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Sample records for acid manufacturing plant

  1. Fact Sheet - Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants NESHAP

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet summarizing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants (40 CFR 63 Subparts AA and BB).

  2. Alternative control techniques document: Nitric and adipic acid manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzo, D.W.

    1991-12-01

    The Alternative Control Techniques document describes available control techniques for reducing NOx emission levels from nitric and adipic acid manufacturing plants. The document contains information on the formation of NOx and uncontrolled NOx emissions from nitric and adipic acid plants. The following NOx control techniques for nitric acid plants are discussed: extended absorption, nonselective catalytic reduction (NSCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The following NOx control techniques for adipic acid plants are discussed: extended absorption and thermal reduction. For each control technique, achievable controlled NOx emission levels, capital and annual costs, cost effectiveness, and environmental and energy impacts are presented.

  3. Energy recovery method and system for combined sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid manufacturing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, G. M.; Orlando, J. V.

    1985-01-22

    In conventional processes for manufacturing phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce weak phosphoric acid which is concentrated using steam from the associated sulphuric acid manufacturing operation. Low grade heat from the absorbers and drier of the sulphuric acid manufacturing plant has been wasted. According to the invention waste heat from the drier and one or more absorbers of the sulphuric acid manufacturing plant is used in all the evaporators of the phosphoric acid plant. The evaporators all operate at low pressures and their heaters are arranged in series, to enable the heat to be used at the relatively low temperatures available. The valuable steam is thus freed for other uses.

  4. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  5. Membrane bioreactor process of organic wastewater from brassylic acid manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z C; Zeng, P; Wang, S F; Gao, T Y

    2001-04-01

    The wastewater treatment from brassylic acid manufacturing plant using membrane bioreactor (MBR) was studied. The membrane bioreactor consisted of batch-operation biological aeration tank and ultrafiltration evaluation tank. The content of test included the affection of variation operation conditions on ultrafiltration separation, the general characteristics of MBR process, and the difference comparing with the conventional biological treatment. The results are as follows: (1) among the test membrane material, polyether sulphone (PES) membrane is more suitable for the wastewater treatment; (2) when the cutoff molecular weight is among 10,000-50,000, the higher the cutoff molecular weight, the bigger the water flux is in the test; (3) under the operation pressure, water flux increases accompanying with the increasing of operation pressure; (4) the paper filtered COD concentration has more affection on the water flux than the suspended solid concentration; (5) as the volume loading of MBR increases, the accumulation of high molecule organic substance and colloid increases, the membrane permeate COD concentration and paper filtered COD concentration increase too, meanwhile the water flux reduces; (6) when the sludge retention time of activated sludge of MBR increases, the accumulation of high molecule organic substance and colloid reduces, the membrane permeate COD concentration and paper filtered COD concentration reduce too, and the water flux increases; (7) comparing with the conventional biological process, the microbial activity is higher, but the microbial species is less.

  6. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), calcium and magnesium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), Ca/Mg and calcium concentrations (r=0.64, p<0.005), and sulfuric ion and magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, p<0.005). Negative correlations were found between sulfuric ion concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.31, p<0.01), and magnesium concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.32, p<0.01). This suggests that mouth rinse from employees working with sulfuric acid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  8. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  9. Optical manufacturing requirements for an AVLIS plant

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.

    1997-07-14

    A uranium enrichment plant utilizing Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology is currently being planned. Deployment of the Plant will require tens of thousands of commercial and custom optical components and subsystems. The Plant optical system will be expected to perform at a high level of optical efficiency and reliability in a high-average-power-laser production environment. During construction, demand for this large number of optics must be coordinated with the manufacturing capacity of the optical industry. The general requirements and approach to ensure supply of optical components is described. Dynamic planning and a closely coupled relationship with the optics industry will be required to control cost, schedule, and quality.

  10. Occupational asthma in an isothiazolinone manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, S. J.; Convery, R. P.; Stenton, S. C.; Malcolm, R. M.; Hendrick, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical plant operator developed asthma five months after starting work in an isothiazolinone manufacturing plant. He described symptoms of late asthmatic reactions after work with isothiazolinone. Airway responsiveness to methacholine improved tenfold when he was removed from the plant for 18 days. A workplace challenge study then resulted in a deterioration in airway responsiveness to its earlier level and in progressive falls in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over three days at work compared with control days, indicating statistically significant late asthmatic reactions of increasing severity. 




 PMID:9337839

  11. EPA Announces 2015 Energy Star Certified Manufacturing Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that 70 manufacturing plants have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2015. Together, these manufacturing plants saved a significant

  12. 5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, part of tail race also visible. - Falls of the Neuse Manufacturing Plant, West bank of Neuse River at State Route 2000, Falls, Wake County, NC

  13. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  14. Insurance recovery for manufactured gas plant liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.S.; Wise, K.T.; Hanser, P.

    1997-04-15

    This article addresses insurance and liability issues arising from former manufactured gas plant sites. Three issues are discussed in detail: (1) how to place a value on a potential insurance recovery or damage award, (2) how to maximize recovery through litigation or settlement, and (3) how to mediate coverage disputes to avoid litigation. The first issue, valuing potential recovery, is discussed in the most detail. An approach is outlined which includes organizing policy data, evaluating site facts relevant to coverage, estimating site costs, estimating coverage likelihoods, and assessing the expected value of litigation. Probability and cost estimate data is provided to aid in assessments.

