A J

    2001-07-01

    Green vegetable consumption has long been considered to have health benefits mainly due to the vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients (such as vitamin C, folate, antioxidants etc) contained in a vegetable-rich diet. Additionally, green vegetables are known to contain a relatively high proportion of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). However, there are no data available on the fatty acid composition and concentration of green vegetables commonly consumed in Australia. The present study determined the fatty acid content of 11 green vegetables that are commonly available in Australia. The total fatty acid concentrations of the vegetables under study ranged from 44 mg/100 g wet weight in Chinese cabbage to 372 mg/100 g in watercress. There were three PUFAs in all vegetables analyzed; these were 16:3n-3, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 fatty acids. Sample vegetables contained significant quantities of 16:3n-3 and 18:3n-3, ranging from 23 to 225 mg/100 g. Watercress and mint contained the highest amounts of 16:3n-3 and 18:3n-3, and parsley had the highest amount of 18:2n-6 in both percentage composition and concentration. Mint had the highest concentration of 18:3n-3 with a value of 195 mg/100 g, while watercress contained the highest concentration of 16:3n-3 at 45 mg/100 g. All 11 green vegetables contained a high proportion of PUFAs, ranging from 59 to 72% of total fatty acids. The omega-3 PUFA composition ranged from 40 to 62% of total fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid composition was less than 6% of total fatty acids. The proportion of saturated fatty acids ranged from 21% in watercress and mint to 32% of total fatty acids in Brussels sprouts. No eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were detected in any of the samples. Consumption of green vegetables could contribute to 18:3n-3 PUFA intake, especially for vegetarian populations. PMID:11582857

  14. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid--an alternative to common local antiseptics?

    PubMed

    Ryssel, H; Kloeters, O; Germann, G; Schäfer, Th; Wiedemann, G; Oehlbauer, M

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid has been commonly used in medicine for more than 6000 years for the disinfection of wounds and especially as an antiseptic agent in the treatment and prophylaxis of the plague. The main goal of this study was to prove the suitability of acetic acid, in low concentration of 3%, as a local antiseptic agent, especially for use in salvage procedures in problematic infections caused by organisms such as Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study was designed to compare the in vitro antimicrobial effect of acetic acid with those of common local antiseptics such as povidone-iodine 11% (Betaisodona), polyhexanide 0.04% (Lavasept), mafenide 5% and chlohexidine gluconate 1.5% cetrimide 15% (Hibicet). Former studies suggest the bactericidal effect of acetic acid, but these data are very heterogeneous; therefore, a standardised in vitro study was conducted. To cover the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A and B. The tests showed excellent bactericidal effect of acetic acid, particularly with problematic Gram-negative bacteria such as P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The microbiological spectrum of acetic acid is wide, even when tested at a low concentration of 3%. In comparison to our currently used antiseptic solutions, it showed similar - in some bacteria, even better - bactericidal properties. An evaluation of the clinical value of topical application of acetic acid is currently underway. It can be concluded that acetic acid in a concentration of 3% has excellent bactericidal effect and, therefore, seems to be suitable as a local antiseptic agent, but further clinical studies are necessary. PMID:19286325

  15. Structural studies on colanic acid, the common exopolysaccharide found in the Enterobacteriaceae, by partial acid hydrolysis. Oligosaccharides from colanic acid

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, I. W.

    1969-01-01

    The exopolysaccharide slime colanic acid has been isolated from representative strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Aerobacter cloacae. Analysis showed that each polymer contained glucose, galactose, fucose and glucuronic acid, together with acetate and pyruvate. The molar proportions of these components were 1:1·8:1·9:1:1:1 approximately. On the basis of periodate oxidation of the natural and deacetylated polysaccharide, glucose is proposed as the site of the acetyl groups. The pyruvate is attached to galactose. Three neutral oligosaccharides and ten electrophoretically mobile oligosaccharides were isolated and partially characterized. Four of the fragments were esters of pyruvic acid. Most oligosaccharides were isolated from all three polysaccharide preparations. Three further oligosaccharides were isolated from carboxyl-reduced colanic acid and sodium borotritide was used to label the glucose derived from glucuronic acid in these fragments. One trisaccharide was obtained from periodate-oxidized polysaccharide. On the basis of these oligosaccharides a repeating hexasaccharide unit of the following structure is proposed: [Formula: see text] The significance of this structure in colanic acid biosynthesis is discussed. PMID:4311825

  16. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. PMID:26076971

  17. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. PMID:26076971

  18. Common Amino Acid Subsequences in a Universal Proteome—Relevance for Food Science

    PubMed Central

    Minkiewicz, Piotr; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Iwaniak, Anna; Sokołowska, Jolanta; Starowicz, Piotr; Bucholska, Justyna; Hrynkiewicz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A common subsequence is a fragment of the amino acid chain that occurs in more than one protein. Common subsequences may be an object of interest for food scientists as biologically active peptides, epitopes, and/or protein markers that are used in comparative proteomics. An individual bioactive fragment, in particular the shortest fragment containing two or three amino acid residues, may occur in many protein sequences. An individual linear epitope may also be present in multiple sequences of precursor proteins. Although recent recommendations for prediction of allergenicity and cross-reactivity include not only sequence identity, but also similarities in secondary and tertiary structures surrounding the common fragment, local sequence identity may be used to screen protein sequence databases for potential allergens in silico. The main weakness of the screening process is that it overlooks allergens and cross-reactivity cases without identical fragments corresponding to linear epitopes. A single peptide may also serve as a marker of a group of allergens that belong to the same family and, possibly, reveal cross-reactivity. This review article discusses the benefits for food scientists that follow from the common subsequences concept. PMID:26340620

  19. Common Amino Acid Subsequences in a Universal Proteome--Relevance for Food Science.

    PubMed

    Minkiewicz, Piotr; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Iwaniak, Anna; Sokołowska, Jolanta; Starowicz, Piotr; Bucholska, Justyna; Hrynkiewicz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A common subsequence is a fragment of the amino acid chain that occurs in more than one protein. Common subsequences may be an object of interest for food scientists as biologically active peptides, epitopes, and/or protein markers that are used in comparative proteomics. An individual bioactive fragment, in particular the shortest fragment containing two or three amino acid residues, may occur in many protein sequences. An individual linear epitope may also be present in multiple sequences of precursor proteins. Although recent recommendations for prediction of allergenicity and cross-reactivity include not only sequence identity, but also similarities in secondary and tertiary structures surrounding the common fragment, local sequence identity may be used to screen protein sequence databases for potential allergens in silico. The main weakness of the screening process is that it overlooks allergens and cross-reactivity cases without identical fragments corresponding to linear epitopes. A single peptide may also serve as a marker of a group of allergens that belong to the same family and, possibly, reveal cross-reactivity. This review article discusses the benefits for food scientists that follow from the common subsequences concept. PMID:26340620

  20. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Marine Toxins - The Common and the Different

    PubMed Central

    Klisch, Manfred; Häder, Donat-P.

    2008-01-01

    Marine microorganisms harbor a multitude of secondary metabolites. Among these are toxins of different chemical classes as well as the UV-protective mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). The latter form a group of water-soluble, low molecular-weight (generally < 400) compounds composed of either an aminocyclohexenone or an aminocyclohexenimine ring, carrying amino acid or amino alcohol substituents. So far there has been no report of toxicity in MAAs but nevertheless there are some features they have in common with marine toxins. Among the organisms producing MAAs are cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and diatoms that also synthesize toxins. As in cyclic peptide toxins found in cyanobacteria, amino acids are the main building blocks of MAAs. Both, MAAs and some marine toxins are transferred to other organisms e.g. via the food chains, and chemical modifications can take place in secondary consumers. In contrast to algal toxins, the physiological role of MAAs is clearly the protection from harmful UV radiation by physical screening. However, other roles, e.g. as osmolytes and antioxidants, are also considered. In this paper the common characteristics of MAAs and marine toxins are discussed as well as the differences. PMID:18728764

  1. Weed control possibilities and harvest strategies for the Omega-3 fatty acid producing crop common purslane (Portulacca oleracea var. sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common purslane is traditionally considered a weed. Recent literature suggests the potential human health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid consumption. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in flax seed oil (LNA) and fish oil (DHA and EPA), but the highest known producer of Omega-3 fatty acid in plant tissu...

  2. Assessment of the arachidonic acid content in foods commonly consumed in the American diet.

    PubMed

    Taber, L; Chiu, C H; Whelan, J

    1998-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. When provided in the diet, it is cogently incorporated in membrane phospholipids and enhances eicosanoid biosynthesis in vivo and in vitro; however, controversy exists as to the levels of AA in food and in the diet. This study determined the amount of AA in cooked and raw portions of beef (rib eye), chicken (breast and thigh), eggs, pork (loin), turkey (breast), and tuna; it compared these results to values published in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 (HB-8). The cooked portions were prepared as described in HB-8. With the exception of chicken thigh and tuna, the levels of AA (w/w) in the selected foods analyzed were significantly higher, in general, than those values published in HB-8. The greatest differences were observed in beef (raw and cooked), turkey breast (raw and cooked), and pork (cooked) where AA levels were twice that of the values in HB-8. In contrast, the AA and n-3 fatty acid contents in tuna were almost half the HB-8 values. The present data indicate that HB-8 tends to underreport the amounts of AA in a number of foods commonly consumed in the American diet, and new initiatives should be considered to validate and update the current database for fatty acid composition of foods. PMID:9930399

  3. Genome-Wide Networks of Amino Acid Covariances Are Common among Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Donlin, Maureen J.; Szeto, Brandon; Gohara, David W.; Aurora, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated variation among positions in amino acid sequence alignments can reveal genetic dependencies at noncontiguous positions, but methods to assess these interactions are incompletely developed. Previously, we found genome-wide networks of covarying residue positions in the hepatitis C virus genome (R. Aurora, M. J. Donlin, N. A. Cannon, and J. E. Tavis, J. Clin. Invest. 119:225–236, 2009). Here, we asked whether such networks are present in a diverse set of viruses and, if so, what they may imply about viral biology. Viral sequences were obtained for 16 viruses in 13 species from 9 families. The entire viral coding potential for each virus was aligned, all possible amino acid covariances were identified using the observed-minus-expected-squared algorithm at a false-discovery rate of ≤1%, and networks of covariances were assessed using standard methods. Covariances that spanned the viral coding potential were common in all viruses. In all cases, the covariances formed a single network that contained essentially all of the covariances. The hepatitis C virus networks had hub-and-spoke topologies, but all other networks had random topologies with an unusually large number of highly connected nodes. These results indicate that genome-wide networks of genetic associations and the coordinated evolution they imply are very common in viral genomes, that the networks rarely have the hub-and-spoke topology that dominates other biological networks, and that network topologies can vary substantially even within a given viral group. Five examples with hepatitis B virus and poliovirus are presented to illustrate how covariance network analysis can lead to inferences about viral biology. PMID:22238298

  4. The distribution of common construction materials at risk to acid deposition in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipfert, Frederick W.; Daum, Mary L.

    Information on the geographic distribution of various types of exposed materials is required to estimate the economic costs of damage to construction materials from acid deposition. This paper focuses on the identification, evaluation and interpretation of data describing the distributions of exterior construction materials, primarily in the United States. This information could provide guidance on how data needed for future economic assessments might be acquired in the most cost-effective ways. Materials distribution surveys from 16 cities in the U.S. and Canada and five related databases from government agencies and trade organizations were examined. Data on residential buildings are more commonly available than on nonresidential buildings; little geographically resolved information on distributions of materials in infrastructure was found. Survey results generally agree with the appropriate ancillary databases, but the usefulness of the databases is often limited by their coarse spatial resolution. Information on those materials which are most sensitive to acid deposition is especially scarce. Since a comprehensive error analysis has never been performed on the data required for an economic assessment, it is not possible to specify the corresponding detailed requirements for data on the distributions of materials.

  5. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism: from rare Mendelian diseases to more common disorders.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Campeau, Philippe M; Lee, Brendan H

    2014-09-15

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism plays a central role in the pathophysiology of both rare inborn errors of metabolism and the more common multifactorial diseases. Although deficiency of the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDC) and associated elevations in the BCAAs and their ketoacids have been recognized as the cause of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) for decades, treatment options for this disorder have been limited to dietary interventions. In recent years, the discovery of improved leucine tolerance after liver transplantation has resulted in a new therapeutic strategy for this disorder. Likewise, targeting the regulation of the BCKDC activity may be an alternative potential treatment strategy for MSUD. The regulation of the BCKDC by the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase has also been implicated in a new inborn error of metabolism characterized by autism, intellectual disability and seizures. Finally, there is a growing body of literature implicating BCAA metabolism in more common disorders such as the metabolic syndrome, cancer and hepatic disease. This review surveys the knowledge acquired on the topic over the past 50 years and focuses on recent developments in the field of BCAA metabolism. PMID:24651065

  6. Nicotinic acid is a common regulator of heat-sensing TRPV1-4 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA, a.k.a. vitamin B3 or niacin) can reduce blood cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins whereas increase high-density lipoproteins. However, when NA is used to treat dyslipidemias, it causes a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly called flushing. A recent study showed that NA may cause flushing by lowering activation threshold temperature of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel, leading to its activation at body temperature. The finding calls into question whether NA might also interact with the homologous heat-sensitive TRPV2-4 channels, particularly given that TRPV3 and TRPV4 are abundantly expressed in keratinocytes of the skin where much of the flushing response occurs. We found that NA indeed potentiated TRPV3 while inhibited TRPV2 and TRPV4. Consistent with these gating effects, NA lowered the heat-activation threshold of TRPV3 but elevated that of TRPV4. We further found that activity of TRPV1 was substantially prolonged by extracellular NA, which may further enhance the direct activation effect. Consistent with the broad gating effect on TRPV1-4 channels, evidence from the present study hints that NA may share the same activation pathway as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common agonist for these TRPV channels. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying NA regulation of TRPV channels. PMID:25752528

  7. Nicotinic Acid is a Common Regulator of Heat-Sensing TRPV1-4 Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA, a.k.a. vitamin B3 or niacin) can reduce blood cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins whereas increase high-density lipoproteins. However, when NA is used to treat dyslipidemias, it causes a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly called flushing. A recent study showed that NA may cause flushing by lowering activation threshold temperature of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel, leading to its activation at body temperature. The finding calls into question whether NA might also interact with the homologous heat-sensitive TRPV2–4 channels, particularly given that TRPV3 and TRPV4 are abundantly expressed in keratinocytes of the skin where much of the flushing response occurs. We found that NA indeed potentiated TRPV3 while inhibited TRPV2 and TRPV4. Consistent with these gating effects, NA lowered the heat-activation threshold of TRPV3 but elevated that of TRPV4. We further found that activity of TRPV1 was substantially prolonged by extracellular NA, which may further enhance the direct activation effect. Consistent with the broad gating effect on TRPV1–4 channels, evidence from the present study hints that NA may share the same activation pathway as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common agonist for these TRPV channels. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying NA regulation of TRPV channels. PMID:25752528

  8. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism: from rare Mendelian diseases to more common disorders

    PubMed Central

    Burrage, Lindsay C.; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Lee, Brendan H.

    2014-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism plays a central role in the pathophysiology of both rare inborn errors of metabolism and the more common multifactorial diseases. Although deficiency of the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDC) and associated elevations in the BCAAs and their ketoacids have been recognized as the cause of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) for decades, treatment options for this disorder have been limited to dietary interventions. In recent years, the discovery of improved leucine tolerance after liver transplantation has resulted in a new therapeutic strategy for this disorder. Likewise, targeting the regulation of the BCKDC activity may be an alternative potential treatment strategy for MSUD. The regulation of the BCKDC by the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase has also been implicated in a new inborn error of metabolism characterized by autism, intellectual disability and seizures. Finally, there is a growing body of literature implicating BCAA metabolism in more common disorders such as the metabolic syndrome, cancer and hepatic disease. This review surveys the knowledge acquired on the topic over the past 50 years and focuses on recent developments in the field of BCAA metabolism. PMID:24651065

  9. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil. PMID:26292410

  10. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr Un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn's amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB's SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein meals

  11. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein

  12. d-Amino Acid Catabolism Is Common Among Soil-Dwelling Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Radkov, Atanas D; McNeill, Katlyn; Uda, Koji; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rhizosphere environments were examined in order to determine the identity and relative abundance of bacteria that catabolize d- and l-amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. All substrates were readily catabolized by bacteria from both environments, with most d-amino acids giving similar CFU counts to their l-amino acid counterparts. CFU count ratios between l- and d-amino acids typically ranged between 2 and 1. Isolates were phylogenetically typed in order to determine the identity of d-amino acid catabolizers. Actinobacteria, specifically the Arthrobacter genus, were abundant along with members of the α- and β-Proteobacteria classes. PMID:27169790

  13. D-Amino Acid Catabolism Is Common Among Soil-Dwelling Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Radkov, Atanas D; McNeill, Katlyn; Uda, Koji; Moe, Luke A

    2016-06-25

    Soil and rhizosphere environments were examined in order to determine the identity and relative abundance of bacteria that catabolize d- and l-amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. All substrates were readily catabolized by bacteria from both environments, with most d-amino acids giving similar CFU counts to their l-amino acid counterparts. CFU count ratios between l- and d-amino acids typically ranged between 2 and 1. Isolates were phylogenetically typed in order to determine the identity of d-amino acid catabolizers. Actinobacteria, specifically the Arthrobacter genus, were abundant along with members of the α- and β-Proteobacteria classes. PMID:27169790

  14. Common carp Cyprinus carpio responses to sub-chronic exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Giari, Luisa; Vincenzi, Fabio; Badini, Simone; Guerranti, Cristiana; Dezfuli, Bahram S; Fano, Elisa A; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an important and diffuse perfluorinated alkylated substance, but knowledge of the toxicological effects of this endocrine disrupter in fish is limited. Adult common carp Cyprinus carpio, L. were exposed to 200 ng/l (a concentration reported in impacted aquatic ecosystems) and 2 mg/l PFOA solutions in a flow-through system for 56 days to determine tissue accumulation and histological alterations of the primary target organs. PFOA was extracted from blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney, gonad, and brain by an ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.4 ng/g wet weight (ww). PFOA was not detectable in unexposed fish or in fish exposed to 200 ng/l, but was >LOD in most samples of carp exposed to 2 mg/l. Mean PFOA concentration ranged from 0.5 to 65 ng/g ww, depending on the tissue, with highest levels in the blood and liver. There were no significant differences in condition factor, hepato-somatic index, or gonado-somatic index among the fish of the three groups. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections of liver and gonad. Occurrence of atretic oocytes and a paucity of spermatozoa were documented in carp treated with 2 mg/l PFOA. Exposed fish did not show gross hepatic anomalies, but there was enhancement of hepatocytes in proliferation (positive to anti-PCNA antibody) compared to controls. PMID:27107988

  15. Effect of seed treatment with organic acids on the control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici and T. laevis) in wheat.

    PubMed

    Saidi, B; Azmeh, F; Mamluk, O F; Sikora, R A

    2001-01-01

    Common bunt caused by Tilletia tritici and T. laevis is an important disease, causes considerable losses in wheat yield on a world wild. The disease reduces yields, complicates harvesting and lowers the quality of the grain. It occurs more frequently and causes greater damage on winter wheat than on spring wheat. Grain standards designate wheat that has an unmistakable odor of smut or that contains smut balls, portions of balls, or spores of smut in excess of a quantity equal to 14 balls of average size in 250 g of wheat as "light smutty". Samples containing an excess of 30 balls, or their equivalent, in 250 g of wheat are graded as "smutty". Grain in these grades brings lower prices. Using commercial acetic acid and lactic acid, the pathogen was successfully controlled, but the treatment negatively affected seed germination and seedling vitality. Using dilutions of acetic acid and lactic acid, significant control of the pathogen also was achieved with acetic acid without causing phytotoxicity. Dilutions of lactic acid also gave good control, but showed some phytotoxicity. Using 30-50 ml/kg of vinegar, which is a natural source of acetic acid, proved to be one of the most effective alternatives for control of common bunt on wheat. The treatment had no negative effects on seed germination nor on seedling vitality. PMID:12425040

  16. Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage on the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Gang; Chen, Lei; Li, Junfeng; Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, Masataka; Shao, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage by using a small-scale fermentation system on the Tibetan plateau. (i) An inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) (L) or (ii) propionic acid (P) or (iii) inoculant + propionic acid (PL) were used as additives. After fermenting for 60 days, silos were opened and the aerobic stability was tested for the following 15 days. The results showed that all silages were well preserved with low pH and NH3 -N, and high lactic acid content and V-scores. L and PL silages showed higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid and crude protein content than the control silage. P silage inhibited lactic acid production. Under aerobic conditions, L silage had similar yeast counts as the control silage (> 10(5) cfu/g fresh matter (FM)); however, it numerically reduced aerobic stability for 6 h. P and PL silages showed fewer yeasts (< 10(5) cfu/g FM) (P < 0.05) and markedly improved the aerobic stability (> 360 h). The result suggested that PL is the best additive as it could not only improved fermentation quality, but also aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:25494579

  17. Solvation free energies of amino acid side chain analogs for common molecular mechanics water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirts, Michael R.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2005-04-01

    Quantitative free energy computation involves both using a model that is sufficiently faithful to the experimental system under study (accuracy) and establishing statistically meaningful measures of the uncertainties resulting from finite sampling (precision). In order to examine the accuracy of a range of common water models used for protein simulation for their solute/solvent properties, we calculate the free energy of hydration of 15 amino acid side chain analogs derived from the OPLS-AA parameter set with the TIP3P, TIP4P, SPC, SPC/E, TIP3P-MOD, and TIP4P-Ew water models. We achieve a high degree of statistical precision in our simulations, obtaining uncertainties for the free energy of hydration of 0.02-0.06kcal/mol, equivalent to that obtained in experimental hydration free energy measurements of the same molecules. We find that TIP3P-MOD, a model designed to give improved free energy of hydration for methane, gives uniformly the closest match to experiment; we also find that the ability to accurately model pure water properties does not necessarily predict ability to predict solute/solvent behavior. We also evaluate the free energies of a number of novel modifications of TIP3P designed as a proof of concept that it is possible to obtain much better solute/solvent free energetic behavior without substantially negatively affecting pure water properties. We decrease the average error to zero while reducing the root mean square error below that of any of the published water models, with measured liquid water properties remaining almost constant with respect to our perturbations. This demonstrates there is still both room for improvement within current fixed-charge biomolecular force fields and significant parameter flexibility to make these improvements. Recent research in computational efficiency of free energy methods allows us to perform simulations on a local cluster that previously required large scale distributed computing, performing four times as much

  18. Collaborative Strategies for Teaching Common Acid-Base Disorders to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Marie Warrer; Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Berg, Ronan M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and diagnose acid-base disorders is of the utmost importance in the clinical setting. However, it has been the experience of the authors that medical students often have difficulties learning the basic principles of acid-base physiology in the respiratory physiology curriculum, particularly when applying this knowledge to…

  19. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  20. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  1. Methyl jasmonate stimulates biosynthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol in seedlings of common buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, Marcin; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Sawicki, Tomasz; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Mitrus, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate has a strong effect on secondary metabolizm in plants, by stimulating the biosynthesis a number of phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important source of biologically active compounds. This research focuses on the detection and quantification of 2-phenylethylamine and its possible metabolites in the cotyledons, hypocotyl and roots of common buckwheat seedlings treated with methyl jasmonate. In cotyledons of buckwheat sprouts, only traces of 2-phenylethylamine were found, while in the hypocotyl and roots its concentration was about 150 and 1000-times higher, respectively. Treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in a 4-fold increase of the 2-phenylethylamine level in the cotyledons of 7-day buckwheat seedlings, and an 11-fold and 5-fold increase in hypocotyl and roots, respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment led also to about 4-fold increase of phenylacetic acid content in all examined seedling organs, but did not affect the 2-phenylethanol level in cotyledons, and slightly enhanced in hypocotyl and roots. It has been suggested that 2-phenylethylamine is a substrate for the biosynthesis of phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol, as well as cinnamoyl 2-phenethylamide. In organs of buckwheat seedling treated with methyl jasmonate, higher amounts of aromatic amino acid transaminase mRNA were found. The enzyme can be involved in the synthesis of phenylpyruvic acid, but the presence of this compound could not be confirmed in any of the examined organs of common buckwheat seedling. PMID:25856561

  2. Reactivity of Tannic Acid with Common Corrosion Products and Its Influence on the Hydrolysis of Iron in Alkaline Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; Araúz, E. Y.; Iglesias, J.; Delgado, Y.

