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Sample records for acid isopropyl ester

  1. Investigation of fatty acid esters to replace isopropyl myristate in the sterility test for ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Valéria Macedo; Solano, Ana Gabriela Reis; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Nunan, Elzíria de Aguiar

    2006-11-16

    Several pharmacopoeias recommend the membrane filtration method for the sterility test of ophthalmic ointments. Isopropyl myristate, a fatty acid ester that exhibits high toxicity mainly against Gram-negative microorganisms, is indicated as a solvent for ointments. In this study, six fatty acid esters (diethyl adipate, diisopropyl adipate, ethyl laurate, ethyl myristate, methyl caprylate and isopropyl palmitate) were evaluated as solvents to replace isopropyl myristate in the sterility test for ophthalmic ointments. The logarithm of the partition coefficient (logP) of the fatty acid esters was calculated from the sum of the substituent hydrophobicity constants (pi) of the functional groups present in their molecules. The ability of the solvents to dissolve an ophthalmic ointment base was investigated. The D-value method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of isopropyl palmitate, ethyl myristate, ethyl laurate and isopropyl myristate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isopropyl palmitate was the least toxic solvent to this microorganism, since it had the highest D-value (171.1 min). No significant difference was observed between the D-values of ethyl myristate (89.4 min) and isopropyl myristate (92.5 min). Ethyl laurate exhibited the lowest D-value (27.2 min). Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, other fatty acid esters were detected as the predominant impurities in the solvents, as well as acid contaminants in low or insignificant amounts.

  2. Effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid isopropyl ester on growth and blood components in growing Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhaoyu; Yang, Baokui; Yang, Zhen; Xi, Yumeng

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-four Chinese Holstein growing steers were randomly divided into three groups and fed a diet containing 0 (the control group), 15 (treatment I group, or TG1) or 25 (treatment II group, or TG2) g/day 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi). Compared with the control group, the final body weights, total gains and average daily gains in the treatment groups increased (P < 0.01). The concentration of total protein (TP) for TG1 increased (P < 0.01). The levels of albumin in TG1 were higher than those in TG2 and the control group (P < 0.05). The concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in TG2 increased (P < 0.05), but concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the treatment groups decreased (P < 0.05). HMBi improved the concentrations of selenium in both TG1 (P < 0.05) and TG2 (P < 0.01). The levels of glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) in TG2 were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, HMBi increased the concentrations of growth hormone (GH) in both TG1 (P < 0.05) and TG2 (P < 0.01). These results indicate that the addition of HMBi increases growth performance, serum concentrations of GH and AST; 15 g/day HMBi increases concentrations of total protein and albumin, and 25 g/day HMBi increases concentrations of ALT and GSH-Px.

  3. Isopropyl methyl phosphonic acid (IMPA)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isopropyl methyl phosphonic acid ( IMPA ) ; CASRN 1832 - 54 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  4. Synthesis and dopamine transporter binding of 2beta-isopropyl ester analogs of cocaine.

    PubMed

    El-Moselhy, Tarek F; Avor, Kwasi S; Basmadjian, Garo P

    2002-02-01

    A series of 2beta-isopropyl ester analogs of cocaine (7-11) was synthesised and evaluated in an in vitro dopamine transporter (DAT) binding assays. Ecgonine HCl (5) was obtained from (-)-cocaine (1) by hydrolysis using 1 N HCl. Acid catalysed esterification of 5 using 2-propanol and HCl gas afforded 2beta-isopropyl ecgonine (6). Compounds 7-9 were obtained via esterification of the 3beta-hydroxyl group of 6 using the appropriate acid chloride. Compound 10 was obtained via selective hydrolysis and re-esterification of 7 using 2-propanol and HCl gas. Compound 11 was obtained by reduction of 9 using H(2)/Pd-C. Compounds 7, 10 and 11 showed high binding affinity to the DAT (as indicated from the inhibition of the binding of [(3)H]WIN 35,428 (3)) with IC(50) values (mean +/- S.E.M.) 208.5 +/- 9.5, 47.43 +/- 1.79 and 11.25 +/- 3.37 nM, respectively). Compound 7 is comparatively as active as cocaine, 10 is ca. fivefold more active than cocaine and 11 is ca. 20-fold more active than cocaine and even twice more active than the radioligand 3. Compound 11, like its methyl ester analog (2' aminococaine), exhibited the highest affinity to the DAT. These results, along with previous results, emphasise the importance of a hydrogen-bond donor group at the 2'-position of cocaine and its isopropyl ester analogs to enhance binding affinity to the DAT.

  5. 21 CFR 189.300 - Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-phosphite ester resins. 189.300 Section 189.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Surfaces § 189.300 Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins. (a) Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropylidene-diphenolphosphite ester resins are the condensation product of 1 mole of triphenyl phosphite and 1...

  6. 21 CFR 189.300 - Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-phosphite ester resins. 189.300 Section 189.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Surfaces § 189.300 Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins. (a) Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropylidene-diphenolphosphite ester resins are the condensation product of 1 mole of triphenyl phosphite and 1...

  7. 21 CFR 189.300 - Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-phosphite ester resins. 189.300 Section 189.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins. (a) Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropylidene-diphenolphosphite ester resins are the condensation product of 1 mole of triphenyl phosphite and 1.5 moles of...

  8. 21 CFR 189.300 - Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-phosphite ester resins. 189.300 Section 189.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Surfaces § 189.300 Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins. (a) Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropylidene-diphenolphosphite ester resins are the condensation product of 1 mole of triphenyl phosphite and...

  9. 21 CFR 189.300 - Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-phosphite ester resins. 189.300 Section 189.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Surfaces § 189.300 Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins. (a) Hydrogenated 4,4′-isopropylidene-diphenolphosphite ester resins are the condensation product of 1 mole of triphenyl phosphite and...

  10. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1386 Isopropyl citrate. (a) Isopropyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and triisopropyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  12. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  13. Biomolecular Chemistry of Isopropyl Fibrates

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Niharika; Kotheimer, Amenda; Miller, Chad; Zeller, Matthias; Rath, Nigam P.

    2012-01-01

    Isopropyl 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-phenoxy]-2-methylpropanoic acid and isopropyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoate, also known as fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate, are hypolipidemic agents of the fibrate family. In a previously reported triclinic structure of fenofibrate (polymorph I) the methyl groups of the isopropyl moiety (iPr) are located symmetrically about the carboxylate group. We report a new monoclinic form (polymorph II) of fenofibrate and a first structural description of isopropyl clofibrate, and in these the methyl groups are placed asymmetrically about the carboxylate group. In particular the dihedral (torsion) angle between the hydrogen atom on the secondary C and the C atom of the carboxyl group makes a 2.74° angle about the ester O-C bond in the symmetric fenofibrate structure of polymorph I, whereas the same dihedral angle is 45.94° in polymorph II and -30.9° in the crystal structure of isopropyl clofibrate. Gas phase DFT geometry minimizations of fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate result in lowest energy conformations for both molecules with a value of about ± 30° for this same angle between the O=C-O-C plane and the C-H bond of the iPr group. A survey of crystal structures containing an iPr ester group reveals that the asymmetric conformation is predominant. Although the hydrogen atom on the secondary C atom of the isopropyl group is located at a comparable distance from the carbonyl oxygen in the symmetric and asymmetric fenofibrate (2.52 and 2.28 Å) and the isopropyl clofibrate (2.36 Å) structures, this hydrogen atom participates in a puckered five membered ring arrangement in the latter two that is unlike the planar arrangement found in symmetric fenofibrate (polymorph I). Polar molecular surface area (PSA) values indicate fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate are less able to act as acceptors of hydrogen bonds than their corresponding acid derivatives. Surface area calculations show dynamic polar molecular surface area (PSAd

  14. 2-(4-Isopropyl­benzylidene)propanoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Niaz; Tahir, M. Nawaz; Ali, Saqib; Zia-ur-Rehman; Kashmiri, Muhammad Akram

    2008-01-01

    The two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C13H16O2, form dimers through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding, resulting in R 2 2(8) rings. Each carboxyl­ O atom is involved in inter­amolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming five-membered rings. There exist dissimilar dihedral angles within the two mol­ecules, for example the carboxylate and isopropyl groups make dihedral angles of 59.6 (4) and 71.7 (3)° in the two molecules. There are no intermolecular π inter­actions. PMID:21203170

  15. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  16. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are derived...

  17. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are derived...

  18. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are derived...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a... generically as alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and...

  20. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a...

  2. Analysis of methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid at low microgram per liter levels in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1997-11-28

    A method is described for determining methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, which are hydrolysis products of the nerve agents VX (S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothiolate) and GB (sarin, isopropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate). The analytes are extracted from 50 ml groundwater using a solid-phase extraction column packed with 500 mg of silica with a bonded quaternary amine phase, and are eluted and derivatized with methanolic trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Separation and quantitation are achieved using a capillary column gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector operated in its phosphorus-selective mode. Two independent statistically-unbiased procedures were employed to determine the detection limits, which ranged between 3 and 9 micrograms/l, for the three analytes.

  3. Synthesis of Alkyl Methylphosphonic Acid Esters

    SciTech Connect

    Mong, Gary M.; Harvey, Scott D.; Campbell, James A.

    2005-08-01

    This manuscript describes a simple synthesis and purification of cyclohexyl methylphosphonic and isopropyl methylphosphonic acids that provides high purity (>95% purity) product in gram quantities. Based on needs for improved analytical methods for indirect detection of nerve agent use, there is an increasing demand for these nerve agent hydrolysis products. These products are not commercially available. Synthesis is based on reaction of equimolar amounts of alcohol with methylphosphonic dichloride in toluene followed by the addition of excess water (two mole equivalents). The product was then extracted from the resulting aqueous layer into chloroform. The extraction scheme proved highly effective in removing unreacted starting materials and reaction by-products.

  4. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  5. Isolation and identification of products from alkylation of nucleic acids: ethyl- and isopropyl-purines.

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, P D; Orr, D J; Jarman, M

    1975-01-01

    Ethylation and isopropylation of guanine in alkaline solution, or of adenine in formic acid, by alkyl methanesulphonates gave the following products: 1-, N2-, 3-, O6-, 7- and 9-alkylguanines; 1-, 3-, 7- and 9-alkyladenines. The products were identified from their characteristic u.v-absorption spectra, by comparison with either known ethyladenines or with the corresponding known methyladenines, and were also characterized by mass spectrometry. Their chromatographic properties on paper, t.l.c. and various columns were determined. DNA was alkylated in neutral solution with 14C-labelled alkyl methanesulphonates and the ratios of the alkylpurines formed were obtained, and compared for alkylation by methyl, ethyl and isopropyl methanesulphonates and by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. The extents of alkylation at O-6 of guanine relative to those at N-7 of guanine varied with the reactivity of the methylating agents according to the predictions of Swain & Scott (1953) relating nucleophilicity of the groups alkylated with the substrate constants of the alkylating agents. The relative extents of alkylation at N-3 of adenine did not follow this correlation. PMID:172066

  6. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids...

  7. Esters of valerenic acid as potential prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Hintersteiner, Juliane; Haider, Maximilian; Luger, Denise; Schwarzer, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Jäger, Walter; Khom, Sophia; Mihovilovic, Marko D.; Hering, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Valerenic acid (VA) is a β2/3 subunit-specific modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptors inducing anxiolysis. Here we analyze if VA-esters can serve as prodrugs and if different ester structures have different in vitro/in vivo effects. Modulation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes was studied with 2-microelectrode-voltage-clamp. Anxiolytic effects of the VA-esters were studied on male C57BL/6N mice by means of the elevated plus maze-test; anticonvulsant properties were deduced from changes in seizure threshold upon pentylenetetrazole infusion. VA was detected in plasma confirming hydrolysis of the esters and release of VA in vivo. Esterification significantly reduced the positive allosteric modulation of GABAA (α1β3γ2S) receptors in vitro. in vivo, the studied VA-ester derivatives induced similar or even stronger anxiolytic and anticonvulsant action than VA. While methylation and propylation of VA resulted in faster onset of anxiolysis, the action of VA-ethylester was longer lasting, but occurred with a significant delay. The later finding is in line with the longer lasting anticonvulsant effects of this compound. The estimated VA plasma concentrations provided first insight into the release kinetics from different VA-esters. This might be an important step for its future clinical application as a potential non-sedative anxiolytic and anticonvulsant. PMID:24680924

  8. Toxic fluorine compounds. The use of the ω-fluorine atom in the study of the metabolism of fatty acids containing ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl branches

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, F. L. M.; Peters, D. A. V.

    1966-01-01

    1. Some ω-fluoroalkanoic acids containing a branched ethyl, n-propyl or isopropyl group in the α- or β-position have been prepared. 2. A study of the toxicity of these acids revealed that the ethyl group partially inhibited, and the n-propyl and isopropyl groups completely inhibited, the normal processes of oxidative degradation. PMID:5911518

  9. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including..., safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty acids derived from these substances...

  10. Dehydration of isopropyl alcohol used as an indicator of the type and strength of catalyst acid centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, W.; Haber, J.; Krowiak, A.

    2005-10-01

    The subject of our studies was determination of the kind and strength of the catalyst acid centres on isopropyl alcohol conversion. The investigations were carried out for two groups of catalysts: typical Lewis acids γ-Al 2O 3 and ZrO 2 and Brønsted acids: H 3PW 12O 40 and H 3PMo 12O 40. Considerable differences between Lewis and Brønsted acids in the conversion of isopropyl alcohol were observed. The influence of Brønsted acid centres was studied for a group of catalysts with different strength: mixtures of two different heteropolyacids. It was observed that the increasing strength of Brønsted acids centres leads to higher catalytic activity but it does not significantly affect the activation energy of dehydration to propene.

  11. Lipid encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid methyl ester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Encapsulation of structurally sensitive compounds within a solid lipid matrix provides a barrier to prooxidant compounds and effectively limits the extent of oxidative degradation. Encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) methyl ester was examined as a model compound for functional foods and feeds. S...

  12. The adjuvant activity of fatty acid esters. The role of acyl chain length and degree of saturation.

    PubMed Central

    Bomford, R

    1981-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions of metabolizable fatty acid esters, with the non-toxic surfactant Pluronic L122 as emulsifying agent, potentiated the humoral response to bovine serum albumin and staphylococcal toxoid in the mouse. Adjuvant activity was increased by changing the chemical nature of the esters as follows: (i) using a series of ethyl esters, adjuvant activity appeared when the acyl chain length of the fatty acid component was 16 or greater; (ii) isobutyl and isopropyl esters of palmitic acid (C16:0) were superior to ethyl; (iii) the ethyl esters of oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids were better than stearic (C18:0). Since emulsions prepared with longer chain saturated esters are very viscous or solid at room temperature, and unsaturated esters are chemically reactive, emulsions were prepared with differing proportions of ethyl caprate (C10:0) and butyl stearate. At a ratio of 9:1 the emulsions possessed the low viscosity of ethyl caprate, but gained the adjuvant activity of butyl stearate. 125I-labelled BSA was retained in the footpad to a significantly greater extent than with a caprate emulsion, but reasons are given for believing that slow release of antigen is not the only mechanism of adjuvant activity. The ester emulsions caused more acute but less chronic local inflammation (footpad swelling) than Freund's incomplete adjuvant. PMID:7275184

  13. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN P-97...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl ester...

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN P-93-343...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN P-93-343...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN P-93-343...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN P-93-343...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs P...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN P-97...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN P-92...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN P-90...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl ester...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN P-93-343...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN P-97...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10685 - Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10685 Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid, mixed esters (PMN P-13-170) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs P...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. Synthesis and low temperature characterization of iso-oleic ester derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new iso-oleic ester derivatives (i.e., isopropyl esters (IOA-iPrE), n-butyl esters (IOA-n-BuE), and 2-ethylhexyl esters (IOA-2-EHE)) were synthesized from iso-oleic acid (IOA) using a standard esterification method. These esterified alcohols were chosen because of their bulky and branched-cha...

  7. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sabiha; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Azhar, Saira; Mumtaz, Amara; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive compound of propolis extract. The literature search elaborates that CAPE possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. The principal objective of this review article is to sum up and critically assess the existing data about therapeutic effects of CAPE in different disorders. The findings elaborate that CAPE is a versatile therapeutically active polyphenol and an effective adjuvant of chemotherapy for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and diminishing chemotherapy-induced toxicities. PMID:24971312

  8. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10715 - Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10715 Carbonic acid, dialkyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and..., dialkyl ester (PMN P-13-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10438 - Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.10438 Section 721.10438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10438 Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (PMN P-00-346) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  12. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10438 - Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.10438 Section 721.10438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10438 Dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl hydroxybenzenealkanoic acid ester (PMN P-00-346) is subject to reporting under...