  15. 131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. Effects of lead exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers involved in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Barman, Tapu; Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of Pb exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers exposed to Pb during lead-acid battery plant process. Platelet indices and blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 male workers. BLLs were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Platelet indices in the samples were quantified by using the Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer. The levels of platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT) and mean platelet mass (MPM) were significantly decreased and platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) and mean platelet volume were increased with an increase in BLLs. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the platelet count (β -0.143, P=0.005), PCT (β -0.115, P=0.023) and MPM (β -0.110, P=0.030) were negatively associated with BLLs and P-LCR (β 0.122, P=0.016) was positively associated with BLLs. The variable of body mass index showed a positive association with PCT (β 0.105, P=0.032) and MPM (β 0.101, P=0.039). The results of the study may indicate that lead exposure may impair coagulation function through endothelial tissue injury and reduction of nitric oxide.

  17. Gluing Practice at Aircraft Manufacturing Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truax, T R

    1928-01-01

    This report records observations and recommendations resulting from an inspection trip to representative aircraft manufacturing establishments and repair stations. This inspection was made for the Navy Department and was specifically in reference to gluing practice at the various places visited. The period of the visits was between November 23, 1926 and February 16, 1927.

  18. Energy prices and substitution in United States manufacturing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Cheryl

    Persistent regional disparities in electricity prices, growth in wholesale power markets, and recent deregulation attempts have intensified interest in the performance of the U.S. electric power industry, while skyrocketing fuel prices have brought renewed interest in the effect of changes in prices of all energy types on the U.S. economy. This dissertation examines energy prices and substitution between energy types in U.S. manufacturing. I use a newly constructed database that includes information on purchased electricity and electricity expenditures for more than 48,000 plants per year and additional data on the utilities that supply electricity to study the distribution of electricity prices paid by U.S. manufacturing plants from 1963 to 2000. I find a large compression in the dispersion of electricity prices from 1963 to 1978 due primarily to a decrease in quantity discounts for large electricity purchasers. I also find that spatial dispersion in retail electricity prices among states, counties and utility service territories is large, rises over time for smaller purchasers, and does not diminish as wholesale power markets expand in the 1990s. In addition, I examine energy type consumption patterns, prices, and substitution in U.S. manufacturing plants. I develop a plant-level dataset for 1998 with data on consumption and expenditures on energy and non-energy production inputs, output, and other plant characteristics. I find energy type consumption patterns vary widely across manufacturing plants. Further, I find a large amount of dispersion across plants in the prices paid for electricity, oil, natural gas, and coal. These high levels of dispersion are accounted for by the plant's location, industry, and purchase quantity. Finally, I present estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for both the energy and non-energy production inputs.

  19. 41. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 523) AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND PROCESS PIPING AT CENTER. VIEW TO EAST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Marathon plant in Garyville, La, among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that the Marathon Louisiana Refining Division in Garyville, La., is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification f

  1. Sustainable commercial nanocrystalline cellulose manufacturing process with acid recycling.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Ayadi, Mariem; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Berry, Richard

    2017-01-20

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a biomaterial having potential applications in a wide range of industries. It is industrially produced by concentrated acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. In this process, the sulfuric acid rich liquor can be concentrated and reused. However, removal of sugar monomers and oligomers is necessary for such recycling. Membrane and ion exchange technology can be employed to remove sugars; however, such technologies are not efficient in meeting the quality required to recycle the acid solution. As a part of the present study, activated carbon (AC) has been evaluated as an adsorbent for sugar removal from the acidic solution generated during commercial nanocrystalline cellulose manufacturing process. Almost complete removal of sugar can be achieved by this approach. The maximum sugar removal observed during this study was 3.4g/g of AC. Based on this finding, a sustainable method has been proposed for commercial nanocrystalline cellulose manufacturing.

  2. 40 CFR 421.90 - Applicability: Description of the metallurgical acid plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resulting from or associated with the manufacture of by-product sulfuric acid at primary copper smelters... metallurgical acid plants subcategory. 421.90 Section 421.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Metallurgical Acid Plants Subcategory § 421.90 Applicability: Description of the...

  3. Cancer mortality in workers employed at a transformer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Yassi, A; Tate, R; Fish, D

    1994-03-01

    This study examined mortality to December 31, 1989 in a cohort of 2,222 males employed between 1947 and 1975 at a transformer manufacturing plant in Canada, where there had been extensive use of transformer fluid, some containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A combined cohort list of 2,222 names was independently obtained from plant management and union officials. Mortality of 1,939 workers with known birthdates was ascertained by record linkage with the Canadian Mortality Data-base. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for different criteria for acceptance of the death certificate link and for cohort membership (based on work history) ranged from .71-1.05. There was no significant increase in overall cancer deaths. The only significant site-specific increased mortality was pancreatic cancer (11 deaths), with SMRs ranging from 2.92-7.64 and higher mortality risk in those who entered the cohort prior to 1960. All but one of these deaths had a latency period of at least 10 years, and greatest SMRs were found in departments with the greatest exposure to transformer fluid. Several previous studies have found excess pancreatic cancers in association with oil exposures and electrical equipment manufacturing. The need to further investigate pancreatic cancer in transformer manufacturing and related exposures is evident.

