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Sample records for acid levels compared

  1. Comparative Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in the Slender Pea and Other Pea Phenotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Free indole-3-acetic acid levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three ultra-tall `slender' Pisum sativum L. lines differing in gibberellin content. Measurements were made for apices and stem elongation zones of light-grown plants and values were compared with wild-type, dwarf, and nana phenotypes in which internode length is genetically regulated, purportedly via the gibberellin level. Indole-3-acetic acid levels of growing stems paralleled growth rates in all lines, and were high in all three slender genotypes. Growth was inhibited by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, demonstrating the requirement of auxin activity for stem elongation, and also by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. It is concluded that the slender phenotype may arise from constant activation of a gibberellin receptor or transduction chain event leading directly or indirectly to elevated levels of indole-3-acetic acid, and that increased indole-3-acetic acid levels are a significant factor in the promotion of stem elongation. PMID:16667653

  2. Serum uric acid level in normal pregnant and preeclamptic ladies: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Khatiwada, B; Pradhan, P

    2014-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension, proteinuria with or without pathological edema. According to some studies, serum uric acid lacks sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic tool whereas another group of the researchers indicated uricemia as a predictor of preeclampsia in pregnant ladies. The present study was designed to assess whether serum uric acid can be used as a biochemical indicator or not in preeclamptic patients. Pre-eclamptic patients admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from June 2012 to June 2013 were included in this study. Age matched normal healthy pregnant ladies served as control. The record of their blood pressure and serum uric acid level was evaluated. Results showed significantly high blood pressure [SBP 149.42±12.35 vs 109.00±7.93 mm Hg; DBP 96.85±8.32 vs 72.5±7.10 mm Hg], and serum uric acid level [6.27±1.37 vs 4.27±0.61 mg/dl] in pre-eclamptic patients compared to their healthy counterparts. Uric acid is a terminal metabolite of the degradation of nucleotides, which increases their blood levels in patients with preeclampsia increasing its synthesis by damage and death of trophoblastic cells and proliferation. Uricemia in preeclampsia likely results from reduced uric acid clearance from diminished glomerular filtration, increased tubular reabsorption and decreased secretion. Results of the present study indicated association of elevated serum uric acid level with preeclampsia which could be used as a biochemical indicator of preeclampsia in pregnant women. PMID:25799807

  3. Metabolic engineering of seeds can achieve levels of omega-7 fatty acids comparable to the highest levels found in natural plant sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.T.; Shanklin, J.; Mishra, G.; Whittle, E.; Bevan, S. A.; Merlo, A. O.; Walsh, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Plant oils containing {omega}-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} and cis-vaccenic 18:1{Delta}{sup 11}) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of {omega}-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased {omega}-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the {beta}-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of {omega}-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased {omega}-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds.

  4. Metabolic Engineering of Seeds Can Achieve Levels of ω-7 Fatty Acids Comparable with the Highest Levels Found in Natural Plant Sources1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huu Tam; Mishra, Girish; Whittle, Edward; Pidkowich, Mark S.; Bevan, Scott A.; Merlo, Ann Owens; Walsh, Terence A.; Shanklin, John

    2010-01-01

    Plant oils containing ω-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1Δ9 and cis-vaccenic 18:1Δ11) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of ω-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1Δ9 with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased ω-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of ω-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased ω-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds. PMID:20943853

  5. Determining the Effect of Gutkha on Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid as Compared to Smoking among Chronic Periodontitis Subjects : A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Kalburgi, Veena C; Koregol, Arati C; Patanashetti, Jyoti; Rao, Subramaniam; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis, being a common inflammatory disease has a multifactorial origin , with smoking and gutkha as few of the causative entities. The role of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis is been well documented in literature. Cigarette smoke also affects vitamin B12 and folic acid mechanisms. Nutritionally derived vitamin B12 occurs mainly as either hydroxycobalamin or deoxyadenosycobalmin. Folic acid is also heat sensitive and water soluble, closely linked to vitamin B12 in its metabolism. However, effect of smokeless tobacco in form of gutkha on serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid is yet to be explored. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and correlate serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and folic acid (FA) levels among periodontally healthy subjects and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects with habit of smoking and gutkha chewing. Materials and Methods: The study included 111 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 y. Participants were divided into four groups: 30 healthy subjects (Group I), 29 subjects with CP (Group II), 25 smokers with CP (Group III) and 27 gutkha chewers with CP (Group IV). Clinical parameters included pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) & gingival index (GI) following which VB12 and FA levels were estimated through UV-spectrophotometry method and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software, Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. p-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results : Pairwise comparison by Mann-Whitney U-test showed an increase in the serum VB12 in Group IV when compared to Group I (p=0.01) and Group II (p=0.01). Although serum FA levels were found to be low in Group III (7.61 ug/ml) & Group IV (8.64 ug/ml), Group III was found to be statistically significant (P=0.046). The clinical parameters GI, PPD and CAL among the four groups of patients were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results suggested that

  6. A comparative study on diurnal changes in metabolite levels in the leaves of three crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, Ananas comosus, Kalanchoë daigremontiana and K. pinnata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Song; Lin, Qin; Nose, Akihiro

    2002-02-01

    A comparative study on diurnal changes in metabolite levels associated with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the leaves of three CAM species, Ananas comosus (pineapple), a hexose-utilizing species, and Kalanchoë daigremontiana and K. pinnata, two starch-utilizing species, were made. All three CAM species showed a typical feature of CAM with nocturnal malate increase. In the two Kalanchoë species, isocitrate levels were higher than citrate levels; the reverse was the case in pineapple. In the two Kalanchoë species, a small nocturnal citrate increase was found and K. daigremontiana showed a small nocturnal isocitrate increase. Glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P) and glucose 1-phosphate (G-1-P) levels in the three CAM species rose rapidly during the first part of the dark period and decreased during the latter part of the dark period. The levels of the metabolites also decreased during the first 3 h of the light period, then, remained little changed through the rest of the light period. Absolute levels of G-6-P, F-6-P and G-1-P were higher in pineapple than in the two Kalanchoë species. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)) levels in the three CAM species increased during the dark period, then dramatically decreased during the first 3 h of the light period and remained unchanged through the rest of the light period. The extent of nocturnal F-1,6-P(2) increase was far greater in the two Kalanchoë species than in pineapple. Absolute levels of F-1,6-P(2) were higher in the two Kalanchoë species than in pineapple, especially during dark period. Diurnal changes in oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate (Pyr) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) levels in the three CAM species were similar. PMID:11807138

  7. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorononanoic acid in Rats and Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a fluorinated organic chemical found at low levels in the environment, but is detectable in humans and wildlife. This study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of PFNA in two laboratory rodent species. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  8. Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorononanoic acid in rat and mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a fluorinated organic chemical found at low levels in the environment, but is detectable in humans and wildlife. The present study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of PFNA in two laboratory rodent species. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rat...

  9. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  10. Uric Acid Levels in Normotensive Children of Hypertensive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ali; Keles, Fatma; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Uric acid concentrations were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension (4.61 versus 3.57 mg/dL, P < 0.01). Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in control children aged >10 years (P < 0.01). Uric acid levels were significantly higher in all children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (P < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between the level of serum uric acid and age, body weight, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the normotensive children of parents. The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant of hypertension. Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension. PMID:26464873

  11. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacter...

  12. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  13. Heavy metals influence on ascorbic acid level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaldinov, E. V.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Batenyeva, E. V.; Korotkevich, O. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that heavy metals (HM) are extremely dangerous pollutants influencing to metabolism in animals' organisms. The vitamin C is one of the most important metabolites taking part in many biochemical processes. We studied the influence of main essential HM-Zn and Cu as well as the based supertoxical elements - Cd and Pd on ascorbic acid level in serum. The studies were carried out in Tulinskoe farm of Novosibirsk region. The objects of investigations were piglets (2 month after weaning) and 6-month pigs of Early Ripe Meat breed. The levels of HM in bristle were found by stripping voltammetric analysis using the TA-2 analyzer. Vitamin C content was determined by I.P. Kondrakhin (1985) method using 2,2-dipyridyl. The significant negative correlations between Pb, Cd content and vitamin C (-0.46 ± 0.18, -0.47 ± 0.19) in 6-month pigs were determined. The tendencies of negative correlation between all HM levels in hair and ascorbic acid level in plasma of piglets were revealed. Thus, the obtained correlations let us to suppose that all studied HM influence on 1-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase and other vitamin C metabolism enzymes activity.

  14. Lysobisphosphatidic acid controls endosomal cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Julien; Chamoun, Zeina; Jiang, Guowei; Prestwich, Glenn; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan; Parton, Robert G; Gruenberg, Jean

    2008-10-10

    Most cell types acquire cholesterol by endocytosis of circulating low density lipoprotein, but little is known about the mechanisms of intra-endosomal cholesterol transport and about the primary cause of its aberrant accumulation in the cholesterol storage disorder Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). Here we report that lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), an unconventional phospholipid that is only detected in late endosomes, regulates endosomal cholesterol levels under the control of Alix/AlP1, which is an LBPA-interacting protein involved in sorting into multivesicular endosomes. We find that Alix down-expression decreases both LBPA levels and the lumenal vesicle content of late endosomes. Cellular cholesterol levels are also decreased, presumably because the storage capacity of endosomes is affected and thus cholesterol clearance accelerated. Both lumenal membranes and cholesterol can be restored in Alix knockdown cells by exogenously added LBPA. Conversely, we also find that LBPA becomes limiting upon pathological cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, because the addition of exogenous LBPA, but not of LBPA isoforms or analogues, partially reverts the NPC phenotype. We conclude that LBPA controls the cholesterol capacity of endosomes. PMID:18644787

  15. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. PMID:26041210

  16. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease. PMID:19390788

  17. Circulating Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels Are Associated with Fetal Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Ping; Levy, Emile; Fraser, William D.; Julien, Pierre; Delvin, Edgard; Montoudis, Alain; Spahis, Schohraya; Garofalo, Carole; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA; C20∶4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22∶6 n-3) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in maintaining pancreatic beta-cell structure and function. Newborns of gestational diabetic mothers are more susceptible to the development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not known whether low circulating AA or DHA is involved in perinatally “programming” this susceptibility. This study aimed to assess whether circulating concentrations of AA, DHA and other fatty acids are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity or beta-cell function, and whether low circulating concentrations of AA or DHA are involved in compromised fetal insulin sensitivity in gestational diabetic pregnancies. Methods and Principal Findings In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort, maternal (32-35 weeks gestation) and cord plasma fatty acids were assessed in relation to surrogate indicators of fetal insulin sensitivity (cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio, proinsulin concentration) and beta-cell function (proinsulin-to-insulin ratio) in 108 mother-newborn pairs. Cord plasma DHA levels (in percentage of total fatty acids) were lower comparing newborns of gestational diabetic (n = 24) vs. non-diabetic pregnancies (2.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.01). Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, lower cord plasma DHA levels were associated with lower fetal insulin sensitivity (lower glucose-to-insulin ratio, r = 0.20, P = 0.036; higher proinsulin concentration, r = −0.37, P <0.0001). The associations remained after adjustment for maternal and newborn characteristics. Cord plasma saturated fatty acids C18∶0 and C20∶0 were negatively correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity, but their levels were not different between gestational diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies. Cord plasma AA levels were not correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Low circulating DHA levels are associated with compromised

  18. Prognostic Significance of Uric Acid Levels in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Zhi-Chao; Lu, Tao-Sheng; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The importance and function of serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with cardiovascular disease or stroke are unclear. We sought to evaluate the appropriate UA levels for stroke patients and the association between endogenous UA levels and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, particularly regarding the possible interaction between gender and UA levels with respect to AIS prognosis. We examined 303 patients who had an onset of ischemic stroke within 48 h. Of those, 101 patients received thrombolytic treatment. Serum UA (μmol/L) levels were measured the second morning after admission. Patient prognosis was evaluated 90 days after clinical onset by modified Rankin Scale. Patients were divided into four groups according to serum UA quartiles. A binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess clinical relevance in regard to functional outcome and endogenous UA levels. Analysis of subgroups by gender and normal glomerular filtration rate were also been done. Poor functional outcome was associated with older age, history of atrial fibrillation, or higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with higher UA levels (>380 μmol/L) or lower UA levels (≤250 μmol/L) were 2-3 times more likely to have a poor outcome (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.14-7.61; OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02-7.58, respectively) compared to the baseline group (UA level 316-380 μmol/L). The same results were observed in thrombolyzed patients. Patients with high and low UA levels were 9-18 times more likely to having poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 316-380 μmol/L; OR 18.50, 95% CI: 2.041-167.67; OR 9.66, 95% CI 1.42-65.88, respectively). In men, patients with high UA levels were 6 times more likely to have poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 279-334 μmol/L; OR 6.10, 95% CI 1.62-22.93). However, female patients with UA level 271-337 μmol/L were seven times more

  19. Comparative acid tolerances and inhibitor sensitivities of isolated F-ATPases of oral lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sturr, M G; Marquis, R E

    1992-01-01

    pH activity profiles and inhibitor sensitivities were compared for membrane ATPases isolated from three oral lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646, Streptococcus mutans GS-5, and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904, with, respectively, high, moderate, and low levels of acid tolerance. Membranes containing F1F0 ATPases were isolated by means of salt lysis of cells treated with muralytic enzymes. Membrane-free F1F0 complexes were then isolated from membranes by detergent extraction with Triton X-100 or octylglucoside. Finally, F1 complexes free of the proton-conducting F0 sector were obtained by washing membranes with buffers of low ionic strength. The pH activity profiles of the membrane-associated enzymes reflected the general acid tolerances of the organisms from which they were isolated; for example, pH optima were approximately 5.5, 6.0, and 7.0, respectively, for enzymes from L. casei, S. mutans, and S. sanguis. Roughly similar profiles were found for membrane-free F1F0 complexes, which were stabilized by phospholipids against loss of activity during storage. However, profiles for F1 enzymes were distinctly narrower, indicating that association with F0 and possibly other membrane components enhanced tolerance to both acid and alkaline media. All of the enzymes were found to have similar sensitivities to Al-F complexes, but only F1F0 enzymes were highly sensitive to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The procedures described for isolation of membrane-free F1F0 forms of the enzymes from oral lactic acid bacteria will be of use in future studies of the characteristics of the enzymes, especially in studies with liposomes. PMID:1386211

  20. A Comparative Overview of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 25% of adults in the United States have elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. This is of particular concern given the evidence for a causal role of TG in the pathway of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Approved prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOM3FAs) contain the long-chain fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and are effective options for the treatment of high TG levels. RxOM3FAs that contain both EPA and DHA include omega-3-acid ethyl esters (ethyl esters of EPA and DHA; brand and generic products) and omega-3-carboxylic acids (free fatty acids primarily composed of EPA and DHA), while the RxOM3FA icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of EPA) contains EPA only. All RxOM3FA products produce substantial TG reduction and other beneficial effects on atherogenic lipid and inflammation-related parameters, blood pressure, and heart rate variability, but products that contain DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). This commentary provides an overview of hypertriglyceridemia while summarizing the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of prescription RxOM3FAs. PMID:26681905

  1. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  2. What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels?

    PubMed

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-09-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. PMID:26205427

  3. The SLAC Comparator for the Calibration of Digital Leveling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.L.; Ruland, R.E.; /SLAC

    2006-11-07

    At SLAC digital levels are used for precise leveling, both for setting out and monitoring. A very high precision of 30 {micro}m is required, which can only be achieved by regularly calibrating the leveling equipment. The calibration facility is also used for detailed investigations to refine the SLAC leveling procedure. In this paper the setup of the SLAC vertical comparator is described. In order to also perform traditional staff calibration a CCD camera was integrated into the SLAC comparator. Finally an overview of further investigations of our leveling equipment is presented.

  4. Modulation of sialic acid levels among some organs during insulin resistance or hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Onojah, Alice; Sani, Lawal; Adamu, Auwal; Abdullahi, Hadiza

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a possible connection between insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia with membrane sialic acid content. In this study, the effects of high (20% ad libitum) fructose and glucose feeding on the sialic acid levels of some organs were investigated in rats. The blood glucose levels of the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats were consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the normal control throughout the experiment. Free serum sialic acid and total hepatic sialic acid levels were elevated in the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats compared to normal control, but only the data for the high glucose-fed group were significantly (P < 0.05) different from the normal control. Conversely, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the pancreatic sialic acid level was observed in high glucose-fed group compared to normal control. Also, the high fructose-fed rats had lower, but insignificant (P > 0.05), pancreatic sialic acid level than the normal control. On the other hand, high fructose and glucose feeding did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the sialic acid levels of the skeletal muscle and heart, though a tendency to increase the sialic acid level was evident in the heart. In the kidney, the sialic acid level was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in both high fructose- and glucose-fed groups. It was concluded that the liver and kidney tend to stimulate sialic acid synthesis, while the pancreas downregulate sialic acids synthesis and/or promote sialic acid release from glycoconjugates. Also, these organs may contribute to high-serum sialic acid level observed during diabetes. PMID:26468092

  5. The significance of plasma phytanic acid levels in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, T C; Gibberd, F B; Clemens, M E; Billimoria, J D; Sidey, M C

    1989-01-01

    The presence of phytanic acid in tissues and plasma has been considered diagnostic of heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis (Refsum's disease), but recently slightly raised plasma phytanic acid levels have been reported in other conditions. Forty two normal people were found to have a phytanic acid level of 0-33 mumol/l. Fourteen patients with heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had a plasma phytanic acid level before treatment of 992-6400 mumol/l. Five patients with retinitis pigmentosa but not heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had plasma levels of 38-192 mumol/l. It was concluded that some patients with retinitis pigmentosa without heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis but a raised plasma phytanic acid may represent a group of patients with a disease or diseases as yet uncharacterised apart from the retinal condition. PMID:2475586

  6. Comparing Content in Selected GCE A Levels and Advanced GNVQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In an action research project, four British further education colleges compared mandatory units of three Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)--business, art and design, and health and social care--with related General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A-level) syllabuses. Activities included a detailed comparison…

  7. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research. PMID:21766417

  8. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition. PMID:25555007

  9. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  10. Comparative assessment of the methods for exchangeable acidity measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchikova, E. V.; Shamrikova, E. V.; Bespyatykh, N. V.; Zaboeva, G. A.; Bobrova, Yu. I.; Kyz"yurova, E. V.; Grishchenko, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    A comparative assessment of the results of measuring the exchangeable acidity and its components by different methods was performed for the main mineral genetic horizons of texturally-differentiated gleyed and nongleyed soddy-podzolic and gley-podzolic soils of the Komi Republic. It was shown that the contents of all the components of exchangeable soil acidity determined by the Russian method (with potassium chloride solution as extractant, c(KCl) = 1 mol/dm3) were significantly higher than those obtained by the international method (with barium chloride solution as extractant, c(BaCl2) = 0.1 mol/dm3). The error of the estimate of the concentration of H+ ions extracted with barium chloride solution equaled 100%, and this allowed only qualitative description of this component of the soil acidity. In the case of the extraction with potassium chloride, the error of measurements was 50%. It was also shown that the use of potentiometric titration suggested by the Russian method overestimates the results of soil acidity measurement caused by the exchangeable metal ions (Al(III), Fe(III), and Mn(II)) in comparison with the atomic emission method.

  11. Comparative analyses of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Kagawa, Nao; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2015-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to exert fundamental cellular functions. Six LPA receptor genes have been identified in vertebrates and are classified into two subfamilies, the endothelial differentiation genes (edg) and the non-edg family. Studies using genetically engineered mice, frogs, and zebrafish have demonstrated that LPA receptor-mediated signaling has biological, developmental, and pathophysiological functions. Computational analyses have also identified several amino acids (aa) critical for LPA recognition by human LPA receptors. This review focuses on the evolutionary aspects of LPA receptor-mediated signaling by comparing the aa sequences of vertebrate LPA receptors and LPA-producing enzymes; it also summarizes the LPA receptor-dependent effects commonly observed in mouse, frog, and fish. PMID:25732591

  12. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography. PMID:12843960

  13. The SLAC Vertical Comparator for the Calibration of Digital Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Woschitz, Helmut; Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2006-12-06

    Digital levels replaced spirit levels in most fields of precise height measurements because of the automation of the height readings. Three manufacturers offer digital levels with a single reading resolution of 10 {micro}m, and for all of them systematic effects are known. In Europe several facilities for system calibration of digital levels using vertical comparators were established within the last decade. However, there still was no system calibration facility in North America. In order to guarantee the accuracy required for the alignment of experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a calibration facility for the system calibration of digital levels was built. In this paper the setup of the SLAC vertical comparator is described in detail and its standard uncertainty is derived. In order to perform traditional rod calibration of conventional line-scaled rods, a CCD camera was integrated into the SLAC comparator. The CCD camera setup is also briefly described. To demonstrate the capabilities of the comparator, results of system and rod calibration are shown.

  14. Differential effects of cyclosporin A on transport of bile acids by rat hepatocytes: relationship to individual serum bile acid levels.

    PubMed

    Azer, S A; Stacey, N H

    1994-02-01

    Cyclosporin A treatment has been reported to induce hepatotoxicity marked by a rise in total serum bile acid and total bilirubin. The mechanism of cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity seems to be related to interference with hepatocellular transport of these substrates although this remains to be fully substantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the hepatocellular uptake of the different bile acids, in the presence of cyclosporin A, is consistent with the changes in their respective individual serum bile acid concentrations. High-performance liquid chromatography has been used to assay individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A-treated rats at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Control rats were treated with Cremophor (1 ml/kg/day). At the higher doses, cyclosporin A produced a significant increase in levels of cholic acid, taurocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid compared with controls. Serum glycocholate was unaffected even at the highest dose. Inhibition of initial rate of uptake and accumulation of [14C]cholic acid, [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid, and [14C]deoxycholic acid by isolated rat hepatocytes was consistent with the changes in their respective serum bile acids. Coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM), the major serum bile acid in cyclosporin A-treated rats, showed a further inhibitory effect on [14C]cholic acid and [14C]deoxycholic acid accumulation. The initial rate of uptake of [14C]glycocholate was also inhibited. However, accumulation of glycocholic acid did not show significant changes at the longer incubation times (2-30 min). In addition, coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM) plus cyclosporin A did not induce any inhibition of glycocholate accumulation. Together, these differences provide an explanation for the unchanged serum levels of glycocholate. In conclusion, the changes in individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A

  15. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  16. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes.

    PubMed

    Morato-Conceicao, Yvelise T; Alves-Junior, Eduardo R; Arruda, Talita A; Lopes, Jose C; Fontes, Cor J F

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18-69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with type

  17. Effects of toxic work environments on sperm quality and ascorbic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )

    1990-02-26

    Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.

  18. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source. PMID:23975574

  19. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  20. Plasma and cerebrosponal fluid amino acid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis before and after corrective therapy.

    PubMed

    Aoki, T T; Assal J-P; Manzano, F M; Kozak, G P; Cahill, G F

    1975-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of insulin-saline-bicarbonate therapy on amino acid metabolism in diabetic ketoacidosis, arterial and venous blood samples as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained from six patients before and after initiation of corrective therapy. Levels of CSF glutamine were decreased while alanine alpha-amino-n-butyrate, valine, isoleucine and leucine were increased significantly compared to a control group composed of six normal, postabsorptive adults free of any neurologic disease. Following therapy, CSF levels of alanine, alpha-amino-n-butyrate, valine, isoleucine, and leucine declined while glutamine levels did not change. Admission arterial plasma levels of the glycogenic amino acids were lower than normal while the branched-chain amino acids were elevated. Plasma alanine and glutamine arterio-venous (A-V) differences across forearm tissue were larger. After four hours of corrective therapy, arterial plasma levels of most of the amino acids had declined sharply and A-V differences for glutamine and alanine were markedly reduced (p smaller than.025 and p smaller than.01, paired t, respectively). Coincident with the decrease in A-V amino acid differences, plasma glucagon and free fatty acid levels declined significantly. These data suggest that the effect exerted by insulin-saline-bicarbonate therapy on amino acid metabolism is manifested by diminished A-V plasma alanine and glutamine differences across forearm tissue. Thus, the role played by the splanchnic bed both before and following corrective measures may be secondary to substrate availability. PMID:805076

  1. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  2. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  3. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  4. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  5. Comparative toxicity of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions to mosquitofish

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.

    1981-07-01

    We examined the relative toxicity of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the hypochlorite ion (OCl/sup -/) by exposing mosquitofish Gambusia affinis for 1 hour to predominantly free residual chlorine (FRC) at six levels of pH following a 7-day acclimation to the test pH. Median lethal concentrations (LC50), in terms of total residual chlorine (TRC), increased with increasing pH. Because of the influence of hydrogen ion concentration on dissociation of HOCl, the percent of FRC present as HOCl is about 97% and 13%, respectively, at the low and high pH. Cursory examination of toxicity of monochloramine (NH/sub 2/Cl) and mixtures of NH/sub 2/Cl and dichloramine (NHCl/sub 2/) suggested that their contributions to toxicity were negligible at any test pH. Free residual chlorine concentrations at the LC50 for each pH were fitted to a theoretical model derived from an assumption that toxicities of HOCl and OCl/sup -/ were additive.

  6. Puget Sound acidity levels drop after ASARCO shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The levels of acidity in Puget Sound region rainfall have decreased significantly since the shutdown of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, according to a study funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results indicate that sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations obtained from samples taken before the closure were significantly different than those collected after the shutdown. Rainwater samples collected downwind during smelter operation were also significantly different from those collected upwind. Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the principal contributors to acid rain. The smelter was a major source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the Puget Sound region before it shut down in March 1985.

  7. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  8. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorononanoic acid in Rats and Mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (pFNA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is found at low concentrations in the environment, but detectable in humans and wildlife. Previous studies have examined the pharmacokinetics (PK) of shorter carbon-chain PFAAs, such as perfluorobutyric a...

  9. *Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorononanoic acid in rats and mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is found at low concentrations in the environment, but detectable in humans and wildlife. Previous studies have examined the pharmacokinetics (PK) of shorter carbon-chain PFAAs, such as perfluorobutyric a...

  10. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  11. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  12. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  13. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  14. [Effect of amino acid solutions on the blood ammonia level].

    PubMed

    Sanjo, K; Harihara, Y; Kawasaki, S; Umekita, N; Idezuki, Y

    1985-09-01

    We have carried out several basic experiments on artificial liver support and found that the plasma free amino acid balance was lost after treatment according to this procedure. Application of fluid therapy--Using conventional amino acid preparations available on the market--Is not adequate during and after the treatment with artificial liver. Fluid therapy using mainly special amino acid preparations should have been established; preparations, named Todai Hospital fluid (THF), are intended to correct the deranged aminogram, supply nutrition and promote the improvement in symptoms. Furthermore, experimental animals with acute hepatic insufficiency of diverse severity were prepared and basic experiments were performed which these animals to see how the efficacy of THF developed. In the basic experiments, psychoneurotic symptoms and the electroencephalogram were improved with the lowering of the blood ammonia level. Clinically, THF was not only used as a therapeutic agent after treatment by artificial liver support in patients with fulminant hepatitis, but is also served as a further indication in hepatic encephalopathy accompanying chronic liver diseases in late stages. Improvement in encephalopathy was observed immediately after the administration of THF and persisted while the aminogram pattern returned to the premedication representation. There was more improvement in patients in whom ammonemia was complicated, and the blood ammonia level was reduced markedly. PMID:4088243

  15. Glycodeoxycholic Acid Levels as Prognostic Biomarker in Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; McGill, Mitchell R.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Winefield, Robert D.; Gholami, Parviz; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Sharpe, Matthew R.; Curry, Steven C.; Lee, William M.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) remains a major clinical problem. Although a majority of patients recovers after severe liver injury, a subpopulation of patients proceeds to ALF. Bile acids are generated in the liver and accumulate in blood during liver injury, and as such, have been proposed as biomarkers for liver injury and dysfunction. The goal of this study was to determine whether individual bile acid levels could determine outcome in patients with APAP-induced ALF (AALF). Serum bile acid levels were measured in AALF patients using mass spectrometry. Bile acid levels were elevated 5–80-fold above control values in injured patients on day 1 after the overdose and decreased over the course of hospital stay. Interestingly, glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) was significantly increased in non-surviving AALF patients compared with survivors. GDCA values obtained at peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and from day 1 of admission indicated GDCA could predict survival in these patients by receiver-operating characteristic analysis (AUC = 0.70 for day 1, AUC = 0.68 for peak ALT). Of note, AALF patients also had significantly higher levels of serum bile acids than patients with active cholestatic liver injury. These data suggest measurements of GDCA in this patient cohort modestly predicted outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker. Furthermore, accumulation of bile acids in serum or plasma may be a result of liver cell dysfunction and not cholestasis, suggesting elevation of circulating bile acid levels may be a consequence and not a cause of liver injury. PMID:25239633

  16. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  17. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  18. Comparing models for perfluorooctanoic acid pharmacokinetics using Bayesian analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selecting the appropriate pharmacokinetic (PK) model given the available data is investigated for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been widely analyzed with an empirical, one-compartment model. This research examined the results of experiments [Kemper R. A., DuPont Haskel...

  19. Regulation of Invertase Levels in Avena Stem Segments by Gibberellic Acid, Sucrose, Glucose, and Fructose 1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Peter B.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Lacroix, J. Donald; Soni, Sarvjit L.; Ikuma, Hiroshi

    1973-01-01

    Gibberellic acid and sucrose play significant roles in the increases in invertase and growth in Avena stem segments. About 80% of invertase is readily solubilized, whereas the rest is in the cell wall fraction. The levels of both types of invertase change in a similar manner in the response to gibberellic acid and sucrose treatment. The work described here was carried out with only the soluble enzyme. In response to a treatment, the level of invertase activity typically follows a pattern of increase followed by decrease; the increase in activity is approximately correlated with the active growth phase, whereas the decrease in activity is initiated when growth of the segments slows. A continuous supply of gibberellic acid retards the decline of enzyme activity. When gibberellic acid was pulsed to the segments treated with or without sucrose, the level of invertase activity increased at least twice as high in the presence of sucrose as in its absence, but the lag period is longer with sucrose present. Cycloheximide treatments effectively abolish the gibberellic acid-promoted growth, and the level of enzyme activity drops rapidly. Decay of invertase activity in response to cycloheximide treatment occurs regardless of gibberellic acid or sucrose treatment or both, and it is generally faster when the inhibitor is administered at the peak of enzyme induction than when given at its rising phase. Pulses with sucrose, glucose, fructose, or glucose + fructose elevate the level of invertase significantly with a lag of about 5 to 10 hours. The increase in invertase activity elicited by a sucrose pulse is about one-third that caused by a gibberellic acid pulse given at a comparable time during mid-phase of enzyme induction, and the lag before the enzyme activity increases is nearly twice as long for sucrose as for gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid pulse results in about three times more growth than the sucrose pulse. Our studies support the view that gibberellic

  20. Childrens' learning and behaviour and the association with cheek cell polyunsaturated fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Kirby, A; Woodward, A; Jackson, S; Wang, Y; Crawford, M A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3, in their red blood cells and plasma, and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate behavioural symptoms in this population. However, in order to compare levels it seems appropriate to establish fatty acid levels in a mainstream school aged population and if levels relate to learning and behaviour. To date no study has established this. For this study, cheek cell samples from 411 typically developing school children were collected and analysed for PUFA content, in order to establish the range in this population. In addition, measures of general classroom attention and behaviour were assessed in these children by teachers and parents. Cognitive performance tests were also administered in order to explore whether an association between behaviour and/or cognitive performance and PUFA levels exists. Relationships between PUFA levels and socio-economic status were also explored. Measures of reading, spelling and intelligence did not show any association with PUFA levels, but some associations were noted with the level of omega-3 fatty acids and teacher and parental reports of behaviour, with some evidence that higher omega-3 levels were associated with decreased levels of inattention, hyperactivity, emotional and conduct difficulties and increased levels of prosocial behaviour. These findings are discussed in relation to previous findings from omega-3 supplementation studies with children. PMID:20172688

  1. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka. PMID:27373421

  2. Serum levels of short-chain fatty acids in cirrhosis and hepatic coma.

    PubMed

    Clausen, M R; Mortensen, P B; Bendtsen, F

    1991-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids cause reversible coma in animals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the hepatic coma in humans. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in peripheral venous blood were significantly elevated in 15 patients with hepatic encephalopathy caused by cirrhosis (362 +/- 83 mumol/L; mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with 17 cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy (178 +/- 57 mumol/L) and 11 normal individuals (60 +/- 8 mumol/L). However, no correlation between the depth of coma and the level of short-chain fatty acids was found after repetitive measurements in the coma group. Compared with normal individuals, all short-chain fatty acids, except valerate, were elevated in patients with hepatic encephalopathy, whereas only the concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in 21 nonencephalopathic cirrhotic patients who underwent catheterization were equally distributed in the aorta (187 +/- 56 mumol/L), the hepatic vein (212 +/- 75 mumol/L), the azygos vein (140 +/- 37 mumol/L) and the renal vein (135 +/- 43 mumol/L) compared with peripheral venous blood (178 +/- 57 mumol/L). This study does not support the idea that short-chain fatty acids are of major importance in the pathogenesis of hepatic coma in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:1959851

  3. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  4. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED. PMID:26302884

  5. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  6. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric

    2008-10-31

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e. isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FA) as sole carbon and energy sources convering ILV into acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR and GntR families binding to eleven distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria are mainly regulated by anovel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species), in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some beta-proteobacteria (8 species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in the Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gamma-proteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (45 species), FadP in beta-proteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alpha-proteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from the functional and evolutionary points of view.

  7. A Comparative Study of Phosphoric Acid-doped m-PBI Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; More, Karren Leslie; Payzant, E Andrew; Meisner, Roberta A; Sumpter, Bobby G; Benicewicz, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoric acid (PA)-doped m-polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes used in high temperature fuel cells and hydrogen pumps were prepared by a conventional imbibing process and a sol-gel fabrication process. A comparative study was conducted to investigate the critical properties of PA doping levels, ionic conductivities, mechanical properties, and molecular ordering. This systematic study found that sol-gel PA-doped m-PBI membranes were able to absorb higher acid doping levels and to achieve higher ionic conductivities than conventionally imbibed membranes when treated in an equivalent manner. Even at similar acid loadings, the sol-gel membranes exhibited higher ionic conductivities. Heat treatment of conventionally imbibed membranes with 29wt% solids caused a significant reduction in mechanical properties; conversely, sol-gel membranes exhibited an enhancement in mechanical properties. From X-ray structural studies and atomistic simulations, both conventionally imbibed and sol-gel membranes exhibited d-spacings of 3.5 and 4.6 , which were tentatively attributed to parallel ring stacking and staggered side-to-side packing, respectively, of the imidazole rings in these aromatic hetercyclic polymers. An anisotropic staggered side-to-side chain packing present in the conventional membranes may be root to the reduction in mechanical properties.

  8. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes. PMID:26201386

  9. A comparative evaluation of smear layer removal by using edta, etidronic acid, and maleic acid as root canal irrigants: An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Aby; Jaganath, Bharath Makonahalli; Krishnegowda, Sahadev Chickmagaravalli; Ramachandra, Praveen Kumar Makonahalli; Johns, Dexton Antony; Abraham, Aby

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 17% EDTA, 18% etidronic acid, and 7% maleic acid in smear layer removal using scanning electron microscopic image analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty, freshly extracted mandibular premolars were used. The teeth were decoronated to obtain working length of 17mm and instrumentation up to 40 size (K file) with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation between each file. The samples were divided into Groups I (17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), II (18% etidronic acid), and III (7% maleic acid) containing 10 samples each. Longitudinal sectioning of the samples was done. Then the samples were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) at apical, middle, and coronal levels. The images were scored according to the criteria: 1. No smear layer, 2. moderate smear layer, and 3 heavy smear layer. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed statistically using Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney U test for individual comparisons. The level for significance was set at 0.05. Results: The present study showed that all the three experimental irrigants removed the smear layer from different tooth levels (coronal, middle, and apical). Final irrigation with 7% maleic acid is more efficient than 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid in the removal of smear layer from the apical third of root canal. PMID:26069414

  10. Association of Serum Uric Acid Levels in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Miao, Xiao; Wang, Hongshen; Wang, Yifei; Li, Fulun; Yang, Qiong; Cui, Rutao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High levels of serum uric acid (SUAC) are frequently detected in patients with psoriasis. However, the relationship between psoriasis and hyperuricemia remains unknown. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the SUAC levels in subjects with psoriasis and to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. A comprehensive search of the literature from January 1980 to November 2014 across 7 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register, and 4 Chinese databases) was conducted to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. Among the 170 identified reports, 14 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant higher SUAC level (MD 0.68, 95% CI 0.26–1.09; P = 0.002) in patients with psoriasis in Western Europe, but no significant differences were found between the East Asia and India subgroup (MD 1.22, 95% CI –0.13–2.56; P = 0.08) or the Middle East subgroup (MD 0.48, 95% CI –0.49–1.44; P = 0.33). Similar results were obtained from the meta-analysis of SUAC levels in subjects with severe psoriasis. Our meta-analysis showed that the correlation between psoriasis and hyperuricemia was either ethnicity- or region-dependent and that patients with psoriasis in Western Europe were more likely to have hyperuricemia. PMID:27175702

  11. Plasma levels of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid after oral ingestion of plain and buffered acetylsalicylic acid in relation to bleeding time and thrombocyte function.

    PubMed

    Proost, J H; Van Imhoff, G W; Wesseling, H

    1983-02-25

    Buffered acetylsalicylic acid (Alka Seltzer, B-ASA) and plain aspirin (P-ASA) tablets were compared as to their effects on bleeding time and platelet function in eight healthy male volunteers. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg) of each preparation were investigated in a cross-over design, each volunteer being his own control in each dose group (n=4). Both preparations disturbed platelet aggregation to the same extent. Bleeding time increased after both preparations, though significantly more after the buffered preparation than after plain acetylsalicylic acid, irrespective of the dosage. The 1000 mg dose prolonged bleeding time significantly more than the 500 mg dose, irrespective of the preparation. Kinetic analysis showed that B-ASA gave higher peak plasma levels of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and accordingly salicylic acid peak levels were also higher after the buffered preparation. It is concluded that B-ASA in equi-analgesic doses prolongs bleeding time more than the plain preparation. Since it is less agressive on the gastro-intestinal mucosa, its use may be advantageous in situations where acetylsalicylic acid induced loss of platelet aggregation is desired. However, the risk of prolonged bleeding--e.g. after tooth extractions--is probably higher after the buffered preparation. PMID:6844122

  12. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  13. Understanding of how Propionibacterium acidipropionici respond to propionic acid stress at the level of proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ningzi; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is an important platform chemical in the food, agriculture, and pharmaceutical industries and is mainly biosynthesized by propionibacteria. Acid tolerance in PA-producing strains is crucial. In previous work, we investigated the acid tolerance mechanism of Propionibacterium acidipropionici at microenvironmental levels by analyzing physiological changes in the parental strain and three PA-tolerant mutants obtained by genome shuffling. However, the molecular mechanism of PA tolerance in P. acidipropionici remained unclear. Here, we performed a comparative proteomics study of P. acidipropionici CGMCC 1.2230 and the acid-tolerant mutant P. acidipropionici WSH1105; MALDI-TOF/MS identified 24 proteins that significantly differed between the parental and shuffled strains. The differentially expressed proteins were mainly categorized as key components of crucial biological processes and the acid stress response. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm differential expression of nine key proteins. Overexpression of the secretory protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase subunit α in Escherichia coli BL21 improved PA and acetic acid tolerance; overexpression of NADH dehydrogenase and methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase improved PA tolerance. These results provide new insights into the acid tolerance of P. acidipropionici and will facilitate the development of PA production through fermentation by propionibacteria. PMID:25377721

  14. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  15. A Physiologic Profile Comparing Levels and Styles of Female Dancers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelar, Robin D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of 39 adult female dancers indicated that professional ballet dancers had significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake and lower peak blood lactate levels than other dancers (professional modern, university ballet or modern). Professional ballet dancers also had a significantly higher isokinetic hamstring-quadriceps ratio than modern…

  16. Endoscopic evaluation of the comparative effects of acetylsalicylic acid and choline magnesium trisalicylate on human gastric and duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kilander, A; Dotevall, G

    1983-02-01

    A new salicylate product, choline magnesium trisalicylate (Trilisate tablets), and acetylsalicylic acid were compared for their local effects in equipotent doses on the gastroduodenal mucosa in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, using 10 healthy volunteers. After five-day periods of administration, gastroduodenoscopy was performed and photographs were obtained. All subjects given acetylsalicylic acid developed multiple mucosal lesions, but in only four subjects given choline magnesium trisalicylate were slight mucosal changes noted. Mean serum salicylate levels were similar in the two groups. Our data suggest that the risk of developing mucosal lesions is much less during treatment with choline magnesium trisalicylate than with acetylsalicylic acid. PMID:6337663

  17. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  18. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  19. Preoperative serum docosahexaenoic acid level predicts prognosis of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    TASAKI, SHINSUKE; HORIGUCHI, AKIO; ASANO, TAKAKO; KURODA, KENJI; SATO, AKINORI; ASAKUMA, JUNICHI; ITO, KEIICHI; ASANO, TOMOHIKO; ASAKURA, HIROTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery and clinical development of targeted agents have expanded treatment options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, metastatic RCC remains a lethal disease. Complete response is rare and treatment with targeted agents eventually fails in the majority of the patients. Therefore, there is a need for developing a prognostic tool and a novel therapeutic agent for RCC to improve the follow-up strategy after surgical treatment. Clinical data, including patient characteristics, serum fatty acid profile, clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome, were obtained from 112 patients with RCC prior to surgical treatment. Preoperative fatty acid levels were grouped according to patient characteristics, such as performance status, body mass index or pathological parameters, and were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Cancer-specific survival in the high and low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) level groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the independent prognostic factors associated with shortened cancer-specific survival. The serum DHA level in patients with metastasis was significantly lower compared with that in patients without metastasis (P=0.047). Low serum DHA level, presence of metastasis and cachexia were independent predictors of shortened cancer-specific survival in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model (P=0.033, hazard ratio = 4.43). Patients with a serum DHA level below the median value exhibited significantly shorter cancer-specific survival compared with those with a higher serum DHA level (P=0.008). Thus, according to our results, the preoperative serum DHA level may be able to predict the surgical outcome of RCC. However, this finding requires validation by large-scale prospective studies. PMID:27330769

  20. Comparative study of the antioxidative activities of caffeoylquinic and caffeic acids.

    PubMed

    Marković, Svetlana; Tošović, Jelena

    2016-11-01

    A detailed conformational analysis was performed to determine the most stable conformers of chlorogenic, cryptochlorogenic, and neochlorogenic acids. The simulated and experimental NMR spectra of caffeoylquinic acids are in excellent agreement. The bond dissociation enthalpies, proton affinities, electron transfer enthalpies, ionisation potentials, and proton dissociation enthalpies for these compounds and caffeic acid in benzene, methanol, and water were used for thermodynamic consideration of the major antioxidative mechanisms: HAT (Hydrogen Atom Transfer), SPLET (Sequential Proton-Loss Electron-Transfer), and SET-PT (Single Electron Transfer - Proton Transfer). All compounds are characterised with very similar values of each enthalpy, suggesting that they will exhibit comparable antioxidative activities. This assumption is in perfect accord with the experimental findings. It was suggested that HAT may be the predominant mechanism in nonpolar solvents, while HAT and SPLET are competitive pathways in polar media. All calculations were performed using the B3LYP-D2/6-311++G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory and CPCM solvation model. PMID:27211685

  1. Efficacy of 15% Trichloroacetic Acid and 50% Glycolic Acid Peel in the Treatment of Frictional Melanosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sacchidanand, S; Shetty, Ashvith B; Leelavathy, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Frictional dermal melanosis is aesthetically displeasing. Various modalities ranging from depigmenting agents to lasers have been tried but it continues to be a difficult problem to treat. Objective: To study and compare the efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 50% glycolic acid in the treatment of frictional melanosis of the forearm. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of frictional melanosis of the forearm were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups A and B. Pre-peel priming was carried out with 12% glycolic acid and sunscreen for 2 weeks. Group A was treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA-15%) peel and Group B with glycolic acid (GA-50%) peel. Four peels were done one every 15 days. Clinical photographs were taken to assess the response. Response to therapy was evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last peel to note any relapse. Results: Both TCA and glycolic acid peels were effective in frictional melanosis. TCA showed better response compared to glycolic acid at the end of the treatment, both by subjective and objective methods. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). No permanent side effects were seen in any of the treated patients and the improvement was sustained without any relapse at 3 months. Conclusion: Chemical peeling with both tricholoroacetic acid (15%) and glycolic acid (50%) is safe and effective for the treatment of frictional dermal melanosis. Tricholoroacetic acid was found to be marginally superior to glycolic acid. PMID:25949021

  2. Cutaneous retinoic acid levels determine hair follicle development and downgrowth.

    PubMed

    Okano, Junko; Levy, Clara; Lichti, Ulrike; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yuspa, Stuart H; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I

    2012-11-16

    Retinoic acid (RA) is essential during embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis, whereas excess RA is well known as a teratogen. In humans, excess RA is associated with hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis. Mice with embryonic ablation of Cyp26b1 (Cyp26b1(-/-)) have excessive endogenous RA, resulting in arrest of hf growth at the hair germ stage. The altered hf development is rescued by grafting the mutant skin on immunodeficient mice. Our results show that normalization of RA levels is associated with reinitiation of hf development. Conditional deficiency of Cyp26b1 in the dermis (En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/-) results in decreased hair follicle density and specific effect on hair type, indicating that RA levels also influence regulators of hair bending. Our results support the model of RA-dependent dermal signals regulating hf downgrowth and bending. To elucidate target gene pathways of RA, we performed microarray and RNA-Seq profiling of genes differentially expressed in Cyp26b1(-/-) skin and En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/- tissues. We show specific effects on the Wnt-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families, indicating that RA modulates pathways and factors implicated in hf downgrowth and bending. Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs. PMID:23007396

  3. Cutaneous Retinoic Acid Levels Determine Hair Follicle Development and Downgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Junko; Levy, Clara; Lichti, Ulrike; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is essential during embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis, whereas excess RA is well known as a teratogen. In humans, excess RA is associated with hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis. Mice with embryonic ablation of Cyp26b1 (Cyp26b1−/−) have excessive endogenous RA, resulting in arrest of hf growth at the hair germ stage. The altered hf development is rescued by grafting the mutant skin on immunodeficient mice. Our results show that normalization of RA levels is associated with reinitiation of hf development. Conditional deficiency of Cyp26b1 in the dermis (En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/−) results in decreased hair follicle density and specific effect on hair type, indicating that RA levels also influence regulators of hair bending. Our results support the model of RA-dependent dermal signals regulating hf downgrowth and bending. To elucidate target gene pathways of RA, we performed microarray and RNA-Seq profiling of genes differentially expressed in Cyp26b1−/− skin and En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/− tissues. We show specific effects on the Wnt-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families, indicating that RA modulates pathways and factors implicated in hf downgrowth and bending. Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs. PMID:23007396

  4. Competition between Displacement and Dissociation of a Strong Acid Compared to a Weak Acid Adsorbed on Silica Particle Surfaces: The Role of Adsorbed Water.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Tang, Mingjin; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-16

    The adsorption of nitric (HNO3) and formic (HCOOH) acids on silica particle surfaces and the effect of adsorbed water have been investigated at 296 K using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Under dry conditions, both nitric and formic acids adsorb reversibly on silica. Additionally, the FTIR spectra show that both of these molecules remain in the protonated form. At elevated relative humidities (RH), adsorbed water competes both for surface adsorption sites with these acids as well as promotes their dissociation to hydronium ions and the corresponding anions. Compared to HNO3, the extent of dissociation is much smaller for HCOOH, very likely because it is a weaker acid. This study provides valuable insights into the interaction of HNO3 and HCOOH with silica surface on the molecular level and further reveals the complex roles of surface-adsorbed water in atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry of mineral dust particles-many of these containing silica. PMID:27220375

  5. Comparative structure analysis of non-polar organic ferrofluids stabilized by saturated mono-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Avdeev, M V; Bica, D; Vékás, L; Aksenov, V L; Feoktystov, A V; Marinica, O; Rosta, L; Garamus, V M; Willumeit, R

    2009-06-01

    The structure of ferrofluids (magnetite in decahydronaphtalene) stabilized with saturated mono-carboxylic acids of different chain lengths (lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids) is studied by means of magnetization analysis and small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that in case of saturated acid surfactants, magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in the carrier approximately with the same size distribution whose mean value and width are significantly less as compared to the classical stabilization with non-saturated oleic acid. The found thickness of the surfactant shell around magnetite is analyzed with respect to stabilizing properties of mono-carboxylic acids. PMID:19376524

  6. Low Serum Levels of Uric Acid are Associated With Development of Poststroke Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Han, Bin; Wang, Liping; Chang, Yaling; Zhu, Lin; Ren, Wenwei; Yan, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Poststroke depression (PSD) is a frequent complication of stroke that has been associated with poorer outcome of stroke patients. This study sought to examine the possible association between serum uric acid levels and the development of PSD. We recruited 196 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 100 healthy volunteers. Serum uric acid levels were tested by uricase-PAP method within 24 hr after admission. Neuropsychological evaluations were conducted at 3-month poststroke. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Diagnosis of PSD was made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Fifty-six patients (28.6%) were diagnosed as having PSD at 3 months. PSD patients showed significantly lower levels of uric acid at baseline as compared to non-PSD patients (237.02 ± 43.43 vs 309.10 ± 67.44 μmol/L, t = −8.86, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, uric acid levels (≤239.0 and ≥328.1 μmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSD (OR, 7.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–23.47, P < 0.001 and OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01–0.43, P = 0.01, respectively) after adjustment for possible variables. Serum uric acid levels at admission are found to be correlated with PSD and may predict its development at 3 months after stroke. PMID:26559256

  7. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations.