  14. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  15. Plant-mediated stereoselective biotransformation of phenylglyoxylic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Maczka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Anioł, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Enantioselective reduction of the carbonyl group of three phenylglyoxylic acid esters (methyl, ethyl, and n-propyl esters, 2-4) was conducted using blended plant materials (roots of carrot, beetroot, celeriac and parsley; apple). All used biocatalysts transformed these esters to the corresponding mandelic acid esters with high yield, preferably into the respective R-enantiomer. Butanedione addition improved the enantioselectivity of the reaction.

  16. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra.

  17. The CGC enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters by using β-cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Mao, Jianyou

    2016-03-17

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters are important intermediates in preparation of enantioenriched 2-arylpropionic acids type Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters is crucial for evaluation of the asymmetric synthesis efficiency and the enantiomer excess of chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives. The capillary gas chromatography (CGC) enantiomer separation of 17 pairs of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters enantiomers was conducted by using seven different β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral stationary phases. It was found that for the 7 pairs of 2-phenylpropionates enantiomers, CDs with both alkyl and acyl substituents especially 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin exhibited better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs examined. For the 7 pairs of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)propionates enantiomers, 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin possessed better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs. Among the 3 pairs of 2-phenylbutyrates enantiomers examined, only methyl 2-phenylbutyrate enantiomers could be separated by three CDs among the 7 CDs tested, while enantiomers of ethyl 2-phenylbutyrate and isopropyl 2-phenylbutyrate couldn't be separated by any of the 7 CDs tested. Besides the structures of CDs, the structures of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters including different ester moieties, substituents of phenyl, and different carboxylic acids moieties in 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters also affected the enantiomer separation results greatly. The CGC enantiomer separation results of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters on different CDs are useful for solving the enantiomer separation problem of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trypanocidal activity of the ethyl esters of N-propyl and N-isopropyl oxamates on intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infected mice.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Alvarado, Charmina; Zaragoza-Martínez, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Páez, Lorena; Téllez-Rendón, Juan Luis; Nogueda, Benjamín; Baeza, Isabel; Wong, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    In this investigation we studied the trypanocidal activity of the ethyl esters of N-propyl (Et-NPOX) and N-isopropyl (Et-NIPOX) oxamates on bloodstream trypomastigotes and on the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infected mice. In the infected and treated mice, the levels of parasitemia were drastically reduced between days 15 and 20 of treatment and almost to zero between days 35 and 40. We also found that Et-NPOX completely eliminated amastigote nests in the myocardium of mice infected with INC-5 or NINOA T. cruzi strain, and in skeletal muscle the reduction in the number of amastigote nests was between 60 and 80% in both strains. Also, Et-NIPOX reduced by 60-80% the number of amastigote nests in the myocardium and skeletal muscle of mice infected with these T. cruzi strains. In contrast, nifurtimox, used for comparison, produced a reduction of amastigote nests of only 20-40% in the studied tissues in both strains.

  19. Antinociceptive esters of N-methylanthranilic acid: Mechanism of action in heat-mediated pain.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Radulović, Niko S; Miltojević, Ana B; Boylan, Fabio; Dias Fernandes, Patrícia

    2014-03-15

    Recently, we identified a new natural antinociceptive alkaloid ternanthranin, isopropyl N-methylanthranilate (ISOAN), from the plant species Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae). In this work we concentrated on the elucidation of its mechanism of action in comparison with two other esters of this acid (methyl (MAN) and propyl (PAN)). Mice orally pre-treated with ISOAN, MAN or PAN (at 0.3, 1 and 3mg/kg) were less sensitive to chemical or thermal stimuli in different nociception models (formalin-, capsaicin- and glutamate-induced licking response, tail flick and hot plate). All compounds (1 and 3mg/kg) showed significant activity in the peripheral nociception models, as well as a dose-dependent spinal antinociceptive effect in the tail flick model. We observed that glibenclamide was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of ISOAN in the hot plate model suggesting the involvement of K(+)ATP channels. The antinociceptive effect of MAN and PAN may be related to adrenergic, nitrergic and serotoninergic pathways. In addition, the antinociception of PAN was reverted by naloxone implying that the opioid pathway participates in its activity. The cholinergic and cannabinoid systems were found not be involved in the onset of the antinociceptive effects of any of the esters. In conclusion, isopropyl, methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates produced significant peripheral and central antinociception at doses lower than that of morphine, the classical opioid analgesic drug, without causing toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  1. The Activation Effects of Low Level Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure on Arterial Blood Pressures Are Associated with Decreased 5-Hydroxyindole Acetic Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xinxia; Xing, Xiumei; Lu, Yao; Sun, Yi; Ou, Xiaoyan; Su, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Yarui; Chen, Jingli; Shen, Biling; He, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purposes The objectives of this paper are to study the impact of low level isopropyl alcohol exposure on blood pressure and to explore its potential mechanism. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a prospective occupational cohort in south China, which focusing on occupational risk factors related cardiovascular health problems. A total of 283 participants (200 low isopropyl alcohol exposed workers and 83 controls) was finally enrolled in this study. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between arterial blood pressures and low level isopropyl alcohol exposure. We used mediation method to explore possible mediated roles of neurogenic factors. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, 123±10 vs. 118±11), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 79±7 vs. 74±7) and mean blood pressure (MBP, 93±8 vs. 89±9) were different between the exposed group and the control group (p < 0.01). After adjusting for covariates, the difference was still significant. Besides, isopropyl alcohol and smoking had an interactive effect on DBP and MBP (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed a mediated effect of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) on isopropyl alcohol exposure induced arterial blood pressure increase, which accounted for about 25%. Conclusions Our results suggest that low level isopropyl alcohol exposure is a potential risk factor for the increased arterial blood pressure and 5-HIAA partly mediates the association between low level isopropyl alcohol exposure and arterial blood pressures. PMID:27622502

  2. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  3. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  4. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The fatty acids used in the production of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  9. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  10. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar; Spivey, James Jerry; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  11. Phenylpropanoid acid esters from Korean propolis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Han, Myung-Suk; Kim, Dae-Won; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2014-08-01

    Ten phenylpropanoic acid esters were isolated from an ethanolic extract of Korean propolis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including NMR and ESI-MS. Caffeic acid esters with catechol moiety exhibited significant ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and protective effect against DNA damage by a Fenton reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and...

  17. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids.

    PubMed

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  19. Development of an environmentally acceptable volatile organic compounds recovery and reuse system based on vacuum spray flash with dibasic acid esters as absorbents.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Toshiyuki; Shirakawa, Yoichi; Kuwahata, Kenichi; Yajima, Tatsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    We used dibasic acid esters as the absorbent for a volatile organic compounds (VOC) recovery and reuse system geared mainly toward VOCs from painting and presswork. The system consists of three elements: absorption using dibasic acid esters, separation by vacuum spray flash method, and recovery by condensation. The concentration of both ethyl acetate (EtAc) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) decreased around 90% at room temperature. Vacuum spray flash was found as a useful process for cost-effective and energy-effective VOC removal system. The difference in the dissolubility parameters (Hansen constant) between dibasic acid esters and VOCs and the boiling point of VOCs was the main contributor to the separation behavior.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  1. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  2. Long-acting contraceptive agents: levonorgestrel esters of unsaturated acids.

    PubMed

    Wan, A S; Ngiam, T L; Leung, S L; Go, M L; Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Hernandez, R; Salazar, J A; Suarez, E; García, G A

    1983-03-01

    Esters of levonorgestrel (13 beta-ethyl-17 beta-ethynyl-17 beta-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one) with a variety of unsaturated carboxylic acids have been synthesized for evaluation as potential long-acting, injectable contraceptive agents.

  3. Long-acting contraceptive agents: testosterone esters of unsaturated acids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Gawronski, J; Hernández, R; Kielczewski, M; Salazar, J A; Savabi, F; Shafiee, A; Strekowski, L; Suárez, E

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of 13 new esters of testosterone is described, with the esterifying acids bearing acetylenic, olefinic, or polyunsaturated functions in the chain, for evaluation as long-acting androgens.

  4. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  5. Inert Reassessment Document for PEG Fatty Acid Esters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The tolerance reassessment decision document and action memorandum for the PEG fatty acid ester date September 28, 2005, included two tolerance exemptions (under 40 CFR 180.910 and $) CFR 180.930, respectively)

  6. Triterpene hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters and a quinic acid purpurogallin carbonyl ester from the leaves of Castanopsis fissa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Lin; Tsujita, Takaaki; Tanaka, Takashi; Matsuo, Yosuke; Kouno, Isao; Li, Dian-Peng; Nonaka, Gen-ichiro

    2011-11-01

    Triterpene hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) esters have only been isolated from Castanopsis species, and the distribution of these esters in nature is of chemotaxonomical interest. In this study, the chemical constituents of the leaves of Castanopsis fissa were examined in detail to identify and isolate potential HHDP esters. Together with 53 known compounds, 3,4-di-O-galloyl-1-O-purpurogallin carbonyl quinic acid (1) and 3,24-(S)-HHDP-2α,3β,23,24-tetrahydroxytaraxastan-28,20β-olide (2) were isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The polyphenols of the leaves were mainly composed of galloyl quinic acids, triterpenes HHDP esters, ellagitannins and flavonol glycosides. In particular, the isolation yields of 1,3,4-trigalloyl quinic acid and compound 2 were 1.53% and 0.27%, respectively, from the fresh leaves. The presence of lipid soluble HHDP esters of oleanane-type triterpenes as one of the major metabolites is an important chemotaxonomical discovery. Lipase inhibition activities and ORAC values of the major constituents were compared. The triterpene HHDP ester showed moderate lipase inhibition activity and myricitrin gave the largest ORAC value.

  7. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  8. Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-05-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence.

  9. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  10. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  11. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  12. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  13. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  18. Pyrazinoic acid esters with broad spectrum in vitro antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Cynamon, M H; Gimi, R; Gyenes, F; Sharpe, C A; Bergmann, K E; Han, H J; Gregor, L B; Rapolu, R; Luciano, G; Welch, J T

    1995-09-29

    A series of substituted pyrazinoic acid esters has been prepared and examined for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium kansasii as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Modification of both the pyrazine nucleus and the ester functionality have been very successful in expanding the activity of pyrazinamide to include M. avium and M. kansasii, organisms normally not susceptible to pyrazinamide. Several of these compounds have activities 100-1000-fold greater than that of pyrazinamide against M. tuberculosis.

  19. Fragrance material review on carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of high-melting methyl esters on crystallization properties of fatty acid methyl ester mixtures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. The most common form of biodiesel in the United States are fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, canola, and used cooking oils, waste greases, and tallow. Cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on th...

  1. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  2. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  3. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  4. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  5. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  6. Synthesis of phosphonamidate peptides by Staudinger reactions of silylated phosphinic acids and esters.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Ina; del Signore, Giuseppe; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2011-01-07

    The Staudinger reaction of unprotected azido-peptides with silylated phosphinic acids and esters on the solid support offers a straightforward acid-free entry to different phosphonamidate peptide esters or acids under mild conditions in high purity and yield.

  7. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible fats...

  8. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible...

  9. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible...

  10. Chemical reactions in dense monolayers: in situ thermal cleavage of grafted esters for preparation of solid surfaces functionalized with carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Vincent; Chevalier, Yves

    2011-12-06

    The thermodynamics of a chemical reaction confined at a solid surface was investigated through kinetic measurements of a model unimolecular reaction. The thermal cleavage of ester groups grafted at the surface of solid silica was investigated together with complementary physicochemical characterization of the grafted species. The ester molecules were chemically grafted to the silica surface and subsequently cleaved into the carboxylic acids. A grafting process of a reproducible monolayer was designed using the reaction of monofunctional organosilane from its gas phase. The thermal deprotection step of the ester end-group was investigated. The thermal deprotection reaction behaves in quite a specific manner when it is conducted at a surface in a grafted layer. Different organosilane molecules terminated by methyl, isopropyl and tert-butyl ester groups were grafted to silica surface; such functionalized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the thermodynamic parameters of the thermal elimination reaction at the surface were measured. The limiting factor of such thermal ester cleavage reaction is the thermal stability of grafted ester group according to the temperature order: tert-butyl < i-propyl < methyl. Methyl ester groups were not selectively cleaved by temperature. The thermal deprotection of i-propyl ester groups took place at a temperature close to the thermal degradation of the organofunctional tail of the silane. The low thermolysis temperature of the grafted tert-butyl esters allowed their selective cleavage. There is a definite influence of the surface on the reaction. The enthalpy of activation is lower than in the gas phase because of the polarity of the reaction site. The major contribution is entropic; the negative entropy of activation comes from lateral interactions with the neighbor grafted molecules because of the high grafting density. Such reaction is an original strategy

  11. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  12. Study on the thermal reactions of [60]fullerene with amino acids and amino acid esters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, San-E; Cheng, Xin; Li, Yu-Jin; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Huang, Yong-Shun; Wang, Guan-Wu; Peng, Ru-Fang; Jin, Bo; Chu, Shi-Jin

    2012-11-21

    Thermal reactions of [60]fullerene with a series of amino acids and amino acid esters under aerobic and dark conditions have been investigated. Fulleropyrrolidines can be obtained from these reactions although an aldehyde is not added purposely. Possible reaction mechanisms involving uncommon C-N bond cleavages have been proposed to generate aldehydes, which then react with amino acids and amino acid esters to provide azomethine ylides, followed by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to [60]fullerene affording fulleropyrrolidines. Control experiments support our proposed mechanisms, and elucidate the innate nature of C-N bond cleavages of amino acids and amino acid esters.

  13. Electron driven processes in chlorodifluoroacetic acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopyra, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to gas phase 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroacetic acid methyl ester (CClF2COOCH3) is studied by means of a crossed beams apparatus. Effective cleavage of the C-Cl bond is observed within a broad resonance in the energy range 0-1 eV and visible via the appearance of the light fragment Cl-. In chlorodifluoroacetic acid cleavage of the C-Cl bond was observed not only via the Cl- anion formation but predominantly via expulsion of the neutral chlorine atom leading to the formation of the (M-Cl)- anion. Similar to the previously studied esters CF3COOCH3 and CF3COOC2H5[I. Martin, J. Langer, E. Illenberger, Z. Phys. Chem. 222, 1185 (2008)], we observe reaction due to the cleavage of the ester bond resulting in the formation of the closed shell (M-CH3)- anion.

  14. Dual-responsive poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) micelles as switchable emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenglin; Liu, Na; Zheng, Junchao; Jiang, Jinqiang; Liu, Xiaoya

    2012-08-15

    Self-assembled polymeric micelles can be used as efficient particulate emulsifiers. To explore the relationship between micellar structure and emulsification performance, pH- and temperature-responsive self-assembled micelles were prepared and used as emulsifiers, based on a novel grafted polymer poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PSMA-g-PNIPAm). Structure of PSMA-g-PNIPAm micelles varies in response to pH and temperature changes and can be classified into four typical states, including shrunken, moderately swollen, extremely swollen, and inverted states, confirmed by a combination of electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and (1)H NMR. This structural variation plays a key role in the emulsification performance of PSMA-g-PNIPAm micelles, according to the emulsifying characteristics of the four typical PSMA-g-PNIPAm micelles as well as the micellar morphologies on the surface of oil droplets as observed by SEM. Emulsions stabilised by micelles with moderately swollen structure are especially stable compared with either the shrunken micelles or the extremely swollen micelles, because the moderately swollen micelles combine the advantages of solid particulate emulsifiers and polymeric surfactants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) networks: preparation, characterization and hydrogel behavior.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rentong; Zheng, Sixun

    2011-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) co-polymer networks (PNIPAAm-g-PAA) were prepared via the reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization of N-isopropyl- acrylamide (NIPAAm) with trithiocarbonate-terminated PAA as a macromolecular chain-transfer agent in the presence of N,N-methylenebisacrylamide. The PNIPAAm-g-PAA co-polymer networks were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that the PNIPAAm-g-PAA co-polymer networks were microphase-separated, in which the microdomains of PNIPAAm-PAA interpolymer complexes were dispersed into the PNIPAAm matrix. The PNIPAAm-g-PAA hydrogels displayed a dual response to temperature and pH values. The thermoresponsive properties of PNIPAAm-g-PAA networks were investigated. Below the volume phase transition temperatures, the PNIPAAm-g-PAA hydrogels possessed much higher swelling ratios than control PNIPAAm hydrogel. In terms of swelling, deswelling and reswelling tests, it is judged that the PNIPAAm-g-PAA hydrogels displayed faster response to the external temperature changes than control PNIPAAm hydrogel. The improved thermoresponsive properties of hydrogels are ascribed to the formation of PAA-grafted PNIPAAm networks, in which the water-soluble PAA chains behave as the hydrophiphilic tunnels and allow water molecules to go through and, thus, to accelerate the diffusion of water molecules.