  4. A survey for rhinitis in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-08-01

    We report findings regarding otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis, current exposure to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins for workers in a plant manufacturing automobile piston rings. Questionnaire data showed that 61.5% of 187 workers exhibited rhinitis-related symptoms. Rhinitis was confirmed in 99 of 115 workers whom were medically examined. Otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis was present in 10 of 19 grinding workers (52.6%), 67 of 142 production workers (47.2%), and 22 of 26 quality control (QC) workers (84.6%). These rates are much higher than the rates of rhinitis-related symptoms in automobile plants and other occupational settings and quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. We found that rhinitis could develop even in workers exposed to less than 0.5mg/m(3) MWF aerosol. The average exposure to fungi exceeded 10 x 10(3) CFU/m(3), a level higher than that reported for other automobile plants. Although we were unable to identify significant risk factors for rhinitis using only the physician-confirmed rhinitis cases, this study concludes that exposure to MWF aerosol, which would include microbes and metals, could contribute to a high occurrence of rhinitis in grinding and production workers. Forty-nine workers (63.6%) of 77 rhinitis patients in grinding and production operations were determined to handle synthetic MWF directly. For QC workers, for whom the prevalence of physician-confirmed rhinitis was highest, exposure to a low level of MWF aerosol, including specific microbe species we couldn't identify, bright light, dry air, and certain work characteristics during inspection are possible risk factors for development of rhinitis. Further studies including identification of fungi species should be conducted so a firm conclusion can be made regarding the development of rhinitis in QC manufacturing plant workers.

  5. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  6. Preliminary definition and characterization of a solar industrial process heat technology and manufacturing plant for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Prythero, T.; Meyer, R. T.

    1980-09-01

    A solar industrial process heat technology and an associated solar systems manufacturing plant for the year 2000 has been projected, defined, and qualitatively characterized. The technology has been defined for process heat applications requiring temperatures of 300/sup 0/C or lower, with emphasis on the 150/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C range. The selected solar collector technology is a parabolic trough collector of the line-focusing class. The design, structure, and material components are based upon existing and anticipated future technological developments in the solar industry. The solar system to be manufactured and assembled within a dedicated manufacturing plant is projected to consist of the collector and the major collector components, including reflector, absorber, parabolic trough structure, support stand, tracking drive mechanism, sun-sensing device and control system, couplings, etc. Major manufacturing processes to be introduced into the year 2000 plant operations are glassmaking, silvering, electroplating and plastic-forming. These operations will generate significant environmental residuals not encountered in present-day solar manufacturing plants. Important residuals include chemical vapors, acids, toxic elements (e.g. arsenic), metallic and chemical sludges, fumes from plastics, etc. The location, design, and operations of these sophisticated solar manufacturing plants will have to provide for the management of the environmental residuals.

  7. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  8. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Two San Antonio facilities among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that two facilities in San Antonio-Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas and Buzzi Unicem cement-are among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification.

  9. EPA Recognizes Nissan and Toyota Manufacturing Plants in Mississippi for Achieving 2015 Energy Star Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Nissan NA in Canton and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Mississippi in Blue Springs, both in Mississippi, are among 70 manufacturing plants nationally that have achieved Energy Sta

  10. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J. ); Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and -- to a lesser degree -- composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid in processed cheeses during the manufacturing stages.

    PubMed

    Luna, Pilar; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela

    2005-04-06

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring micronutrient in milk fat and dairy products consisting of a group of geometric and positional isomers. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and type of CLA isomers found in two commercial processed cheeses (portions and slices) as well as to monitor their evolution during the different manufacturing stages. Total CLA concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 7.9 mg/g of fat, and rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), the isomer responsible for the biological functions, represented >80% of total CLA. trans-11,cis-13 and trans-11,trans-13 were, with approximately 4% each, the second main CLA isomers. trans-trans isomers accounted for <10% of total CLA. The processing parameters used in this research had negligible effects on the CLA content of processed cheese and did not modify the isomer profile in these dairy products, thereby confirming the stability of rumenic acid during manufacturing.

  12. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    PubMed

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more.

  13. Exposure to mutagenic airborne particulate in a rubber manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, M E; Franceschetti, P; Mossini, E; Tieghi, S; Perbellini, L; Romeo, L

    1999-04-26

    Epidemiological studies conducted in the 1980s revealed that people working in the rubber manufacturing industry had an increased risk of cancer. Even now, workers employed in rubber processing are still at risk despite the measures adopted to improve their working conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of a genotoxic risk in a rubber industry and to verify whether or not it was possible to locate the most dangerous position among the different rubber-working processes. The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate was evaluated in samples collected in the mixing department of a rubber manufacturing plant. Ambient air samples were taken over 3-h period in two stable positions near the mixing (Banbury mixer) and calendering areas. Personal air samples were taken over 2-h period during a normal workday from five workers employed in different rubber processing operations (mixing, weighing, calendering, compounding and extruding). The mutagenic activity of the air samples was determined by plate incorporation assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA 98, TA 98NR, TA 100, YG 1021) with and without metabolic activation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the presence of other presumable contaminants were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed substantial direct and indirect frameshift mutagenicity in both ambient and personal samples. No mutagenic activity was present in S. typhimurium TA 100, except in the personal sample from a worker employed on the Banbury mixer. HPLC analysis revealed very low concentrations of PAHs. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of compounds such as azulene derivative, 1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline, N-methyl N-phenylbenzenamine, diphenylamine, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and bis(methyl-propyl)phthalate. We conclude that the high levels of mutagenic activity in ambiental and personal

  14. 78 FR 28627 - Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing Division, a Subsidiary of Koch Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers of DS&E..., also doing business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing Division, a subsidiary of...