  8. Ascorbic acid serum levels are reduced in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Huijskens, Mirelle J.A.J.; Wodzig, Will K.W.H.; Walczak, Mateusz; Germeraad, Wilfred T.V.; Bos, Gerard M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that patients treated with chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have highly significant reduced serum ascorbic acid (AA) levels compared to healthy controls. We recently observed in in vitro experiments that growth of both T and NK cells from hematopoietic stem cells is positively influenced by AA. It might be of clinical relevance to study the function and recovery of immune cells after intensive treatment, its correlation to AA serum levels and the possible effect of AA supplementation. PMID:27014565

  9. Fatty Acid Status and Its Relationship to Cognitive Decline and Homocysteine Levels in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Baierle, Marília; Vencato, Patrícia H.; Oldenburg, Luiza; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Veit, Juliana C.; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Garcia, Solange C.

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly. PMID:25221976

  10. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains. PMID:26691589

  11. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains. PMID:26691589

  12. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  13. Comparative acute freshwater hazard assessment and preliminary PNEC development for eight fluorinated acids.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Robert A; Bouchelle, Laurie D; Ferrell, Barbra D; Buck, Robert C

    2012-05-01

    estimated using approaches consistent with REACH guidance and when compared with available environmental concentrations, these PNECs suggest that the fluorinated acids tested pose little risk for aquatic organisms. PMID:22280982

  14. Comparative studies on the interaction of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Huang, Kelong; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Jun; Wang, Wei-zheng; Zhu, Ronghua

    2010-10-01

    The substitution of the hydrogen on aromatic and esterification of carboxyl group of the phenol compounds plays an important role in their bio-activities. In this paper, caffeic acid (CaA), chlorogenic acid (ChA) and ferulic acid (FA) were selected to investigate the binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the methoxyl group substituting for the 3-hydroxyl group of CaA decreased the affinity for BSA and the esterification of carboxyl group of CaA with quinic acid increased the affinities. The affinities of ChA and FA with BSA were more sensitive to the temperature than that of CaA with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that the Stern-Volmer plots largely deviated from linearity at high concentrations and were caused by complete quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of BSA.

  15. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  16. A Comparative Study of French and Turkish Students' Ideas on Acid-Base Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this comparative study was to determine the knowledge that French and Turkish upper secondary-school students (grades 11 and 12) acquire on the concept of acid-base reactions. Following an examination of the relevant curricula and textbooks in the two countries, 528 students answered six written questions about the acid-base concept.…

  17. Comparative Study of SPORL and Dilute Acid Pretreatments of Spruce for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose (SPORL) and Dilute Acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production under the same conditions of temperature (180°C), time (30 min), sulfuric acid loading...

  18. COMPARATIVE PATHOGENESIS OF HALOACETIC ACID AND PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR EMBRYOTOXICITY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative pathogenesis of haloacetic acid and protein kinase inhibitor embryotoxicity in mouse whole embryo culture.

    Ward KW, Rogers EH, Hunter ES 3rd.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7270, USA.

    Haloacetic acids ...

  19. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  20. Chicoric Acid Levels in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...

  1. Evaluation of Warm Acid Strike Treatment for Silicon Analysis in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pennebaker, F.M.

    2003-03-20

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed a simpler, faster and more accurate method of analysis for the measurement of silicon in High Level Waste (HLW) supernate samples prior to evaporation. The warm acid strike method compared favorably to the current filtration method in the measurement of five samples from three different waste tanks. The technical enhancement of the warm acid strike method is that it will help dissolve small solid particles of silicon-bearing materials that contribute to the scatter in measurements. The method is not intended to measure silicon in samples that have significant quantities of entrained waste tank sludge or DWPF frit particles. Since the method is simple, multiple waste tank samples can be prepared and analyzed at the same time. This improvement should significantly reduce turnaround time for Evaporator Qualification samples at SRTC. Enhanced QC and blind standards have been incorporated into the method for better traceability and overall accuracy. ADS recommends that High Level Waste switch to the Acid Strike Methodology using 3 M acid and 4 hours of heating for Evaporator Qualification samples as soon as possible. Extra work is necessary before transfer of the method to C-Lab for routine measurements.

  2. HPLC study of the impurities present in different ursodeoxycholic acid preparations: comparative evaluation of four detectors.

    PubMed

    Roda, A; Gatti, R; Cavrini, V; Cerrè, C; Simoni, P

    1993-08-01

    The use of HPLC with different detectors has been investigated for the analysis of bile acid impurities present in four different commercially available ursodeoxycholic acid preparations. The bile acids were efficiently separated by C18 reversed-phase HPLC using methanol-water (3:2, v/v) as the mobile phase. The detectors used for bile acid detection were: UV at 200 nm refractive index (RI) and an evaporative light scattering mass detector (ELSD II). A prederivatization method with the formation of a fluorescent naphthacyl ester has also been used. GC-MS analysis of Me-TMS bile acid derivatives was included as a reference method. The four ursodeoxycholic acid samples were 98-99% pure. The main impurities present in the samples were chenodeoxycholic acid and to a lesser extent lithocholic acid. Only one sample was found to be almost 100% pure using all the detectors. Significant agreement of the data was found between RI, ELSD II detectors and the fluorescent method; the UV detector was unsuitable for use in this method. The analytical performances of the four detectors for bile acid analysis are reported and discussed. When the four-detector data were compared with the GC-MS method, reasonable agreement resulted. Discordant results were found in the quantitation of trace impurities like lithocholic acid and/or other minor bile acids present in amounts less than 0.1%. PMID:8257741

  3. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  4. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  5. Substrate interaction in intravenous feeding: comparative effects of carbohydrate and fat on amino acid utilization in fasting man.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, B M; Culebras, J M; Sim, A J; Ball, M R; Moore, F D

    1977-10-01

    Data are presented on the metabolic and endocrine effects of intravenous infusions in normal fasting man observed under highly controlled conditions over a period of six to eight days duration. There are comparative data on a variety of intravenous feeding programs. The data on total starvation are based on studies from the literature, some of which were carried out in this laboratory. The data on low dose glucose, high dose glucose, glycerol, fat emulsion, and amino acids, each given separately, demonstrate changes seen with simple infusion of a single substrate in fasting. These data are now compared with the utilization of amino acid infusions when accompanied by low dose glucose, high dose glucose, glycerol, and fat emulsion. In all, nine experimental intravenous feeding programs are presented, based on data from 35 subjects observed over a total of 370 subject-days. The findings show a strong interaction between glucose or lipid and protein metabolism. In fasting, glucose had protein sparing effect, most evident when given at high dose. Glycerol, in an amount equal to that contained in 2000 ml of ten per cent fat emulsion, had a mild protein sparing effect. Fat emulsion was no more effective. When amino acids were given alone, normal fasting human subjects were always in negative nitrogen balance with the daily nitrogen loss half that seen in starvation alone. Although amino acids given alone have a protein sparing effect, this is accomplished only at the expense of a high nitrogen excretion including an amount equivalent to the entire infusion plus an additional loss from the body's native proteins. The provision of energy yielding non-protein substrates with the amino acids markedly improved nitrogen economy in the following order: glycerol, low dose glucose, fat emulsion and high dose glucose. When caloric provision with glucose approached the isocaloric level for normal diet, the utilization of amino acids was maximized. When given with amino acids, fat

  6. Is Serum Uric Acid Level Correlated with Erectile Dysfunction in Coronary Artery Disease Patients?

    PubMed

    Salavati, Alborz; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Allameh, Farzad; Alizadeh, Farimah; Namdari, Farshad; Hosseinian, Mehdi; Salimi, Elaheh; Heidari, Fariba; Pourmand, Gholamreza

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and vascular insufficiency are consequences of modern lifestyle, and vasogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the leading causes of sexual dysfunction which could be prevented like ischemic heart disease if the risk factors are discovered and managed. Seventy-five men scheduled for coronary angiography were asked to fill out the IIEF5 questionnaire and underwent serum lipoprotein-a, uric acid, lipid profile, testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), dehyderoepiandrostendion sulfate (DHEAS) tests; and the results were compared with those of erectile dysfunction patients with and without coronary artery disease. Ten out of 32 CAD patients (30%) and 6 of 43 normal coronary men had ED Prevalence (P=0.04). The average serum uric acid in ED patients with normal coronary was 5.6 (± 0.68) 6.5 ±078 mg/dl in ED patients of CAD group P=0.034. Men with both ED and CAD had significantly higher levels of lipoprotein-a compared to those CAD patients with normal sexual function. Higher uric acid and lipoprotein-a levels are correlated with the presence of ED in patients with CAD. PMID:27107521

  7. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Masaki; Brush, Richard S; Elliott, Michael H; Wicker, Lea D; Henry, Kimberly R; Anderson, Robert E

    2009-05-01

    The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and liver demonstrated significantly lower n-6/n-3 ratios and higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in fat-1-SFO compared with wt-SFO. When mice were exposed to light stress: 1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was reduced; 2) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were lower; 3) the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells was greater; and 4) modification of retinal proteins by 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation was increased in both fat-1-SFO and wt mice fed a regular lab chow diet compared with wt-SFO. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of DHA, the degree of n-3 PUFA lipid peroxidation, and the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. In mice not exposed to intense light, the reduction in DHA resulted in reduced efficacy in phototransduction gain steps, while no differences in the retinal morphology or retinal biochemistry. These results highlight the dual roles of DHA in cellular physiology and pathology. PMID:19023138

  8. Amino acid and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Buyukuysal, Rifat Levent; Gelisken, Oner; Buyukuysal, Cagatay; Can, Basak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the concentrations of amino acids and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in subretinal fluid (SRF) of cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The relevance of the results with postoperative anatomic and functional success in RRD was investigated. Methods Fifty-three patients were included in this prospective study. The study group consisted of 46 patients who had scleral buckling surgery with the diagnosis of RRD, and SRF was obtained during the surgery. The control specimens consisted of vitreous samples of seven patients who were diagnosed with pars plana vitrectomy without RRD. Study cases were divided into three groups, corresponding to the duration of retinal detachment. Clinical characteristics, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomic status at month 6, were recorded. Concentrations of 15 selected amino acids were quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography, and VEGF levels were measured with enzyme immunoassay. Results When compared with the control group, SRF concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and glycine increased significantly in the study group (p<0.05). Statistical analysis showed that concentrations of alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine decreased (p<0.05). SRF levels of glutamine, taurine, and serine had no significant change. SRF VEGF levels were significantly higher than the vitreous samples of the controls (p<0.001). Time-dependent changes and interactions between VEGF and amino acids were observed. There was no correlation between the concentrations of amino acids or VEGF with the parameters of BCVA and anatomical success. Conclusions Significant changes occur in concentrations of amino acids and VEGF in SRF of cases with RRD. Our results suggest that several mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology. PMID:25352742

  9. 17β-estradiol increases liver and serum docosahexaenoic acid in mice fed varying levels of α-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julie K; Kharotia, Shikhil; Wiggins, Ashleigh K A; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Jianmin; Bazinet, Richard P; Thompson, Lilian U

    2014-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is considered to be important for cardiac and brain function, and 17β-estradiol (E2) appears to increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into DHA. However, the effect of varying ALA intake on the positive effect of E2 on DHA synthesis is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E2 supplementation on tissue and serum fatty acids in mice fed a low-ALA corn oil-based diet (CO, providing 0.6 % fatty acids as ALA) or a high ALA flaxseed meal-based diet (FS, providing 11.2 % ALA). Ovariectomized mice were implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet at 3 weeks of age and half the mice had the pellet removed at 7 weeks of age. Mice were then randomized onto either the CO or FS diet. After 4 weeks, the DHA concentration was measured in serum, liver and brain. A significant main effect of E2 was found for liver and serum DHA, corresponding to 25 and 15 % higher DHA in livers of CO and FS rats, respectively, and 19 and 13 % in serum of CO and FS rats, respectively, compared to unsupplemented mice. There was no effect of E2 on brain DHA. E2 results in higher DHA in serum and liver, at both levels of dietary ALA investigated presently, suggesting that higher ALA intake may result in higher DHA in individuals with higher E2 status. PMID:24913495

  10. Serum uric acid levels in patients with infections of central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Min; Wang, Xuan; Yi, Huan; Xu, Li; Zhong, Xiu-Feng; Peng, Fu-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The lower levels of serum uric acid (UA) correlated with meningitis have been reported. However, comparison of UA levels among different kinds of infections of central nervous system (CNS) and changes of UA levels before and after treatment are unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the antioxidant status of serum UA in five common types of CNS infections. We retrospectively evaluated serum UA levels of 399 patients with different types of CNS infections including viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis (VM), brain cysticercosis (BC), tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis (TM), cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis (CM) and bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis (BM), and 119 healthy controls. The changes of serum UA were examined and analyzed. The serum levels of UA in patients with CNS infections were significantly lower than those in normal subjects and among in TM, CM and BM groups were apparently lower when compared with VM and BC groups; otherwise, after effective therapy, serum UA levels were obviously higher than before. Our findings showed that patients with CNS infections had lower serum UA levels, which was independent of the classification and the serum UA levels increased obviously after valid treatment, the variation of UA levels might be considered as an indicator of clinical curative effect in patients with CNS infections. PMID:26612048

  11. Effects of different fatty acid chain lengths on fatty acid oxidation-related protein expression levels in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Rie; Masuda, Kazumi; Sakata, Susumu; Nakatani, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles can adapt to dietary interventions that affect energy metabolism. Dietary intake of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) enhances mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids (FAO) in type IIa skeletal muscle fibers. However, the effect of MCFAs diet on mitochondrial or cytoplasmic FAO-related protein expression levels in different types of muscle fibers remains unclear. This study aims to examine the effects of a high-fat diet, containing MCFAs, on mitochondrial enzyme activities and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) levels in different types of skeletal muscle fibers. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following three dietary conditions: standard chow (SC, 12% of calories from fat), high-fat MCFA, or high-fat long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) diet (60% of calories from fat for both). The animals were provided food and water ad libitum for 4 weeks, following which citrate synthase (CS) activity and H-FABP concentration were analyzed. The epididymal fat pads (EFP) were significantly smaller in the MCFA group than in the LCFA group (p < 0.05). MCFA-fed group displayed an increase in CS activity compared with that observed in SC-fed controls in all types of skeletal muscle fibers (triceps, surface portion of gastrocnemius (gasS), deep portion of gastrocnemius (gasD), and soleus; p < 0.05,). H-FABP concentration was significantly higher in the LCFA group than in both the SC-fed and MCFA-fed groups (triceps, gasS, gasD, and soleus; p < 0.05,). However, no significant difference was observed in the H-FABP concentrations between the SC-fed and MCFA-fed groups. The results of this study showed that the MCFA diet can increase the expression of the mitochondrial enzyme CS, but not that of H-FABP, in both fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers, suggesting that H-FABP expression is dependent on the chain length of fatty acids in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscles cells. PMID:25766930

  12. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  13. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of phosphoric acid solution compared to other root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    PRADO, Maíra; da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; DUQUE, Thais Mageste; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; de ALMEIDA, José Flávio Affonso; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid has been suggested as an irrigant due to its effectiveness in removing the smear layer. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of a 37% phosphoric acid solution to other irrigants commonly used in endodontics. Material and Methods : The substances 37% phosphoric acid, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 2% chlorhexidine (solution and gel), and 5.25% NaOCl were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces meyeri, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella nigrescens according to the agar diffusion method. The cytotoxicity of the irrigants was determined by using the MTT assay. Results : Phosphoric acid presented higher antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested irrigants. With regard to the cell viability, this solution showed results similar to those with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution), whereas 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid showed higher cell viability compared to other irrigants. Conclusion : Phosphoric acid demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution). PMID:26018307

  14. A comparative study of serum protein-bound sialic acid in benign and malignant prostatic growth: possible role of oxidative stress in sialic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Goswami, K; Nandeesha, H; Koner, B C; Nandakumar, D N

    2007-01-01

    Benign and malignant prostatic growths are associated with an increase in sialoconjugates (e.g. prostate-specific antigen (PSA)) in blood. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of various malignancies. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress parameters and protein-bound sialic acid level in sera of prostatic tumor cases and to asses for any association between them. Sera samples were collected and estimated for carbonylation of proteins, lipid peroxidation products, PSA and protein-bound sialic acid from 10 patients in each group with prostatic carcinoma (Ca prostate) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with 10 healthy male subjects of similar age group as control. In carcinoma prostate cases, lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, protein-bound sialic acid and PSA were significantly increased compared to BPH and controls. There was significant association between oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxide and protein carbonyl) and sialoconjugates (PSA and protein-bound sialic acid). In BPH cases, serum lipid peroxides and protein-bound sialic acid were significantly higher in comparison to controls and protein carbonyls were correlated with protein-bound sialic acid. ROC curve for sialic acid showed that it can be used as a marker to differentiate carcinoma prostate from benign growth of prostate at a cutoff level of 11.38 mug/mg protein with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80%. We conclude that oxidative stress might be associated with the degree of sialylation of protein and graded changes in these parameters possibly unveil the pathogenic demarcation from benign to malignant condition of prostate. PMID:17404581

  15. Level of Anxiety among Two Genders Appearing for National Level Test: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zamirullah; Ahmed, Waseem; Khan, Naseem Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental, emotional and behavioral problem that occurs during exam. University students suffer to some levels of study anxiety, such as; have new experiences, environment and situation. Study anxiety is a real phenomenon. The prevalence of study anxiety has been acknowledged by students. An attempt has been made…

  16. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia. PMID:27274867

  17. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia. PMID:27274867

  18. Determination of trans fatty acid levels by FTIR in processed foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Justine; Barr, Daniel; Sinclair, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge about trans fatty acid levels in processed foods available in Australia, this study aimed to determine the levels of TFA in selected food items known to be sources of TFA from previously published studies. Food items (n=92) that contain vegetable oil and a total fat content greater than 5% were included. This criterion was used in conjunction with a review of similar studies where food items were found to contain high levels of trans fatty acids. Lipids were extracted using solvents. Gravimetric methods were used to determine total fat content and trans fatty acid levels were quantified by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. High levels of trans fatty acids were found in certain items in the Australian food supply, with a high degree of variability. Of the samples analysed, 13 contained greater than 1 g of trans fatty acids per serving size, the highest value was 8.1 g/serving. Apart from when the nutrition information panel states that the content is less than a designated low level, food labels sold in Australia do not indicate trans fatty acid levels. We suggested that health authorities seek ways to assist consumers to limit their intakes of trans fatty acids. PMID:18818158

  19. Serum uric acid levels in patients with myasthenia gravis are inversely correlated with disability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dehao; Weng, Yiyun; Lin, Haihua; Xie, Feiyan; Yin, Fang; Lou, Kangliang; Zhou, Xuan; Han, Yixiang; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid (UA), the final product of purine metabolism, has been reported to be reduced in patients with various neurological disorders and is considered to be a possible indicator for monitoring the disability and progression of multiple sclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether there is a close relationship between UA and myasthenia gravis (MG), or whether UA is primarily deficient or secondarily reduced because of its peroxynitrite scavenging activity. We investigated the correlation between serum UA levels and the clinical characteristics of MG. We assessed 338 serum UA levels obtained in 135 patients with MG, 47 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 156 healthy controls. In addition, we compared serum UA levels when MG patients were stratified according to disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, age of onset, duration, and thymus histology (by means of MRI or computed tomography). MG patients had significantly lower serum UA levels than the controls (P<0.001). Moreover, UA levels in patients with MG were inversely correlated with disease activity and disease progression (P=0.013). However, UA levels did not correlate significantly with disease duration, age of onset, and thymus histology. Our findings suggest that serum level of UA was reduced in patients with MG and serum UA might be considered a surrogate biomarker of MG disability and progression. PMID:26836463

  20. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  1. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  2. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  3. Comparative metabolomics analysis of docosahexaenoic acid fermentation processes by Schizochytrium sp. under different oxygen availability conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Ren, Lu-Jing; Sun, Guan-Nan; Qu, Liang; Huang, He

    2013-05-01

    The intracellular metabolic profile characterization of Schizochytrium sp. throughout docosahexaenoic acid fermentation was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Metabolite profiles originating from Schizochytrium sp. under normal and limited oxygen supply conditions were distinctive and distinguished by principal components analysis (PCA). A total of more than 60 intracellular metabolites were detected and quantified with the levels of some metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism varying throughout both processes. Both fermentation processes were differentiated into three main phases by principal components analysis. Potential biomarkers responsible for distinguishing the different fermentation phases were identified as glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, and glucose. In addition, alanine, glutamic acid, glucose, inositol, ornithine, and galactose were found to make great contribution for dry cell weight and fatty acid composition during normal and limited oxygen supply fermentations. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of succinate and several amino acids in cells of limited oxygen supply fermentation revealed that they might play important roles in resisting oxygen deficiency and increasing DHA synthesis during the lipid accumulation. These findings provide novel insights into the metabolomic characteristics during docosahexaenoic acid fermentation processes by Schizochytrium sp. PMID:23586678

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency alters levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jadavji, N.M.; Wieske, F.; Dirnagl, U.; Winter, C.

    2015-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme key regulator in folate metabolism. Deficiencies in MTHFR result in increased levels of homocysteine, which leads to reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). In the brain, SAM donates methyl groups to catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which is involved in neurotransmitter analysis. Using the MTHFR-deficient mouse model the purpose of this study was to investigate levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and amino acid levels in brain tissue. MTHFR deficiency affected levels of both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in within the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mthfr−/− mice had reduced levels of glutamate in the amygdala and γ-aminobutyric acid in the thalamus. The excitatory mechanisms of homocysteine through activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in brain tissue might alter levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid. PMID:26937386

  5. Association Between Serum Levels of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein and Free Thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Shih, Shyang-Ron; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) has been shown to be a biomarker of body weight change and atherosclerosis. Changes in thyroid function are associated with changes in body weight and risks of cardiovascular diseases. The association between AFABP and thyroid function status has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the serum AFABP concentrations in hyperthyroid patients and those in euthyroid individuals, and to evaluate the associations between serum AFABP and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. For this study, 30 hyperthyroid patients and 30 euthyroid individuals at a referral medical center were recruited. The patients with hyperthyroidism were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated. No medication was given to the euthyroid individuals. The body weight, body mass index, thyroid function, serum levels of AFABP, and biochemical data of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Associations between AFABP and fT4 levels were also analyzed. At the baseline, the hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum AFABP levels than the euthyroid individuals (median [Q1, Q3]: 22.8 [19.4, 30.6] ng/mL vs 18.6 [15.3, 23.2] ng/mL; P = 0.038). With the antithyroid regimens, the AFABP serum levels of the hyperthyroid patients decreased to 16.6 (15.0, 23.9) ng/mL at the 6th month. No difference in the AFABP level was found between the hyperthyroid and the euthyroid groups at the 6th month. At baseline, sex (female vs male, ß = 7.65, P = 0.022) and fT4 level (ß = 2.51, P = 0.018) were significantly associated with AFABP levels in the univariate regression analysis. At the 6th month, sex and fT4 level (ß = 8.09, P < 0.001 and ß = 3.61, P = 0.005, respectively) were also significantly associated with AFABP levels. The associations between sex and fT4 level with AFABP levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both at baseline and at

  6. A comparative study on glycerol metabolism to erythritol and citric acid in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ludwika; Rakicka, Magdalena; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Rywińska, Anita

    2014-09-01

    Citric acid and erythritol biosynthesis from pure and crude glycerol by three acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast was investigated in batch cultures in a wide pH range (3.0-6.5). Citric acid biosynthesis was the most effective at pH 5.0-5.5 in the case of Wratislavia 1.31 and Wratislavia AWG7. With a decreasing pH value, the direction of biosynthesis changed into erythritol synthesis accompanied by low production of citric acid. Pathways of glycerol conversion into erythritol and citric acid were investigated in Wratislavia K1 cells. Enzymatic activity was compared in cultures run at pH 3.0 and 4.5, that is, under conditions promoting the production of erythritol and citric acid, respectively. The effect of pH value (3.0 and 4.5) and NaCl presence on the extracellular production and intracellular accumulation of citric acid and erythritol was compared as well. Low pH and NaCl resulted in diminished activity of glycerol kinase, whereas such conditions stimulated the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The presence of NaCl strongly influenced enzymes activity - the effective erythritol production was correlated with a high activity of transketolase and erythrose reductase. Therefore, presented results confirmed that transketolase and erythrose reductase are involved in the overproduction of erythritol in the cells of Y. lipolytica yeast. PMID:25041612

  7. System-level understanding of the potential acid-tolerance components of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 under extreme acid stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2015-09-01

    In previous study, two extremely acidophilic strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 (collection site: bioleaching leachate) and ZJJN-5 (collection site: bioleaching wastewater) were isolated from a typical industrial bio-heap in China. Here, we unraveled the potential acid-tolerance components of ZJJN-3 by comparing the physiological differences with ZJJN-5 under different acid stresses. The parameters used for comparison included intracellular pH (pHin), capsule morphology, fatty acid composition of cell membrane, transcription of key molecular chaperones, H(+)-ATPase activities and NAD(+)/NADH ratio. It was indicated that the acid-tolerance of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 was systematically regulated. Capsule first thickened and then shed off along with increased acid stress. Cell membrane maintained the intracellular stability by up-regulating the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acids. Meanwhile, the transcription of key repair molecular chaperones (GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ) was up-regulated by 2.2-3.5 folds for ensuring the proper folding of peptide. Moreover, low pHin promoted ZJJN-3 to biosynthesize more H(+)-ATPase for pumping H(+) out of cells. Furthermore, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio increased due to the decreased H(+) concentration. Based on the above physiological analysis, the potential acid-tolerance components of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 were first proposed and it would be useful for better understanding how these extremophiles responded to the high acid stress. PMID:26264736

  8. Effect of fluoride exposure on serum glycoprotein pattern and sialic acid level in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Gulay; Cenesiz, Sena; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Nisbet, Ozlem; Nisbet, Cevat; Cenesiz, Metin; Guvenc, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the effects of fluoride exposure on the protein profile, glycoprotein pattern, and total sialic acid concentration of serum in rabbits. For this aim; 20 healthy New Zealand rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups each with ten animals according to their weighing: control group and experimental group. The rabbits in control group were given drinking tap water containing 0.29 mg/l sodium fluoride and experimental group received the same tap water to which was added 40 mg/l sodium fluoride for 70 days. Blood samples were taken from each rabbit on day 70. Serum fluoride concentrations were measured by a fluoride-specific ion electrode in serum. The fluoride levels in the serum were found as 18.4 (+/-1.58) microg/L in control and 301.3 (+/-52.18) microg/L in fluoride exposed rabbits. The sialic acid levels were found as 69.2 (+/-0.32) mg/dL in control and 43.4 (+/-0.13) mg/dL in fluoride exposed group. The electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins, glycoproteins, and total sialic acid concentration were determined. Fifteen different protein fractions with molecular weights ranging from 22 to 249 kDa were displayed in the serum protein electrophoretic gel of both groups. The raw concentrations of the protein fractions decreased in fluoride exposed rabbits as compared with the control rabbits. The serum glycoprotein pattern revealed seven major protein bands from 47 to 167 kDa in experimental and control groups. The slight decrease of raw concentration of the protein bands in glycoprotein pattern of serum was observed in fluoride toxication comparing to control. The results suggest that serum TSA determination and serum protein electrophoresis can be used to evaluate prognosis of fluoride exposure as a supplementary laboratory test in combination with clinical and other laboratory findings of fluorosis. PMID:19904501

  9. Comparative Effectiveness on Survival of Zoledronic Acid versus Pamidronate in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, KM; Gage, B; Luo, S; Weilbaecher, K; Tomasson, M; Vij, R; Colditz, G; Carson, K

    2015-01-01

    Zoledronic acid and pamidronate are the two bisphosphonates approved to reduce multiple myeloma skeletal complications in the United States. Little prior evidence exists comparing survival outcomes between the two. We evaluated the incidence of skeletal related events and overall survival in myeloma patients treated with zoledronic acid versus pamidronate using a cohort of 1,018 United States Veterans. At median follow-up of 26.9 months, patients receiving zoledronic acid had a 22% reduction in risk of death compared to pamidronate (hazard ratio (HR) 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67–0.92). The benefit persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Adjusted Cox modeling with inverse probability weighting and propensity score matching supported these findings. Zoledronic acid was also associated with a 25% decrease in skeletal-related events. Zoledronic acid is associated with increased overall survival and decreased skeletal related events compared to pamidronate in patients with multiple myeloma and should become the preferred bisphosphonate. PMID:24844358

  10. Hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid inhibit histone deacetylase at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela I; Kim, Dong Hoon; Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Cho, Yoon Sun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA, 1), an inhibitor of IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and a latent PPARgamma agonist, is used as an effective immunosuppressant for clinical transplantation and recently entered clinical trials in advanced multiple myeloma patients. On the other hand, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a non-specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. MPA seemed to bear a cap, a linker, and a weak metal-binding site as a latent inhibitor of HDAC. Therefore, the hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid having an effective metal-binding site, mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (MPHA, 2), 7-O-acetyl mycophenolic acid (7-O-Ac MPHA, 3), and 7-O-lauroyl mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (7-O-L MPHA, 4) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds inhibited histone deacetylase with IC50 values of 1, 0.9 and 0.5 microM, and cell proliferation at concentrations of 2, 1.5 and 1 microM, respectively. PMID:18838793

  11. Comparative study of humic acid removal and floc characteristics by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation.

    PubMed

    Semerjian, Lucy; Damaj, Ahmad; Salam, Darine

    2015-11-01

    The current study aims at investigating the efficiency of electrocoagulation for the removal of humic acid from contaminated waters. In parallel, conventional chemical coagulation was conducted to asses humic acid removal patterns. The effect of varying contributing parameters (matrix pH, humic acid concentration, type of electrode (aluminum vs. iron), current density, solution conductivity, and distance between electrodes) was considered to optimize the electrocoagulation process for the best attainable humic acid removal efficiencies. Optimum removals were recorded at pH of 5.0-5.5, an electrical conductivity of 3000 μS/cm at 25 °C, and an electrode distance of 1 cm for both electrode types. With aluminum electrodes, a current density of 0.05 mA/cm2 outperformed 0.1 mA/cm2 yet not higher densities, whereas a current density of 0.8 mA/cm2 was needed for iron electrodes to exhibit comparable performance. With both electrode types, higher initial humic acid concentrations were removed at a slower rate but ultimately attained almost complete removals. On the other hand, the best humic acid removals (∼90%) by chemical coagulation were achieved at 4 mg/L for both coagulants. Also, higher removals were attained at elevated initial humic acid concentrations. Humic acid removals of 90% or higher at an initial HA concentration of 40 mg/L were exhibited, yet alum performed better at the highest experimented concentration. It was evident that iron flocs were larger, denser, and more geometrical in shape compared to aluminum flocs. PMID:26439123

  12. Uric acid level and elevated blood pressure in US adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Lauren F; Navas-Acien, Ana; Brady, Tammy M; Miller, Edgar R; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Uric acid is associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults, including chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and hypertension. We examined the association between uric acid and elevated blood pressure in a large, nationally representative cohort of US adolescents, a population with a relatively low prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Among 6036 adolescents 12 to 17 years of age examined in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the mean age was 14.5 years, 17% were obese (body mass index: ≥95th percentile), and 3.3% had elevated blood pressure. Mean serum uric acid level was 5.0 mg/dL, and 34% had a uric acid level ≥5.5 mg/dL. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index percentile, the odds ratio of elevated blood pressure, defined as a systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile for age, sex, and height, for each 0.1-mg/dL increase in uric acid level was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.16-1.65). Compared with <5.5 mg/dL, participants with a uric acid level ≥5.5 mg/dL had a 2.03 times higher odds of having elevated blood pressure (95% CI: 1.38-3.00). In conclusion, increasing levels of serum uric acid are associated with elevated blood pressure in healthy US adolescents. Additional prospective studies and clinical trials are needed to determine whether uric acid is merely a marker in a complex metabolic pathway or causal of hypertension and, thus, a potential screening and therapeutic target. PMID:22353609

  13. Extra virgin olive oil modulates brain docosahexaenoic acid level and oxidative damage caused by 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Amel, Nakbi; Wafa, Tayeb; Samia, Dabbou; Yousra, Belaid; Issam, Chargui; Cheraif, Imed; Attia, Nebil; Mohamed, Hammami

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathomechanism of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disorders and many others. This study sought to verify whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) exerted a brain protective effect against the oxidative stress caused by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) pesticide at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. 2,4-D, EVOO and its fractions were administered to rats by gavages for four consecutive weeks. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring brain lipid peroxide level, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidant enzyme activities and fatty acid composition. 2,4-D induced a decrease in both plasma and brain acetylcholinesterase activity and a rise in Brain TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level and antioxidant enzyme activities compared with the control group. These changes were partly reversed by either EVOO or its fractions oral administration to 2,4-D treated rats. EVOO enhanced a neuroprotective effect evaluated by the restoration of brain fatty acid composition especially the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Our results indicate that EVOO exerts a neuroprotective activity against oxidative damage in brain induced by 2,4-D, which could be attributed to its antioxidative property. PMID:27570270

  14. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI. PMID:27003900

  15. Human Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Increased Plasma Levels of 12α-Hydroxylated Bile Acids

    PubMed Central

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Astiarraga, Brenno; Camastra, Stefania; Accili, Domenico; Ferrannini, Ele

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) exert pleiotropic metabolic effects, and physicochemical properties of different BAs affect their function. In rodents, insulin regulates BA composition, in part by regulating the BA 12α-hydroxylase CYP8B1. However, it is unclear whether a similar effect occurs in humans. To address this question, we examined the relationship between clamp-measured insulin sensitivity and plasma BA composition in a cohort of 200 healthy subjects and 35 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. In healthy subjects, insulin resistance (IR) was associated with increased 12α-hydroxylated BAs (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and their conjugated forms). Furthermore, ratios of 12α-hydroxylated/non–12α-hydroxylated BAs were associated with key features of IR, including higher insulin, proinsulin, glucose, glucagon, and triglyceride (TG) levels and lower HDL cholesterol. In T2D patients, BAs were nearly twofold elevated, and more hydrophobic, compared with healthy subjects, although we did not observe disproportionate increases in 12α-hydroxylated BAs. In multivariate analysis of the whole dataset, controlling for sex, age, BMI, and glucose tolerance status, higher 12α-hydroxy/non–12α-hydroxy BA ratios were associated with lower insulin sensitivity and higher plasma TGs. These findings suggest a role for 12α-hydroxylated BAs in metabolic abnormalities in the natural history of T2D and raise the possibility of developing insulin-sensitizing therapeutics based on manipulations of BA composition. PMID:23884887

  16. Hippuric Acid Levels in Paint Workers at Steel Furniture Manufacturers in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine hippuric acid levels in urine samples, airborne toluene levels, acute and chronic neurological symptoms, and to describe any correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene. Methods The hippuric acid concentration in the urine of 87 paint workers exposed to toluene at work (exposed group), and 87 nonexposed people (control group) was studied. Study participants were selected from similar factories in the same region. Urine samples were collected at the end of a shift and analyzed for hippuric acid by high performance liquid chromatography. Air samples for the estimation of toluene exposure were collected with diffusive personal samplers and the toluene quantified using gas–liquid chromatography. The two groups were also interviewed and observed about their work practices and health. Results The median of the 87 airborne toluene levels was 55 ppm (range, 12–198 ppm). The median urinary hippuric acid level was 800 mg/g creatinine (range, 90–2547 mg/g creatinine). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between airborne toluene exposure and urine hippuric acid levels (r = 0.548, p < 0.01). Workers with acute symptoms had significantly higher hippuric acid levels than those who did not (p < 0.05). It was concluded that there was a significant correlation between toluene exposure, hippuric acid levels, and health (p < 0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a significant correlation between workers exposure to toluene at work, their urine hippuric acid levels, and resulting symptoms of poor health. Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required at these workplaces. There was good correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene levels. PMID:25516817

  17. [Comparative study on selenium and amino acids content in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Chen, Hai-Rong; Shen, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most important Chinese herbs. It is widely used in Asian medicine to improve impaired brain function and to treat headaches, and used to treat prostate cancer. It is also known to be anti-inflammatory and antifungal, and also seems to have antiviral properties, including possible effectiveness against HIV. Scutellaria baicalensis tea and other products are in development. In the present study, the content of selenium (Se) in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis was determined by fluorescence photometer. The contents of 18 kinds of amino acids in the leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis were determined with amino acids instruments. The results showed that the two kinds of leaves were rich in Se content, and the content of Se in planted Scutellaria baicalensis (0.051 microg x g(-1)) was not significantly different from that in wild one (0.051 microg x g(-1), alpha = 0.05). The amino acids, of which the total content was up to 14.62% and 10.25% separately, were rich in both planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. Among the 18 kinds of amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine were comparatively high in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. There are 8 kinds of amino acids essential to human body, which were higher in leaves of planted Scutellaria baicalensis than those of wild one. This study, for the first time, determined Se and amino acids content in Scutellaria baicalensis and concluded that the leaves of planted type have Se and amino acids content not lower or higher than that of wild type, and the planted type could be a good substitute of wild type in the development of Scutellaria baicalensis products. This study also provided useful data for explaining the multifunction of Scutellaria baicalensis and theological basis for developing its medical and edible value. PMID:19385241

  18. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  19. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  20. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids correlate with growth rate in plant cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Meï, Coline; Michaud, Morgane; Cussac, Mathilde; Albrieux, Catherine; Gros, Valérie; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A.; Jouhet, Juliette; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants, fatty acids (FAs) with 18 carbons (18C) represent about 70% of total FAs, the most abundant species being 18:2 and 18:3. These two polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) represent about 55% of total FAs in Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures, whereas 18:1 represents about 10%. The level of PUFAs may vary, depending on ill-defined factors. Here, we compared various sets of plant cell cultures and noticed a correlation between the growth rate of a cell population and the level of unsaturation of 18C FAs. These observations suggest that the final level of PUFAs might depend in part on the rate of cell division, and that FAD2 and FAD3 desaturases, which are respectively responsible for the formation of 18:2 and 18:3 on phospholipids, have limiting activities in fast-growing cultures. In plant cell culture, phosphate (Pi) deprivation is known to impair cell division and to trigger lipid remodeling. We observed that Pi starvation had no effect on the expression of FAD genes, and that the level of PUFAs in this situation was also correlated with the growth rate. Thus, the level of PUFAs appears as a hallmark in determining cell maturity and aging. PMID:26469123

  1. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Munson, Robert S.; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F.; Foster, Eric D.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. PMID:26729761

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced free fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liwei; Lee, Jaslyn Jie Lin; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Wei Ning