    2003-06-01

    To ascertain the role of tannic acid in the anticorrosive protection of steels, the reaction between 5% tannic acid aqueous solutions with lepidocrocite, goethite, superparamagnetic goethite, akaganeite, poorly crystalline maghemite, magnetite and hematite was studied using color changes, infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. After three months of interaction with lepidocrocite, the formation of an iron tannate complex was detected by its dark blue color and confirmed by infrared and Mössbauer analysis. Evidence for the chemical transformation was obtained for goethite in nanoparticles and poorly crystalline maghemite after reaction for six months. The other iron compounds do not transform to another oxide or phase upon treatment with the tannic acid solution. These results showed that lepidocrocite is the most reactive phase and that the size and degree of crystallinity have strong influence on the formation of the tannate complexes. The precipitation of iron phases from alkaline solutions of iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate containing different amount of tannic acid and potassium nitrate as oxidative agent was also studied. Mössbauer and infrared results show that in the absence of tannic acid some common rust components are obtained (viz. goethite, superparamagnetic goethite, maghemite and non-stoichiometric magnetite). The presence of 0.1% tannic acid in a low alkalinity solution results in the precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides and some iron tannates. Concentrations of 1% tannic acid are required for the formation of the tannates complexes as main reaction product.

  3. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  4. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population. PMID:16711652

  5. Recognition of Conserved Amino Acid Motifs of Common Viruses and Its Role in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The triggers of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. Epidemiological studies suggest that common pathogens can exacerbate and also induce MS, but it has been difficult to pinpoint individual organisms. Here we demonstrate that in vivo clonally expanded CD4+ T cells isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a MS patient during disease exacerbation respond to a poly-arginine motif of the nonpathogenic and ubiquitous Torque Teno virus. These T cell clones also can be stimulated by arginine-enriched protein domains from other common viruses and recognize multiple autoantigens. Our data suggest that repeated infections with common pathogenic and even nonpathogenic viruses could expand T cells specific for conserved protein domains that are able to cross-react with tissue-derived and ubiquitous autoantigens. PMID:16362076

  6. Amino-acid substitution in alpha-spectrin commonly coinherited with nondominant hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tse, W T; Gallagher, P G; Jenkins, P B; Wang, Y; Benoit, L; Speicher, D; Winkelmann, J C; Agre, P; Forget, B G; Marchesi, S L

    1997-03-01

    Nondominant hereditary spherocytosis (ndHS) is a disorder characterized in some patients by severe hemolytic anemia and marked deficiency of erythrocyte spectrin. This report describes the identification of a variant spectrin chain, alpha-spectrin Bughill or alpha(BH), that is associated with this disorder in a number of patients. Tryptic maps of spectrin from affected individuals revealed an acidic shift in isoelectric point of the alphaII domain peptides at 46 kD and 35 kD. A point mutation at codon 970 of the alpha-spectrin gene (GCT-->GAT), that changes the encoded amino acid from an alanine to an aspartic acid, was identified in genomic DNA of affected patients. The alpha(BH) variant was present in 8 patients with ndHS from five different kindreds but was absent in 4 patients from two other kindreds. The 8 ndHS patients with the alpha(BH) variant appeared to be homozygous for the alpha(BH) variant by analysis of peptide maps of limited tryptic digests of erythrocyte spectrin. However, following genomic DNA analysis, only 2 of these patients were true homozygotes, whereas 6 were found to be doubly heterozygous for the alpha(BH) allele and a second, presumably abnormal, alpha-spectrin gene. These results suggest that, in these 6 patients, the second alpha-spectrin allele is in fact associated with one or more genetic defect(s), causing decreased accumulation of alpha-spectrin. The pattern of transmission of the alpha(BH) allele in certain families suggests that the alpha(BH) amino-acid substitution is not itself responsible for ndHS but is more likely a polymorphic variant that, in some but not all cases, is in linkage disequilibrium with another uncharacterized alpha-spectrin gene defect that itself is a cause of ndHS. PMID:9067503

  7. Vinorelbine and epirubicin share common features with polysialic acid and modulate neuronal and glial functions.

    PubMed

    Loers, Gabriele; Saini, Vedangana; Mishra, Bibhudatta; Gul, Sheraz; Chaudhury, Sidhartha; Wallqvist, Anders; Kaur, Gurcharan; Schachner, Melitta

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA), a large, linear glycan composed of 8 to over 100 α2,8-linked sialic acid residues, modulates development of the nervous system by enhancing cell migration, axon pathfinding, and synaptic targeting and by regulating differentiation of progenitor cells. PSA also functions in developing and adult immune systems and is a signature of many cancers. In this study we identified vinorelbine, a semi-synthetic third generation vinca alkaloid, and epirubicin, an anthracycline and 4'-epimer of doxorubicin, as PSA mimetics. Similar to PSA, vinorelbine and epirubicin bind to the PSA-specific monoclonal antibody 735 and compete with the bacterial analog of PSA, colominic acid in binding to monoclonal antibody 735. Vinorelbine and epirubicin stimulate neurite outgrowth of cerebellar neurons via the neural cell adhesion molecule, via myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, and via fibroblast growth factor receptor, signaling through Erk pathways. Furthermore, the two compounds enhance process formation of Schwann cells and migration of cerebellar neurons in culture, and reduce migration of astrocytes after injury. These novel results show that the structure and function of PSA can be mimicked by the small organic compounds vinorelbine and epirubicin, thus raising the possibility to re-target drugs used in treatment of cancers to nervous system repair. Vinorelbine and epirubicin, identified as PSA mimetics, enhance, like PSA, neuronal migration, neuritogenesis, and formation of Schwann cell processes, and reduce astrocytic migration. Ablating NCAM, inhibiting fibroblast growth factor (FGFR) receptor, or adding the effector domain of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) minimize the vinorelbine and epirubicin effects, indicating that they are true PSA mimetics triggering PSA-mediated functions. PMID:26443186

  8. The capacity of biochar made from common reeds to neutralise pH and remove dissolved metals in acid drainage.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Luke M; Willson, Philip; Hamilton, Benjamin; Butler, Greg; Seaman, Russell

    2015-10-01

    We tested the capacity of biochar (made at 450 °C from a common reed species) to neutralise pH and remove metals in two acid drainage waters (pH 2.6 and 4.6) using column leaching and batch mixing experiments. In the column experiments, the acid drainage water was neutralised upon passage through the biochar with substantial increases (4-5 pH units) in the leachate pH. In the batch experiments, the leachate pH remained above 6.5 when the drainage:biochar ratio was less than approximately 700:1 (L acid drainage:kg biochar) and 20:1 for the pH 4.6 and pH 2.6 drainage waters, respectively. Dissolved metal concentrations were reduced by 89-98 % (Fe ≈ Al > Ni ≈ Zn > Mn) in the leachate from the biochar. A key mechanism of pH neutralisation appears to be solid carbonate dissolution as calcite (CaCO3) was identified (via X-ray diffraction) in the biochar prior to contact with acid drainage, and dissolved alkalinity and Ca was observed in the leachate. Proton and metal removal by cation exchange, direct binding to oxygen-containing functional groups, and metal oxide precipitation also appears important. Further evaluation of the treatment capacity of other biochars and field trials are warranted. PMID:26004563

  9. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: A rare side effect of a common over-the-counter drug, Acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is an uncommon cutaneous reaction characterized by sudden onset of generalized non-follicular aseptic pustules. It is most often secondary to drugs but causes as varied from viral infection to insect bites are reported. A case report of a 48-year-old male who developed pustular eruptions after taking acetylsalicylic acid is reported here. Clinicians need to be aware of this entity when dealing with pustular rash as this rare side effect of a very common drug is both, easy to miss and easy to manage. PMID:23984244

  10. A Common Polymorphism in HIBCH Influences Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations in Blood Independently of Cobalamin.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Anne M; Pangilinan, Faith; Mills, James L; Shane, Barry; O'Neill, Mary B; McGaughey, David M; Velkova, Aneliya; Abaan, Hatice Ozel; Ueland, Per M; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Cunningham, Conal; Casey, Miriam; Cropp, Cheryl D; Kim, Yoonhee; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Wilson, Alexander F; Brody, Lawrence C

    2016-05-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a by-product of propionic acid metabolism through the vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-dependent enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase. Elevated MMA concentrations are a hallmark of several inborn errors of metabolism and indicators of cobalamin deficiency in older persons. In a genome-wide analysis of 2,210 healthy young Irish adults (median age 22 years) we identified a strong association of plasma MMA with SNPs in 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH, p = 8.42 × 10(-89)) and acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 (ACSF3, p = 3.48 × 10(-19)). These loci accounted for 12% of the variance in MMA concentration. The most strongly associated SNP (HIBCH rs291466; c:2T>C) causes a missense change of the initiator methionine codon (minor-allele frequency = 0.43) to threonine. Surprisingly, the resulting variant, p.Met1?, is associated with increased expression of HIBCH mRNA and encoded protein. These homozygotes had, on average, 46% higher MMA concentrations than methionine-encoding homozygotes in young adults with generally low MMA concentrations (0.17 [0.14-0.21] μmol/L; median [25(th)-75(th) quartile]). The association between MMA levels and HIBCH rs291466 was highly significant in a replication cohort of 1,481 older individuals (median age 79 years) with elevated plasma MMA concentrations (0.34 [0.24-0.51] μmol/L; p = 4.0 × 10(-26)). In a longitudinal study of 185 pregnant women and their newborns, the association of this SNP remained significant across the gestational trimesters and in newborns. HIBCH is unique to valine catabolism. Studies evaluating flux through the valine catabolic pathway in humans should account for these variants. Furthermore, this SNP could help resolve equivocal clinical tests where plasma MMA values have been used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. PMID:27132595

  11. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Åsa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Völzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2×10−201), ABCG2 (p = 3.1×10−26), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0×10−14), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7×10−14), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0×10−9), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1×10−8), GCKR (p = 1.4×10−9), LRRC16A (p = 8.5×10−9), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7×10−9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0×10−26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0×10−8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4×10−57 and p = 8.1×10−54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  12. Elevated expression of fatty acid synthase and nuclear localization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C are common among human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Wakamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Honda, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Iwaki, Toru

    2014-10-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), a brain-specific isoform of the CPT1 family, are upregulated in certain types of cancers, including gliomas. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis, and its phosphorylated form inhibits lipid synthesis. We examined the expression and subcellular localization of these fatty acid metabolism-related molecules in human gliomas. We performed immunostaining of two glioma cell lines (U373MG and U87MG) and 41 surgical specimens of diffuse gliomas with various histological grades (21 with the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation and 20 without the mutation). In the cultured glioma cells, CPT1C and phosphorylated ACC (p-ACC) were mainly localized to the nuclei, whereas FASN localized to the cytoplasm. In the surgical specimens, most glioma tissues showed nuclear staining for CPT1C and p-ACC, and cytoplasmic staining for FASN, regardless of the genetic status of IDH1 and the histological grade. Therefore, elevated cytoplasmic expression of FASN and nuclear localization of CPT1C are common among human diffuse gliomas, which may be regulated by the differential phosphorylation status of ACC in the cellular compartment. PMID:24984811

  13. Common Loon (Gavia immer) eggshell thickness and egg volume vary with acidity of nest lake in northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollentier, C.D.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental acidification has been associated with factors that may negatively affect reproduction in many waterbirds. Declines in lake pH can lead to reductions in food availability and quality, or result in the altered availability of toxic metals, such as mercury. A recent laboratory study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources indicated that Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks hatched from eggs collected on acidic lakes in northern Wisconsin may be less responsive to stimuli and exhibit reduced growth compared to chicks from neutral-pH lakes. Here we report on the relation between Common Loon egg characteristics (eggshell thickness and egg volume) and lake pH, as well as eggshell methylmercury content. Eggs (N = 84) and lake pH measurements were obtained from a four county region of northern Wisconsin. Egg-shells were 3-4% thinner on lakes with pH ??? 6.3 than on neutral-pH lakes and this relation was linear across the pH range investigated (P 0.05, n.s.) or lake pH. Results suggest that low lake pH may be associated with thinner eggshells and reduced egg volume in Common Loons. We speculate on the mechanisms that may lead to this phenomeno.

  14. Embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) preferentially regulate intracellular tissue pH during acid-base challenges.

    PubMed

    Shartau, Ryan B; Crossley, Dane A; Kohl, Zachary F; Brauner, Colin J

    2016-07-01

    The nests of embryonic turtles naturally experience elevated CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood PCO2  and a respiratory acidosis, resulting in reduced blood pH [extracellular pH (pHe)]. Some fishes preferentially regulate tissue pH [intracellular pH (pHi)] against changes in pHe; this has been proposed to be associated with exceptional CO2 tolerance and has never been identified in amniotes. As embryonic turtles may be CO2 tolerant based on nesting strategy, we hypothesized that they preferentially regulate pHi, conferring tolerance to severe acute acid-base challenges. This hypothesis was tested by investigating pH regulation in common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) reared in normoxia then exposed to hypercarbia (13 kPa PCO2 ) for 1 h at three developmental ages: 70% and 90% of incubation, and yearlings. Hypercarbia reduced pHe but not pHi, at all developmental ages. At 70% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.324 pH units while pHi of brain, white muscle and lung increased; heart, liver and kidney pHi remained unchanged. At 90% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.352 pH units but heart pHi increased with no change in pHi of other tissues. Yearlings exhibited a pHe reduction of 0.235 pH units but had no changes in pHi of any tissues. The results indicate common snapping turtles preferentially regulate pHi during development, but the degree of response is reduced throughout development. This is the first time preferential pHi regulation has been identified in an amniote. These findings may provide insight into the evolution of acid-base homeostasis during development of amniotes, and vertebrates in general. PMID:27091863

  15. Biochemical responses over time in common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during fed supplementation with α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Enamorado, Alain D; Martins, Atila C; Flores, Juliana A; Tesser, Marcelo Borges; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G; Monserrat, José Maria

    2015-10-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of lipoic acid (LA) supplementation (439.84±6.71 mg LA/kg feed) on antioxidants responses throughout the time in intestine, liver and muscle of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio. Two experimental groups were fed during four weeks with a diet with or without LA. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in these organs. Also, a technique to measure protein disulfide bonds and sulfhydryl groups was optimized for intestine samples. GST activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine after two weeks of supplementation. GSH content was also significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine, liver and muscle of fish fed with LA after two and three weeks, respectively. Total capacity antioxidant against peroxyl radicals was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the muscle of animals fed with LA after the fourth week. Concentration of disulfide bonds was higher in the intestine of fish fed with LA but this group also showed higher concentration of sulfhydryl groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation with LA is a safe strategy to induce antioxidant responses and improves the antioxidant status in different organs of common carp. Two week of supplementation are required to induce antioxidant responses in intestine and liver and three week for muscle. PMID:26037328

  16. Low dose of L-glutamic acid attenuated the neurological dysfunctions and excitotoxicity in bilateral common carotid artery occluded mice.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Muthiah; Abdul, Khadar K; Justin, Antony

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, produces excitotoxicity through its agonistic action on postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, resulting in neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that the administration of low doses of glutamate in cerebral ischemia could attenuate the excitotoxicity in neurons through its autoreceptor regulatory mechanism, and thereby control neurodegeneration. To test the hypothesis, the effect of L-glutamic acid (L-GA) 400 μmol/l/kg was evaluated in a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemic mouse model. Memantine was used as a positive control. Global ischemia in mice was induced by occlusion of both the common carotid artery (bilateral common carotid artery occlusion) for 20 min, followed by reperfusion injury. L-GA was infused slowly through the tail vein 30 min before the surgery and every 24 h thereafter until the end of the experiment. The time-dependent change in cerebral blood flow was monitored using a laser Doppler image analyzer. The neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neurobiochemicals ATP, glutathione, and nitric oxide were measured in the different regions of brain at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after reperfusion injury. L-GA increased locomotor activity, muscle coordination, and cerebral blood flow in ischemic mice at 72 h after ischemic insult. L-GA reduced glutamate levels in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus at 72 h, whereas GABA levels were elevated in all three brain regions studied. Further, L-GA elevated glutathione levels and attenuated nitric oxide levels, but failed to restore ATP levels 72 h after ischemia-reperfusion. We conclude that the gradual reduction of glutamate along with elevation of GABA in different brain regions could have contributed toward the neuroprotective effect of L-GA. Hence, a slow infusion of a low dose of L-GA could be beneficial in controlling excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration following ischemia

  17. Chemical Composition and Yield of Six Genotypes of Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): An Alternative Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Spyridon Α; Karkanis, Anestis; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ntatsi, Georgia; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Lykas, Christos; Khah, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual weed rich in omega-3 fatty acids which is consumed for its edible leaves and stems. In the present study six different genotypes of common purslane (A-F) were evaluated for their nutritional value and chemical composition. Nutritional value and chemical composition depended on genotype. Oxalic acid content was the lowest for genotype D, whereas genotypes E and F are more promising for commercial cultivation, since they have low oxalic acid content. Genotype E had a very good antioxidant profile and a balanced composition of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Regarding yield, genotype A had the highest yield comparing to the other genotypes, whereas commercial varieties (E and F) did not differ from genotypes B and C. This study provides new information regarding common purslane bioactive compounds as affected by genotype and could be further implemented in food industry for products of high quality and increased added value. PMID:26510561

  18. Acidic α-galactosidase is the most abundant nectarin in floral nectar of common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Flowers, V. Lynn; Yang, Min; Chen, Ling-Yang; Sun, Hang

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims To date, most floral nectarins (nectar proteins) are reported to function in nectar defence, particularly for insect-pollinated outcrossing species. We compared nectarin composition and abundance in selfing common tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) with outcrossing ornamental tobacco plants to elucidate the functional difference of nectarins in different reproductive systems. Methods Common tobacco (CT) nectarins were separated by SDS-PAGE and the N terminus of the most abundant nectarin was sequenced via Edman degradation. The full-length nectarin gene was amplified and cloned from genomic DNA and mRNA with hiTail-PCR and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and expression patterns were then investigated in different tissues using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Additionally, high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic analyses of nectar sugar composition, and other biochemical traits and functions of the novel nectarin were studied. Key Results The most abundant nectarin in CT nectar is an acidic α-galactosidase, here designated NTα-Gal. This compound has a molecular mass of 40 013 Da and a theoretical pI of 5·33. NTα-Gal has a conserved α-Gal characteristic signature, encodes a mature protein of 364 amino acids and is expressed in different organs. Compared with 27 other melliferous plant species from different families, CT floral nectar demonstrated the highest α-Gal activity, which is inhibited by d-galactose. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were not detected in CT nectar, indicating that NTα-Gal does not function in post-secretory hydrolysis. Moreover, tobacco plant fruits did not develop intact skin with galactose inhibition of NTα-Gal activity in nectar, suggesting that NTα-Gal induces cell-wall surface restructuring during the initial stages of fruit development. Conclusions α-Gal was the most abundant nectarin in selfing CT plants, but was not detected in the nectar of strictly outcrossing sister tobacco

  19. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.; Rossmann, Ronald; Gray, Brian R.; Arts, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in Wisconsin (USA) to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 mg/g to 1.23mg/g wet weight in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0–8.1) and were modeled as a function of maternal loon Hg exposure and egg laying order. Blood total Hg mass fractions in a sample of loon chicks ranged from 0.84ug/g to 3.86 ug/g wet weight at hatch. Factors other than mercury exposure that may have persistent consequences on development of chicks from eggs collected on low-pH lakes (i.e., egg selenium, calcium, and fatty acid mass fractions) do not seem to be contributing to reported differences in loon chick quality as a function of lake pH. However, it was observed that adult male loons holding territories on neutral-pH lakes were larger on average than those occupying territories on low-pH lakes. Differences in adult body size of common loons holding territories on neutral-versus low-pH lakes may have genetic implications for differences in lake-source-related quality (i.e., size) in chicks. The tendency for high in ovo Hg exposure and smaller adult male size to co-occur in low-pH lakes complicates the interpretation of the relative contributions of each to resulting chick quality.

  20. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Kenow, Kevin P; Meyer, Michael W; Rossmann, Ronald; Gray, Brian R; Arts, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    A field study was conducted in Wisconsin (USA) to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 µg/g to 1.23 µg/g wet weight in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0-8.1) and were modeled as a function of maternal loon Hg exposure and egg laying order. Blood total Hg mass fractions in a sample of loon chicks ranged from 0.84 µg/g to 3.86 µg/g wet weight at hatch. Factors other than mercury exposure that may have persistent consequences on development of chicks from eggs collected on low-pH lakes (i.e., egg selenium, calcium, and fatty acid mass fractions) do not seem to be contributing to reported differences in loon chick quality as a function of lake pH. However, it was observed that adult male loons holding territories on neutral-pH lakes were larger on average than those occupying territories on low-pH lakes. Differences in adult body size of common loons holding territories on neutral-versus low-pH lakes may have genetic implications for differences in lake-source-related quality (i.e., size) in chicks. The tendency for high in ovo Hg exposure and smaller adult male size to co-occur in low-pH lakes complicates the interpretation of the relative contributions of each to resulting chick quality. PMID:26096773

  1. Amino Acid Variation in HLA Class II Proteins Is a Major Determinant of Humoral Response to Common Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Begemann, Martin; McLaren, Paul J.; Bartha, István; Michel, Angelika; Klose, Beate; Schmitt, Corinna; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Schulz, Thomas F.; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Fellay, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the human antibody response to viral antigens is highly variable. To explore the human genetic contribution to this variability, we performed genome-wide association studies of the immunoglobulin G response to 14 pathogenic viruses in 2,363 immunocompetent adults. Significant associations were observed in the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 6 for influenza A virus, Epstein-Barr virus, JC polyomavirus, and Merkel cell polyomavirus. Using local imputation and fine mapping, we identified specific amino acid residues in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II proteins as the most probable causal variants underlying these association signals. Common HLA-DRβ1 haplotypes showed virus-specific patterns of humoral-response regulation. We observed an overlap between variants affecting the humoral response to influenza A and EBV and variants previously associated with autoimmune diseases related to these viruses. The results of this study emphasize the central and pathogen-specific role of HLA class II variation in the modulation of humoral immune response to viral antigens in humans. PMID:26456283

  2. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean. PMID:18588315

  3. Simultaneous HPTLC analysis of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol for the identification of four medicinal plants commonly available in the Indian market as Shankhpushpi.