  15. Phenol biosynthesis in higher plants. Gallic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dewick, P. M.; Haslam, E.

    1969-01-01

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid in a number of higher plants was investigated by using l-[U-14C]phenylalanine, (−)-[G-14C]shikimic acid, d-[1-14C]glucose and d-[6-14C]glucose as tracers. The results are compared with those obtained similarly for caffeic acid and are interpreted in terms of the dehydrogenation of 5-dehydroshikimic acid as a normal route of metabolism for gallic acid. PMID:5807212

  16. Mobilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar with Alkaline Flushing Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Birak, Pamela Schultz; Rylander, Seth C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of alkaline and alkaline-polymer solutions for the mobilization of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars. Tar-aqueous interfacial tensions (IFTs) and contact angles were measured, and column flushing experiments were conducted. NaOH solutions (0.01–1 wt.%) were found to significantly reduce tar-aqueous IFT. Contact angles indicated a shift to strongly water-wet, then to tar-wet conditions as NaOH concentration increased. Column experiments were conducted with flushing solutions containing 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% NaOH, both with and without xanthan gum (XG). Between 10 and 44% of the residual tar was removed by solutions containing only NaOH, while solutions containing both NaOH and XG removed 81–93% of the tar with final tar saturations as low as 0.018. The mechanism responsible for the tar removal is likely a combination of reduced IFT, a favorable viscosity ratio, and tar bank formation. Such an approach may have practical applications and would be significantly less expensive than surfactant-based methods. PMID:22091957

  17. Two Mississippi Plants Among Top Performing Energy Star Certified Manufacturers in 29 States Across the country, Energy Star manufacturing plants are leading their industries by saving energy and money, combating climate change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that 70 manufacturing plants have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2014. Together, these manufacturing plants saved a record amount o

  18. EPA Announces 70 Top Performing Energy Star Certified Manufacturing Plants in 29 States/ Across the country, Energy Star manufacturing plants are leading their industries by saving energy and money, combating climate change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that 70 manufacturing plants have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2014. Together, these manufacturing plants saved a record amount of en

  19. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  20. Amino Acid Uptake in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Matthew D.; Garcia, Maria O.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the extent to which arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi root improved the acquisition of simple organic nitrogen (ON) compounds by their host plants. In a greenhouse-based study, we used quantum dots (fluorescent nanoparticles) to assess uptake of each of the 20 proteinaceous amino acids by AM-colonized versus uncolonized plants. We found that AM colonization increased uptake of phenylalanine, lysine, asparagine, arginine, histidine, methionine, tryptophan, and cysteine; and reduced uptake of aspartic acid. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization had the greatest effect on uptake of amino acids that are relatively rare in proteins. In addition, AM fungi facilitated uptake of neutral and positively-charged amino acids more than negatively-charged amino acids. Overall, the AM fungi used in this study appeared to improve access by plants to a number of amino acids, but not necessarily those that are common or negatively-charged. PMID:23094070

  1. Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

  2. Relationship Between the Composition and Interfacial Tension of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars pose significant environmental hazards and present a challenge to regulators and industry professionals. The tars, which were produced as a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, were frequently released into the environment through improper disposal or leaks in plant infrastructure. The interfacial tension (IFT) is a primary factor controlling the mobility of tars in porous media, and is therefore important to understand for both predicting the migration of tars and designing remediation strategies. In this study, we characterized nine field-collected FMGP tars and a commercially available coal tar by means of chemical extractions (asphaltenes, resins, acids, and bases), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the IFT and contact angle of each tar was determined for a pH range of 3-11. The IFT was found to be similar for all tars at pH 5 and 7 regardless of composition. Slight decreases in IFT at lower pH were correlated with higher concentrations of extractable bases, which consisted primarily of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Much greater reductions of IFT were observed at high pH. These reductions were found to be associated with the presence of carbonyl or carboxyl groups in the asphaltenes. It is likely that the larger size of the asphaltene molecules (as compared to the extractable compounds) resulted in species with greater surface activity when ionized.

  3. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Ardagh Group plant in Sapulpa, OK, among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that the Ardagh Group container glass facility in Sapulpa, OK, is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification for

  4. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-05-01

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  5. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Lime Manufacturing Plants Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Plants. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  6. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.

  7. 27 CFR 19.206 - Curtailment and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. 19.206 Section 19.206 Alcohol, Tobacco... and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (a) General. The premises of... permit the use of the facilities for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (b) Qualifying documents....

  8. Jernberg Industries, Inc: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh.

  9. 78 FR 28633 - Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing Division, a Subsidiary of Koch Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers of DS&E..., applicable to workers of Georgia Pacific, LLC, also doing business as Duluth Hardboard Plant,...