    2016-02-01

    The engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] was demonstrated to accumulate more free fatty acids (FFA) previously. Here, comparative proteomic analysis was performed to get a global overview of metabolic regulation in the strain. Over 500 proteins were identified, and 82 of those proteins were found to change significantly in the engineered strains. Proteins involved in glycolysis, acetate metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, respiration, transportation, and stress response were found to be upregulated in △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] as compared to the wild type. On the other hand, proteins involved in glycerol, ethanol, ergosterol, and cell wall synthesis were downregulated. Taken together with our metabolite analysis, our results showed that the disruption of Faa1 and Faa4 and expression of Acot5s in the engineered strain △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] not only relieved the feedback inhibition of fatty acyl-CoAs on fatty acid synthesis, but also caused a major metabolic rearrangement. The rearrangement redirected carbon flux toward the pathways which generate the essential substrates and cofactors for fatty acid synthesis, such as acetyl-CoA, ATP, and NADPH. Therefore, our results help shed light on the mechanism for the increased production of fatty acids in the engineered strains, which is useful in providing information for future studies in biofuel production. PMID:26450510

  3. [Comparative antioxidant action on the level of reactive oxygen species in normal and transformed fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Liublinskaia, O G; Kirpichnikova, K M; Gamaleĭ, I A

    2013-01-01

    We studied the changes in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal (3T3) and transformed (3T3-SV40) murine fibroblasts under the antioxidant action for 15 min using fluorescent probe carbo- xy-H2DCFDA. We have shown that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreased ROS level in both cellular types. Another antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), caused the prooxidant effects. Both ALA and DHLA in the concentration range of 0.1-1.25 mM increased ROS level in dose dependent manner in both cellular types. The ability of ALA and DHLA to activate hydrogen peroxide production is discussed. PMID:25509127

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat) Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression. PMID:24719886

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression. PMID:24719886

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Agnes; Mfilinge, Prosper; Limbu, Samwel M.; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F = 6.19,  P = 0.001). The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F = 0.652,  P = 0.583). The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. PMID:25610654

  7. Plasma Circulating Nucleic Acids Levels Increase According to the Morbidity of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Bernardo S.; Vitorino, Barbara L. F.; Coelho, Helena C.; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Santos, Marina L. S.; Campos, Fernanda M. F.; Brito, Cristiana F.; Fontes, Cor J.; Lacerda, Marcus V.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with severe and fatal disease, the identification of sensitive and reliable markers for vivax severity is crucial to improve patient care. Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been increasingly recognized as powerful diagnostic and prognostic tools for various inflammatory diseases and tumors as their plasma concentrations increase according to malignancy. Given the marked inflammatory status of P. vivax infection, we investigated here the usefulness of CNAs as biomarkers for malaria morbidity. Methods and Findings CNAs levels in plasma from twenty-one acute P. vivax malaria patients from the Brazilian Amazon and 14 malaria non-exposed healthy donors were quantified by two different methodologies: amplification of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genomic sequence by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR), and the fluorometric dsDNA quantification by Pico Green. CNAs levels were significantly increased in plasma from P. vivax patients as compared to healthy donors (p<0.0001). Importantly, plasma CNAs levels were strongly associated with vivax morbidity (p<0.0001), including a drop in platelet counts (p = 0.0021). These findings were further sustained when we assessed CNAS levels in plasma samples from 14 additional P. vivax patients of a different endemic area in Brazil, in which CNAS levels strongly correlated with thrombocytopenia (p = 0.0072). We further show that plasma CNAs levels decrease and reach physiological levels after antimalarial treatment. Although we found both host and parasite specific genomic sequences circulating in plasma, only host CNAs clearly reflected the clinical spectrum of P. vivax malaria. Conclusions Here, we provide the first evidence of increased plasma CNAs levels in malaria patients and reveal their potential as sensitive biomarkers for vivax malaria morbidity. PMID:21611202

  8. Comparative analysis of extreme acid survival in Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J; Lee, I S; Frey, J; Slonczewski, J L; Foster, J W

    1995-01-01

    Several members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined for differences in extreme acid survival strategies. A surprising degree of variety was found between three related genera. The minimum growth pH of Salmonella typhimurium was shown to be significantly lower (pH 4.0) than that of either Escherichia coli (pH 4.4) or Shigella flexneri (pH 4.8), yet E. coli and S. flexneri both survive exposure to lower pH levels (2 to 2.5) than S. typhimurium (pH 3.0) in complex medium. S. typhimurium and E. coli but not S. flexneri expressed low-pH-inducible log-phase and stationary-phase acid tolerance response (ATR) systems that function in minimal or complex medium to protect cells to pH 3.0. All of the organisms also expressed a pH-independent general stress resistance system that contributed to acid survival during stationary phase. E. coli and S. flexneri possessed several acid survival systems (termed acid resistance [AR]) that were not demonstrable in S. typhimurium. These additional AR systems protected cells to pH 2.5 and below but required supplementation of minimal medium for either induction or function. One acid-inducible AR system required oxidative growth in complex medium for expression but successfully protected cells to pH 2.5 in unsupplemented minimal medium, while two other AR systems important for fermentatively grown cells required the addition of either glutamate or arginine during pH 2.5 acid challenge. The arginine AR system was only observed in E. coli and required stationary-phase induction in acidified complex medium. The product of the adi locus, arginine decarboxylase, was responsible for arginine-based acid survival. PMID:7608084

  9. Genome level analysis of bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetigyata Pratap; Tiwari, Abhay; Bansal, Ankiti; Thakur, Shruti; Sharma, Garima; Gabrani, Reema

    2015-06-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides which are ribosomally synthesized by mainly all bacterial species. LABs (lactic acid bacteria) are a diverse group of bacteria that include around 20 genera of various species. Though LABs have a tremendous potential for production of anti-microbial peptides, this group of bacteria is still underexplored for bacteriocins. To study the diversity among bacteriocin encoding clusters and the putative bacteriocin precursors, genome mining was performed on 20 different species of LAB not reported to be bacteriocin producers. The phylogenetic tree of gyrB, rpoB, and 16S rRNA were constructed using MEGA6 software to analyze the diversity among strains. Putative bacteriocins operons identified were found to be diverse and were further characterized on the basis of physiochemical properties and the secondary structure. The presence of at least two cysteine residues in most of the observed putative bacteriocins leads to disulphide bond formation and provide stability. Our data suggests that LABs are prolific source of low molecular weight non modified peptides. PMID:25733445

  10. Reactivity, Selectivity, and Stability in Sulfenic Acid Detection: A Comparative Study of Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Probes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinayak; Paritala, Hanumantharao; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-05-18

    The comparative reaction efficiencies of currently used nucleophilic and electrophilic probes toward cysteine sulfenic acid have been thoroughly evaluated in two different settings-(i) a small molecule dipeptide based model and (ii) a recombinant protein model. We further evaluated the stability of corresponding thioether and sulfoxide adducts under reducing conditions which are commonly encountered during proteomic protocols and in cell analysis. Powered by the development of new cyclic and linear C-nucleophiles, the unsurpassed efficiency in the capture of sulfenic acid under competitive conditions is achieved and thus holds great promise as highly potent tools for activity-based sulfenome profiling. PMID:27123991

  11. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid concentration and zinc protoporphyrin level among people with low level of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Huan-hu; Chen, Jian-wei; Hao, Qiao-ling; Gu, Kang-ding; Zhu, Ye-xiang; Zhou, Yi-kai; Ye, Lin-xiang

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALAU) level and blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration to low blood lead (PbB) levels, these biomarkers were determined for all subjects enrolled from a rural area of southeast China where people had low levels of exposure to lead. The mean values of PbB, ALAD, ALAU and ZPP were 67.11 microg/L (SD: 1.654, range: 10.90-514.04), 339.66 nmol ml(-1)h(-1) (1.419, 78.33-793.13), 20.64 microg/L (1.603, 2.00-326.00), and 0.14 micromol/L (3.437, 0.01-2.26), respectively. ALAD was inversely associated with low levels of PbB. ZPP was inversely related to low levels of PbB but positively related to relatively higher levels of PbB. Alcohol drinking contributed to low ALAD in men. Women had higher ZPP than men. ALAU had no significant association with PbB. In conclusion, ALAD possibly has a non-linear relation with low to moderate levels of PbB. At moderate levels of PbB, ZPP increases with increasing levels of PbB. ALAU is not suitable as an indicator for low levels of lead exposure. PMID:19733117

  12. A Comparative Study of Student Satisfaction Level in Distance Learning and Live Classroom at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Azhar; Mahmood, Sheikh Tariq; Malik, Allah Bakhsh

    2012-01-01

    The technology has embraced the innovative learning methodologies. Distance Learning has taken the place of traditional face-to-face educational environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of student satisfaction of graduate distance learning educational psychology course to a traditional classroom educational psychology course…

  13. Changes in Metabolite Levels in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and the Regulation of Malic Acid Accumulation in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, W; McAulay, A

    1977-03-01

    Changes in glucose-6-P, fructose-6-P, fructose-1,6-diP, 6-phospho-gluconate, phosphoenolpyruvate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and pyruvate levels in the leaves of the Crassulacean plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hammet et Perrier were measured enzymically during transitions from CO(2)-free air to air, air to CO(2)-free air, and throughout the course of acid accumulation in darkness. The data are discussed in terms of the involvement of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in malic acid synthesis and in terms of the regulation of the commencement of malic acid synthesis and accumulation through the effects of CO(2) on storage carbohydrate mobilization and its termination through the effects of malic acid on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. PMID:16659872

  14. Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan Manuel; Aguilera, José; Abdala, Roberto; Sánchez, Purificación; Figueroa, Félix L; Herrera, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Trans-urocanic acid is a major chromophore for ultraviolet (UV) radiation in human epidermis. The UV induces photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (tUCA) form to cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and has been reported as an important mediator in the immunosuppression induced by UV. This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development. This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls. The UCA isomers were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins. In contrast, the percentage of cUCA was higher in photoexposed body sites. Maximal levels of cUCA were found in cheek, forehead and forearm and lower levels in abdomen and thigh. No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin. However, differences were found in relation between isomers. Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%). These results suggest that the UV radiation exposure, a main factor in development of SCC can be mediated, apart from direct effect to cells (DNA damage), by immunosuppression pathways mediated by high production of cUCA. PMID:18312386

  15. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid and other medium-chain fatty acids acutely reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pishan; Orabi, Benoit; Deranieh, Rania M.; Dham, Manik; Hoeller, Oliver; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Greenberg, Miriam L.; Walker, Matthew C.; Williams, Robin S. B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In our current study, we show that the reduction in phosphoinositide [PtdInsP (also known as PIP) and PtdInsP2 (also known as PIP2)] production caused by VPA is acute and dose dependent, and that this effect occurs independently of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, inositol recycling and inositol synthesis. In characterising the structural requirements for this effect, we also identify a family of medium-chain fatty acids that show increased efficacy compared with VPA. Within the group of active compounds is a little-studied group previously associated with seizure control, and analysis of two of these compounds (nonanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid) shows around a threefold enhanced potency compared with VPA for protection in an in vitro acute rat seizure model. Together, our data show that VPA and a newly identified group of medium-chain fatty acids reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol regulation, and suggest the reinvestigation of these compounds as treatments for epilepsy. PMID:21876211

  16. A new viscosupplement based on partially hydrophobic hyaluronic acid: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Ivana; Chiessi, Ester; Galesso, Devis; Renier, Davide; Paradossi, Gaio

    2011-01-01

    A novel partially hydrophobized derivative of hyaluronic acid (HYADD® 4), containing a low number of C16 side-chains per polysaccharide backbone, provides injectable hydrogels stabilized by side-chain hydrophobic interactions. The rheological properties of Hymovis®, a physical hydrogel based on the hyaluronic acid derivative HYADD® 4, were evaluated using as reference a solution of the parent natural polysaccharide, hyaluronic acid. The rheological measurements were performed both in flow and oscillation regimes at the physiological frequency values of the knee, typically spanning the range from 0.5 Hz (walking frequency) to 3 Hz (running frequency). Moreover, the viscoelastic features of Hymovis® were compared with the market-available viscosupplementation products in view of its use in joint diseases.The different behavior of the investigated materials in crossover frequency measurements and in structure recovery experiments can be explained on the basis of the structural and dynamic properties of the polymeric systems. PMID:22433568

  17. Inhibitions of several antineoplastic drugs on serum sialic Acid levels in mice bearing tumors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Da-Yong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Ting-Ren; Wu, Hong-Ying; Xu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    Six murine tumors, including ascetic tumors HepA, EC, P388 leukemia, S180 and solid tumor S180, and Lewis lung carcinoma, were employed in this work. The free sialic acid concentrations in both blood and ascites were measured in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that the content of sialic acids in blood was increased in tumor growth and certain tumor types. Higher sialic acid content was observed in ascites than that present in blood. The influence of antineoplastic agents (vincristine, thiotepa, adriamycin, probimane, cisplatin, oxalysine, cortisone, nitrogen mustard, lycobetaine, Ara-C, harringtonine, and cyclophosphamide) on the content of sialic acids in mice blood bearing solid tumors of either S180 or Lewis lung carcinoma was observed. Different inhibitions of antineoplastic drugs on both tumor growth and serum sialic acid levels in mice bearing tumors were found. Among these antineoplastic drugs, probimane, cisplatin, nitrogen mustard, and lycobetaine were able to decrease the serum sialic acid levels in mice bearing tumors. Since these four antineoplastic drugs are all DNA chelating agents, it was proposed that the inhibition of tumor sialic acids by these drugs might be through the DNA template via two ways. Since we have found no effect of antineoplastic drugs on serum sialic acid levels in normal mice, this suggests that the inhibition of antineoplastic drugs on sialic acids is by tumor involvement. PMID:23641340

  18. Deletions of the SACPD-C locus elevate seed stearic acid levels but also result in fatty acid and morphological alterations in nitrogen fixing nodules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are the primary source of edible oil in the United States. Despite its widespread utility, soybean oil is oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent chemical hydrogenation, a process which also generates trans fats. An alternative to chemical hydrogenation is genetic modification of seed oil through identification and introgression of mutant alleles. One target for improvement is the elevation of a saturated fat with no negative cardiovascular impacts, stearic acid, which typically constitutes a minute portion of seed oil (~3%). Results We examined radiation induced soybean mutants with moderately increased stearic acid (10-15% of seed oil, ~3-5 X the levels in wild-type soybean seeds) via comparative whole genome hybridization and genetic analysis. The deletion of one SACPD isoform encoding gene (SACPD-C) was perfectly correlated with moderate elevation of seed stearic acid content. However, SACPD-C deletion lines were also found to have altered nodule fatty acid composition and grossly altered morphology. Despite these defects, overall nodule accumulation and nitrogen fixation were unaffected, at least under laboratory conditions. Conclusions Although no yield penalty has been reported for moderate elevated seed stearic acid content in soybean seeds, our results demonstrate that genetic alteration of seed traits can have unforeseen pleiotropic consequences. We have identified a role for fatty acid biosynthesis, and SACPD activity in particular, in the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:24886084

  19. Comparing the Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Vitex Agnus on Intrauterine Device Induced Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Yavarikia, Parisa; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hadavand Mirzaie, Samira; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Lutfi, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding. Methods: This was a double blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. It was conducted on 84 women with random allocation in to two groups of 42 treated with mefenamic acid and vitex agnus capsules taking three times a day during menstruation for four months. Data were collected by demographic questionnaire and Higham 5 stage chart (1 month before the treatment and 4 months during the treatment)., Paired t-test, independent t-test, chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measurements, and SPSS software were used to determine the results. Results: Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus significantly decreased bleeding. This decrease in month 4 was 52% in the mefenamic acid group and 47.6% in the vitex agnus group. The mean bleeding score changes was statistically significant between the two groups in the first three months and before the intervention. In the mefenamic acid group, the decreased bleeding was significantly more than the vitex agnus group. However, during the 4th month, the mean change was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus were both effective on IUD induced bleeding; however, mefenamic acid was more effective. PMID:25276733

  20. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M

    2016-04-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications. PMID:26906904

  1. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Linnes, J. C.; Rodriguez, N. M.; Liu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications. PMID:26906904

  2. Comparative study of electroless nickel film on different organic acids modified cuprammonium fabric (CF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Lu, Yinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nickel films were grown on citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA) and oxalic acid (OA) modified cuprammonium fabric (CF) substrates via electroless nickel deposition. The nickel films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) were also investigated to compare the properties of electroless nickel films. SEM images illustrated that the nickel film on MA modified CF substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of nickel nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of CA modified CF, the coverage of nickel nuclei on OA and MA modified CF substrate was very limited and the nickel particles size was too big. XRD analysis showed that the nickel films deposited on the different modified CF substrates had a structure with Ni (1 1 1) preferred orientation. All the nickel coatings via different acid modification were firmly adhered to the CF substrates, as demonstrated by an ultrasonic washing test. The result of tensile test indicated that the electroless nickel plating on CF has ability to strengthen the CF substrate while causes limited effect on tensile elongation. Moreover, the nickel film deposited on MA modified CF substrate showed more predominant in EMI SE than that deposited on CA or OA modified CF.

  3. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-01-01

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids. PMID:26899924

  4. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006–2015

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, M.; Dick, J.R.; Tocher, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids. PMID:26899924

  5. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  6. Transcriptome analysis highlights changes in the leaves of maize plants cultivated in acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al(3+).

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Lucia; Begcy, Kevin; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Jorge, Renato A; Menossi, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Soil acidity limits crop yields worldwide and is a common result of aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity, which is known to inhibit root growth. Here, we compared the transcriptome of leaves from maize seedlings grown under control conditions (soil without free Al) and under acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al. This study reports, for the first time, the complex transcriptional changes that occur in the leaves of maize plants grown in acidic soil with phytotoxic levels of Al. Our data indicate that 668 genes were differentially expressed in the leaves of plants grown in acidic soil, which is significantly greater than that observed in our previous work with roots. Genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes were upregulated, although no specific transporter of organic acids was differentially expressed in leaves. We also provide evidence for positive roles for auxin and brassinosteroids in Al tolerance, whereas gibberellin and jasmonate may have negative roles. Our data indicate that plant responses to acidic soil with high Al content are not restricted to the root; tolerance mechanisms are also displayed in the aerial parts of the plant, thus indicating that the entire plant responds to stress. PMID:25205121

  7. A Randomised, Open-label, Comparative Study of Tranexamic Acid Microinjections and Tranexamic Acid with Microneedling in Patients with Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Budamakuntla, Leelavathy; Loganathan, Eswari; Suresh, Deepak Hurkudli; Shanmugam, Sharavana; Suryanarayan, Shwetha; Dongare, Aparna; Venkataramiah, Lakshmi Dammaningala; Prabhu, Namitha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Although several treatment modalities are available, none is satisfactory. Aim: To compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) microinjections versus tranexamic acid with microneedling in melasma. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomised, open-label study with a sample size of 60; 30 in each treatment arms. Thirty patients were administered with localised microinjections of TA in one arm, and other 30 with TA with microneedling. The procedure was done at monthly intervals (0, 4 and 8 weeks) and followed up for three consecutive months. Clinical images were taken at each visit including modified Melasma Area Severity Index MASI scoring, patient global assessment and physician global assessment to assess the clinical response. Results: In the microinjection group, there was 35.72% improvement in the MASI score compared to 44.41% in the microneedling group, at the end of third follow-up visit. Six patients (26.09%) in the microinjections group, as compared to 12 patients (41.38%) in the microneedling group, showed more than 50% improvement. However, there were no major adverse events observed in both the treatment groups. Conclusions: On the basis of these results, TA can be used as potentially a new, effective, safe and promising therapeutic agent in melasma. The medication is easily available and affordable. Better therapeutic response to treatment in the microneedling group could be attributed to the deeper and uniform delivery of the medication through microchannels created by microneedling. PMID:24163529

  8. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403

  9. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from... Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent...

  10. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 3: Comparative Communities and Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah elementary school teachers to help their level 3 students meet the state's instructional objectives in the social studies. This particular student level emphasizes comparative communities and environments. The following disciplines are covered in the resource file: psychology, anthropology,…

  11. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega-3 to unhealthy levels.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Andersen, J R; Våge, V; Rajalahti, T; Mjøs, S A; Kvalheim, O M

    2016-08-01

    Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls. During the next 3 weeks of treatment, the FA levels in lifestyle patients were unchanged, while the weight loss continued at almost the same rate as in the first 3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and change of serum FA patterns were unrelated outcomes of the intervention for lifestyle patients. For bariatric patients, these processes were associated probably due to reduced dietary input and increased input from the patients' own fat deposits, causing a higher rate of weight loss and simultaneous reduction of the ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid. PMID:27334055

  12. Amino acid limitation induces down-regulation of WNT5a at transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zuguang; Chen Hong

    2009-01-23

    An aberrant WNT signaling contributes to the development and progression of multiple cancers. WNT5a is one of the WNT signaling molecules. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that amino acid deprivation induces changes in the WNT signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Results showed that targets of the amino acid response pathway, ATF3 and p21, were induced in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 during amino acid limitation. There was a significant decrease in the WNT5a mRNA level following amino acid deprivation. The down-regulation of WNT5a mRNA by amino acid deprivation is not due to mRNA destabilization. There is a reduction of nuclear {beta}-catenin protein level by amino acid limitation. Under amino acid limitation, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased and the blockage of ERK1/2 by the inhibitor U0126 partially restored WNT5a mRNA level. In conclusion, amino acid limitation in colon cancer cells induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which then down-regulates WNT5a expression.

  13. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  14. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  15. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders. PMID:26618358

  16. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  17. [Comparative genomics and evolutionary analysis of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Kai, Xia; Xinle, Liang; Yudong, Li

    2015-12-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a widespread adaptive immunity system that exists in most archaea and many bacteria against foreign DNA, such as phages, viruses and plasmids. In general, CRISPR system consists of direct repeat, leader, spacer and CRISPR-associated sequences. Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role in industrial fermentation of vinegar and bioelectrochemistry. To investigate the polymorphism and evolution pattern of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria, bioinformatic analyses were performed on 48 species from three main genera (Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter) with whole genome sequences available from the NCBI database. The results showed that the CRISPR system existed in 32 species of the 48 strains studied. Most of the CRISPR-Cas system in AAB belonged to type I CRISPR-Cas system (subtype E and C), but type II CRISPR-Cas system which contain cas9 gene was only found in the genus Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The repeat sequences of some CRISPR were highly conserved among species from different genera, and the leader sequences of some CRISPR possessed conservative motif, which was associated with regulated promoters. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of cas1 demonstrated that they were suitable for classification of species. The conservation of cas1 genes was associated with that of repeat sequences among different strains, suggesting they were subjected to similar functional constraints. Moreover, the number of spacer was positively correlated with the number of prophages and insertion sequences, indicating the acetic acid bacteria were continually invaded by new foreign DNA. The comparative analysis of CRISR loci in acetic acid bacteria provided the basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of different acetic acid tolerance and genome stability in acetic acid bacteria. PMID:26704949

  18. Significant association between parathyroid hormone and uric acid level in men

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima Nirwana, Soelaiman; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous reports of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy and of patients receiving teriparatide as antiosteoporotic treatment have suggested a plausible relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and uric acid. However, similar data at population level were lacking. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between PTH and uric acid in a group of apparently healthy Malaysian men. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and above, residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their body anthropometry was measured, and their fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The relationship between PTH and uric acid was analyzed using regression analysis. Results Increased serum PTH level was significantly associated with increased serum uric acid level (β=0.165; P=0.001). Increased PTH level was also significantly associated with the condition of hyperuricemia in the study population (odds ratio [OR], 1.045; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.075; P=0.002). All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, vitamin D, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Conclusion There is a significant positive relationship between PTH level and uric acid level in Malaysian men. This relationship and its clinical significance should be further investigated in a larger longitudinal study. PMID:26346636

  19. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  20. Comparative characterization of the deamidation of carboxylic acid deamidated wheat gluten by altering the processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lan; Han, Xueyue; Chen, Lin-Ping; Ni, Li; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical, structural and functional properties of citric-acid-deamidated wheat gluten at controlled degrees of deamidation (25%, 40% and 55%), which were obtained by using different acid concentrations (3.93×10(-5), 3.14×10(-3) and 2.36×10(-2)mol/L) and temperatures (70°C 2h, 90°C 1h and 110°C 40min), were compared. Various deamidation processing conditions leading to the same degree of deamidation resulted in proteins with different physicochemical and structural characteristics, as indicted by the degree of hydrolysis, Z-potential, surface hydrophobicity, particle size, SDS-PAGE results, SEC-HPLC results, intrinsic fluorescence and FTIR spectra. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis qualitatively indicated a significant effect of pH on protein deamidation. Three samples at 40% deamidation, which were produced by a moderate acid concentration, showed the best emulsifying and foaming properties. Processes conducted at greater than 90°C causing protein aggregation and at a high acid concentration rupturing peptide bonds, impaired protein quality. These findings demonstrated that a limited amount of H(+) could function well in the catalysis of the deamidation of amide groups without an excess of H(+), which hydrolyses peptide bonds in a stronger hydrothermal treatment. PMID:27211678

  1. Prednisone lowers serum uric acid levels in patients with decompensated heart failure by increasing renal uric acid clearance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhen, Yuzhi; Zhao, Qingzhen; Zhai, Jian-Long; Liu, Kunshen; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that large doses of prednisone could lower serum uric acid (SUA) in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF); however, the optimal dose of prednisone and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-eight patients with decompensated HF were randomized to receive standard HF care alone (n = 10) or with low-dose (15 mg/day, n = 8), medium-dose (30 mg/day, n = 10), or high-dose prednisone (60 mg/day, n = 10), for 10 days. At the end of the study, only high-dose prednisone significantly reduced SUA, whereas low- and medium-dose prednisone and standard HF care had no effect on SUA. The reduction in SUA in high-dose prednisone groups was associated with a significant increase in renal uric acid clearance. In conclusion, prednisone can reduce SUA levels by increasing renal uric acid clearance in patients with decompensated HF. PMID:27144905

  2. Ordering of p-n-alkoxybenzoic acids at phase transition temperatures: a comparative computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajeetha, Narayanan; Ojha, Durga Prasad; Pisipati, Venkata Gopala Krishna Murthy

    2006-01-01

    A comparative analysis of molecular ordering of nematogenic p-n-alkoxybenzoic acids has been carried out with respect to translatory and orientational motions for the acids with seven (7OBAC), eight (8OBAC), nine (9OBAC) and 10 (10OBAC) carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. The CNDO/2 method has been used to compute the net atomic charge and dipole moment components at each atomic center. Modified Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory with multicentered-multipole expansion method has been used to evaluate long-range intermolecular interactions while a '6-exp' potential function has been assumed for short-range interactions. The total interaction-energy values obtained by these computations were used to calculate the probability of each configuration at the phase-transition temperature using the Maxwell-Boltzmann formula. The flexibility of various configurations has been studied in terms of variation of probability due to small departures from the most probable configuration. A comparative picture of molecular parameters like total energy, binding energy and total dipole moment has been given. An attempt has been made to explain the nematogenicity of these acids in terms of their relative order with the molecular parameter introduced in this paper. PMID:16311756

  3. [Bactericide activity of cefadroxil comparated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefaclor and josamycin].

    PubMed

    Etesse-Carsenti, H; Caillon, J; Mondain, V; Durant, J; Bernard, E; Dellamonica, P; Drugeon, H B

    1991-09-01

    Betalactamase-producing organisms are responsible for an increasing number of ENT and lower respiratory tract infections. Or cephalosporins and the combination of amoxicillin with the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid are alternatives to ampicillin therapy. The killing activity of cefadroxil on the organisms most often responsible for ENT and respiratory infections was evaluated in vitro using a viable bacteria count method, comparatively with cefaclor, josamycin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Killing activity was found to be time-dependent for all the antimicrobial agents studied. Cefadroxil exhibited the same bactericidal effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae than the other agents. Haemophilus influenzae and an increasing number of Pneumococcus strains were resistant to josamycin which is therefore not appropriate for first-line therapy. As compared with amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefadroxil was less active on H. influenzae and more active on Staphylococcus aureus. Production of beta-lactamase failed to influence the killing activity of cefadroxil. These bacteriologic data, together with results of pharmacologic studies (long half-life and good penetration within tissues) can explain the clinical successes obtained with cefadroxil in ENT and lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:1758716

  4. Comparative Analysis of Human, Mouse, and Pig Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Gene Structures.

    PubMed

    Eun, Kiyoung; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Jeon, Hye-Min; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Hyunggee

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the coding and regulatory sequences of genes in different species provides information on whether proteins translated from genes have conserved functions or gene expressions are regulated by analogical mechanisms. Herein, we compared the coding and regulatory sequences of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) from humans, mice, and pigs. The GFAP gene encodes a class III intermediate filament protein expressed specifically in astrocytes of the central nervous system. On comparing the mRNA, regulatory region (promoter), and protein sequences of GFAP gene in silico, we found that GFAP mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), promoter, and amino acid sequences showed higher similarities between humans and pigs than between humans and mice. In addition, the promoter-luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that the pig GFAP promoter functioned in human astrocytes. Notably, the 1.8-kb promoter fragment upstream from transcription initiation site showed strongest transcriptional activity compared to 5.2-kb DNA fragment or other regions of GFAP promoter. We also found that pig GFAP mRNA and promoter activity increased in pig fibroblasts by human IL-1β treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulatory mechanisms and functions of pig genes might be more similar to those of humans than mice, indicating that pigs, particularly miniature pigs, are a useful model for studying human biological and pathological events. PMID:26913554

  5. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet. PMID:27153204

  6. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries. PMID:26431705

  7. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  8. The influence of fatty acids on theophylline binding to human serum albumin. Comparative fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Szkudlarek-Haśnik, A.; Zubik-Skupień, I.; Góra, A.; Dubas, M.; Korzonek-Szlacheta, I.; Wielkoszyński, T.; Żurawiński, W.; Sosada, K.

    2012-04-01

    Theophylline, popular diuretic, is used to treat asthma and bronchospasm. In blood it forms complexes with albumin, which is also the main transporter of fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to describe the influence of fatty acids (FA) on binding of theophylline (Th) to human serum albumin (HSA) in the high affinity binding sites. Binding parameters have been obtained on the basis of the fluorescence analysis. The data obtained for the complex of Th and natural human serum albumin (nHSA) obtained from blood of obese patients qualified for surgical removal of stomach was compared with our previous studies on the influence of FA on the complex of Th and commercially available defatted human serum albumin (dHSA).

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  10. Gender-dependent levels of hyaluronic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurodegenerative dementia.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrietta M; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Minthon, Lennart; Londos, Elisabet; Wennström, Malin

    2012-03-01

    Numerous reports over the years have described neuroinflammatory events and vascular changes in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Interestingly, recent reports from other research areas suggest that inflammatory and vascular processes are influenced by gender. These findings are intriguing from the perspective that women show a higher incidence of AD and warrant investigations on how gender influences various processes in neurodegenerative dementia. In the current study we measured the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma concentrations of hyaluroinic acid (HA), an adhesionmolecule known to regulate both vascular and inflammatory processes, in AD and DLB patients as well as in healthy elders. Our analysis showed that male AD and DLB patients had almost double the amount of HA compared to female patients whereas no gender differences were observed in the controls. Furthermore, we found that CSF levels of HA in foremost female AD patients correlated with various AD related biomarkers. Correlations between HA levels and markers of inflammation and vascular changes were only detected in female AD patients but in both male and female DLB patients. We conclude that HA may be linked to several pathological events present in AD, as reflected in CSF protein concentrations. The HA profile in CSF, but not in plasma, and associations to other markers appear to be gender-dependent which should be taken into account in clinical examinations and future biomarker studies. PMID:22191565

  11. Excessive versus physiologically relevant levels of retinoic acid in embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Bilal N; Downer, Natalie L; Kueh, Andrew J; Thomas, Tim; Voss, Anne K

    2014-06-01

    Over the past two decades, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been established as a valuable system to study the complex molecular events that underlie the collinear activation of Hox genes during development. When ESCs are induced to differentiate in response to retinoic acid (RA), Hox genes are transcriptionally activated in their chromosomal order, with the most 3' Hox genes activated first, sequentially followed by more 5' Hox genes. In contrast to the low levels of RA detected during gastrulation (∼33 nM), a time when Hox genes are induced during embryonic development, high levels of RA are used to study Hox gene activation in ESCs in vitro (1-10 µM). This compelled us to compare RA-induced ESC differentiation in vitro with Hox gene activation in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment of ESCs for 2 days with RA best mimics activation of Hox genes during embryonic development. Furthermore, we show that defects in Hox gene expression known to occur in embryos lacking the histone acetyltransferase MOZ (also called MYST3 or KAT6A) were masked in Moz-deficient ESCs when excessive RA (0.5-5 µM) was used. The role of MOZ in Hox gene activation was only evident when ESCs were differentiated at low concentrations of RA, namely 20 nM, which is similar to RA levels in vivo. Our results demonstrate that using RA at physiologically relevant levels to study the activation of Hox genes, more accurately reflects the molecular events during the early phase of Hox gene activation in vivo. PMID:25099890

  12. Triheptanoin partially restores levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hadera, Mussie G; Smeland, Olav B; McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

    2014-04-01

    Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anticonvulsant in various epilepsy models. It is thought to improve energy metabolism in the epileptic brain by re-filling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with C4-intermediates (anaplerosis). Here, we injected mice with [1,2-(13) C]glucose 3.5-4 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) fed either a control or triheptanoin diet. Amounts of metabolites and incorporations of (13) C were determined in extracts of cerebral cortices and hippocampal formation and enzyme activity and mRNA expression were quantified. The percentage enrichment with two (13) C atoms in malate, citrate, succinate, and GABA was reduced in hippocampal formation of control-fed SE compared with control mice. Except for succinate, these reductions were not found in triheptanoin-fed SE mice, indicating that triheptanoin prevented a decrease of TCA cycle capacity. Compared to those on control diet, triheptanoin-fed SE mice showed few changes in most other metabolite levels and their (13) C labeling. Reduced pyruvate carboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in forebrains and decreased [2,3-(13) C]aspartate amounts in cortex suggest a pyruvate carboxylation independent source of C-4 TCA cycle intermediates. Most likely anaplerosis was kept unchanged by carboxylation of propionyl-CoA derived from heptanoate. Further studies are proposed to fully understand triheptanoin's effects on neuroglial metabolism and interaction. PMID:24236946

  13. Influence of Dietary Selenium Species on Selenoamino Acid Levels in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Godin, Simon; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Prabhu, Philip Antony Jesu; Kaushik, Sachi; Médale, Françoise; Bouyssiere, Brice

    2015-07-22

    Two forms of selenium (Se) supplementation of fish feeds were compared in two different basal diets. A 12-week feeding trial was performed with rainbow trout fry using either a plant-based or a fish meal-based diet. Se yeast and selenite were used for Se supplementation. Total Se and Se speciation were determined in both diets and whole body of trout fry using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two selenoamino acids, selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenocysteine (SeCys), were determined in whole body of fry after enzymatic digestion using protease type XIV with a prior derivatization step in the case of SeCys. The plant-based basal diet was found to have a much lower total Se than the fish meal-based basal diet with concentrations of 496 and 1222 μg(Se) kg(-1), respectively. Dietary Se yeast had a higher ability to raise whole body Se compared to selenite. SeMet concentration in the fry was increased only in the case of Se yeast supplementation, whereas SeCys levels were similar at the end of the feeding trial for both Se supplemented forms. The results show that the fate of dietary Se in fry is highly dependent on the form brought through supplementation and that a plant-based diet clearly benefits from Se supplementation. PMID:26161943

  14. Plasma ascorbic acid level and erythrocyte fragility in preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ozan, H; Esmer, A; Kolsal, N; Copur, O U; Ediz, B

    1997-01-01

    An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the circulation is blamed to cause preeclampsia and eclampsia. In this study plasma ascorbic acid level was analysed in 13 eclamptic, 14 mild preeclamptic, 12 severe preeclamptic and 20 uncomplicated pregnancies to see whether there is any correlation with blood pressure, proteinuria, serum triglyceride level, erythrocyte fragility and leukocyte count. Plasma ascorbic acid level was normal and had no significant difference among the groups. Fasting serum triglyceride level was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group but it did not differ among the three study groups. Erythrocyte fragility was found to be increased in all three study groups. Blood leukocyte count was increased in the study groups, especially in the eclampsia group. However, plasma ascorbic acid level and erythrocyte fragility were found to have no significant correlation with blood pressure and proteinuria. It was concluded that though the ascorbic acid levels were normal in both the study and the control groups, erythrocyte fragility increased probably due to an elevation in peroxide and free radical levels in preeclampsia and eclampsia groups, but without any correlation with the severity of the clinical picture. PMID:9031958

  15. Fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids and bile acids as determinants of colonic mucosal cell proliferation in humans.

    PubMed

    Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna; Salvadori, Maddalena; Morozzi, Guido; Fabiani, Roberto; Cresci, Alberto; Orpianesi, Carla; Trallori, Giacomo; Russo, Antonio; Palli, Domenico

    2002-01-01

    We studied the correlation between fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), bile acids (BA), and colonic mucosal proliferation in humans on a free diet. Subjects [n = 43: 27 men and 16 women; 61 +/- 7 and 59 +/- 6 (SE) yr old, respectively] were outpatients who previously underwent resection of at least two sporadic colon polyps. Mucosal proliferation was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation in vitro in three colorectal biopsies obtained without cathartics and was expressed as labeling index (LI). BA were analyzed in feces by mass spectrometry and SCFA by gas chromatography. We found that increasing levels of BA in feces did not correlate with higher LI. On the contrary, higher levels of SCFA were significantly associated with lower LI in the colonic mucosa (P for trend = 0.02). In conclusion, in humans on a free diet, intestinal proliferation seems to be regulated by the levels of SCFA in feces and not by BA. Because a lower intestinal proliferation is associated with a decreased colon cancer risk, treatments or diets that increase colonic levels of SCFA might be beneficial for colonic mucosa. PMID:12416258

  16. Guanidinoacetic acid versus creatine for improved brain and muscle creatine levels: a superiority pilot trial in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan

    2016-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, we evaluated whether 4-week supplementation with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is superior to creatine in facilitating creatine levels in healthy men (n = 5). GAA (3.0 g/day) resulted in a more powerful rise (up to 16.2%) in tissue creatine levels in vastus medialis muscle, middle-cerebellar peduncle, and paracentral grey matter, as compared with creatine (P < 0.05). These results indicate that GAA as a preferred alternative to creatine for improved bioenergetics in energy-demanding tissues. PMID:27560540

  17. Comparative study of aluminum and copper transport and toxicity in an acid-tolerant freshwater green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.R.; Popescu, N.A.; Wood, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    A comparative study of the transport and toxicity of one nonessential metal (aluminum), and one essential metal (copper), has been performed with the acid-tolerant green alga Chlorella saccarophila. This organism was isolated from a naturally acidified lake and grows well in laboratory cultures at pH 3.0. Our results show that the fast-exchange ions Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Na/sup +/ offer some protection against both Al/sup 3 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ toxicity whereas K/sup +/ protects against Al/sup 3 +/ toxicity but enhances Cu/sup 2 +/ toxicity. Plasma emission spectroscopy shows that complexation of Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ to cell surfaces is important in preventing toxic cytoplasmic levels of these metals, both in culture media and in acid mine water. The aqueous ion chemistry for toxic metal uptake is simplified considerably in acidic conditions, where competing hydrolysis and precipitation reactions are eliminated. Therefore, simple competitive experiments can be performed quantitatively. 12 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  18. Comparative evaluation of salivary soluble CD44 levels in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumeet; Narayanswamy, Savitha; Ramesh, Alampalli Viswanathamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Inflammation, immunoactivation, and malignant diseases are associated with increased plasma levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44). Serum sCD44 has been recognized as a diagnostic marker in smoking-induced diseases. Aim: (1) To assess the levels of salivary sCD44 in periodontal health and disease. (2) To compare the levels of salivary sCD44 in smokers and nonsmokers. (3) To assess if salivary sCD44 levels could be used as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis. Setting and Design: A total of 60 patients were divided into three groups viz. Group A - healthy, Group B - aggressive periodontitis and Group C - chronic periodontitis (Subdivided into C1 - chronic periodontitis smokers and C2 - chronic periodontitis nonsmokers). Materials and Methods: The plaque index, gingival index (GI), probing depth and clinical attachment level; along with the radiographs were recorded. The saliva sample collected at baseline was stored at −80°C. The sCD44 levels were analyzed using ELISA. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test and Mann–Whitney's test was used to compare readings between all the groups and Pearson correlation was calculated for CD44 and all the clinical parameters in each group. Results: Highest mean sCD44 was recorded in Group C2 followed by Group C1. The GI was positively correlated with CD44 levels in chronic periodontitis group. Contrary to previous reports nonsmokers subjects had higher CD44 levels as compared to smoker. Conclusion: Soluble CD44 levels were positively correlated with periodontal disease. Thus, salivary sCD44 could be considered as a one of the biomarker for periodontitis that is, aggressive and chronic periodontitis. PMID:25624630

  19. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts. PMID:26802538

  20. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L = cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF = N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu3 + in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu3 + ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of 5D0 and triplet state contracts.

  1. Apples and oranges: don't compare levelized cost of renewables: Joskow

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-15

    MIT Prof. Paul Joskow points out that the levelized metric is inappropriate for comparing intermittent generating technologies like wind and solar with dispatchable generating technologies like nuclear, gas combined cycle, and coal. The levelized comparison fails to take into account differences in the production profiles of intermittent and dispatchable generating technologies and the associated large variations in the market value of the electricity they supply. When the electricity is produced by an intermittent generating technology, the level of output and the value of the electricity at the times when the output is produced are key variables that should be taken into account.

  2. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  3. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated. PMID:26303611

  4. A comparative study of the complexation of uranium(VI) withoxydiacetic acid and its amide derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin

    2005-05-01

    There has been significant interest in recent years in the studies of alkyl-substituted amides as extractants for actinide separation because the products of radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of amides are less detrimental to separation processes than those of organophosphorus compounds traditionally used in actinide separations. Stripping of actinides from the amide-containing organic solvents is relatively easy. In addition, the amide ligands are completely incinerable so that the amount of secondary wastes generated in nuclear waste treatment could be significantly reduced. One group of alkyl-substituted oxa-diamides have been shown to be promising in the separation of actinides from nuclear wastes. For example, tetraoctyl-3-oxa-glutaramide and tetraisobutyl-oxa-glutaramide form actinide complexes that can be effectively extracted from nitric acid solutions. To understand the thermodynamic principles governing the complexation of actinides with oxa-diamides, we have studied the complexation of U(VI) with dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) and tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA) in aqueous solutions, in comparison with oxydiacetic acid (ODA) (Figure 1). Previous studies have indicated that the complexation of U(VI) with ODA is strong and entropy-driven. Comparing the results for DMOGA and TMOGA with those for ODA could provide insight into the energetics of amide complexation with U(VI) and the relationship between the thermodynamic properties and the ligand structure.