    PubMed

    Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, Shrihari

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new, simple, sensitive, selective and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint and quantitative estimation method for the analysis of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol in Shankhpushpi botanicals. Linear ascending development was carried out in a twin trough glass chamber saturated with petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-toluene (7:2:1, v/v/v). The plate was dried, sprayed with anisaldehyde reagent and analyzed by CAMAG TLC scanner III at 580 nm. The system was found to give compact spots for ursolic acid (0.21), betulinic acid (0.29), stigmasterol (0.33) and lupeol (0.50). The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response is linear within the concentration range of 100-600 ng/spot for ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol. The concentration of 134.2 and 146.1 mg of ursolic acid per gram of Clitorea ternatea (CT) and Canscora decussata (CD); 110.6 mg of betulinic acid per gram of EA; 92.75, 154.95, 31.947 and 39.21 mg of stigmasterol per gram of Evolvulus alsinoides (EA), Convolvulus pluricaulis (CP), CT and CD; 30.12 mg of lupeol per gram of CT were found. The proposed HPTLC method may use for routine quality testing and identification of Shankhpushpi botanicals. PMID:25217706

  4. 13,16-Dimethyl Octacosanedioic Acid (iso-Diabolic Acid), a Common Membrane-Spanning Lipid of Acidobacteria Subdivisions 1 and 3 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Overmann, Jörg; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of membrane lipids of 17 different strains representing 13 species of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the phylum Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum of the Bacteria, were examined by hydrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS of intact polar lipids. Upon both acid and base hydrolyses of total cell material, the uncommon membrane-spanning lipid 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid (iso-diabolic acid) was released in substantial amounts (22 to 43% of the total fatty acids) from all of the acidobacteria studied. This lipid has previously been encountered only in thermophilic Thermoanaerobacter species but bears a structural resemblance to the alkyl chains of bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) that occur ubiquitously in peat and soil and are suspected to be produced by acidobacteria. As reported previously, most species also contained iso-C15 and C16:1ω7C as major fatty acids but the presence of iso-diabolic acid was unnoticed in previous studies, most probably because the complex lipid that contained this moiety was not extractable from the cells; it could only be released by hydrolysis. Direct analysis of intact polar lipids in the Bligh-Dyer extract of three acidobacterial strains, indeed, did not reveal any membrane-spanning lipids containing iso-diabolic acid. In 3 of the 17 strains, ether-bound iso-diabolic acid was detected after hydrolysis of the cells, including one branched GDGT containing iso-diabolic acid-derived alkyl chains. Since the GDGT distribution in soils is much more complex, branched GDGTs in soil likely also originate from other (acido)bacteria capable of biosynthesizing these components. PMID:21515715

  5. Effect of steaming, blanching, and high temperature/high pressure processing on the amino Acid contents of commonly consumed korean vegetables and pulses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Min; Kim, Jung-Bong; Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Heon-Woong; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Se-Na; Cho, Young-Sook; Choi, Han-Seok; Park, Ki-Moon

    2014-09-01

    In the present report, the effects of blanching, steaming, and high temperature/high pressure processing (HTHP) on the amino acid contents of commonly consumed Korean root vegetables, leaf vegetables, and pulses were evaluated using an Automatic Amino Acid Analyzer. The total amino acid content of the samples tested was between 3.38 g/100 g dry weight (DW) and 21.32 g/100 g DW in raw vegetables and between 29.36 g/100 g DW and 30.55 g/100 g DW in raw pulses. With HTHP, we observed significant decreases in the lysine and arginine contents of vegetables and the lysine, arginine, and cysteine contents of pulses. Moreover, the amino acid contents of blanched vegetables and steamed pulses were more similar than the amino acid contents of the HTHP vegetables and HTHP pulses. Interestingly, lysine, arginine, and cysteine were more sensitive to HTHP than the other amino acids. Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analyses were also performed to discriminate the clusters and patterns of amino acids. PMID:25320720

  6. Effect of Steaming, Blanching, and High Temperature/High Pressure Processing on the Amino Acid Contents of Commonly Consumed Korean Vegetables and Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Min; Kim, Jung-Bong; Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Heon-Woong; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Se-Na; Cho, Young-Sook; Choi, Han-Seok; Park, Ki-Moon

    2014-01-01

    In the present report, the effects of blanching, steaming, and high temperature/high pressure processing (HTHP) on the amino acid contents of commonly consumed Korean root vegetables, leaf vegetables, and pulses were evaluated using an Automatic Amino Acid Analyzer. The total amino acid content of the samples tested was between 3.38 g/100 g dry weight (DW) and 21.32 g/100 g DW in raw vegetables and between 29.36 g/100 g DW and 30.55 g/100 g DW in raw pulses. With HTHP, we observed significant decreases in the lysine and arginine contents of vegetables and the lysine, arginine, and cysteine contents of pulses. Moreover, the amino acid contents of blanched vegetables and steamed pulses were more similar than the amino acid contents of the HTHP vegetables and HTHP pulses. Interestingly, lysine, arginine, and cysteine were more sensitive to HTHP than the other amino acids. Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analyses were also performed to discriminate the clusters and patterns of amino acids. PMID:25320720

  7. Foliar treatments of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for control of common scab in potato have beneficial effects on powdery scab control.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah Katherine; Tegg, Robert Stephen; Corkrey, Ross; Wilson, Calum Rae

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that applications of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to the foliage of potato plants can reduce common scab. Here field and glasshouse trials suggest that 2,4-D foliar treatments may also reduce the biologically distinct tuber disease, powdery scab. Significant correlations between suppression of common and powdery scab from the field trials suggested an interaction between the two diseases or possible additional broad spectrum mechanisms of enhanced defence against pathogen invasion provided by 2,4-D treatment. PMID:25009832

  8. Relationship between a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster and eicosanoid generation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hester, Austin G; Murphy, Robert C; Uhlson, Charis J; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Sergeant, Susan; Miller, Leslie R; Howard, Timothy D; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2014-08-01

    Dramatic shifts in the Western diet have led to a marked increase in the dietary intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA). Dietary LA can then be converted to arachidonic acid (ARA) utilizing three enzymatic steps. Two of these steps are encoded for by the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster (chromosome 11, 11q12.2-q13) and certain genetic variants within the cluster are highly associated with ARA levels. However, no study to date has examined whether these variants further influence pro-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase eicosanoid products. This study examined the impact of a highly influential FADS SNP, rs174537 on leukotriene, HETE, prostaglandin, and thromboxane biosynthesis in stimulated whole blood. Thirty subjects were genotyped at rs174537 (GG, n = 11; GT, n = 13; TT, n = 6), a panel of fatty acids from whole serum was analyzed, and precursor-to-product PUFA ratios were calculated as a marker of the capacity of tissues (particularly the liver) to synthesize long chain PUFAs. Eicosanoids produced by stimulated human blood were measured by LC-MS/MS. We observed an association between rs174537 and the ratio of ARA/LA, leukotriene B4, and 5-HETE but no effect on levels of cyclooxygenase products. Our results suggest that variation at rs174537 not only impacts the synthesis of ARA but the overall capacity of whole blood to synthesize 5-lipoxygenase products; these genotype-related changes in eicosanoid levels could have important implications in a variety of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24962583

  9. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 ìg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and ...

  10. Generation of the volatile spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran by fungal spores on polyunsaturated fatty acids common to almonds and pistachios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spiroketal (E)-conophthorin has recently been reported as a semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest of California pistachios and almonds. Conophthorin and the isomeric spiroketal chalcogran are most commonly known as semiochemicals of several scolytid beetles. Conophthori...

  11. Expression of sialic acid and polysialic acid in serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis: divergent transcription of biosynthesis and transport operons through a common promoter region.

    PubMed Central

    Swartley, J S; Ahn, J H; Liu, L J; Kahler, C M; Stephens, D S

    1996-01-01

    We studied capsule-defective (Cap-) serogroup B meningococcal mutants created through Tn916 or omega-fragment mutagenesis. The Cap- phenotypes were the results of insertions in three of four linked genes (synX, synC, and synD) involved in CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid and polysialic acid capsule biosynthesis, and in ctrA the first of four linked genes involved in capsule membrane transport. Mutations in the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid biosynthesis genes synX and synC caused defects in lipooligosaccharide sialylation but not mutations in the putative (alpha2 -> 8)-linked polysialyltransferase (synD) or in ctrA. Reverse transcriptase PCR studies indicated that the four biosynthesis genes (synX to -D) and the capsule transport genes (ctr to -D) were separately transcribed as operons. The operons were separated by a 134-bp intergenic region. Primer extension of synX and ctrA demonstrated that transcription of the operons was divergently initiated from adjacent start sites present in the intergenic region. Both transcriptional start sites were preceded by a perfect -10 Pribnow promoter binding region. The synX to -D, but not the ctrA to -D, transcriptional start site was preceded by a sequence bearing strong homology to the consensus sigma 70 -35 promoter binding sequence. Both promoters showed transcriptional activity when cloned behind a lacZ reporter gene in Escherichia coli. Our results confirm the intrinsic relationship between polysialic acid capsule biosynthesis and lipooligosaccharide sialylation pathways in group B Neisseria meningitidis. Our study also suggests that the intergenic region separating the synX to -D and ctrA to -D operons is an important control point for the regulation of group B capsule expression through coordinated transcriptional regulation of the synX to -D and drA to -D promoters. PMID:8763931

  12. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  13. The Loss and Gain of Functional Amino Acid Residues Is a Common Mechanism Causing Human Inherited Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Martinez, Jose; Pejaver, Vikas; Pagel, Kymberleigh A.; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N.; Mooney, Sean D.; Radivojac, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the precise molecular events altered by disease-causing genetic variants represents a major challenge in translational bioinformatics. To this end, many studies have investigated the structural and functional impact of amino acid substitutions. Most of these studies were however limited in scope to either individual molecular functions or were concerned with functional effects (e.g. deleterious vs. neutral) without specifically considering possible molecular alterations. The recent growth of structural, molecular and genetic data presents an opportunity for more comprehensive studies to consider the structural environment of a residue of interest, to hypothesize specific molecular effects of sequence variants and to statistically associate these effects with genetic disease. In this study, we analyzed data sets of disease-causing and putatively neutral human variants mapped to protein 3D structures as part of a systematic study of the loss and gain of various types of functional attribute potentially underlying pathogenic molecular alterations. We first propose a formal model to assess probabilistically function-impacting variants. We then develop an array of structure-based functional residue predictors, evaluate their performance, and use them to quantify the impact of disease-causing amino acid substitutions on catalytic activity, metal binding, macromolecular binding, ligand binding, allosteric regulation and post-translational modifications. We show that our methodology generates actionable biological hypotheses for up to 41% of disease-causing genetic variants mapped to protein structures suggesting that it can be reliably used to guide experimental validation. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of disease-causing human variants mapping to protein structures are function-altering both in the presence and absence of stability disruption. PMID:27564311

  14. Characterization and multicentric validation of a common standard for Toxoplasma gondii detection using nucleic acid amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Filisetti, Denis; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Yera, Hélène; Bastien, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    The molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis essentially relies upon laboratory-developed methods and suffers from lack of standardization, hence the large diversity of performances between laboratories. Moreover, quantifications of parasitic loads differ among centers, a fact which prevents the possible prediction of the severity of this disease as a function of parasitic loads. The objectives of this multicentric study performed in eight proficient laboratories of the Molecular Biology Pole of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis (NRC-T) were (i) to assess the suitability of a lyophilized preparation of Toxoplasma gondii as a common standard for use in this PCR-based molecular diagnosis and (ii) to make this standard available to the community. High-quality written procedures were used for the production and qualification of this standard. Three independent batches of this standard, containing concentrations ranging from 10(4) to 0.01 T. gondii genome equivalents per PCR, were first assessed: the linear dynamic range was ≥ 6 log, the intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) from a sample containing 10 T. gondii organisms per PCR were 0.3% to 0.42%, and the interassay CV over a 2-week period was 0.76% to 1.47%. A further assessment in eight diagnostic centers showed that the standard is stable, robust, and reliable. These lyophilized standards can easily be produced at a larger scale when needed and can be made widely available at the national level. To our knowledge, this is the first quality control assessment of a common standard which is usable both for self-evaluation in laboratories and for accurate quantification of parasitic loads in T. gondii prenatal infections. PMID:25187637

  15. Characterization and Multicentric Validation of a Common Standard for Toxoplasma gondii Detection Using Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays

    PubMed Central

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Filisetti, Denis; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Yera, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis essentially relies upon laboratory-developed methods and suffers from lack of standardization, hence the large diversity of performances between laboratories. Moreover, quantifications of parasitic loads differ among centers, a fact which prevents the possible prediction of the severity of this disease as a function of parasitic loads. The objectives of this multicentric study performed in eight proficient laboratories of the Molecular Biology Pole of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis (NRC-T) were (i) to assess the suitability of a lyophilized preparation of Toxoplasma gondii as a common standard for use in this PCR-based molecular diagnosis and (ii) to make this standard available to the community. High-quality written procedures were used for the production and qualification of this standard. Three independent batches of this standard, containing concentrations ranging from 104 to 0.01 T. gondii genome equivalents per PCR, were first assessed: the linear dynamic range was ≥6 log, the intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) from a sample containing 10 T. gondii organisms per PCR were 0.3% to 0.42%, and the interassay CV over a 2-week period was 0.76% to 1.47%. A further assessment in eight diagnostic centers showed that the standard is stable, robust, and reliable. These lyophilized standards can easily be produced at a larger scale when needed and can be made widely available at the national level. To our knowledge, this is the first quality control assessment of a common standard which is usable both for self-evaluation in laboratories and for accurate quantification of parasitic loads in T. gondii prenatal infections. PMID:25187637

  16. Interactions of methylamine and ammonia with atmospheric nucleation precursor H2SO4 and common organic acids: Thermodynamics and atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Nadykto, A. B.; Jiang, L.; Bai, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Interactions of the two common atmospheric bases, ammonia (NH3) and methylamine MA (CH3NH2), which are considered to be important stabilizers of binary clusters in the Earth's atmosphere, with H2SO4, the key atmospheric precursor, and 14 common atmospheric organic acids (COA) (formic (CH2O2), acetic (C2H4O2), oxalic (C2H2O4), malonic (C3H4O4), succinic (C4H6O4), glutaric acid (C5H8O4), adipic (C6H10O4), benzoic (C6H5COOH), phenylacetic (C6H5CH2COOH), pyruvic (C3H4O3), maleic acid (C4H4O4), malic (C4H6O5), tartaric (C4H6O6) and pinonic acid (C10H16O3)) have been studied using the composite high-accuracy G3MP2 method. The thermodynamic stability of mixed (COA) (H2SO4), (COA)(B1) and (COA)(B2) dimers and (COA) (H2SO4) (B1) and (COA) (H2SO4) (B1) trimers, where B1 and B2 represent methylamine (CH3NH2) and ammonia (NH3), respectively, have been investigated and their impacts on the thermodynamic stability of clusters containing H2SO4 have been analyzed. It has been shown that in many cases the interactions of H2SO4 with COA, ammonia and methylamine lead to the formation of heteromolecular dimers and trimers, which are certainly more stable than (H2SO4)2 and (H2SO4)3. It has also been found that free energies of (COA) (H2SO4)+ CH3NH2⇔(COA) (H2SO4)(CH3NH2) reactions exceed 10-15 kcal mol-1. This is a clear indication that mixed trimers composed of COA, H2SO4 and methylamine are very stable and can thus serve as possible nucleation sites. The present study leads us to conclude that the interactions of COA coexisting with H2SO4 and common atmospheric bases in the Earth's atmosphere may be an important factor affecting the stability of nucleating sulfuric acid clusters and that the impacts of COA on atmospheric nucleation should be studied in further details.

  17. Evaluation of commonly used methods for the analysis of acid-soluble phosphate in internationally traded inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Hall, William L; Siegel, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication

  18. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Parvin; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Ziaei-Nejad, Saeed; Parviz Salati, Amir; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp. Four experimental diets containing 0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.20% MOS were prepared. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with initial average weight of approximately 14 g. After eight weeks, survival rate was high in all treatments with no significant difference (p > 0.05). Growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) did not differ among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better when the fish were fed 0.05 to 0.20% MOS diets. The alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity and serum total Ig were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in fish fed 0.20% MOS diets. Although the total intestinal bacterial counts were not affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05), the lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed MOS diets (p < 0.05). These results indicated that oral administration of MOS at 0.20% elevated the immune response, improved FCR and modulated intestinal microbiota of common carp. PMID:26893815

  19. Salt stress leads to differential expression of two isogenes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase during Crassulacean acid metabolism induction in the common ice plant.

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, J C; Meyer, G; Michalowski, C B; Schmitt, J M; Bohnert, H J

    1989-01-01

    The common ice plant is a facultative halophyte in which Crassulacean acid metabolism, a metabolic adaptation to arid environments, can be induced by irrigating plants with high levels of NaCl or by drought. This stress-induced metabolic transition is accompanied by up to a 50-fold increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase). To analyze the molecular basis of this plant response to water stress, we have isolated and characterized two members of the PEPCase gene family from the common ice plant. The PEPCase isogenes, designated Ppc1 and Ppc2, have conserved intron-exon organizations, are 76.4% identical at the nucleotide sequence level within exons, and encode predicted polypeptides with 83% amino acid identity. Steady-state levels of mRNAs from the two genes differ dramatically when plants are salt-stressed. Transcripts of Ppc1 increase about 30-fold in leaves within 5 days of salt stress. In contrast, steady-state levels of Ppc2 transcripts decrease slightly in leaf tissue over the same stress period. Steady-state levels of transcripts of both genes decrease in roots over 5 days of salt stress. We have used in vitro transcription assays with nuclei isolated from leaves to demonstrate that the increased expression of Ppc1 caused by water stress occurs in part at the transcriptional level. PMID:2535520

  20. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings

    PubMed Central

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Parvin; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Ziaei-Nejad, Saeed; Parviz Salati, Amir; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp. Four experimental diets containing 0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.20% MOS were prepared. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with initial average weight of approximately 14 g. After eight weeks, survival rate was high in all treatments with no significant difference (p > 0.05). Growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) did not differ among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better when the fish were fed 0.05 to 0.20% MOS diets. The alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity and serum total Ig were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in fish fed 0.20% MOS diets. Although the total intestinal bacterial counts were not affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05), the lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed MOS diets (p < 0.05). These results indicated that oral administration of MOS at 0.20% elevated the immune response, improved FCR and modulated intestinal microbiota of common carp. PMID:26893815

  1. Identification of quantitative trait locus for abscisic acid responsiveness on chromosome 5A and association with dehydration tolerance in common wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Iehisa, Julio C M; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-01-15

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in response to environmental stress as well as in seed maturation and dormancy. In common wheat, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ABA responsiveness at the seedling stage have been reported on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 3A, 6D and 7B. In this study, we identified a novel QTL for ABA responsiveness on chromosome 5A using an F2 population derived from a cross between the common wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) and a chromosome substitution line of CS with chromosome 5A of cultivar Hope (Hope5A). This QTL was found in a similar chromosomal region to previously reported QTLs for drought tolerance and seed dormancy. Physiological characterization of the QTL revealed a small effect on dehydration tolerance and seed dormancy. The rate of water loss from leaves during dehydration was lower, and transcript accumulation of the cold responsive (COR)/late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes Wrab18 and Wdhn13 tended to be higher under dehydration stress in F2 individuals carrying the Hope allele of the QTL, which also showed higher ABA responsiveness than the CS allele-carrying individuals. Seed dormancy of individuals carrying the Hope allele also tended to be lower than those carrying the CS allele. Our results suggest that variation in ABA responsiveness among common wheat cultivars is at least partly determined by the 5A QTL, and that this QTL contributes to development of dehydration and preharvest sprouting tolerance. PMID:24331416

  2. Phenolic acid content and composition in leaves and roots of common commercial sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) cultivars in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids in commercially important sweetpotato cultivars grown in the United States were analyzed using the reversed phase HPLC. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were well separated with an isocratic el...

  3. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  4. Direct comparison of DNA damage, isomerization of urocanic acid and edema in the mouse produced by three commonly used artificial UV light sources.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, D B; Kibitel, J; Ullrich, S E; Kim, T H; Ananthaswamy, H N; Krien, P; Fourtanier, A; Kripke, M L

    1999-05-01

    Exposure to sunlight can result in a number of harmful effects, including sunburn, erythema, premature aging of the skin, immune suppression and skin cancer. Studies designed to understand the underlying mechanisms often depend upon the use of artificial sources of UV radiation. Unfortunately, conclusions from different laboratories using different lamps often conflict, and it is entirely possible that the different spectra of sunlights used in each may be a source of conflict. To minimize confounding variables, we employed two of the more commonly used UV light sources, fluorescent sunlamps, such as the FS-40 and Kodacel-filtered FS-40 sunlamps, and a xenon arc solar simulator and compared, in one series of standardized experiments, the effects of each light source on DNA damage, urocanic acid isomerization and edema formation. The dose-response curves, calculated by linear regression or curve fitting were compared. The data indicate that DNA damage and urocanic acid isomerization were more sensitive to shorter wavelengths of UV than longer wavelengths, and the biological endpoint of edema most closely correlated with the induction of DNA damage. The results emphasize the dominance of shorter wavelengths within the UV spectrum in damaging biological tissues, even when the solar simulator, which contains significant amounts of UVA, was used and demonstrate that each light source has a characteristic pattern of induction of biochemical and biological endpoints. PMID:10333763

  5. Report on the analysis of common beverages spiked with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) using NMR and the PURGE solvent-suppression technique.