  10. Classification of illicit heroin by UPLC-Q-TOF analysis of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2015-12-01

    The illicit manufacture of heroin results in the formation of trace levels of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities that provide valuable information about the manufacturing process used. In this work, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF) method; that features high resolution, mass accuracy and sensitivity for profiling neutral and acidic heroin manufacturing impurities was developed. After the UPLC-Q-TOF analysis, the retention times and m/z data pairs of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities were detected, and 19 peaks were found to be evidently different between heroin samples from "Golden Triangle" and "Golden Crescent". Based on the data set of these 19 impurities in 150 authentic heroin samples, classification of heroin geographic origins was successfully achieved utilizing partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). By analyzing another data set of 267 authentic heroin samples, the developed discrimiant model was validated and proved to be accurate and reliable.

  11. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  12. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  13. Manufactured soils for plant growth at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    1989-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of synthetic soils are discussed. It is pointed out that synthetic soils may provide the proper physical and chemical properties necessary to maximize plant growth, such as a toxic-free composition and cation exchange capacities. The importance of nutrient retention, aeration, moisture retention, and mechanical support as qualities for synthetic soils are stressed. Zeoponics, or the cultivation of plants in zeolite substrates that both contain essential plant-growth cations on their exchange sites and have minor amounts of mineral phases and/or anion-exchange resins that supply essential plant growth ions, is discussed. It is suggested that synthetic zeolites at lunar bases could provide adsorption media for separation of various gases, act as catalysts and as molecular sieves, and serve as cation exchangers in sewage-effluent treatment, radioactive-waste disposal, and pollution control. A flow chart of a potential zeoponics system illustrates this process.

  14. DDE residues in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) near a former DDT manufacturing plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Cromartie, E.

    1981-01-01

    Breast muscle DDE residues were as high as 5.8 ppm wet-weight basis and 280 ppm lipid-weight basis in young wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) collected on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge near a former DDT manufacturing plant in northern Alabama. The average DDE residue in wood ducks collected nearest the plant was 46 times background levels 74 km from the plant.

  15. Vertical movement of iron-cyanide complexes in soils of a former Manufactured Gas Plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, soil and groundwater at more than a thousand sites are contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations originate from the gas purification process that was conducted in Manufactured Gas Plants (MGP). The phenomenon of iron-cyanide complexes mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (< 1 mg L-1) under acidic conditions. This study suggests vertical transport of a colloidal ferric ferrocyanide, in the excess of iron and circum-neutral pH conditions, as an alternative process that influences the retardation of the pollutant movement through the soil profile. Preliminary in situ investigations of the two boreholes implied transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). The acidic character of the wastes and the accumulation of the blue patches suggested the potential filter function of a sandy loam material due to colloidal transport of the ferric ferricyanide. Series of batch and column experiments, using sandy loam soil, revealed reduction of CN concentration due to mechanical filtration of precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes and due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  16. Commercial-scale biotherapeutics manufacturing facility for plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Barry R; Berquist, Brian R; Bennett, Lindsay D; Kommineni, Vally J M; Munigunti, Ranjith K; White, Earl L; Wilkerson, Don C; Wong, Kah-Yat I; Ly, Lan H; Marcel, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Rapid, large-scale manufacture of medical countermeasures can be uniquely met by the plant-made-pharmaceutical platform technology. As a participant in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Blue Angel project, the Caliber Biotherapeutics facility was designed, constructed, commissioned and released a therapeutic target (H1N1 influenza subunit vaccine) in <18 months from groundbreaking. As of 2015, this facility was one of the world's largest plant-based manufacturing facilities, with the capacity to process over 3500 kg of plant biomass per week in an automated multilevel growing environment using proprietary LED lighting. The facility can commission additional plant grow rooms that are already built to double this capacity. In addition to the commercial-scale manufacturing facility, a pilot production facility was designed based on the large-scale manufacturing specifications as a way to integrate product development and technology transfer. The primary research, development and manufacturing system employs vacuum-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown in a fully contained, hydroponic system for transient expression of recombinant proteins. This expression platform has been linked to a downstream process system, analytical characterization, and assessment of biological activity. This integrated approach has demonstrated rapid, high-quality production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody targets, including a panel of rituximab biosimilar/biobetter molecules and antiviral antibodies against influenza and dengue fever.

  17. In vivo polymerization and manufacturing of wires and supercapacitors in plants.

    PubMed

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Nilsson, K Peter R; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Franco-Gonzalez, Juan Felipe; Volkov, Anton V; Jonsson, Magnus P; Grimoldi, Andrea; Elgland, Mathias; Zozoulenko, Igor V; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2017-03-14

    Electronic plants, e-Plants, are an organic bioelectronic platform that allows electronic interfacing with plants. Recently we have demonstrated plants with augmented electronic functionality. Using the vascular system and organs of a plant, we manufactured organic electronic devices and circuits in vivo, leveraging the internal structure and physiology of the plant as the template, and an integral part of the devices. However, this electronic functionality was only achieved in localized regions, whereas new electronic materials that could be distributed to every part of the plant would provide versatility in device and circuit fabrication and create possibilities for new device concepts. Here we report the synthesis of such a conjugated oligomer that can be distributed and form longer oligomers and polymer in every part of the xylem vascular tissue of a Rosa floribunda cutting, forming long-range conducting wires. The plant's structure acts as a physical template, whereas the plant's biochemical response mechanism acts as the catalyst for polymerization. In addition, the oligomer can cross through the veins and enter the apoplastic space in the leaves. Finally, using the plant's natural architecture we manufacture supercapacitors along the stem. Our results are preludes to autonomous energy systems integrated within plants and distribute interconnected sensor-actuator systems for plant control and optimization.