  16. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Estolide Ester Using Saturated Fatty Acid and Ricinoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Salimon, Jumat; Nallathamby, Neeranjini; Salih, Nadia; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar

    2011-01-01

    A study was conveyed to produce estolide ester using ricinoleic acid as the backbone. The ricinoleic acid reacted with saturated fatty acid from C8–C18. These reactions were conducted under vacuum at 60°C for 24 h without solvent. The reaction used acid catalyst, sulphuric acid. The new saturate ricinoleic estolide esters show superior low-temperature properties (−52 ± 0.08°C) and high flash point (>300°C). The yield of the neat estolide esters ranged from 52% to 96%. The viscosity range was 51 ± 0.08 to 86 ± 0.01 cp. These new saturated estolide esters were also compared with saturated branched estolide esters. PMID:22007150

  17. Effect of cholestasis on hepatic transport of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Knodell, R.G.; Shafer, R.B.; Stanley, L.N.; Goodman, M.; Elson, M.K.

    1984-10-01

    Hepatobiliary imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-p-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) and other acetanilidoiminodiacetic acid derivatives is a frequently used clinical tool in evaluating patients with jaundice. However, there has been little objective assessment of the effects of cholestasis on hepatic transport of acetanilioiminodiacetic acid derivatives. In our studies, transport of /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA by isolated rat hepatocytes obtained from animals with extrahepatic obstruction secondary to bile duct ligation or intrahepatic cholestasis induced by ethinyl estradiol therapy was determined. Uptake constants for /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA by hepatocytes isolated from livers of animals with ligated bile ducts were significantly decreased compared with uptake by liver cells from sham-operated controls (0.0030 +/- 0.0003 vs. 0.0089 +/- 0.0010 femtomole X 10(6) cells-1 X min-1 X pmol/L-1; p less than 0.001). Hepatocytes isolated from livers of animals given ethinyl estradiol also demonstrated significantly reduced /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA uptake compared with controls given propylene glycol (0.0034 +/- 0.0002 vs. 0.0060 +/- 0.0004 fmol X 10(6) cells-1 X min-1 X pmol/L-1; p less than 0.001). Fractional rates of efflux of the study compound from hepatocytes preincubated with /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA were significantly decreased in experiments using ethinyl estradiol (p less than 0.005) but did not differ significantly from controls in studies of bile duct ligation. /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA uptake was significantly decreased in the presence of high bile salt concentrations (100 to 200 mumol/L), but unconjugated bilirubin concentrations as high as 200 mumol/L (approximately 12 mg/dl) had no effect on hepatocyte uptake of the ligand.

  18. Quantitative temporal analysis of /sup 99m/Technetium p-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) as a measure of hepatic function in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S.N.; George, E.A.; Perrillo, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Excretory liver function was analyzed in 10 healthy volunteers and 28 subjects with acute or chronic liver injury following intravenous administration of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid. Hepatobiliary transit of this agent was quantitated at 5-min intervals for a total of 60 min. Indices of total liver activity, liver cell uptake, liver parenchymal clearance, and bile duct clearance of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid were calculated from time--activity curves over heart, liver, extrahepatic bile ducts, and gallbladder. Seven subjects with acute viral hepatitis, 15 with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and 6 with intrahepatic cholestasis were evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers, a significant (p less than 0.0001) reduction in total liver activity and liver parenchymal clearance was demonstrated in all patient groups. Major resolution in all liver-derived indices, particularly total liver activity, occurred during convalescence from hepatitis and after biliary drainage. Nonmeasurable bile duct clearance always indicated a diagnosis of extrahepatic obstruction in cholestatic subjects, and this index normalized in subjects following biliary drainage. Whereas visual assessment of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid scans provided limited, useful information about the functional status of the liver, quantitative temporal analysis proved to be a much more effective technique.

  19. Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2delta and bck1delta), ...

  20. Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2' and bck1'), Aspergil...

  1. New bis(alkythio) fatty acid methyl esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition reaction of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to mono-unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters is well-known for analytical purposes to determine the position of double bonds by mass spectrometry. In this work, the classical iodine-catalyzed reaction is expanded to other dialkyl disulfides (RSSR), ...

  2. Hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Ma, Young-Kyu; Kwon, Joseph; Park, Seong Hwa; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2011-09-28

    Two novel caffeoylmalic acid methyl esters, 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (6) and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 4-methyl ester (7), were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuhwangbae) fruit peels. In addition, 5 known hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters were identified: 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid (1), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid (2), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (3), 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (4), and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid (phaselic acid, 5). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic data from ESI MS and NMR. Of all the isolated compounds, five hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters (2-4, 6, 7) were identified in the pear for the first time.

  3. Transferable force field for carboxylate esters: application to fatty acid methylic ester phase equilibria prediction.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Boutin, Anne

    2012-03-15

    In this work, a new transferable united-atoms force field for carboxylate esters is proposed. All Lennard-Jones parameters are reused from previous parametrizations of the AUA4 force field, and only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is introduced for the ester chemical function. Various short alkyl-chain esters (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate) and two fatty acid methylic esters (methyl oleate and methyl palmitate) are studied. Using this new force field in Monte Carlo simulations, we show that various pure compound properties are accurately predicted: saturated liquid densities, vapor pressures, vaporization enthalpies, critical properties, liquid-vapor surface tensions. Furthermore, a good accuracy is also obtained in the prediction of binary mixture pressure-composition diagrams, without introducing empirical binary interaction parameters. This highlights the transferability of the proposed force field and gives the opportunity to simulate mixtures of industrial interest: a demonstration is performed through the simulation of the methyl oleate + methanol mixture involved in the purification sections of biodiesel production processes.

  4. Long-acting estrogenic responses of estradiol fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Alcantara, M A; Menjivar, M; Garcia, G A; Díaz-Zagoya, J C; Garza-Flores, J

    1989-12-01

    Estradiol esters at C-17 and C-3 with palmitic, stearic and oleic acids were chemically synthesized and then evaluated for their long-acting estrogenic responses in ovariectomized rats. The duration of the biological effects was measured after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.1 mumol of each ester and compared with those observed with 17 beta-estradiol, estradiol 3-benzoate and estradiol 17-enanthate. Vaginal citology, uterophyc action, serum gonadotropins inhibition and 17 beta-estradiol levels were measured 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 days after injection. The results disclosed that most of the estradiol derivatives evaluated exhibited a long-acting estrogenic action. However, the monoesters at C-17 showed longer effects that monoesters at C-3, while the estradiol diesters exhibited the shortest effects. In addition as shown by its low serum levels, all estradiol esters with unsaturated fatty acids show a decreased E2 absorption. The overall results indicated that esterification of E2 with long chain fatty acids provided long-acting properties to it, being higher with C-17 esters. Whether some of these compounds could be employed in substitutive endocrine therapy remains to be established.

  5. Transformation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids/Esters to Corresponding Keto Fatty Acids/Esters by Aerobic Oxidation with Pd(II)/Lewis Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Senan, Ahmed M; Zhang, Sicheng; Zeng, Miao; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

    2017-08-16

    Utilization of renewable biomass to partly replace the fossil resources in industrial applications has attracted attention due to the limited fossil feedstock with the increased environmental concerns. This work introduced a modified Wacker-type oxidation for transformation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, in which Cu(2+) cation was replaced with common nonredox metal ions, that is, a novel Pd(II)/Lewis acid (LA) catalyst. It was found that adding nonredox metal ions can effectively promote Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, even much better than Cu(2+), and the promotional effect is highly dependent on the Lewis acidity of added nonredox metal ions. The improved catalytic efficiency is attributed to the formation of heterobimetallic Pd(II)/LA species, and the oxidation mechanism of this Pd(II)/LA catalyst is also briefly discussed.

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  7. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  8. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  9. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN P-04...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and...

  1. 75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...-2010-0429; FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane... permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane on food or feed commodities...

  2. 76 FR 8895 - Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With Aminoalcohol Alkoxylates; Exemption From the Requirement of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With Aminoalcohol Alkoxylates; Exemption From the... acid esters with aminoalcohol alkoxylates (PFAEAA) with a minimum number average molecular weight (in... tolerance for residues of polymerized fatty acid esters with aminoalcohol alkoxylates (PFAEAA); limited to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN P-04...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  6. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  8. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  9. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  13. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section and applied on aluminum may be safely used as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  7. Determination of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid in living microorganism-agar matrixes using ion chromatography conductivity detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Alaa F.; Lucas, Samuel V.; Thomas, Susan A. )

    1999-01-01

    A direct an anion exchange, ion chromatography (IC)-based method for the detection of the chemical warfare agent surrogate O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) in agar medium has been developed. This is the first report of the systematic development and validation of an IC-based method for the analysis of the chemical warfare agent degradation product, IMPA, in Petri dishes containing the agar medium with 10, 100 and 1000 mg/mL IMPA. Samples were prepared by dilution of the agar medium with deionized water followed by sonication and then filtration before the analysis by IC/conductivity detection. Using this method, the amount of IMPA in the Petri dishes was measured. Excellent separation efficiency and freedom from interference due to common anions such as phosphate and sulfate was obtained in the developed methods. Retention time precision is less than 1.0% relative standard deviation (%RSD) and the detection limit is 0.1 mg/mL. Three calibration curves were performed over the range 1-100 mg/mL using blank agar matrices spiked with five IMPA concentrations; with correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.993, 0.991, and 0.992 for the calibration standard without dilution of agar matrix, at 4-times dilution and at 40-times dilution, respectively. Using three different samples at three IMPA spike levels, analysis accuracy was assessed by spiking the actual agar samples with IMPA. Average recoveries were 76, 79, and 84% for 10, 100, and 1000 mg/mL, respectively.

  8. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Alexander Paul; Kirby, Brian; Rogers, Sarah; Crotty, Tom Bernard; McDonnell, Timonthy John

    2010-10-01

      We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm®; Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months.   Report of a case.   His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP).   Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid...

  13. Crystal structure of N-(tert-but-oxy-carbon-yl)phenyl-alanylde-hydro-alanine isopropyl ester (Boc-Phe-ΔAla-OiPr).

    PubMed

    Lenartowicz, Paweł; Makowski, Maciej; Zarychta, Bartosz; Ejsmont, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    In the title compound, the de-hydro-dipeptide (Boc-Phe-ΔAla-OiPr, C20H28N2O5), the mol-ecule has a trans conformation of the N-methyl-amide group. The geometry of the de-hydro-alanine moiety is to some extent different from those usually found in simple peptides, indicating conjugation between the H2C=C group and the peptide bond. The bond angles around de-hydro-alanine have unusually high values due to the steric hindrance, the same inter-action influencing the slight distortion from planarity of the de-hydro-alanine. The mol-ecule is stabilized by intra-molecular inter-actions between the isopropyl group and the N atoms of the peptide main chain. In the crystal, an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond links the mol-ecules into ribbons, giving a herringbone head-to-head packing arrangement extending along the [100] direction. In the stacks, the mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding associations.

  14. Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.

    PubMed

    Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No. 25249-16-5...

  1. Changes in Esters of Fatty Acids of Rhizopus arrhizus During Germination and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hess, S. L.; Weber, D. J.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1972-01-01

    Natural esters of fatty acids of Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer increased during the first 48 hr of growth. During the 48- to 72-hr period, there was a shift in concentration from the methyl esters to the ethyl esters of fatty acids. PMID:5079078

  2. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No. 25249-16-5...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  5. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  12. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10542 - Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.10542 Section 721.10542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10542 Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester (PMN P-03-624; CAS No. 1731-79-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10542 - Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.10542 Section 721.10542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10542 Dodecanedioic acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 1,12-dimethyl ester (PMN P-03-624; CAS No. 1731-79-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  12. Lysosomal Acid Lipase Hydrolyzes Retinyl Ester and Affects Retinoid Turnover.

    PubMed

    Grumet, Lukas; Eichmann, Thomas O; Taschler, Ulrike; Zierler, Kathrin A; Leopold, Christina; Moustafa, Tarek; Radovic, Branislav; Romauch, Matthias; Yan, Cong; Du, Hong; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Fickert, Peter; Kratky, Dagmar; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2016-08-19

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the clearance of endocytosed cholesteryl ester and triglyceride-rich chylomicron remnants. Humans and mice with defective or absent LAL activity accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in multiple tissues. Although chylomicrons also contain retinyl esters (REs), a role of LAL in the clearance of endocytosed REs has not been reported. In this study, we found that murine LAL exhibits RE hydrolase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LAL in the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2, incubated with chylomicrons, led to increased accumulation of REs in endosomal/lysosomal fractions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of LAL in murine liver largely reduced in vitro acid RE hydrolase activity. Interestingly, LAL-deficient mice exhibited increased RE content in the duodenum and jejunum but decreased RE content in the liver. Furthermore, LAL-deficient mice challenged with RE gavage exhibited largely reduced post-prandial circulating RE content, indicating that LAL is required for efficient nutritional vitamin A availability. In summary, our results indicate that LAL is the major acid RE hydrolase and required for functional retinoid homeostasis.

  13. Lysosomal Acid Lipase Hydrolyzes Retinyl Ester and Affects Retinoid Turnover*

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Lukas; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Zierler, Kathrin A.; Leopold, Christina; Moustafa, Tarek; Radovic, Branislav; Romauch, Matthias; Yan, Cong; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Fickert, Peter; Lass, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the clearance of endocytosed cholesteryl ester and triglyceride-rich chylomicron remnants. Humans and mice with defective or absent LAL activity accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in multiple tissues. Although chylomicrons also contain retinyl esters (REs), a role of LAL in the clearance of endocytosed REs has not been reported. In this study, we found that murine LAL exhibits RE hydrolase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LAL in the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2, incubated with chylomicrons, led to increased accumulation of REs in endosomal/lysosomal fractions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of LAL in murine liver largely reduced in vitro acid RE hydrolase activity. Interestingly, LAL-deficient mice exhibited increased RE content in the duodenum and jejunum but decreased RE content in the liver. Furthermore, LAL-deficient mice challenged with RE gavage exhibited largely reduced post-prandial circulating RE content, indicating that LAL is required for efficient nutritional vitamin A availability. In summary, our results indicate that LAL is the major acid RE hydrolase and required for functional retinoid homeostasis. PMID:27354281

  14. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  15. Stereoselective formation of trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters by the acid-mediated elimination of α-hydroxyboronate esters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weiye; Michael, Alicia K; McIntosh, Melissa L; Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Scott, John P; Clark, Timothy B

    2014-08-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction to obtain alkenes of known geometry.

  16. Stereoselective Formation of Trisubstituted Vinyl Boronate Esters by the Acid-Mediated Elimination of α-Hydroxyboronate Esters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction to obtain alkenes of known geometry. PMID:24915498

  17. Characterization of carotenoid fatty acid esters from the peels of the persimmon Diospyros kaki.

    PubMed

    Hitaka, Yuki; Nakano, Ai; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Manabe, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Hideaki; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Separation and structural determination of the chloroform-soluble components obtained from the peels of the persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were performed. β-Carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin mono-myristic acid ester, zeaxanthin di-myristic acid ester, the latter two of which were accompanied by a small amount of palmitoleic acid in the fatty acid moiety, and oleanolic acid were identified. Among these components, the mono-fatty acid ester of β-cryptoxanthin and the di-fatty acid ester of zeaxanthin were characterized for the first time.

  18. Cu(I)-catalyzed (11)C carboxylation of boronic acid esters: a rapid and convenient entry to (11)C-labeled carboxylic acids, esters, and amides.

    PubMed

    Riss, Patrick J; Lu, Shuiyu; Telu, Sanjay; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Pike, Victor W

    2012-03-12

    Rapid and direct: the carboxylation of boronic acid esters with (11)CO(2) provides [(11)C]carboxylic acids as a convenient entry into [(11)C]esters and [(11)C]amides. This conversion of boronates is tolerant to diverse functional groups (e.g., halo, nitro, or carbonyl).

  19. Exploring unsaturated fatty acid cholesteryl esters as transdermal permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Jadhav, Mahantesh; Govender, Thirumala

    2017-04-01

    The intrinsic protective barrier property of skin, one of the major challenges in the design of transdermal drug delivery systems, can be overcome through the use of chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs). Herein, we explore the potential of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) esters of cholesterol (Chol) viz., oleate, linoleate and linolenate, as transdermal CPEs using tenofovir (TNF) as a model drug. All Chol UFA esters at 1% w/w were found to be more effective enhancers when compared to their respective parent fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FA counterparts. Cholesteryl linolenate (Chol-LLA) showed the most superior performance (enhancement ratio (ER) = 3.71). The greatest ER for Chol-LLA (5.93) was achieved at a concentration of 2% w/w. The histomorphological and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) evaluations supported the results of the permeability studies. These findings showed no significant loss in the integrity of the epidermis, with drug and enhancer treatment having temporary effects on the barrier property of the epidermis. Chol UFA esters can therefore be considered as new CPEs for exploitation in topical formulations for various classes of drugs.

  20. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization.

    PubMed

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223-229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C₃H₇), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME.

  1. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject to...