    PubMed

    Lesar, Casey T; Decatur, John; Lukasiewicz, Elaan; Champeil, Elise

    2011-10-10

    In forensic evidence, the identification and quantitation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in "spiked" beverages is challenging. In this report, we present the analysis of common alcoholic beverages found in clubs and bars spiked with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). Our analysis of the spiked beverages consisted of using (1)H NMR with a water suppression method called Presaturation Utilizing Relaxation Gradients and Echoes (PURGE). The following beverages were analyzed: water, 10% ethanol in water, vodka-cranberry juice, rum and coke, gin and tonic, whisky and diet coke, white wine, red wine, and beer. The PURGE method allowed for the direct identification and quantitation of both compounds in all beverages except red and white wine where small interferences prevented accurate quantitation. The NMR method presented in this paper utilizes PURGE water suppression. Thanks to the use of a capillary internal standard, the method is fast, non-destructive, sensitive and requires no sample preparation which could disrupt the equilibrium between GHB and GBL. PMID:21775083

  6. Biocontrol of Potato Common Scab is Associated with High Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Populations and Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Biosynthetic Transcript Accumulation in the Potato Geocaulosphere.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonads are often used as biocontrol agents because they display a broad range of mechanisms to control diseases. Common scab of potato, caused by Streptomyces scabies, was previously reported to be controlled by Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 through phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) production. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the population dynamics of LBUM223 and the expression of phzC, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of PCA, in the rhizosphere and geocaulosphere of potato plants grown under controlled and field conditions. Results obtained from controlled experiments showed that soil populations of LBUM223 significantly declined over a 15-week period. However, at week 15, the presence of S. scabies in the geocaulosphere was associated with significantly higher populations of LBUM223 than when the pathogen was absent. It also led to the detection of significantly higher phzC gene transcript numbers. Under field conditions, soil populations of LBUM223 followed a similar decline in time when a single inoculation was applied in spring but remained stable when reinoculated biweekly, which also led to greater phzC gene transcripts accumulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LBUM223 must colonize the potato geocaulosphere at high levels (10(7) bacteria/g of soil) in order to achieve biocontrol of common scab through increased PCA production. PMID:27088392

  7. Behavioural Effects of the Commonly Used Fish Anaesthetic Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Its Relevance for the Acetic Acid Pain Test

    PubMed Central

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Janczak, Andrew M.; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2014-01-01

    The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the welfare of fish and contribute to experimental noise due to stress. We therefore tested the effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on the behaviour of zebrafish. We predicted that tricaine (MS 222) would decrease swimming velocity and that the control fish would show an increased level of anxiety- and stress-related behaviours compared to the tricaine group. Following acclimatization to the test tank, baseline behaviour was recorded before immersion in either tricaine (168 mg l−1, treatment group, N = 8) or tank water (control group, N = 7). Latencies to lose equilibrium and to lose response to touch were registered. The fish was then returned to the test tank, and the latency to regain equilibrium was registered in anaesthetized fish. When equilibrium was regained, and at five, thirty and sixty minutes after the fish had been returned to the test tank, behaviour was recorded. The tricaine fish showed the following responses (mean ± sd): latency to lose equilibrium 22.6 s±3.9; latency to lose response to touch 101.9 s±26.8; latency to regain equilibrium 92.0 s±54.4. Contrary to our predictions, neither treatment caused a change in any of the behaviours registered. This indicates that tricaine has no effect on several commonly used behavioural parameters, and that it may be unnecessary to postpone behavioural observations to 30 min after anaesthesia. PMID:24658262

  8. Overlapping Patterns of Rapid Evolution in the Nucleic Acid Sensors cGAS and OAS1 Suggest a Common Mechanism of Pathogen Antagonism and Escape

    PubMed Central

    Hancks, Dustin C.; Hartley, Melissa K.; Hagan, Celia; Clark, Nathan L.; Elde, Nels C.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse subset of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detects pathogen-associated nucleic acids to initiate crucial innate immune responses in host organisms. Reflecting their importance for host defense, pathogens encode various countermeasures to evade or inhibit these immune effectors. PRRs directly engaged by pathogen inhibitors often evolve under recurrent bouts of positive selection that have been described as molecular ‘arms races.’ Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was recently identified as a key PRR. Upon binding cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from various viruses, cGAS generates the small nucleotide secondary messenger cGAMP to signal activation of innate defenses. Here we report an evolutionary history of cGAS with recurrent positive selection in the primate lineage. Recent studies indicate a high degree of structural similarity between cGAS and 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthase 1 (OAS1), a PRR that detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), despite low sequence identity between the respective genes. We present comprehensive comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS1 primate sequences and observe positive selection at nucleic acid binding interfaces and distributed throughout both genes. Our data revealed homologous regions with strong signatures of positive selection, suggesting common mechanisms employed by unknown pathogen encoded inhibitors and similar modes of evasion from antagonism. Our analysis of cGAS diversification also identified alternately spliced forms missing multiple sites under positive selection. Further analysis of selection on the OAS family in primates, which comprises OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and OASL, suggests a hypothesis where gene duplications and domain fusion events result in paralogs that provide another means of escaping pathogen inhibitors. Together our comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS provides new insights into distinct mechanisms by which key molecular sentinels of the innate immune system have

  9. IRF4 Is a Critical Gene in Retinoic Acid-Mediated Plasma Cell Formation and Is Deregulated in Common Variable Immunodeficiency-Derived B Cells.

    PubMed

    Indrevær, Randi L; Moskaug, Jan Ø; Paur, Ingvild; Bøhn, Siv K; Jørgensen, Silje F; Blomhoff, Rune; Aukrust, Pål; Fevang, Børre; Blomhoff, Heidi K

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed at identifying the mechanisms whereby the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) promotes the formation of plasma cells upon stimulation of B cells via the innate immunity receptors TLR9 and RP105. Most often, differentiation of B cells involves the sequential events of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutations characteristic of germinal center reactions, followed by plasma cell formation. By studying the regulatory networks known to drive these reactions, we revealed that RA enhances the expression of the plasma cell-generating transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF)4 and Blimp1, and paradoxically also activation-induced deaminase (AID) involved in somatic hypermutations/class switch recombination, in primary human B cells. IRF4 was identified as a particularly important protein involved in the RA-mediated production of IgG in TLR9/RP105-stimulated B cells. Based on kinetic studies, we present a model suggesting that the initial induction of IRF4 by RA favors AID expression. According to this model, the higher level of IRF4 that eventually arises results in sustained elevated levels of Blimp1. Regarded as a master regulator of plasma cell development, Blimp1 will in turn suppress AID expression and drive the formation of IgG-secreting plasma cells. Notably, we demonstrated IRF4 to be deregulated in B cells from common variable immunodeficiency patients, contributing to the observed aberrant expression of AID in these patients. Taken together, the present study both provides new insight into the mechanisms whereby RA induces differentiation of B cells and identifies IRF4 as a key to understand the defective functions of B cells in common variable immunodeficiency patients. PMID:26276871

  10. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  11. Monitoring of Total Type II Pyrethroid Pesticides in Citrus Oils and Water by Converting to a Common Product 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Mark R.; Yang, Zheng; Fu, Xun; Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Shirley J.; Bom, David C.; Zhong, Ping; Chang, Dan; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides that are becoming increasingly popular in agricultural and home use applications. Sensitive assays for pyrethroid insecticides in complex matrices are difficult both with instrumental and immunochemical methods. Environmental analysis of the pyrethroids by immunoassay requires either knowing which pyrethroids contaminate the source or the use of non-specific antibodies with cross reactivities to a class of compounds. We describe an alternative method that converts the type-II-pyrethroids to a common chemical product, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), prior to analysis. This method is much more sensitive than detecting the parent compound, and it is much easier to detect a single compound rather than an entire class of compounds. This is useful in screening for pyrethroids as a class or in situations where a single type of pyrethroid is used. We demonstrated this technique in both citrus oils and environmental water samples with conversion rates of the pyrethroid to 3-PBA that range from 45%-75% and methods that require no extraction steps for either the immunoassay or LC-MS/MS techniques. Limits of detection for this technique applied to orange oil are 5 nM, 2 μM, and 0.8 μM when detected by LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and immunoassay respectively. The limit of detection for pyrethroids in water when detected by immunoassay was 2 nM. PMID:22486225

  12. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  13. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  14. Large-scale mRNA expression profiling in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, performing C3 photosynthesis and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    PubMed

    Cushman, John C; Tillett, Richard L; Wood, Joshua A; Branco, Joshua M; Schlauch, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    The common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) has emerged as a useful model for molecular genetic studies of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) because CAM can be induced in this species by water deficit or salinity stress. Non-redundant sequence information from expressed sequence tag data was used to fabricate a custom oligonucleotide microarray to compare large-scale mRNA expression patterns in M. crystallinum plants conducting C(3) photosynthesis versus CAM. Samples were collected every 4 h over a 24 h time period at the start of the subjective second day from plants grown under constant light and temperature conditions in order to capture variation in mRNA expression due to salinity stress and circadian clock control. Of 8455 genes, a total of 2343 genes (approximately 28%) showed a significant change as judged by analysis of variance (ANOVA) in steady-state mRNA abundance at one or more time points over the 24 h period. Of these, 858 (10%) and 599 (7%) exhibited a greater than two-fold ratio (TFR) increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Functional categorization of these TFR genes revealed that many genes encoding products that function in CAM-related C(4) acid carboxylation/decarboxylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, polysaccharide, polyol, and starch biosynthesis/degradation, protein degradation, transcriptional activation, signalling, stress response, and transport facilitation, and novel, unclassified proteins exhibited stress-induced increases in mRNA abundance. In contrast, salt stress resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance for genes encoding photosynthetic functions, protein synthesis, and cellular biogenesis functions. Many genes with CAM-related functions exhibited phase shifts in their putative circadian expression patterns following CAM induction. This report establishes an extensive catalogue of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at understanding the complex, transcriptional

  15. Converting Transaldolase into Aldolase through Swapping of the Multifunctional Acid-Base Catalyst: Common and Divergent Catalytic Principles in F6P Aldolase and Transaldolase.

    PubMed

    Sautner, Viktor; Friedrich, Mascha Miriam; Lehwess-Litzmann, Anja; Tittmann, Kai

    2015-07-28

    Transaldolase (TAL) and fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) both belong to the class I aldolase family and share a high degree of structural similarity and sequence identity. The molecular basis of the different reaction specificities (transferase vs aldolase) has remained enigmatic. A notable difference between the active sites is the presence of either a TAL-specific Glu (Gln in FSA) or a FSA-specific Tyr (Phe in TAL). Both residues seem to have analoguous multifunctional catalytic roles but are positioned at different faces of the substrate locale. We have engineered a TAL double variant (Glu to Gln and Phe to Tyr) with an active site resembling that of FSA. This variant indeed exhibits aldolase activity as its main activity with a catalytic efficiency even larger than that of authentic FSA, while TAL activity is greatly impaired. Structural analysis of this variant in complex with the dihydroxyacetone Schiff base formed upon substrate cleavage identifies the introduced Tyr (genuine in FSA) to catalyze protonation of the central carbanion-enamine intermediate as a key determinant of the aldolase reaction. Our studies pinpoint that the Glu in TAL and the Tyr in FSA, although located at different positions at the active site, similarly act as bona fide acid-base catalysts in numerous catalytic steps, including substrate binding, dehydration of the carbinolamine, and substrate cleavage. We propose that the different spatial positions of the multifunctional Glu in TAL and of the corresponding multifunctional Tyr in FSA relative to the substrate locale are critically controlling reaction specificity through either unfavorable (TAL) or favorable (FSA) geometry of proton transfer onto the common carbanion-enamine intermediate. The presence of both potential acid-base residues, Glu and Tyr, in the active site of TAL has deleterious effects on substrate binding and cleavage, most likely resulting from a differently organized H-bonding network. Large-scale motions of the

  16. Phenolic acid content and composition in leaves and roots of common commercial sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) cultivars in the United States.

    PubMed

    Truong, V-D; McFeeters, R F; Thompson, R T; Dean, L L; Shofran, B

    2007-08-01

    Phenolic acids in commercially important sweet potato cultivars grown in the United States were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were well separated with an isocratic elution in less than 25 min compared to about 120 min for analyzing and re-equilibrating the column with a gradient method. The isocratic elution order of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives was confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Chlorogenic acid was the highest in root tissues, while 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and/or 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were predominant in the leaves. Steam cooking resulted in statistically nonsignificant increases in the concentration of total phenolics and all the individual phenolic acids identified. Sweetpotato leaves had the highest phenolic acid content followed by the peel, whole root, and flesh tissues. However, there was no significant difference in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between purees made from the whole and peeled sweet potatoes. PMID:17995676

  17. Increased Cell Wall Teichoic Acid Production and D-alanylation Are Common Phenotypes among Daptomycin-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bertsche, Ute; Yang, Soo-Jin; Kuehner, Daniel; Wanner, Stefanie; Mishra, Nagendra N.; Roth, Tobias; Nega, Mulugeta; Schneider, Alexander; Mayer, Christoph; Grau, Timo; Bayer, Arnold S.; Weidenmaier, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms have been correlated with daptomycin-resistance (DAP-R) in Staphylococcus aureus. However, one common phenotype observed in many DAP-R S. Aureus strains is a thickened cell wall (CW). The first evidence for an impact of CW-linked glycopolymers on this phenotype was recently demonstrated in a single, well-characterized DAP-R methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain. In this isolate the thickened CW phenotype was linked to an increased production and D-alanylation of wall teichoic acids (WTA). In the current report, we extended these observations to methicillin-resistant daptomycin-sensitive/daptomyin-resistant (DAP-S/DAP-R) strain-pairs. These pairs included methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates with and without single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mprF (a genetic locus linked to DAP-R phenotype). We found increased CW dry mass in all DAP-R vs DAP-S isolates. This correlated with an increased expression of the WTA biosynthesis gene tagA, as well as an increased amount of WTA in the DAP-R vs DAP-S isolates. In addition, all DAP-R isolates showed a higher proportion of WTA D-alanylation vs their corresponding DAP-S isolate. We also detected an increased positive surface charge amongst the DAP-R strains (presumably related to the enhanced D-alanylation). In comparing the detailed CW composition of all isolate pairs, substantive differences were only detected in one DAP-S/DAP-R pair. The thickened CW phenotype, together with an increased surface charge most likely contributes to either: i) a charge-dependent repulsion of calcium complexed-DAP; and/or ii) steric-limited access of DAP to the bacterial cell envelope target. Taken together well-defined perturbations of CW structural and functional metrics contribute to the DAP-R phenotype and are common phenotypes in DAP-R S. Aureus isolates, both MSSA and MRSA. Note: Although “daptomycin-nonsusceptibility” is the generally accepted terminology, we have utilized the term

  18. Functional characterization of the conserved amino acids in Pop1p, the largest common protein subunit of yeast RNases P and MRP

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shaohua; Hsieh, John; Nugent, Rebecca L.; Coughlin, Daniel J.; Fierke, Carol A.; Engelke, David R.

    2006-01-01

    RNase P and RNase MRP are ribonucleoprotein enzymes required for 5′-end maturation of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) and processing of precursor ribosomal RNAs, respectively. In yeast, RNase P and MRP holoenzymes have eight protein subunits in common, with Pop1p being the largest at >100 kDa. Little is known about the functions of Pop1p, beyond the fact that it binds specifically to the RNase P RNA subunit, RPR1 RNA. In this study, we refined the previous Pop1 phylogenetic sequence alignment and found four conserved regions. Highly conserved amino acids in yeast Pop1p were mutagenized by randomization and conditionally defective mutations were obtained. Effects of the Pop1p mutations on pre-tRNA processing, pre-rRNA processing, and stability of the RNA subunits of RNase P and MRP were examined. In most cases, functional defects in RNase P and RNase MRP in vivo were consistent with assembly defects of the holoenzymes, although moderate kinetic defects in RNase P were also observed. Most mutations affected both pre-tRNA and pre-rRNA processing, but a few mutations preferentially interfered with only RNase P or only RNase MRP. In addition, one temperature-sensitive mutation had no effect on either tRNA or rRNA processing, consistent with an additional role for RNase P, RNase MRP, or Pop1p in some other form. This study shows that the Pop1p subunit plays multiple roles in the assembly and function of of RNases P and MRP, and that the functions can be differentiated through the mutations in conserved residues. PMID:16618965

  19. Antibodies directed to drug epitopes to investigate the structure of drug-protein photoadducts. Recognition of a common photobound substructure in tiaprofenic acid/ketoprofen cross-photoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, A; Hernández, D; Miranda, M A; Pérez-Prieto, J; Morera, I M; Castell, J V

    2001-11-01

    Drug-induced photoallergy is an immune adverse reaction to the combined effect of drugs and light. From the mechanistic point of view, it first involves covalent binding of drug to protein resulting in the formation of a photoantigen. Hence, determination of the structures of drug-protein photoadducts is of great relevance to understand the molecular basis of photoallergy and cross-immunoreactivity among drugs. Looking for new strategies to investigate the covalent photobinding of drugs to proteins, we generated highly specific antibodies to drug chemical substructures. The availability of such antibodies has allowed us to discriminate between the different modes by which tiaprofenic acid (TPA), suprofen (SUP), and ketoprofen (KTP) photobind to proteins. The finding that the vast majority of the TPA photoadduct can be accounted for by means of antibody anti-benzoyl strongly supports the view that the drug binds preferentially via the thiophene ring, leaving the benzene ring more accessible. By contrast, selective recognition of SUP-protein photoadducts by antibody anti-thenoyl evidences a preferential coupling via the benzene ring leaving the thiophene moiety more distant from the protein matrix. In the case of KTP, photoadducts are exclusively recognized by antibody anti-benzoyl, indicating that the benzene ring is again more accessible. As a result of this research, we have been able to identify a common substructure that is present in TPA-albumin and KTP-albumin photoadducts. This is remarkable since, at a first sight, the greatest structural similarities can be found between TPA and SUP as they share the same benzoylthiophene chromophore. These findings can explain the previously reported observations of cross-reactivity to KTP (or TPA) in patients photosensitized to TPA (or KTP). PMID:11712905

  20. [Comparative analysis of action of beta-phenyl derivatives of glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acid on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular endothelium after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Mazina, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the effect of phenyl derivatives of glutamic (RGPU-135) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (Phenibut) on cerebral blood flow, vasodilatory endothelial function and the number of circulating endothelial cells desquamated in animals after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It was found that animals treated prophylactically by RGPU-135, after occlusion of the common carotid arteries have higher cerebral blood flow and lower the severity of endothelial dysfunction than in animals treated with Phenibut. PMID:24003482

  1. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  2. Delta5-olefinic acids in the seed lipids from four Ephedra species and their distribution between the alpha and beta positions of triacylglycerols. Characteristics common to coniferophytes and cycadophytes.

    PubMed

    Wolff, R L; Christie, W W; Pédrono, F; Marpeau, A M; Tsevegsüren, N; Aitzetmüller, K; Gunstone, F D

    1999-08-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the seed lipids from four Ephedra species, E. nevadensis, E. viridis, E. przewalskii, and E. gerardiana (four gymnosperm species belonging to the Cycadophytes), have been established with an emphasis on delta5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids (delta5-UPIFA). Mass spectrometry of the picolinyl ester derivatives allowed characterization of 5,9- and 5,11-18:2; 5,9,12-18:3; 5,9,12,15-18:4; 5,11-20:2; 5,11,14-20:3; and 5,11,14,17-20:4 acids. Delta5-UPIFA with a delta11-ethylenic bond (mostly C20 acids) were in higher proportions than delta5-UPIFA with a delta9 double bond (exclusively C18 acids) in all species. The total delta5-UPIFA content was 17-31% of the total fatty acids, with 5,11,14-20:3 and 5,11,14,17-20:4 acids being the principal delta5-UPIFA isomers. The relatively high level of cis-vaccenic (11-18:1) acid found in Ephedra spp. seeds, the presence of its delta5-desaturation product, 5,11-18:2 acid (proposed trivial name: ephedrenic acid), and of its elongation product, 13-20:1 acid, were previously shown to occur in a single other species, Ginkgo biloba, among the approximately 170 gymnosperm species analyzed so far. Consequently, Ephedraceae and Coniferophytes (including Ginkgoatae), which have evolved separately since the Devonian period (approximately 300 million yr ago), have kept in common the ability to synthesize C18 and C20 delta5-UPIFA. We postulate the existence of two delta5-desaturases in gymnosperm seeds, one possibly specific for unsaturated acids with a delta9-ethylenic bond, and the other possibly specific for unsaturated acids with a delta11-ethylenic bond. Alternatively, the delta5-desaturases might be specific for the chain length with C18 unsaturated acids on the one hand and C20 unsaturated acids on the other hand. The resulting hypothetical pathways for the biosynthesis of delta5-UPIFA in gymnosperm seeds are only distinguished by the position of 11-18:1 acid. Moreover, 13C nuclear

  3. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  4. Deoxycholic Acid and Selenium Metabolite Methylselenol Exert Common and Distinct Effects on Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, and MAP Kinase Pathway in HCT116 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a known tumor promoter in colon tumor development. The cell growth inhibition induced by DCA may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells and provide selection for subpopulations of cells resistant to DCA’s inhibitory effect. These survivi...

  5. Deoxycholic acid and selenium metabolite methylselenol exert common and distinct effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and MAP kinase pathway in HCT116 human colon cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cell growth inhibition induced by bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells, and consequently increase colon cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence for the efficacy of certain forms of selenium (Se) as anticancer ...

  6. A reliable methodology for quantitative extraction of fruit and vegetable physiological amino acids and their subsequent analysis with commonly available HPLC systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography of dabsyl derivatives of amino acids was employed for quantification of physiological amino acids in selected fruits and vegetables. This method was found to be particularly useful because the dabsyl derivatives of glutamine and citrulline were sufficiently se...

  7. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  8. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  9. Common cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Donald L

    2009-01-01

    In the cosmetic arena, many materials are used commercially and claim to provide skin effects (eg, antiaging effects) when used topically. Considering there are so many such materials and many skin appearance effects are encompassed, this short contribution must, by necessity, be selective in terms of the number of materials discussed and the depth with which any particular material is overviewed. This presentation, therefore, focuses on only 10 types of cosmeceutical agents: five vitamins (A, B(3), C, E, panthenol), peptides, hydroxyl acids, sugar amines, ceramides, and metals. In particular, this contribution concentrates on those materials for which there are available clinical data that support a reported skin appearance improvement effect. PMID:19695474

  10. Effects of entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of pure cultures commonly found in biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Sudipta; Khanna, Rohit; Katti, Kalpana; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-10-01

    The effects of cell entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of major groups of bacteria (betaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria) in biological municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Three different entrapment media (alginate, carrageenan, and polyvinyl alcohol) were examined. Results indicated that the entrapment and type of entrapment media affected nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of the three representative species (Alcaligenes faecalis, Comamonas testosteroni, and Pseudomonas putida) studied. The highest deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid increases were observed with the alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) entrapment, respectively. A cell morphological change from bacilli to coccoidal was observed in the case of alginate entrapment while the PVA-entrapped cells had a slim morphology when compared to non-entrapped cells and formed putative nanowires. The entrapment increased or decreased the surface roughness of cells depending on the type of entrapment media. Expression of a nitrosative stress gene, which is linked to oxygen deprivation, was observed more in the alginate-entrapped cells. These research findings advance the fundamental understanding of the entrapped cell physiology which can lead to more efficient entrapped cell-based wastewater treatment. PMID:21660542

  11. A commonly used rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supplement marginally affects fatty acid distribution of body tissues and gene expression of mammary gland in heifers during early lactation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in general, and in particular the trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12-CLA) isomer are potent modulators of milk fat synthesis in dairy cows. Studies in rodents, such as mice, have revealed that t10,c12-CLA is responsible for hepatic lipodystrophy and decreased adipose tissue with subsequent changes in the fatty acid distribution. The present study aimed to investigate the fatty acid distribution of lipids in several body tissues compared to their distribution in milk fat in early lactating cows in response to CLA treatment. Effects in mammary gland are further analyzed at gene expression level. Methods Twenty-five Holstein heifers were fed a diet supplemented with (CLA groups) or without (CON groups) a rumen-protected CLA supplement that provided 6 g/d of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA. Five groups of randomly assigned cows were analyzed according to experimental design based on feeding and time of slaughter. Cows in the first group received no CLA supplement and were slaughtered one day postpartum (CON0). Milk samples were taken from the remaining cows in CON and CLA groups until slaughter at 42 (period 1) and 105 (period 2) days in milk (DIM). Immediately after slaughter, tissue samples from liver, retroperitoneal fat, mammary gland and M. longissimus (13th rib) were obtained and analyzed for fatty acid distribution. Relevant genes involved in lipid metabolism of the mammary gland were analyzed using a custom-made microarray platform. Results Both supplemented CLA isomers increased significantly in milk fat. Furthermore, preformed fatty acids increased at the expense of de novo-synthesized fatty acids. Total and single trans-octadecenoic acids (e.g., t10-18:1 and t11-18:1) also significantly increased. Fatty acid distribution of the mammary gland showed similar changes to those in milk fat, due mainly to residual milk but without affecting gene expression. Liver fatty acids were not altered except for trans-octadecenoic acids, which were

  12. Common and distinct gene expression patterns induced by the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl in wheat.