  18. 2-Hydroxy Acids in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Maurino, Veronica G.; Engqvist, Martin K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolate, malate, lactate, and 2-hydroxyglutarate are important 2-hydroxy acids (2HA) in plant metabolism. Most of them can be found as D- and L-stereoisomers. These 2HA play an integral role in plant primary metabolism, where they are involved in fundamental pathways such as photorespiration, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle, methylglyoxal pathway, and lysine catabolism. Recent molecular studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have helped elucidate the participation of these 2HA in in plant metabolism and physiology. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge about the metabolic pathways and cellular processes in which they are involved, focusing on the proteins that participate in their metabolism and cellular/intracellular transport in Arabidopsis. PMID:26380567

  19. Process for the manufacture of 117Sn diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Li, Zizhong; Meinken, George

    2003-01-01

    Novel methods are provided for the manufacture of .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) DTPA. The method allows the use of DTPA, a toxic chelating agent, in an approximately 1:1 ratio to .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) via either aqueous conditions, or using various organic solvents, such as methylene chloride. A pharmaceutical composition manufactured by the novel method is also provided, as well as methods for treatment of bone tumors and pain associated with bone cancer using the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

  20. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  1. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  2. Study on musculoskeletal disorders in a machinery manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guo-Bing; Dempsey, Patrick G; Lei, Ling; Ma, Zao-Hua; Liang, You-Xin

    2004-04-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders and related risk factors in machinery manufacturing were investigated using interviews, postural analysis, and the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health lifting equation. Sixty-nine workers involved in manual materials handling (Job A) and 51 machinery workers less involved with manual material-handling tasks (Job B) were studied. Low back pain (LBP) (at least one episode lasting for 24 hours or more in past 12 months) prevalence rates were 63.8% and 37.3% for Jobs A and B, respectively. Prevalence rates of LBP every day for a week or more attributed to lifting were 26.09% and 5.88% for Jobs A and B, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that lifting repetitiveness and work age contributed to the occurrence of LBP. The "composite load" (object weight x activity repetitiveness) had a significant adverse effect on LBP.

  3. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  4. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E

    1996-12-01

    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2).

  5. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  6. Onsite 40-kilowatt fuel cell power plant manufacturing and field test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A joint Gas Research Institute and U.S. Department of Energy Program was initiated in 1982 to evaluate the use of fuel cell power systems for on-site energy service. Forty-six 40 kW fuel cell power plants were manufactured at the United Technologies Corporation facility in South Windsor, Connecticut, and are being delivered to host utilities and other program participants in the United States and Japan for field testing. The construction of the 46 fully-integrated power plants was completed in January 1985 within the constraints of the contract plan. The program has provided significant experience in the manufacture, acceptance testing, deployment, and support of on-site fuel cell systems. Initial field test results also show that these experimental power plants meet the performance and environmental requirements of a commercial specification. This Interim Report encompasses the design and manufacturing phases of the 40 kW Power Plant Manufacturing and Field Test program. The contract between UTC and NASA also provides UTC field engineering support to the host utilities, training programs and associated manuals for utility operating and maintenance personnel, spare parts support for a defined test period, and testing at UTC of a power plant made available from a preceding program phase. These activities are ongoing and will be reported subsequently.

  7. Styrene-Associated Health Outcomes at a Windblade Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    McCague, Anna-Binney; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Harney, Joshua M.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Edwards, Nicole; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Health risks of using styrene to manufacture windblades for the green energy sector are unknown. Methods Using data collected from 355 (73%) current windblade workers and regression analysis, we investigated associations between health outcomes and styrene exposure estimates derived from urinary styrene metabolites. Results The median current styrene exposure was 53.6 mg/g creatinine (interquartile range: 19.5–94.4). Color blindness in men and women (standardized morbidity ratios 2.3 and 16.6, respectively) was not associated with exposure estimates, but was the type previously reported with styrene. Visual contrast sensitivity decreased and chest tightness increased (odds ratio 2.9) with increasing current exposure. Decreases in spirometric parameters and FeNO, and increases in the odds of wheeze and asthma-like symptoms (odds ratios 1.3 and 1.2, respectively) occurred with increasing cumulative exposure. Conclusions Despite styrene exposures below the recommended 400 mg/g creatinine, visual and respiratory effects indicate the need for additional preventative measures in this industry. PMID:26305283

  8. The influence of manufacture on the free D-amino acid content of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Csapó, J; Varga-Visi, E; Lóki, K; Albert, Cs

    2006-06-01

    The changes in the concentration and those of composition of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid enantiomers were investigated during manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The amount of D-alanine increased continuously during ripening following the liberation of L-alanine originated from the proteolysis of milk proteins. There was slightly more D-aspartic and D-glutamic acid in the dry matter of curd after pressing than before pressurization. The D-amino acid content and the ratio of the D-enantiomers related to the total amount of free amino acids differed significantly among cheeses produced with different single-strain starters. The D-amino acid composition changed during manufacture, but the influence of the strain selection was not significant on the D-amino acid pattern.

  9. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed.