  5. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid increases brain but not heart and liver docosahexaenoic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Collison, Lauren W; Jolly, Christopher A; Murphy, Eric J

    2005-08-01

    Fish oil-enriched diets increase n-3 FA in tissue phospholipids; however, a similar effect by plant-derived n-3 FA is poorly defined. To address this question, we determined mass changes in phospholipid FA, individual phospholipid classes, and cholesterol in the liver, heart, and brain of rats fed diets enriched in flax oil (rich in 18:3n-3), fish oil (rich in 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3), or safflower oil (rich in 18:2n-6) for 8 wk. In the heart and liver phospholipids, 22:6n-3 levels increased only in the fish oil group, although rats fed flax oil accumulated 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3. However, in the brain, the flax and fish oil diets increased the phospholipid 22:6n-3 mass. In all tissues, these diets decreased the 20:4n-6 mass, although the effect was more marked in the fish oil than in the flax oil group. Although these data do not provide direct evidence for 18:3n-3 elongation and desaturation by the brain, they demonstrate that 18:3n-3-enriched diets reduced tissue 20:4n-6 levels and increased cellular n-3 levels in a tissue-dependent manner. We hypothesize, based on the lack of increased 22:6n-3 but increased 18:3n-3 in the liver and heart, that the flax oil diet increased circulating 18:3n-3, thereby presenting tissue with this EFA for further elongation and desaturation. PMID:16296397

  6. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  7. Efficacy of tranexamic acid as compared to aprotinin in open heart surgery in children

    PubMed Central

    Muthialu, Nagarajan; Balakrishnan, Soundaravalli; Sundar, Rajani; Muralidharan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coagulopathy is a major issue in children undergoing high-risk pediatric cardiac surgery. Use of anti-fibrinolytics is well documented in adults, but recently there are questions raised about safety and effectiveness of their use on routine use. Tranexamic acid is a potent anti-fibrinolytic, but its role is not fully understood in children. This study aims to study the benefits tranexamic acid in controlling postoperative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgical patients. Methods and Results: Fifty consecutive children who underwent cardiac surgery were randomized prospectively to receive either aprotinin (Group A; n = 24) or tranexamic acid (Group B; n = 26) from September 2009 to February 2010 were studied. Primary end points were early mortality, postoperative drainage, reoperation for bleeding and complications. Mean age and body weight was smaller in Group A (Age: 48.55 vs. 64.73 months; weight 10.75 vs. 14.80 kg) respectively. Group A had more cyanotic heart disease than Group B (87.5% vs. 76.92%). Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time (144.33 vs. 84.34 min) and aortic cross-clamp time (78.5 vs. 41.46 min) were significantly higher in group A. While the blood and products usage was significantly higher in Group A, there was no difference in indexed postoperative drainage in first 4, 8 and 12 h and postoperative coagulation parameters. Mean C-reactive protein was less in Group A than B and renal dysfunction was seen more in Group A (25% vs. 7.6%). Mortality in Group A was 16.66% and 7.6% in Group B. Conclusion: Anti-fibrinolytics have a definitive role in high-risk children who undergo open-heart surgery. Tranexamic acid is as equally effective as aprotinin with no additional increase in morbidity or mortality. Ultramini Abstract: Coagulopathy has been a major issue in pediatric cardiac surgery, and anti-fibrinolytics have been used fairly regularly in various settings. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid as compared against that

  8. Total and free valproic acid: plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abadín, J A; Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, J S

    1991-04-01

    Free plasma level/dose ratio of valproic acid (L/D-F) can be more effective than total plasma level/dose ratio (L/D-T) in adjusting dosage regimens. The influence of age, dose, and plasma concentration have been studied on L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios from 67 outpatients under long-term monotherapy were obtained. Analytical data was carried out by fluorescent polarized immunoassay. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios do not vary according to age. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios decreased while the dosage increased; both ratios increased with an increase in total plasma level of valproic acid. Significant differences were found between L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. Dose and interindividual variations are the factors which most influence L/D ratios of valproic acid. PMID:2051846

  9. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. PMID:26849997

  10. The relationship between low leucocyte ascorbic-acid levels and tyrosine metabolism in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Windsor, A C; Hobbs, C B; Treby, D A; Gupta, C B

    1975-11-01

    Twenty-seven elderly men aged 69-94 years had tyrosine tolerance tests measured before and after receiving ascorbic acid 1 g daily for four days. There was a significant rise in the fasting and half-hourly mean plasma tyrosine levels after ascorbic acid administration in those subjects with an initial leucocyte ascorbic-acid level (LAA) below 15 micrograms/10(8) w.c.c. The peak of the tyrosine tolerance curve was also advanced following administration of ascorbic acid in those subjects with an initial LAA below 15 micrograms/10(8) w.c.c. A further ten elderly men aged 73-89 years had simultaneous measurements of the circadian rhythms of LAA, plasma cortisol and plasma tyrosine levels before and after receiving ascorbic acid 1 g daily for four days. All ten subjects showed a peak LAA level at 5 p.m. when saturated with vitamin C but there was no significant correlation between plasma cortisol changes and plasma tyrosine changes. Possible explanations for the results are discussed. PMID:803133

  11. Acute ischemic non-embolic stroke and serum level of uric acid

    PubMed Central

    Sheykholeslami, Nazanin Zia; Gadari, Faranak; Ahmady, Jafar

    2012-01-01

    Background Impact of high level of uric acid on stroke is still controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between acute ischemic non-embolic stroke and serum levels of uric acid. Methods This was a case-control study on patients with acute ischemic non-embolic stroke in Rafsanjan, Iran. The control group consisted of normal persons who were similar to the case group in terms of age and gender. Serum level of uric acid in the first 24 hours of admission was measured with photometry method. Results In a total of 130 patients (59 mens), hyperuricemia was seen in 13.0% of subjects in the control group and 10.7% of subjects in the case group. Nine patients in case group and 7 patients in control group with hyperuricemia were women. No significant relationship was found between acute ischemic non-embolic stroke and serum level of uric acid. Conclusion There was no relationship between uric acid and acute ischemic non-embolic stroke. PMID:24250850

  12. Comparative Functional Literacy of Adult Performance Level Graduates and Wichita East High School Graduating Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah; Peppers, Jimmy

    1978-01-01

    Study compared fifty adult performance level (APL) graduates' scores to fifty high school graduates' scores for four APL knowledge areas. APL graduates scored significantly higher than high school graduates in consumer economics and occupational knowledge. No significant differences were recorded between groups in areas of community resources and…

  13. A Comparative Investigation of Mental Practice Strategies Used by Collegiate-Level Cello Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh-Grifa, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of three "mental" practice strategies: 1) silent, motionless mental practice, 2) singing/vocalizing, and 3) playing "air cello." Traditional physical practice was used as a control condition. Twelve collegiate-level cellists participated in the experiment, from which improvement…

  14. Stress Levels of Agricultural Science Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers: A Repeated Measures Comparative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Rayfield, John; Harlin, Julie; Adams, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study compared job stress levels of Texas agricultural science cooperating teachers and Texas agricultural science student teachers across a semester. The research objectives included describing secondary agricultural science cooperating teachers and student teachers perceptions of stressors, by time of semester (beginning, middle, and end),…

  15. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. Methods Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running (RTB) or cycling (CTB) as the exercise mode. Each block consisted of five training sessions (Day 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) performed over a seven day period that were matched for exercise intensity. Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7 (basal levels only) for each condition. Results Basal urinary hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (p ≤ 0.05) at D2, R3 and R7 as compared to D1 in RTB. Furthermore, 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels on D1 were also significantly higher in RTB compared to CTB (p ≤ 0.05). In CTB, urinary hepcidin levels were not statistically different on D1 as compared to R7. Iron parameters were not significantly different at D1 compared to R3 and R7 during both conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that basal hepcidin levels may increase over the course of an extended training program, especially if a weight-bearing exercise modality is undertaken. However, despite any variations in hepcidin production, serum iron parameters in both RTB and CTB were unaffected, possibly due to the short duration of each training block. In comparing running to cycling, non-weight-bearing activity may require more training sessions, or sessions of extended duration, before any significant changes in basal hepcidin levels appear. Chronic elevations in hepcidin levels may help to explain the high incidence of iron deficiency in athletes. PMID:24716892

  16. Serum phytanic and pristanic acid levels and prostate cancer risk in Finnish smokers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret E; Albanes, Demetrius; Moser, Ann B; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Snyder, Kirk; Männistö, Satu; Gann, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products, and may contribute to the elevated risks of prostate cancer associated with higher consumption of these foods. Pristanic acid is formed during peroxisomal oxidation of phytanic acid, and is the direct substrate of α-Methyl-CoA-Racemase (AMACR)--an enzyme that is consistently overexpressed in prostate tumors relative to benign tissue. We measured phytanic and pristanic acids as percentages of total fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in prediagnostic blood samples from 300 prostate cancer cases and 300 matched controls, all of whom were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study supplementation trial and follow-up cohort. In addition to providing a fasting blood sample at baseline, all men completed extensive diet, lifestyle, and medical history questionnaires. Among controls, the strongest dietary correlates of serum phytanic and pristanic acids were saturated fat, dairy fat, and butter (r = 0.50 and 0.40, 0.46 and 0.38, and 0.40 and 0.37, respectively; all P-values <0.001). There was no association between serum phytanic acid and risk of total or aggressive prostate cancer in multivariate logistic regression models (for increasing quartiles, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for aggressive cancer were 1.0 (referent), 1.62 (0.97-2.68), 1.12 (0.66-1.90), and 1.14 (0.67-1.94), P(trend) = 0.87). Pristanic acid was strongly correlated with phytanic acid levels (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001), and was similarly unrelated to prostate cancer risk. Significant interactions between phytanic and pristanic acids and baseline circulating β-carotene concentrations were noted in relation to total and aggressive disease among participants who did not receive β-carotene supplements as part of the original ATBC intervention trial. In summary, we observed no overall association between serum phytanic and

  17. Serum phytanic and pristanic acid levels and prostate cancer risk in Finnish smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Margaret E; Albanes, Demetrius; Moser, Ann B; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Snyder, Kirk; Männistö, Satu; Gann, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products, and may contribute to the elevated risks of prostate cancer associated with higher consumption of these foods. Pristanic acid is formed during peroxisomal oxidation of phytanic acid, and is the direct substrate of α-Methyl-CoA-Racemase (AMACR)—an enzyme that is consistently overexpressed in prostate tumors relative to benign tissue. We measured phytanic and pristanic acids as percentages of total fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in prediagnostic blood samples from 300 prostate cancer cases and 300 matched controls, all of whom were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study supplementation trial and follow-up cohort. In addition to providing a fasting blood sample at baseline, all men completed extensive diet, lifestyle, and medical history questionnaires. Among controls, the strongest dietary correlates of serum phytanic and pristanic acids were saturated fat, dairy fat, and butter (r = 0.50 and 0.40, 0.46 and 0.38, and 0.40 and 0.37, respectively; all P-values <0.001). There was no association between serum phytanic acid and risk of total or aggressive prostate cancer in multivariate logistic regression models (for increasing quartiles, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for aggressive cancer were 1.0 (referent), 1.62 (0.97–2.68), 1.12 (0.66–1.90), and 1.14 (0.67–1.94), Ptrend = 0.87). Pristanic acid was strongly correlated with phytanic acid levels (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001), and was similarly unrelated to prostate cancer risk. Significant interactions between phytanic and pristanic acids and baseline circulating β-carotene concentrations were noted in relation to total and aggressive disease among participants who did not receive β-carotene supplements as part of the original ATBC intervention trial. In summary, we observed no overall association between serum phytanic and

  18. Regulation of plasma lipoprotein levels by dietary triglycerides enriched with different fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, R J; Rogers, E J

    1997-11-01

    Saturated vegetable oils (coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil) containing predominantly saturated fatty acids, lauric (12:0) or myristic (14:0 and palmitic (16:0), raise plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in animals and humans, presumably by decreasing LDL receptor activity and/or increasing LDL-C production rate. Although stearic acid (18:0) is chemically a saturated fatty acid, both human and animal studies suggest it is biologically neutral (neither raising nor lowering) blood cholesterol levels. Although earlier studies indicated that medium chain fatty acids (8:0-10:0) were also thought to be neutral, more recent studies in animals and humans suggest otherwise. Unsaturated vegetable oils such as corn, soybean, olive, and canola oil, by virtue of their predominant levels of either linoleic acid (18:2) or oleic acid (18:1), are hypocholesterolemic, probably as a result of their ability to upregulate LDL receptor activity and/or decrease LDL-C production rate. Whether trans fatty acids such as trans oleate (t18:1), in hydrogenated products such as margarine, are hypercholesterolemic remains controversial. Studies in humans suggest that their cholesterol-raising potential falls between the native nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and the more saturated dairy products such as butter. Assessment of the magnitude of the cholesterolemic response of trans 18:1 is difficult because in most diet studies its addition is often at the expense of cholesterol-lowering unsaturated fatty acids, making an independent evaluation almost impossible. PMID:9372477

  19. Association of the folic acid consumption and its serum levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-PourMehr, Hanieh; Mohamad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Malakouti, Jamileh; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal mortality. Despite numerous studies, its etiology is unknown. Recently there has been attention towards Folic acid. This study examined the association of Folic acid consumption and its serum levels with Preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A case-control study conducted in Tabriz- Alzahra hospital. 52 preeclamptic women in 34-42 weeks and 52 normotensive pregnant women were studied from Jun to Nov 2009. Data was gathered through interview with the women and review of their medical records. Folic acid serum levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence method on Elecsys-2010 system using the Roche brand kit. Data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square, exact fisher and logistic regression. Results: 46% of women in the case group and 71% in the control group regularly consumed Folic acid supplements before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. Frequency of correct pattern of Folic acid consumption in the case group were significantly lower than control group (P = 0.02). Findings about frequency of main food groups’ consumption containing folic acid indicated that the only mean difference between two groups was in relation to fruits (P = 0.002). The mean of Folic Acid serum levels in preeclamptic group was significantly lower than non- preeclamptic group [10.9 (3.9) vs. 13.6 (4.0) ng/ml, P = 0.001]. Conclusion: it is recommended all health care providers educate clients especially high risk women about regular and timely consumption of supplements as well as food groups containing Folic acid specially fruits and its possible role in prevention of preeclampsia. PMID:23922590

  20. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  1. Influenza surveillance in Europe: comparing intensity levels calculated using the moving epidemic method

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Tomás; Lozano, José E; Meerhoff, Tamara; Snacken, René; Beauté, Julien; Jorgensen, Pernille; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Domegan, Lisa; Mossong, Joël; Nielsen, Jens; Born, Rita; Larrauri, Amparo; Brown, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge. The objective is to compare the intensity of ILI and ARI in some European countries. Design and setting Weekly ILI and ARI incidence rates and proportion of primary care consultations were modeled in 28 countries for the 1996/1997–2013/2014 seasons using the moving epidemic method (MEM). We calculated the epidemic threshold and three intensity thresholds, which delimit five intensity levels: baseline, low, medium, high, and very high. The intensity of 2013/2014 season is described and compared by country. Results The lowest ILI epidemic thresholds appeared in Sweden and Estonia (below 10 cases per 100 000) and the highest in Belgium, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, and Slovakia (above 100 per 100 000). The 2009/2010 season was the most intense, with 35% of the countries showing high or very high intensity levels. The European epidemic period in season 2013/2014 started in January 2014 in Spain, Poland, and Greece. The intensity was between low and medium and only Greece reached the high intensity level, in weeks 7 to 9/2014. Some countries remained at the baseline level throughout the entire surveillance period. Conclusions Epidemic and intensity thresholds varied by country. Influenza-like illnesses and ARI levels normalized by MEM in 2013/2014 showed that the intensity of the season in Europe was between low and medium in most of the countries. Comparing intensity among seasons or countries is essential for understanding patterns in seasonal epidemics. An automated standardized model for comparison should be implemented at national and international levels. PMID:26031655

  2. Expression Levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Primary Granulosa Cells: Influence of ω-3 Fatty Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zaree, Mina; Shahnazi, Vahideh; Fayezi, Shabnam; Darabi, Maryam; Mehrzad-Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Darabi, Masoud; Khani, Sajjad; Nouri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acid) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of poly- cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The present study was designed to investigate the ef- fect of EPA on the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by the CYP-19) in primary cultured granulosa cells (GC) from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and also to compare these effects with those in GC of PCOS patients. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, human GC were isolated, pri- mary cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA and in- vestigated with respect to gene expression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The participants (n=30) were the patients admitted to the IVF Center in February-March 2013 at Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, who were divided into two groups as PCOS (n=15) and non-PCOS (n=15) women (controls). Results All doses of the EPA significantly induced PPARγ mRNA gene expression level as compared to the control recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) alone condi- tion. High doses of EPA in the presence of rFSH produced a stimulatory effect on expres- sion level of PPARγ (2.15-fold, P=0.001) and a suppressive effect (0.56-fold, P=0.01) on the expression level of CYP-19, only in the PCOS GC. Conclusion EPA and FSH signaling pathway affect differentially on the gene ex- pression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in PCOS GC. Altered FSH-induced PPARγ activity in PCOS GC may modulate the CYP-19 gene expression in response to EPA, and possibly modulates the subsequent steroidogenesis of these cells. PMID:26246878

  3. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  4. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Nissen, S J; Sutter, E G

    1989-02-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using (13)[C(6)]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 +/- 6.5 versus 166.6 +/- 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 +/- 4.4 versus 263.7 +/- 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  5. Comparative genotoxicity of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and anthranilic acid in the presence of a metal cofactor Cu (II) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gadupudi, Gopi S; Chung, King-Thom

    2011-12-24

    Several clinical studies have reported that an increase in excretion of tryptophan metabolites 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), anthranilic acid (AA) and other metabolites in the urine of bladder cancer patients are implicated to play a role in the etiology of bladder cancer; however the mechanisms involved are unknown. The present study compares the genotoxicity of tryptophan metabolites AA and 3-OHAA to cause mutagenesis in vitro. The DNA damage effects of tryptophan metabolites were analyzed using plasmid relaxation assay performed with AA and 3-OHAA at various concentrations between 50μM and 400μM in the presence of plasmid DNA pSP-72. Both AA and 3-OHAA did not show any plasmid relaxation activity when tested alone. However, 3-OHAA in the presence of metal cofactor Cu (II) induced plasmid relaxation by causing nicks in the plasmid. This effect was not observed in the presence of other metal cofactors Fe (II) and Mn (III). Cu (II) at increasing concentrations between 5μM and 20μM and in the presence of 100μM 3-OHAA showed an apparent dose-response in causing DNA strand breaks. The Cu (II) mediated mutagenic activation of 3-OHAA was further investigated using Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay with reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive tester strain Salmonella TA102. When 100μg of 3-OHAA per plate was incubated with Cu (II) a significant increase in TA102 revertants was observed with an increase in the concentration of Cu (II) from 2.5μg to 50μg. In contrast, AA with Cu (II) at such low concentration was unable to cause any significant increase in number of the TA102 revertants. This evidence for mutagenicity with only 3-OHAA and Cu (II) but not AA suggests the presence of hydroxyl group at ortho position to amino group in 3-OHAA structurally, is critical in reacting with Cu (II) to generate genotoxicity. PMID:22015263

  6. Changes in free amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma leaves in response to Asian citrus psyllid infestation and water stress.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nasir S A; Perez, Jose L; Kunta, Madhurababu; Patt, Joseph M; Mangan, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on changes in amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma orange (Citrus unshiu; cultivar Owari) leaves were investigated. Asian citrus psyllids Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (ACP) infestation was used to induce biotic stress while a water deficit was imposed to induce abiotic stress. Potted trees were infested by placing 50 psyllids on 3 citrus leaves enclosed in nylon mesh bags for 5 d. A parallel set of plants were kept water stressed by maintaining the soil at 20% water holding capacity for 5 d. Levels of total free amino acids were higher in water stressed and ACP infested leaves. Polyamine putrescine increased in infested leaves but not in water stressed leaves. Proline was the most abundant amino acid and its levels significantly increased by both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proline levels in infested leaves were significantly higher than the water stressed leaves. Histidine, methionine, asparagine, arginine, serine, and leucine levels also increased significantly in infested leaves, but in water stressed leaves only leucine, methionine, and threonine increased. Levels of amino acids, such as tyrosine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and alanine, declined in infested leaves. Under water stress asparagine, phenylalanine, serine, and histidine also declined compared to controls. This indicates that while proteolysis occurred under both stresses, metabolic conversion of amino acids was different under the two stresses. In ACP infested leaves some amino acids may be used as feeding material and/or converted into secondary metabolites for defense. PMID:24178691

  7. Comparative Analysis of GCF Resistin Levels in Obese Subjects with and without Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Singh, Gurdeep; Pradeep, AR; Sundaravikram; Sekar, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Resistin is an adipocyte derived hormone that has been shown to play a substantial role in the development of insulin resistance. Resistin acts as a pro-inflammatory molecule and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have reported the association of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) resistin levels with periodontal condition. Aim The aim of this study was to assess and compare the GCF resistin levels in obese subjects with periodontal health and disease and to correlate the disease severity with GCF resistin levels. Materials and Methods Ninety subjects of both the sexes with age between 20–45 years were selected for the study and were categorized into four groups: 25 obese or overweight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-I), 25 obese or overweight subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-II), 25 non-obese subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-III) and 15 non obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-IV). The demographic variables like age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) were recorded and the clinical periodontal parameters such as Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were also assessed in all the groups. GCF was collected and assessed for resistin levels. Results The mean GCF resistin levels in Groups I, II, III & IV were 15.14, 9.06, 12.74 and 5.41 ng/dl respectively and the difference in mean GCF resistin level was statistically significant with the p-value<0.001. The mean GCF resistin levels in Group-I was higher compared to Group II and III and the differences in mean GCF resistin levels were statistically significant. GCF resistin levels were positively correlated with BMI, WC and CAL in Group I and CAL correlated with GCF resistin in Group III and this correlation was statistically significant. Conclusion From our study we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more GCF resistin levels

  8. Northern Idaho house dust and soil lead levels compared to the Bunker Hill Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Spalinger, Susan M; von Braun, Margrit C; Petrosyan, Varduhi; von Lindern, Ian H

    2007-07-01

    House dust has been identified as a major exposure medium for lead (Pb) in children. High levels of Pb in soil and house dust have been recorded at the Bunker Hill Superfund Site (BHSS) in northern Idaho, an historic mining and smelting district. Soil and dust remediation at the site was required; however, regional background soil and dust Pb levels had not been well characterized. The objective of this survey was to determine background house dust Pb levels and to compare those levels with concentrations, and dust and Pb loading rates measured at the BHSS. Soil and house dust samples were collected in five towns demographically similar to the BHSS but unaffected by the mining industry. The background concentrations and loading rates were significantly lower than those observed at the site. House age was a significant factor affecting background soil and house dust Pb concentrations and loading rates. PMID:17171279

  9. The GLUT9 Gene Is Associated with Serum Uric Acid Levels in Sardinia and Chianti Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Andrea; Busonero, Fabio; Usala, Gianluca; Mulas, Antonella; Lai, Sandra; Dei, Mariano; Orrù, Marco; Albai, Giuseppe; Bandinelli, Stefania; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Guralnik, Jack; Naitza, Silvia; Crisponi, Laura; Cao, Antonio; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Chen, Wei-Min; Nagaraja, Ramaiah

    2007-01-01

    High serum uric acid levels elevate pro-inflammatory–state gout crystal arthropathy and place individuals at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide scans in the genetically isolated Sardinian population identified variants associated with serum uric acid levels as a quantitative trait. They mapped within GLUT9, a Chromosome 4 glucose transporter gene predominantly expressed in liver and kidney. SNP rs6855911 showed the strongest association (p = 1.84 × 10−16), along with eight others (p = 7.75 × 10−16 to 6.05 × 10−11). Individuals homozygous for the rare allele of rs6855911 (minor allele frequency = 0.26) had 0.6 mg/dl less uric acid than those homozygous for the common allele; the results were replicated in an unrelated cohort from Tuscany. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in GLUT9 could affect glucose metabolism and uric acid synthesis and/or renal reabsorption, influencing serum uric acid levels over a wide range of values. PMID:17997608

  10. Large lead/acid batteries for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    Lead/acid batteries are suitable for a multitude of utility applications. This paper presents some examples where large lead/acid batteries have been used for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications. The operational experiences are given together with a discussion about the design and technical specialities of these batteries. In 1986, a 17 MW/14 MWh battery was installed at BEWAG in Berlin which, at that time, was the largest lead/acid battery in the world. Designed to strengthen Berlin's 'island' system, it was used since the beginning of 1987 for frequency regulation and spinning reserve. In December 1993, when Berlin was connected to the electricity grid, frequency regulation was no longer required but the battery was still used for spinning reserve. For many years, the industrial battery plant of Hagen in Soest has used a large lead/acid battery for load levelling. The experience gained during more than ten years shows that load levelling and peak shaving can be a marked benefit for customers and utilities with regard to reducing their peak demand. In the summer of 1992, a 216 V and 2200 Ah lead/acid battery with positive tubular plates and gelled electrolyte was installed at a solar power plant in Flanitzhutte, a small village in the south of Germany which is not connected to the electricity grid. A report is given of the first years of use and includes a discussion about the best charge strategy for such gel batteries when used for solar power applications.

  11. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  12. Comparative Inter-Species Pharmacokinetics of Phenoxyacetic Acid Herbicides and Related Organic Acids. Evidence that the Dog is Not a Relevant Species for Evaluation of Human Health Risk.

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck

    2004-07-15

    Phenoxyacetic acids including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) are widely utilized organic acid herbicides that have undergone extensive toxicity and pharmacokinetic analyses. The dog is particularly susceptible to the toxicity of phenoxyacetic acids and related organic acids relative to other species. Active renal clearance mechanisms for organic acids are ubiquitous in mammalian species, and thus a likely mechanism responsible for the increased sensitivity of the dog to these agents is linked to a lower capacity to secrete organic acids from the kidney. Using published data describing the pharmacokinetics of phenoxyacetic and structurally related organic acids in a variety of species including humans, inter-species comparative pharmacokinetics were evaluated using allometic parameter scaling. For both 2,4-D and MCPA the dog plasma half-life (t1/2) and renal clearance (Clr; ml hr-1) rates did not scale as a function of body weight across species; whereas for all other species evaluated, including humans, these pharmacokinetic parameters reasonably scaled. This exceptional response in the dog is clearly illustrated by comparing the plasma t1/2 at comparable doses of 2,4-D and MCPA, across several species. At a dosage of 5 mg/kg, in dogs the plasma t1/2 for 2,4-D and MCPA were {approx}92 - 106 hr and 63 hr, respectively, which is substantially longer than in the rat ({approx}1 and 6 hr, respectively) or in humans (12 and 11 hr, respectively). This longer t1/2, and slower elimination in the dog, results in substantially higher body burdens of these organic acids, at comparable doses, relative to other species. Although these results indicate the important role of renal transport clearance mechanisms as determinants of the clearance and potential toxicity outcomes of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides across several species, other contributing mechanisms such as reabsorption from the renal tubules is highly likely. These

  13. Comparative responses of freshwater organisms to exposures of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Ciera M; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-06-01

    Comparative toxicity studies using unconfounded exposures can prioritize the selection of sensitive sentinel test species and refine methods for evaluating ecological risks of complex mixtures like naphthenic acids (NAs), a group of organic acids associated with crude oils and energy-derived waters that have been a source of aquatic toxicity. The objectives of this study were to compare responses of freshwater aquatic organisms (vertebrate, invertebrates, and a macrophyte; in terms of acute toxicity) to Fluka commercial NAs and to compare measured toxicity data with peer-reviewed toxicity data for other commercial NA sources and energy-derived NA sources. Exposures were confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography. Responses (7-d LC50s/EC50) ranged from 1.9 mg L(-1) for Pimephales promelas to 56.2 mg L(-1) for Typha latifolia. Following P. promelas in order of decreasing sensitivity were Ceriodaphnia dubia (7-d LC50 = 2.8 mg L(-1)), Hyalella azteca (7-d LC50 = 4.1 mg L(-1)), Chironomus dilutus (7-d LC50 = 6.5 mg L(-1)), and T. latifolia (7-d EC50 = 56.2 mg L(-1)), indicating that in terms of sensitivities, fish > invertebrates > plant for Fluka NAs in this study. Factors that affect exposures and measurements of exposures differ among commercial and energy-derived NAs and constrain comparisons. Despite differences in exposures, fish and invertebrates were relatively sensitive to both commercial and energy-derived NA sources (based on laboratory measurements and peer-reviewed data) and could be appropriate sentinel species for risk evaluations. PMID:27016812

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of phenylacetic acid in mental illness: behavioral associations and response to neuroleptic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R P; Faull, K; Javaid, J I; Davis, J M

    1995-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid levels of phenylacetic acid (CSF PAA) were obtained from normal controls and from drug-free psychiatric inpatients (schizophrenia, major depression, mania, and schizoaffective disorder). Post-treatment CSF PAA levels were obtained from 16 patients after 4 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. Phenylacetic acid levels were higher in women and were significantly correlated with age. There were no differences in CSF PAA levels between the various diagnostic groups and no difference between the paranoid and the nonparanoid subtypes of schizophrenia. CSF PAA was significantly correlated with several measures of psychopathology, especially the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale hostility/suspiciousness factor. Neuroleptic treatment did not result in significant PAA changes. These findings are discussed in light of the amphetamine-like role ascribed to phenylethylamine, the precursor of PAA. PMID:7639084

  15. Comparative Stress Levels among Residents in Three Chinese Provincial Capitals, 2001 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Weifang; Cottrell, Randall R.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. Methods Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. Results Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. Conclusion The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups. PMID:23152832

  16. Comparing two methods to measure preferred listening levels of personal listening devices

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Darrin A.; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Wilber, Laura Ann; Faber, Benjamin M.; Dunckley, Kathleen T.; Garstecki, Dean C.; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2009-01-01

    The potential risk to hearing that mass-storage personal listening devices (PLDs) pose remains unclear. Previous research in this area has either focused on maximum outputs of these devices or on ear-canal measurements of listening levels that could not be compared to standards of occupational noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare two standard measurement protocols [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland; ISO 11904-2 (2004), Switzerland] for the measurement of preferred listening levels of PLD. Noise measurements, behavioral thresholds, and oral interviews were obtained from 30 (18–30 years) PLD users. Preferred listening levels for self-selected music were determined in quiet and background noise using a probe microphone, as well as in the DB-100 ear simulator mounted in KEMAR. The ear-canal measurements were compensated for diffuse-field. Only one of the subjects was found to be listening at hazardous levels once their reported daily usage was accounted for using industrial workplace standards. The variance across subjects was the smallest in the ear-canal measurements that were compensated for diffuse-field equivalence [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland]. Seven subjects were found to be listening at levels above 85 dBA based on measurements obtained in the KEMAR and then compensated for diffuse-field equivalence. PMID:19507955

  17. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a

  18. Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Le; Huang, Yue-Hui; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Peng; He, Meng-Jie; Huang, Xin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-11-15

    Urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs), such as dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), have been suggested as potential biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, variable exposure to and the short elimination half-lives of these biomarkers can result in considerable variability in urinary measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Here we examined the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among eleven men who provided urine samples on 8 days over 3 months. The urinary concentrations of DCAA and TCAA were measured by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize the within-person and between-person variances and computed the sensitivity and specificity to assess how well single or multiple urine collections accurately determined personal 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels. The within-person variance was much higher than the between-person variance for all three sample types (spot, first morning, and 24-h urine samples) for DCAA (ICC=0.08–0.37) and TCAA (ICC=0.09–0.23), regardless of the sampling interval. A single-spot urinary sample predicted high (top 33%) 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels with high specificity (0.79 and 0.78, respectively) but relatively low sensitivity (0.47 and 0.50, respectively). Collecting two or three urine samples from each participant improved the classification. The poor reproducibility of the measured urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations indicate that a single measurement may not accurately reflect individual long-term exposure. Collection of multiple urine samples from one person is an option for reducing exposure classification errors in studies exploring the effects of DBP exposure on reproductive health. - Highlights: • We evaluated the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among men. • Urinary DCAA and TCAA levels varied greatly over a 3-month

  19. Comparative Genomics of Syntrophic Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Nobu, Masaru K.; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    The syntrophic degradation of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) such as 2-methylbutyrate and isobutyrate is an essential step in the production of methane from proteins/amino acids in anaerobic ecosystems. While a few syntrophic BCFA-degrading bacteria have been isolated, their metabolic pathways in BCFA and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation as well as energy conservation systems remain unclear. In an attempt to identify these pathways, we herein performed comparative genomics of three syntrophic bacteria: 2-methylbutyrate-degrading “Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. methylbutyratica” strain JCM 14075T (=4J5T), isobutyrate-degrading Syntrophothermus lipocalidus strain TGB-C1T, and non-BCFA-metabolizing S. wolfei subsp. wolfei strain GöttingenT. We demonstrated that 4J5 and TGB-C1 both encode multiple genes/gene clusters involved in β-oxidation, as observed in the Göttingen genome, which has multiple copies of genes associated with butyrate degradation. The 4J5 genome possesses phylogenetically distinct β-oxidation genes, which may be involved in 2-methylbutyrate degradation. In addition, these Syntrophomonadaceae strains harbor various hydrogen/formate generation systems (i.e., electron-bifurcating hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, and membrane-bound hydrogenase) and energy-conserving electron transport systems, including electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ETF-linked iron-sulfur binding reductase, ETF dehydrogenase (FixABCX), and flavin oxidoreductase-heterodisulfide reductase (Flox-Hdr). Unexpectedly, the TGB-C1 genome encodes a nitrogenase complex, which may function as an alternative H2 generation mechanism. These results suggest that the BCFA-degrading syntrophic strains 4J5 and TGB-C1 possess specific β-oxidation-related enzymes for BCFA oxidation as well as appropriate energy conservation systems to perform thermodynamically unfavorable syntrophic metabolism. PMID:27431485

  20. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-02-01

    , organosulfate and organic acid concentrations remained relatively constant during most of the year at amean concentration of 15 (±4) ng m-3 (accounting for 4 (±1)% of total organic matter) and 3.9 (±1) ng m-3 (accounting for 1.1 (±0.1)% of total organic matter) respectively. However during four weeks of spring remarkably higher concentrations of total organosulfates (23-36 ng m-3) and total organic acids (7-10 ng m-3) were observed. The periods of observed elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentration at Station Nord and at Zeppelin Mountain coincided with the Arctic Haze period. Furthermore, backwards air mass trajectories indicated northern Eurasia as the main source region of the Arctic haze aerosols at both sites. Periods with air mass transport from Russia to Zeppelin Mountain were associated with a doubled number of detected organosulfate species compared with periods of air mass transport from the Arctic Ocean, Scandinavia and Greenland. Our analysis showed the presence of organosulfates and organic acids of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin throughout the year at both Arctic sites. As the formation of organosulfates binds inorganic sulfate, their presence may possibly affect the formation and lifetime of clouds in the Arctic atmosphere.

  1. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  2. Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance rosmarinic acid production in spearmint plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The C20 diterpene rosmarinic acid (RA) is synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway and is constitutively expressed in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantlets grown in vitro. RA levels within plantlet leaves were found to be readily manipulated by the nutritional and physical environments. Higher...

  3. A `Clicked' Tetrameric Hydroxamic Acid Glycopeptidomimetic Antagonizes Sugar-Lectin Interactions On The Cellular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zang, Yi; Xie, Juan; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2014-07-01

    A tetrameric N-acetyl galactosaminyl (GalNAc) peptidomimetic was constructed by N-acetylation of repeating proline-based hydroxamic acid units, followed by a convergent `click chemistry' coupling. This novel glycopeptidomimetic was determined to effectively antagonize the interaction between a transmembrane hepatic lectin and GalNAc on the cellular level.

  4. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-15

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-β-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

  5. In silico comparative analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences for prion protein gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Lee, J; Lee, C

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variability might contribute to species specificity of prion diseases in various organisms. In this study, structures of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and its amino acids were compared among species of which sequence data were available. Comparisons of PRNP DNA sequences among 12 species including human, chimpanzee, monkey, bovine, ovine, dog, mouse, rat, wallaby, opossum, chicken and zebrafish allowed us to identify candidate regulatory regions in intron 1 and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in addition to the coding region. Highly conserved putative binding sites for transcription factors, such as heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) and myocite enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), were discovered in the intron 1. In 3'-UTR, the functional sequence (ATTAAA) for nucleus-specific polyadenylation was found in all the analysed species. The functional sequence (TTTTTAT) for maturation-specific polyadenylation was identically observed only in ovine, and one or two nucleotide mismatches in the other species. A comparison of the amino acid sequences in 53 species revealed a large sequence identity. Especially the octapeptide repeat region was observed in all the species but frog and zebrafish. Functional changes and susceptibility to prion diseases with various isoforms of prion protein could be caused by numeric variability and conformational changes discovered in the repeat sequences. PMID:18397498

  6. Comparative evaluation on fatty acid and Matricaria recutita essential oil incorporated into casein-based film.

    PubMed

    Aliheidari, Nahal; Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Ahmadi, Reza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-05-01

    Sodium caseinate composite films containing lipids-oleic acid (OA), stearic acid (SA), or Matricaria recutita essential oil (MEO) - were prepared through emulsification and their physical, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties were evaluated and compared. Furthermore, their antimicrobial effectiveness against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was studied. Emulsified films were softer, less rigid, and more stretchable than pure films. The films' water vapor barrier properties were found to decrease upon the addition of lipid content; this effect was greatly reduced when MEO was added. The presence of OA/SA and MEO decreased tensile strength and elastic modulus but increased the elongation at break. Thermal analysis of all emulsified films showed two endothermic peaks; these results confirmed those obtained by SEM studies, where a partial separation of the two phases occurred. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating lipids, particularly those containing MEO, which were more effective against the studied bacteria. This work showed that when taking all the studied variables into account, films formulated with MEO were found most suitable for various food applications. PMID:23415659

  7. Comparative gene identification 58/α/β hydrolase domain 5 lacks lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Derek; Dinh, Anna; Kurz, Daniel; Shah, Dharika; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.; Brasaemle, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58)/α/β hydrolase domain 5 (ABHD5) cause Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, characterized by excessive triacylglycerol storage in cells and tissues. CGI-58 has been identified as a coactivator of adipose TG lipase (ATGL) and a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). We developed a molecular model of CGI-58 structure and then mutated predicted active site residues and performed LPAAT activity assays of recombinant WT and mutated CGI-58. When mutations of predicted catalytic residues failed to reduce LPAAT activity, we determined that LPAAT activity was due to a bacterial contaminant of affinity purification procedures, plsC, the sole LPAAT in Escherichia coli. Purification protocols were optimized to reduce plsC contamination, in turn reducing LPAAT activity. When CGI-58 was expressed in SM2-1(DE3) cells that lack plsC, lysates lacked LPAAT activity. Additionally, mouse CGI-58 expressed in bacteria as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein and human CGI-58 expressed in yeast lacked LPAAT activity. Previously reported lipid binding activity of CGI-58 was revisited using protein-lipid overlays. Recombinant CGI-58 failed to bind lysophosphatidic acid, but interestingly, bound phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate [PI(5)P]. Prebinding CGI-58 with PI(3)P or PI(5)P did not alter its coactivation of ATGL in vitro. In summary, purified recombinant CGI-58 that is functional as an ATGL coactivator lacks LPAAT activity. PMID:24879803

  8. Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schneider, Inga; Willenberg, Ina; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects. Subjects and methods In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48 h of fish oil (1008 mg EPA and 672 mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC–MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids. Results All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6 h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48 h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed. Discussion and conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation. PMID:24667634

  9. Comparative measurements of the level of turbulence atmosphere by optical and acoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botugina, N. N.; Gladkih, V. A.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Odintsov, S. L.; Torgaev, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The complex measurements of level of atmospheric turbulence are conducted by the differential measurement device of turbulence (DMT), wave-front sensor (WFS), and also by ultrasonic weather-stations. Daytime measurements of structure parameters of refractive index of atmospheric turbulence carried out on horizontal optical paths on the Base Experimental Complex (BEC) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IOA). A comparative analysis over of the got results is brought.

  10. Inverse Association Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Du, Na; Xu, Donghua; Hou, Xu; Song, Xuejia; Liu, Cancan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Yangang; Li, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The association between Alzheimer's disease and uric acid levels had gained great interest in recent years, but there was still lack of definite evidence. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Relevant studies published before October 26, 2014, were searched in PubMed, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases. Study-specific data were combined using random-effects or fixed-effects models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-four studies (21 case-control and 3 cohort studies) were finally included into the meta-analysis. Those 21 case-control studies included a total of 1128 cases of Alzheimer's disease and 2498 controls without Alzheimer's disease. Those 3 cohort studies included a total of 7327 participants. Meta-analysis showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease had lower levels of uric acid than healthy controls (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.77 mg/dl, 95 % CI -2.28 to -0.36, P = 0.0002). High serum uric acid levels were significantly associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.52-0.85, P = 0.001). There was low risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. There is an inverse association between serum uric acid levels and Alzheimer's disease. High serum uric acid level is a protective factor of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26084440

  11. Point-of-Care Testing of Troponin Levels Compared With Automated Laboratory Evaluation: A Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Adacilis Ramirez; Lamoureux, Julie A; Cohn, Tanya M; Phillip-Samuel, Shirley G

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, troponin levels are measured in the blood using an automated laboratory protocol, but the use of a faster technology, the point-of-care (POC) testing of troponin levels, has shown promise in the effective differential diagnosis of cardiac injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the 2 methods. A total of 1567 patients were seen in the emergency department who were tested with both the POC iSTAT troponin and laboratory troponin from a secondary analysis of retrospective data collected between June 2012 and December 2012. The values for laboratory troponin varied between 0 and 30 with a mean and standard deviation of 0.060 ± 0.842 and the values for POC testing varied between 0 and 17.2 with a mean and standard deviation of 0.042 ± 0.492. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a systematic negative bias for the POC values compared with the laboratory troponin values. Lowering the POC cut-off value for troponin to 0.035 yielded 3 out of 4 better validity coefficients compared with those with the suggested manufacturer's cut-off value of 0.08 when predicting the gold standard. The POC troponin can be used to measure troponin level and similar diagnosis if the cut-off value for the POC troponin is lowered to 0.035 instead of the 0.08 suggested manufacturer's cut-off. PMID:27575797

  12. Clinical trial: free fatty acid suppositories compared with enema as bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar; Kristinsson, Jon Orvar; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recently developed suppositories containing free fatty acids as a bowel-cleansing agent prior to flexible sigmoidoscopy and compare them with Klyx (docusate sodium/sorbitol). Design A controlled, non-inferiority, single-blind, randomised study on outpatients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. Setting Department of Gastroenterology, Landspitali-University Hospital and endoscopic clinic. Patients 53 outpatients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. Intervention Participants were randomised to receive either free fatty acid suppositories (28) or a standard bowel preparation with Klyx enema (25). In the study group, two suppositories were administered the evening before as well as 2 h prior to the sigmoidoscopy. In the control group, Klyx enema (120 mL) was administered the evening before and repeated 2 h prior to the procedure. Main outcome measurements Quality of the bowel cleansing, height of scope insertion and safety. Results The mean height of scope insertion and bowel cleansing was 43 cm (SD=13.4) in the study group and 48 cm (SD=10.4) in the control group (NS). The investigating physicians were less satisfied with the bowel preparation in the study group compared with the control group with a difference of 20% (p<0.016). The amount of faeces noted in the rectum was similar in both groups with no significant difference (p<0.56). No serious side effects, toxic reaction or irritation were observed. Conclusions The suppositories are well tolerated with no significant side effects. The suppositories had distinct bowel emptying effect and as effective as Klyx in rectal cleansing. Although physician's satisfaction was slightly lower, the height of scope insertion was similar. Trial registration number EudraCT nr.: 2010-018761-35. PMID:26500756

  13. Toxicity of a dental adhesive compared with ionizing radiation and zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Miguel; Olivares, Amparo; Achel, Daniel-Giyngiri; García-Cruz, Emilio; Fondevilla-Soler, Adriana; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the toxicity of aqueous dilutions of a universal self-priming dental adhesive (DA) and comparing these with those elicited by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), Zoledronic acid (Z) treatment and the synergic effects of the combined treatment with IR+Z. Material and Methods The genotoxic effect of DA was determined by the increase in the frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked in cultured human lymphocytes before and after exposure to 2Gy of X-rays. The cytotoxic effect was studied by using the MTT cell viability test in normal prostate cell lines (PNT2) after exposure to different X-ray doses (0Gy-20Gy). The cell lines divided into different groups and treated with different test substances: DA in presence of O2, DA in absence of O2, Z-treated and control. Results An in vitro dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxic effect of DA, Z and IR on PNT2 cells (p>0.001) was demonstrated. DA without-O2, following the recommendations of manufacturers, had a more pronounced effect of increasing cell death than DA with-O2 (p<0.001). In the genotoxicity assay, DA at 25% of its original concentration significantly increased chromosome damage (p<0.001). The samples studied were found to be toxic, and the samples photo-polymerized in absence of O2 showed a bigger cytotoxic effect comparable to the additive toxic effect showed by the combined treatment of IR+Z. Conclusions Additional effort should be carried out to develop adhesives, which would reduce the release of hazardous substances; since toxic effects are similar to that reported by other agents whose clinical use is controlled by the health authorities. Key words: Micronucleus, toxicity, dental adhesive, zolendronic acid, radiation effects. PMID:26034923

  14. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. Methods: A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. Results: No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Conclusion: Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs. PMID:21819763

  15. Comparative Study on Serum Levels of 10 Trace Elements in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lailai; Guo, Jing; Feng, Fangbo; Qiu, Jinyun; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain obscure. This study explored the associations between schizophrenia risk and serum levels of 10 trace elements. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted and matched by age and sex. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of nickel, molybdenum, arsenic, aluminum, chromium, manganese, selenium, copper, iron and zinc by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations between trace elements and schizophrenia risk. Totally 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls were recruited in the study. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that copper≤0.97 μg/mL, selenium≤72 ng/mL and manganese>3.95 ng/mL were associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. The study showed that lower levels of selenium, copper and higher levels of manganese were found in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls. PMID:26186003

  16. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  17. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  18. Effects of acute exercise on the levels of iron, magnesium, and uric acid in liver and spleen tissues.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoğlu, B; Turgut, G; Genç, O; Enli, Y; Karabulut, I; Zencir, M; Turgut, S

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on tissue levels of iron, magnesium, and uric acid of rats. Twenty adult Wistar albino rats were used for the study. They were divided into two groups: controls (n=10) and the study group (n=10). The study group was left into a small water pool and allowed to do swimming exercise for 30 min while controls rested. All of the animals were sacrificed, and their livers and spleens removed and homogenized immediately. The iron, magnesium, and uric acid levels of the homogenates were measured by an autoanalyzer (ILAB 900, Italy) with commercial kits from the same company. Results were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U-test. According to our results, the liver iron levels increased significantly with exercise, whereas spleen iron levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to controls. We found no significant differences in the levels of the other two parameters with exercise. These results show that the iron distribution in organs changes with exercise. PMID:12719612

  19. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  20. Comparative genomic hybridisation divides retinoblastomas into a high and a low level chromosomal instability group

    PubMed Central

    van der Wal, J E; Hermsen, M A J A; Gille, H J P; Schouten-Van Meeteren, N Y N; Moll, A C; Imhof, S M; Meijer, G A; Baak, J P A; van der Valk, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood and is responsible for approximately 1% of all deaths caused by childhood cancer. Aims/methods: Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed on 13 consecutive, histologically confirmed retinoblastomas to analyse patterns of chromosomal changes and correlate these to clinicopathological variables. Six cases were hereditary and seven cases were sporadic. Results: In 11 of the 13 tumours chromosomal abnormalities were detected, most frequently gains. Frequent chromosomal gains concerned 6p (46%), 1q (38%), 2p, 9q (30%), 5p, 7q, 10q, 17q, and 20q (23%). Frequent losses occurred at Xq (46%), 13q14, 16q, and 4q (23%). High level copy number gains were found at 5p15 and 6p11–12. A loss at 13q14 occurred in three cases only. Relatively few events occurred in the hereditary cases (27) compared with the non-hereditary cases (70 events). The number of chromosomal aberrations in these 13 retinoblastomas showed a bimodal distribution. Seven tumours showed less than four chromosomal aberrations, falling into a low level chromosomal instability (CIN) group, and six tumours showed at least eight aberrations, falling into a high level CIN group. In the low level CIN group the mean age was half that seen in the high level CIN group, there were less male patients, and there were more hereditary and bilateral cases. Microsatellite instability was not detected in either of the two groups. Conclusion: Despite the complex pattern of genetic changes in retinoblastomas, certain chromosomal regions appear to be affected preferentially. On the basis of the number of genetic events, retinoblastomas can be divided in low and a high level chromosomal instability groups, which have striking differences in clinical presentation. PMID:12499428

  1. Effect of smoking on serum xanthine oxidase, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol levels in healthy male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Akbar; Khand, Fatehuddin; Khand, Tayyab Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of smoking on serum xanthine oxidase, malondialdehyde, α- tocopherol and ascorbic acid levels in healthy adult male subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was carried out at Isra University Hyderabad from July 2012 to December 2012. One hundred and twenty apparently healthy adult male subjects (60 smokers and 60 non-smokers) included in present study, were recruited from Jaindal kot, a small village located midway between Hyderabad and Matiari. Serum samples from smokers and non-smokers were analyzed for xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels by standard kit methods, while for ascorbic acid and alpha- tocopherol by spectrophotometric methods. Results: The mean xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels measured in healthy smokers were 0.30±0.05 mg/dl and 37.50±4.05 µmoles/l respectively as against 0.25±0.04 mg/dl and 19.86±2.21µmoles/l in non-smokers. Both xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly (p<0.001) raised in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. Likewise, mean vitamin E and vitamin C levels were respectively 0.69±0.37 mg/dl and 0.80±0.16 mg/dl in healthy smokers compared to 1.14±0.43 mg/dl and 1.22±0.29 mg/dl in non-smokers. The concentrations of both these vitamins were significantly (p<0.001) lower in smokers than in non-smokers. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that smoking had significantly increased xanthine oxidase and malondialdehyde levels and decreased vitamins C and E (antioxidants) levels. These findings suggest that smokers have to take additional amounts of vitamins C and E in order to avoid deleterious effects of smoking on their health. PMID:25878632

  2. Life-history evolution at the molecular level: adaptive amino acid composition of avian vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Avian genomes typically encode three distinct vitellogenin (VTG) egg yolk proteins (VTG1, VTG2 and VTG3), which arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of birds. Analysis of VTG sequences from 34 avian species in a phylogenetic framework supported the hypothesis that VTG amino acid composition has co-evolved with embryo incubation time. Embryo incubation time was positively correlated with the proportions of dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) in VTG1 and VTG2, and with the proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids in VTG3. These patterns were seen even when only semi-altricial and/or altricial species were considered, suggesting that the duration of embryo incubation is a major selective factor on the amino acid composition of VTGs, rather than developmental mode alone. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of EAAs provided to the egg represents an adaptation to the loss of amino acids through breakdown over the course of incubation and imply that life-history phenotypes and VTG amino acid composition have co-evolved throughout the evolutionary history of birds. PMID:26224713

  3. Free fatty acid levels in fluid of dominant follicles at the preferred insemination time in dairy cows are not affected by early postpartum fatty acid stress.