    PubMed

    Pasquer, Frédérique; Ochsner, Urs; Zarn, Jürg; Keller, Beat

    2006-12-01

    In wheat, herbicides are used to control weeds. Little is known about the changes induced in the metabolism of tolerant plants after herbicide treatment. The impact of three herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl] on the wheat transcriptome was studied using cDNA microarrays. Gene expression of plants grown in a controlled environment or in the field was studied between 24 h and 2 weeks after treatment. Under controlled conditions, 2,4-D induced genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway soon after treatment. Cinidon-ethyl triggered peroxidase and defence-related gene expression under controlled conditions, probably because reactive oxygen species are released by photo-oxidation of protoporphyrin-IX. The same genes were upregulated in the field as under controlled conditions, albeit at a weaker level. These results show that cinidon-ethyl specifically induces genes involved in plant defence. Under controlled conditions, tribenuron-methyl did not change the expression profile immediately after treatment, but defence-related genes were upregulated after 1 week. Sulfonylurea compounds such as tribenuron-methyl specifically inhibit acetolactate synthase and are rapidly detoxified, but the activity of some of the resulting metabolites could explain later changes in gene expression. Finally, overexpression of the isopropylmalate synthase gene, involved in branched-chain amino acid synthesis, and of defence-related genes was observed in the field after sulfonylurea treatment. PMID:17054088

  13. Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Molecular Modeling of the Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor Alpha2 Subunit Gene from the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  14. Cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  15. Liprotides made of α-lactalbumin and cis fatty acids form core-shell and multi-layer structures with a common membrane-targeting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frislev, Henriette S; Jessen, Christian M; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Otzen, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    α-Lactalbumin (aLA) has been shown to form complexes with oleic acid (OA), which may target cancer cells. We recently showed that aLA and several other proteins all form protein-OA complexes called liprotides with a generic structure consisting of a micellar OA core surrounded by a shell of partially denatured protein. Here we report that a heat treatment and an alkaline treatment method both allow us to prepare liprotide complexes composed of aLA and a range of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), provided the FAs contain cis (but not trans) double bonds. All liprotides containing cis-FA form both small and large species, which all consist of partially denatured aLA, though the overall shape of the species differs. Small liprotides have a simple core-shell structure while the larger liprotides are multi-layered, i.e. they have an additional layer of both FA and aLA surrounding the outside of the core-shell structure. All liprotides can transfer their entire FA content to vesicles, releasing aLA as monomers and softening the lipid membrane. The more similar to OA, the more efficiently the different FAs induce hemolysis. We conclude that aLA can take up and transfer a wide variety of FA to membranes, provided they contain a cis-bond. This highlights liprotides as a general class of complexes where both protein and cis-FA component can be varied without departing from a generic (though sometimes multi-layered) core-shell structure. PMID:27068540

  16. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J.; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPARα-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. PMID:25749508

  17. LEU3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates multiple genes for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by binding to a common decanucleotide core sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Friden, P.; Schimmel, P.

    1988-07-01

    LEU3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an 886-amino-acid polypeptide that regulates transcription of a group of genes involved in leucine biosynthesis and has been shown to bind specifically to a 114-base-pair DNA fragment of the LEU2 upstream region. The authors show here that, in addition to LEU2, LEU3 binds in vitro to sequences in the promoter regions of LEU1, LEU4, ILV2, and, by inference, ILV5. The largely conserved decanucleotide core sequence shared by the binding sites in these genes is CCGGNNCCGG. Methylation interference footprinting experiements show that LEU 3 makes symmetrical contacts with the conserved bases that lie in the major groove. Synthetic oligonucleides (19 to 29 base pairs) which contain the core decanucleotide and flanking sequences of LEU1, LEU2, LEU4, and ILV2 have individually been placed upstream of a LEU3-insensitive test promoter. The expression of each construction is activated by LEU3, although the degree of activation varies considerably according to the specific oligonucleotide which is introduced. A promoter construction with substitutions in the core sequence remains LEU3 insensitive, however. One of the oligonucleotides (based on a LEU2 sequence) was also tested and shown to confer leucine-sensitive expression on the test promoter. The results demonstrate that only a short sequence element is necessary for LEU3-dependent promoter binding and activation and provide direct evidence for an expanded repertoire of genes that are activated by LEU3.

  18. Plant and animal glycolate oxidases have a common eukaryotic ancestor and convergently duplicated to evolve long-chain 2-hydroxy acid oxidases.

    PubMed

    Esser, Christian; Kuhn, Anke; Groth, Georg; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2014-05-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is a crucial enzyme of plant photorespiration. The encoding gene is thought to have originated from endosymbiotic gene transfer between the eukaryotic host and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont at the base of plantae. However, animals also possess GOX activities. Plant and animal GOX belong to the gene family of (L)-2-hydroxyacid-oxidases ((L)-2-HAOX). We find that all (L)-2-HAOX proteins in animals and archaeplastida go back to one ancestral eukaryotic sequence; the sole exceptions are green algae of the chlorophyta lineage. Chlorophyta replaced the ancestral eukaryotic (L)-2-HAOX with a bacterial ortholog, a lactate oxidase that may have been obtained through the primary endosymbiosis at the base of plantae; independent losses of this gene may explain its absence in other algal lineages (glaucophyta, rhodophyta, and charophyta). We also show that in addition to GOX, plants possess (L)-2-HAOX proteins with different specificities for medium- and long-chain hydroxyacids (lHAOX), likely involved in fatty acid and protein catabolism. Vertebrates possess lHAOX proteins acting on similar substrates as plant lHAOX; however, the existence of GOX and lHAOX subfamilies in both plants and animals is not due to shared ancestry but is the result of convergent evolution in the two most complex eukaryotic lineages. On the basis of targeting sequences and predicted substrate specificities, we conclude that the biological role of plantae (L)-2-HAOX in photorespiration evolved by co-opting an existing peroxisomal protein. PMID:24408912

  19. Conversion of the common food constituent 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into a mutagenic and carcinogenic sulfuric acid ester in the mouse in vivo.

    PubMed

    Monien, Bernhard H; Frank, Heinz; Seidel, Albrecht; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2009-06-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), formed by acid-catalyzed dehydration and in the Maillard reaction from reducing sugars, is found at high levels in numerous foods. It was shown to initiate colon aberrant crypt foci in rats and skin papillomas and hepatocellular adenomas in mice. HMF is inactive in in vitro genotoxicity tests using standard activating systems but is activated to a mutagen by sulfotransferases. The product, 5-sulfoxymethylfurfural (SMF), is a stronger carcinogen than HMF. SMF has not been detected in the biotransfomation experiments conducted on HMF in humans and animals in vivo up to date. Here, we report pharmacokinetic properties of HMF and SMF in FVB/N mice. Sensitive assays for the quantification of HMF and SMF by LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring were devised. SMF, intravenously injected (4.4 micromol/kg body mass), showed first-order elimination kinetics in blood plasma (t(1/2) = 7.9 min). HMF, injected intravenously (793 micromol/kg body mass), demonstrated biphasic kinetics in plasma (t(1/2) = 1.7 and 28 min for the initial and terminal elimination phases, respectively); the volume of distribution of the central compartment corresponded approximately to the total body water. The maximum SMF plasma level was observed at the first sampling time, 2.5 min after HMF administration. On the basis of these kinetic data, it was estimated that between 452 and 551 ppm of the initial HMF dose was converted to SMF and reached the circulation. It is likely that additional SMF reacted with cellular structures at the site of generation and thus is ignored in this balance. Our work supports the hypothesis that HMF-related carcinogenicity may be mediated by its reactive metabolite SMF. PMID:19382817

  20. Common Variants of the Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Influence the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Mansego, Maria Luisa; Martínez, Fernando; Martínez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Zabena, Carina; Rojo, Gemma; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Soriguer, Federico; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Redon, Josep; Chaves, Felipe Javier

    2012-01-01

    Summary The main objective was to evaluate the association between SNPs and haplotypes of the FABP1-4 genes and type 2 diabetes, as well as its interaction with fat intake, in one general Spanish population. The association was replicated in a second population in which HOMA index was also evaluated. Methods 1217 unrelated individuals were selected from a population-based study [Hortega study: 605 women; mean age 54 y; 7.8% with type 2 diabetes]. The replication population included 805 subjects from Segovia, a neighboring region of Spain (446 females; mean age 52 y; 10.3% with type 2 diabetes). DM2 mellitus was defined in a similar way in both studies. Fifteen SNPs previously associated with metabolic traits or with potential influence in the gene expression within the FABP1-4 genes were genotyped with SNPlex and tested. Age, sex and BMI were used as covariates in the logistic regression model. Results One polymorphism (rs2197076) and two haplotypes of the FABP-1 showed a strong association with the risk of DM2 in the original population. This association was further confirmed in the second population as well as in the pooled sample. None of the other analyzed variants in FABP2, FABP3 and FABP4 genes were associated. There was not a formal interaction between rs2197076 and fat intake. A significant association between the rs2197076 and the haplotypes of the FABP1 and HOMA-IR was also present in the replication population. Conclusions The study supports the role of common variants of the FABP-1 gene in the development of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians. PMID:22396741

  1. Determination of β-Cyano-L-alanine, γ-Glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine, and Common Free Amino Acids in Vicia sativa (Fabaceae) Seeds by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Alaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    A method for determination of β-cyano-L-alanine, γ-glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine and other free amino acids in Vicia sativa is presented. Seed extracts were derivatized by reaction with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate and analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Calibration curves showed very good linearity of the response. The limit of detection and quantification was 0.15 and 0.50 μM, respectively. The method has high intra- (RSD = 0.28–0.31%) and interrepeatability (RSD = 2.76–3.08%) and remarkable accuracy with a 99% recovery in spiked samples. The method is very easy to carry out and allows for ready analysis of large number of samples using very basic HPLC equipment because the derivatized samples are very stable and have very good chromatographic properties. The method has been applied to the determination of γ-glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine, β-cyano-L-alanine, and common free amino acids in eight wild populations of V. sativa from southwestern Spain. PMID:25587488

  2. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  3. Commonly used gastrointestinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Annu; Bhatt, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the spectrum and mechanisms of neurologic adverse effects of commonly used gastrointestinal drugs including antiemetics, promotility drugs, laxatives, antimotility drugs, and drugs for acid-related disorders. The commonly used gastrointestinal drugs as a group are considered safe and are widely used. A range of neurologic complications are reported following use of various gastrointestinal drugs. Acute neurotoxicities, including transient akathisias, oculogyric crisis, delirium, seizures, and strokes, can develop after use of certain gastrointestinal medications, while disabling and pervasive tardive syndromes are described following long-term and often unsupervised use of phenothiazines, metoclopramide, and other drugs. In rare instances, some of the antiemetics can precipitate life-threatening extrapyramidal reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or serotonin syndrome. In contrast, concerns about the cardiovascular toxicity of drugs such as cisapride and tegaserod have been grave enough to lead to their withdrawal from many world markets. Awareness and recognition of the neurotoxicity of gastrointestinal drugs is essential to help weigh the benefit of their use against possible adverse effects, even if uncommon. Furthermore, as far as possible, drugs such as metoclopramide and others that can lead to tardive dyskinesias should be used for as short time as possible, with close clinical monitoring and patient education. PMID:24365343

  4. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  5. Retention behavior of common mono- and divalent cations on calcinated silica gel columns in ion chromatography with conductimetric detection and the use of nitric acid, containing crown ethers, as eluents.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Kusumoto, Keiji; Takao, Yasumasa; Towata, Atsuya; Kawakami, Shoji; Murase, Yoshio; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    2002-05-17

    Ion chromatographic behavior of common mono- and divalent cations (Li+, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) on columns packed with silica gels (Super Micro Bead Silica Gel B-5, SMBSG B-5) calcinated at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 degrees C for 5 h was investigated using nitric acid containing crown ethers [18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,15-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) and 15-crown-5 (1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane)] as eluent. When using 0.5 mM HNO3 as the eluent, the calcination had almost no effect on the improvement of peak resolution between these mono- and divalent cations. In contrast, when using 0.5 mM HNO3 containing crown ethers as the eluent, with increasing the calcinating temperature, the amount of crown ethers adsorbed on the corresponding calcinated SMBSG B-5 silica gels columns increased and, as a consequence, peak resolution between these mono- and divalent cations was quite improved. Excellent simultaneous separation of these mono- and divalent cations was achieved on column (150x4.6 mm I.D.) packed with the SMBSG B-5 silica gel calcinated at 1000 degrees C by elution with 0.5 mM HNO3 containing either 1.0 mM 18-crown-6 or 5.0 mM 15-crown-5. PMID:12108647

  6. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  7. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  8. Crystal Structures of the Staphylococcal Toxin SSL5 in Complex With Sialyl-Lewis X Reveal a Conserved Binding Site That Shares Common Features With Viral And Bacterial Sialic Acid-Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, H.M.; Basu, I.; Chung, M.C.; Caradoc-Davies, T.; Fraser, J.D.; Baker, E.N.

    2009-06-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and P-selectin [P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)] in a sialic acid (Sia)-dependent manner. Co-crystallization of SSL5 with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), a key determinant of PSGL-1 binding to P-selectin, led to crystal structures of the SSL5-sLe(X) complex at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.75 A for crystals at two pH values. In both structures, sLe(X) bound to a specific site on the surface of the C-terminal domain of SSL5 in a conformation identical with that bound by P-selectin. Conservation of the key carbohydrate binding residues indicates that this ability to bind human glycans is shared by a substantial subgroup of the SSLs, including SSL2, SSL3, SSL4, SSL5, SSL6, and SSL11. This indicates that the ability to target human glycans is an important property of this group of toxins. Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif.

  9. An investigation into the fatty acid content of selected fish-based commercial infant foods in the UK and the impact of commonly practiced re-heating treatments used by parents for the preparation of infant formula milks.

    PubMed

    Loughrill, Emma; Zand, Nazanin

    2016-04-15

    The importance of dietary lipids during infancy is paramount for rapid growth and development. Linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were quantified using RP-HPLC with charged aerosol detection in a range of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intake of fatty acids for infants aged 6-9 months was calculated based on the consumption of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intakes of ALA, AA and DHA were below, whereas LA was above the recommended intake. This provides scope for product optimisation, to improve the nutritive value of commercial infant food products. The impact of re-heating treatments by parents on fatty acid content of formula milk was investigated and statistically significant changes were observed. Furthermore, the transparency of the labelling information declared by the manufacturers was within recommendations despite a degree of significant variation. PMID:26617017

  10. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  11. Prediction of the pKa's of aqueous metal ion +2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Virgil E; Felmy, Andrew R; Dixon, David A

    2015-03-26

    Aqueous metal ions play an important role in many areas of chemistry. The acidities of [Be(H2O)4](2+), [M(H2O)6](2+), M = Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+), and [M(H2O)n](2+), M = Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), n = 7 and 8, complexes have been predicted using density functional theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory in the gas phase. pKa's in aqueous solution were predicted by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models. The most common binding motif of the majority of the metal +2 complexes is coordination number (CN) 6, with each hexaaquo cluster having reasonably high symmetry for the best arrangement of the water molecules in the first solvation shell. Be(2+) is tetracoordinated, but a second solvation shell of 8 waters is needed to predict the pKa. The Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) aquo clusters have a coordination number of 7 or 8 as found in terms of the energy of the reaction M(H2O)7(2+) + H2O → M(H2O)8(2+) and the pKa values. The calculated geometries are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The SCRF calculations with the conductor-like screening model (COSMO), and the conductor polarized continuum model (CPCM) using COSMO-RS radii, consistently agree best with experiment at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. The CCSD(T) level provides the most accurate pKa's, and the MP2 level also provides reliable predictions. Our predictions were used to elucidate the properties of metal +2 ion complexes. The pKa predictions provide confirmation of the size of the first solvation shell sizes. The calculations show that it is still difficult to predict pKa's using this cluster/implicit solvent approach to better than 1 pKa unit. PMID:25721568

  12. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  13. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  14. The New Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

  15. The Common Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    Current curricula in institutions of higher education are criticized in this speech for their lack of a common core of education. Several possibilities for developing such a common core include education centered around our common heritage and the challenges of the present. It is suggested that all students must be introduced to the events,…

  16. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  17. Associations between orosensory perception of oleic acid, the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the CD36 gene, and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) tasting.

    PubMed

    Melis, Melania; Sollai, Giorgia; Muroni, Patrizia; Crnjar, Roberto; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini

    2015-03-01

    Orosensory perception of dietary fat varies in individuals, thus influencing nutritional status. Several studies associated fat detection and preference with CD36 or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity. Other studies have not confirmed the latter association. We analyzed the relationship between orosensory perception of oleic acid, two CD36 variants, and PROP tasting. Thresholds of oleic acid perception were assessed in 64 subjects using a modification of the three-alternative forced-choice procedure. Subjects were classified for PROP taster status and genotyped for TAS2R38 and CD36 (SNPs: rs1761667 and rs1527483). Subjects homozygous for GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism showed higher sensitivity to oleic acid than AA subjects. The capability to detect oleic acid was directly associated with TAS2R38 or PROP responsiveness. PROP non-tasters had a lower papilla density than tasters, and those with genotype GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism had lower oleic acid thresholds than PROP non-tasters with genotype AA. In conclusion, results showed a direct association between orosensory perception of oleic acid and PROP tasting or rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36, which play a significant role in PROP non-tasters, given their low number of taste papillae. Characterization of individual capability to detect fatty acids may have important nutritional implications by explaining variations in human fat preferences. PMID:25803547

  18. Associations between Orosensory Perception of Oleic Acid, the Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the CD36 Gene, and 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Tasting

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Melania; Sollai, Giorgia; Muroni, Patrizia; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2015-01-01

    Orosensory perception of dietary fat varies in individuals, thus influencing nutritional status. Several studies associated fat detection and preference with CD36 or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity. Other studies have not confirmed the latter association. We analyzed the relationship between orosensory perception of oleic acid, two CD36 variants, and PROP tasting. Thresholds of oleic acid perception were assessed in 64 subjects using a modification of the three-alternative forced-choice procedure. Subjects were classified for PROP taster status and genotyped for TAS2R38 and CD36 (SNPs: rs1761667 and rs1527483). Subjects homozygous for GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism showed higher sensitivity to oleic acid than AA subjects. The capability to detect oleic acid was directly associated with TAS2R38 or PROP responsiveness. PROP non-tasters had a lower papilla density than tasters, and those with genotype GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism had lower oleic acid thresholds than PROP non-tasters with genotype AA. In conclusion, results showed a direct association between orosensory perception of oleic acid and PROP tasting or rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36, which play a significant role in PROP non-tasters, given their low number of taste papillae. Characterization of individual capability to detect fatty acids may have important nutritional implications by explaining variations in human fat preferences. PMID:25803547

  19. Common Conditions in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Common Conditions in ...

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  1. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  2. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  3. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  5. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  6. Effect of temperature and solvent composition on acid dissociation equilibria, I: Sequenced (s)(s)pKa determination of compounds commonly used as buffers in high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy detection.

    PubMed

    Padró, Juan M; Acquaviva, Agustín; Tascon, Marcos; Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Castells, Cecilia B

    2012-05-01

    A new automated and rapid potentiometric method for determining the effect of organic-solvent composition on pK(a) has been developed. It is based on the measurements of pH values of buffer solutions of variable solvent compositions using a combined glass electrode. Additions of small volumes of one precisely thermostated solution into another, both containing exactly the same analytical concentrations of the buffer components, can produce continuous changes in the solvent composition. Two sequences of potential measurements, one of increasing and the other of decreasing solvent content, are sufficient to obtain the pK(a) values of the acidic compound within the complete solvent-composition range in about 2h. The experimental design, procedures, and calculations needed to convert the measured pH into the thermodynamic pK(a) values are thoroughly discussed. This rapid and automated method allows the systematic study of the effect of solvent compositions and temperatures on the pK(a). It has been applied to study the dissociation constants of two monoprotic acids: formic acid and triethylamine:HCl in acetonitrile/water mixtures within the range from 0 to 90% (v/v) at temperatures between 20°C and 60°C. These volatile compounds are frequently used to control the pH of the mobile phase in HPLC, especially in methods coupled to mass-spectrometry detection. The obtained pK(a) values are in excellent agreement with those previously reported. The results were fitted to empirical functions between pK(a) and temperature and composition. These equations, which can be used to estimate the pK(a) of these substances at any composition and temperature, would be highly useful in practical work during chromatographic method development. PMID:22502616

  7. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  8. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  9. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  10. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  11. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  12. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  13. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  14. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  15. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  17. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  18. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  19. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  20. The Common Denominator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

  1. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  2. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  3. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  4. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  5. Common questions about Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Thomas G

    2014-01-15

    Barrett esophagus is a precancerous metaplasia of the esophagus that is more common in patients with chronic reflux symptoms, although it also occurs in patients without symptomatic reflux. Other risk factors include smoking, male sex, obesity, white race, hiatal hernia, and increasing age (particularly older than 50 years). Although Barrett esophagus is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, its management and the need for screening or surveillance endoscopy are debatable. The annual incidence of progression to esophageal cancer is 0.12% to 0.33%; progression is more common in patients with high-grade dysplasia and long-segment Barrett esophagus. Screening endoscopy should be considered for patients with multiple risk factors, and those who have lesions with high-grade dysplasia should undergo endoscopic mucosal resection or other endoscopic procedures to remove the lesions. Although the cost-effectiveness is questionable, patients with nondysplastic Barrett esophagus can be followed with endoscopic surveillance. Lowgrade dysplasia should be monitored or eradicated via endoscopy. Although there is no evidence that medical or surgical therapies to reduce acid reflux prevent neoplastic progression, proton pump inhibitors can be used to help control reflux symptoms. PMID:24444576

  6. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  7. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  8. Commonly missed orthopedic problems.