  10. In vivo polymerization and manufacturing of wires and supercapacitors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Franco-Gonzalez, Juan Felipe; Volkov, Anton V.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Grimoldi, Andrea; Elgland, Mathias; Zozoulenko, Igor V.; Berggren, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Electronic plants, e-Plants, are an organic bioelectronic platform that allows electronic interfacing with plants. Recently we have demonstrated plants with augmented electronic functionality. Using the vascular system and organs of a plant, we manufactured organic electronic devices and circuits in vivo, leveraging the internal structure and physiology of the plant as the template, and an integral part of the devices. However, this electronic functionality was only achieved in localized regions, whereas new electronic materials that could be distributed to every part of the plant would provide versatility in device and circuit fabrication and create possibilities for new device concepts. Here we report the synthesis of such a conjugated oligomer that can be distributed and form longer oligomers and polymer in every part of the xylem vascular tissue of a Rosa floribunda cutting, forming long-range conducting wires. The plant’s structure acts as a physical template, whereas the plant’s biochemical response mechanism acts as the catalyst for polymerization. In addition, the oligomer can cross through the veins and enter the apoplastic space in the leaves. Finally, using the plant’s natural architecture we manufacture supercapacitors along the stem. Our results are preludes to autonomous energy systems integrated within plants and distribute interconnected sensor–actuator systems for plant control and optimization. PMID:28242683

  11. Subsurface fate and transport of cyanide species at a manufactured-gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Nakles, D.V.

    1999-10-01

    Cyanide is present at manufactured-gas plant (MGP) sites in oxide-box residuals, which were often managed on-site as fill during active operations. Cyanide can leach from these materials, causing groundwater contamination. Speciation, fate, and transport of cyanide in a sand-gravel aquifer underlying an MGP site in the upper Midwest region of the US were studied through characterization, monitoring, and modeling of a plume of cyanide-contaminated groundwater emanating from the site. Results indicate that cyanide in the groundwater is primarily in the form of iron-cyanide complexes (>98%), that these complexes are stable under the conditions of the aquifer, and that they are transported as nonreactive solutes in the sand-gravel aquifer material. Weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, which represents a minute fraction of total cyanide in the site groundwater, may undergo chemical-biological degradation in the sand-gravel aquifer. It seems that dilution may be the only natural attenuation mechanism for iron-cyanide complexes in sand-gravel aquifers at MGP sites.

  12. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-12-31

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.

  13. Causes of death among workers in a bearing manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Wegman, D H; Silverstein, M A; Maizlish, N A; Mirer, F E

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies identify digestive cancer excesses among workers exposed to cutting fluids, abrasive dusts, and oil smoke. Standardized proportional mortality and mortality odds ratio studies were carried out for a ball bearing plant. Cause of death and work histories were obtained for 702 of 768 hourly employees with ten or more years' service who died between 1969 and 1982. Union and company records were used to define exposure measures. The major findings were significant excesses in proportional mortality ratios (PMR) from stomach cancer (PMR = 2.0) and rectal cancer (PMR = 3.1) among white men. After control for age at death, there was a significant association between stomach cancer and precision grinding exposures, consisting primarily of direct contact with water-based cutting fluids (usually emulsified oils) and their aerosols. Some straight oils and synthetic cutting fluids were used as well. The pattern of stomach cancer is consistent with previous findings and suggests an association with the soluble oil cutting fluids.

  14. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  15. Kellogg Company in Cary, N.C., Among Top Performing Energy Star Certified Manufacturers in 29 States Across the country, Energy Star manufacturing plants are leading their industries by saving energy and money, combating climate change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that 70 manufacturing plants have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2014. Together, these manufacturing plants saved a record amount o

  16. Mead Corporation's Creative Approach to Internships: Success in a Unionized Manufacturing Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how an employee services manager could not find qualified applicants to serve as temporary supervisors in Mead's manufacturing plant during the busy season. Describes the challenge Mead faced in its internship program, the corporation's commitment to education, the program, outcomes of the program, unanticipated benefits, and elements…

  17. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, West Texas facility among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Buzzi Unicem cement facility in Maryneal, TX, about 60 miles west of Abilene, is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY ST

  18. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Two Midlothian, TX, facilities among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that two facilities in Midlothian, TX-the Holcim and Martin Marietta Materials cement facilities-are among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that ach

  19. The Impact of Wireless Technology Feedback on Inventory Management at a Dairy Manufacturing Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Replacing the method of counting inventory from paper count sheets to that of wireless reliably reduced the elapsed time to complete a daily inventory of the storage cooler in a dairy manufacturing plant. The handheld computers delivered immediate prompts as well as auditory and visual feedback. Reducing the time to complete the daily inventory…

  20. 75 FR 7029 - Lonza, Inc., Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Lonza, Inc., Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of Lab Support, Aerotek, Job Exchange, and Synerfac; Conshohocken, PA; Notice...

  1. 75 FR 878 - Lonza, Inc. Riverside Plant; Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section Custom Manufacturing Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Lonza, Inc. Riverside Plant; Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section Custom Manufacturing Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of Lab Support, Aerotek, Job Exchange, and Synerfac; Conshohocken, PA; Notice of...

  2. 75 FR 8287 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, as a List I Chemical AGENCY: Drug... schedule I controlled substance lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). If finalized as proposed, handlers of... ``For Further Information'' paragraph. Background Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a...