    PubMed

    Aardema, Hilde; Gadella, Bart M; van de Lest, Chris H A; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Stout, Tom A E; Roelen, Bernard A J; Vos, Peter L A M

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of high-yielding dairy cows has declined during the last 3 decades, in association with a more profound negative energy balance (NEB) during the early weeks postpartum. One feature of this NEB is a marked elevation in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. During the early postpartum period (≤ d 42), circulatory FFA levels were measured weekly, and progesterone concentrations and the diameter of the dominant follicles were determined thrice weekly. Retrospectively, cows that ovulated within 35 d postpartum were grouped as "normal ovulating" cows (n = 5), and the others were grouped as "delayed ovulating" cows (n = 5). In both groups, high total FFA levels (>500 µM) were evident immediately postpartum. Interestingly, cows with delayed ovulation had higher plasma FFA concentrations in the first weeks postpartum compared with normal ovulating cows. In both cow groups, FFA decreased to control levels of non-NEB cows within 3 wk postpartum. The FFA compositions and concentrations in fluids from the dominant follicles of postpartum cows were not different between the normal and delayed ovulating cows when measured at potential insemination points: d 55, 80, and 105 postpartum. Interestingly, the concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid was higher and that of saturated stearic acid lower in follicular fluids of both groups compared with that in blood. The level of FFA in follicular fluid was correlated with the ratio of 17β-estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) in follicular fluid, with a relatively high level of unsaturated FFA in follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio. Taken together, these results indicate that a more severe NEB early postpartum is related to a delay in the first postpartum ovulation and does not affect FFA composition in follicular fluid at the preferred insemination time. The high FFA level in dominant follicles with a low E2:P4 ratio may be due to a different FFA metabolism in these follicles. The diagnostic value of this

  4. Large neutral amino acids levels in primate cerebrospinal fluid do not confirm competitive transport under baseline conditions.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Rodolfo; Mchaourab, Ali S; McClellan, Frances; Elsworth, John; Double, Manda; Jaskiw, George E

    2016-10-01

    In rodents, transport of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier is mediated by high affinity carriers. Net brain LNAA levels are thought to be determined mainly by this competitive transport from plasma. Since the affinity for LNAA transport at the BBB in primates is considerably higher than in rodents, brain influx and by extension LNAA brain levels, should be even more dependent on competitive transport. Given that LNAA levels in CSF and brain interstitial fluid are usually similar, we analyzed serum and CSF of fasted subjects (n=24) undergoing spinal anesthesia and calculated brain influx and transporter occupancy using a conventional model of transport. Despite predicted near-full transporter saturation (99.7%), correlations between CSF levels and brain influx were modest, limited to tyrosine (r=0.60, p<0.002) and tryptophan (r=0.50, p<0.01) and comparable to correlations between CSF and serum levels. We also analyzed serum and CSF in (n=5) fasted vervet monkeys. Tyrosine and phenylalanine levels in CSF were positively correlated with those in serum, but correlations with calculated brain influx, which takes competition into account, were weaker or absent. We conclude that in primates i) baseline CSF LNAA levels do not confirm competitive transport, ii) brain LNAA levels should not be estimated on the basis of serum indices alone. This has implications for amino acid challenge studies and for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated LNAA transport in which quantitative information about brain LNAA levels is needed. PMID:27521685

  5. The effect of non-starch polysaccharide supplementation on circulating bile acids, hormone and metabolite levels following a fat meal in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Morgan, L M; Tredger, J A; Shavila, Y; Travis, J S; Wright, J

    1993-09-01

    The effects of guar gum, sugar-beet fibre (SBF) and wheat bran supplementation of a high-fat test meal were compared with an NSP-free control meal and a meal containing an equivalent amount of the ion-exchange resin cholestyramine in healthy non-obese human volunteers. Their effects on gastric emptying, postprandial circulating bile acids, triacylglycerols and gastrointestinal hormone levels were studied. The in vitro binding of NSP and cholestyramine to [1-14C]glycocholic acid was measured and compared with their in vivo effect. Guar gum and cholestyramine supplementation significantly lowered circulating postprandial bile acid, triacylglycerol and gastric inhibitory polypeptide concentrations, but sugar-beet fibre and wheat bran were without effect. Liquid gastric emptying, as assessed by circulating paracetamol levels, was slightly accelerated in the guar gum-supplemented meal. Glycocholic acid bound strongly to the insoluble fraction of cholestyramine and the soluble fraction of guar gum. The insoluble fractions of SBF and wheat bran bound only small quantities of glycocholate; no bile acid binding was detected in the soluble fractions of these NSP. The study demonstrates that measurement of postprandial bile acids enables an indirect measurement to be made of bile acid binding to NSP in vivo. The results support the hypothesis that the hypocholesterolaemic action of guar gum is largely mediated via interruption of the enterohepatic bile acid circulation, but indicate that the hypocholesterolaemic action of SBF is mediated by another mechanism. PMID:8260476

  6. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  7. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs. PMID:22864056

  8. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H.

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  9. Protective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid and its Metabolites on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Alterations in Rat Brain Slices: A Comparative Study with Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Gul, Zulfiye; Demircan, Celaleddin; Bagdas, Deniz; Buyukuysal, Rifat Levent

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of chlorogenic acid and its main metabolites, caffeic and quinic acids, against oxidative stress was investigated. Resveratrol, another natural phenolic compound, was also tested for comparison. Rat cortical slices were incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 1 h, and alterations in oxidative stress parameters, such as 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and the production of both malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), were assayed in the absence or presence of phenolic compounds. Additionally, the effectiveness of chlorogenic acid and other compounds on H2O2-induced increases in fluorescence intensities were also compared in slice-free incubation medium. Although quinic acid failed, chlorogenic and caffeic acids significantly ameliorated the H2O2-induced decline in TTC staining intensities. Although resveratrol also caused an increase in staining intensity, its effect was not dose-dependent; the high concentrations of resveratrol tested in the present study (10 and 100 μM) further lessened the staining of the slices. Additionally, all phenolic compounds significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced increases in MDA and ROS levels in cortical slices. When the IC50 values were compared to H2O2-induced alterations, chlorogenic acid was more potent than either its metabolites or resveratrol for all parameters studied under these experimental conditions. In slice-free experimental conditions, on the other hand, chlorogenic and caffeic acids significantly attenuated the fluorescence emission enhanced by H2O2 with a similar order of potency to that obtained in slice-containing physiological medium. These results indicate that chlorogenic acid is a more potent phenolic compound than resveratrol and its main metabolites caffeic and quinic acids against H2O2-induced alterations in oxidative stress parameters in rat cortical slices. PMID:27161374

  10. Uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid in the urinary bladder increases serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, T

    2003-10-01

    In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs), can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. PMID:15241498

  11. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS. PMID:27507559

  12. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children

    PubMed Central

    Winnier, J Jasmin; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Prasad Rao, Arun

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study compared and evaluated the effects of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on existing plaque levels in children. The investigation was a single blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who performed either tongue scraping or tongue brushing along with tooth brushing or only tooth brushing twice daily under professional supervision for a 21 day period. Dental plaque was recorded using the plaque index described by Silness and Loe at baseline, on day 10 and on day 21. All data was subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Sum Test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The results of the present study show that the tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in plaque levels after 10 days and also after 21 days. It was also noted that both tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing the plaque load in children. How to cite this article: Winnier JJ, Rupesh S, Nayak UA, Reddy V, Rao AP. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):188-192. PMID:25206220

  13. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  14. Comparative Population Dynamics of Two Closely Related Species Differing in Ploidy Level

    PubMed Central

    Černá, Lucie; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies compare the population dynamics of single species within multiple habitat types, while much less is known about the differences in population dynamics in closely related species in the same habitat. Additionally, comparisons of the effect of habitat types and species are largely missing. Methodology and Principal Findings We estimated the importance of the habitat type and species for population dynamics of plants. Specifically, we compared the dynamics of two closely related species, the allotetraploid species Anthericum liliago and the diploid species Anthericum ramosum, occurring in the same habitat type. We also compared the dynamics of A. ramosum in two contrasting habitats. We examined three populations per species and habitat type. The results showed that single life history traits as well as the mean population dynamics of A. liliago and A. ramosum from the same habitat type were more similar than the population dynamics of A. ramosum from the two contrasting habitats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that when transferring knowledge regarding population dynamics between populations, we need to take habitat conditions into account, as these conditions appear to be more important than the species involved (ploidy level). However, the two species differ significantly in their overall population growth rates, indicating that the ploidy level has an effect on species performance. In contrast to what has been suggested by previous studies, we observed a higher population growth rate in the diploid species. This is in agreement with the wider range of habitats occupied by the diploid species. PMID:24116057

  15. Ascorbic acid supplementation down-regulates the alcohol induced oxidative stress, hepatic stellate cell activation, cytotoxicity and mRNA levels of selected fibrotic genes in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P A; Harikrishnan, R; Indira, M

    2012-02-01

    Both oxidative stress and endotoxins mediated immunological reactions play a major role in the progression of alcoholic hepatic fibrosis. Ascorbic acid has been reported to reduce alcohol-induced toxicity and ascorbic acid levels are reduced in alcoholics. Hence, we investigated the hepatoprotective action of ascorbic acid in the reversal of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in male guinea pigs (n = 36), and it was compared with the animals abstenting from alcohol treatment. In comparison with the alcohol abstention group, there was a reduction in the activities of toxicity markers and levels of lipid and protein peroxidation products, expression of α-SMA, caspase-3 activity and mRNA levels of CYP2E1, TGF-β(1), TNF-α and α(1)(I) collagen in liver of the ascorbic acid-supplemented group. The ascorbic acid content in liver was significantly reduced in the alcohol-treated guinea pigs. But it was reversed to normal level in the ascorbic acid-supplemented group. The anti-fibrotic action of ascorbic acid in the rapid regression of alcoholic liver fibrosis may be attributed to decrease in the oxidative stress, hepatic stellate cells activation, cytotoxicity and mRNA expression of fibrotic genes CYP2E1, TGF-β(1), TNF-α and α(1) (I) collagen in hepatic tissues. PMID:22149461

  16. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  17. Screening, Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties Among Lactic Acid Bacteria Through Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sundru Manjulata; Archer, Ann Catherine; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-09-01

    The present work aimed to identify probiotic bacteria from healthy human infant faecal and dairy samples. Subsequently, an assay was developed to evaluate the probiotic properties using comparative genetic approach for marker genes involved in adhesion to the intestinal epithelial layer. Several in vitro properties including tolerance to biological barriers (such as acid and bile), antimicrobial spectrum, resistance to simulated digestive fluids and cellular hydrophobicity were assessed. The potential probiotic cultures were rapidly characterized by morphological, physiological and molecular-based methods [such as RFLP, ITS, RAPD and (GTG)5]. Further analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the selected isolates belong to Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus species. Two cultures of non-lactic, non-pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. were also isolated. The native isolates were able to survive under acidic, bile and simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, these cultures inhibited the growth of tested bacterial pathogens. Further, no correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and adhesion ability. Sequencing of probiotic marker genes such as bile salt hydrolase (bsh), fibronectin-binding protein (fbp) and mucin-binding protein (mub) for selected isolates revealed nucleotide variation. The probiotic binding domains were detected by several bioinformatic tools. The approach used in the study enabled the identification of potential probiotic domains responsible for adhesion of bacteria to intestinal epithelial layer, which may further assist in screening of novel probiotic bacteria. The rapid detection of binding domains will help in revealing the beneficial properties of the probiotic cultures. Further, studies will be performed to develop a novel probiotic product which will contribute in food and feed industry. PMID:26049925

  18. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  19. Cochlear ablation effects on amino acid levels in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D A; Chen, K; Godfrey, M A; Lee, A C; Crass, S P; Shipp, D; Simo, H; Robinson, K T

    2015-06-25

    Inner ear damage can lead to hearing disorders, including tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. We measured the effects of severe inner ear damage, produced by cochlear ablation, on the levels and distributions of amino acids in the first brain center of the auditory system, the cochlear nucleus. Measurements were also made for its projection pathways and the superior olivary nuclei. Cochlear ablation produces complete degeneration of the auditory nerve, which provides a baseline for interpreting the effects of partial damage to the inner ear, such as that from ototoxic drugs or intense sound. Amino acids play a critical role in neural function, including neurotransmission, neuromodulation, cellular metabolism, and protein construction. They include major neurotransmitters of the brain - glutamate, glycine, and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) - as well as others closely related to their metabolism and/or functions - aspartate, glutamine, and taurine. Since the effects of inner ear damage develop over time, we measured the changes in amino acid levels at various survival times after cochlear ablation. Glutamate and aspartate levels decreased by 2weeks in the ipsilateral ventral cochlear nucleus and deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, with the largest decreases in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN): 66% for glutamate and 63% for aspartate. Aspartate levels also decreased in the lateral part of the ipsilateral trapezoid body, by as much as 50%, suggesting a transneuronal effect. GABA and glycine levels showed some bilateral decreases, especially in the PVCN. These results may represent the state of amino acid metabolism in the cochlear nucleus of humans after removal of eighth nerve tumors, which may adversely result in destruction of the auditory nerve. Measurement of chemical changes following inner ear damage may increase understanding of the pathogenesis of hearing impairments and enable improvements in their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25839146

  20. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gavin F; McNiven, Mary A; Petit, Hélène V; Duynisveld, John L

    2013-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 18 cows of 36 in the Flax group were switched to the soybean supplement and 18 cows of 36 in the Soybean group were switched to the flax supplement (start of Period 2). Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) in week 5 of period 2. The FA composition of the milk reflected the FA profile of the oilseed supplements. There were no differences in pregnancy rates among the 4 groups. The treatments had no effect on plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels or ratios at 4 to 11 d postpartum. At 5 to 6 d post- TAI, pregnant cows fed Flax in period 1 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma prostaglandin F metabolite (PGFM) levels and PGFM to prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) ratio than cows fed Soybean, but there were no significant differences at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. Cows pregnant from TAI and fed Flax in period 2 had higher (P < 0.05) serum progesterone levels at 5 to 6 d post-TAI than cows fed Soybean, but there was no difference at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. The dietary treatments had no effect on pregnancy rates, but there were some effects on plasma PGFM levels, PGFM to PGEM ratios, and serum progesterone levels. The FA supplements influenced the FA composition of milk. PMID:24124276

  1. Genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster are associated with plasma LDL cholesterol levels in Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Sone, Yasuko; Kido, Toshimi; Ainuki, Tomomi; Sonoda, Mariko; Ichi, Ikuyo; Kodama, Satoru; Sone, Hirohito; Kondo, Kazuo; Morita, Yutaka; Egawa, Shigenobu; Kawahara, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) compositions in tissues are related to metabolic disorders, and consequently the appropriate management of underlying FA compositions in tissues is considered to be important. However, the relationship among the serum lipid profiles, the FA composition of the red blood cell (RBC) membranes and genetic variations in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes in Japanese men is unclear. In this study, the subjects recruited were 137 Japanese men, 40 to 60 y old, who had a regular health checkup. Their serum lipid profile and the relative FA composition of the RBC membranes were measured. They were genotyped for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs174553, rs174546, rs99780 and rs174583 in FADS gene. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to detect the relationship among hyperlipidemia, the FA composition of the RBC and the FADS genotypes. As a result, the homozygous genotype for the minor alleles in rs174553, rs174546, rs99780 were found to be associated with lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and a lower LDL-C/total-cholesterol ratio. The homozygous genotype for the minor alleles reduced the risk of high LDL-C level (R2=0.50, β=-0.20, p=0.009), whereas, the arachidonic acid (AA) levels in the carriers of the homozygous genotype for the minor alleles tended to be lower compared with the carriers of the major alleles. However, no significant differences were observed in any FA level among the three genotypes for four SNPs. These results indicate that the appropriate management of serum LDL-C levels depending on genetic predisposition in FADS genotypes should be encouraged. PMID:24064733

  2. Effects of Diaceto-Dipropyl-Disulphide on Plasma Sialic Acid and Renal Tissue Thiol Levels in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vickram; Thirumalarao, Kashinath Rattihalli; Raiker, Veena Gajana; Puttaswamy, Sandhya Hanumanthappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Plasma sialic acid levels are elevated in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with proteinuria. Renal damage is mainly caused by free radicals that are excessively generated in DM. Thiols play an important role in the cellular antioxidative defence mechanisms mainly through thiol-disulphide exchange reaction. Diallyl disulphide, a garlic oil principle component, is known for its anti-diabetic properties. Its structural analogue, Diaceto-Dipropyl Disulphide (DADPDS), is a less toxic and more palatable disulphide and possesses similar anti-diabetic actions. Aim This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of DADPDS in prevention of de-sialation of Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM) in alloxan diabetic rats and to assess effect of DADPDS on renal tissue thiol levels. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into Normal, Diabetic and DADPDS treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection (IP) of alloxan. DADPDS was fed by gastric intubation. Plasma Sialic acid was determined by Ehrlich’s method and renal tissue thiol levels by Nitroprusside reaction method. Results This study showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in plasma sialic acid, plasma glucose and renal tissue TBARS levels along with significant increase (p<0.001) in renal tissue thiol levels in DADPDS treated alloxan diabetic rats when compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion Hence it may be concluded that DADPDS helps in preventing de-sialation of GBM in alloxan diabetic rats and improves renal tissue antioxidant defence mechanisms, may be through thiol-disulphide exchange reaction and thereby exhibits a possible clinical use in prevention of renal complications like diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27504279

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production. PMID:25366131

  4. Effects of Alterations of Plasma Free Fatty Acid Levels on Pancreatic Glucagon Secretion in Man

    PubMed Central

    Gerich, John E.; Langlois, Maurice; Schneider, Victor; Karam, John H.; Noacco, Claudio

    1974-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to ascertain whether alterations in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) affect pancreatic glucagon secretion in man since FFA have been reported to influence pancreatic alpha cell function in other species. Elevation of plasma FFA from a mean (±SE) basal level of 0.478±0.036 mM to 0.712±0.055 mM after heparin administration caused plasma glucagon levels to fall approximately 50%, from a basal value of 122±15 pg/ml to 59±14 pg/ml (P < 0.001). Lowering of plasma FFA from a basal level of 0.520±0.046 mM to 0.252±0.041 mM after nicotinic acid administration raised plasma glucagon from a basal level of 113±18 pg/ml to 168±12 pg/ml (P < 0.005). Infusion of glucose elevated plasma glucose levels to the same degree that heparin raised plasma FFA levels. This resulted in suppression of plasma glucagon despite the fact that plasma FFA levels also were suppressed. Glucagon responses to arginine were diminished after elevation of plasma FFA (P < 0.01) and during infusion of glucose (P < 0.01). Diminution of plasma FFA by nicotinic acid did not augment glucagon responses to arginine. These results thus demonstrate that rather small alterations in plasma FFA within the physiologic range have a significant effect on glucagon secretion in man. Although the effects of glucose appear to predominate over those of FFA, alterations in plasma FFA may nevertheless exert an important physiologic influence over human pancreatic alpha cell function, especially in the postabsorptive state. PMID:4825225

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid compared to silymarin on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Girish, C; Koner, Bidhan Chandra; Jayanthi, S; Ramachandra Rao, K; Rajesh, B; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

    2009-12-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated as a common pathologic mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage in a variety of liver disorders. Present study attempts to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid in comparison to silymarin using paracetamol (PCM) induced acute liver damage. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering a single oral dose of PCM (500 mg/kg) and was assessed by quantifying the serum enzyme activities, phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and histopathological analysis of liver tissues. The antioxidant parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase of the liver tissue were also assessed. The herbal drugs were administered for 7 days by oral route at 50 and 100 mg/kg. PCM induced hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) in serum and MDA level in liver. There was also a significant decrease in activity of GSH and catalase levels. The histopathological examination on toxic models revealed centrizonal necrosis and fatty changes. Pretreatment of mice with picroliv, curcumin and ellagic acid reversed these altered parameters towards normal values, which were compared with silymarin. The normalization of phenobarbitone induced sleeping time suggests the restoration of liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. This study supports the use of these active phytochemicals against toxic liver injury, which may act by preventing the lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system or regeneration of hepatocytes. These active phytochemicals may be developed as drugs for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:19656205

  6. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  7. Comparable profiles of serum histamine and IgG4 levels in allergic beekeepers.

    PubMed

    Chliva, C; Aggelides, X; Makris, M; Katoulis, A; Rigopoulos, D; Tiligada, E

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence identifies histamine as a key player in allergic responses, but the reports relating serum histamine to tolerance are scarce and inconclusive. This study investigated the relationship of circulating histamine to the tolerant phenotype in allergic beekeepers. The results showed a positive correlation between the serum levels of histamine and specific immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4) to honeybee venom, but not with total IgE or sIgE. Interestingly, both sIgG4 and histamine levels were negatively correlated with the time since the last bee sting. In contrast to total IgE and sIgE, serum sIgG4 and histamine levels followed comparable patterns, being higher in tolerant/recently stung individuals and lower in the least frequently stung subgroup. The data obtained in this pilot study associated, for the first time, serum histamine levels with allergen tolerance in allergic individuals and provided the lead for further considering the putative immunomodulatory properties of histamine in allergic responses. PMID:25639973

  8. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  9. Serum uric acid level in newly diagnosed essential hypertension in a Nepalese population: A hospital based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bibek; Yadav, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Jha, Bharat; Raut, Kanak Bahadur

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop the missing link between hyperuricemia and hypertension. Methods The study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with Nephrology Unit of Internal Medicine Department. Hypertension was defined according to blood pressure readings by definitions of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee. Totally 205 newly diagnosed and untreated essential hypertensive cases and age-sex matched normotensive controls were enrolled in the study. The potential confounding factors of hyperuricemia and hypertension in both cases and controls were controlled. Uric acid levels in all participants were analyzed. Results Renal function between newly diagnosed hypertensive cases and normotensive healthy controls were adjusted. The mean serum uric acid observed in newly diagnosed hypertensive cases and in normotensive healthy controls were (290.05±87.05) µmol/L and (245.24±99.38) µmol/L respectively. A total of 59 (28.8%) participants of cases and 28 (13.7%) participants of controls had hyperuricemia (odds ratio 2.555 (95% CI: 1.549-4.213), P<0.001). Conclusions The mean serum uric acid levels and number of hyperuricemic subjects were found to be significantly higher in cases when compared to controls. PMID:24144132

  10. Second-generation antipsychotics and adiponectin levels in schizophrenia: A comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    People with schizophrenia treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have lower plasma adiponectin levels, as compared with general population, that may lead to metabolic abnormalities. However, the contribution of different SGAs on adiponectin dysregulation is still unclear. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate differences in adiponectin levels among people with schizophrenia treated with different SGAs. We systematically searched for observational studies published up to March 2015 in main electronic databases. Different SGAs were included if data on adiponectin were available from at least three different samples involving as a minimum five participants per treatment arm. Standardized mean differences with relevant 95% confidence intervals were generated. I(2) was used to test heterogeneity among studies. Eight studies were included with data suitable for carrying out four different comparisons: Clozapine vs. Olanzapine (including n=877 individuals with schizophrenia); Clozapine vs. Risperidone (n=660); Olanzapine vs. Risperidone (n=738); Quetiapine vs. Risperidone (n=186). There were no differences on adiponectin levels between people taking Clozapine and those taking Olanzapine (p=0.86), but high heterogeneity was detected (I(2)=82%). Both individuals taking Clozapine (p<0.001; I(2)=0%) and those taking Olanzapine (p=0.02; I(2)=9%), but not subjects treated with Quetiapine (p=0.47; I(2)=0%), had adiponectin levels significantly lower than people taking Risperidone. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence showing greater metabolic abnormalities attributable to Clozapine and Olanzapine, as compared with other SGAs. Although mechanisms whereby both these SGAs influence adiponectin remain unexplained, its reduction might mediate relevant abnormalities. Prospective evaluations of long-term effects of different SGAs on adiponectin are needed. PMID:26164075

  11. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  12. Comparative evaluation of probing depth and clinical attachment level using a manual probe and Florida probe

    PubMed Central

    Kour, Amandeep; Kumar, Ashish; Puri, Komal; Khatri, Manish; Bansal, Mansi; Gupta, Geeti

    2016-01-01

    Background: To compare and evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner efficacy and reproducibility of the first-generation manual (Williams) probe and the third-generation Florida probe in terms of measuring pocket probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: Forty subjects/4000 sites were included in this comparative, cross-sectional study. Group- and site-wise categorizations were done. Based on gingival index, PD, and CAL, patients were divided into four groups, i.e., periodontally healthy, gingivitis, mild to moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis. Further, based on these parameters, a total of 4000 sites, with 1000 sites in each category randomly selected from these 40 patients, were taken. Full mouth PD and CAL measurements were recorded with two probes, by Examiner 1 and on Ramfjord teeth by Examiner 2. Results: Full mouth and Ramfjord teeth group- and site-wise PD obtained with the manual probe by both the examiners were statistically significantly deeper than that obtained with the Florida probe. The full mouth and Ramfjord teeth mean CAL measurement by Florida probe was higher as compared to manual probe in mild to moderate periodontitis group and sites, whereas in severe periodontitis group and sites, manual probe recorded higher CAL as compared to Florida probe. Conclusion: Mean PD and CAL measurements were deeper with the manual probe as compared to the Florida probe in all the groups and sites, except for the mild-moderate periodontitis group and sites where the CAL measurements with the manual probe were less than the Florida probe. Manual probe was more reproducible and showed less interexaminer variability as compared to the Florida probe. PMID:27563204

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Lipka, Alexander E.; Deason, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Buell, Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three of the nine essential amino acids in human and animal diets and are important for numerous processes in development and growth. However, seed BCAA levels in major crops are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, making genetic improvement for increased and balanced seed BCAAs an important nutritional target. Addressing this issue requires a better understanding of the genetics underlying seed BCAA content and composition. Here, a genome-wide association study and haplotype analysis for seed BCAA traits in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a strong association with a chromosomal interval containing two BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASES, BCAT1 and BCAT2. Linkage analysis, reverse genetic approaches, and molecular complementation analysis demonstrated that allelic variation at BCAT2 is responsible for the natural variation of seed BCAAs in this interval. Complementation analysis of a bcat2 null mutant with two significantly different alleles from accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara is consistent with BCAT2 contributing to natural variation in BCAA levels, glutamate recycling, and free amino acid homeostasis in seeds in an allele-dependent manner. The seed-specific phenotype of bcat2 null alleles, its strong transcription induction during late seed development, and its subcellular localization to the mitochondria are consistent with a unique, catabolic role for BCAT2 in BCAA metabolism in seeds. PMID:24368787

  14. Mutations in a novel 9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase gene are associated with enhanced stearic acid levels in soybean seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stearic acid (18:0) is typically a minor component of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil, accounting for only 2-4 % of the total fatty acid content. Increasing stearic acid levels of soybean oil would lead to enhanced oxidative stability, potentially reducing the need for hydrogenation, a process...

  15. [Comparative analysis of dependence of saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Morenkova, S A

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of determination of sorbitol and fructosamine in saliva has been studied in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes. The dependence of these metabolites levels in saliva on blood glucose level was demonstrated. It is concluded that saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels measurements may be used as diagnostic tests in diabetes and serve as indicators of efficacy of therapy in diabetes. PMID:15707277

  16. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  17. Polyamine derivatives of betulinic acid and β-sitosterol: A comparative investigation.

    PubMed

    Bildziukevich, Uladzimir; Vida, Norbert; Rárová, Lucie; Kolář, Milan; Šaman, David; Havlíček, Libor; Drašar, Pavel; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2015-08-01

    β-Sitosterol and betulinic acid were used in designing their conjugates with selected polyamines bearing either an amide bond, or an ester and an amide bond simultaneously in the target molecule. The synthesized compounds were subjected to basic cytotoxic and antimicrobial tests. The synthetic protocol is described separately for each of the three series of the target amides, because each series of compounds required a different synthetic approach. The cytotoxicity was tested on cells derived from human T-lymphoblastic leukemia, breast adenocarcinoma and cervical cancer, and compared with the tests on normal human fibroblasts. Most of the target compounds (5a-5c, 11a-11c and 16a-16c) showed medium to high cytotoxicity (0.7-7.8 μM), however, in some cases the compounds showed high cytotoxicity even toward normal human fibroblasts (11a-11c). Two compounds of this series (11c and 16c) also displayed antimicrobial activity with high and selective microbe specificity. The compound 11c was potent against Escherichia coli (minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) 6.25 μg mL(-1), i.e. 9.75 nM mL(-1)) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 12.5 μg mL(-1), i.e. 19.5 nM mL(-1)), and showed medium activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compound 16c was highly active against Enterococcus faecalis and S. aureus (both, MIC 3.125 μg mL(-1), i.e. 4.22 nM mL(-1)), both Gram-positive bacteria, however showed only weak activity against E. coli and no activity against P. aeruginosa, both Gram-negative bacteria, which indicates possible microbe specificity of 16c. Comparing β-sitosterol-based series (5a-5c) and betulinic acid series (11a-11c and 16a-16c) of the target compounds, the latter one gave more promising structures. The compounds 11c and 16c showed effects which may be described as multifarious activity (pleiotropic effects). PMID:25963549

  18. Postoperative enteral hyperalimentation results in earlier elevation of serum branched-chain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Moss, G; Naylor, E D

    1994-07-01

    To objectively document the immediate maintenance and successful exploitation of postoperative gastrointestinal (GI) function, elemental diet was infused into the more distal duodenum of 30 cholecystectomy patients at 300 kcal per hour, beginning on arrival at the recovery room. Approximately 4,600 kcal and 190 grams of amino acids were absorbed during the initial 16 hours. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) had risen above basal levels at 4 hours, statistically significant only for leucine (+64%). The higher concentrations had reached statistical significance for all BCAAs by 6 hours, when leucine had risen by 83%, isoleucine by 54%, and valine by 47%. The elevated BCAA and glucose levels sustained throughout the hyperalimentation period objectively verify that postoperative GI function can be safely exploited, and may contribute to improved wound healing and sepsis resistance. PMID:8024096

  19. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  20. Kynurenic Acid Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wennström, Malin; Nielsen, Henrietta M; Orhan, Funda; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart; Erhardt, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is implicated in cognitive functions. Altered concentrations of the compound are found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Further studies to determine whether KYNA serves as a biomarker for cognitive decline and dementia progression are required. In this study, we measured CSF KYNA levels in AD patients (n = 19), patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n = 18), and healthy age-matched controls (Ctrls)) (n = 20) to further explore possible correlations between KYNA levels, cognitive decline, and well-established AD and inflammatory markers. Neither DLB patients nor AD patients showed significantly altered CSF KYNA levels compared to Ctrls. However, female AD patients displayed significantly higher KYNA levels compared to male AD patients, a gender difference not seen in the Ctrl or DLB group. Levels of KYNA significantly correlated with the AD-biomarker P-tau and the inflammation marker soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in the AD patient group. No associations between KYNA and cognitive functions were found. Our study shows that, although KYNA was not associated with cognitive decline in AD or DLB patients, it may be implicated in AD-related hyperphosphorylation of tau and inflammation. Further studies on larger patient cohorts are required to understand the potential role of KYNA in AD and DLB. PMID:24855376

  1. Effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid on the risk of arsenic-associated carotid atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.-M.; Chiou, H.-Y. . E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Hong, C.-T.; Su, C.-L.; Chang, S.-F.; Huang, W.-L.; Wang, H.-T.; Wang, Y.-H.; Hsieh, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-J.

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic-contaminated well water has been shown to increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Because of involving S-adenosylmethionine, homocysteine may modify the risk by interfering with the biomethylation of ingested arsenic. In this study, we assessed the effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) on the risk of atherosclerosis associated with arsenic. In total, 163 patients with carotid atherosclerosis and 163 controls were studied. Lifetime cumulative arsenic exposure from well water for study subjects was measured as index of arsenic exposure. Homocysteine level was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Proportion of MMA{sup V} (MMA%) was calculated by dividing with total arsenic species in urine, including arsenite, arsenate, MMA{sup V}, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). Results of multiple linear regression analysis show a positive correlation of plasma homocysteine levels to the cumulative arsenic exposure after controlling for atherosclerosis status and nutritional factors (P < 0.05). This correlation, however, did not change substantially the effect of arsenic exposure on the risk of atherosclerosis as analyzed in a subsequent logistic regression model. Logistic regression analyses also show that elevated plasma homocysteine levels did not confer an independent risk for developing atherosclerosis in the study population. However, the risk of having atherosclerosis was increased to 5.4-fold (95% CI, 2.0-15.0) for the study subjects with high MMA% ({>=}16.5%) and high homocysteine levels ({>=}12.7 {mu}mol/l) as compared to those with low MMA% (<9.9%) and low homocysteine levels (<12.7 {mu}mol/l). Elevated homocysteinemia may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis related to arsenic exposure in individuals with high levels of MMA% in urine.

  2. Positive Adaptive State: Microarray Evaluation of Gene Expression in Salmonella Enterica Typhimurium Upon Exposure to Sub-Therapeutic Levels of Nalidixic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate changes in gene expression that occur upon exposure to sub-therapeutic levels of a quinolones antibioitic, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium ATCC# 14028 was exposed to 1.6 ug/L of nalidixic acid (NA). Microarray analysis of the expression profile during exposure to NA was compared...

  3. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  4. Increased tachykinin levels in induced sputum from asthmatic and cough patients with acid reflux

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Robert N; Johnston, Brian T; Ardill, Joy E S; Heaney, Liam G; McGarvey, Lorcan P A

    2007-01-01

    Background Acid reflux may aggravate airway disease including asthma and chronic cough. One postulated mechanism concerns a vagally‐mediated oesophageal‐tracheobronchial reflex with airway sensory nerve activation and tachykinin release. Aim To test the hypothesis that patients with airways disease and reflux have higher airway tachykinin levels than those without reflux. Methods Thirty‐two patients with airways disease (16 with mild asthma and 16 non‐asthmatic subjects with chronic cough) underwent 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring. Acid reflux was defined as increased total oesophageal acid exposure (% total time pH <4 of >4.9% at the distal probe). All subjects underwent sputum induction. Differential cell counts and concentrations of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), albumin and α2‐macroglobulin were determined. Results SP and NKA levels were significantly higher in patients with reflux than in those without (SP: 1434 (680) pg/ml vs 906 (593) pg/ml, p = 0.026; NKA: 81 (33) pg/ml vs 52 (36) pg/ml, p = 0.03). Significantly higher tachykinin levels were also found in asthmatic patients with reflux than in asthmatic patients without reflux (SP: 1508 (781) pg/ml vs 737 (512) pg/ml, p = 0.035; NKA: median (interquartile range 108 (85–120) pg/ml vs 75 (2–98) pg/ml, p = 0.02). In patients with asthma there was a significant positive correlation between distal oesophageal acid exposure and SP levels (r = 0.59, p = 0.01) and NKA levels (r = 0.56, p = 0.02). Non‐significant increases in SP and NKA were measured in patients with cough with reflux (SP: 1534.71 (711) pg/ml vs 1089 (606) pg/ml, p = 0.20; NKA: 56 (43) pg/ml vs 49 (17) pg/ml, p = 0.71). No significant difference in differential cell counts or any other biochemical parameter was noted between study groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates increased airway tachykinin levels in patients with asthma and cough patients with

  5. Evaluation of Low Blood Lead Levels and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Anemic Women: A Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Amit Kumar Mani; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Sharma, Sudarshna; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh

    2012-07-01

    To correlate blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress parameters in pregnant anemic women. A total of 175 pregnant women were found suitable and included for this study. Following WHO criteria, 50 each were identified as non-anemic, mild anemic and moderate anemic and 25 were severe anemic. The age of all study subjects ranged from 24-41 years. At admission, BLLs and oxidative stress parameters were estimated as per standard protocols and subjected with ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Results showed significantly (p < 0.01) high BLLs, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxide (LPO) levels while low delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell (RBC) count, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in all groups of anemic pregnant women as compared with non anemic pregnant women. In all groups of pregnant women, BLLs showed significant (p < 0.01) and direct association with ZPP, GSSG and LPO while inverse relation with δ-ALAD, Fe, Se, Zn, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC, GSH, SOD, CAT and TAC. Study concluded that low BLLs perturb oxidant-antioxidant balance and negatively affected hematological parameters which may eventually Pb to Fe deficiency anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26405382

  6. Comparative theoretical studies of the phosphomonoester hydrolysis mechanism by purple acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Retegan, M; Milet, A; Jamet, H

    2010-07-01

    We present here the first ONIOM (our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital + molecular mechanics method) studies of a purple acid phosphatase enzyme. Our study focused on the structures of the red kidney bean PAP (kbPAP) complexed with phosphate and with phenyl phosphate and on the mechanism of the phenyl phosphate hydrolysis by the enzyme. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also performed using models of different sizes for comparison purpose. Results show that the inclusion of three histidine residues, His202, His295, and His296, with their protein surrounding, is crucial to properly describe the coordination of the substrates. They induce a conformation with the substrate closer to the nucleophilic mu-hydroxyde bridge. In the mechanistic study, a transition state is stabilized by a strong hydrogen bond between His202 and the leaving group of the substrate. Consequently, a smaller value for the activation energy barrier is obtained from DFT calculations including this histidine to the same calculations without this histidine. Using the ONIOM method, this activation energy barrier is even more reduced. So the mechanism, which considers the hydroxo group bridging the two metal ions as nucleophile, becomes really convincing, contrary to the results obtained with a small model at the DFT level. PMID:20550096

  7. Comparative Biomechanical and Microstructural Analysis of Native versus Peracetic Acid-Ethanol Treated Cancellous Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Juliane; Despang, Florian; Baas, Jorgen; Liebers, Cornelia; Pruss, Axel; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Stiehler, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Bone transplantation is frequently used for the treatment of large osseous defects. The availability of autologous bone grafts as the current biological gold standard is limited and there is a risk of donor site morbidity. Allogenic bone grafts are an appealing alternative, but disinfection should be considered to reduce transmission of infection disorders. Peracetic acid-ethanol (PE) treatment has been proven reliable and effective for disinfection of human bone allografts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PE treatment on the biomechanical properties and microstructure of cancellous bone grafts (CBG). Forty-eight human CBG cylinders were either treated by PE or frozen at −20°C and subjected to compression testing and histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The levels of compressive strength, stiffness (Young's modulus), and fracture energy were significantly decreased upon PE treatment by 54%, 59%, and 36%, respectively. Furthermore, PE-treated CBG demonstrated a 42% increase in ultimate strain. SEM revealed a modified microstructure of CBG with an exposed collagen fiber network after PE treatment. We conclude that the observed reduced compressive strength and reduced stiffness may be beneficial during tissue remodeling thereby explaining the excellent clinical performance of PE-treated CBG. PMID:24678514

  8. Comparative sequence analysis of full-length genome of FIPV at different tissue passage levels.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J E; Hilt, D A; Jackwood, M W

    2013-12-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), an alpha Coronavirus, is the causative agent of a fatal immune mediated disease in cats. It is currently unclear if this virus circulates in the field or develops in felines that are infected with Feline enteric coronavirus. To better understand the genomic changes associated with viral adaptation, we sequenced the complete genomes of FIPV WSU 79-1146 at different tissue passage levels: passage 1, passage 8, and passage 50 tissue culture. Twenty-one amino acid differences were observed in the polyprotein 1a/ab between the different passages. Only one residue change was observed in the spike glycoprotein, which reverted back on subsequent passages, four changes were observed in the 3c protein, and one change was observed in each 3a, small membrane, nucleocapsid and 7a proteins. The mutation rate was calculated to be 5.08-6.3 × 10(-6) nucleotides/site/passage in tissue culture suggesting a relatively stable virus. Our data show that FIPV has a low mutation rate as it is passed in cell culture but has the capacity for change specifically in nsp 2, 3c, and 7b as it is passed in cell culture. PMID:23996606

  9. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  10. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m(2); all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  11. Influence of two anesthetic techniques on blood sugar level in head injury patients: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, Manoj; Malviya, Deepak; Malviya, P. S.; Kumar, Virendra; Tyagi, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Head injury presents a major worldwide social, economic, and health problem. Hyperglycemia is a significant indicator of the severity of injury and predictor of outcome, which can easily be prevented. There has been a long-standing controversy regarding the use of inhalational or intravenous (i.v.) anesthetic agents for surgery of head injury cases and impact of these agents on blood sugar level. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out anesthetic drugs and technique having minimal or no effect on the blood sugar, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of patients with a head injury by comparing two types of anesthetic techniques in surgery of head injury patients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, and comparative study, conducted on 60 adult head injury patients. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 each. Group I patients received induction with sevoflurane and then had O2 + air + sevoflurane for maintenance with controlled ventilation. Group II patients received induction with i.v. propofol and then had O2 + air + propofol for maintenance with controlled ventilation. Injection fentanyl was used in both the groups at the time of induction and in intermittent boluses in maintenance. In observation, blood sugar level and mean arterial pressure were assessed at different time periods perioperatively in both groups while GCS was analyzed pre- and post-operatively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Microsoft Excel 2010 using t-test for comparison between the two groups and Z-test for comparison of proportions. Results and Conclusion: Blood sugar level was found significantly higher in patients of sevoflurane group at 30 min after induction, at the end of surgery, and 1 h after the end of anesthesia than propofol group patients. This increase of blood sugar level did not have any significant alteration in the GCS profile of the patients in sevoflurane group as compared to propofol group

  12. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue from entire male pigs with extremely divergent levels of boar taint compounds--an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mörlein, Daniel; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the variability of fatty acid composition in entire male pigs with extremely divergent levels of boar taint compounds. Fatty acids were quantified in back fat samples from 20 selected carcasses of Pietrain*F1 sired boars (average carcass weight 84 kg) with extremely low (LL) or extremely high (HH) levels of androstenone, skatole, and indole. Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were significantly (p<0.05) increased in LL boars (23.4%) compared to HH boars (19.7%). This was mainly due to increased levels of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3). Correspondingly, unsaturated fatty acids (SFA) were significantly lower (p<0.05) in LL boars (35.2%) compared to HH boars (37.7%). The findings are discussed with respect to potential effects on flavor formation in boar fat and meat. Further research is needed to study the gender specificity and the interplay of the synthesis and the metabolism of steroids, lipids, and the clearance of skatole in pigs. PMID:25280356

  13. Comparative genomics of lactic acid bacteria reveals a niche-specific gene set

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The recently sequenced genome of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 [1] revealed a dairy organism with significant homology (75% of genes are homologous) to a probiotic bacteria Lb. acidophilus NCFM [2]. This led us to hypothesise that a group of genes could be determined which could define an organism's niche. Results Taking 11 fully sequenced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as our target, (3 dairy LAB, 5 gut LAB and 3 multi-niche LAB), we demonstrated that the presence or absence of certain genes involved in sugar metabolism, the proteolytic system, and restriction modification enzymes were pivotal in suggesting the niche of a strain. We identified 9 niche specific genes, of which 6 are dairy specific and 3 are gut specific. The dairy specific genes identified in Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 were lhv_1161 and lhv_1171, encoding components of the proteolytic system, lhv_1031 lhv_1152, lhv_1978 and lhv_0028 encoding restriction endonuclease genes, while bile salt hydrolase genes lba_0892 and lba_1078, and the sugar metabolism gene lba_1689 from Lb. acidophilus NCFM were identified as gut specific genes. Conclusion Comparative analysis revealed that if an organism had homologs to the dairy specific geneset, it probably came from a dairy environment, whilst if it had homologs to gut specific genes, it was highly likely to be of intestinal origin. We propose that this "barcode" of 9 genes will be a useful initial guide to researchers in the LAB field to indicate an organism's ability to occupy a specific niche. PMID:19265535

  14. Metal ion complexation properties of fulvic acids extracted from composted sewage sludge as compared to a soil fulvic acid.