  2. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  3. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  4. Analysis of intact cholesteryl esters of furan fatty acids in cod liver.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2015-06-01

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are a class of natural antioxidants with a furan moiety in the acyl chain. These minor fatty acids have been reported to occur with high proportions in the cholesteryl ester fraction of fish livers. Here we present a method for the direct analysis of intact cholesteryl esters with F-acids and other fatty acids in cod liver lipids. For this purpose, the cholesteryl ester fraction was isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a cool-on-column inlet. Pentadecanoic acid esterified with cholesterol was used as an internal standard. GC/MS spectra of F-acid cholesteryl esters featured the molecular ion along with characteristic fragment ions for both the cholesterol and the F-acid moiety. All investigated cod liver samples (n = 8) showed cholesteryl esters of F-acids and, to a lower degree, of conventional fatty acids. By means of GC/MS-SIM up to ten F-acid cholesteryl esters could be determined in the samples. The concentrations of cholesteryl esters with conventional fatty acids amounted to 78-140 mg/100 g lipids (mean 97 mg/100 g lipids), while F-acid cholesteryl esters were present at 47-270 mg/100 g lipids (mean 130 mg/100 g lipids).

  5. Cinnamyl alcohols and methyl esters of fatty acids from Wedelia prostrata callus cultures.

    PubMed

    El-Mawla, Ahmed M A Abd; Farag, Salwa F; Beuerle, Till

    2011-01-01

    Two methyl esters of fatty acids, namely octadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl stearate) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl palmitate), in addition to four cinnamyl alcohol derivatives, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol 4-O-glucoside (coniferin), were isolated from callus cultures of Wedelia prostrata. The structure of coniferin was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods, while the other compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography in comparison with standards.

  6. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) The additive meets the following specifications: Water insoluble combined lactic acid, 14-18 percent... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbonotrithioic acid, bis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3020 - Ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3020 Ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester. (a) Chemical... ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester (PMN P-85-680; CAS No. 690-83-5) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this section...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 78 FR 46283 - Modification of Significant New Uses of Ethaneperoxoic Acid, 1,1-Dimethylpropyl Ester

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Modification of Significant New Uses of Ethaneperoxoic Acid, 1,1... chemical substance identified as ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1- dimethylpropyl ester, which was the subject of... substance identified as ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester, (PMN P-85-680). Potentially affected...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  6. Mass spectrometry of polycyclic tetracarboxylic ('ARN') acids and tetramethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Paul A; Smith, Benjamin E; Rowland, Steven J

    2010-11-15

    Polycyclic C(80) tetracarboxylic (so-called 'ARN') acids are found as calcium salts in deposits which form in certain oilfield pipelines and equipment. Characterisation of these acids is important for improving the prediction and hence avoidance or minimisation of oilfield deposition problems. Although several of the acids have been isolated and characterised (as regioisomeric mixtures) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometric methods are likely to be much more useful for the routine analysis of oils and deposits containing the acids. A publication summarising the mass spectra of the purified acids and major derivatives might thus be a very useful source of reference for scientists and technologists studying these unusual compounds. We now report the characterisation of several of the purified acids and of the tetramethyl esters by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in both positive ion and negative ion modes, by multistage ESI-MS with a suggested rationalisation of the ions produced, by positive ion atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), and by positive ion electron ionisation (EI)-MS. Tentative identifications of C(80) acyclic, mono-, bi- and tricylic tetraacids and the δ(13)C isotope values of a mixture of the semi-pure acids determined by MS are also reported for the first time.

  7. Novel fatty acid methyl esters from the actinomycete Micromonospora aurantiaca

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Hilke; Riclea, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Summary The volatiles released by Micromonospora aurantiaca were collected by means of a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analysed by GC–MS. The headspace extracts contained more than 90 compounds from different classes. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) comprised the major compound class including saturated unbranched, monomethyl and dimethyl branched FAMEs in diverse structural variants: Unbranched, α-branched, γ-branched, (ω−1)-branched, (ω−2)-branched, α- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−2)-branched, and γ- and (ω−3)-branched FAMEs. FAMEs of the last three types have not been described from natural sources before. The structures for all FAMEs have been suggested based on their mass spectra and on a retention index increment system and verified by the synthesis of key reference compounds. In addition, the structures of two FAMEs, methyl 4,8-dimethyldodecanoate and the ethyl-branched compound methyl 8-ethyl-4-methyldodecanoate were deduced from their mass spectra. Feeding experiments with isotopically labelled [2H10]leucine, [2H10]isoleucine, [2H8]valine, [2H5]sodium propionate, and [methyl-2H3]methionine demonstrated that the responsible fatty acid synthase (FAS) can use different branched and unbranched starter units and is able to incorporate methylmalonyl-CoA elongation units for internal methyl branches in various chain positions, while the methyl ester function is derived from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). PMID:22238549

  8. The effect of lipid and aqueous solubilities on flux of nicotinic acid esters from water through silicone membrane.

    PubMed

    Synovec, Jennifer; Wasdo, Scott C; Sloan, Kenneth B

    2013-09-01

    The maximum fluxes (J(M)) of nicotinic acid esters (NAE) across silicone membranes from water (J(MPAQ)) have been measured to determine how well they correlate with J(M) of NAE across human skin from water in vitro (J(MHAQ)) and in vivo (J(MHAQ1)) and with J(M) of NAE across hairless mouse skin from water (J(MMAQ)). The NAE were all commercially available. Solubilities in water (S(AQ)), isopropyl myristate (S(IPM)) and octanol (S(OCT)) were obtained from literature sources. J(MPAQ) were measured at saturation for all the esters except the methyl ester. In that case, flux was measured at a concentration (C) less than saturation (J(PAQ)) and converted to J(MPAQ) = (J(PAQ))(S(AQ)/C(AQ)). J(MPAQ) values predicted from the previously reported coefficients to the parameters in the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation (PRE J(MPAQ)) were substantially lower than the experimental J(MPAQ) values (EXP J(MPAQ)) values obtained here. The EXP J(MPAQ) were incorporated into the previous J(MPAQ) database and new coefficients were obtained: x = -1.837; y = 0.742; z = 0.00435; r² = 0.86. Correlation of J(MPAQ) values with J(MHAQ), J(MHAQ1), and J(MMAQ) values show the same trend as the J(MPAQ) values. The inclusion of the NAE n = 6 data into the previous n = 32 database for the permeation of the prodrugs through a silicone membrane from water (J(MPAQ)) greatly improved the fit of the n = 38 database to the RS equation: r² = 0.86 vs r² = 0.77. The correlation between log J(MHAQ) and log J(MPAQ) gave r² = 0.98. This suggests that J(MPAQ) values are good predictors of J(MHAQ) values.

  9. Development and validation of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis methods to analyze boronic esters and acids.

    PubMed

    Forst, Mindy B; Warner, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    Boronic esters and acids are potential intermediates in the manufacture of many active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Accurate quantitation of the intermediate is necessary to assure the stoichiometry of the reaction. The analysis of these compounds is challenging due to their labile nature. For example, the boronic ester can hydrolyze to the acid during storage, when exposed to moisture in the air, during sample preparation and analysis, and thus give erroneous ester results. Traditional analytical techniques like gas chromatography (GC), normal phase chromatography (NPLC), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) have been utilized but with noted limitations such as poor peak shape, variation in retention times, and evidence of hydrolysis. All of these limitations impact accurate quantitation needed for selected situations. For the proprietary boronic ester evaluated here, these traditional techniques were insufficient for the accurate determination of assay and residual boronic acid. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) is an accurate quantitative technique that can be used to analyze boronic esters and their corresponding acids without the limitations noted for traditional analytical techniques. The present study describes the development of methodology for the determination of the potency of a proprietary boronic ester as well as methodology for the determination of residual boronic acid in the ester. In addition, nine model boronic ester and acid pairs with a range in polarity, based on the electronic properties of the attached side group, were tested to evaluate and demonstrate the general applicability of these conditions. Under the conditions used for potency, all ten pairs had a resolution between the boronic ester and acid of greater than 1.5, acceptable peak shape for the boronic ester (tailing factor of less than 2.0), and a run time of less than 3 min. In addition, this work describes

  10. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  11. Synthesis, Evaluation of Anticancer Activity and QSAR Study of Heterocyclic Esters of Caffeic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hajmohamad Ebrahim Ketabforoosh, Shima; Amini, Mohsen; Vosooghi, Mohsen; Shafiee, Abbas; Azizi, Ebrahim; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppresses the growth of transformed cells such as human breast cancer cells, hepatocarcinoma , myeloid leukemia, colorectal cancer cells, fibrosarcoma, glioma and melanoma. A group of heterocyclic esters of caffeic acid was synthesized using Mitsunobu reaction and the esters were subjected to further structural modification by electrooxidation of the catechol ring of caffeic acid esters in the presence of sodium benzenesulfinate and sodium toluensulfinate as nucleophiles. Both heterocyclic esters of caffeic acid and their arylsulfonyl derivatives were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HeLa, SK-OV-3, and HT-29 cancer cell lines. HeLa cells showed the highest sensitivity to the compounds and heterocyclic esters with no substituent on catechol ring showed better activity compared to their substituted counterparts. QSAR studies reemphasized the importance of molecular shape of the compounds for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24523750

  12. 76 FR 7703 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4-Butanediol, Adipic Acid, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4- Butanediol, Adipic Acid, and Hexamethylene Diisocyanate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester...

  13. Reactions of OH and Cl with isopropyl formate, isobutyl formate, n-propyl isobutyrate and isopropyl isobutyrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Liang, P.; Jiang, Z. H.; Cazaunau, M.; Daële, V.; Mu, Y. J.; Mellouki, A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH with isopropyl formate, isobutyl formate, n-propyl isobutyrate and isopropyl isobutyrate have been determined using both absolute and relative methods. The relative rate method has been also used to measure the room temperature rate coefficient for the reaction of Cl with the same esters. In addition, a series of runs conducted on the OH-initiated oxidation of isopropyl formate, isobutyl formate and n-propyl isobutyrate showed the formation of acetone from the three reactions. The formation of propanal was also observed for n-propyl isobutyrate.

  14. Hexavalent chromium reduction in solution and in chromite ore processing residue-enriched soil by tartaric Acid with isopropyl alcohol and divalent manganese as co-reductants.

    PubMed

    Brose, Dominic A; James, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR), the solid waste product from the high-temperature alkaline processing of ferrochromite (FeO·CrO), contains Cr(VI) in soluble and insoluble compounds formed in the roasting process. This research investigated tartaric acid in combination with Mn and isopropyl alcohol (IPOH ) as co-reductants for reagent- and COPR-derived Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) by tartaric acid alone at pH 5.0 or greater was negligible; however, in the presence of Mn or IPOH, reduction occurred in hours. Isopropyl alcohol enhanced Cr(VI) reduction, probably via formation of a termolecular complex with the alcohol, tartaric acid, and Cr(VI). In aqueous solutions of reagent-derived Cr(VI) at pH 4, 12 mmol L tartaric acid with 1.0 mmol L Mn or 1.0 mmol L Mn and 0.29 mol L (2% v/v) IPOH reduced 1.0 mmol L Cr(VI) in 48 h. The same treatments at pH 5.5 reduced 0.60 and 0.58 mmol L Cr(VI) (60%) in 96 h, respectively. A minimum half-life of 10.2 h was calculated from first-order rate constants obtained from Mn and IPOH-Mn co-reductant treatments with tartaric acid at pH 4. The most COPR-derived Cr(VI) reduced in suspension was by IPOH and Mn at high acidity (pH 5.8), which reduced 0.52 mmol L (52%) of the COPR-derived soluble Cr(VI) at 96 h. The enhanced reduction of soluble Cr(VI) by tartaric acid by the addition of Mn proceeds within a complex formed by an esterification reaction between tartaric acid and Cr(VI) with Mn bound to tartaric acid. The combined treatment of tartaric acid, IPOH, Mn, and a strong acid to lower the pH of COPR-enriched soils would be effective in field applications of this chemistry. By creating a slurry of the field soil with these amendments, mass transfer limitations would be overcome, and Cr(VI) would be reduced to Cr(III) in days.

  15. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters.

  16. Intramolecular interactions in ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids and their catechol esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Borys, Krzysztof M.; Czerwińska, Karolina; Gierczyk, Błażej; Jakubczyk, Michał; Madura, Izabela D.; Sporzyński, Andrzej; Tomecka, Ewelina

    2013-12-01

    Catechol esters of ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids have been synthesized and characterized by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The results were compared with the data for the parent acids. The influence of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds on the properties of the boronic acids has been discussed. The 17O NMR data for the boronic esters proved that there are no O → B interactions in the investigated compounds. This fact is connected with weak Lewis acidity of the parent acids and their low sugars' receptors activity. Crystal structure of ortho-methoxyphenylboronic acid catechol ester was determined.

  17. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-12-02

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  18. Fatty acids of astaxanthin esters in krill determined by mild mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Matsui, Kumi; Nakamura, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Hanada, Satoshi

    2003-10-01

    Krill is a major source of astaxanthin, which has strong antioxidant activity. Fractions with astaxanthin monoesters and diesters of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba were isolated. Astaxanthin esters were separated by C18-HPLC depending on the number of carbons and double bonds of esterified fatty acid(s). Small amounts of other lipids remained in the samples, but relative molecular masses of carotenoid esters could be measured by field desorption mass spectrometry without fragmentation and interference from contaminant lipids. The fatty acids were determined by calculation of difference between astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters. Only five kinds of fatty acids, dodecanoate, tetradecanoate, hexadecanoate, hexadecenoate and octadecenoate, were detected. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry showed similar spectra. The fatty acid composition in astaxanthin esters was different from those in krill lipids. Therefore, determination of fatty acids in carotenoid esters by a combination of HPLC elution profile and mild mass spectrometry is found to be a useful tool.

  19. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  20. Determining Phthalic Acid Esters Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shen, L.; Yang, F.; Han, F.; Hu, P.; Song, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is applied for determining phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in standard materials. We reported the THz transmission spectrum in the frequency range of 0.2 to 2.0 THz for three PAEs: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ester (DEHP). The study provided the refractive indices and absorption features of these materials. The absorption spectra of three PAEs were simulated by using Gaussian software with Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For pure standard PAEs, the values of the refractive indices changed between 1.50 and 1.60. At 1.0 THz, the refractive indices were 1.524, 1.535, and 1.563 for DINP, DEHP, and DBP, respectively. In this experiment different concentrations of DBP were investigated using THz-TDS. Changes were measured in the low THz frequency range for refractive indices and characteristic absorption. The results indicated that THz-TDS is promising as a new method in determining PAEs in many materials. The results of this study could be used to support the practical application of THz-TDS in quality detection and food monitoring. In particular, this new technique could be used in detecting hazardous materials and other substances present in wine or foods.

  1. Enzymatic production of bioactive docosahexaenoic acid phenolic ester.

    PubMed

    Roby, Mohamed H; Allouche, Ahmad; Dahdou, Layal; De Castro, Vanessa C; da Silva, Paulo H Alves; Targino, Brenda N; Huguet, Marion; Paris, Cédric; Chrétien, Françoise; Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Desobry, Stéphane; Oster, Thierry; Humeau, Catherine

    2015-03-15

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is increasingly considered for its health benefits. However, its use as functional food ingredient is still limited by its instability. In this work, we developed an efficient and solvent-free bioprocess for the synthesis of a phenolic ester of DHA. A fed-batch process catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B was optimised, leading to the production of 440 g/L vanillyl ester (DHA-VE). Structural characterisation of the purified product indicated acylation of the primary OH group of vanillyl alcohol. DHA-VE exhibited a high radical scavenging activity in acellular systems. In vivo experiments showed increased DHA levels in erythrocytes and brain tissues of mice fed DHA-VE-supplemented diet. Moreover, in vitro neuroprotective properties of DHA-VE were demonstrated in rat primary neurons exposed to amyloid-β oligomers. In conclusion, DHA-VE synergized the main beneficial effects of two common natural biomolecules and therefore appears a promising functional ingredient for food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rotational Investigation of the Adducts of Formic Acid with Alcohols, Ethers and Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Spada, Lorenzo; Li, Weixing; Caminati, Walther

    2016-06-01

    Mixtures of formic acid with methyl alcohol, with isopropyl alcohol, with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethylether and with isopropylformiate have been supersonically expanded as pulsed jets. The obtained cool plumes have been analyzed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. It has been possible to assign the rotational spectra of the 1:1 adducts of formic acid with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethyl ether and with isopropylformiate. The conformational shapes and geometries of these adducts, as well as the topologies of their itermolecular hydrogen bonds will be presented. An explanation is given of the failure of the assignments of the rotational spectra of the adducts of formic acid with methyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol.

  3. Predicting the Viscosity of Low VOC Vinyl Ester and Fatty Acid-Based Resins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    The sample was titrated with the perchloric acid / peracetic acid solution (Aldrich) until the indicator, 0.1% crystal violet in acetic acid (Aldrich...Predicting the Viscosity of Low VOC Vinyl Ester and Fatty Acid -Based Resins by John J. La Scala, Amutha Jeyarajasingam, Cherise Winston...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-3681 December 2005 Predicting the Viscosity of Low VOC Vinyl Ester and Fatty Acid -Based

  4. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Haines, Troy D; Adlaf, Kevin J; Pierceall, Robert M; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC-TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC-TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed.