    PubMed

    Ballas, M T; Tytko, J; Mannarino, F

    1998-01-15

    When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, common musculoskeletal injuries may result in long-term disabling conditions. Anterior cruciate ligament tears are some of the most common knee ligament injuries. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis may present with little or no hip pain, and subtle or absent physical and radiographic findings. Femoral neck stress fractures, if left untreated, may result in avascular necrosis, refractures and pseudoarthrosis. A delay in diagnosis of scaphoid fractures may cause early wrist arthrosis if nonunion results. Ulnar collateral ligament tears are a frequently overlooked injury in skiers. The diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is missed as often as 25 percent of the time. Posterior tibial tendon tears may result in fixed bony planus if diagnosis is delayed, necessitating hindfoot fusion rather than simple soft tissue repair. Family physicians should be familiar with the initial assessment of these conditions and, when appropriate, refer patients promptly to an orthopedic surgeon. PMID:9456991

  9. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  10. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  11. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  12. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  13. Common Geometry Module

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  14. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  15. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

  16. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. PMID:25658216

  17. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed. PMID:26868026

  18. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  19. Common herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Turkoski, B B

    2000-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

  20. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  1. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  2. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the

  3. The Common Land Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yongjiu; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Baker, Ian; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Denning, A. Scott; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Houser, Paul R.; Niu, Guoyue; Oleson, Keith W.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2003-08-01

    The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photosynthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

  4. Common approaches for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    A South-South program organized by JOICFP provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experiences in the field of adolescent reproductive health (RH) between Mexico and the Philippines. Alfonso Lopez Juarez, executive director, Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM), shared MEXFAM's experiences with field personnel and GO-NGO representatives related to JOICFP's RH-oriented project in the Philippines while in the country from November 16 to 21. The program was also effective for identifying common issues and effective approaches to adolescent health issues and communicating with youth on RH and sexual health. The exchange was supported by the Hoken Kaikan Foundation and organized by JOICFP in collaboration with UNFPA-Manila and the Commission on Population (POPCOM). Lopez shared some of the lessons of MEXFAM's decade-long Gente Joven IEC program on adolescent health with GO and NGO representatives at a forum held on November 18. The event was opened by Dr. Carmencita Reodica, secretary, Department of Health (DOH). He then moved to the project sites of Balayan and Malvar municipalities of Batangas Province, where he spoke with field staff and demonstrated MEXFAM's approach in classroom situations with young people. Lopez also observed various adolescent activities such as group work with peer facilitators. "I am pleased that we can share some applicable experiences and learn from each other's projects," commented Lopez. PMID:12348336

  5. COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, N.; Chaichenets, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

  6. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  7. HOW COMMON IS RSI?

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Reading, Isabel; Calnan, Michael; Coggon, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective Statistics from Labour Force Surveys are widely quoted as evidence for the scale of occupational illness in Europe. However, occupational attribution depends on whether participants believe their health problem is caused or aggravated by work, and personal beliefs may be unreliable. We assessed the potential for error for work-associated arm pain. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to working-aged adults, randomly chosen from five British general practices. We asked about: occupational activities; mental health; self-rated health; arm pain; and beliefs about its causation. Those in work (n = 1769) were asked about activities likely to cause arm pain, from which we derived a variable for exposure to any ‘arm-straining’ occupational activity. We estimated the relative risk (RR) from arm-straining activity, using a modified Cox model, and derived the population attributable fraction (PAF). We compared the proportion of arm pain cases reporting their symptom as caused or made worse by work with the calculated PAF, overall and for subsets defined by demographic and other characteristics. Results Arm pain in the past year was more common in the 1,143 subjects who reported exposure to arm-straining occupational activity (RR 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.5). In the study sample as a whole, 53.9% of 817 cases reported their arm pain as work-associated, whereas the PAF for arm-straining occupational activity was only 13.9%. The ratio of cases reported as work-related to the calculated attributable number was substantially higher below 50 years (5.4) than at older ages (3.0) and higher in those with worse self-rated and mental health. Conclusions Counting people with arm pain which they believe to be work-related can overestimate the number of cases attributable to work substantially. This casts doubt on the validity of a major source of information used by European Governments to evaluate their occupational health strategies. PMID:18056747

  8. FORMATION OF ACIDIC TRACE ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS FROM THE CHLORINATION OF HUMIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for concentrating and analyzing acidic trace organics produced by the chlorination of humic acids at concentrations approximating common drinking water levels is described. Data are compared from several humic acid sources. Specific compound analyses of the extracts were...

  9. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs. PMID:26688819

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  11. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Culture and the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2007-01-01

    This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

  13. Committee Handbook for Common Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Sharon; And Others

    This manual on general education and common learning was prepared by and for the Dallas County Community College District's (DCCCD's) Committees for Common Learning (CCL's), which have been charged with reviewing the DCCCD's general education curriculum and degree requirements and making recommendations concerning common learning requirements and…

  14. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  15. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  16. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  17. Returning common sense to regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the

  18. Acid deposition in Maryland: Implications of the results of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuro, J.; Bowmann, M.; Ross, J.; Blundell, C.; Price, R.

    1991-07-01

    Acid deposition, commonly referred to as 'acid rain,' is a major global environmental concern. Acid deposition has reportedly resulted in damage to aquatic, terrestrial, and physical resources and has potentially adverse effects on human health. A component of the Maryland acid deposition program is the preparation of an annual report that summarizes yearly activities and costs of ongoing acid deposition research and monitoring programs.

  19. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  20. Competence across Europe: Highest Common Factor or Lowest Common Denominator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterton, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore diversity in competence models across Europe and consider the extent to which there is sufficient common ground for a common European approach to underpin the European Qualifications Framework. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a literature review and interviews with policy makers.…

  1. Constructing the Commons: Practical Projects To Build the Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several projects aimed at building the Information Commons, including: Knowledge Conservancy plans to create a database of all freely available digitized content; the Universal Library, a project with the long-term goal of providing free, online access to all books; and several projects of the Creative Commons intended to build a robust…

  2. Lunar and Martian hardware commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Paul G.; Spear, Donald S.; Stump, William R.; Williams, Franklin U.

    1986-01-01

    A number of different hardware elements were examined for possible Moon/Mars program commonality. These include manned landers; cargo landers, a trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage, traverse vehicles, unmanned surface rovers, habitation modules, and power supplies. Preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible to build a common two-stage manned lander. A single-stage, reusable lander may be practical for the lunar cast, but much less so for the Martian case, and commonality may therefore exist only at the subsystem level. A modified orbit transfer vehicle was examined as a potential cargo lander. Potential cargoes to various destinations were calculated for a Shuttle external tank sized TMI stage. A nuclear powered, long range traverse vehicle was conceptually designed and commonality is considered feasible. Short range, unmanned rovers can be made common without great effort. A surface habitation module may be difficult to make common due to difficulties in landing certain shapes on the Martian surface with aerobraking landers. Common nuclear power sources appear feasible. High temperature radiators appear easy to make common. Low temperature radiators may be difficult to make common. In most of these cases, Martian requirements determine the design.

  3. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  4. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  5. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  6. The common ancestry of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin) of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky) and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section. PMID:21087490

  7. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  8. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  9. Connecticut's Common Core of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Since its adoption in January 1987, Connecticut's Common Core of Learning has set the standard of an educated citizen for the state, and the five 1991-1995 Statewide Educational Goals for Students incorporate its policy on the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are expected of Connecticut's public secondary school graduates. The Common Core…

  10. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  11. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  12. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

  13. Use of an Acid-Base Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Grover; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identifies several ways in which an acid-base table can provide students with information about chemical reactions. Cites examples of the chart's use and includes a table which indicates the strengths of some common acids and bases. (ML)

  14. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  15. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  16. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  17. CAPSULE REPORT: CONTROL OF ACIDIC AIR POLLUTANTS BY COATED BAGHOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from the aluminum, glass, phosphate, fertilizer, and sulfuric acid industries and from waste incineration share several common problems, including combined particulate, corrosive acid vapor, and acid mist emissions. his capsule report presents an approach to alleviate t...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  1. Misconceptions about Acne Still Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157613.html Misconceptions About Acne Still Common Skin condition isn't caused by ... of negative and mistaken beliefs about people with acne, a new study finds. Researchers showed photos of ...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  3. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Muscle Cramp – A Common Pain Page Content Has a ... body’s natural tendency toward self-healing. Causes of Muscle Cramps Unfortunately, cramps can occur anywhere, anytime to ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  6. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

  7. Common Skin Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Taradash, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Six common pediatric skin problems are discussed through the use of case histories. Problems of differential diagnosis are outlined, and the various steps and pitfalls in therapy itemized. PMID:21308018

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  10. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  11. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  12. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Rosario; MacFadyen, Bruce V

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has become the procedure of choice in the management of choledocholithiasis in several laparoscopic centers. The increasing interest for this laparoscopic approach is due to the development of instrumentation and technique, allowing the procedure to be performed safely, and it is also the result of the revised role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which has been questioned because of its cost, risk of complications and effectiveness. Many surgeons, however, are still not familiar with this technique. In this article we discuss the technique and results of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Both the laparoscopic transcystic approach and choledochotomy are discussed, together with the results given in the literature. When one considers the costs, morbidity, mortality and the time required before the patient can return to work, it would appear that laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration is more favorable than open surgery or laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative or postoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. However, the technique requires advanced laparoscopic skills, including suturing, knot tying, the use of a choledochoscope, guidewire, dilators and balloon stone extractor. Although laparoscopic common bile duct exploration appears to be the most cost-effective method to treat common bile duct stones, it should be emphasized that this procedure is very challenging, and it should be performed by well-trained laparoscopic surgeons with experience in biliary surgery. PMID:11981684

  13. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  14. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  15. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  16. Synthesis of (+) and (-)-phaselic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (2S)-Phaselic acid (2S-O-caffeoylmalate) is a common plant metabolite belonging to the o-diphenol subclass of phenolic secondary metabolites. Our interest in this metabolite stems from previous studies showing that the presence of (2S)-phaselic acid in red clover is crucial to the preservation of ut...

  17. Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-phaselic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (2S)-Phaselic acid (2S-O-caffeoylmalate) is a common plant metabolite belonging to the o-diphenol subclass of phenolic secondary metabolites. Our interest in this metabolite stems from previous studies showing that the presence of (2S)-phaselic acid in red clover is crucial to the preservation of ut...

  18. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  19. Common Emergencies in Pet Birds.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jane D

    2016-05-01

    Treating avian emergencies can be a challenging task. Pet birds often mask signs of illness until they are critically ill and require quick initiation of supportive care with minimal handling to stabilize them. This article introduces the clinician to common avian emergency presentations and details initial therapeutics and diagnostics that can be readily performed in the small-animal emergency room. Common disease presentations covered include respiratory and extrarespiratory causes of dyspnea, gastrointestinal signs, reproductive disease, neurologic disorders, trauma, and toxin exposure. The duration and severity of the avian patient's disease and the clinician's initiation of appropriate therapy often determines clinical outcome. PMID:26948267

  20. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and....1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid. L (+) malic acid, referred to as...

  1. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  2. Common Types of Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... heart defect, treatment options and expected results. The descriptions and pictures of common heart defects that follow ...

  3. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  4. "Common Core Implementation Best Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the testimony of Carmel Martin, Executive Vice President for Policy at the Center for American Progress, delivered at the New York State Office of the Governor Common Core Implementation Panel on Wednesday, February 19, 2014. In this statement, Martin began by saying that The Center for American Progress believes that this…

  5. Common Practices in Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Karl M., Ed.

    The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…

  6. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

  7. Technology: Technology and Common Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

  8. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  9. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  10. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  11. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  12. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  13. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

  14. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  15. Common Protocols for Shared Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Although it is becoming easier to share materials via the Internet, the process is still not transparent, especially when cross-platform transfers are involved. This article reviews common protocols and discusses several utilities and strategies for exchanging information online. Includes a table listing transfer and compression protocols, common…

  16. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  17. Common Ground: Opportunities and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, M. Katherine; Muck, Randolph; Bazemore, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Wraps up a theme issue that explores the common ground between the restorative justice and community justice movements and examines their effect on substance-abusing youth and the communities in which they reside. Suggests that restorative justice programs may help adolescent treatment providers in their adoption of practices to promote change and…

  18. Leadership in Education: Five Commonalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    Reflecting on 43 interviews with eminent educational leaders from all backgrounds and political stripes, the author isolates five common characteristics: a bedrock belief in their work's usefulness, courage to swim upstream on behalf of their beliefs, possession of a social conscience, seriousness of purpose, and situational mastery. (MLH)

  19. Common tongue conditions in primary care.

    PubMed

    Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

    2010-03-01

    Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology. PMID:20187599

  20. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias." PMID:24526573

  1. Common complications in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Wollschlager, C M; Conrad, A R; Khan, F A

    1988-05-01

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are subject to many complications connected with the advanced therapy required for their serious illnesses. Complications of ventilatory support include problems associated with short-term and long-term intubation, barotrauma, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, and weaning errors. Cardiac tachyarrhythmias can arise from a patient's intrinsic cardiac disease, as well as from drug therapy itself. Hemodynamic monitoring is crucial to careful patient management, but it is associated with technical complications during insertion such as pneumothorax, as well as interpretive errors such as those caused by positive end-inspiratory pressure. Acute renal failure can develop as a result both of therapy with drugs such as aminoglycosides and hypotension of many etiologies, as well as the use of contrast media. Nosocomial infection, which is a dreaded complication in ICU patients, usually arises from sources in the urinary tract, bloodstream, or lung. Complications frequently can arise if the interactions of drugs commonly used in the ICU are not recognized. Further, the ICU patient is subject to nutritional complications, acid base problems, and psychological disturbances. This monograph deals with the frequency, etiology, and prevention of these common ICU complications. PMID:3286162

  2. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Ludlage, E; Murphy, C L; Davern, S M; Solomon, A; Weiss, D T; Glenn-Smith, D; Dworkin, S; Mansfield, K G

    2005-03-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate native to Brazil that has been used extensively in biomedical research. A retrospective analysis of archived hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections and clinical records was conducted at the New England Primate Research Center on 86 marmosets more than 1 year of age that were euthanized during the past decade because of morbidity and failure to thrive. Approximately 17% (15 of 86) were found to have amyloid deposits in one or more organs, including the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, and intestine. This material was shown by amino acid sequence analysis to be composed of serum amyloid A (SAA)-related protein. This type of amyloidosis, designated AA or "secondary," is associated typically with an inflammatory process that induces elevated levels of the SAA amyloidogenic precursor molecule. Notably, there were no significant pathologic differences or other distinguishing features in animals with amyloid versus those without; furthermore, on the basis of the limited number of serum specimens available for analysis, the SAA concentrations in the two groups were comparable, thus suggesting the possible inheritable nature of the disorder. In this respect, the common marmoset provides a unique experimental model for study of the pathogenesis and treatment of AA and other forms of systemic amyloidosis. PMID:15753464

  3. Chem I Supplement: Emphasis on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education Staff

    1977-01-01

    Provides supplementary notes on acids and bases suitable for secondary school chemistry instruction, including acidity in solid and natural waters, acidity balance in body chemistry, acid and basic foods, pH values of common fluids, examples of drugs, and commercial preparation of nitric acid. (SL)

  4. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  5. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  6. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  7. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  8. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  9. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  10. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis. PMID:17263216

  11. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  12. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  13. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  14. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain. PMID:25921681

  15. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  16. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  17. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3

  18. Amino acids precursors in lunar finds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

    1975-01-01

    The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

  19. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  20. Common genetic and epigenetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Darius J; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetic anomalies should be considered in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies. DNA methylation analysis is the most sensitive initial test in evaluating for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The timely identification of cytogenetic anomalies allows for prompt initiation of early intervention services to maximize the potential of every individual as they grow older. Although many of these conditions are rare, keeping them in mind can have a profound impact on the clinical course of affected individuals. This article reviews some of the more common genetic syndromes. PMID:25836705

  1. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  2. Sampled Longest Common Prefix Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirén, Jouni

    When augmented with the longest common prefix (LCP) array and some other structures, the suffix array can solve many string processing problems in optimal time and space. A compressed representation of the LCP array is also one of the main building blocks in many compressed suffix tree proposals. In this paper, we describe a new compressed LCP representation: the sampled LCP array. We show that when used with a compressed suffix array (CSA), the sampled LCP array often offers better time/space trade-offs than the existing alternatives. We also show how to construct the compressed representations of the LCP array directly from a CSA.

  3. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M; Atchley, Scott; Dillow, David A; Geoffray, Patrick; Bosilca, George; Squyres, Jeffrey M; Minnich, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  4. Caffeine and the common cold.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Thomas, M; Perry, K; Whitney, H

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine whether caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee removed the malaise (reduced alertness, slower psychomotor performance) associated with having a common cold. One hundred volunteers were tested when healthy and 46 returned to the laboratory when they developed colds. Those subjects who remained healthy were then recalled as a control group. On the second visit subjects carried out two sessions, one pre-drink and another an hour after the drink. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions, caffeinated coffee (1.5 mg/kg caffeine/body weight), decaffeinated coffee or fruit juice. Subjects with colds reported decreased alertness and were slower at performing psychomotor tasks. Caffeine increased the alertness and performance of the colds subjects to the same level as the healthy group and decaffeinated coffee also led to an improvement. These results suggest that drugs which increase alertness can remove the malaise associated with the common cold, and that increased stimulation of the sensory afferent nerves may also be beneficial. PMID:9443519

  5. ALMA Common Software - UTFSM Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Avarias, J.; Mora, M.; Tobar, R.

    The ACS-UTFSM Group was created as a distributed systems research team on astronomical and non-astronomical applications on the year 2004. The choice of the ALMA Common Software framework (ACS) as the development platform came from the experience gained during summerjobs at ESO observatories. After three years of informal contributions to ACS development, the team presented a technology exchange initiative to the ALMA-CONICYT Fund 2006, which was granted in 2007. Through the past years, the UTFSM helped the ACS team with "nice-to-have" applications and testing. Currently the ACS-UTFSM is involved in several contributions to ACS, and the development of a flexible telescope control system (gTCS) framework which aims to encapsulate common requirements and will provide a uniform software. In preparation for this challenging objective, several small projects are currently being developed. The other interesting edge of the team work is the technology transfer initiatives. Several inter-universities collaborations are flourishing (PUC, UCN, UV) after the first ACS Workshop held at the UTFSM this year. Today three former team members are working at NRAO's ALMA Test Facility in Socorro, New Mexico. Two other students will have a summer job next year to work in ALMA related development.

  6. Common hematological disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak; Totadri, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    It is common for primary care physicians to be faced with children with hematological disorders in everyday practice. The article seeks to provide realistic information for the first-contact physician in handling common hematological diseases in children. Practical step-wise approach to understanding and investigating anemia and bleeding disorders is illustrated. Requirement of iron in normal children and management of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia is explained. The gold standard for IDA continues to be ferrous sulphate which has good bioavailability and is inexpensive. There is emerging concept of delayed clamping of umbilical cord at birth, particularly in regions with widespread IDA, to augment iron stores in infancy. Typical case scenarios of children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and hemophilia are provided to facilitate the understanding of management in day to day practice. The vital role of the medical practitioner in shared care of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia is emphasized. A risk based treatment algorithm for febrile neutropenia is provided. PMID:23934100

  7. Inverse Common-Reflection-Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroud, H.; Tygel, M.; Freitas, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Common-Reflection-Surface (CRS) stack method is a powerful tool to produce high-quality stacked images of multicoverage seismic data. As a result of the CRS stack, not only a stacked section, but also a number of attributes defined at each point of that section, are produced. In this way, one can think of the CRS stack method as a transformation from data space to attribute space. Being a purely kinematic method, the CRS stack lacks amplitude information that can be useful for many purposes. Here we propose to fill this gap by means of a combined use of a zero-offset section (that could be a short-offset or amplitude-corrected stacked section) and common midpoint gather. We present an algorithm for an inverse CRS transformation, namely one that (approximately) transforms the CRS attributes back to data space. First synthetic tests provide satisfying results for the two simple cases of single dipping-plane and single circular reflectors with a homogeneous overburden, and provide estimates of the range of applicability, in both midpoint and offset directions. We further present an application for interpolating missing traces in a near-surface, high-resolution seismic experiment, conducted in the alluvial plain of the river Gave de Pau, near Assat, southern France, showing its ability to build coherent signals, where recording was not available. A somewhat unexpected good feature of the algorithm, is that it seems capable to reconstruct signals even in muted parts of the section.

  8. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes. PMID:26280141

  9. DNA/SNLA commonality program

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D. V.; Watts, A. J.; Rice, D. A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented.

  10. Evolution of a common controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

    2012-06-01

    Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

  11. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour. PMID:20016600

  12. Alternative therapies for common dermatologic disorders, part 2.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Vincent; Calmet, Erick; Jhingade, Varalakshmi

    2010-06-01

    The exact pathophysiology and curative treatment of many common dermatologic conditions remains unclear. Often, conventional treatments are only partially effective, leading patients to look for alternative therapy. No new promising alternative treatments for aphthous stomatitis could be found in the literature. Acne may be helped by nicotinamide gel and azelaic acid. Atopic dermatitis may be helped by a trial of elimination diet, n-3 fatty acid supplementation, or Chinese 10-herb tea. Psoriasis may be helped by aloe vera or thermal baths combined with sun exposure. PMID:20493337

  13. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  14. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  15. CLL: Common Leukemia; Uncommon Presentations.

    PubMed

    Lad, Deepesh; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Sachdeva, Manupdesh Singh; Das, Ashim; Srinivasan, Radhika; Bal, Amanjit; Khadwal, Alka; Prakash, Gaurav; Suri, Vikas; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay; Varma, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    We report here a series of ten patients with uncommon presentations and associations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) not reported hitherto or occasionally reported in literature. The first two cases describe unusual causes of abdominal distension in CLL and unusual sites infiltration by CLL. The next two cases illustrate occurrence of CLL in association with other hematological malignancies. Cases five and six describe unusual infections and their impact on CLL. Cases seven and eight depict associations of rare non-hematological autoimmune conditions with CLL. The last two cases describe transformation at unusual sites. This series of ten cases illustrates how a common leukemia like CLL can present in different forms and how despite so much progress in understanding of this leukemia so little is known of such presentations. PMID:27429518

  16. Work and common psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M; Harvey, S B; Overland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a 'process' as well as an 'event'. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  17. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid....

  1. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  2. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  5. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  6. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  7. Common questions about wound care.