    PubMed

    Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Oliveira, César J S

    2002-07-01

    Complexation properties of an anthropogenic fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a composted sewage sludge (csFA) for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) were studied at pH=6 and at a concentration of 25 mg L(-1). For the case of Cu(II), a particular analysis of the complexation phenomena was done at pH values of 3, 4, 5 and 6 and at aqueous FA concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) by synchronous excitation molecular fluorescence spectroscopy (SyF). Potentiometric titrimetry with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and H+ ion-selective electrodes and acid-base conductimetric titrations were used to obtain experimental information about the acid properties and complexation phenomena. A comparison of the results obtained for csFA with a natural soil FA (sFA) was made. Differences have been detected in the structural composition of the two samples and in the structure of the binding sites. In the csFA, binding site structures containing nitrogen probably play an important role in the complexation, besides oxygen containing structures. Complexation by sFA is mainly due to carboxylic and phenolic structures. Nevertheless, this work shows that csFA have macroscopic complexation properties (magnitude of the conditional stability constant and binding sites concentration) somewhat similar to the natural sFA samples. PMID:12188141

  15. Association between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and placental lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Sert, Selda; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Lead inhibits the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and results in neurotoxic aminolevulinic acid accumulation in the blood. During pregnancy, lead in the maternal blood can easily cross the placenta. The aim of this study was to determine whether the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism (rs1800435) was related to the placental lead levels. The study population comprised 97 blood samples taken from mothers to investigate ALAD G177C polymorphism and their placentas to measure lead levels. ALAD G177C polymorphism was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with a graphite furnace and Zeeman background correction system was used for lead determination. The median placental lead levels for ALAD1-1, ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2 genotypes were 7.54 μg/kg, 11.78 μg/kg and 18.53 μg/kg, respectively. Statistically significant association was found between the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism and placental lead levels (p<0.05). This study suggested that maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism was associated with placental lead levels. PMID:26701682

  16. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Uche, Ebele; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects. PMID:26989408

  17. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Uche, Ebele; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects. PMID:26989408

  18. Comparative nutrition and metabolism: Explication of open questions with emphasis on protein and amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David H.

    2005-01-01

    The 20th century saw numerous important discoveries in the nutritional sciences. Nonetheless, many unresolved questions still remain. Fifteen questions dealing with amino acid nutrition and metabolism are posed in this review. The first six deal with the functionality of sulfur amino acids (methionine and cysteine) and related compounds. Other unresolved problems that are discussed include priorities of use for amino acids having multiple functions; interactions among lysine, niacin and tryptophan; amino acid contributions to requirements from gut biosynthesis; the potential for gluconeogenesis to divert amino acids away from protein synthesis; the unique nutritional and metabolic idiosyncrasies of feline species, with emphasis on arginine; controversies surrounding human amino acid requirements; and the potential for maternal diet to influence sex ratio of offspring. PMID:16326801

  19. Lower expression of sialic acid receptors in the cecum of silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) compared to white leghorn.

    PubMed

    Han, Deping; Hu, Yanxin; Teng, Kedao; Deng, Xuemei

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus has received increasing attention in recent years because of the potential for recombination with the human virus. Distributions of sialic acid receptors on target cells are determinants of the susceptibilities of different species to influenza virus infection. In this study, the distribution of sialic acid receptors in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of Silky Fowl and White Leghorn chickens were compared. The results showed that sialic acid-α-2,3-galactose receptors and sialic acid-α6-galactose receptors were both observed in Silky Fowl and White Leghorn, but fewer positive cells were detected in Silky Fowl with significant difference in the cecum. The lower abundance of sialic acid receptors likely results from the lower abundance of CD3 and F4/80 immune cells in the cecum of Silky Fowl. PMID:26976896

  20. Adult consumers of cranberry juice cocktail have lower C-reactive protein levels compared with nonconsumers.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2015-02-01

    Flavonoids are important bioactive plant constituents found in abundance in berries, including cranberries. Cranberry beverages have been shown to beneficially impact urinary and cardiovascular health in clinical and observational studies, but their association with anthropometric outcomes is unknown. We examined the association between cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) consumption with flavonoid intake, and cardiometabolic and anthropometric outcomes among adults in the US data for adults (≥19 years, n = 10334) were drawn from cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey combined 2005-2008 survey. We hypothesized that CJC consumers will have lower anthropometric measures and healthier cardiometabolic profiles, including lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP). A CJC consumer (n = 330) was defined as anyone consuming CJC for 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. We used multivariate linear regression models to examine differences in anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes comparing CJC consumers to nonconsumers controlling for important confounders. Consumers drank an average 404 mL (14 fl oz) of CJC for 2 days and did not have higher total energy intakes compared with nonconsumers (mean [SD], 2259 [79] vs 2112 [24], respectively). In fully adjusted models, adult CJC consumers had significantly lower levels of CRP (mean [SD], -0.13 [0.05]; P = .015), results that were strengthened after further adjustment for body mass index (mean [SD], -0.98 [0.04]; P = .027). Trends toward lower weights and lower levels of cholesterol did not reach statistical significance. Intake of cranberry polyphenols may play a role in promoting anti-inflammatory markers among CJC consumers, specifically lowering CRP levels. PMID:25530012

  1. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala. PMID:26079316

  2. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  3. Sea water level forecasting using genetic programming and comparing the performance with Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Ghorbani, Mohammad; Khatibi, Rahman; Aytek, Ali; Makarynskyy, Oleg; Shiri, Jalal

    2010-05-01

    Water level forecasting at various time intervals using records of past time series is of importance in water resources engineering and management. In the last 20 years, emerging approaches over the conventional harmonic analysis techniques are based on using Genetic Programming (GP) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In the present study, the GP is used to forecast sea level variations, three time steps ahead, for a set of time intervals comprising 12 h, 24 h, 5 day and 10 day time intervals using observed sea levels. The measurements from a single tide gauge at Hillarys Boat Harbor, Western Australia, were used to train and validate the employed GP for the period from December 1991 to December 2002. Statistical parameters, namely, the root mean square error, correlation coefficient and scatter index, are used to measure their performances. These were compared with a corresponding set of published results using an Artificial Neural Network model. The results show that both these artificial intelligence methodologies perform satisfactorily and may be considered as alternatives to the harmonic analysis.

  4. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  5. Comparing the Effects of Lovastatin and Cornus Mas Fruit on Fibrinogen Level in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Adelnia, Azadeh; Kazemi, Somayeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis, which is a result of gradual deposition of lipids in the lower part of blood vessel endothelium, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. It has been proved that some inflammatory blood markers such as fibrinogen can predict the risk for cardiovascular disease conditions, not only in cardiovascular patients, but also in those who do not have any manifestations of the atherosclerotic development. In this study, the effect of cornus mas l. was evaluated on fibrinogen of hypercholesterolemic rabbits and it was also compared with lovastatin drug. METHODS In this study, 25 New Zealand adult male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five. They were treated for 60 days by 5 different diets, namely basic, high cholesterol, regular plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, high cholesterol plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, and high cholesterol plus 10 mg/kgBW lovastatin. At the beginning and at the end of this period, blood samples were collected from the rabbits and their serum fibrinogen levels were measured. RESULTS Cornus mas L. powder and lovastatin significantly decreased fibrinogen levels in comparison with high cholesterol group (P < 0.05). Furthermore cornus mas L. powder could reduce the fibrinogen level more than lovastatin (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The results indicated that consumption of cornus mas L. might be beneficial in atherosclerotic patients due to its reducing effects on fibrinogen. PMID:22577405

  6. Comparing the Levels of Trace Elements in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Makhlough, Atieh; Makhlough, Marjan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Sedighi, Omid; Faghihan, Mansooreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries. Several trace elements were reported to be changed in diabetic nephropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum levels of zinc, copper and chromium and their association with the incidence of ESRD in patients with diabetes. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 70 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (macro and micro-albuminuria) and 70 healthy individuals. Samples were collected to survey metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential analysis methods. Results: Mean ± SD levels of Zn, Cu and Cr were significantly decreased in blood samples of patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Also the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr in drinking water of Sari were lower than the accepted limit. Only in one case, Cu was higher than the accepted limit, which was the possibility of contamination by water supply pipes. Conclusions: Cu, Zn and Cr play a specific role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile in these patients, low serum levels of Cu, Zn and Cr were not associated with factors such as drinking water. Possible causes should be sought in other factors like urine, intervention factors in absorption and utilization and individual conditions. PMID:26539418

  7. A comparative study of the hydroxy acids from the Murchison, GRA 95229 and LAP 02342 meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Wang, Yi; Chaban, Galina M.

    2010-11-01

    The hydroxy acid suites extracted from the Murchison (MN), GRA 95229 (GRA) and LAP 02342 (LAP) meteorites have been investigated for their molecular, chiral and isotopic composition. Substantial amounts of the compounds have been detected in all three meteorites, with a total abundance that is lower than that of the amino acids in the same stones. Overall, their molecular distributions mirror closely that of the corresponding amino acids and most evidently so for the LAP meteorite. A surprising L-lactic acid enantiomeric excess was found present in all three stones, which cannot be easily accounted by terrestrial contamination; all other compounds of the three hydroxy acid suites were found racemic. The branched-chain five carbon and the diastereomer six-carbon hydroxy acids were also studied vis-a-vis the corresponding amino acids and calculated ab initio thermodynamic data, with the comparison allowing the suggestion that meteoritic hydroxyacid at these chain lengths formed under thermodynamic control and, possibly, at a later stage than the corresponding amino acids. 13C and D isotopic enrichments were detected for many of the meteoritic hydroxy acids and found to vary between molecular species with trends that also appear to correlate to those of amino acids; the highest δD value (+3450‰) was displayed by GRA 2-OH-2-methylbutyric acid. The data suggest that, while the amino- and hydroxy acids likely relate to common presolar precursor, their final distribution in meteorites was determined to large extent by the overall composition of the environments that saw their formation, with ammonia being the determining factor in their final abundance ratios.

  8. Blood levels of ammonia and nitrogen scavenging amino acids in patients with inherited hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Yudkoff, M

    1999-01-01

    Plasma levels of glutamine (456 determinations), alanine (434 determinations), and asparagine (431 determinations) and corresponding ammonia levels (260 determinations) were retrospectively analyzed in 30 patients with hyperammonemia secondary to urea cycle disorders (including 3 patients with amino acid transport defects) and 5 patients with propionic acidemia (PA). All patients had elevated glutamine levels on one or more testing except for 2 patients with severe PA and 1 patient with a mild urea cycle disorder. All but 4 patients with urea cycle disorders showed a maximal glutamine level higher than 100 micromol/dl, and 3 patients had a maximal glutamine level of higher than 200 micromol/dl. The only exceptions were 2 asymptomatic ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC)-deficient females, 1 male with mild OTC deficiency, and 1 patient with citrullinemia (CIT) whose plasma glutamine levels were never above 100 micromol/L. Patients with CIT and argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) showed statistically significant lower levels of glutamine than patients with other urea cycle disorders. However, the maximal glutamine level did not directly correlate with severity of the disorder and within disorders correlated inversely with severity of outcome. Patients with PA showed statistically significant lower glutamine, alanine, and asparagine levels than patients with urea cycle disorders and the severity of this disorder correlated inversely with plasma glutamine levels. Plasma ammonia levels showed a positive correlation with glutamine in patients with carbamyl phosphate synthetase I and OTC deficiency and a negative correlation in patients with PA. Although, most patients also showed elevated levels of alanine and asparagine, their levels generally did not show a good correlation with glutamine (R2 = 0.25 and 0.34, respectively). PMID:9973542

  9. Splenic Stromal Cells from Aged Mice Produce Higher Levels of IL-6 Compared to Young Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihyun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Shiokawa, Aya; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflamm-aging indicates the chronic inflammatory state resulting from increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-6 in the elderly. Our principle objective was to identify cell types that were affected with aging concerning IL-6 secretion in the murine model. We compared IL-6 production in spleen cells from both young and aged mice and isolated several types of cells from spleen and investigated IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production. IL-6 protein productions in cultured stromal cells from aged mice spleen were significantly high compared to young mice upon LPS stimulation. IL-6 mRNA expression level of freshly isolated stromal cells from aged mice was high compared to young mice. Furthermore, stromal cells of aged mice highly expressed IL-6 mRNA after LPS injection in vivo. These results suggest that stromal cells play a role in producing IL-6 in aged mice and imply that they contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in the elderly. PMID:24729663

  10. Comparative study on the in vivo and in vitro antilipolytic effects of etofibrate, nicotinic acid and clofibrate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bocos, C; Herrera, E

    1996-12-20

    The release of both glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA) into a medium by epididymal fat pad pieces from fed rats incubated in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate-albumin buffer supplemented or not with epinephrine decreased more in the presence of etofibrate than in the presence of equimolecular doses of nicotinic acid or clofibrate. The first drug was the only one to stimulate the rate of fatty acid re-esterification when incubations were done under basal conditions. By 3 h after their acute oral administration all three drugs decreased plasma FFA levels, although the effect from etofibrate was largest, the drugs enhanced or decreased plasma glycerol levels depending on both the dose and the time after treatment. Plasma triglycerides also decreased at 3 h after oral drug administration, and this effect was similar with etofibrate and nicotinic acid but less with clofibrate. With the exception of a decrease at 7 h after the highest dose (1.2 mmol/kg) of either etofibrate or nicotinic acid (but not clofibrate), plasma cholesterol levels remained stable at 7 h after the respective treatments. Thus, the hypocholesterolemic effect of these drugs seems secondary to their hypotriglyceridemic effect, which would be a consequence of their respective antilipolytic actions, and follows an efficiency sequence of etofibrate, nicotinic acid and clofibrate. PMID:21781742

  11. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  12. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  13. A Pharmacist-Staffed, Virtual Gout Management Clinic for Achieving Target Serum Uric Acid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfien, Robert; Pressman, Alice; Jacobson, Alice; Ng, Michele; Avins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: Relatively few patients with gout receive appropriate treatment. Objective: To determine whether a pharmacist-staffed gout management program is more effective than usual care in achieving target serum uric acid (sUA) levels in gout patients. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-staffed, telephone-based program for managing hyperuricemia vs usual care. Trial duration was 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was achieving sUA levels at or below 6 mg/dL at the 26-week visit. Secondary outcome was mean change in sUA levels in the control and intervention groups. Participants were adults with recurrent gout and sUA levels above 6.0 mg/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to management by a clinical pharmacist following protocol or to monitoring of sUA levels but management of their gout by their usual treating physician. Results: Of 102 patients who met eligibility criteria, 77 subjects obtained a baseline sUA measurement and were entered into the trial. Among 37 participants in the intervention group, 13 (35%) had sUA levels at or below 6.0 mg/dL at 26 weeks, compared with 5 (13%) of 40 participants in the control group (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 7.1, p = 0.03). The mean change in sUA levels among controls was +0.1 mg/dL compared with −1.5 mg/dL in the intervention group (sUA difference = −1.6, 95% CI = −0.9 to −2.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A structured pharmacist-staffed program was more effective than usual care for achieving target sUA levels. These results suggest a structured program could greatly improve gout management. PMID:27352414

  14. Study of Lateral Gene Transfer in an Acid Mine Drainage Community Enabled by Comparative Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, P.; Croft, L.; Tyson, G. W.; Baker, B. J.; Detter, C.; Richardson, P. M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is thought to play a crucial role in the ecology and evolution of prokaryotes. We are investigating the role of LGT in an acid mine drainage community hosted in a pyrite-dominated metal sulfide deposit at the Richmond mine at Iron Mountain, CA. Due to biologically-mediated pyrite dissolution, the prevailing conditions within the mine are extremely low pH (< 1.0), very high ionic concentrations (molar concentrations of iron sulfate and mM concentrations of arsenic, copper and zinc), and moderate to high temperatures (30 to >50 C). These conditions are thought to largely isolate the community from potential external gene donors since naked DNA, phage and prokaryotes native to neutral pH habitats do not persist at pH <1.0 precluding an external influx of genes by transformation, transduction and conjugation, respectively. Microbial communities exist in several distinct habitats within Richmond mine including biofilms (subaqueous slime streamers and subaerial slimes) and cells attached directly to pyrite granules. This, however, belies an unusual simplicity in community composition. All communities investigated to date comprise only a handful of phylogenetically distinct organisms, typically dominated by the iron-oxidizing genera Leptospirillum and Ferroplasma. We have undertaken a community genomics analysis of a subaerial biofilm dominated by a Leptospirillum population to facilitate the study of LGT in this type of environment. The genome of Ferroplasma acidarmanus fer1, a minor component of the target community (but a major component of other Richmond mine communities), has been sequenced. Comparative genome analyses indicate that F. acidarmanus and the ancestor of two acidophilic Thermoplasma species belonging to the Euryarchaeota have traded many genes with phylogenetically remote acidophilic Sulfolobus species (Crenarchaeota). The putatively transferred sets of Sulfolobus genes in Ferroplasma and the Thermoplasma ancestor are distinct

  15. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P < 0.01) and the diagnosis of PWS predicted oxytocin level (F = 9.5, P < 0.003) in controlled regression analysis with an overall model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS. PMID:26615966

  16. Comparative analysis of chemical compositions between non-transgenic soybean seeds and those from plants over-expressing AtJMT, the gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Do Young; Pack, In-Soon; Park, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jun Sung; Choi, Yang Do; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Kim, Chung Ho; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AtJMT) is involved in regulating jasmonate-related plant responses. To examine its role in the compositional profile of soybean (Glycine max), we compared the seeds from field-grown plants that over-express AtJMT with those of the non-transgenic, wild-type (WT) counterpart. Our analysis of chemical compositions included proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, isoflavones, and antinutrients. Overexpression of AtJMT in the seeds resulted in decreased amounts of tryptophan, palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and stachyose, but increased levels of gadoleic acid and genistein. In particular, seeds from the transgenic soybeans contained 120.0-130.5% more genistein and 60.5-82.1% less stachyose than the WT. A separate evaluation of ingredient values showed that all were within the reference ranges reported for commercially available soybeans, thereby demonstrating the substantial equivalence of these transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. PMID:26593488

  17. Health workforce remuneration: comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Russian Federation, Republic of South Africa (RSA), Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (USA)). The main aim is to examine to what extent the wage rankings, standardized wage levels, and wage dispersion are similar between the 16 occupational groups and across the selected countries and what factors can be shown to be related to the differences that emerge. Method The pooled data from the continuous, worldwide, multilingual WageIndicator web survey between 2008 and 2011 (for selected HRH occupations, n=49,687) have been aggregated into a data file with median or mean remuneration values for 300 occupation/country cells. Hourly wages are expressed in standardized US Dollars (USD), all controlled for purchasing power parity (PPP) and indexed to 2011 levels. Results The wage ranking of 16 HRH occupational groups is fairly similar across countries. Overall Medical Doctors have the highest and Personal Care Workers the lowest median wages. Wage levels of Nursing & Midwifery Professionals vary largely. Health Care Managers have lower earnings than Medical Doctors in all except six of the 20 countries. The largest wage differences are found for the Medical Doctors earning 20 times less in Ukraine than in the US, and the Personal Care Workers, who earn nine times less in the Ukraine than in the Netherlands. No support is found for the assumption that the ratio across the highest and lowest earning HRH occupations is similar between countries: it varies from 2.0 in Sweden to 9.7 in Brazil. Moreover, an increase in the percentage of women in an occupation has a large downward effect on its wage rank

  18. Low-ppm-Level colorimetric acid detection using gold nanoparticles with electro-steric stabilization.

    PubMed

    Bae, Doo Ri; Lee, You-Jin; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Young-Kyu; Yoon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Gil; Chang, Ki Soo; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Gaehang

    2014-12-01

    Electro-sterically stabilized gold suspensions were employed in a colorimetric system for the detection of strong acid in water. Using oleyamine and oleic acid as steric stabilizer in 1,2-dichlorobenzene, hydrophobic gold nanoparticles were first synthesized by a reduction reaction of gold salts and were then transferred into water with a cationic surfactant. When the hydrochlo- ric acid solution higher than critical concentration was injected, particles were quickly aggregated and precipitated, creating a clear solution from the colored suspension. The particles were stable against chemical etching by corrosive ion such as chloride. Critical concentration was dependent of the size and concentration of the particles. The minimum concentration of dramatic color change was at 5 ppm level of hydrochloric acid, in which the largest colloidal gold nanoparticles (54 nm) were used. Furthermore, because of their steric repulsive soft layer on particles, particles could be reused for further detection experiments after regeneration by the simple pH-neutralization and washing process. PMID:25971086

  19. Association of elevated levels of cellular lipoteichoic acids of group B streptococci with human neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nealon, T J; Mattingly, S J

    1983-01-01

    Cell-associated lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) from late-exponential-phase cultures (serotypes Ia, Ib, Ic, II, and III) of group B streptococci isolated from infected and asymptomatically colonized infants were quantitated and characterized by growing the organisms in a chemically defined medium containing [3H]glycerol and [14C]acetate. Cell pellets were extracted with 45% aqueous phenol and chloroform-methanol and subjected to DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography. Elution profiles resolved three major peaks, I, II, and III, with glycerol and phosphate present in a 1:1 molar ratio in each peak, and results obtained by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion analysis confirmed the presence of poly(glycerol phosphate). Saponification indicated that [14C]acetate was incorporated into fatty acids of peaks I and II only, suggesting that these were cell-associated LTAs. Peak II was of small molecular weight (less than 10,000) and probably represented another species of LTA. Peaks I and II were further demonstrated to be LTA by their ability to sensitize human type O erythrocytes. Peak III lacked fatty acids and was shown to probably be deacylated LTA. Quantitation of cell-associated teichoic acid material produced by the group B streptococcal strains indicated that the clinical isolates from infants with early- or late-onset disease possessed significantly higher levels than did the asymptomatic (clinical isolates from infants without symptoms of disease) group B streptococcal strains. Images PMID:6341233

  20. Increased tissue levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents pathological preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Aki; Kawana, Kei; Tomio, Kensuke; Taguchi, Ayumi; Isobe, Yosuke; Iwamoto, Ryo; Masuda, Koji; Furuya, Hitomi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Yamashita, Takahiro; Taketani, Yuji; Kang, Jing X; Kozuma, Shiro; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have anti-inflammatory effects. Preterm birth is an important problem in modern obstetrics and one of the main causes is an inflammation. We here showed that abundance of omega-3 fatty acids reduced the incidence of preterm birth induced by LPS with fat-1 mice, capable of converting omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. We also indicated that the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1β in uteruses and the number of cervical infiltrating macrophages were reduced in fat-1 mice. The analyses of lipid metabolomics showed the high level of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoate in fat-1 mice, which was derived from EPA and was metabolized to anti-inflammatory product named resolvin E3 (RvE3). We finally showed that the administration of RvE3 to LPS-exposed pregnant wild type mice lowered the incidence of preterm birth. Our data suggest that RvE3 could be a potential new therapeutic for the prevention of preterm birth. PMID:24177907

  1. Increased tissue levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents pathological preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Aki; Kawana, Kei; Tomio, Kensuke; Taguchi, Ayumi; Isobe, Yosuke; Iwamoto, Ryo; Masuda, Koji; Furuya, Hitomi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Yamashita, Takahiro; Taketani, Yuji; Kang, Jing X.; Kozuma, Shiro; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have anti-inflammatory effects. Preterm birth is an important problem in modern obstetrics and one of the main causes is an inflammation. We here showed that abundance of omega-3 fatty acids reduced the incidence of preterm birth induced by LPS with fat-1 mice, capable of converting omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. We also indicated that the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1β in uteruses and the number of cervical infiltrating macrophages were reduced in fat-1 mice. The analyses of lipid metabolomics showed the high level of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoate in fat-1 mice, which was derived from EPA and was metabolized to anti-inflammatory product named resolvin E3 (RvE3). We finally showed that the administration of RvE3 to LPS-exposed pregnant wild type mice lowered the incidence of preterm birth. Our data suggest that RvE3 could be a potential new therapeutic for the prevention of preterm birth. PMID:24177907

  2. Modulation of blood oxylipin levels by long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in hyper- and normolipidemic men

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schmidt, Simone; Kressel, Gaby; Willenberg, Ina; Hammock, Bruce D; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) such as EPA and DHA have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, and it is believed that many of their effects are mediated by their oxygenated products (oxylipins). Recently, we have shown that serum levels of several hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FAs are dependent on the individual status of the parent FAs in a cohort of normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects. So far, the effect of an increased dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake on hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FA levels has not been investigated in subjects with mild combined hyperlipidemia. Subjects and Methods In the present study, we compared oxylipin patterns of 10 hyperlipidemic (cholesterol >200 mg/dl; triglyceride >150 mg/ml) and 10 normolipidemic men in response to twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA intake (1.14 g DHA and 1.56 g EPA). Levels of 44 free hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs were analyzed in serum by LC-MS. Additionally, oxylipin levels were compared with their parent PUFA levels in erythrocyte membranes; a biomarker for the individual PUFA status. Results Differences in the oxylipin pattern between normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects were minor before and after treatment. In all subjects, levels of EPA-derived oxylipins (170–4,800 pM) were considerably elevated after LC n-3 PUFA intake (150–1,400 %), the increase of DHA-derived oxylipins (360–3,900 pM) was less pronounced (30–130 %). The relative change of EPA in erythrocyte membranes is strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.5; p<0.05) with the relative change of corresponding epoxy and dihydroxy FA serum levels. The effect on arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipin levels (140–27,100 pM) was inconsistent. Discussion and Conclusions The dietary LC PUFA composition has a direct influence on the endogenous oxylipin profile, including several highly biological active EPA- and DHA-derived lipid mediators. The shift in oxylipin pattern appears to be dependent on the initial LC PUFA

  3. Comparative Assessment of Automated Nucleic Acid Sample Extraction Equipment for Biothreat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, Warren Vincent; Douglas, Christina Elizabeth; Coyne, Susan Rajnik

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic beads offer superior impurity removal and nucleic acid selection over older extraction methods. The performances of nucleic acid extraction of biothreat agents in blood or buffer by easyMAG, MagNA Pure, EZ1 Advanced XL, and Nordiag Arrow were evaluated. All instruments showed excellent performance in blood; however, the easyMAG had the best precision and versatility. PMID:24452173

  4. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs. PMID:25869844

  5. Comparative evaluation of demineralization of radicular dentin with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% citric acid, and MTAD at different time intervals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yogender; Lohar, Jitendra; Bhat, Sureka; Bhati, Manisha; Gandhi, Aanesh; Mehta, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Background: The smear layer has the capability to protect the bacteria within the dentinal tubules from intracanal medicament. After removal of the smear layer from infected root canals, it allows disinfection of the entire root canal. The smear layer compromising the seal between the root canal sealer and root canal wall also decreases the penetration of irrigants into dentinal tubules. Aims: This study compares the amount of phosphorous liberated and demineralization of the radicular dentin with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% citric acid and mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent at different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Extracted maxillary single-rooted teeth were prepared by using a combination of passive step-back and rotary 0.04 taper nickel-titanium files. Sodium hypochlorite 5.25% and sterile distilled water were used as an intracanal irrigant. The canals were then treated with 5 mL of one of the following solutions such as final rinse sterile distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent. The presence or absence of smear layer and the amount of erosion on the surface of the root canal walls at the coronal, middle, and apical portions of each canal were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups. Results: The results show that mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent is an effective solution for the removal of the smear layer and does not significantly change the structure of the dentinal tubules. Conclusions: In this study, 10% citric acid shows the maximum amount of dimeneralization of radicular dentine followed by mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent, and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. When all the subgroups were compared, it was seen

  6. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P < 0.0001) indicated high genetic variation within regions (81.7%) and low variation across regions (18.3%). A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50–88%). The fatty acid composition of jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as

  7. Changes in intramuscular amino acid levels in submaximally exercised horses - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, R; Bauer, A; Hackl, S; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2010-08-01

    The time-dependent changes in intramuscular amino acid (AA) levels caused by exercise and by feeding a protein/AA supplement were analysed in nine horses. Horses were submitted to a total of four standardized exercise tests (SETs). Amino acid concentrations were determined prior to, immediately after, 4 and 18 h after exercise. The experiment was subdivided into two consecutive periods of 3 weeks. In each period two SETs were performed. In the second period, horses were given a protein/AA supplement within 1 h after exercise. Significant changes in mean plasma AA levels similar to previous studies were noted to be time-dependent and to be associated with feeding the supplement. The intramuscular concentrations of the free AA in relation to pre-exercise levels showed significant time-dependent changes for alanine, asparagine, aspartate, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, serine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Feeding the supplement significantly increased the 4 h post-exercise intramuscular concentration of alanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine. At 18 h after exercise, apart from isoleucine and methionine, levels were still increased and also those of asparagine, histidine and valine in relation to none treatment. Hence, it was concluded that AA mixtures administered orally to horses within 1 h after exercise increased intramuscular AA pool. PMID:19663973

  8. Acid Secretion and Serum Gastrin Levels in the Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R. Edward; Longmire, William P.; Passaro, Edward

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen cases of patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome were reviewed. In two cases the diagnosis was made by incidental biopsy of small liver nodules at operation for peptic ulcer disease. Seven patients had gastric secretory tests which showed a basal acid output to maximum acid output ratio of more than 65 percent. Five patients had bao:mao ratios less than 50 percent. A 30-month interval between incidental discovery of tumor and clinically evident disease was observed in two patients. Recurrence of symptoms after excision of tumor was noted after a similar interval in another case. Serum gastrin levels, before total gastrectomy, were elevated in all cases. The lowest preoperative level in this series of patients was 550 picograms per ml (normal 100 to 150 picograms). They were diagnostic in two patients with normal gastric secretory studies. The levels fell to normal following total gastrectomy in six patients. Two patients still had elevated levels five years and 14 years after total gastrectomy. One was discovered to have a parathyroid adenoma with hypercalcemia. Total gastrectomy was curative in all the patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; lesser operations were not. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:5031740

  9. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Methattel Raman, Shijeesh; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  10. Ethanol exposure affects gene expression in the embryonic organizer and reduces retinoic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yelin, Ronit; Schyr, Racheli Ben-Haroush; Kot, Hadas; Zins, Sharon; Frumkin, Ayala; Pillemer, Graciela; Fainsod, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental malformations caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), the strongest manifestation of FASD, results in short stature, microcephally and facial dysmorphogenesis including microphthalmia. Using Xenopus embryos as a model developmental system, we show that ethanol exposure recapitulates many aspects of FAS, including a shortened rostro-caudal axis, microcephally and microphthalmia. Temporal analysis revealed that Xenopus embryos are most sensitive to ethanol exposure between late blastula and early/mid gastrula stages. This window of sensitivity overlaps with the formation and early function of the embryonic organizer, Spemann's organizer. Molecular analysis revealed that ethanol exposure of embryos induces changes in the domains and levels of organizer-specific gene expression, identifying Spemann's organizer as an early target of ethanol. Ethanol also induces a defect in convergent extension movements that delays gastrulation movements and may affect the overall length. We show that mechanistically, ethanol is antagonistic to retinol (Vitamin A) and retinal conversion to retinoic acid, and that the organizer is active in retinoic acid signaling during early gastrulation. The model suggests that FASD is induced in part by an ethanol-dependent reduction in retinoic acid levels that are necessary for the normal function of Spemann's organizer. PMID:15708568

  11. Comparative Proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 During the High Acidity Rice Vinegar Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zang, Ning; Shi, Jieyan; Feng, Wei; Liu, Ye; Liang, Xinle

    2015-12-01

    As a traditional Asian food for several centuries, vinegar is known to be produced by acetic acid bacteria. The Acetobacter species is the primary starter for vinegar fermentation and has evolutionarily acquired acetic acid resistance, in which Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 is routinely used for industrial production of rice vinegar with a high acidity (9 %, w/v). In contrast to the documented short-term and low acetic acid effects on A. pasteurianus, here we investigated the molecular and cellular signatures of long-term and high acetic acid responses by proteomic profiling with bidimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/MS) analyses. Protein spots of interest were selected based on the threshold ANOVA p value of 0.05 and minimal twofold of differential expression, leading to the identification of 26 proteins that are functionally enriched in oxidoreductase activity, cell membrane, and metabolism. The alterations in protein functioning in respiratory chain and protein denaturation may underlay cellular modifications at the outer membrane. Significantly, we found that at higher acidity fermentation phase, the A. pasteurianus Ab3 cells would adapt to distinct physiological processes from that of an ordinary vinegar fermentation with intermediate acidity, indicating increasing energy requirement and dependency of membrane integrity during the transition of acetic acid production. Together, our study provided new insights into the adaptation mechanisms in A. pasteurianus to high acetic acid environments and yield novel regulators and key pathways during the development of acetic acid resistance. PMID:26369782

  12. Game-like tasks for comparative research: leveling the playing field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Gulledge, J. P.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Game-like computer tasks offer many benefits for psychological research. In this paper, the usefulness of such tasks to bridge population differences (e.g., age, intelligence, species) is discussed and illustrated. A task called ALVIN was used to assess humans' and monkeys' working memory for sequences of colors with or without tones. Humans repeated longer lists than did the monkeys, and only humans benefited when the visual stimuli were accompanied by auditory cues. However, the monkeys did recall sequences at levels comparable to those reported elsewhere for children. Comparison of similarities and differences between the species is possible because the two groups were tested with exactly the same game-like paradigm.

  13. Comparing rural ground and air emergency medical services: a level I trauma center's experience.

    PubMed

    von Recklinghausen, Friedrich Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    We sought to compare differences in patients transported by ground and air emergency medical services directly from the scenes of their injuries to a rural level I trauma facility. Variables examined included age, gender, vital signs, Glasgow Coma Scale score, discharge location, length of stay, and survival metrics. Student t tests and odds ratios were used for analysis. Demographics and vital signs differed between trauma patients transported by air versus those transported by ground. Generally, length of stay was longer in air-transported patients, who also had poorer survival metrics with negligible risk of death. Significant differences exist in the markers of physiology such as vital signs, expected survival, and degree of injury. PMID:22157533

  14. The heterogeneous levels of linkage disequilibrium in white spruce genes and comparative analysis with other conifers.

    PubMed

    Pavy, N; Namroud, M-C; Gagnon, F; Isabel, N; Bousquet, J

    2012-03-01

    In plants, knowledge about linkage disequilibrium (LD) is relevant for the design of efficient single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in relation to their use in population and association genomics studies. Previous studies of conifer genes have shown LD to decay rapidly within gene limits, but exceptions have been reported. To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity of LD among conifer genes and its potential causes, we examined LD in 105 genes of white spruce (Picea glauca) by sequencing a panel of 48 haploid megagametophytes from natural populations and further compared it with LD in other conifer species. The average pairwise r(2) value was 0.19 (s.d.=0.19), and LD dropped quickly with a half-decay being reached at a distance of 65 nucleotides between sites. However, LD was significantly heterogeneous among genes. A first group of 29 genes had stronger LD (mean r(2)=0.28), and a second group of 38 genes had weaker LD (mean r(2)=0.12). While a strong relationship was found with the recombination rate, there was no obvious relationship between LD and functional classification. The level of nucleotide diversity, which was highly heterogeneous across genes, was also not significantly correlated with LD. A search for selection signatures highlighted significant deviations from the standard neutral model, which could be mostly attributed to recent demographic changes. Little evidence was seen for hitchhiking and clear relationships with LD. When compared among conifer species, on average, levels of LD were similar in genes from white spruce, Norway spruce and Scots pine, whereas loblolly pine and Douglas fir genes exhibited a significantly higher LD. PMID:21897435

  15. A Comparative Ab Initio Study of the Primary Hydration and Proton Dissociation of Various Imide and Sulfonic Acid Ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark II, Jeffrey K.; Paddison, Stephen J.; Eikerling, Michael; Dupuis, Michel; Zawodzinski, Jr., Thomas A.