  5. Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Harris, William S; Puder, Mark; Freedman, Steven D; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    2017-02-08

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing.

  6. Complexes of polyadenylic acid and the methyl esters of amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaled, M. A.; Mulins, D. W., Jr.; Swindle, M.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study of amino acid methyl esters binding to polyadenylic acid supports the theory that the genetic code originated through weak but selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides. NMR, insoluble complex analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy are used to illustrate a correlation between the hydrophybicities of A amino acids and their binding constants, which, beginning with the largest, are in the order of Phe (having nominally a hydrophobic AAA anticodon), Ile, Leu, Val and Gly (having a hydrophilic anticodon with no A). In general, the binding constants are twice the values by Reuben and Polk (1980) for monomeric AMP, which suggests that polymer amino acids are interacting with only one base. No real differences are found betwen poly A binding for free Phe, Phe methyl ester or Phe amide, except that the amide value is slightly lower.

  7. Complexes of polyadenylic acid and the methyl esters of amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaled, M. A.; Mulins, D. W., Jr.; Swindle, M.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study of amino acid methyl esters binding to polyadenylic acid supports the theory that the genetic code originated through weak but selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides. NMR, insoluble complex analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy are used to illustrate a correlation between the hydrophybicities of A amino acids and their binding constants, which, beginning with the largest, are in the order of Phe (having nominally a hydrophobic AAA anticodon), Ile, Leu, Val and Gly (having a hydrophilic anticodon with no A). In general, the binding constants are twice the values by Reuben and Polk (1980) for monomeric AMP, which suggests that polymer amino acids are interacting with only one base. No real differences are found betwen poly A binding for free Phe, Phe methyl ester or Phe amide, except that the amide value is slightly lower.

  8. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.640 Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. The food additive methyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10555 - Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10555 Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10555 - Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10555 Benzoic acid nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic...

  11. New esters of okadaic acid in seawater and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Trine; Miles, Christopher O; Rundberget, Thomas; Wilkins, Alistair L

    2008-10-22

    Marine algal toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) group can occur as diol esters and sulfated diol esters in algae and as fatty acid esters in shellfish. Several of these ester forms have been identified, but the most common procedure for detecting OA group toxin esters is by measuring the increase in parent toxin after alkaline hydrolysis. Use of this alkaline hydrolysis method led to the discovery of high levels of conjugates of OA and dinophysistoxins-2 (DTX2) in seawater and of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 in blue mussel hepatopancreas (HP) from Flødevigen, Norway, during a bloom of Dinophysis spp. In the water sample, a C 8-diol ester, a C 9-diol ester, and a previously undescribed C 8-triol ester of OA were characterized using HPLC-MS (2), -MS (3), and -MS (4) in combination with various derivatization procedures. Palmitic acid (16:0) ester derivatives of these diol/triol esters were found in mussel HP and characterized using HPLC-MS (2), -MS (3), and -MS (4). To the authors' knowledge, hybrid diol-fatty acid esters of OA have not been previously described. Mass spectral analysis showed the presence of two forms of hybrid esters: one with the fatty acid conjugated to the 7-OH of the OA moiety and the other with the fatty acid conjugated to the OH group in the "diol" moiety. In the water sample, the C 8-diol ester was the most abundant, whereas in the mussels, the 16:0-C 9-diol hybrid ester was most abundant, and only minor amounts of the 16:0-C 8-diol hybrid ester were detected, suggesting that C 8- and C 9-diol esters of OA may be metabolized differently in blue mussels. 7- O-acyl esters of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 are thought to contribute to shellfish toxicity by being hydrolyzed in the human stomach to the parent toxins, and the newly characterized hybrid esters are likely to contribute similarly.

  12. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  13. Quantitative analysis of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid in serum samples of Japanese citizens allegedly exposed to sarin: estimation of internal dosage.

    PubMed

    Noort, D; Hulst, A G; Platenburg, D H; Polhuijs, M; Benschop, H P

    1998-10-01

    A convenient and rapid micro-anion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) tandem electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) procedure was developed for quantitative analysis in serum of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), the hydrolysis product of the nerve agent sarin. The mass spectrometric procedure involves negative or positive ion electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. The method could be successfully applied to the analysis of serum samples from victims of the Tokyo subway attack and of an earlier incident at Matsumoto, Japan. IMPA levels ranging from 2 to 135 ng/ml were found. High levels of IMPA appear to correlate with low levels of residual butyrylcholinesterase activity in the samples and vice versa. Based on our analyses, the internal and exposure doses of the victims were estimated. In several cases, the doses appeared to be substantially higher than the assumed lethal doses in man.

  14. Carotenoids and their fatty-acid esters in banana peel.

    PubMed

    Subagio, A; Morita, N; Sawada, S

    1996-12-01

    In relation to banana ripening, banana peel was examined for carotenoid pigments by a combination of alumina column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Carotenoids and their fatty-acid esters were first separated by an alumina column into five fractions, of which each was further subfractionated by HPLC with different kinds of solvent. The carotenoid content of the banana peel was in the range of 3-4 micrograms per gram as lutein equivalent. The ingredients of the carotenoids were ascertained to consist of lutein, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, violaxanthin, auroxanthin, neoxanthin, isolutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha-cryptoxanthin. Most of the oxygenated carotenoids were found to occur in the esterified form, mainly with myristate, and to a lesser extent with laurate, palmitate or caprate.

  15. Ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    PubMed

    Usui, Ayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ohshima, Kazusato; Fukuda, Shinji; Mine, Takara; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2017-03-01

    Three new ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose, 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid A, 1), 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid B, 2), and 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid C, 3) were isolated together with tuberonoid A (4), from the leaves of Allium macrostemon Bunge. The chemical structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the spectroscopic and chemical data.

  16. Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

    We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

  17. Energy-rich glyceric acid oxygen esters - Implications for the origin of glycolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; Hsu, Victor

    1990-01-01

    The apparent Gibbs free energy change (GFEC) of hydrolysis (pH 7) of the 2- and 3-O-glyceroyl esters of 2- and 3-O-L-glyceroyl-L-glyceric acid methyl ester were measured at 25 C. The 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters were found to be 'energy-rich' with GFEC values of -9.1 kcal/mol and -7.8 kcal/mol, respectively. This result indicates that the analogous 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters of polyglyceric acid are also energy-rich and, therefore, could have acted as an energy source for primitive phosphoanhydride synthesis.

  18. Energy-rich glyceric acid oxygen esters - Implications for the origin of glycolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; Hsu, Victor

    1990-01-01

    The apparent Gibbs free energy change (GFEC) of hydrolysis (pH 7) of the 2- and 3-O-glyceroyl esters of 2- and 3-O-L-glyceroyl-L-glyceric acid methyl ester were measured at 25 C. The 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters were found to be 'energy-rich' with GFEC values of -9.1 kcal/mol and -7.8 kcal/mol, respectively. This result indicates that the analogous 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters of polyglyceric acid are also energy-rich and, therefore, could have acted as an energy source for primitive phosphoanhydride synthesis.

  19. [Development of the determination methods of fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols in fat-rich foods].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaobo; Wu, Shaoming; Li, Nan; Lü, Huadong; Fu, Wusheng

    2013-02-01

    Fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols are a kinds of newly emerged food contaminants, especially 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters that have been detected in many foodstuffs such as infant formula and edible oils at relatively high levels. Based on the Tolerable Dose Intake (TDI) of 3-MCPD, the intake of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD esters may cause the health risk to human beings. The researches for the analysis of 3-MCPD esters have been carried out in some institutes abroad, but there were only a few in China. This paper reviews the methods for the determination of 3-MCPD esters in fat-rich foods, including the extraction, hydrolysis, the derivatization of 3-MCPD esters, the total amount of 3-MCPD esters and the amounts of monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  2. Synthesis and properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Henning; Vorwerg, Waltraud; Wetzel, Hendrik

    2013-10-15

    Being completely bio-based, fatty acid starch esters (FASEs) are attractive materials that represent an alternative to crude oil-based plastics. In this study, two synthesis methods were compared in terms of their efficiency, toxicity and, especially, product solubility with starch laurate (C12) as model compound. Laurates (DS>2) were obtained through transesterification of fatty acid vinylesters in DMSO or reaction with fatty acid chlorides in pyridine. The latter lead to higher DS-values in a shorter reaction time. But due to the much better solubility of the products compared to lauroyl chloride esterified ones, vinylester-transesterification was preferred to optimize reaction parameters, where reaction time could be shortened to 2h. FASEs C6-C18 were also successfully prepared via transesterification. To determine the DS of the resulting starch laurates, the efficient ATR-IR method was compared with common methods (elementary analysis, (1)H NMR). Molar masses (Mw) of the highly soluble starch laurates were analyzed using SEC-MALLS (THF). High recovery rates (>80%) attest to the outstanding solubility of products obtained through transesterification, caused by a slight disintegration during synthesis. Particle size distributions (DLS) demonstrated stable dissolutions in CHCl3 of vinyl laurate esterified - contrary to lauroyl chloride esterified starch. For all highly soluble FASEs (C6-C18), formation of concentrated solutions (10 wt%) is feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High Performance Fatty Acid-Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A ( DGEBA ) Methacrylic Acid Figure 1: The reaction of DGEBA and methacrylic acid to produce the vinyl ester 2.3...High Performance Fatty Acid -Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding by Xing Geng, John J. La Scala, James M. Sands, and Giuseppe R...it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-RP-184 July 2007 High Performance Fatty Acid

  4. The investigation of thermosensitive properties of phosphazene derivatives bearing amino acid ester groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslu, Aylin; Mutlu Balcı, Ceylan; Yuksel, Fatma; Özcan, Elif; Dural, Sevilay; Beşli, Serap

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a series of phosphazene derivatives having amino acid esters were synthesized from the reactions of amino acid esters with cyclophosphazenes. Hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene, (N3P3Cl6) and octachlorocyclotetraphosphazene (N4P4Cl8) have been reacted with carboxylic amino acid esters; glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride, glycine methyl ester hydrochloride, β-alanine ethyl ester hydrochloride, β-alanine methyl ester hydrochloride and methyl 6-aminohexanoate hydrochloride to obtain cyclophosphazene compounds containing amino acid esters as side groups. All obtained compounds (1-9) were characterized using spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. The molecular structures of compounds 2, 5 and 6 were also characterized by X-ray crystallographic studies. Hydrolytic degradations of compounds (1-9) were observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy under acidic condition (pH = 1-3) and at body temperature (35-38 °C). Concentration-dependent lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of compounds were examined to determine their thermosensitive behaviors in aqueous solution. It is found that all compounds degraded to harmless products such as amino acid, phosphates, ammonium salts. LCSTs of compounds 1, 2 and 6 were found to be around body temperature that is important for biomedical applications.

  5. Development of a Method for the N-Arylation of Amino Acid Esters with Aryl Triflates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A general method for the N-arylation of amino acid esters with aryl triflates is described. Both α- and β-amino acid esters, including methyl, tert-butyl, and benzyl esters, are viable substrates. Reaction optimization was carried out by design of experiment (DOE) analysis using JMP software. The mild reaction conditions, which use t-BuBrettPhos Pd G3 or G4 precatalyst, result in minimal racemization of the amino acid ester. This method is the first synthetic application of the t-BuBrettPhos Pd G4 precatalyst. Mechanistic studies show that the observed erosion in enantiomeric excess is due to racemization of the amino acid ester starting material and not of the product. PMID:27498618

  6. Lewis acid promoted ruthenium(II)-catalyzed etherifications by selective hydrogenation of carboxylic acids/esters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Topf, Christoph; Cui, Xinjiang; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-04-20

    Ethers are of fundamental importance in organic chemistry and they are an integral part of valuable flavors, fragrances, and numerous bioactive compounds. In general, the reduction of esters constitutes the most straightforward preparation of ethers. Unfortunately, this transformation requires large amounts of metal hydrides. Presented herein is a bifunctional catalyst system, consisting of Ru/phosphine complex and aluminum triflate, which allows selective synthesis of ethers by hydrogenation of esters or carboxylic acids. Different lactones were reduced in good yields to the desired products. Even challenging aromatic and aliphatic esters were reduced to the desired products. Notably, the in situ formed catalyst can be reused several times without any significant loss of activity.

  7. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations.

  8. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN P...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction...

  14. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force, Cluster...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  1. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN P...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a...

  4. 75 FR 70254 - Typographical Error in Summary Notice of Filing in Docket for Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Typographical Error in Summary Notice of Filing in Docket for Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With...), concerning the Notice of Filing (NOF) for Pesticide Petition (PP) 0E7699 for polymerized fatty acid esters... Notice of Filing (NOF) for Pesticide Petition (PP) 0E7699 for polymerized fatty acid esters with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  8. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Turkyilmaz, Serdar; Alhan, Etem; Ercin, Cengiz; Kural Vanizor, Birgul; Kaklikkaya, Nese; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Topaloglu, Serdar

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. CAPE, an active component of honeybee propolis, has previously been determined to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups of 12. Group 1 animals received intraductal saline and intravenous saline infusion treatment. Group 2 was given intraductal saline and intraperitoneal CAPE infusion treatment. ANP was induced in the animals in group 3 (ANP with saline infusion), and group 4 had induced ANP plus CAPE infusion treatment (ANP with CAPE infusion). Sampling was performed 48 h after treatment. ANP induction significantly increased mortality rate, pancreatic necrosis, and bacterial infection in pancreatic and extrapancreatic organs. ANP also increased levels of amylase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, increased levels of urea and lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL LDH), increased the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in pancreas and lung tissue, and decreased the serum calcium levels. The use of CAPE did not significantly reduce the mortality rate but significantly reduced the ALT and BAL LDH levels, the activities of MPO and MDA in the pancreas, the activity of MDA in the lungs, and pancreatic damage. The administration of CAPE did not reduce the bacterial infection. These results indicate that CAPE had beneficial effects on the course of ANP in rats and suggest that CAPE shows promise as a treatment for ANP.

  9. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  10. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester extends survival of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fontanilla, C V; Wei, X; Zhao, L; Johnstone, B; Pascuzzi, R M; Farlow, M R; Du, Y

    2012-03-15

    There is currently very limited effective pharmacological treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent evidence suggests that caffeic acid phenethyl ester has strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-neuronal death properties; thus, the present study tested the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in mice expressing a mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD1(G93A)) linked to human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Administration of caffeic acid phenethyl ester after symptom onset significantly increased the post-onset survival and lifespan of SOD1(G93A) mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis detected less activation of microglia and astrocytes and higher motor neuron counts at an early symptomatic stage (7 days following onset) in the spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice given caffeic acid phenethyl ester treatment. Additionally, lower levels of phosphorylated p38, a mitogen-activated protein kinase that is involved in both inflammation and neuronal death, were observed in the spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice treated with caffeic acid phenethyl ester for 7 days. These results indicate that caffeic acid phenethyl ester may represent a novel and effective therapeutic for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and these significant neuroprotective effects observed in a commonly used amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model validate the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid phenethyl ester for slowing disease progression by attenuating the neuroinflammation and motor neuron cell death associated with clinical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of some glucose-fatty acid esters by lipase from Candida antarctica and their emulsion functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangzi; Lamsal, Buddhi P

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields. Contact angle of water on esters' pelleted surface increased as the hydrophobicity increased. Glucose esters' and commercial sucrose esters' functionality as emulsifiers were compared. Glucose esters delayed, but did not prevent coalescence, because the oil droplets diameter doubled during 7days. Sucrose esters prevented coalescence during 7days since the droplets diameter did not have significant change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process for methyl ester production from crude rubber seed oil.

    PubMed

    Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Pianthong, Kulachate; Worapun, Ittipon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for producing methyl ester from crude rubber seed oil. An acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process is proposed. In the experiment, the 20% FFA of crude rubber seed oil could be reduced to 3% FFA by acid esterification. The product after esterified was then tranesterified by alkaline transesterification process. By this method, the maximum yield of methyl ester was 90% by mass. The overall consumption of methanol was 10.5:1 by molar ratio. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its fuel properties and met required standards. The major fatty acid methyl ester compositions were analyzed and constituted of methyl linoleate 41.57%, methyl oleate 24.87%, and methyl lonolenate 15.16%. Therefore, the cetane number of methyl ester could be estimated as 47.85, while the tested result of motor cetane number was 51.20.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10378 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. 721.10378 Section 721.10378 Protection of Environment..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10378 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. 721.10378 Section 721.10378 Protection of Environment..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10378 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. 721.10378 Section 721.10378 Protection of Environment..., benzyl nonyl ester, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, benzyl nonyl...

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of arbutin undecylenic acid ester and its inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Masaru; Raku, Takao; Yanagitani, Shusaku; Yoshino, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    Transesterification of arbutin and undecylenic acid vinyl ester was catalyzed by alkaline protease, Bioprase, in dimethylformamide to get arbutin derivative having undecylenic acid at 6-position of glucose moiety, 6-O-undecylenoyl p-hydroxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside. The reaction rate increased with increase of arbutin concentration, and when its concentration was 0.9 M, the conversion rate was more than 90% under addition of 2 M undecylenic acid vinyl ester. The obtained arbutin ester significantly suppressed melanin production in murine B16 melanoma cells.