    PubMed

    Worster, Brooke; Zawora, Michelle Q; Hsieh, Christine

    2015-01-15

    Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile saline or tap water. Occlusion of the wound is key to preventing contamination. Suturing, if required, can be completed up to 24 hours after the trauma occurs, depending on the wound site. Tissue adhesives are equally effective for low-tension wounds with linear edges that can be evenly approximated. Although patients are often instructed to keep their wounds covered and dry after suturing, they can get wet within the first 24 to 48 hours without increasing the risk of infection. There is no evidence that prophylactic antibiotics improve outcomes for most simple wounds. Tetanus toxoid should be administered as soon as possible to patients who have not received a booster in the past 10 years. Superficial mild wound infections can be treated with topical agents, whereas deeper mild and moderate infections should be treated with oral antibiotics. Most severe infections, and moderate infections in high-risk patients, require initial parenteral antibiotics. Severe burns and wounds that cover large areas of the body or involve the face, joints, bone, tendons, or nerves should generally be referred to wound care specialists. PMID:25591209

  8. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  9. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies. PMID:26214918

  10. Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imtiaz, Kauser

    2011-01-01

    Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

  11. Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Monica G; Higgins, Kim E; Perez, Evan D

    2016-07-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of cough, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and fever. To diagnose GABHS pharyngitis, a rapid antigen detection test should be ordered in patients with a modified Centor or FeverPAIN score of 2 or 3. First-line treatment for GABHS pharyngitis includes a 10-day course of penicillin or amoxicillin. Patients allergic to penicillin can be treated with firstgeneration cephalosporins, clindamycin, or macrolide antibiotics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are more effective than acetaminophen and placebo for treatment of fever and pain associated with GABHS pharyngitis; medicated throat lozenges used every two hours are also effective. Corticosteroids provide only a small reduction in the duration of symptoms and should not be used routinely. PMID:27386721

  12. Common themes in microbial pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1989-01-01

    A bacterial pathogen is a highly adapted microorganism which has the capacity to cause disease. The mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to cause infection and disease usually include an interactive group of virulence determinants, sometimes coregulated, which are suited for the interaction of a particular microorganism with a specific host. Because pathogens must overcome similar host barriers, common themes in microbial pathogenesis have evolved. However, these mechanisms are diverse between species and not necessarily conserved; instead, convergent evolution has developed several different mechanisms to overcome host barriers. The success of a bacterial pathogen can be measured by the degree with which it replicates after entering the host and reaching its specific niche. Successful microbial infection reflects persistence within a host and avoidance or neutralization of the specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host. The degree of success of a pathogen is dependent upon the status of the host. As pathogens pass through a host, they are exposed to new environments. Highly adapted pathogenic organisms have developed biochemical sensors exquisitely designed to measure and respond to such environmental stimuli and accordingly to regulate a cascade of virulence determinants essential for life within the host. The pathogenic state is the product of dynamic selective pressures on microbial populations. PMID:2569162

  13. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  14. Distinct Effects of Sorbic Acid and Acetic Acid on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, J. W. A.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. J.; Hellingwerf, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated acid and less on the nature of the acid. Recovery of the internal pH depends on the presence of an energy source, but acidification of the cytosol causes a decrease in glucose flux. Furthermore, sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid. Together these effects may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain sorbic acid's effectiveness. PMID:25038097

  15. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Paul F

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  16. The behavioural final common path.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D J; Sibly, R M

    1975-05-15

    In this paper it is argued that any model of the motivational (i.e. reversible) processes governing the behaviour of an animal can be represented by means of isoclines in a multidimensional 'causal-factor space'. The argument is axiomatic, based upon the two prime assumptions: that (1) it is always possible to classify the behavioural repertoire of a species in such a way that the classes are mutually exclusive in the sense that the members of different classes cannot occur simultaneously, and (2) these incompatible actions are uniquely determined by a particular set of causal factors. The isoclines join all points in the space which present a given 'degree of competitiveness' of a particular 'candidate' for overt behavioural expression. The competition between candidates is an inevitable consequence of the fact that animals cannot 'do more than one thing at a time', and is envisaged as taking place in the behavioural final common path. An empirical method of determining the motivational state (i.e. point in causal-factor space) is outlined. This is a 'relative' method, independent of the arbitrary calibration of the axes of the causal-factor space. It is shown that an arbitrary scale of measurement along any two axes of the causal-factor space is all that is necessary for empirical determination of the shape of a motivational isocline. Experiments in which this method has been applied to the measurement of hunger and thirst in doves are outlined, and the results are discussed in terms of their implications for motivation theory in general. PMID:239416

  17. Instruction and "The Commons". The College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Many academic libraries have embraced the concept of the information commons or the learning commons. These library spaces consist of collections of tools, services and programs intended to enhance the student learning experience. According to Scott Bennett (2008), an information commons supports learning, while the learning commons "enacts" the…

  18. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  19. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  20. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  1. Amino Acid Transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kay, W. W.; Gronlund, Audrey F.

    1969-01-01

    Properties of the transport systems for amino acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. Exogenous 14C-labeled amino acids were shown to equilibrate with the internal native amino acid pool prior to incorporation into protein. When added at low external concentrations, the majority of the amino acids examined entered the protein of the cell unaltered. The rates of amino acid transport, established at low concentrations with 18 commonly occurring amino acids, varied as much as 40-fold. The transport process became saturated at high external amino acid concentrations, was temperature-sensitive, and was inhibited by sodium azide and iodoacetamide. Intracellular to extracellular amino acid ratios of 100- to 300-fold were maintained during exponential growth of the population in a glucose minimal medium. When the medium became depleted of glucose, neither extracellular nor intracellular amino acids could be detected. PMID:4974392

  2. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood vessel to keep it open. Bipolar disorder. Taking folic acid does not appear to improve the antidepressant effects of lithium in people with bipolar disorder. However, taking folate with the medication valproate improves ...

  3. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  4. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  5. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  6. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  7. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Oral Solution ... Aminocaproic acid comes as a tablet and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  8. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  9. Evaluation of fatty acid content of some Iranian fast foods with emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Seddigheh; Nazari, Bahar; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Parkhideh, Sahar; Saberi, Salbali; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. The most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran: sausage, calbas, hamburgers and pizzas, were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets and restaurants. Each time a 10 g sample was drawn and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Total and individual fatty acids were quantified according to standard methods by gas chromatography with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector. The most common saturated fatty acids in Iranian fast foods is stearic acid (C18:0) which ranged from 14.0% to 20.9%. Saturated fatty acid content in calbas was significantly higher than that found in other groups. Trans fatty acids constitute almost 23.6% to 30.6% of total fatty acids of these products. The most common TFA in these fast foods was elaidic acid (C18:1 9t). Total cis unsaturated fatty acid content of tested fast foods varied from 25.3%(in sausage) to 46.8(in calbas) with oleic acid (C18:1 9c) followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) being the most common fatty acids in these products. This study showed higher TFAs contents in commercially available fast foods compared to the amounts recommended by dietary guidelines in Iran. Further studies must assess the effects of these fatty acids on human health. PMID:19713177

  10. Oxidative degradation of bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid in nitric acid studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Groenewold; D. R. Peterman

    2012-10-01

    Samples of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex-301) were analyzed using direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Positive ion spectra of standard and stereo-pure acids displayed ions typical of the unmodified compound, cationized monomeric and dimeric cluster ion species. In addition, a significant ions 2 u less than the dimeric clusters were seen, that correspond to an oxidatively coupled species designated Cyx2 that is observed as H- or Na-cationized species in the electrospray analyses. Based on uncorrected ion intensities, Cyx2 is estimated to account for about 20% of the total in the standard materials. When samples that were contacted with 3 M HNO3 were analyzed, the positive ion spectrum consisted nearly entirely of ions derived from the oxidatively coupled product, indicating that the acid promotes coupling. The negative ion spectra of the standard acids consisted nearly entirely of the conjugate base that is formed by deprotonation of the acids, and cluster ions containing multiple acid molecules. The negative spectra of the HNO3-contacted samples also contained the conjugate base of the unmodified acid, but also two other species that correspond to the dioxo- and perthio- derivatives. It is concluded that HNO3 contact causes significant oxidation, forming at least three major products, Cyx2, the perthio-acid, and the dioxo-acid.

  11. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  12. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  13. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  14. Synthesis of Branched Methyl Hydroxy Stearates Including an Ester from Bio-Based Levulinic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the synthesis of 5 useful branched methyl alpha-hydroxy oleate esters from commercially available methyl oleate and common organic acids. Of special interest is the synthesis utilizing the natural byproduct, levulinic acid. The other common organic acids used herein were propionic acid, ...

  15. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals Answers to Common Questions About Scars To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  16. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Załęski, Andrzej; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS. PMID:24868283

  17. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Załęski, Andrzej; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS. PMID:24868283

  18. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  19. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  20. Accumulated analyses of amino acid precursors in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Six amino acids (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) obtained by hydrolysis of extracts have been quantitatively determined in ten collections of fines from five Apollo missions. Although the amounts found, 7-45 ng/g, are small, the lunar amino acid/carbon ratios are comparable to those of the carbonaceous chondrites, Murchison and Murray, as analyzed by the same procedures. Since both the ratios of amino acid to carbon, and the four or five most common types of proteinous amino acid found, are comparable for the two extraterrestrial sources despite different cosmophysical histories of the moon and meteorites, common cosmochemical processes are suggested.

  1. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  2. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  3. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to approval... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not...

  4. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  5. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  6. Emergence Prediction of Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common groundsel is an important weed of strawberry and other horticultural crops. There are few herbicides registered for common groundsel control in such crops, and understanding and predicting the timing and extent of common groundsel emergence may facilitate its management. We developed simple e...

  7. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  8. Academic Engagement in the Library Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Charlie; Bodnar, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about library commons in recent years. For the most part, that literature has dealt with designing information and learning commons that support student learning by giving them the tools and resources they need for their academic work. However, few authors have discussed how a library commons might facilitate collaboration…

  9. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  10. All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4α (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

  11. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  12. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  13. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease called vitiligo, and an inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome. It is also used for reducing harmful side ... to blood clots (ischemic stroke). Inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome.Taking folic acid by mouth does not improve ...

  14. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  15. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  18. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  19. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  20. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  3. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  4. Caffeic acid derivatives in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Makiko; Yan, Xiaojun; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Nagata, Tadahiro; Nakanishi, Tateo

    2003-01-29

    Five caffeic acid derivatives were found in the roots of yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, as the major water-soluble phenolic compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Two of these were chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, common phenolic compounds in plants of the family Asteraceae. Three were esters of caffeic acid with the hydroxy groups of aldaric acid, derived from hexose. The structure of the aldaric moiety was determined by hydrolysis and comparison of NMR spectra with those of standard aldaric acids. The compounds were novel caffeic acid esters of altraric acid: 2,4- or 3,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, 2,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, and 2,3,5- or 2,4,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid. PMID:12537459

  5. Integrating Mechanisms for Insulin Resistance: Common Threads and Missing Links

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder that defies a single etiological pathway. Accumulation of ectopic lipid metabolites, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and innate immune pathways have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, these pathways are also closely linked to changes in fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure that can impact ectopic lipid deposition. Ultimately, accumulation of specific lipid metabolites (diacylglycerols and/or ceramides) in liver and skeletal muscle, may be a common pathway leading to impaired insulin signaling and insulin resistance. PMID:22385956

  6. Early diagnosis of common bile duct obstruction using cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplun, L.; Weissmann, H.S.; Rosenblatt, R.R.; Freeman, L.M.

    1985-11-01

    The technetium Tc 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid cholescintigram is an extremely accurate examination for detecting early obstruction of the common bile duct in acutely ill patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis or possible obstruction days to years after cholecystectomy. The examination accurately detected common bile duct obstruction in 63 of 65 patients in these two diagnostic categories. Sonographic evaluations in 43 of these patients failed to reveal ductal dilatation or other abnormality in 26 cases, and was nondiagnostic because of overlying bowel gas in two cases. The success of the radionuclide examination is attributed to its ability to detect functional impedance to bile flow hours to days before anatomic ductal dilatation occurs, and occasionally even before the alkaline phosphatase level and other liver chemistry values suggest the presence of an obstruction.

  7. Cryosurgery for common skin lesions. Treatment in family physicians' offices.

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the principles of use, common techniques, and effectiveness of cryosurgery for common skin lesions that can be treated by family physicians in their offices. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database controlled trials register (1998 version) were searched. Much of the evidence for the effectiveness of cryosurgery or cryotherapy is based on of cryosurgery for treating common warts, external genital warts, lentigines, and basal cell carcinomas. Many of the trials reviewed were conducted in specialty clinics and, therefore, the results might not apply accurately to family practice. MAIN MESSAGE: Evidence from case report and series suggests that cryosurgery is effective for actinic keratoses, seborrheic keratoses, dermatofibroma, keloids, molluscum contagiosum, and benign nevi. Randomized comparative trials show that, for external genital warts, cryosurgery is more effective than podophyllin treatment, better than or equal to trichloroacetic acid, but less effective than electrodesiccation or surgical removal. Prospective randomized trials of cryosurgery for common warts showed that weekly cryotherapy produced more rapid cures, but the overall cure rate depended on number of treatments. Two freeze-thaw cycles and paring before freezing improved the cure rate for plantar warts. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10216795

  8. On modeling the common mode inductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nave, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    The common mode inductor is the corner stone of filter design. One of the most important parameters of performance is leakage inductance. The role of leakage inductance in filter performance and current handling is discussed. It is demonstrated that leakage inductance is, in fact, desirable. Underlying physics of operation for the common mode inductor is reviewed. A model is presented which enables the designer to predict the leakage inductance of the common mode choke.

  9. Two Circles and Their Common Tangents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Given two circles C 1 and C 2 in a plane such that neither one of the two circles is contained in the other, there are either four common tangents when the circles do not intersect at all or the circles have three common tangents when they touch each other externally or only two common tangents when the circles intersect exactly at two points. The…

  10. Potential Approach of Microbial Conversion to Develop New Antifungal Products of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omega-3/('-3) or n-3 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-3 position. n-3 Fatty acids which are important in human nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3; EPA), and docosahexaen...

  11. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR ISOCUPRESSIC ACID AND SERUM METABOLITES OF ISOCUPRESSIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), common juniper (Juniperus communis) and Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) causes abortions in pregnant cattle. Recent studies have identified isocupressic acid as the primary abortifacient compound in these ...

  13. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  14. Increase of betulinic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by balancing fatty acids and betulinic acid forming pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Betulinic acid is a plant-based triterpenoid that has been recognized for its antitumor and anti-HIV activities. The level of betulinic acid in its natural hosts is extremely low. In the present study, we constructed betulinic acid biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. Given the betulinic acid forming pathways sharing the common substrate acetyl-CoA with fatty acid synthesis, the metabolic fluxes between the two pathways were varied by changing gene expressions, and their effects on betulinic acid production were investigated. We constructed nine S. cerevisiae strains representing nine combinations of the flux distributions between betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways. Our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve the betulinic acid production in S. cerevisiae while keeping a desirable growth phenotype by optimally balancing the carbon fluxes of the two pathways. Through modulating the expressions of the key genes on betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways, the difference in betulinic acid yield varied largely in the range of 0.01-1.92 mg L(-1) OD(-1). The metabolic engineering approach used in this study could be extended for synthesizing other triterpenoids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24389702

  15. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  16. A Learning Commons on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Deb; Bouchey, Heather; Nelson, Garet; Sherriff, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the creation of a Lyndon Learning Commons at Lyndon State College. The Commons model emphasizes the integration of a variety of academic support services, increasing both their proximity to one another and cross-unit collaboration, in order to make these services more visible, more accessible, and easier for students to…

  17. After Common Core, States Set Rigorous Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.; Barrows, Samuel; Gift, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of Tea Party criticism, union skepticism, and anti-testing outcries, the campaign to implement Common Core State Standards (otherwise known as Common Core) has achieved phenomenal success in statehouses across the country. Since 2011, 45 states have raised their standards for student proficiency in reading and math, with the greatest…

  18. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    PubMed Central

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. PMID:15504003

  19. Common Standards for Career Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment. These…

  20. Fractions, Decimals, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreith, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    At grade 7, Common Core's content standards call for the use of long division to find the decimal representation of a rational number. With an eye to reconciling this requirement with Common Core's call for "a balanced combination of procedure and understanding," a more transparent form of long division is developed. This leads to the…

  1. Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

  2. Instructional Leadership and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Karla; Bennett-Schmidt, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    Following the 2012-13 administrators welcome back kick-off meeting, superintendent Pat highlighted the district's plan to roll-out of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS), including integration of learning experiences that would prepare students for the new Common Core assessments from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC).…

  3. Private Schools Opt for Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

  4. Just the Facts: Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Cheryl Scott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Common Core State Standards and what they mean to teachers and their students. The Common Core State Standards Initiative provides an opportunity for classroom practitioners across the nation to hone their skills, focus on student learning, and ensure that all the students they serve will be working…

  5. Commonality Analysis for the Regression Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, Kavita

    Commonality analysis is a procedure for decomposing the coefficient of determination (R superscript 2) in multiple regression analyses into the percent of variance in the dependent variable associated with each independent variable uniquely, and the proportion of explained variance associated with the common effects of predictors in various…

  6. Building Common College-Ready Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Kati

    2010-01-01

    Many people in higher education were caught by surprise when the nation's governors and chief state school officers announced their intention to adopt common standards for American high schools that aim at college readiness. In this article, the author explores what this common standards is all about and how it can be helpful in college…

  7. Go Figure: Math and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this article about the Common Core State Standards and mathematics, the author wanted to point out what's familiar in these standards and to give teachers clear access to what's different about them. She wanted to emphasize what has made her passionate about the Common Core standards--which is their two-part structure: Standards for…

  8. Common Threads: Women, Mathematics, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary

    Common Threads was the name of an exhibition that drew together a number of views on mathematics and displayed them operating in the activity deemed most devoid of them. It demonstrated and challenged both gender stereotypes with its evidence that needlework is full of mathematics. This book tries to place Common Threads and its influence within…

  9. The Not-So-Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, R. Bruce; McPherson, Carolyn M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolving common school is public, community-based, supported by public taxation, and a secular alternative available to parents and their children. The "not-so-common" school, an example of which is Mendel Catholic High School (Chicago, Illinois), features curriculum constructed by professionals, religious training, and determination to…

  10. Insights into The Commons on Flickr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Commons on Flickr, comprised of an international community of select libraries, museums, and archives, was a project initially launched in 2008 by the Library of Congress and Flickr. Primary goals of The Commons are to broaden exposure to rich cultural heritage photographs and to observe and participate in the communities of engagement and…

  11. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkus, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) was published in 2010 and includes a complete collection of standards that are published and reviewed as a "common core" in which math skills have been extensively adopted. The recommendations provided have been entirely or partially adapted by more than 47 states of the US.…

  12. Common Core in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  13. Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

    2015-02-01

    Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

  14. Guidelines for Common Bean QTL Nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has become an important tool for the characterization and breeding of complex traits in crops plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A standard system for naming QTL in common bean is needed for effective referencing of new and previously identif...

  15. Organized Interests and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Among the notable aspects of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the diverse array of interest groups supporting them. These organizations must now apply the strategies they used so effectively in advancing the Common Core to stem mounting opposition to it. This article draws on theories of political and policy learning and interviews with…

  16. Looking Forward from "A Common Faith"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    "A Common Faith," according to this author, is arguably one of John Dewey's least effective books. In it, he tries to persuade readers that the best of two epistemologically different worlds can be reconciled in a common faith--one that employs the methods of science with a generously religious attitude. Possibly most people today believe this…

  17. Drug Induced Steatohepatitis: An Uncommon Culprit of a Common Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowich, Liane; Shibolet, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver disease in developed countries. Its frequency is increasing in the general population mostly due to the widespread occurrence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Although drugs and dietary supplements are viewed as a major cause of acute liver injury, drug induced steatosis and steatohepatitis are considered a rare form of drug induced liver injury (DILI). The complex mechanism leading to hepatic steatosis caused by commonly used drugs such as amiodarone, methotrexate, tamoxifen, valproic acid, glucocorticoids, and others is not fully understood. It relates not only to induction of the metabolic syndrome by some drugs but also to their impact on important molecular pathways including increased hepatocytes lipogenesis, decreased secretion of fatty acids, and interruption of mitochondrial β-oxidation as well as altered expression of genes responsible for drug metabolism. Better familiarity with this type of liver injury is important for early recognition of drug hepatotoxicity and crucial for preventing severe forms of liver injury and cirrhosis. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms leading to drug induced hepatic steatosis may provide much needed clues to the mechanism and potential prevention of the more common form of metabolic steatohepatitis. PMID:26273591

  18. Purification and characterization of arcelin seed protein from common bean.

    PubMed

    Osborn, T C; Burow, M; Bliss, F A

    1988-02-01

    Arcelin, a seed protein originally discovered in wild bean accessions, was purified, characterized, and compared to phaseolin, the major seed protein of common bean, and to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the major bean seed lectin. Arcelin and PHA has several characteristics in common. Both were glycoproteins having similar subunit M(r), deglycosylated M(r), and amino acid compositions. The two proteins were related antigenically and they had the same developmental timing of accumulation. Arcelin also had some hemagglutinating activity, a characteristic associated with lectins. However, several features distinguished arcelin from PHA. Arcelin had a more basic isoelectric point than PHA, greater numbers of basic amino acid residues, additional cysteine residues, and one methionine residue, which PHA lacks. Native PHA protein is a tetramer of subunits, and although a small component of native arcelin protein was also tetrameric, most of the arcelin preparation was dimeric. The hemagglutinating activity of arcelin was specific only for some pronase-treated erythrocytes. It did not agglutinate native erythrocytes, nor did it bind to thyroglobulin or fetuin affinity resins as did PHA. Although arcelin has lectin-like properties, we believe the distinctions between arcelin and PHA warrant the designation of arcelin as a unique bean seed protein. PMID:16665920

  19. Commonality of Ground Systems in Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shawn M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is examining the utility of requiring a certain degree of commonality in both flight and ground systems in the Constellation Program. While the benefits of commonality seem obvious in terms of minimizing upfront development and long-term operations and maintenance costs, success in real, large-scale engineering systems used to support launch operations is relatively unknown. A broad literature review conducted for this paper did not yield a single paper specifically addressing the application of commonality for ground systems at any launch site in the United States or abroad. This paper provides a broad overview of the ground systems, captures historical and current application of commonality at the launch site, and offers suggestions for additional research to further develop commonality approaches.

  20. Determination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in preparations containing amino acids: the molecular weight characterization.

    PubMed

    Bellomaria, A; Nepravishta, R; Mazzanti, U; Marchetti, M; Piccioli, P; Paci, M

    2014-10-15

    Several pharmaceutical preparations contain hyaluronic acid in the presence of a large variety of low molecular weight charged molecules like amino acids. In these mixtures, it is particularly difficult to determine the concentration and the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid fragments. In fact zwitterionic compounds in high concentration behave by masking the hyaluronic acid due to the electrostatic interactions between amino acids and hyaluronic acid. In such conditions the common colorimetric test of the hyaluronic acid determination appears ineffective and in the (1)H NMR spectra the peaks of the polymer disappear completely. By a simple separation procedure the presence of hyaluronic acid was revealed by the DMAB test and (1)H NMR while its average molecular weight in the final product was determined by DOSY NMR spectroscopy alone. The latter determination is very important due to the healthy effects of some sizes of this polymer's fragments. PMID:25078662

  1. Isolation of humic acids from leonardite

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.B.; Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    The primary interest in humic acid is its use as an effective fertilizer. Humic substances, found commonly in low-rank coals, enhance plant growth directly through positive physiological effects and indirectly by affecting the properties of the soil. Humic acids have traditionally been defined as the dark-colored organic matter that can be extracted from soil by dilute alkali and other reagents and which is insoluble in dilute acid. This paper discusses the isolation of humic acid from leonardite using the alkaline extraction method and the subsequent characterization using elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy techniques. In this study, yields of more than 60% were obtained.

  2. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  3. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl transferase binds acidic and basic amino acid substrates.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Aman; Clifton, Ian J; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Ivison, David; Domene, Carmen; Schofield, Christopher J

    2011-09-21

    Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl-transferases catalyse the reversible transfer of an acetyl-group from a basic (ornithine) to an acidic (glutamate) amino acid by employing a common mechanism involving an acetyl-enzyme intermediate but using different side chain binding modes. PMID:21796301

  4. Governing the global commons with local institutions.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed. PMID:22509269

  5. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  6. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  7. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  8. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood. ... Methylmalonic acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ...

  9. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  10. Investigations into the common ion effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdeavella, C. V.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    1994-09-01

    The molecular origins of the common ion effect and the salting out of nonpolar molecules from aqueous solutions are investigated. Thermodynamic stability criteria for a common ion mixture in a polar solvent are derived. Kirkwood-Buff statistical thermodynamics is used to make the connection with the microscopic pair correlation functions. The observed sensitivity of the compositional stability with respect to ionic strength indicates that a demixing transition is the primary cause of the instability for the common ion effect for our model Lennard-Jones plus Coulomb Hamiltonian.