    2012-03-29

    We compare the role of neighboring group substitutions on proton dissociation of hydrated acidic moieties suitable for proton exchange membranes through electronic structure calculations. Three pairs of ionomers containing similar electron withdrawing groups within the pair were chosen for the study: two fully fluorinated sulfonyl imides (CF3SO2NHSO2CF3 and CF3CF2SO2NHSO2CF3), two partially fluorinated sulfonyl imides (CH3SO2NHSO2CF3 and C6H5SO2NHSO2CF2CF3), and two aromatic sulfonic acid based material s (CH3C6H4SO3H and CH3 OC6 - H3OCH3C6H4SO3H). Fully optimized counterpoise (CP) corrected geometries were obtained for each ionomer fragment with the inclusion of water molecules at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of density functional theory. Spontaneous proton dissociation was observed upon addition of three water molecules in each system, and the transition to a solvent-separated ion pair occurred when four water molecules were introduced. No considerable quantitative or qualitative differences in proton dissociation, hydrogen bond networks formed, or water binding energies were found between systems containing similar electron withdrawing groups. Each of the sulfonyl imide ionomers exhibited qualitatively similar results regarding proton dissociation and separation. The fully fluorinated sulfonyl imides, however, showed a greater propensity to exist in dissociated and ion-pair separated states at low degrees of hydration than the partially fluorinated sulfonyl imides. This effect is due to the additional electron withdrawing groups providing charge stabilization as the dissociated proton migrates away from the imide anion.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Seepage Losses From Nighttime Water Level Changes and Water Balance Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Wu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Several techniques including Darcy's theory of one and two dimensional groundwater flow, seepage meters, and water balance have been used in the past to estimate seepage from impoundments such as reservoirs, ponds, and constructed wetlands. These methods result in varying level of errors in seepage estimates depending on method and biogeophysical setting to which they are applied. In this study, we explore a simple yet effective method of estimating groundwater fluxes for two stormwater impoundments (SIs) and a partially drained wetland located in agricultural areas using diurnal changes in surface water levels inside these systems. Days with no inflow, outflow, and rainfall were selected to minimize the effect of the error associated water balance components on seepage estimation. Difference in water levels between 20:00 hrs and 5:00 hrs was calculated for the selected days. Only nighttime change was considered keeping in mind the fact that evapotranspiration is negligible during night and hence, the change in water levels can be attributed to seepage alone. Seepage from the analysis of night-time change in the water levels was compared to the estimates from the water balance method with seepage being the residual component of the balance. Results show that seepage constitutes a large part of total outflow from the impoundments (29% and 17% for SI1 during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively, 30% for SI2 during 2009-2010 and seepage was greater than the total surface water outflow from SI2 during 2010-2011). Accuracy of this method varied from 5% to 41% for first and 4% to 29% for the second SI. Considering that errors as high as 100% have been reported with the use of Darcy's approach, the errors from our method are lower. The lower errors combined with ease of application without using the hydraulic conductivity values makes our approach feasible for other similar systems. Improved seepage estimate from the proposed method will result in quantification of

  17. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  18. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J.; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPARα-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. PMID:25749508

  19. Comparative vibration levels perceived among species in a laboratory animal facility.

    PubMed

    Norton, John N; Kinard, Will L; Reynolds, Randall P

    2011-09-01

    The current study was performed to determine the vibration levels that were generated in cages on a ventilated rack by common construction equipment in frequency ranges likely to be perceived by humans, rats, and mice. Vibration generated by the ventilated rack blower caused small but significant increases in some of the abdominal, thoracic, and head resonance frequency ranges (RFR) and sensitivity frequency ranges (SFR) in which each species is most likely to be affected by and perceive vibration, respectively. Vibration caused by various items of construction equipment at 3 ft from the cage were evaluated relative to the RFR and SFR of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. In addition, the vibration levels in the RFR and SFR that resulted from the use of a large jackhammer and were measured at various locations and distances in the facility and evaluated in terms of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. Taken together, the data indicate that a given vibration source generates vibration in frequency ranges that are more likely to affect rats and mice as compared with humans. PMID:22330711

  20. [Uric acid and purine plasma levels as plausible markers for placental dysfunction in pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carlos; Bertoglia, Patricio; Muñoz, Felipe; Roberts, James M

    2013-07-01

    Uric acid is the final metabolite of purine break down, such as ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine. The metabolite has been used broadly as a renal failure marker, as well as a risk factor for maternal and neonatal morbidity during pre-eclamptic pregnancies. High purine levels are observed in pre-eclamptic pregnancies, but the sources of these purines are unknown. However, there is evidence that pre-eclampsia (mainly severe pre-eclampsia) is associated with an increased release of cellular fragments (or microparticles) from the placenta to the maternal circulation. These in fact could be the substrate for purine metabolism. Considering this background, we propose that purines and uric acid are part of the same physiopathological phenomenon in pre-eclampsia (i.e., placental dysfunction) and could become biomarkers for placental dysfunction and postnatal adverse events. PMID:24356738

  1. Comparative plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium and ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, J S; Caldwell, M; Cox, S; Hines, M; Credille, B C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the plasma pharmacokinetic profile of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) and ceftiofur sodium in neonatal calves between 4 and 6 days of age. In one group (n = 7), a single dose of CCFA was administered subcutaneously (SQ) at the base of the ear at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg of body weight. In a second group (n = 7), a single dose of ceftiofur sodium was administered SQ in the neck at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight. Concentrations of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) in plasma were determined by HPLC. Median time to maximum DCA concentration was 12 h (range 12-48 h) for CCFA and 1 h (range 1-2 h) for ceftiofur sodium. Median maximum plasma DCA concentration was significantly higher for calves given ceftiofur sodium (5.62 μg/mL; range 4.10-6.91 μg/mL) than for calves given CCFA (3.23 μg/mL; range 2.15-4.13 μg/mL). AUC0-∞ and Vd/F were significantly greater for calves given CCFA than for calves given ceftiofur sodium. The median terminal half-life of DCA in plasma was significantly longer for calves given CCFA (60.6 h; range 43.5-83.4 h) than for calves given ceftiofur sodium (18.1 h; range 16.7-39.7 h). Cl/F was not significantly different between groups. The duration of time median plasma DCA concentrations remained above 2.0 μg/mL was significantly longer in calves that received CCFA (84.6 h; range 48-103 h) as compared to calves that received ceftiofur sodium (21.7 h; range 12.6-33.6 h). Based on the results of this study, CCFA administered SQ at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg in neonatal calves provided plasma concentrations above the therapeutic target of 2 μg/mL for at least 3 days following a single dose. It is important to note that the use of ceftiofur-containing products is restricted by the FDA and the use of CCFA in veal calves is strictly prohibited. PMID:26542633

  2. Production of Antilisterial Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy-Based Media: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Gülhan; Nielsen, Barbara; Ionita, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened for bacteriocin production by the modified deferred antagonism and agar well diffusion methods. When the modified deferred antagonism method was employed, 82 LAB strains showed inhibitory action against Listeria monocytogenes v7 ½a, whereas 26 LAB strains expressed no inhibition. Only 12 LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity when the agar well diffusion method was used, 11 of which had been previously recognized as bacteriocin production positive (Bac(+)). Lactobacillus viridescens NRRL B-1951 was determined, for the first time, to produce an inhibitory compound with a proteinaceous nature. The inhibitory activity was observed in the presence of lipase, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin, but no inhibition zone could be detected in the presence of proteinase K, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory compound. The inhibitory compound was active against Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and Lact. plantarum NCDO 995. Bacteriocin production by the Bac(+) LAB strains was assessed in Lactobacillus MRS Broth as well as in dairy-based media such as nonfat milk, demineralized whey powder, and cheddar cheese whey supplemented with complex nutrient sources that are rich in nitrogen. Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and L. monocytogenes CWD 1002, CWD 1092, CWD 1157, CWD 1198, and v7 ½a were used as indicators. The inhibitory activities of the bacteriocins varied depending on the indicator strains and the growth media used. The LAB indicator strains were found to be more sensitive to inhibition by bacteriocins when compared to the listerial indicator strains. Among the listerial indicators, L. monocytogenes CWD 1002 and CWD 1198 were the most sensitive strains to the bacteriocins investigated in this study. Media composition had a significant influence on bacteriocin production and activity. When compared to demineralized whey powder medium and cheddar cheese whey medium supplemented with whey protein concentrate

  3. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene. PMID:22512792

  4. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  5. Comparative characterization of random-sequence proteins consisting of 5, 12, and 20 kinds of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Junko; Doi, Nobuhide; Takashima, Hideaki; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    Screening of functional proteins from a random-sequence library has been used to evolve novel proteins in the field of evolutionary protein engineering. However, random-sequence proteins consisting of the 20 natural amino acids tend to aggregate, and the occurrence rate of functional proteins in a random-sequence library is low. From the viewpoint of the origin of life, it has been proposed that primordial proteins consisted of a limited set of amino acids that could have been abundantly formed early during chemical evolution. We have previously found that members of a random-sequence protein library constructed with five primitive amino acids show high solubility (Doi et al., Protein Eng Des Sel 2005;18:279-284). Although such a library is expected to be appropriate for finding functional proteins, the functionality may be limited, because they have no positively charged amino acid. Here, we constructed three libraries of 120-amino acid, random-sequence proteins using alphabets of 5, 12, and 20 amino acids by preselection using mRNA display (to eliminate sequences containing stop codons and frameshifts) and characterized and compared the structural properties of random-sequence proteins arbitrarily chosen from these libraries. We found that random-sequence proteins constructed with the 12-member alphabet (including five primitive amino acids and positively charged amino acids) have higher solubility than those constructed with the 20-member alphabet, though other biophysical properties are very similar in the two libraries. Thus, a library of moderate complexity constructed from 12 amino acids may be a more appropriate resource for functional screening than one constructed from 20 amino acids. PMID:20162614

  6. False in vitro and in vivo elevations of uric acid levels in mouse blood.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tamaki; Tomioka, Naoko H; Watanabe, Shigekazu; Tsuchiya, Masao; Hosoyamada, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) levels in mouse blood have been reported to range widely from 0.1 μM to 760 μM. The aim of this study was to demonstrate false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA levels in mouse blood. Male ICR mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital (breathing mice) or sacrificed with overdose ether (non-breathing mice). Collected blood was dispensed into MiniCollect® tubes and incubated in vitro for 0 or 30 min at room temperature. After separation of plasma or serum, the levels of UA and hypoxanthine were determined using HPLC. From the non-incubated plasma of breathing mice, the true value of UA level in vivo was 13.5±1.4 μM. However, UA levels in mouse blood increased by a factor of 3.9 following incubation in vitro. This "false in vitro elevation" of UA levels in mouse blood after blood sampling was inhibited by allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Xanthine oxidase was converted to UA in mouse serum from hypoxanthine which was released from blood cells during incubation. Plasma UA levels from non-breathing mice were 19 times higher than those from breathing mice. This "false in vivo elevation" of UA levels before blood sampling was inhibited by pre-treatment with phentolamine, an α-antagonist. Over-anesthesia with ether might induce α-vasoconstriction and ischemia and thus degrade intracellular ATP to UA. For the accurate measurement of UA levels in mouse blood, the false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA level must be avoided by immediate separation of plasma after blood sampling from anesthetized breathing mice. PMID:24940669

  7. The Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and the Prevalence of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Zhou, Yong; Dong, Kehui; Wang, Anxin; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhu, Yi; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the associations between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and atherosclerotic carotid plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of SUA levels with the prevalence of vulnerable atherosclerotic carotid plaque in a community-based cohort. In the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study, cross-sectional data from 2860 Chinese residents who underwent SUA measurement and ultrasonographic assessment of carotid plaque were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of SUA levels with presence of vulnerable carotid plaque. After adjustment for potential confounders, SUA levels were significantly associated with the prevalence of vulnerable plaque amongst the middle-aged adults (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.28). Compared to the lowest quartile, quartiles 2, 3 and 4 had a prevalence OR of 1.33 (1.02–1.74), 1.70 (1.27–2.27) and 2.05 (1.53–2.75), respectively, for the presence of vulnerable carotid plaque (p for trend across quartiles < 0.001). In the APAC study, elevated SUA levels were independently associated with the prevalence of vulnerable carotid plaque in middle-aged adults. PMID:25961501

  8. Nucleic acid polymeric properties and electrostatics: Directly comparing theory and simulation with experiment.

    PubMed

    Sim, Adelene Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic acids are biopolymers that carry genetic information and are also involved in various gene regulation functions such as gene silencing and protein translation. Because of their negatively charged backbones, nucleic acids are polyelectrolytes. To adequately understand nucleic acid folding and function, we need to properly describe its i) polymer/polyelectrolyte properties and ii) associating ion atmosphere. While various theories and simulation models have been developed to describe nucleic acids and the ions around them, many of these theories/simulations have not been well evaluated due to complexities in comparison with experiment. In this review, I discuss some recent experiments that have been strategically designed for straightforward comparison with theories and simulation models. Such data serve as excellent benchmarks to identify limitations in prevailing theories and simulation parameters. PMID:26482088

  9. Comparative Oxidative Stability of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters by Accelerated Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several fatty acid alkyl esters were subjected to accelerated methods of oxidation, including EN 14112 (Rancimat method) and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC). Structural trends elucidated from both methods that improved oxidative stability included decreasing the number of doubl...

  10. Comparative analysis of microbial community of novel lactic acid fermentation inoculated with different undefined mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-03-01

    Three undefined mixed cultures (activated sludge) from different municipal wastewater treatment plants were used as seeds in a novel lactic acid fermentation process fed with potato peel waste (PPW). Anaerobic sequencing batch fermenters were run under identical conditions to produce predominantly lactic acid. Illumina sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the three seeds and fermenters. Results showed that the structure of microbial communities of three seeds were different. All three fermentation products had unique community structures that were dominated (>96%) by species of the genus Lactobacillus, while members of this genus constituted <0.1% in seeds. The species of Lactobacillus sp. differed among the three fermentations. Results of this study suggest the structure of microbial communities in lactic acid fermentation of PPW with undefined mixed cultures were robust and resilient, which provided engineering prospects for the microbial utilization of carbohydrate wastes to produce lactic acid. PMID:25545096

  11. Sex differences in lipid peroxidation and fatty acid levels in recent onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Medina-Hernández, Virginia; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Canales-Aguirre, Alejandro; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Cerdán-Sánchez, Luis F

    2013-07-01

    Sex differences in the symptomatology and course of illness have been reported among schizophrenic patients. Hence, the principal objective of the present study was to investigate sex differences in the concentrations of the lipid peroxidation metabolites MDA and 4-HNE, and in the membrane phospholipid levels of ARA, EPA and DHA in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 46 paranoid schizophrenics (25 women) with short-term evolution who were in an acute psychotic stage and 40 healthy controls (23 women) participated in the study. Psychopathology was evaluated by BPRS and PANSS. Lipid peroxidation sub-products (MDA, 4-HNE) and fatty acid levels (ARA, EPA, DHA) were determined in erythrocyte membranes. The men in both groups showed higher lipid peroxidation levels and those values were higher in schizophrenic patients than controls, with only EPA fatty acid concentrations found to be lower in the former than the latter. These results suggest that men may suffer greater oxidative neuronal damage than women, and that this could worsen the course of illness and result in greater disease severity. PMID:23421976

  12. Comparative Genomics of Acetobacterpasteurianus Ab3, an Acetic Acid Producing Strain Isolated from Chinese Traditional Rice Vinegar Meiguichu.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kai; Li, Yudong; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xinle

    2016-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus, an acetic acid resistant bacterium belonging to alpha-proteobacteria, has been widely used to produce vinegar in the food industry. To understand the mechanism of its high tolerance to acetic acid and robust ability of oxidizing ethanol to acetic acid (> 12%, w/v), we described the 3.1 Mb complete genome sequence (including 0.28 M plasmid sequence) with a G+C content of 52.4% of A. pasteurianus Ab3, which was isolated from the traditional Chinese rice vinegar (Meiguichu) fermentation process. Automatic annotation of the complete genome revealed 2,786 protein-coding genes and 73 RNA genes. The comparative genome analysis among A. pasteurianus strains revealed that A. pasteurianus Ab3 possesses many unique genes potentially involved in acetic acid resistance mechanisms. In particular, two-component systems or toxin-antitoxin systems may be the signal pathway and modulatory network in A. pasteurianus to cope with acid stress. In addition, the large numbers of unique transport systems may also be related to its acid resistance capacity and cell fitness. Our results provide new clues to understanding the underlying mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter species and guiding industrial strain breeding for vinegar fermentation processes. PMID:27611790

  13. Fatty acid ethanolamide levels are altered in borderline personality and complex posttraumatic stress disorders.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Carola; Enning, Frank; Mueller, Juliane K; Bumb, J Malte; Rohleder, Cathrin; Odorfer, Thorsten M; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Hellmich, Martin; Koethe, Dagmar; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Leweke, F Markus

    2014-08-01

    Borderline personality (BPD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) are both powerfully associated with the experience of interpersonal violence during childhood and adolescence. The disorders frequently co-occur and often result in pervasive problems in, e.g., emotion regulation and altered pain perception, where the endocannabinoid system is deeply involved. We hypothesize an endocannabinoid role in both disorders. We investigated serum levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol and related fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) in BPD, PTSD, and controls. Significant alterations were found for both endocannabinoids in BPD and for the FAE oleoylethanolamide in PTSD suggesting a respective link to both disorders. PMID:24253425

  14. Assessment the levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) on mice fed with eggshell calcium citrate malate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiding; Zhang, Mingdi; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Liyan; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory; Huang, Hsiang-Chi

    2013-07-01

    Optimized conditions were obtained by one-factor-at-a-time test (OFAT) and ternary quadratic regression orthogonal composite design (TQROCD) respectively. By pulse electric fields (PEF) technology, the process of eggshell calcium citrate malate (ESCCM), eggshell calcium citrate (ESCC) and eggshells calcium malate (ESCM) were comprehensive compared. The levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the bioavailability on mice fed with eggshell calcium citrate malate (ESCCM) treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) were evaluated. Results showed that the rates of calcium dissolution of the different acids studied can be arranged as ESCCM (7.90 mg/mL)>ESCC (7.12 mg/mL)>ESCM (7.08 mg/mL) from highest to lowest rate of dissolution. At the same dose 133.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1), the levels of TRAP in the ESCCM treatment groups were significantly lower than those in ESCM and ESCC (P<0.05). Bone calcium content in the mice fed with ESCCM was generally higher than fed with ESCM and ESCC. PMID:23603074

  15. Comparability of State and Local Expenditures among Schools within Districts: A Report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, Ruth; Stullich, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures presents findings on how state and local education expenditures at the school level vary within school districts. This study is not examining compliance with the current Title I comparability requirement, nor does it examine the comparability of resources between districts. Rather, it focuses…

  16. Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. )

    1989-02-09

    Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

  17. Drought and air warming affect the species-specific levels of stress-related foliar metabolites of three oak species on acidic and calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Climate change as projected for Central Europe will lead to prolonged periods of summer drought and enhanced air temperature. Thus, forest management practices are required to take into account how species performance is adapted to cope with these climate changes. Oak trees may play a major role in future forests because of their relative drought-tolerance compared with other species like beech. Therefore, this study investigated the stress responses (i.e., anti-oxidants, free amino acids) in the leaves of three widely distributed oak species in Central Europe (i.e., Quercus robur L., Q. petraea [Matt.] Libel., Q. pubescens Willd.) to drought, air warming and the combination of drought plus air warming under controlled conditions after periods of spring drought, a short rewetting and summer drought. We quantified foliar levels of thiols, ascorbate, and free amino compounds in Q robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens. Our study showed that oak saplings had increased levels of γ-glutamylcysteine and total glutathione and proline with drought and air warming. Foliar ascorbate, glutathione disulfide and dehydroascorbic acid levels were not affected. The comparison of stress responses to drought and/or air warming between the three species showed higher foliar thiol levels in Q. robur and Q. pubescens compared with Q. petraea. For total and reduced ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid, the highest levels were found in Q. robur. In conclusion, our study showed that foliar anti-oxidant and free amino acid levels were significantly affected by drought plus air warming; however, this effect was species-dependent with the drought-tolerant species of Q. pubescens having the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity among three tested oak species. Furthermore, stress responses as shown by increased levels of foliar anti-oxidants and free amino acids differ between calcareous and acidic soil indicating that the capacities of anti-oxidative defense and osmotic stress

  18. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    PubMed

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface. PMID:23614726

  19. [Comparative distribution study of 14C labeled amino acids, glucose-analogue and precursor of nuclei acid, as tumor seeking agents].

    PubMed

    Shiba, K; Mori, H; Hisada, K

    1984-08-01

    As tumor-seeking agents, glucose analogues, natural amino acids, synthetic nonmetabolized amino acids, and precursor of nucleic acids, etc., labeled with positron emitter, such as 11C and 18F have been recently investigated. However, there are very few reports concerning comparative study of tumor uptake and tissue distribution of these agents. This preliminary paper describes comparative distribution and whole-body autoradiography of these agents. 14C labeled deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), L-, DL-leucine, 1-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC), alpha-amino isobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and thymidine were intravenously injected through tail vein into separate groups of the experimental animals. As the experimental animals, the mice with Ehrlich tumor and the rats with Hepatoma AH109A were used. Within 30 min after injection, FDG had the highest tumor uptake and tumor to tissue ratios, although FDG was inferior to ACPC and thymidine in related to tumor to heart, lung and brain ratios. However, the time course study indicated that tumor uptake of ACPC, alpha-AIB and D-leucine increased with time, whereas those of other agents decreased with time or reached a plateau. Thus, at 120 min after injection, ACPC had the highest tumor uptake and tumor to tissue ratios, although ACPC was inferior to FDG in related to tumor to blood, liver and pancreas ratios. Autoradiogram of ACPC showed very clear tumor image as well as that of FDG. The above data suggest that synthetic nonmetabolized amino acids, such as ACPC may be promising as tumor-seeking agents, when used with a single photon emission computed tomography, while glucose analogue such as FDG, are the best tumor-seeking agent, when used with a positron emission computed tomography. PMID:6505304

  20. A descriptive-comparative study of performance characteristics in futsal players of different levels.

    PubMed

    Naser, Naser; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of futsal, there is little information on performance characteristics of players. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of a futsal shooting test and to evaluate and compare performance characteristics of three futsal playing levels. Twenty-four males (n = 8 elite, n = 8 semi-elite, n = 8 social) completed two trials to examine the reliability of the Massey Futsal Shooting Test (MFST) and to compare various fitness characteristics between groups. MFST time taken (P = 0.010), shot speed (P < 0.001) and points scored per shot (P < 0.001) were better for elite relative to social players. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for all groups, but it was most repeatable in elite players. Loughborough Soccer Passing Test performance was better in elite relative to social players (P = 0.004). There were no differences in countermovement-jump height between groups. Elite players ran faster over 5 m than both semi-elite (P = 0.043) and social (P = 0.002) and faster than the social players through 10 m (P = 0.028) and 20 m (P = 0.026). Distance covered in the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test was higher in elite relative to semi-elite (P = 0.005) and social (P < 0.001) groups. The MFST is a valid and reliable protocol to assess futsal shooting-skill performance; elite players have superior shooting and passing skill and have greater sprinting and intermittent-running ability. PMID:26800448

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Levels in GCF and Plasma of Chronic Periodontitis Patients: Quasi Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Denthumdas, Sunil Kumar; Wadgave, Umesh; Pharne, Pooja Mohan; Patil, Sandeep Jambukumar; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Deshpande, Pavan; Koppikar, Rajesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For any antimicrobial approach to be successful in periodontal therapy, it is important that the antimicrobial agent targets the sub-gingival biofilm by attaining sufficient concentration at the sub-gingival site. Aim The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the concentrations of ciprofloxacin present in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) and plasma after its systemic administration. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects, in the age group of 30-60 years satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were chosen from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad and consent was obtained. Subjects were put on oral ciprofloxacin therapy (Baycip, Bayer Corporation) of 500mg twice daily doses for five days to establish steady state tissue levels of the agent. GCF and serum samples were collected at the 72nd hour after the first dose of ciprofloxacin and were compared using unpaired t test. Results The mean gingival index value of the subjects was 1.8 ± 0.59 and the mean probing depth of the subjects taken in the study was 5.724 ± 0.47mm. The results of this study showed that ciprofloxacin concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.001) in GCF than in plasma. Conclusion Results from the present study and those from the earlier studies clearly indicate the ciprofloxacin’s ability to reach and concentrate in infected periodontal sites via GCF. This property of ciprofloxacin may be useful for eradication of periodontal pathogens, thus improving the outcome of periodontal therapy. PMID:27504410

  2. Gene family level comparative analysis of gene expression in mammals validates the ortholog conjecture.

    PubMed

    Rogozin, Igor B; Managadze, David; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-04-01

    The ortholog conjecture (OC), which is central to functional annotation of genomes, posits that orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes at the same level of sequence divergence. However, a recent study challenged the OC by reporting a greater functional similarity, in terms of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and expression profiles, among within-species paralogs compared with orthologs. These findings were taken to indicate that functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context of the genes, rather than evolutionary history. However, several subsequent studies suggest that GO annotations and microarray data could artificially inflate functional similarity between paralogs from the same organism. We sought to test the OC using approaches distinct from those used in previous studies. Analysis of a large RNAseq data set from multiple human and mouse tissues shows that expression similarity (correlations coefficients, rank's, or Z-scores) between orthologs is substantially greater than that for between-species paralogs with the same sequence divergence, in agreement with the OC and the results of recent detailed analyses. These findings are further corroborated by a fine-grain analysis in which expression profiles of orthologs and paralogs were compared separately for individual gene families. Expression profiles of within-species paralogs are more strongly correlated than profiles of orthologs but it is shown that this is caused by high background noise, that is, correlation between profiles of unrelated genes in the same organism. Z-scores and rank scores show a nonmonotonic dependence of expression profile similarity on sequence divergence. This complexity of gene expression evolution after duplication might be at least partially caused by selection for protein dosage rebalancing following gene duplication. PMID:24610837

  3. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  4. A comparative study of ethanol production using dilute acid, ionic liquid and AFEX™ pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a biorefinery producing cellulosic biofuels, biomass pretreatment will significantly influence the efficacy of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Comparison of different biomass pretreatment techniques by studying the impact of pretreatment on downstream operations at industrially relevant conditions and performing comprehensive mass balances will help focus attention on necessary process improvements, and thereby help reduce the cost of biofuel production. Results An on-going collaboration between the three US Department of Energy (DOE) funded bioenergy research centers (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) and BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)) has given us a unique opportunity to compare the performance of three pretreatment processes, notably dilute acid (DA), ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEXTM), using the same source of corn stover. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was carried out using various combinations of commercially available enzymes and engineered yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A) strain. The optimal commercial enzyme combination (Ctec2: Htec2: Multifect Pectinase, percentage total protein loading basis) was evaluated for each pretreatment with a microplate-based assay using milled pretreated solids at 0.2% glucan loading and 15 mg total protein loading/g of glucan. The best enzyme combinations were 67:33:0 for DA, 39:33:28 for IL and 67:17:17 for AFEX. The amounts of sugar (kg) (glucose: xylose: total gluco- and xylo-oligomers) per 100 kg of untreated corn stover produced after 72 hours of 6% glucan loading enzymatic hydrolysis were: DA (25:2:2), IL (31:15:2) and AFEX (26:13:7). Additionally, the amounts of ethanol (kg) produced per 100 kg of untreated corn stover and the respective ethanol metabolic yield (%) achieved with exogenous nutrient supplemented fermentations were: DA (14.0, 92.0%), IL (21.2, 93.0%) and AFEX (20.5, 95.0%), respectively

  5. Bile acid production in human subjects: rate of oxidation of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol compared to fecal bile acid excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, N.O.; Bradlow, H.L.; Ahrens, E.H. Jr.; Rosenfeld, R.S.; Schwartz, C.C.

    1986-02-01

    Bile acid production has been quantitated in seven subjects by methods that compare the results of two independent approaches, namely, quantitation of cholesterol side-chain oxidation and fecal bile acid excretion. Six hypertriglyceridemic (HT) subjects and one normolipidemic control were studied by both techniques. A further control subject was studied by the cholesterol side-chain oxidation method alone. Cholesterol side-chain oxidation was quantitated by measuring the appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O after intravenous administration of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol, using multicompartmental analysis of plasma cholesterol and (/sup 3/H)water specific activity. Body water kinetics were independently defined by use of oral D/sub 2/O. Two HT subjects were restudied while they were taking cholestyramine, 16 g/day. In all ten studies, multicompartmental analysis closely simulated the observed appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O. Values obtained for bile acid production suggest that cholesterol oxidation, or bile acid input, was significantly greater than fecal bile acid output in the HT subjects (P less than 0.05). Cholesterol side-chain oxidation rates in the two normal subjects were lower than those encountered in HT subjects, being similar to published values for normal subjects both for bile acid synthesis as determined by isotope dilution kinetics and fecal bile acid excretion. Studies conducted with two, synthetically different, preparations of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol indicated that, in one of the two preparations, approximately 20% of the tritium label was at positions proximal to C24. In the other preparation examined, all of the tritium was located at, or distal to, C24. Further studies revealed that 0.055-0.24% of the dose was present as labile tritium by virtue of its appearance as /sup 3/H/sub 2/O following in vitro incubation with human plasma. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    Data from 96 Holstein Friesian cows on a commercial dairy farm were used to investigate whether body condition and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) postpartum (pp) affect progesterone (P4) levels, estrous activity, and fertility in dairy cows. The examination period started 14 days before the expected calving date and ended either when a cow was inseminated or at a maximum of 90 days pp. Body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) and backfat thickness (BFT) were determined every 2 weeks. Blood for analysis of NEFA and P4 concentrations was sampled weekly during the first 35 days pp and then every 48 hours until an ovulation was observed. Transrectal ultrasonography of the ovaries started at 21 days pp and was performed after blood sampling. If cows were not inseminated because of silent ovulation, sampling and ultrasonography continued on Days 7, 14, and 18 after ovulation and again every 48 hours until the next ovulation. Estrous activity was continuously measured with the Heatime estrus detection system. Pregnancy controls were performed ultrasonographically 28 and 42 days after AI. Cows with increased NEFA levels at 28 days pp had an increased risk of maintaining minimum P4 levels above 0.4 ng/mL at first recognized estrus (P = 0.03). Higher NEFA levels at Day 7 were associated with lower probability for a cow to have elevated P4 levels (≥2 ng/mL) by Day 35 pp, indicating delayed commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Estrous activity was not influenced (P > 0.10) by minimum P4 concentrations at estrus, but more animals with C-LA until Day 35 pp showed estrous activity compared to cows without C-LA throughout this period (P = 0.006). Estrous activity was lower in cows with a low BCS 14 days pp (P = 0.02) and with a low BFT 42 days pp (P = 0.03). Moreover, the probability to exhibit estrus was reduced with higher NEFA levels at 21 days pp (P = 0.01). Eighty-five cows were inseminated and 37 (44%) got pregnant after insemination. Higher NEFA levels

  7. Daily irrigation attenuates xylem abscisic acid concentration and increases leaf water potential of Pelargonium × hortorum compared with infrequent irrigation.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-09-01

    The physiological response of plants to different irrigation frequencies may affect plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE; defined as shoot biomass/cumulative irrigation). Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at 100% of plant evapotranspiration (ET) (well-watered; WW), or at 50% ET applied either daily [frequent deficit irrigation (FDI)] or cumulatively every 4 days [infrequent deficit irrigation (IDI)], for 24 days. Both FDI and IDI applied the same irrigation volume. Xylem sap was collected from the leaves, and stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) measured every 2 days. As soil moisture decreased, gs decreased similarly under both FDI and IDI throughout the experiment. Ψleaf was maintained under IDI and increased under FDI. Leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([X-ABA]leaf ) increased as soil moisture decreased under both IDI and FDI, and was strongly correlated with decreased gs , but [X-ABA]leaf was attenuated under FDI throughout the experiment (at the same level of soil moisture as IDI plants). These physiological changes corresponded with differences in plant production. Both FDI and IDI decreased growth compared with WW plants, and by the end of the experiment, FDI plants also had a greater shoot fresh weight (18%) than IDI plants. Although both IDI and FDI had higher WUE than WW plants during the first 10 days of the experiment (when biomass did not differ between treatments), the deficit irrigation treatments had lower WUE than WW plants in the latter stages when growth was limited. Thus, ABA-induced stomatal closure may not always translate to increased WUE (at the whole plant level) if vegetative growth shows a similar sensitivity to soil drying, and growers must adapt their irrigation scheduling according to crop requirements. PMID:26910008

  8. Comparative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in roots and seeds among various burdock (Arctium lappa) genotypes with high antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyi; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Wong, Ricky Ngok Shun; Lee, Calvin Kai-Fai; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Yanbo

    2012-04-25

    Caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in the crude extracts of both roots and seeds from different burdock ( Arctium lappa L.) genotypes were simultaneously characterized and systematically compared by LC-MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS), and their antioxidant activities were also investigated. A total of 14 lignans were identified in burdock seeds and 12 caffeoylquinic acids in burdock roots. High levels of caffeoylquinic acids were also detected in burdock seeds, but only trace amounts of lignans were found in burdock roots. Burdock seeds contained higher concentrations of lignans and caffeoylquinic acids than burdock roots. Quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in roots and seeds of various burdock genotypes was reported for the first time. Great variations in contents of both individual and total phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found among different genotypes. Burdock as a root vegetable or medicinal plants possessed considerably stronger antioxidant activity than common vegetables and fruits. PMID:22497441

  9. Binding of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol to bovine serum albumin: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangrong; Wang, Gongke; Chen, Dejun; Lu, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Binding of ascorbic acid (water-soluble antioxidant) and α-tocopherol (lipid-soluble antioxidant) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermodynamic investigations reveal that ascorbic acid/α-tocopherol binding to BSA is driven by favorable enthalpy and unfavorable entropy, and the major driving forces are hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. For ascorbic acid, the interaction is characterized by a high number of binding sites, which suggests that binding occurs by a surface adsorption mechanism that leads to coating of the protein surface. For α-tocopherol, one molecule of α-tocopherol combines with one molecule of BSA and no more α-tocopherol binding to BSA occurs at concentration ranges used in this study. Fluorescence experiments suggest that ascorbic acid has predominantly a "sphere of action" quenching mechanism, whereas, for α-tocopherol, the quenching mechanism is "static quenching" and due to the formation of a ground state complex. Additionally, as shown by the UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and FT-IR, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol may induce conformational and microenvironmental changes of BSA. PMID:24310979

  10. A comparative study of surface acid-base characteristics of natural illites from different origins

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Sun, Z.; Forsling, W.; Du, Q.; Tang, H.

    1999-11-01

    The acid-base characteristics of naturally occurring illites, collected from different locations, were investigated by potentiometeric titrations. The experimental data were interpreted using the constant capacitance surface complexation model. Considerable release of Al and Si from illite samples and subsequent complexation or precipitation of hydroxyl aluminosilicates generated during the acidimetric forward titration and the alkalimetric back titration, respectively, were observed. In order to describe the acid-base chemistry of aqueous illite surfaces, two surface proton-reaction models, introducing the corresponding reactions between the dissolved aluminum species and silicic acid, as well as a surface Al-Si complex on homogeneous illite surface sites, were proposed. Optimization results indicated that both models could provide a good description of the titration behavior for all aqueous illite systems in this study. The intrinsic acidity constants for the different illites were similar in Model 1, showing some generalities in their acid-base properties. Model 1 may be considered as a simplification of Model 2, evident in the similarities between the corresponding constants. In addition, the formation constant for surface Al-Si species (complexes or precipitates) is relatively stable in this study.

  11. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and β-cell functions in nondiabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, M; Niwa, T; Nakajima, K; Kobayashi, M; Hanyu, N; Nakayama, T

    2014-12-01

    High serum uric acid (UA) levels are believed to be an independent risk factor for the development of diabetes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum UA concentrations and early-phase insulin secretion following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic subjects. We enrolled 570 Japanese subjects (354 males and 216 females, aged 50.5 ± 8.9 years and 52.6 ± 7.3 years, respectively), who underwent the 75 g OGTT during their annual health examination. The OGTT confirmed their nondiabetic status. Insulin secretion was estimated by the disposition index (DI) [(Δ insulin/Δ glucose (0-30 min) × (1/HOMA-IR)], which is an adjusted measure of β-cell function relative to variations in insulin sensitivity. Simple linear regression analysis showed negative correlations between serum UA levels and DI, when examined in the whole study population and female subjects only (r = -0.209, p < 0.001 and r = -0.232, p < 0.001, respectively). However, in male subjects, UA levels did not correlate with DI. In females, multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that serum UA levels were the major predictors of DI, explaining 16.4% of its variation (p < 0.001). Serum UA levels significantly correlate with early-phase insulin secretion in nondiabetic Japanese women. It may be an independent risk factor for predicting β-cell function in women. PMID:25295417

  12. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  13. Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

  14. Rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila photoreceptors is acutely sensitive to phosphatidic acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Coessens, Elise; Manifava, Maria; Georgiev, Plamen; Pettitt, Trevor; Wood, Eleanor; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Okkenhaug, Hanneke; Trivedi, Deepti; Zhang, Qifeng; Razzaq, Azam; Zaid, Ola; Wakelam, Michael; O'Kane, Cahir J; Ktistakis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is postulated to have both structural and signaling functions during membrane dynamics in animal cells. In this study, we show that before a critical time period during rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, elevated levels of PA disrupt membrane transport to the apical domain. Lipidomic analysis shows that this effect is associated with an increase in the abundance of a single, relatively minor molecular species of PA. These transport defects are dependent on the activation state of Arf1. Transport defects via PA generated by phospholipase D require the activity of type I phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4 phosphate 5 kinase, are phenocopied by knockdown of PI 4 kinase, and are associated with normal endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. We propose that PA levels are critical for apical membrane transport events required for rhabdomere biogenesis. PMID:19349583

  15. Cypermethrin alters Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Koteras, Marcin; Folkesson, Ronnie; Brzezinski, Jacek; Winblad, Bengt; Szutowski, Miroslaw; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2006-01-01

    Pyrethroids, widely used insecticides, are biologically active in neurons. Whether they act on the non-neuronal brain cells remains an open question. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether Cypermethrin intoxication affects astroglial cells in the rat brain. The levels of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in different brain regions were measured by ELISA following oral treatment with 5 or 10% of LD(50) of Cypermethrin per day for 6 days. A significant decrease of GFAP was observed in different brain regions of treated animals. The cerebral cortex showed the most pronounced effect with GFAP levels reduced to 81% of the controls 2 days after treatment and 77% 21 days after treatment. Although we did not find profound changes in the morphology of astrocytes in Cypermethrin treated animals, the decrease in GFAP suggests that astrocytes were affected by low doses of pyrethroids. The possible consequences were discussed. PMID:21783638

  16. Low serum levels of short-chain fatty acids after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Undseth, Ragnhild; Jakobsdottir, Greta; Nyman, Margareta; Berstad, Arnold; Valeur, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Ingestion of low-digestible carbohydrates triggers symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These carbohydrates become substrates for microbial fermentation in the colon, yielding short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are readily absorbed. Aiming to compare colonic fermentation in patients with IBS and healthy controls, we analyzed the concentrations of SCFA in serum at fasting and 90 minutes following ingestion of an unabsorbable, but fermentable carbohydrate, lactulose. Methods Patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria (n=22) and healthy controls (n=20) ingested 10 g lactulose dissolved in water. Symptoms were graded by questionnaires and SCFA were analyzed using hollow fiber-supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography. Results Lactulose induced more symptoms in patients with IBS than in healthy controls (P=0.0001). Fasting serum levels of SCFA did not differ between patients with IBS and controls. However, the postprandial levels of total SCFA (P=0.0002), acetic acid (P=0.005), propionic acid (P=0.0001), and butyric acid (P=0.01) were significantly lower in patients with IBS compared with healthy controls. There was no correlation between the levels of serum SCFA and symptom severity. Conclusion Low-serum levels of SCFA after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with IBS. Conceivably, this disturbance is related to symptom generation, but the mechanism is not clear. PMID:26664152

  17. Comparative investigation of the various determinants that influence the codon and amino acid usage patterns in the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ayan; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasish; Sarkar, Indrani; Sen, Arnab

    2015-06-01

    Various strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are crucial members of the human, animal and insect gut, associated with beneficial probiotic activities. An extensive analysis on codon and amino acid usage of the GC rich genus Bifidobacterium has been executed in the present study. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed a coupled effect of GC compositional constraint and natural selection for translational efficiency to be operative in producing the observed codon usage variations. Gene expression level was inferred to be the most crucial factor governing the codon usage patterns. Amino acid usage was found to be influenced significantly by hydrophobic and aromatic character of the encoded proteins. Gene expressivity and protein energetic cost also had considerable impact on the differential mode of amino acid usage. The genus was found to strictly obey the cost-minimization hypothesis as was reflected from the amino acid usage patterns of the potential highly expressed gene products. Evolutionary analysis revealed that the highly expressed genes were candidates to extreme evolutionary selection pressure and indicated a high degree of conservation at the proteomic level. Interestingly, the complimentary strands of replication appeared to evolve under similar evolutionary constraints which might be addressed as a consequence of absence of replicational selection and lack of strand-specific asymmetry among the members of the genus. Thus, the present endeavor confers considerable know-how pertaining to the codon and amino acid usage intricacies in Bifidobacterium and might prove handy for further scientific investigations associated with the concerned domain. PMID:25842224

  18. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wijtten, P J A; Hangoor, E; Sparla, J K W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male broilers and to 6 cages with Cobb 500 male broilers with 24 birds per cage. A control treatment (100% ideal protein) was compared with a treatment with 30% extra ideal protein, a treatment with daily adjustment of the dietary amino acid level and profile, and a feed restriction treatment. The protein treatments were applied from 0 to 14 d of age. The feed restriction was applied from 4 to 21 d of age. Restriction was 15% from d 4 to 14 of age and diminished with equal daily steps thereafter to 5% at 21 d of age. Birds were weighed and dissected for evaluation of small intestine weights at 6, 9, 14, and 36 d of age. Feed intake restriction reduced leg problems in Ross and Cobb broilers. Extra dietary protein reduced leg problems in Ross broilers only. The present experiment does not show that small intestinal weight development is related to mortality. Thirty percent extra dietary ideal protein increased duodenum weight between 6 and 9 d of age. This was not further increased by the daily optimization of the dietary amino acid level and profile. The increased duodenum weights coincided with an improved BW gain. This indicates that duodenum weight may be important in facilitating BW gain in young broilers. Thus, it may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the relation between nutrition and duodenum weight and duodenum function in further studies. PMID:20548070

  19. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. PMID:26367771

  20. Comparative Analysis of Barophily-Related Amino Acid Content in Protein Domains of Pyrococcus abyssi and Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Yafremava, Liudmila S.; Di Giulio, Massimo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid substitution patterns between the nonbarophilic Pyrococcus furiosus and its barophilic relative P. abyssi confirm that hydrostatic pressure asymmetry indices reflect the extent to which amino acids are preferred by barophilic archaeal organisms. Substitution patterns in entire protein sequences, shared protein domains defined at fold superfamily level, domains in homologous sequence pairs, and domains of very ancient and very recent origin now provide further clues about the environment that led to the genetic code and diversified life. The pyrococcal proteomes are very similar and share a very early ancestor. Relative amino acid abundance analyses showed that biases in the use of amino acids are due to their shared fold superfamilies. Within these repertoires, only two of the five amino acids that are preferentially barophilic, aspartic acid and arginine, displayed this preference significantly and consistently across structure and in domains appearing in the ancestor. The more primordial asparagine, lysine and threonine displayed a consistent preference for nonbarophily across structure and in the ancestor. Since barophilic preferences are already evident in ancient domains that are at least ~3 billion year old, we conclude that barophily is a very ancient trait that unfolded concurrently with genetic idiosyncrasies in convergence towards a universal code. PMID:24187517

  1. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

  2. The Effect of Initiating Pharmacologic Insulin on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Patients with Diabetes: A Matched Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Lindsey A.; Liu, Chih-Chin; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Gout is a common inflammatory arthropathy associated with hyperuricemia. Substantial evidence links hyperuricemia to the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Rising serum insulin levels correlate with an increase in serum uric acid (UA). The current study evaluated the effect of pharmacologic insulin on serum UA levels in patients with diabetes. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of previously collected data. The study cohort consisted of patients with both gout and diabetes who had initiated insulin therapy and a matched set of non-insulin users. The change in UA levels was calculated in both groups and compared. Potential confounders were assessed and adjusted for in a matched linear regression model. Results 23 patients met criteria for insulin initiators and were matched to 23 non-insulin users. In unadjusted analyses, patients started on insulin had a larger increase in UA (mean change 1.25 mg/dl, interquartile range, IQR: −0.7,2.3) in comparison to those not starting insulin (mean change 0.06 mg/dl, IQR: −1.1,0.9). After controlling for baseline UA and time between UA measurements, regression modeling showed that insulin use was significantly associated with an increase in UA ( = 1.25mg/dl, p value= 0.02). Conclusions Initiation of insulin among patients with diabetes was associated with a statistically significant increase in serum UA levels. This may affect the risk of gout flares and might suggest the potential for prophylactic therapy. PMID:25455681

  3. Adaptation of anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans to organic solvents on the level of membrane fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Duldhardt, Ilka; Gaebel, Julia; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Härtig, Claus; Schauer, Frieder; Heipieper, Hermann J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The effect of different solvents and pollutants on the cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial strains: Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans, representatives of diverse predominant anaerobic metabolisms was investigated. As the prevailing adaptive mechanism in cells of T. aromatica and G. sulfurreducens whose cellular fatty acids patterns were dominated by palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1cis), the cells reacted by an increase in the degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of the chemicals. Next to palmitic acid C16:0, the fatty acid pattern of D. multivorans was dominated by anteiso‐branched fatty acids which are characteristic for several sulfate‐reducing bacteria. The cells responded to the solvents with an increase in the ratio of straight‐chain saturated (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0) to anteiso‐branched fatty acids (C15:0anteiso, C17:0anteiso, C17:1anteisoΔ9cis). The results show that anaerobic bacteria react with similar mechanisms like aerobic bacteria in order to adapt their membrane to toxic organic solvents. The observed adaptive modifications on the level of membrane fatty acid composition can only be carried out with de novo synthesis of the fatty acids which is strictly related to cell growth. As the growth rates of anaerobic bacteria are generally much lower than in the so far investigated aerobic bacteria, this adaptive response needs more time in anaerobic bacteria. This might be one explanation for the previously observed higher sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria when compared with aerobic ones. PMID:21255320

  4. Adaptation of anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans to organic solvents on the level of membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Duldhardt, Ilka; Gaebel, Julia; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Härtig, Claus; Schauer, Frieder; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2010-03-01

    The effect of different solvents and pollutants on the cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial strains: Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans, representatives of diverse predominant anaerobic metabolisms was investigated. As the prevailing adaptive mechanism in cells of T. aromatica and G. sulfurreducens whose cellular fatty acids patterns were dominated by palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1cis), the cells reacted by an increase in the degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of the chemicals. Next to palmitic acid C16:0, the fatty acid pattern of D. multivorans was dominated by anteiso-branched fatty acids which are characteristic for several sulfate-reducing bacteria. The cells responded to the solvents with an increase in the ratio of straight-chain saturated (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0) to anteiso-branched fatty acids (C15:0anteiso, C17:0anteiso, C17:1anteisoΔ9cis). The results show that anaerobic bacteria react with similar mechanisms like aerobic bacteria in order to adapt their membrane to toxic organic solvents. The observed adaptive modifications on the level of membrane fatty acid composition can only be carried out with de novo synthesis of the fatty acids which is strictly related to cell growth. As the growth rates of anaerobic bacteria are generally much lower than in the so far investigated aerobic bacteria, this adaptive response needs more time in anaerobic bacteria. This might be one explanation for the previously observed higher sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria when compared with aerobic ones. PMID:21255320

  5. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    PubMed Central

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A. S. Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217. PMID:26300919

  6. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin.