  17. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O’Toole, George A.; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001%(w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the Staphylococcus aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01%(w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1%(w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters. PMID:20089325

  18. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O'Toole, George A; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-03-31

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001% (w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the S. aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01% (w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1% (w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters.

  19. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of new betulin and betulinic acid esters with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    PubMed

    Tubek, Barbara; Mituła, Paweł; Niezgoda, Natalia; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of new ester derivatives of betulin (3a-c) and betulinic acid (4) with conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA; in a mixture of 43.4% 9c, 11t; 49.5% 10t, 12c; 7.1% other isomers) is presented. Esterification was carried out with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as the coupling agent in the presence of 4-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP) in dichloromethane (or pyridine). The in vitro cytotoxic effect of betulin (1), betulinic acid (2), a mixture of CLA isomers and their derivatives (3a-c, 4) was examined using the MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (P388, CEM/C2, CCRF/CEM and HL-60) and the SRB assay on the HT-29 cell line. Ester 4 was the most active among the esters synthesized against the CEM/C2 cell line with an ID50 value 16.9 +/- 6.5 microg/mL. Betulin (1), betulinic acid (2) and CLA were the most active agents against the cancer cell lines studied.

  20. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  1. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    PubMed

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., methyl ester. 721.4097 Section 721.4097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride triesters. 721.9400 Section 721.9400... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... esters and oils, and glyceride triesters (PMNs P-91-1231, -1232, -1233, -1234, and -1235) are subject to...

  6. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  7. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  8. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  9. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., methyl ester. 721.4097 Section 721.4097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  18. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  20. 40 CFR 721.10452 - 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(dimethylstannylene) ester. 721.10452 Section 721.10452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10452 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester. (a... 9-octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester (PMN P-02-659; CAS No. 3865-34-7)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10338 - 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-nonanediyl) ester. 721.10338 Section 721.10338 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10338 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester (PMN P-04-53; CAS No. 107481-28-7) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10338 - 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-nonanediyl) ester. 721.10338 Section 721.10338 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10338 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester (PMN P-04-53; CAS No. 107481-28-7) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10338 - 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-nonanediyl) ester. 721.10338 Section 721.10338 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10338 2-Propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 1,1′-(1,9-nonanediyl) ester (PMN P-04-53; CAS No. 107481-28-7) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10452 - 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(dimethylstannylene) ester. 721.10452 Section 721.10452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10452 9-Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester. (a... 9-octadecenoic acid (9Z)-, 1,1′-(dimethylstannylene) ester (PMN P-02-659; CAS No. 3865-34-7)...

  13. Comparative Oxidative Stability of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters by Accelerated Methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several fatty acid alkyl esters were subjected to accelerated methods of oxidation, including EN 14112 (Rancimat method) and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC). Structural trends elucidated from both methods that improved oxidative stability included decreasing the number of doubl...

  14. Premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters: A motored engine study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Yang, Yi; Boehman, Andre L.

    2009-06-15

    An experimental study on the premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters has been conducted in a motored CFR engine. For each test fuel, the engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) was observed. The engine exhaust was sampled and analyzed through GC-FID/TCD and GC-MS. Combustion analysis showed that the four C{sub 9} fatty acid esters tested in this study exhibited evidently different ignition behavior. The magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) follows the order, ethyl nonanoate > methyl nonanoate >> methyl 2-nonenoate > methyl 3-nonenoate. The lower oxidation reactivity for the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the low temperature regime can be explained by the reduced amount of six- or seven-membered transition state rings formed during the oxidation of the unsaturated esters due to the presence of a double bond in the aliphatic chain of the esters. The inhibition effect of the double bond on the low temperature oxidation reactivity of fatty acid esters becomes more pronounced as the double bond moves toward the central position of the aliphatic chain. GC-MS analysis of exhaust condensate collected under the engine conditions where only LTHR occurred showed that the alkyl chain of the saturated fatty acid esters participated in typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequences. In contrast, for unsaturated fatty acid esters, the autoignition can undergo olefin ignition pathways. For all test compounds, the ester functional group remains largely intact during the early stage of oxidation. (author)

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis of Isopropyl Acetate by Immobilized Bacillus cereus Lipase in Organic Medium

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Madan Lal; Azmi, Wamik; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh

    2011-01-01

    Selective production of fragrance fatty acid ester from isopropanol and acetic acid has been achieved using silica-immobilized lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372. A purified thermoalkalophilic extracellular lipase was immobilized by adsorption onto the silica. The effects of various parameters like molar ratio of substrates (isopropanol and acetic acid; 25 to 100 mM), concentration of biocatalyst (25–125 mg/mL), reaction time, reaction temperature, organic solvents, molecular sieves, and initial water activity were studied for optimal ester synthesis. Under optimized conditions, 66.0 mM of isopropyl acetate was produced when isopropanol and acetic acid were used at 100 mM: 75 mM in 9 h at 55°C in n-heptane under continuous shaking (160 rpm) using bound lipase (25 mg). Addition of molecular sieves (3 Å × 1.5 mm) resulted in a marked increase in ester synthesis (73.0 mM). Ester synthesis was enhanced by water activity associated with pre-equilibrated saturated salt solution of LiCl. The immobilized lipase retained more than 50% of its activity after the 6th cycle of reuse. PMID:21603222

  16. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  17. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  18. Gold-Catalyzed Regio- and Stereoselective Addition of Carboxylic Acids to Iodoalkynes: Access to (Z)-β-Iodoenol Esters and 1,4-Disubstituted (Z)-Enynyl Esters.

    PubMed

    González-Liste, Pedro J; Francos, Javier; García-Garrido, Sergio E; Cadierno, Victorio

    2017-02-03

    In the presence of catalytic amounts of the Au(I) cation [Au(PPh3)](+), a large variety of (Z)-β-iodoenol esters (39 examples) could be synthesized under mild reaction conditions through the regio- and stereospecific intermolecular addition of carboxylic acids to iodoalkynes. Sonogashira coupling of representative (Z)-β-iodoenol esters with terminal alkynes, alkynols, and 1,3-enynes allowed also the access to different 1,4-disubstituted (Z)-enynyl esters in excellent yields.

  19. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of zopiclone with mandelic acid ester derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan; Zuo, Bin; Niu, Haibo; Tong, Tianzhong; Zhao, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of zopiclone was conducted by employing a series of (R)-mandelic acid esters as chiral extractants. The effects of concentration of extractant, concentration of zopiclone, type of organic solvent, pH value, and temperature on the extraction efficiency were investigated. (R)-o-chloromandelic acid propyl ester was demonstrated to be an efficient chiral extractant for zopiclone resolution with a maximum enantioselectivity of 1.6.

  20. Stereodivergent Allylic Substitutions with Aryl Acetic Acid Esters by Synergistic Iridium and Lewis Base Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingyu; Beiger, Jason J; Hartwig, John F

    2017-01-11

    The preparation of all possible stereoisomers of a given chiral molecule bearing multiple stereocenters by a simple and unified method is a significant challenge in asymmetric catalysis. We report stereodivergent allylic substitutions with aryl acetic acid esters catalyzed synergistically by a metallacyclic iridium complex and benzotetramisole. Through permutations of the enantiomers of the two chiral catalysts, all four stereoisomers of the products bearing two adjacent stereocenters are accessible with high diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. The resulting chiral activated ester products can be converted readily to enantioenriched amides, unactivated esters, and carboxylic acids in a one-pot manner.

  1. Ammonolysis of esters of hydroxybenzoic acids on a boron phosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Bukeikhanov, N.R.; Li, L.V.; Zulkasheva, A.Z.

    1987-09-10

    In this investigation boron phosphate catalyst was used for ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. It was shown that ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids in presence of boron phosphate catalyst at a ratio of 3-7 moles of ammonia per mole of ester in a contact time of 1-5 sec at 380-400/sub 0/ can be used for obtaining o- and p- hydroxybenzonitriles in yields of over 90% of the theoretical.

  2. Novel fatty acid esters of p-coumaryl alcohol in epicuticular wax of apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, B D; Schmidt, W F; Kirk, M C; Barnes, S

    2001-08-01

    Hexane extracts of epicuticular wax from cv. Gala apples were noted to have an unusual, broad absorbance maximum at approximately 258 nm, which led us to isolate and identify the primary UV-absorbing compounds. Column and thin-layer chromatography yielded a fraction that gave a series of paired, 260-nm-absorbing peaks on C(18) HPLC. These were shown to be a family of phenolic fatty acid esters, for which retention times increased with increasing fatty acid chain length, and paired peaks were esters of two related phenolics with the same fatty acid moiety. Alkaline hydrolysis of the esters released two water-soluble phenolics separable by C(18) HPLC. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry gave a molecular mass of 150 for both, and (1)H NMR plus UV absorbance spectra identified them as E and Z isomers of p-coumaryl alcohol. Alkaline cleavage of the fatty acid esters in the presence of methanol or ethanol resulted in partial derivatization of E-p-coumaryl alcohol to the corresponding gamma-O-methyl or O-ethyl ether. Gradient HMQC NMR of the HPLC-purified stearate ester of E-p-coumaryl alcohol indicated that fatty acid esterification occurs at the gamma-OH rather than at the 4-OH on the phenyl ring. This is the first report of fatty acid esters of monolignols as a natural plant product.

  3. Fatty Acid Phytyl Ester Synthesis in Chloroplasts of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence. PMID:22623494

  4. Synthesis of Fatty Acid Esters of Selected Higher Polyols Over Homogeneous Metallic Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Janusz; Stańczyk, Dorota; Drabik, Jolanta; Mosio-Mosiewski, Jan; Woszczyński, Piotr; Warzała, Marek

    Studies on the synthesis of esters of natural origin fatty acids (oleic acid) and a branched synthetic isostearic acid derived from oleic acid with commercially available selected higher polyols in the presence of homogeneous metallic catalysts have been carried out. The effects of the synthesis temperature, molar ratio and the catalysts amount have also been studied. It was shown that higher fatty acid conversion and selectivity to tri- and tetraesters were obtained for organotin catalyst Fascat 2003, which was used as the esterification catalyst. Anti-wear test confirmed good tribological properties of the obtained esters.

  5. Fumaric acid esters for psoriasis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smith, D

    2017-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Effective and safe long term treatment options are required to manage the illness successfully. A number of systemic agents are available, however, each of them has potentially significant side effects. Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are used first line in Germany for the management of moderate to severe psoriasis, however, their use in Ireland is on an unlicensed basis (Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 37:786-801, 2012). The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FAEs in the management of moderate to severe psoriasis in adult patients. The reviewer intends to systematically review all available literature on the efficacy and/or safety of fumaric acid esters in the management of moderate to severe psoriasis in adult patients. A systematic review of the literature was performed by one reviewer. The PubMed, TRIP, Embase, and Cochrane Collaboration databases were systematically interrogated to include randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case studies evaluating the efficacy and/or safety of FAEs in the management of moderate to severe psoriasis in adult patients. Inclusion criteria were studies which included adults over 18 years of age, with a diagnosis of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis, who were treated with FAEs and no other systemic anti-psoriatic agents concurrently. Exclusion criteria were studies involving children, mild psoriasis, studies which did not include patients with chronic plaque psoriasis, the use of FAE for the management of illnesses other than psoriasis, and patients treated with more than one systemic anti-psoriatic agent concurrently. In total 19 articles were selected for review including 2 randomised placebo controlled trials, 1 non-randomised comparative study, 7 retrospective cohort studies, 2 prospective cohort studies and 7 case studies. The findings suggest that FAEs are a safe and effective

  6. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  7. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  8. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and first hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  9. Choline Chloride Catalyzed Amidation of Fatty Acid Ester to Monoethanolamide: A Green Approach.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pramod; Pratap, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Choline chloride catalyzed efficient method for amidation of fatty acid methyl ester to monoethanolamide respectively. This is a solvent free, ecofriendly, 100% chemo selective and economically viable path for alkanolamide synthesis. The Kinetics of amidation of methyl ester were studied and found to be first order with respect to the concentration of ethanolamine. The activation energy (Ea) for the amidation of lauric acid methyl ester catalyzed by choline chloride was found to be 50.20 KJ mol(-1). The 98% conversion of lauric acid monoethanolamide was obtained at 110°C in 1 h with 6% weight of catalyst and 1:1.5 molar ratio of methyl ester to ethanolamine under nitrogen atmosphere.

  10. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an enhanced analytical procedure to measure organic acids and methyl esters in fine aerosol with much greater specificity and sensitivity than previously available. This capability is important because of these species and their low concentrations, even in highly polluted atmospheres like Beijing, China. The procedure first separates the acids and esters from the other organic compounds with anion-exchange solid- phase extraction (SPE), then, quantifies them by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids. Then the acids are separated from the esters on an aminopropyl SPE cartridge, whose weak retention isolates and enriches the acids from esters prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) suggest that FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. In all, 17 aromatic acids were identified and quantified using this procedure coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, including the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH-acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids indicated that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were mainly secondary, the last two mainly primary.

  11. Kinematic viscosity of fatty acid methyl esters: Prediction, calculated viscosity contribution of esters with unavailable data, and carbon-oxygen equivalents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many properties of biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing feedstocks, are largely determined by its major components, the fatty acid alkyl esters. Therefore, information on the properties of individual components and their interaction is ...

  12. Branched chain amino acid metabolism in the biosynthesis of Lycopersicon pennellii glucose esters

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, D.S.; Steffens, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy) an insect-resistant, wild tomato possesses high densities of glandular trichomes which exude a mixture of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylated glucose esters that function as a physical impediment and feeding deterrent to small arthropod pests. The acyl moieties are branched C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} acids, and branched and straight chain C{sub 10}, C{sub 11}, and C{sub 12} acids. The structure of the branched acyl constituents suggests that the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway participates in their biosynthesis. ({sup 14}C)Valine and deuterated branched chain amino acids (and their oxo-acid derivatives) were incorporated into branched C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} acid groups of glucose esters by a process of transamination, oxidative decarboxylation and subsequent acylation. C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} branched acids were elongated by two carbon units to produce the branched C{sub 10}-C{sub 12} groups. Norvaline, norleucine, allylglycine, and methionine also were processed into acyl moieties and secreted from the trichomes as glucose esters. Changes in the acyl composition of the glucose esters following sulfonylurea herbicide administration support the participation of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and the other enzymes of branched amino acid biosynthesis in the production of glucose esters.

  13. Isolation, Solubility, and Characterization of D-Mannitol Esters of 4-Methoxybenzeneboronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Antonio; Marinaro, William A; Day, Victor W; Stella, Valentino J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aqueous solubility of a model phenyl boronic acid, 4-methoxybenzeneboronic acid, as a function of pH both in the absence and in the presence of varying D-mannitol concentration. Solid isolated D-mannitol esters were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray studies, and the boronic acid-to-D-mannitol ratio was quantified by HPLC. Hydrolysis of the monoester was studied using UV spectral differences between the monoester and the parent boronic acid. Two D-mannitol esters of 4-methoxybenzeneboronic acid were isolated. The triboronate ester was very insoluble whereas a symmetrical monoboronate monohydrate was also less soluble than the parent. Both esters were crystalline. The monoboronate monohydrate was, however, more soluble than the parent at alkaline pH values due to its lower pKa value (6.53) compared to the parent acid (9.41). Hydrolysis of the monoboronate was extremely fast when even small amount of water was added to dry acetonitrile solutions of the ester. The hydrolysis was buffer concentration dependent and apparent pH sensitive with hydrolysis accelerated by acid. Implications affecting the formulation of future boronic acid drugs are discussed.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10142 Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl... substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199) is...

  15. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to reporting...