  11. Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2003-01-01

    High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

  12. Genetic location of genes encoding enterobacterial common antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, U; Mayer, H

    1985-01-01

    A new rff mutation (rff-726) of Escherichia coli is described which affects the biosynthesis of the enterobacterial common antigen. This mutation was detected in an rfe-defective strain. A Tn10 insertion near the rfe locus was isolated to facilitate further mapping. Both mutations rfe and rff were mapped by transduction with bacteriophage P1, giving the gene order ilv rfe rff uvrD metE. The F' factor F14 was able to complement both mutations rfe and rff, whereas the F' factor F16 could complement the rfe but not the rff mutation. The rff mutation did not affect the biosynthesis of N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid, as the previously described rff mutations in Salmonella typhimurium do (H. C. Lew, H. Nikaido, and P. H. Mäkelä, J. Bacteriol. 136:227-233, 1978), and also did not affect the biosynthesis of other enterobacterial common antigen components; however, the biosynthesis of the complete enterobacterial common antigen molecule was blocked. PMID:3894334

  13. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  14. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  15. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one-third of ICU ... among former ICU patients are three to four times higher than in the general population, according to ...

  16. Diagnosing and treating common oral pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dilley, D C; Siegel, M A; Budnick, S

    1991-10-01

    When the physician is confronted with an oral pathologic condition in a child, the adage "common things happen commonly" should be applied. Congenital lesions such as palatal and alveolar cysts occur in almost 50% of newborns. Developmental conditions such as Fordyce granules and retrocuspid papillae are found in most children. Localized soft-tissue enlargements commonly seen in young children include the parulis, mucocele, papilloma, and inflammatory gingival tumors. In addition, soft-tissue pathologies and discomfort associated with herpesvirus infections or recurrent aphthous ulcerations often present as a chief complaint. The physician's knowledge and treatment recommendations for common oral pathologies should be an integral component to the overall medical management of infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:1886744

  17. Taking the Common Ground: Beyond Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruffee, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, after 30 years of liberal education's focus on examining and celebrating diversity, the realities of contemporary social and civil life and global politics are prompting new interest in recognizing and affirming our genuine commonality. (EV)

  18. GenomicDataCommonsNewsNote

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is establishing the Genomic Data Commons to store, analyze and distribute cancer genomics data generated by NCI and other research organizations. The GDC will provide an interactive system for researchers to access data, with the goal of advancing the

  19. Common cold - how to treat at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use the ... green snot, and sneezing Sore throat Treating your Cold Treating your symptoms will not make your cold ...

  20. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  1. Common misconceptions in contact dermatitis counseling.

    PubMed

    Katta, Rajani

    2008-01-01

    Both physicians and patients hold many misconceptions when it comes to allergen avoidance. Ten commonly held misconceptions are exposed, allowing more accurate approach to the individual with cutaneous allergies. PMID:18627724

  2. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... bumps”) on the vocal cord(s) alter vocal cord vibration and lead to hoarseness. The most common vocal ... repositions the vocal cord to improve contact and vibration of the paralyzed vocal cord with the non- ...

  3. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  4. Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegman, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

  5. Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159815.html Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence: Study Doctors should explore alternatives for pain ... have an elevated risk of growing dependent on opioid painkillers, a new study finds. These prescription painkillers ...

  6. What Are Some Common Signs of Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications What are some common signs of pregnancy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The primary sign of pregnancy is missing a menstrual period or ...

  7. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. PMID:27474427

  8. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  9. Common Parent Reactions to the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early part of their NICU stay. Anger Anger is also a common reaction to the initial ... weeks?”). Most parents of NICU babies feel some anger, and they express it in different ways. Some ...

  10. Common hematologic problems in the newborn nursery.

    PubMed

    Watchko, Jon F

    2015-04-01

    "Common red blood cell disorders encountered in the normal newborn nursery include hemolytic disease of the newborn and resultant hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and polycythemia. A less frequent clinically relevant hematologic issue in newborns to be covered herein is thrombocytopenia." PMID:25836711

  11. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  12. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  13. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  14. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  15. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  16. Common Adult Skin and Soft Tissue Lesions.

    PubMed

    Trost, Jeffrey G; Applebaum, Danielle S; Orengo, Ida

    2016-08-01

    A strong foundational knowledge of dermatologic disease is crucial for a successful practice in plastic surgery. A plastic surgeon should be able to identify and appreciate common dermatologic diseases that may require medical and/or surgical evaluation and management. In this article, the authors describe epidermal/dermal, infectious, pigmented, and malignant cutaneous lesions that are commonly encountered in practice. Descriptions include the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and management options for each type of lesion. PMID:27478418

  17. A common language for computer security incidents

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  18. Fusidic acid betamethasone lipid cream.

    PubMed

    Girolomoni, G; Mattina, R; Manfredini, S; Vertuani, S; Fabrizi, G

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues are frequent disorders. They can be primitive infections (e.g. impetigo, folliculitis) or secondary infections complicating other diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis. The most common aetiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Topical antibiotic therapy may be sufficient in many instances to control these infections. Fusidic acid is an antibiotic used topically on the skin which is very active against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, and other Gram-positive bacteria. Resistance rates to fusidic acid are stably low. A fusidic acid and betamethasone formulation in a lipid-enriched cream (lipid cream) has been recently developed in order to provide effective antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in conjunction with a powerful emollient and moisturising effect. This preparation may be especially useful in patients with atopic-infected eczema. PMID:27121235

  19. Folic acid and cognition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christy C; Morris, Martha Clare

    2006-07-01

    Folic acid supplementation has drawn much attention in recent years for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline. In this review, the authors describe how current evidence does not support the use of folic acid supplements to protect against cognitive decline. Although a few studies suggest that folic acid supplementation may provide neuroprotection among persons who are folate deficient, there is also data to indicate that supplementation in persons without folate deficiency may pose a risk to neurological function. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in old age and may not be easy to recognise. Folic acid supplementation may mask the anaemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency and, therefore, may delay treatment while allowing progression of neurological symptoms. Whether or not folic acid supplementation exacerbates neurological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency is not clear. Further studies are needed to determine the possible risks and benefits of folic acid supplementation in older persons. PMID:16774490

  20. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9491192

  1. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  2. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    PubMed

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory. PMID:18392947

  3. What is the Common Morality, Really?

    PubMed

    Bautz, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    In recent editions of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress' Principles of Biomedical Ethics, their famous principles have been deployed as elements of the common morality recruited to anchor bioethical reasoning. In Principles, however, Beauchamp and Childress defend neither their assertions about the content, nor the normativity, of the common morality. Because these content and normativity claims form the backbone of their approach, both claims deserve substantive support if the project of Principles is to be completed. Defense of the normativity claim remains an issue that has to date gone underdeveloped in the literature. Here I evaluate three ways of mounting such a defense, arguing that only one-conceptual analysis demonstrating the principles to be part of the "definitional criteria" of morality-might succeed within the confines of Beauchamp and Childress' metaethical paradigm. I argue further that identification of the common morality with these "definitional criteria" presents a compelling way forward. PMID:27157110

  4. Structures for common-cause failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Common-cause failure methodology and terminology have been reviewed and structured to provide a systematical basis for addressing and developing models and methods for quantification. The structure is based on (1) a specific set of definitions, (2) categories based on the way faults are attributable to a common cause, and (3) classes based on the time of entry and the time of elimination of the faults. The failure events are then characterized by their likelihood or frequency and the average residence time. The structure provides a basis for selecting computational models, collecting and evaluating data and assessing the importance of various failure types, and for developing effective defences against common-cause failure. The relationships of this and several other structures are described.

  5. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  6. Adventitial cystic disease of common femoral vein

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Bo-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) of venous system is an extremely rare condition. Very few reports of ACD in venous system have been described. In this report we discuss two cases of common femoral vein ACD that presented with a swollen leg by the obstruction of the vein. Ultrasound imaging showed the typical hypoechoic fluid filled cyst with a posterior acoustic window. Computed tomography scan and ascending venogram showed a stenosis to flow in the common femoral vein caused by an extrinsic mass. Trans-adventitial evacuation of cyst with removal of vein wall was performed for both cases. During operation we found the gelatinous material in the cysts arising in the wall of the common femoral vein and compressing the lumen. The patients were released after short hospitalization and have remained symptom free with no recurrence. PMID:22066091

  7. GPS common-view time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of the GPS common-view method at the beginning of the 1980's led to an immediate and dramatic improvement of international time comparisons. Since then, further progress brought the precision and accuracy of GPS common-view intercontinental time transfer from tens of nanoseconds to a few nanoseconds, even with SA activated. This achievement was made possible by the use of the following: ultra-precise ground antenna coordinates, post-processed precise ephemerides, double-frequency measurements of ionosphere, and appropriate international coordination and standardization. This paper reviews developments and applications of the GPS common-view method during the last decade and comments on possible future improvements whose objective is to attain sub-nanosecond uncertainty.

  8. Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.

    PubMed

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages. PMID:25836191

  9. [Isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Carbia, S; Pagola, J; Flaster, N; Guida, A; Jufe, L; González, B; Caniparoli, A

    1995-01-01

    The neurogenic tumors in the biliary tract are rare and usually are amputation neuroma that occur after cholecystectomy. We describe a case of isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct in a young man not cholecystectomized. The patient suffered recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss without clinical signs of Von Recklinghausen's disease or jaundice. The hepatogram was normal. The echography indicated a solid formation with obstruction of the proximal common bile duct. In the ERCP the stenosis was found. Surgical excision of the tumor and anastomosis of bilateral hepatic ducts and jejunum were carried out. At microscopic examination intraparietal neurofibroma of the common bile duct was found. As isolated entity, we know of only one reported case. PMID:8731581

  10. Common bean-Rhizobium symbiosis: functional genomics of legume response to abiotic stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the world's most important grain legume for direct human consumption and a main source of proteins in Latin America and Africa. Environmental factors such as nutrient deficiency, soil acidity, and metal toxicity are important constraints for bean symbiotic nitroge...

  11. Dynamics of dry matter and mineral allocation to pod walls versus seeds in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important source of dietary nutrients, energy, and fiber. Although its seeds store starch, protein, minerals, and vitamins, we have yet to fully understand how the movement of minerals, amino acids, and sugars are regulated from the main plant to the seeds. T...

  12. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango under common retail display conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. The synergism between the MAP system and an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate and citric acid) was also investigated. Mango sl...

  13. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  14. Inhibition of Toxic IAPP Amyloid by Extracts of Common Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pei-Yu; Green, Evangeline; Pereira, Catalina; Ekimura, Shauna; Juarez, Dennis; Whyte, Travis; Arhar, Taylor; Malaspina, Bianca; Nogaj, Luiza A; Moffet, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of the 37-amino acid polypeptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin), as either insoluble amyloid or as small oligomers, appears to play a direct role in the death of pancreatic β-islet cells in type 2 diabetes. It is believed that inhibiting the aggregation of IAPP may slow down, if not prevent entirely, the progression of this disease. Extracts of thirteen different common fruits were analyzed for their ability to prevent the aggregation of amyloidogenic IAPP. Thioflavin T binding, immuno-detection and circular dichroism assays were performed to test the in vitro inhibitory potential of each extract. Atomic force microscopy was used to visualize the formation of amyloid fibrils with and without each fruit extract. Finally, extracts were tested for their ability to protect living mammalian cells from the toxic effects of amyloid IAPP. Several fruits showed substantial ability to inhibit IAPP aggregation and protect living cells from toxic IAPP amyloid. PMID:26893614

  15. Right heart failure: toward a common language.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Park, Myung H; Landzberg, Michael J; Lala, Anuradha; Waxman, Aaron B

    2013-12-01

    In this guideline, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into mechanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:25006413

  16. Right heart failure: toward a common language

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this guideline, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into mechanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:25006413

  17. Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, E; Burger, J; Field, C B; Norgaard, R B; Policansky, D

    1999-04-01

    In a seminal paper, Garrett Hardin argued in 1968 that users of a commons are caught in an inevitable process that leads to the destruction of the resources on which they depend. This article discusses new insights about such problems and the conditions most likely to favor sustainable uses of common-pool resources. Some of the most difficult challenges concern the management of large-scale resources that depend on international cooperation, such as fresh water in international basins or large marine ecosystems. Institutional diversity may be as important as biological diversity for our long-term survival. PMID:10195886

  18. Common errors in evaluating chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Mann, H

    1990-01-01

    Chest radiographs that are correctly obtained and interpreted provide valuable diagnostic information. However, some radiographs are not taken at total lung capacity, and the appearance of the lungs on film may mimic certain lung disorders. Most common interpretive pitfalls in chest radiography can be avoided by physicians who are familiar with the film appearance of varying degrees of lung inflation, technical limitations of portable radiography, and common chest abnormalities. When further definition is necessary, additional projections should be obtained. Chest fluoroscopy and computed tomography can offer further clarification, if needed. PMID:2296566

  19. Right heart failure: toward a common language.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Park, Myung H; Landzberg, Michael J; Lala, Anuradha; Waxman, Aaron B

    2014-02-01

    In this perspective, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into echanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:24268184

  20. Macros help solve common petroleum engineering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, D.

    1995-11-06

    A toolkit consisting of macros provides petroleum engineers an easy method for incorporating petroleum fluid properties into spreadsheets. Published correlations were used to write the macros, defined as Microsoft Excel functions. Engineers can call these functions when constructing spreadsheets and eliminate having to access external sources for many common fluid property correlations. The Excel functions also allow the correlations to be easily incorporated into existing spreadsheets. A collection of spreadsheets is included with the toolkit that use these functions for the solution of common petroleum engineering problems. Functions, terms, spreadsheets are listed in the accompany box. The article also explains how to obtain a diskette containing the macros.

  1. Simulating futures in extended common LISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1988-01-01

    Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.

  2. NASA information systems commonality and convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Preheim, Larry E.

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to identify high payback functions performed by the Office of Space Science Applications (OSSA) data systems package existing operationally proven implementations as system building blocks and foster their use in the OSSA environment. An overview is given of the current state of OSSA data systems and the major challenges facing system developers over the next five years. Current trends in system commonality are discussed, and development is examined in the context of system design. Central system engineering approaches to solving the commonality and interoperability challenges are described. Efforts to package three diverse building blocks and to foster their reuse are documented.

  3. Acid peptic diseases: pharmacological approach to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Alex; Kraft, Walter K

    2011-01-01

    Acid peptic disorders are the result of distinctive, but overlapping pathogenic mechanisms leading to either excessive acid secretion or diminished mucosal defense. They are common entities present in daily clinical practice that, owing to their chronicity, represent a significant cost to healthcare. Key elements in the success of controlling these entities have been the development of potent and safe drugs based on physiological targets. The histamine-2 receptor antagonists revolutionized the treatment of acid peptic disorders owing to their safety and efficacy profile. The proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent a further therapeutic advance due to more potent inhibition of acid secretion. Ample data from clinical trials and observational experience have confirmed the utility of these agents in the treatment of acid peptic diseases, with differential efficacy and safety characteristics between and within drug classes. Paradigms in their speed and duration of action have underscored the need for new chemical entities that, from a single dose, would provide reliable duration of acid control, particularly at night. Moreover, PPIs reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs, reflecting untargeted physiopathologic pathways and a breach in the ability to sustain an intragastric pH of more than 4. This review provides an assessment of the current understanding of the physiology of acid production, a discussion of medications targeting gastric acid production and a review of efficacy in specific acid peptic diseases, as well as current challenges and future directions in the treatment of acid-mediated diseases. PMID:21822447

  4. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    PubMed

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages. PMID:26462418

  5. Enantiomer excesses of rare and common sugar derivatives in carbonaceous meteorites.

    PubMed

    Cooper, George; Rios, Andro C

    2016-06-14

    Biological polymers such as nucleic acids and proteins are constructed of only one-the d or l-of the two possible nonsuperimposable mirror images (enantiomers) of selected organic compounds. However, before the advent of life, it is generally assumed that chemical reactions produced 50:50 (racemic) mixtures of enantiomers, as evidenced by common abiotic laboratory syntheses. Carbonaceous meteorites contain clues to prebiotic chemistry because they preserve a record of some of the Solar System's earliest (∼4.5 Gy) chemical and physical processes. In multiple carbonaceous meteorites, we show that both rare and common sugar monoacids (aldonic acids) contain significant excesses of the d enantiomer, whereas other (comparable) sugar acids and sugar alcohols are racemic. Although the proposed origins of such excesses are still tentative, the findings imply that meteoritic compounds and/or the processes that operated on meteoritic precursors may have played an ancient role in the enantiomer composition of life's carbohydrate-related biopolymers. PMID:27247410

  6. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  7. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  8. Revisiting the Common Myths about Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    The author examines four common myths that still influence individuals regarding their perspective and understanding of the role homeschooling plays in the education of American children. Myth 1 is that homeschooling produces social misfits, stemming from the belief that homeschooled students lack the socialization skills necessary for normal…

  9. Brown and Lau: Seeking the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Rosa Castro

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes commonalities between "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and "Lau v. Nichols" compliance efforts and outcomes, recommending strategies for the next decade, including reduction of residential segregation, desegregation by socioeconomic status, untracking, funding initiatives, family friendly policies, and involvement by…

  10. Identification of commonly encountered Pratylenchus in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus species are commonly encountered in soil samples collected from a diversity of economically important crops in Oregon, including potato and small fruits. Proper identification is critical to the selection of an appropriate management strategy since, in many cases, populations are an as...

  11. The Common Core: Far from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…

  12. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  13. Breeding for resistance to common scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although common scab is an important problem for many potato growers, it is difficult to develop cultivars with consistently high levels of resistance. In this project, we have crossed a scab resistant inbred line of S. chacoense with the S. tuberosum haploid US-W4. We used the SolCAP SNP array to ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... H, Lougaris V, Plebani A, Gertz EM, Schäffer AA, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deleterious mutations in LRBA ... 2015 Jun 19. Review. Citation on PubMed Schäffer AA, Salzer U, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deconstructing common ...

  15. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  16. Correlation as Probability of Common Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Well, Arnold D.

    1996-01-01

    One interpretation of the Pearson product-moment correlation ("r"), correlation as the probability of originating from common descent, important to the genetic measurement of inbreeding, is examined. The conditions under which "r" can be interpreted as the probability of "identity by descent" are specified, and the possibility of generalizing this…

  17. Virtue, Dialogue, and the Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the issue of how the centrality of virtue might be accommodated in dialog within common schools under the conditions of pluralism. Two contrasting approaches to moral dialog under these conditions are examined and rejected followed by a third approach, derived from John Rawl's conceptions of reasonableness and democratic tolerance, that…

  18. Common Factors of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

  19. Science To Serve the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Garry D.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

  20. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  1. Engaging Educators: Common Core State Standards Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    To date, 44 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Achieve has prepared this planning document to help all states in the American Diploma Project Network (ADP) and the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) consortium engage educators in the essential work of…

  2. Laptop Use in University Common Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence existed about the many students who use their laptops and the wireless network in university common spaces, but little was known about how, where, and why students use laptops on campus, and less was known about students' awareness of university wireless network policies and security. This article discusses the results of a…

  3. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  4. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  5. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article…

  6. Common Criteria Set for Federal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve the quality of educational research and make it less balkanized, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) have introduced a common set of evidence standards for federally funded work. The criteria will guide all new research at the IES, the U.S. Department of Education's…

  7. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  8. Ky. Road-Tests Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Results from new state tests in Kentucky--the first in the nation explicitly tied to the Common Core State Standards--show that the share of students scoring "proficient" or better in reading and math dropped by roughly a third or more in both elementary and middle school the first year the tests were given. Kentucky in 2010 was the first state to…

  9. Common Dental Injury Management in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eliot J.; Macias, C. Roger; Stephens, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Context: Orofacial and dental trauma continues to be a commonly encountered issue for the sports medicine team. All sports have some risk for dental injury, but “contact sports” presumably incur more risk. Immediate evaluation and proper management of the most common injuries to dentition can result in saving or restoration of tooth structure. Despite the growing body of evidence, mouth guard use and dental protection have not paralleled the increase in sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search from 1960 through April 2012 was conducted, as well as a review of peer-reviewed online publications. Results: Common dental injuries in sports include tooth (crown) fractures; tooth intrusion, extrusion, and avulsion; and temporomandibular joint dislocation. Mouth guards help prevent most injuries and do not significantly affect ventilation or speech if fitted properly. Conclusion: A working knowledge of the presentation as well as management of commonly encountered dental trauma in sports is essential to the immediate care of an athlete and returning to play. Mouth guard use should be encouraged for athletes of all ages in those sports that incur significant risk. PMID:26131303

  10. Information Commons Help Desk Transactions Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Gabrielle K. W.

    2010-01-01

    With the purpose of designing a training program for a new team serving at a technology service point, the author analyzed the transactions log using a new, multi-faceted, taxonomy. The resulting list of competencies and the methodology would be useful for managers of information or learning commons. (Contains 5 tables.)

  11. Common problems in pediatric gynecology: new developments.

    PubMed

    Mroueh, J; Muram, D

    1999-10-01

    Physicians, particularly gynecologists, pediatricians and family practitioners, are often called upon to perform a gynecological evaluation of a child. The following article is a review of current developments in the area of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. It outlines the recent clinical information and offers a review of common gynecological disorders among children and adolescent girls. PMID:10526922

  12. The Tragedy of the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Horace Mann's vision of a common school to educate American children has not been realized. Instead, our country is experimenting with many different kinds of schools: charters, independents, parochials, and magnets, to name a few. These schools fill a particular niche for families, with the potential to focus education to the needs of each child.…

  13. Virginia Standards Predated the Common Core Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowledge Quest, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Virginia Board of Education is committed to the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) program and opposed to adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards as a prerequisite for participation in federal competitive grant and entitlement programs. The Standards of Learning are clear and rigorous and have won the acceptance and trust…

  14. Differentiating common causes of radial wrist pain.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Waqas; Mohiuddin, Zia; Swain, Freddie R; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-09-01

    Radial wrist pain is a common patient complaint with a broad differential. Because treatment and prognosis differ, determining the underlying cause is key. This article reviews a case of intersection syndrome and compares it to other causes of radial wrist pain. PMID:25148441

  15. Systemic Sclerosis: Commonly Asked Questions by Rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amber; Khanna, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with significant morbidity and mortality due to multi-organ system involvement. Early diagnosis and screening for organ involvement is critical as earlier treatment appears to improve function and may impact mortality. The purpose of this article is to address some of the commonly asked questions by rheumatologists on systemic sclerosis. PMID:25807095

  16. Translating the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of…

  17. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

  18. How ASCD Supports the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Efrain; Britt, Sherida

    2013-01-01

    As the Common Core State Standards Initiative moved from the development and adoption of the standards to their implementation, ASCD embarked on a multifaceted program to help educators understand and implement the new standards. With support from a $3 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, ASCD has enacted a three-pronged…

  19. Student Voice and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  20. What Should Common Core Assessments Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kayla; Fortune, Nicholas; Lovett, Jennifer N.; Scherrer, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for mathematics promote ideals about learning mathematics by providing specific standards focused on conceptual understanding and incorporating practices in which students must participate to develop conceptual understanding. Thus, how we define learning is pivotal because our current definition isn't aligned with…