    PubMed

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A S Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217. PMID:26300919

  7. Characterization of the comparative drug binding to intra- (liver fatty acid binding protein) and extra- (human serum albumin) cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew; Hallifax, David; Nussio, Matthew R; Shapter, Joseph G; Mackenzie, Peter I; Brian Houston, J; Knights, Kathleen M; Miners, John O

    2015-01-01

    1. This study compared the extent, affinity, and kinetics of drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) using ultrafiltration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). 2. Binding of basic and neutral drugs to both HSA and LFABP was typically negligible. Binding of acidic drugs ranged from minor (fu > 0.8) to extensive (fu < 0.1). Of the compounds screened, the highest binding to both HSA and LFABP was observed for the acidic drugs torsemide and sulfinpyrazone, and for β-estradiol (a polar, neutral compound). 3. The extent of binding of acidic drugs to HSA was up to 40% greater than binding to LFABP. SPR experiments demonstrated comparable kinetics and affinity for the binding of representative acidic drugs (naproxen, sulfinpyrazone, and torsemide) to HSA and LFABP. 4. Simulations based on in vitro kinetic constants derived from SPR experiments and a rapid equilibrium model were undertaken to examine the impact of binding characteristics on compartmental drug distribution. Simulations provided mechanistic confirmation that equilibration of intracellular unbound drug with the extracellular unbound drug is attained rapidly in the absence of active transport mechanisms for drugs bound moderately or extensively to HSA and LFABP. PMID:25801059

  8. Gut microbiota regulates bile acid metabolism by reducing the levels of tauro-beta-muricholic acid, a naturally occurring FXR antagonist.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Sama I; Wahlström, Annika; Felin, Jenny; Jäntti, Sirkku; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Bamberg, Krister; Angelin, Bo; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Orešič, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2013-02-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. Bile acid synthesis is under negative feedback control through activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the ileum and liver. Here we profiled the bile acid composition throughout the enterohepatic system in germ-free (GF) and conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice. We confirmed a dramatic reduction in muricholic acid, but not cholic acid, levels in CONV-R mice. Rederivation of Fxr-deficient mice as GF demonstrated that the gut microbiota regulated expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 in the ileum and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver by FXR-dependent mechanisms. Importantly, we identified tauro-conjugated beta- and alpha-muricholic acids as FXR antagonists. These studies suggest that the gut microbiota not only regulates secondary bile acid metabolism but also inhibits bile acid synthesis in the liver by alleviating FXR inhibition in the ileum. PMID:23395169

  9. Plasma hyaluronic acid level as a prognostic and monitoring marker of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cike; Wallwiener, Markus; Rudolph, Anja; Ćuk, Katarina; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Modugno, Caroline; Trumpp, Andreas; Heil, Jörg; Marmé, Frederik; Madhavan, Dharanija; Nees, Juliane; Riethdorf, Sabine; Schott, Sarah; Sohn, Christof; Pantel, Klaus; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yang, Rongxi; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    Conventional tumor markers have limited value for prognostication and treatment monitoring in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients and novel circulating tumor markers therefore need to be explored. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix and is reported to be associated with tumor progression. In our study, we investigated plasma HA level with respect to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), as well as the treatment monitoring value in MBC patients. The prognostic value of plasma HA level was investigated in a discovery cohort of 212 MBC patients with 2.5-year follow-up and validated in an independent validation cohort of 334 patients with 5-year follow-up. The treatment monitoring value of plasma HA level was investigated in 61 MBC patients from discovery cohort who had been radiographically examined after first complete cycle of chemo therapy. We found a robust association between high plasma HA level and poor prognosis of MBC patients in both discovery (pPFS  = 7.92 × 10(-6) and pOS  = 5.27 × 10(-5) ) and validation studies (pPFS  = 3.66 × 10(-4) and pOS  = 1.43 × 10(-4) ). In the discovery cohort, the plasma HA level displayed independent prognostic value after adjusted for age and clinicopathological factors, with respect to PFS and OS. Further, the decrease of plasma HA level displayed good concordance with treatment response evaluated by radiographic examination (AUC = 0.79). Plasma HA level displays prognostic value, as well as treatment monitoring value for MBC patients. PMID:26686298

  10. Comparative plasma salicylate and urine salicylurate levels following administration of aspirin, magnesium salicylate, and choline magnesium trisalicylate.

    PubMed

    Mason, W D

    1980-11-01

    Eighteen healthy volunteers were administered single doses of commercially available solid dosage forms of aspirin, magnesium salicylate (I), and choline magnesium trisalicylate (II), equivalent to approximately 500 mg of salicylic acid, in a randomized, complete crossover design. Plasma salicylate and urine salicylurate levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography at frequent intervals following dosing; the resultant profiles, areas under the curve (AUC), and percentages of dose excreted as salicylurate were statistically analyzed by an analysis of variance. The plasma salicylate levels following the two dosage forms containing I and II were virtually identical when corrected for small differences in the dose. The plasma salicylic acid level following aspirin was approximately 10% lower during the 1.5--3.0-hr interval due to a portion of unhydrolyzed aspirin, but the dose-corrected AUC for the products tested did not differ significantly (p < 0.05). During the 24 hr following dosing, 66.5 +/- 12.1 68.4 +/- 7.1, and 60.9 +/- 14.1% of the salicylic acid were excreted as urine salicylurate for aspirin, I, and II, respectively, with no significant difference (p < 0.05). Based on this study, there are no significant differences in the rate and extent of absorption of salicylate following the three dosage forms tested, and the elimination kinetics of salicylic acid are not altered by these dosage forms. PMID:7452472

  11. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  12. Changes in fatty acid composition and distribution of N-3 fatty acids in goat tissues fed different levels of whole linseed.

    PubMed

    Abuelfatah, Kamaleldin; Zakaria, Md Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  13. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoux, Xavier; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a teaching program that shows how electrochemical principles can be conveyed by means of hands-on experiences of student-centered teaching experiments. Employs the readily available lead-acid cell and the simple aluminum-air cell. Discusses the batteries, equilibrium cell potential, performance comparison, current, electrode separation,…

  14. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  15. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  16. Comparative chemotaxonomic studies of mycolic acid-free coryneform bacteria of human origin.

    PubMed

    Barreau, C; Bimet, F; Kiredjian, M; Rouillon, N; Bizet, C

    1993-08-01

    Forty-two clinical isolates were classified as Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium CDC group I by the API Coryne system. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates were determined by thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Twenty-six isolates were found to have a type IV cell wall (meso-di-aminopimelic acid arabinose, galactose) but did not contain mycolic acids. These 26 isolates shared chemotaxonomic characteristics with those of mycolic acid-free reference strains (including the Corynebacterium amycolatum NCFB 2768 type strain, "Corynebacterium asperum," and coryneform CDC groups I2 and F2). The total protein profiles of the isolates determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were similar to each other and to that of the C. amycolatum type strain. The profiles of the reference strains "Corynebacterium asperum" (CIP 100836, CIP 80.54, CIP 79.37, CIP 52.13), coryneform bacteria CDC groups I2 and F2 (CDC F5771, F5890, G723, G1970), and C. amycolatum were closely related. Thus, the mycolic acid-negative strains with a chemotype IV wall may belong to a single taxon. DNA hybridization studies could confirm this hypothesis. The present study shows the importance of chemotaxonomic analysis for verifying strain identifications and completing results from biochemical tests, particularly for coryneform bacteria. PMID:8370733

  17. Comparative chemotaxonomic studies of mycolic acid-free coryneform bacteria of human origin.

    PubMed Central

    Barreau, C; Bimet, F; Kiredjian, M; Rouillon, N; Bizet, C

    1993-01-01

    Forty-two clinical isolates were classified as Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium CDC group I by the API Coryne system. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates were determined by thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Twenty-six isolates were found to have a type IV cell wall (meso-di-aminopimelic acid arabinose, galactose) but did not contain mycolic acids. These 26 isolates shared chemotaxonomic characteristics with those of mycolic acid-free reference strains (including the Corynebacterium amycolatum NCFB 2768 type strain, "Corynebacterium asperum," and coryneform CDC groups I2 and F2). The total protein profiles of the isolates determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were similar to each other and to that of the C. amycolatum type strain. The profiles of the reference strains "Corynebacterium asperum" (CIP 100836, CIP 80.54, CIP 79.37, CIP 52.13), coryneform bacteria CDC groups I2 and F2 (CDC F5771, F5890, G723, G1970), and C. amycolatum were closely related. Thus, the mycolic acid-negative strains with a chemotype IV wall may belong to a single taxon. DNA hybridization studies could confirm this hypothesis. The present study shows the importance of chemotaxonomic analysis for verifying strain identifications and completing results from biochemical tests, particularly for coryneform bacteria. Images PMID:8370733

  18. An enzymic assay for uric acid in serum and urine compared with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Dubois, H; Delvoux, B; Ehrhardt, V; Greiling, H

    1989-03-01

    We evaluated a colorimetric method for the assay of uric acid in serum or urine, which utilises a Trinder chromogenic system modified by the inclusion of 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid for oxidative coupling to p-aminophenazone. Colour development (Amax: 512 nm) is complete within five minutes. Measurement of a sample blank is not needed. The procedure involves pre-incubation with ascorbic acid oxidase and detergent to eliminate interference by ascorbic acid and to abolish turbidity due to lipaemia; this pretreatment was effective up to 1.14 mmol/l ascorbate and up to at least 25 mmol/l triacylglycerol. Interference by icteric sera was insignificant up to about 170 mumol/l bilirubin. The method is linear up to at least 1428 mumol/l. In human serum and urine the procedure correlates well with HPLC and the uricase p-aminophenazone method on the SMAC analyser. Within-run and between-run imprecisions of the enzymic test were higher than for HPLC, but did not exceed 1.2% (CV) and 2.5% (CV), respectively. PMID:2708944

  19. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-08-01

    Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants.A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia.A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39-44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65-3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41-4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2-3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33-2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35-2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06-0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99-3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61-0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2-0.23]), age of the mother (B -0.03 [95% CI: -0.03, -0.02]), and family size (B -0.14 [95% CI: -0.18,-0.11]). PMID:27495044

  20. Comparative Proteomic Study of Fatty Acid-treated Myoblasts Reveals Role of Cox-2 in Palmitate-induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiulan; Xu, Shimeng; Wei, Shasha; Deng, Yaqin; Li, Yiran; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated studies demonstrate that saturated fatty acids (FAs) such as palmitic acid (PA) inhibit insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells and monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) reverse the effect of PA on insulin signaling. The detailed molecular mechanism of these opposite effects remains elusive. Here we provide a comparative proteomic study of skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 that were untreated or treated with PA, and PA plus OA. A total of 3437 proteins were quantified using SILAC in this study and 29 proteins fall into the pattern that OA reverses PA effect. Expression of some these proteins were verified using qRT-PCR and Western blot. The most significant change was cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). In addition to whole cell comparative proteomic study, we also compared lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins and identified that Cox-2 was one of three major altered proteins under the FA treatment. This finding was then confirmed using immunofluorescence. Finally, Cox-2 selective inhibitor, celecoxib protected cells from PA-reduced insulin signaling Akt phosphorylation. Together, these results not only provide a dataset of protein expression change in FA treatment but also suggest that Cox-2 and lipid droplets (LDs) are potential players in PA- and OA-mediated cellular processes. PMID:26899878

  1. The Relationship between Uric Acid Levels and Huntington’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Auinger, Peggy; Kieburtz, Karl; McDermott, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) may be associated with the progression of Parkinson’s disease and related neurodegenerative conditions; however, its association with Huntington’s disease (HD) progression has not been explored. A secondary analysis of 347 subjects from the CARE-HD clinical trial was performed to examine the relationship between baseline UA levels and the level of functional decline in HD. Outcomes included change in scores at 30 months for the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale components. There was less worsening of total functional capacity over time with increasing baseline UA levels (adjusted mean worsening in scores: 3.17, 2.99, 2.95, 2.28, 2.21, from lowest to highest UA quintile, p=0.03). These data suggest a possible association between higher UA levels and slower HD progression, particularly as measured by total functional capacity. If confirmed, UA could be an important predictor and potentially modifiable factor affecting the rate of HD progression. PMID:20063429

  2. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress. PMID:25113613

  3. Sulforaphane reduces the alterations induced by quinolinic acid: modulation of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Santana-Martínez, R A; Galván-Arzáte, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Avila-Chávez, E; López-Acosta, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A; Maldonado, P D

    2014-07-11

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5mg/kg, i.p.) 24h and 5min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities. PMID:24814729

  4. Association of Serum Uric Acid Levels in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Miao, Xiao; Wang, Hongshen; Wang, Yifei; Li, Fulun; Yang, Qiong; Cui, Rutao; Li, Bin

    2016-05-01

    High levels of serum uric acid (SUAC) are frequently detected in patients with psoriasis. However, the relationship between psoriasis and hyperuricemia remains unknown. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the SUAC levels in subjects with psoriasis and to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia.A comprehensive search of the literature from January 1980 to November 2014 across 7 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register, and 4 Chinese databases) was conducted to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia.Among the 170 identified reports, 14 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant higher SUAC level (MD 0.68, 95% CI 0.26-1.09; P = 0.002) in patients with psoriasis in Western Europe, but no significant differences were found between the East Asia and India subgroup (MD 1.22, 95% CI -0.13-2.56; P = 0.08) or the Middle East subgroup (MD 0.48, 95% CI -0.49-1.44; P = 0.33). Similar results were obtained from the meta-analysis of SUAC levels in subjects with severe psoriasis.Our meta-analysis showed that the correlation between psoriasis and hyperuricemia was either ethnicity- or region-dependent and that patients with psoriasis in Western Europe were more likely to have hyperuricemia. PMID:27175702

  5. Comparing scientists' views of nature of science within and across disciplines, and levels of expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tira, Praweena

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how Thai scientists from four disciplines viewed nature of science (NOS). The sixteen participating scientists were chosen from the areas of chemistry, physics, biology/life sciences, and geology/earth sciences and were separated into novice and expert groups. The scientists' understandings about NOS were compared within and among the science groups as well as within and between novices and experts. All participants in the study had an opportunity to voice their opinions about the seven aspects of NOS that science educators in the United States have agreed should be taught in K-12 science classrooms. The scientists' views were found to be neither informed nor naive but were a mix between the two. Many scientists' responses showed more naive views with respect to tentativeness, subjectivity, social and cultural embeddedness, and the relationship between scientific theories and laws. The scientists' views about NOS differed with few observable patterns within or across disciplines. The novices' and experts' views of aspects of NOS were not substantially different. The scientists from both groups generally shared mixed viewpoints. Even though a few discipline specific patterns emerged from this study, cross disciplinary aspects of NOS in integrated science instruction is suggested rather than establishing particular concepts of NOS for each discipline so as to reduce complexity. Representatives of both novice and expert groups might be recruited to participate in developing new science curricula, teaching materials, and science teacher training programs. In addition, other factors need to be considered such as their knowledge of NOS, their willingness to get involved in science education at the school level or teacher education program, and their willingness to cooperate in the multi-step tasks of curriculum development.

  6. Bisphenol A Alters n-6 Fatty Acid Composition and Decreases Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in Rat Testes: A LC-QTOF-Based Metabolomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shanlei; Hu, Nan; Hu, Yanhui; Wu, Wei; Qiu, Lianglin; Zhang, Ruyang; Wang, Yubang; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2012-01-01

    Background Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF)-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as catalase (CAT) also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. Conclusions/Significance BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity. PMID:23024759

  7. The deposition of conjugated linoleic acids in eggs of laying hens fed diets varying in fat level and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Huyghebaert, Gerard; De Smet, Stefaan; Nollet, Lode; Arnouts, Sven; Demeyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into eggs and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism when layers are fed diets with different fat sources and fat levels. Layers were fed either a low fat diet (LF) or one of three high fat diets based on soybean oil (SB), animal fat (AF) or flaxseed oil (FSO). CLA was added at a concentration of 1 g/100 g feed from two different CLA premixes with a different CLA profile. For the trial, 144 laying hens were allocated to 12 treatments (4 basal fat sources x 3 CLA treatments) with 3 replicates of 4 hens each. No significant differences were observed in feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion or laying rate between chickens fed control and CLA-supplemented diets. Differences in yolk fat, cholesterol or yolk color were not clearly related to the dietary CLA. However, the supplementation of CLA to the diets had clear effects on the fatty acid composition, i.e., a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content were essentially unaffected. The results suggest that CLA may influence the activity of the desaturases to a different extent in the synthesis of (n-6) and (n-3) long-chain fatty acids. These effects of CLA depend on the level of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids available in the feed. The apparent deposition rate (%) is clearly higher for the c9, t11 isomer than for the t10, c12 isomer. Adding CLA to layers diets rich in (n-3) fatty acids produces eggs that could promote the health of the consumer in terms of a higher intake of (n-3) fatty acids and CLA. PMID:11823576

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zisheng; Mou, Wangshu; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker) treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA) and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient’s biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA’s role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future. PMID:26053069

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Li, Li; Luo, Zisheng; Mou, Wangshu; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker) treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA) and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient's biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA's role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future. PMID:26053069

  10. Three Dimensions and Four Levels: Towards a Methodology for Comparative Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bråten, Oddrun Marie Hovde

    2015-01-01

    This article is an abstract of a suggested methodology for comparative studies in religious education. It is based on a study where religious education in state schools in England and Norway were compared. The methodology is a synthesis of two sets of ideas. The first is an idea of three dimensions in comparative education: supranational, national…

  11. LC-MS/MS quantification of N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid levels in the urine and potential relationship with dietary sialic acid intake and disease in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Pan, Lili; Liu, Ni; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-28

    Red meat and dairy products contain high sialic acid (Sia) levels, but the metabolic fate and health impact in children remain unknown. The aims of the present study were to quantify the levels of urinary Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) and to determine their relationship with dietary Sia intake. Spot urine samples were collected from 386 healthy children aged 3 (n 108), 4 (n 144) and 5 (n 134) years at 06.30-07.00, 11.30-12.00 and 16.30-17.00 hours. Food intake levels were recorded on the day of urine sample collection. Sia levels were quantified using LC-MS/MS with [13C3]Sia as an internal standard. We found that (1) total urinary Sia levels in healthy pre-school children ranged from 40 to 79 mmol Sia/mol creatinine; (2) urinary Sia levels were independent of age and consisted of conjugated Neu5Ac (approximately 70·8 %), free Neu5Ac (approximately 21·3 %), conjugated KDN (approximately 4·2 %) and free KDN (approximately 3·7 %); Neu5Gc was detected in the urine of only one 4-year-old girl; (3) total urinary Sia levels were highest in the morning and declined over time in 4- and 5-year-old children (P< 0·05), but not in 3-year-old children; (4) Sia intake levels at breakfast and lunch were approximately 2·5 and 0·16 mg Sia/kg body weight; and (5) there was no significant correlation between dietary Sia intake levels and urinary Sia levels. Urinary Sia levels varied with age and time of day, but did not correlate with Sia intake in 3- to 5-year-old children. The difference in urinary Sia levels in children of different age groups suggests that the metabolism and utilisation rates of dietary Sia are age dependent. PMID:23915700

  12. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation. PMID:26213045

  13. Erythrocyte membrane docosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with islet autoimmunity: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jill M.; Kroehl, Miranda; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Frederiksen, Brittni N.; Seifert, Jennifer; Wong, Randall; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Rewers, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses We previously reported that lower n-3 fatty acid intake and levels in erythrocyte membranes were associated with increased risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) but not progression to type 1 diabetes in children at increased risk for diabetes. We hypothesise that specific n-3 fatty acids and genetic markers contribute synergistically to this increased risk of IA in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Methods DAISY is following 2547 children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of IA, defined as being positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65, IA-2 or insulin autoantibodies on two consecutive visits. Using a case-cohort design, erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and dietary intake were measured prospectively in 58 IA-positive children and 299 IA-negative children. Results Lower membrane levels of the n-3 fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), were predictive of IA (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.09,0.55), while alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not, adjusting for HLA and diabetes family history. We examined whether the effect of dietary intake of the n-3 fatty acid ALA on IA risk was modified by fatty acid elongation and desaturation genes. Adjusting for HLA, diabetes family history, ethnicity, energy intake and questionnaire type, ALA intake was significantly more protective for IA in the presence of an increasing number of minor alleles at FADS1 rs174556 (pinteraction=0.017), at FADS2 rs174570 (pinteraction=0.016) and at FADS2 rs174583 (pinteraction=0.045). Conclusions/interpretation The putative protective effect of n-3 fatty acids on IA may result from a complex interaction between intake and genetically-controlled fatty acid desaturation. PMID:24240437

  14. Abscisic acid enhances tolerance of wheat seedlings to drought and regulates transcript levels of genes encoding ascorbate-glutathione biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liting; Wang, Lina; Yang, Yang; Wang, Pengfei; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASA) are associated with the abscisic acid (ABA)-induced abiotic tolerance in higher plant, however, its molecular mechanism remains obscure. In this study, exogenous application (10 μM) of ABA significantly increased the tolerance of seedlings of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) suffering from 5 days of 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG)-stimulated drought stress, as demonstrated by increased shoot lengths and shoot and root dry weights, while showing decreased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Under drought stress conditions, ABA markedly increased content of GSH and ASA in both leaves and roots of ABA-treated plants. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of eight genes encoding ASA and GSH synthesis-related enzymes were measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that ABA temporally regulated the transcript levels of genes encoding ASA-GSH cycle enzymes. Moreover, these genes exhibited differential expression patterns between the root and leaf organs of ABA-treated wheat seedlings during drought stress. These results implied that exogenous ABA increased the levels of GSH and ASA in drought-stressed wheat seedlings in time- and organ-specific manners. Moreover, the transcriptional profiles of ASA-GSH synthesis-related enzyme genes in the leaf tissue were compared between ABA- and salicylic acid (SA)-treated wheat seedlings under PEG-stimulated drought stress, suggesting that they increased the content of ASA and GSH by differentially regulating expression levels of ASA-GSH synthesis enzyme genes. Our results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced drought tolerance in higher plants. PMID:26175737

  15. Abscisic acid enhances tolerance of wheat seedlings to drought and regulates transcript levels of genes encoding ascorbate-glutathione biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liting; Wang, Lina; Yang, Yang; Wang, Pengfei; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASA) are associated with the abscisic acid (ABA)-induced abiotic tolerance in higher plant, however, its molecular mechanism remains obscure. In this study, exogenous application (10 μM) of ABA significantly increased the tolerance of seedlings of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) suffering from 5 days of 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG)-stimulated drought stress, as demonstrated by increased shoot lengths and shoot and root dry weights, while showing decreased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Under drought stress conditions, ABA markedly increased content of GSH and ASA in both leaves and roots of ABA-treated plants. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of eight genes encoding ASA and GSH synthesis-related enzymes were measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that ABA temporally regulated the transcript levels of genes encoding ASA-GSH cycle enzymes. Moreover, these genes exhibited differential expression patterns between the root and leaf organs of ABA-treated wheat seedlings during drought stress. These results implied that exogenous ABA increased the levels of GSH and ASA in drought-stressed wheat seedlings in time- and organ-specific manners. Moreover, the transcriptional profiles of ASA-GSH synthesis-related enzyme genes in the leaf tissue were compared between ABA- and salicylic acid (SA)-treated wheat seedlings under PEG-stimulated drought stress, suggesting that they increased the content of ASA and GSH by differentially regulating expression levels of ASA-GSH synthesis enzyme genes. Our results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced drought tolerance in higher plants. PMID:26175737

  16. Association of the serum uric acid level with liver histology in biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qian; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiantu; Liu, Shourong; Ge, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with and independently predicts the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to examine the association of serum uric acid (SUA) levels with liver histology in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Data were collected from 158 adults aged >18 years, and diagnosed with biopsy-proven NAFLD. The differences in liver histology were assessed between hyperuricemic and normal SUA groups with NAFLD to determine the possible risk factors. The SUA level was closely associated with the degree of steatosis (correlation coefficient 0.177, P=0.027). A higher proportion of patients with hyperuricemia showed increased severity of lobular inflammation (lobular inflammation score ≥2) compared with patients exhibiting normal SUA (75 vs. 52.7%; χ2=8.548, P=0.003). Hyperuricemic groups had higher non-alcoholic steatosis (≥5) compared to the normal SUA groups with NAFLD (48.8 vs. 31.1%; χ2=5.131, P=0.024). Hyperuricemia was independently associated with advanced lobular inflammation (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.250–6.257; P=0.012) using a logistic regression model controlling for ferritin, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In conclusion, hyperuricemia is associated with histologically severe NAFLD. Hyperuricemia was independently associated with greater odds of advanced lobular inflammation of NAFLD. PMID:27446539

  17. Comparative effects of auxin and abscisic acid on growth, hydrogen ion efflux and gravitropism in primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. L.; Mulkey, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to test the idea that auxin action on root growth may be mediated by H(+) movement, the correlation of auxin action on growth and H(+) movement in roots was examined along with changes in H(+) efflux patterns associated with the asymmetric growth which occurs during gravitropism. The effects of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (AbA) on growth, H(+) secretion, and gravitropism in roots were compared. Results show a close correlation existent between H(+) efflux and growth in maize roots. In intact roots there is strong H(+) efflux from the elongation zone. Growth-promoting concentrations of IAA stimulate H(+) efflux. During gravitropism the H(+) efflux from the elongation zone becomes asymmetric; the evidence indicates that auxin redistribution contributes to the development of acid efflux asymmetry. That AbA stimulates root growth is reflected in its ability to stimulate H(+) efflux from apical root segments.

  18. Gender difference in plasma fatty-acid-binding protein 4 levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Diandian; Wang, Hao; Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airway inflammation and increases the likelihood of the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have indicated that FABP4 (fatty-acid-binding protein 4), an intracellular lipid chaperone of low molecular mass, plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation and atherosclerosis. We carried out a preliminary clinical study aiming at investigating the relationships between circulating FABP4 levels in patients with COPD and inflammation and lung function. We enrolled 50 COPD patients and 39 healthy controls in the study. Lung function tests were performed in all subjects. Plasma levels of FABP4 and adiponectin, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) and CRP (C-reactive protein) were measured. The correlations between FABP4 and lung function, adipokine (adiponectin), inflammatory factors and BMI (body mass index) were analysed. Compared with both males with COPD and healthy females, plasma FABP4 levels in females with COPD were significantly increased. Adiponectin and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with COPD. Furthermore, we found that FABP4 levels were inversely correlated with FEV1% predicted (FEV1 is forced expiratory volume in 1 s) and positively correlated with adiponectin and TNFα in COPD patients. In addition, a positive correlation between plasma FABP4 and CRP was found in females with COPD. However, FABP4 levels were not correlated with BMI. Our results underline a gender difference in FABP4 secretion in stable COPD patients. Further studies are warranted to clarify the exact role of FABP4 in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:26823558

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Luting Cements to Different Core Buildup Materials in Lactic Acid Buffer Solution

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddharam M.; Desai, Raviraj G.; Arabbi, Kashinath C.; Prakash, Ved

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objectives The core buildup material is used to restore badly broken down tooth to provide better retention for fixed restorations. The shear bond strength of a luting agent to core buildup is one of the crucial factors in the success of the cast restoration. The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of luting cements with different core buildup materials in lactic acid buffer solution. Materials and Methods Two luting cements {Traditional Glass Ionomer luting cement (GIC) and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer luting cement (RMGIC)} and five core buildup materials {Silver Amalgam, Glass ionomer (GI), Glass Ionomer Silver Reinforced (GI Silver reinforced), Composite Resin and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer(RMGIC)} were selected for this study. Total 100 specimens were prepared with 20 specimens for each core buildup material using a stainless steel split metal die. Out of these 20 specimens, 10 specimens were bonded with each luting cement. All the bonded specimens were stored at 370c in a 0.01M lactic acid buffer solution at a pH of 4 for 7days. Shear bond strength was determined using a Universal Testing Machine at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. The peak load at fracture was recorded and shear bond strength was calculated. The data was statistically analysed using Two-way ANOVA followed by HOLM-SIDAK method for pair wise comparison at significance level of p<0.05. Results Two-Way ANOVA showed significant differences in bond strength of the luting cements (p<0.05) and core materials (p<0.05) and the interactions (p<0.05). Pairwise comparison of luting cements by HOLM-SIDAK test, showed that the RMGIC luting cement had higher shear bond strength values than Traditional GIC luting cement for all the core buildup materials. RMGIC core material showed higher bond strength values followed by Composite resin, GI silver reinforced, GI and silver amalgam core materials for both the luting agents. Conclusion Shear bond strength of

  20. What is the safe upper intake level of folic acid for the nervous system? Implications for folic acid fortification policies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, E H

    2016-05-01

    Between 1945 and 1959 it was convincingly documented that folic acid can precipitate or aggravate the neurological and haematological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency by increasing the demand for vitamin B12. Since then there has been much misunderstanding of the issues, mainly by advocates of folic acid fortification who have been inclined to minimise or even dismiss the risks by misinterpreting the evidence as only a 'masking' of the anaemia of pernicious anaemia. Recent studies in the era of fortification are rediscovering the risks to the nervous system, especially cognitive function, of excess folate in the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. I have reviewed the Reports of four Expert Advisory Committees in Europe and the USA, which suggest that the safe upper tolerable limit (UL) for folic acid is 1 mg in adults. These reports are unsound and there is already evidence of neurological harm from long-term exposure to doses of folic acid between 0.5 and 1 mg in the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. There is an urgent need to review the safe UL for folic acid and to consider the addition of vitamin B12 to folic acid fortification policies. PMID:26862004

  1. A Martian analog in Kansas: Comparing Martian strata with Permian acid saline lake deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benison, Kathleen C.

    2006-05-01

    An important result of the Mars Exploration Rover's (MER) mission has been the images of sedimentary structures and diagenetic features in the Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum. Bedding, cross-bedding, ripple marks, mud cracks, displacive evaporite crystal molds, and hematite concretions are contained in these Martian strata. Together, these features are evidence of past saline groundwater and ephemeral shallow surface waters on Mars. Geochemical analyses of these Martian outcrops have established the presence of sulfates, iron oxides, and jarosite, which strongly suggests that these waters were also acidic. The same assemblage of sedimentary structures and diagenetic features is found in the salt-bearing terrestrial red sandstones and shales of the middle Permian (ca. 270 Ma) Nippewalla Group of Kansas, which were deposited in and around acid saline ephemeral lakes. These striking sedimentological and mineralogical similarities make these Permian red beds and evaporites the best-known terrestrial analog for the Martian sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  2. Comparative analysis of the anxiolytic effects of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Volchegorskii, I A; Miroshnichenko, I Yu; Rassokhina, L M; Faizullin, R M; Malkin, M P; Pryakhina, K E; Kalugina, A V

    2015-04-01

    Threefold administration of 3-hydroxypyridine derivatives emoxipine and mexidol in optimal doses corresponding to the therapeutic dose range for humans produced an anxiolytic effect and stimulated risk behavior in the elevated plus maze test in rats. These effects were most pronounced after injection of 3-hydroxypyridine derivative emoxipine. Combination of 3-hydroxypyridine cation and succinate anion in the mexidol structure led to attenuation of the anxiolytic effect and less pronounced stimulation of the risk behavior. By the anxiolytic effect and induction of risk behavior, emoxipine and mexidol were close to the reference substance amitriptyline. Reamberin, a succinic acid derivative, had no pronounced tranquilizing properties, but risk behavior induction was similar to that produced by mexidol. In contrast to other test agents, the reference substance α-lipoic acid produced anxiogenic effects and suppressed risk behavior. The obtained results suggest that Russian-made 3-hydroxypyridine derivatives emoxipine and mexidol are promising preparations for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25894772

  3. Comparative Adsorption of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids at the Iron Oxide/Oil Interface.

    PubMed

    Wood, Mary H; Casford, M T; Steitz, R; Zarbakhsh, A; Welbourn, R J L; Clarke, Stuart M

    2016-01-19

    A detailed comparison of the adsorption behavior of long straight chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at the iron oxide/oil interface has been considered using a combination of surface study techniques. Both depletion isotherms and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) show that the extent of adsorption decreases as the number of double bonds in the alkyl chains increases. Sum frequency generation spectroscopic measurements demonstrate that there is also an increase in chain disorder within the adsorbed layer as the unsaturation increases. However, for the unsaturated analogues, a decrease in peak intensity is seen for the double bond peak upon heating, which is thought to arise from isomerization in the surface-bound layer. The PNR study of oleic acid adsorption indicates chemisorbed monolayer adsorption, with a further diffuse reversible adsorbed layer formed at higher concentrations. PMID:26707597

  4. Regulation of auxin, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels by ascorbate application under heat stress in sensitive and tolerant maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Demir, Emel; Kompe, Yasemin Ozdener

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of ascorbic acid (5 mM) on some physiological parameters and three hormones (auxin, abscisic acid, salicylic acid) was determined under heat stress (40 °C) in maize tolerant cv. (MAY 69) and sensitive cv. SHEMAL (SH) at 0 h, 4 h and 8 h. Heat stress reduced total chlorophyll content (CHL), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs) in SH but did not lead to changes in MAY 69 at 4 h and 8 h. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid increased (CHL), (RWC) and (gs) in SH under heat stress while it reduced MDA content significantly in both cv. We also observed that heat stress led to a reduction in SA level but increased ABA and IAA levels in SH, whereas it increased SA and IAA levels but did not change ABA level in MAY 69 at 4 h. Furthermore, in SH, ASC application under heat stress increased SA level and decreased IAA and ABA levels at 4 h, but it had no effect on SA and ABA at 8 h. PMID:25475985

  5. Uric acid blood levels and relationship with the components of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Papavasileiou, M V; Karamanou, A G; Kalogeropoulos, P; Moustakas, G; Patsianis, S; Pittaras, A

    2016-07-01

    Associations between high serum uric acid (SUA) levels and high blood pressure (BP), as well as between SUA levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have already been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the components of MetS with the SUA levels as also between SUA and apolipoproteins A1 and B (apoA1 and apoB) ratio in hypertensive patients. A total of 2577 consecutive hypertensive patients (1193 male and 1384 female) aged 57.5±13.3 years, were enrolled in our research. Samples were taken to measure SUA, glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), components of the MetS and apoA1 and apoB. The study population was divided into two groups: group A: SUA levels above normal range (men ⩾7 mg dl(-1), women ⩾6 mg dl(-1)) and group B: SUA levels within normal range. In the overall study population, SUA levels showed a statistically significant correlation with waist circumference (WC; r=0.293, P<0.000), triglycerides (r=0.197, P<0.000), glucose (r=0.085, P<0.000), apoB/apoA1 (r=0.136, P<0.000) and HDL-C (r=-0.235, P<0,001). In newly diagnosed untreated hypertensive patients there was also a statistically significant correlation of SUA levels with WC (r=0.331, P<0.001), triglycerides (r=0.228, P<0.001) apoB/apoA1 ratio (r=0.202, P<0.001) and HDL-C (r=-0.278, P<0.001). In hyperurecemic hypertensives there was a statistically significant correlation between SUA levels with WC (r=0.168, P=0.007), apoB/apoA1 ratio (r=0.256, P=0.003) and HDL-C (r=-0.202, P<0.001). SUA levels correlate significantly with all the components of MetS, as well as with the risk factor apoB/apoA1 ratio, in hypertensive patients. PMID:26134624

  6. Comparative study of abiogenesis of cysteine and other amino acids catalyzed by various metal ions.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, K; Sen, P

    1975-01-01

    The present work pertains to the study of the influence of nickel, cobalt, thorium, vanadium, molybdate, ferrous ions on the formation of cysteine which is synthesized abiogenically together with other amino acids in sterilized aqueous mixtures of ammonium thiocyanate, formaldehyde, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium acetate, and biological minerals after irradiating by artificial light. The effect of these catalysts on cysteine formation was of the order: Fe++ greater than Mo++ greater than Th++++ greater than V++ greater than Co++ greater than Ni. PMID:1189468

  7. The evolution of mammalian hibernation: lessons from comparative acid-base physiology.

    PubMed

    Malan, André

    2014-09-01

    The conquest of land has endowed air-breathers with the capability to utilize ventilation not only to acquire oxygen but also to control blood and intracellular acid-base state. Hypercapnic acidosis (resulting from ventilatory control and/or behavioral choice), thus, has become a universal component of hypometabolic states in air-breathers, with inhibitory and/or protective roles. Here, special emphasis is placed on the understanding of alterations of acid-base state associated with changes in temperature. Hypercapnic acidosis in connection with hypometabolism has been found in a variety of air-breathing clades, from snails to mammals through lungfish, amphibians, and reptiles. The discovery of the plesiomorphic character of mammalian hibernation has made the transfer to hibernation biology of the experience gained in the application of hypercapnic acidosis (the so-called "pH-stat" procedure) relevant to acid-base control in clinical artificial hypothermia. This paves the way for mutual benefits from such reciprocal exchange of information between hibernation biology and clinical applications. PMID:24585189

  8. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  9. A comparative study of europium, thorium and uranium binding to an aquatic fulvic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Norden, M.; Ephraim, H.J.; Allard, B.; Albinsson, Y.

    1993-12-31

    Advances in safe management and disposal of radioactive waste have shown that a comprehensive program requires the incorporation of dissolved organics into radwaste and transport effluent models, with respect to their binding of radionuclides. The binding of Eu{sup 3+}, Th{sup 4+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to a well-characterized aquatic fulvic acid has been studied using an ultrafiltration method at a bulk electrolyte concentration of 0.10 M NaClO{sub 4}, trace amounts of radionuclides and fulvic acid concentrations of 60 and 120 mg/l. The results expressed as the overall complex formation function, {beta}{sub ov}, versus pH show the following order: Th{sup 4+} > Eu{sup 3+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The estimated {beta}{sub 0v} values have been discussed by considering the aqueous chemistry of Eu{sup 3+}, Th{sup 4+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} vis-a-vis the solution chemistry of the fulvic acid sample.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia. PMID:27058864

  11. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Kidner, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia. PMID:27058864

  12. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced increases in ascorbic acid levels on tissue. beta. -glucuronidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Barrett, T.J.; Leonard, D.A.; Horton, H.M.; Kenyon, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The interrelationship between tissue ascorbic acid levels and tissue ..beta..-glucuronidase activity was examined in rats injected with 3-methylcholanthrene, an agent which induces ascorbic acid synthesis in rats. Six Fisher 344 rats were dosed intraperitoneally (IP) with 30 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene. Ascorbic acid levels and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-G) activity were determined for lung, liver and kidney tissues. In a follow-up study, rats were dosed for three consecutive days with 3-methylcholanthrene. Controls in both groups were dosed IP with Emulphor (EL-620). Animals were sacrificed one week after the final dosage and lung, liver and kidney tissues were examined.

  13. Putrescine is involved in Arabidopsis freezing tolerance and cold acclimation by regulating abscisic acid levels in response to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Juan C; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Alcázar, Rubén; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2008-10-01

    The levels of endogenous polyamines have been shown to increase in plant cells challenged with low temperature; however, the functions of polyamines in the regulation of cold stress responses are unknown. Here, we show that the accumulation of putrescine under cold stress is essential for proper cold acclimation and survival at freezing temperatures because Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in putrescine biosynthesis (adc1, adc2) display reduced freezing tolerance compared to wild-type plants. Genes ADC1 and ADC2 show different transcriptional profiles upon cold treatment; however, they show similar and redundant contributions to cold responses in terms of putrescine accumulation kinetics and freezing sensitivity. Our data also demonstrate that detrimental consequences of putrescine depletion during cold stress are due, at least in part, to alterations in the levels of abscisic acid (ABA). Reduced expression of NCED3, a key gene involved in ABA biosynthesis, and down-regulation of ABA-regulated genes are detected in both adc1 and adc2 mutant plants under cold stress. Complementation analysis of adc mutants with ABA and reciprocal complementation tests of the aba2-3 mutant with putrescine support the conclusion that putrescine controls the levels of ABA in response to low temperature by modulating ABA biosynthesis and gene expression. PMID:18701673

  14. High serum levels of proinflammatory markers during epileptogenesis. Can omega-3 fatty acid administration reduce this process?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Telma Luciana Furtado; Vieira de Sousa, Paula Viviane; de Almeida, Sandro Soares; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Vieira de Brito, Joíse Marques; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Salu, Bruno Ramos; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Scorza, Fúlvio Alexandre; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2015-10-01

    During the epileptogenic process, several events may occur, such as an important activation of the immune system in the central nervous system. The response to seizure activity results in an inflammation in the brain as well as in the periphery. Moreover, CRP and cytokines may be able to interact with numerous ligands in response to cardiac injury caused by sympathetic stimulation in ictal and postictal states. Based on this, we measured the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines during acute, silent, and chronic phases of rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. We have also analyzed the effect of a chronic treatment of these rats with omega-3 fatty acid in CRP and cytokine levels, during an epileptic focus generation. C-reactive protein and cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α presented high concentration in the blood of rats, even well after the occurrence of SE. We found reduced levels of CRP and all proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of animals with chronic seizures, treated with omega-3, when compared with those treated with vehicle solution. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the omega-3 is an effective treatment to prevent SUDEP occurrence due to its capability to act as an anti-inflammatory compound, reducing the systemic inflammatory parameters altered by seizures. PMID:26318793

  15. Jasmonate-Inducible Genes Are Activated in Rice by Pathogen Attack without a Concomitant Increase in Endogenous Jasmonic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, P.; Buchala, A.; Silverman, P.; Seskar, M.; Raskin, I.; Metraux, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    The possible role of the octadecanoid signaling pathway with jasmonic acid (JA) as the central component in defense-gene regulation of pathogen-attacked rice was studied. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings were treated with JA or inoculated with the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr., and gene-expression patterns were compared between the two treatments. JA application induced the accumulation of a number of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene products at the mRNA and protein levels, but pathogen attack did not enhance the levels of (-)-JA during the time required for PR gene expression. Pathogen-induced accumulation of PR1-like proteins was reduced in plants treated with tetcyclacis, a novel inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis. There was an additive and negative interaction between JA and an elicitor from M. grisea with respect to induction of PR1-like proteins and of an abundant JA-and wound-induced protein of 26 kD, respectively. Finally, activation of the octadecanoid signaling pathway and induction of a number of PR genes by exogenous application of JA did not confer local acquired resistance to rice. The data suggest that accumulation of nonconjugated (-)-JA is not necessary for induction of PR genes and that JA does not orchestrate localized defense responses in pathogen-attacked rice. Instead, JA appears to be embedded in a signaling network with another pathogen-induced pathway(s) and may be required at a certain minimal level for induction of some PR genes. PMID:12223690

  16. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles to Compare Copper-Tolerant and Copper-Sensitive Strains of Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, C; Gitaitis, R; Sanders, H; Langston, D; Mullinix, B; Torrance, R; Boyhan, G; Zolobowska, L

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT A survey was conducted to evaluate differences in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles among strains of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), isolated from 15 different onion cultivars in three different sites in Georgia. Differences in FAME composition were determined by plotting principal components (PCs) in two-dimensional plots. Euclidean distance squared (ED(2)) values indicated a high degree of similarity among strains. Plotting of PCs calculated from P. ananatis strains capable of growing on media amended with copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) indicated that copper-tolerant strains grouped into tight clusters separate from clusters formed by wild-type strains. However, unlike copper-sensitive strains, the copper-tolerant strains tended to cluster by location. A total of 80, 60, and 73% of the strains from Tift1, Tift2, and Tattnall, respectively, exhibited either confluent growth or partial growth on copper-amended medium. However, all strains were sensitive to a mixture of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) and maneb (40 mug/ml). When copper-tolerant clones were analyzed and compared with their wild-type parents, in all cases the plotting of PCs developed from copper-tolerant clones formed tight clusters separate from clusters formed by the parents. Eigenvalues generated from these tests indicated that two components provided a good summary of the data, accounting for 98, 98, and 96% of the standardized variance for strains Pna 1-15B, Pna 1-12B, and Pna 2-5A, respectively. Furthermore, feature 4 (cis-9-hexadecenoic acid/2-hydroxy-13-methyltetradecanoic acid) and feature 7 (cis-9/trans-12/cis-7-octadecenoic acid) were the highest or second highest absolute values for PC1 in all three strains of the parents versus copper-tolerant clones, and hexadecanoic acid was the highest absolute value for PC2 in all three strains. Along with those fatty acids, dodecanoic acid and feature 3 (3-hydroxytetradecanoic