  4. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  5. Accumulation of porphyrins in Propionibacterium acnes by 5-aminolevulinic acid and its esters.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Arisa; Hasunuma, Yuya; Kikuchi, Emii; Ishii, Takuya; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated the accumulation of porphyrins in Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) by 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (ALA) and its esters, ALA methyl ester hydrochloride (mALA), ALA octyl ester hydrochloride (oALA), and ALA benzyl ester hydrochloride (bALA). From the fluorescence spectra of porphyrins accumulated in P.acnes, the order of porphyrin accumulation is as follows: ALA≫mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈0). Moreover, the PDT efficacy is reduced in the order of ALA>mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈without additives). These results confirm that ALA is superior to ALA esters in accumulating porphyrins in P.acnes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selected Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Esters may Provide Analgesia for Some Central Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Central pain is an enigmatic, intractable condition, related to destruction of thalamic areas, resulting in likely loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by GABA. It is proposed that treatment of central pain, a localized process, may be treated by GABA supplementation, like Parkinson’s disease and depression. At physiologic pH, GABA exists as a zwitterion that is poorly permeable to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Because the pH of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is acidic relative to the plasma, ion trapping may allow a GABA ester prodrug to accumulate and be hydrolyzed within the CSF. Previous investigations with ester local anesthetics may be applicable to some GABA esters since they are weak bases, hydrolyzed by esterases and cross the BBB. Potential non-toxic GABA esters are discussed. Many GABA esters were investigated in the 1980s and it is hoped that this paper may spark renewed interest in their development. PMID:20703328

  7. Quantification of sarin and cyclosarin metabolites isopropyl methylphosphonic acid and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid in minipig plasma using isotope-dilution and liquid chromatography- time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Evans, R A; Jakubowski, E M; Muse, W T; Matson, K; Hulet, S W; Mioduszewski, R J; Thomson, S A; Totura, A L; Renner, J A; Crouse, C L

    2008-01-01

    An analysis method for determining isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid (CMPA), the metabolic hydrolysis products of toxic organophosphorus nerve agents isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate (cyclosarin, GF), respectively, has been developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion electrospray ionization with time-of-flight detection (LC-ESI-MS-TOF). The linear range of quantitation was 5 to 125 ng/mL in plasma with a method detection limit of 2 ng/mL for each compound. This method was developed to determine the amount of metabolic hydrolysis that was formed during and after nerve agent exposure in minipigs to account for a major pathway of GB and GF elimination that had not been previously characterized in the bloodstream, particularly during low-level whole-body inhalation experiments. Metabolic hydrolysis accounted for 70% to 90% of the recoverable agent in the bloodstream during exposure, when compared to both unbound and cholinesterase bound agent recovered by fluoride ion reactivation analysis for the same samples. The estimated half-life of IMPA and CMPA in plasma was determined to be 44 and 61 min, respectively. The method utilizes the mass selectivity of LC-ESI-MS-TOF using a bench-top instrument to achieve a detection limit that is consistent with reported LC-MS-MS methods analyzing blood samples.

  8. Preparation of tert-butyl esters via Pd-catalyzed tert-butoxycarbonylation of (hetero)aryl boronic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjian; Zou, Dapeng; Zhu, Helong; Wang, Yaping; Li, Jingya; Wu, Yangjie; Wu, Yusheng

    2014-04-04

    A novel protocol to synthesize tert-butyl esters from boronic acids or boronic acid pinacol esters and di-t-butyl dicarbonate has been successfully achieved. The cross-coupling reactions can produce up to 94% yields by using palladium acetate and triphenylphosphine as catalyst system, dioxane as a solvent. Moreover, a wide range of substrates including benzenes, pyridines, and quinolines boronic acids or boronic acid pinacol esters can fit with this system as well.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of cortolic and cortolonic acids as pyrenyl ester derivatives.

    PubMed

    Iohan, F; Vincze, I; Monder, C; Cohen, S

    1991-03-08

    A new procedure is described for the detection of the acidic metabolites of cortisol (cortoic acids) as the pyrenylmethyl-21-oic esters. The derivatizing reagent, diazomethylpyrene, was prepared by an improved procedure. The reagent was used at room temperature, required no catalyst, and was not restricted by stoichiometric requirements. The steroid esters were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed simultaneously by their ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence characteristics. Identities of the products were confirmed using the photodiode array detector to determine spectral profiles, absorbance maxima, and absorbance ratios. Further confirmation of identity of the cortoic acid esters used mass spectrometry under normal and collision-activated dissociation conditions. With the method described, a linear spectral response was obtained between 8 and 1680 fmol. Application of the technique to the analysis of steroid acids in human urine indicated the presence of cortoic acids.

  10. Kinetics and mechanisms of activation of alpha-amino acid ester prodrugs of camptothecins.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Bevins, Robert; Anderson, Bradley D

    2006-07-13

    The alpha-amino acid ester prodrugs of the antitumor agent camptothecin and a more potent, lipophilic silatecan analogue, DB-67, have been shown by NMR spectroscopy and quantitative kinetic analyses to undergo quantitative conversion to their pharmacologically active lactones via a nonenzymatic mechanism that at pH 7.4 is favored over direct hydrolysis. The alternate pathway involves the reversible intramolecular nucleophilic amine attack at the camptothecin E-ring carbonyl to generate a lactam (I) followed by a second intramolecular reaction to produce a bicyclic hemiortho ester (I'). The intermediates were isolated and shown to exist in an apparent equilibrium dominated by the hemiortho ester in DMSO using NMR spectroscopy. The conversion of prodrugs of camptothecin or DB-67 containing either alpha-NH(2) or alpha-NHCH(3) and their corresponding hemiortho esters were monitored versus time in aqueous buffer (pH 3.0 and 7.4) at 37 degrees C, and the kinetic data were fit to a model based on the proposed mechanism. The results indicated that while the prodrugs are relatively stable at pH 3, facile lactone release occurs from both the prodrugs and their corresponding hemiortho ester intermediates under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The glycinate esters and their hemiortho esters were found to be more cytotoxic than the N-methylglycinates or their corresponding hemiortho ester intermediates in vitro using a human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-435S), consistent with their more rapid conversion to active lactone. The pH dependence of the nonenzymatic pathway for conversion of these alpha-amino acid ester prodrugs suggests that they may be useful for tumor-targeting via liposomes, as they can be stabilized in an acidic environment in the core of liposomes and readily convert to the active lactone following their intratumoral release.

  11. Asymmetric Synthesis of Diverse Glycolic Acid Scaffolds via Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of α-Keto Esters

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Kimberly M.; Corbett, Michael T.; Goodman, C. Guy; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic kinetic resolution of α-keto esters via asymmetric transfer hydrogenation has been developed as a technique for the highly stereoselective construction of structurally diverse β-substituted-α-hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives. Through the development of a privileged m-terphenylsulfonamide for (arene)RuCl(monosulfonamide) complexes with a high affinity for selective α-keto ester reduction, excellent levels of chemo-, diastereo-, and enantiocontrol can be realized in the reduction of β-aryl- and β-chloro-α-keto esters. PMID:23186551

  12. 40 CFR 721.8500 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0]hept-3-ylmethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester. 721.8500 Section 721.8500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... hept-3-ylmethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester (PMN P-89-30) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1576 - 1,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cyclohexyl] methyl] ester. 721.1576 Section 721.1576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1162; CAS No...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4792 - 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C11-14-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich. 721.4792 Section 721.4792 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... esters, C13-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C11-14-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich (PMN P-99-1189; CAS No...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1578 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cyclohexyl] methyl] ester. 721.1578 Section 721.1578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1164; CAS No...

  16. 40 CFR 721.8500 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0]hept-3-ylmethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester. 721.8500 Section 721.8500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... hept-3-ylmethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester (PMN P-89-30) is...

  17. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  18. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  19. Orally administered glycidol and its fatty acid esters as well as 3-MCPD fatty acid esters are metabolized to 3-MCPD in the F344 rat.

    PubMed

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Akagi, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Ochiai, Ryosuke; Tsujino, Kazushige; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2015-12-01

    IARC has classified glycidol and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) as group 2A and 2B, respectively. Their esters are generated in foodstuffs during processing and there are concerns that they may be hydrolyzed to the carcinogenic forms in vivo. Thus, we conducted two studies. In the first, we administered glycidol and 3-MCPD and associated esters (glycidol oleate: GO, glycidol linoleate: GL, 3-MCPD dipalmitate: CDP, 3-MCPD monopalmitate: CMP, 3-MCPD dioleate: CDO) to male F344 rats by single oral gavage. After 30 min, 3-MCPD was detected in serum from all groups. Glycidol was detected in serum from the rats given glycidol or GL and CDP and CDO in serum from rats given these compounds. In the second, we examined if metabolism occurs on simple reaction with rat intestinal contents (gastric, duodenal and cecal contents) from male F344 gpt delta rats. Newly produced 3-MCPD was detected in all gut contents incubated with the three 3-MCPD fatty acid esters and in gastric and duodenal contents incubated with glycidol and in duodenal and cecal contents incubated with GO. Although our observation was performed at 1 time point, the results showed that not only 3-MCPD esters but also glycidol and glycidol esters are metabolized into 3-MCPD in the rat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gamma-aminobutyric acid esters. 1. Synthesis, brain uptake, and pharmacological studies of aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-aminobutyric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shashoua, V.E.; Jacob, J.N.; Ridge, R.; Campbell, A.; Baldessarini, R.J.

    1984-05-01

    Labeled and unlabeled aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-amino(U-/sup 14/C)butyric acid (GABA) were synthesized and tested for their capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and for evidence of central neuropharmacological activity in rodents. The uptake of the labeled 9,12,15-octadecatrienyl (linolenyl), 3-cholesteryl, 1-butyl, and the 9-fluoro-11 beta,17-dihydroxy-16 alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxopregna -1,4-dien-21-yl (dexamethasone) esters of GABA into mouse brain increased 2-, 25-, 74-, and 81-fold over GABA, respectively. The cholesteryl ester of GABA depressed the general motor activity of mice and rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the 1-butyl, linolenyl, and dexamethasone esters were inactive by this test. Studies of the rates of hydrolysis, GABA receptor binding capacity, and octanol/water partition coefficients indicated that pharmacological activity of the esters after entry into the central nervous system (CNS) was dependent on their capacity to release GABA by enzymatic hydrolysis and their lipid solubility.

  1. A microfluidic device for the automated derivatization of free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Duong, Cindy T; Roper, Michael G

    2012-02-21

    Free fatty acid (FFA) compositions are examined in feedstock for biodiesel production, as source-specific markers in soil, and because of their role in cellular signaling. However, sample preparation of FFAs for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis can be time and labor intensive. Therefore, to increase sample preparation throughput, a glass microfluidic device was developed to automate derivatization of FFAs to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). FFAs were delivered to one input of the device and methanolic-HCl was delivered to a second input. FAME products were produced as the reagents traversed a 29 μL reaction channel held at 55 °C. A Design of Experiment protocol was used to determine the combination of derivatization time (T(der)) and ratio of methanolic-HCl:FFA (R(der)) that maximized the derivatization efficiencies of tridecanoic acid and stearic acid to their methyl ester forms. The combination of T(der) = 0.8 min and R(der) = 4.9 that produced optimal derivatization conditions for both FFAs within a 5 min total sample preparation time was determined. This combination of T(der) and R(der) was used to derivatize 12 FFAs with a range of derivatization efficiencies from 18% to 93% with efficiencies of 61% for tridecanoic acid and 84% for stearic acid. As compared to a conventional macroscale derivatization of FFA to FAME, the microfluidic device decreased the volume of methanolic-HCl and FFA by 20- and 1300-fold, respectively. The developed microfluidic device can be used for automated preparation of FAMEs to analyze the FFA compositions of volume-limited samples.

  2. Identification of 19 phthalic acid esters in dairy products by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggu; Cai, Chenggang; Yang, Dajin; Wang, Liyuan; Zhou, Yan; Shen, Xianghong; Ma, Bingjie; Tang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A detection method for 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds analyzed by n-hexane/ether/acetonitrile 1:7:8 v/v/v mixed solvent extraction, quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe purification and internal standard method of quantitative gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was established. This method can effectively remove interfering materials, such as lipids, fatty acids, and pigments, from dairy products. The 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds were within a 0.025-0.2 mg/kg range, the recovery rate was 65.2-125.7%, relative standard deviation was 7.9-15.4% (n = 6), and the limit of detection was 0.005-0.02 mg/kg. Concentrations of the 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds ranged between 0.01 and 0.12 mg/kg in ten dairy materials and 20 dairy products. The established method is simple, rapid, accurate, and highly sensitive.

  3. Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of N2-benzylated quaternary beta-carboline amino acid ester conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunming; Cao, Rihui; Shi, Buxi; Li, Shaoxue; Chen, Zhiyong; Yi, Wei; Peng, Wenlie; Ren, Zhenhua; Song, Huacan

    2010-04-01

    The beta-carboline alkaloids have been characterized as a class of potential antitumor agents. To further enhance the cytotoxic potency and improve water solubility of beta-carboline, a series of new beta-carboline amino acid ester, beta-carboline amino acid and N(2)-benzylated quaternary beta-carboline amino acid ester conjugates were designed and synthesized, and the cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated using a panel of human tumor cell lines. The N(2)-benzylated quaternary beta-carboline amino acid ester conjugates represented the most interesting cytotoxic activities. Particularly, compounds 8b and 8g were found to be the most potent compounds with IC(50) values lower than 20 microM against all human tumor cell lines investigated. These results confirmed that the N(2)-benzyl substituent on the beta-carboline ring played an important role in the modulation of the cytotoxic potencies.

  4. Elevated level and underdeveloped fatty acid composition of brain cholesterol esters in malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, H K; Dickerson, J W

    1990-01-01

    The content and fatty acid composition of cholesterol esters were measured in the forebrain, cerebellum, and brain stem of children who died within the first 2 years of life from severe malnutrition syndrome of kwashiorkor, marasmus, or marasmic kwashiorkor. All three brain regions of the malnourished children had elevated concentrations of cholesterol esters, compared to those of apparently normal, well-nourished children of comparable ages. This was particularly true for the brain stem, in which the elevation in some cases was 10-fold or more. In this brain region, and less pronouncedly also in the cerebellum, the elevations were more marked in the second year of life than in the first year. Fatty acid analysis showed that the developmental changes that are seen in brain cholesterol esters during normal growth, for example, fall in percentage proportions of palmitic and oleic acids and a concomitant rise in the proportion of arachidonic acid, were absent in the brain regions of the malnourished children.

  5. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric studies of some imidazole amidoximes and nitrolic acids and their esters.

    PubMed

    Oresmaa, Larisa; Aulaskari, Paula; Vainiotalo, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    The fragmentations of the [M+H]+ ions of imidazole amidoximes, and nitrolic acids and their esters, were studied by collision-induced dissociation experiments and by determining the accurate masses of the product ions on an electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. The fragmentation pathways of the amidoximes varied with the substituent in the imidazole ring at position 1N, allowing two regioisomers to be distinguished. Nitrolic acids decompose in solution to nitrile oxides, and the studied nitrolic acid behaved in the same way in the gas phase. The esters decompose similarly to their parent compounds.

  6. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric...

  10. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  11. Low-temperature phase behavior of fatty acid methyl esters by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mixtures have many uses including biodiesel, lubricants, metal-working fluids, surfactants, polymers, coatings, green solvents and phase-change materials. The physical properties of a FAME mixture depends on the fatty acid concentration (FAC) profile. Some products hav...

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of the density of neat fatty acids and esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of a chemical compound, affecting numerous applications. An application in the case of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) is that density is specified in some biodiesel standards. In the present work, the density of fatty acid methyl, ethyl, propyl...

  13. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457... Substances § 721.10457 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457... Substances § 721.10457 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products...

  17. 78 FR 5761 - Proposed Modification of Significant New Uses of Ethaneperoxoic Acid, 1,1-Dimethylpropyl Ester

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Proposed Modification of Significant New Uses of Ethaneperoxoic Acid... rule (SNUR) for the chemical substance identified as ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester..., process, or use the chemical substance identified as ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester (PMN P...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject to...

  1. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N.; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-01-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics. PMID:26878214

  2. Molecular assembly, interfacial rheology and foaming properties of oligofructose fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Silvia E H J; Schols, Henk A; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2014-01-01

    Two major types of food-grade surfactants used to stabilize foams are proteins and low molecular weight (LMW) surfactants. Proteins lower the surface tension of interfaces and tend to unfold and stabilize the interface by the formation of a visco-elastic network, which leads to high surface moduli. In contrast, LMW surfactants lower the surface tension more than proteins, but do not form interfaces with a high modulus. Instead, they stabilize the interface through the Gibbs-Marangoni mechanism that relies on rapid diffusion of surfactants, when surface tension gradients develop as a result of deformations of the interface. A molecule than can lower the surface tension considerably, like a LMW surfactant, but also provide the interface with a high modulus, like a protein, would be an excellent foam stabilizer. In this article we will discuss molecules with those properties: oligofructose fatty acid esters, both in pure and mixed systems. First, we will address the synthesis and structural characterization of the esters. Next, we will address self-assembly and rheological properties of air/water interfaces stabilized by the esters. Subsequently, this paper will deal with mixed systems of mono-esters with either di-esters and lauric acid, or proteins. Then, the foaming functionality of the esters is discussed.

  3. Facile synthesis of acid-labile polymers with pendent ortho esters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Ji, Ran; Gao, Shi-Juan; Du, Fu-Sheng; Li, Zi-Chen

    2012-01-09

    This work presents a facile approach for preparation of acid-labile and biocompatible polymers with pendent cyclic ortho esters, which is based on the efficient and mild reactions between cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) and hydroxyl groups. Three CKAs, 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxane (EDO), 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxolane (EDL), and 2-ethylidene-4- methyl-1,3-dioxolane (EMD) were prepared from the corresponding cyclic vinyl acetals by catalytic isomerization of the double bond. The reaction of CKAs with different alcohols and diols was examined using trace of p-toluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst. For the monohydroxyl alcohols, cyclic ortho esters were formed by simple addition of the hydroxyl group toward CKAs with ethanol showing a much greater reactivity than iso-propanol. When 1,2- or 1,3-diols were used to react with the CKAs, we observed the isomerized cyclic ortho esters besides the simple addition products. Biocompatible polyols, that is, poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were then modified with CKAs, and the degree of substitution of the pendent ortho esters can be easily tuned by changing feed ratio. Both the small molecule ortho esters and the CKA-modified polymers demonstrate the pH-dependent hydrolysis profiles, which depend also on the chemical structure of the ortho esters as well as the polymer hydrophobicity.

  4. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  5. Development of an environmentally benign process for the production of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Jordan, V; Gutsche, B

    2001-04-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is an important intermediate step in oleochemistry. The oleochemical production route starts with the renewable raw materials fat and oil and ends at fatty alcohols and different special products. Fatty acid methyl esters can be formed at mild reaction temperatures by transesterification of natural triglycerides (fats and oils). This contribution will show the development of a continuous process which is considering the main principles of production integrated environmental protection. The main advantages of this process are low energy consumption and minimal waste production. The process alternatives are shown and a scope on future problems which have to be solved to reach a real additional improvement of the fatty acid methyl esters production is given.

  6. Esterification Reaction of Glycerol and Palm Oil Oleic Acid Using Methyl Ester Sulfonate Acid Catalyst as Drilling Fluid Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, V. I.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-02-01

    Esterification reaction between glycerol with palm oil oleic acid to produce glycerol ester and one of the utilization of glycerol esters is as ingredients of drilling fluids formula for oil drilling needs. The purpose of this research is to get the best conditions of the esterification process. The esterification reaction does with the reactants is glycerol with purity of 97.6%, palm oil oleic acid with the molar ratio is 1:1, Methyl Ester Sulfonate Acid (MESA) catalyst 0.5%, and stirring speed 400 rpm. The temperature range of 180°C to 240°C and the processing time between 120 to 180 minutes. The results showed that the best conditions of the esterification reaction at the temperature 240°C and time process are 180 minute. The increasing temperature resulted that the acid number decreases and causing the conversion increased. The maximum conversion is 99.24%, density 0.93 g/cm3, flash point 241°C, pour point -3°C, the boiling point of 244 °C, the acid value of 1.90 mg KOH/g sample, kinematic viscosity 31.51 cSt (40°C), surface tension 37.0526 dyne/cm and GCMS identification, glycerol ester at 22,256 retention time (minutes) and wide area 73.75 (%). From the research results obtained glycerol ester with characteristics suitable for drilling fluid formulations.

  7. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  8. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Uranga, Carla C.; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D.; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  9. Neurobehavioral toxicity and tolerance to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-n-butyl ester (2,4-D ester).

    PubMed

    Schulze, G E; Dougherty, J A

    1988-04-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a commonly used herbicide and one component of Agent Orange. The subchronic neurobehavioral toxicity of 2,4-D-n-butyl ester (2,4-D ester) was assessed in rats by monitoring performance in a battery of behavioral tests. 2,4-D ester was injected daily (150-250 mg/kg sc) in four successive 14-day periods. Five- to eight-day exposure-free periods separated dosing escalations. All doses produced a significant decrease in schedule-controlled lever pressing and photocell locomotor activity while increasing landing foot splay. Peak effects occurred by the 3rd injection, while tolerance developed by the 10th injection. Neurobehavioral effects associated with 2,4-D ester exposure were rapidly reversible and disappeared within 24-48 hr. Brain and blood 2,4-D kinetics revealed that the compound accumulated in brain with repeated dosing. This observation indicates a cellular mechanism for tolerance development. Other neurobehavioral measures, rota rod and grip strength, were not consistently affected by 2,4-D ester. These studies confirm that 2,4-D ester produces behavioral toxicity, that tolerance develops to the 2,4-D ester-induced behavioral deficits with repeated exposures, and that a cellular mechanism appears to be responsible for the developed tolerance to 2,4-D ester.

  10. Synthesis of (S)-ricinoleic acid and its methyl ester with the participation of ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Kula, Józef; Bonikowski, Radoslaw; Szewczyk, Malgorzata; Ciolak, Kornelia

    2014-10-01

    (R)-ricinoleic acid methyl ester obtained from commercial castor oil was transformed in a three-step procedure into its S-enantiomer in overall 36% yield using ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) in the key step process. The developed procedure provides easy access to (S)-ricinoleic acid and its methyl ester of over 95% enantiomeric excess. Optical rotations of the newly obtained compounds as well as their chromatographic and spectral characteristics are provided and discussed in the context of enantiopurity both of the substrate material and the final products.

  11. Stability studies on methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters of sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Du Plessis, L.M.; De Villiers, J.B.M.; Van der Walt, W.H.

    1985-04-01

    Fatty acid esters, high in linoleic acid, were prepared and stored for long-term engine tests. Storage tests were undertaken to obtain data on optimal storage requirements and general stability characteristics. Samples were kept at three temperature levels (20 C, 30C and fluctuating around 50 C) for a 90-day period and were removed at regular intervals for chemical and physical analysis. The influence of air, temperature, light, TBHQ and contact with mild steel was evaluated by comparing the free fatty acid, peroxide, anisidine, ultraviolet absorption, viscosity and inducation periods. A statistical model was used to evaluate the data and to reduce the data points to comparable curves. Storage of esters in contact with air, especially at a temperature above 30 C, resulted in significant increases in peroxide, ultraviolet absorption, free fatty acid, viscosity and anisidine values. Exclusion of air retarded oxidation at all temperature levels. A direct relationship between viscosity increases and oxidation parameters was evident. Exposure to light caused a small increase in the oxidation parameters of esters stored at the highest temperature level. Addition of TBHQ prevented oxidation of samples stored under moderate conditions. Under unfavorable storage conditions the anti-oxidant was no longer effective. Mild steel had very little effect on the oxidation parameters. The anisidine values of samples stored at the highest temperature level were slightly increased. Methyl esters performed slightly better than ethyl esters during the storage test. The recommended guidelines for storage of fatty acid ester fuels are: (1) airtight containers should be used, (2) the storage temperature should be less than 30 C, (3) mild steel (rust free) containers may be used, and (4) TBHQ has a beneficial effect on oxidation stability. 13 references.

  12. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Diisopropylphenyl Esters of Selected Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yasa Sathyam; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bala Bhaskara; Jain, Nishant; Vijayalakshmi, Penumarthy

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of novel diisopropylphenyl esters of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), valproic acid (VA), butyric acid (BA) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). These esters were chemically synthesized by the esterification of fatty acids with 2,6-diisopropylphenol and 2,4-diisopropylphenol (propofol). The structure of new conjugates viz. propofol-(alpha-linolenic acid) (2,6P-ALA and 2,4P-ALA), propofol-valproic acid (2,6P-VA and 2,4P-VA), propofol-butyric acid (2,6P-BA and 2,4P-BA) and propofol-(2-ethylhexanoic acid) (2,6P2-EHA and 2,4P-2-EHA) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectral data. The synthesized conjugates having more lipophilic character were tested for antiproliferative in vitro studies on A549, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. All the conjugates showed specific growth inhibition on studied cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized esters, the conjugates synthesized from BA, VA and 2-EHA exhibited prominent growth inhibition against A549, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results suggest that the entire novel conjugates possess antiproliferative properties that reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro.

  13. Catalytic Asymmetric Decarboxylative Mannich Reaction of Malonic Acid Half Esters with Cyclic Aldimines: Access to Chiral β-Amino Esters and Chroman-4-amines.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chun-Man; Zhang, Heng-Xia; Nie, Jing; Ma, Jun-An

    2016-09-16

    An enantioselective decarboxylative Mannich reaction of malonic acid half esters (MAHEs) with cyclic aldimines has been accomplished by employing the copper(I)/(R,R)-Ph-Box complex as chiral catalyst. The desired β-amino esters were obtained in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. Furthermore, one of the corresponding Mannich products could be readily transformed into chiral chroman-4-amines without loss of enantioselectivity, which is a key intermediate of the human Bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist.

  14. Hydrolysis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Esters Exposed to Mild Alkaline Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Bruce G.; Maher, Barbara R.; Cohen, Jerry D.

    1989-01-01

    Ester conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid are hydrolyzed easily in basic solutions; however, quantitative data have not been available on the relationship between pH and rate of hydrolysis of the known ester conjugates. The use of basic conditions during extraction or purification of IAA by several laboratories suggested that a more systematic analysis of this process was needed. In this report we present data indicating: (a) that measurable hydrolysis of IAA-glucose (from standard solutions) and IAA-esters (from maize kernel extracts) occurs with only a few hours of treatment at pH 9 or above; (b) that the lability of some ester conjugates is even greater than that of IAA-glucose; and (c) that ester hydrolysis of standard compounds, IAA-glucose and IAA-p-nitrophenol, occurs in the `three phase extraction system' proposed by Liu and Tillberg ([1983] Physiol Plant 57: 441-447). These data indicate that the potential for problems with inadvertent hydrolysis of ester conjugates of IAA exists even at moderate pH values and in the multiphase system where exposure to basic conditions was thought to be limited. PMID:16667049

  15. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.

  16. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for the synthesis of sugar fatty acid ester.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ngoc Lan; Ahn, Kihun; Bae, Sang Woo; Shin, Dong Woo; Morya, Vivek Kumar; Koo, Yoon-Mo

    2014-12-01

    Sugar fatty acid esters are bio-surfactants known for their non-toxic, non-ionic, and high biodegradability . With great emulsifying and conditioning effects, sugar fatty acids are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Biosynthesis of sugar fatty acid esters has attracted growing attention in recent decades. In this study, the enzymatic synthesis of sugar fatty acid esters in ionic liquids was developed, optimized, and scaled up. Reaction parameters affecting the conversion yield of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of glucose laurate from glucose and vinyl laurate (i.e. temperature, vinyl laurate/glucose molar ratio, and enzyme loads) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). In addition, production was scaled up to 2.5 L, and recycling of enzyme and ionic liquids was investigated. The results showed that under optimal reaction conditions (66.86 °C, vinyl laurate/glucose molar ratio of 7.63, enzyme load of 73.33 g/L), an experimental conversion yield of 96.4% was obtained which is close to the optimal value predicted by RSM (97.16%). A similar conversion yield was maintained when the reaction was carried out at 2.5 L. Moreover, the enzymes and ionic liquids could be recycled and reused effectively for up to 10 cycles. The results indicate the feasibility of ionic liquids as novel solvents for the biosynthesis of sugar fatty acid esters. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis and degradation characteristics of salicylic acid-derived poly(anhydride-esters).

    PubMed

    Erdmann, L; Uhrich, K E

    2000-10-01

    A biodegradable poly(anhydride-ester) was synthesized by melt condensation polymerization of the acetylated monomer to yield a novel polymeric prodrug. The polymer we have synthesized is composed of alkyl chains linked by ester bonds to aromatic moieties, specifically salicylic acid--the active component of aspirin. With the medicinal properties attributed to salicylic acid and the ease of metabolism, the incorporation of this compound into a polymer backbone yields a polymeric prodrug that may have potential in a variety of applications (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease). For these reasons, we have designed a synthetic scheme that yields the desired poly(anhydride-ester). The in vitro hydrolytic degradation of these polymers has been performed and results indicate that the polymer degradation rate is pH-dependent.

  18. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  3. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  4. Phytyl Fatty Acid Esters in the Pulp of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Krauß, Stephanie; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-08-17

    Phytyl fatty acid esters (PFAE) are esters of fatty acids with the isoprenoid alcohol phytol (3,7R,11R,15-tetramethylhexadec-2E-enol). In this study, PFAE were identified and quantified in bell pepper using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All red (n = 14) and yellow (n = 6) samples contained six or seven PFAE at 0.9-11.2 mg/100 g fresh weight. By contrast, PFAE were not detected in green bell pepper samples (n = 3). PFAE might eventually be a source for bioavailable phytol, which can be transformed into phytanic acid by humans. Phytanic acid cannot be properly degraded by patients who suffer from Refsum's disease (tolerable daily intake (TDI) ≤ 10 mg of phytanic acid). The phytol moiety of the PFAE (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g fresh weight) would contribute up to ∼50% to the TDI with the consumption of only one portion of bell pepper fruit pulp.

  5. High dose eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester: effects on lipids and neutrophil leukotriene production in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, A B; Filipowicz, B L; Edwards, T J; Hawkey, C J

    1990-01-01

    1. A 93% pure ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid was investigated for tolerability and biochemical effects on neutrophil leukotriene synthesis and plasma lipoproteins when given in high dose. Six healthy volunteers received 6 g eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester daily for 6 weeks, followed by a 4 week wash-out and then 18 g daily for 6 weeks. 2. There was inhibition of neutrophil leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis, with no significant differences between low and high dose. 3. There was a dose dependent increase in leukotriene B5 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid acid synthesis. 4. Plasma triglycerides were reduced maximally on 6 g daily, with no greater suppression at 18 g daily. 5. Plasma cholesterol was only suppressed significantly at 18 g daily. 6. The 6 g daily dose was well tolerated but the 18 g daily dose produced diarrhoea and steatorrhoea. PMID:2169832

  6. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav; Spivey, James Jerome; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  7. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol may be present in the following foods... the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use of the hops extract only as...

  8. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol may be... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  9. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  10. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  11. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  12. Molecular weight determination of methyl esters of mycolic acids using thermospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ioneda, T; Beaman, B L

    1992-11-01

    Methyl esters of normal fatty acids, corynomycolate and corynomycolenate were used as model compounds for thermospray mass spectrometric procedures for molecular weight determination of the related nocardial mycolic acids. By using ammonium acetate at the positive ion generator, in both cases, a family of ions was produced. The following members were found and corresponded to the adducts: (1) M + H; M + NH4 and M + H + NH4 for methyl esters of normal fatty acids, whereas M + H, M + 2H and M + H + NH4 were the adducts most frequently observed with methyl corynomycolates. The methyl esters of C40-C48 mycolic acids from Rhodococcus rhodochrous exhibited prominent peaks corresponding to adducts M + H + NH4 whereas those corresponding to M + 2H showed slightly lower intensities. The structure M + H had no significant representatives with this subclass of mycolic acids. A similar pattern was observed with methyl esters of C50-C54 mycolic acids from Nocardia asteroides GUH-2. Ion peaks C50-C54 representing adducts M + 2H and M + H + NH4 prevailed in the mass spectrum. In this case, the intensities of peaks corresponding to M + 2H were slightly higher than those of the M + H + NH4. Essentially three main species of nocardomycolic acids were detected: (1) monounsaturated C50:1, C52:1 and C54:1; (2) diunsaturated C50:2, C52:2 and C54:2 and (3) triunsaturated C52:3 and C54:3 mycolic acids. The most abundant mycolic acid was C52:2 followed in decreasing abundance by C52:1, C54:2, C50:2, C52:3 and C54:3 mycolic acids.

  13. Fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol in refined edible oils.

    PubMed

    Craft, B D; Chiodini, A; Garst, J; Granvogl, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and that of glycidol have been reported in refined edible oils. Since then a wealth of research has been published on the factors influencing the formation of these contaminants in foods. It can be noted that the predominant precursors in a given matrix will not necessarily be the same as in other matrices. Further, proven relationships in the past between precursors responsible for free MCPD or free glycidol formation will not necessarily be valid for their fatty acid-esterified counterparts. This review attempts to summarise the current status of the literature as it pertains to the reasons surrounding the manifestation of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oils and fats. Recent efforts to mitigate the levels of these contaminants were highlighted and put into the context of their respective reaction matrices. As more accurate occurrence data for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in other foods are collected, more targeted mitigation experiments can be formulated with respect to the reaction matrices under investigation.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID.

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis of l-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters Under Ultrasonic Irradiation and Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chen; Lu, Yuyun; Li, Zhuo; Li, Cunzhi; Yan, Rian

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were synthesized by catalization of Novozym(®) 435 under ultrasonic irradiation and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Their properties especially antioxidant activity and stability were investigated. The results showed that the reducing power, the scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were decreased with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in fatty acid. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were better than that of tert-butylhydroquinone. The induction period in lipid oxidation of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters and tert-butylhydroquinone were longer than that of l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters and l-ascorbic acid both in soybean oil and lard. Besides, the l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters showed different stabilities in different conditions by comparing with l-ascorbic acid, and the l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were more stable than l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters in ethanol solution. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permissible. (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as specified in § 721.72 (a), (b), (c), (d), (f... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the...

  17. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  18. Chemically Modified Fatty Acid Methyl Esters: Potential as Lubricant and Surfactant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Renewable raw materials are going to play a noteworthy role in the development of sustainable green chemistry because of their eco-friendly and non-toxic nature. A novel process was developed for the production of biodegradable lubricant base stocks from epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters and comm...

  19. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  20. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...