  3. Downstream process development in biotechnological itaconic acid manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Antonio Irineudo; de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Medina, Jesus David Coral; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Itaconic acid is a promising chemical that has a wide range of applications and can be obtained in large scale using fermentation processes. One of the most important uses of this biomonomer is the environmentally sustainable production of biopolymers. Separation of itaconic acid from the fermented broth has a considerable impact in the total production cost. Therefore, optimization and high efficiency downstream processes are technological challenges to make biorefineries sustainable and economically viable. This review describes the current state of the art in recovery and purification for itaconic acid production via bioprocesses. Previous studies on the separation of itaconic acid relying on operations such as crystallization, precipitation, extraction, electrodialysis, diafiltration, pertraction, and adsorption. Although crystallization is a typical method of itaconic acid separation from fermented broth, other methods such as membrane separation and reactive extraction are promising as a recovery steps coupled to the fermentation, potentially enhancing the overall process yield. Another approach is adsorption in fixed bed columns, which efficiently separates itaconic acid. Despite recent advances in separation and recovery methods, there is still space for improvement in IA recovery and purification.

  4. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  5. Chromatographic determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture.

    PubMed

    Erbe, T; Brückner, H

    2000-06-09

    Using gas chromatography (GC) on a chiral stationary phase, accompanied by high-performance liquid chromatography, beers and raw materials used for manufacturing (hops, barley grains, malts) were investigated for the pattern and quantities of amino acid enantiomers. Although L-amino acids were most abundant, certain D-amino acids were detected in all beers and most of the raw materials. Highest amounts of D-amino acids were detected in special beers such as Berliner Weisse that underwent bottle-conditioning with lactic cultures, and Belgian fruit beers produced by spontaneous fermentation. It is demonstrated that GC on chiral stationary phases is highly suitable for the quantitative determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture. Quantities, relative amounts and pattern of amino acid enantiomers can serve in particular as chiral markers for the authenticity of special beers.

  6. 75 FR 51845 - Chrysler Group, LLC Manufacturing Division St. Louis North Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...] Chrysler Group, LLC Manufacturing Division St. Louis North Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From American Food, G4S Wackenhut, C R Associates, Syncreon, Robinson Solutions and Dupont Performance Coatings..., applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Manufacturing Division, St. Louis North Plant, including...

  7. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, as a List I Chemical AGENCY: Drug... illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled substance lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). This rule is..., VA 22152; telephone: (202) 307-7183. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Lysergic acid...

  8. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  9. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  10. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  11. Mycobiota and toxigenic Penicillium species on two Spanish dry-cured ham manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Alapont, C; López-Mendoza, M C; Gil, J V; Martínez-Culebras, P V

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the natural mycobiota occurring in dry-cured hams, and in particular on the incidence of mycotoxin-producing fungi. A total of 338 fungal colonies were isolated from three stages of production, these being the post-salting, ripening and aging stages in two manufacturing plants. The results show that fungi were more frequently isolated from the aging stage and that the predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Seventy-four of the 338 fungal strains were selected for identification at the species level by using morphological criteria and internal transcribed spacers sequencing. Of the 74 fungal strains, 59 were Penicillium strains. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified, with P. commune (24 strains) and P. chrysogenum (13 strains) being the most abundant. The potential ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied by isolating the culture followed by HPLC analysis of these mycotoxins in the culture extracts. The results indicated that 25 (33.7%) of the 74 fungal strains produced CPA. Worth noting is the high percentage of CPA-producing strains of P. commune (66.6%) of which some strains were highly toxigenic. P. polonicum strains were also highly toxigenic. With respect to OTA-producing fungi, a low percentage of fungal strains (9.5%) were able to produce OTA at moderate levels. OTA-producing fungi belonged to different Penicillium species including P. chrysogenum, P. commune, P. polonicum and P. verrucosum. These results indicate that there is a possible risk factor posed by CPA and OTA contamination of dry-cured hams.

  12. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  13. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  14. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  15. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  16. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  17. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  18. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  19. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  20. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  1. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  2. [Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system.

  3. [Chicoric and chlorogenic acids in various plants growing in Georgia].

    PubMed

    Chkhikvishvili, I D; Kharebava, G I

    2001-01-01

    Chicoric acid was isolated from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) leaves by column chromatography. Conditions for HPLC analysis of chicoric and chlorogenic acids were optimized. These acids were assayed in some plants growing in Georgia. The optimum conservation temperature for the preservation of chicoric and chlorogenic acids in leaves of dandelion and bilberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) was determined.

  4. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupations in or about plants or establishments..., mixing, transporting, or handling of explosive compounds in the manufacture of small-arms ammunition and... explosive compounds are manufactured or mixed. (ii) All occupations involved in the...

  5. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations in or about plants or establishments..., mixing, transporting, or handling of explosive compounds in the manufacture of small-arms ammunition and... explosive compounds are manufactured or mixed. (ii) All occupations involved in the...

  6. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations in or about plants or establishments..., mixing, transporting, or handling of explosive compounds in the manufacture of small-arms ammunition and... explosive compounds are manufactured or mixed. (ii) All occupations involved in the...

  7. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  8. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Allergan Pharmaceuticals facility in Waco, TX, among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that the Allergan Pharmaceuticals facility in Waco, TX, is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification for their

  9. Increased risk of lung cancer mortality among residents near an asbestos product manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji; Kurumatani, Norio; Tsuda, Toshihide; Yorifuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Etsuji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether individuals exposed to asbestos by living near an asbestos-manufacturing facility experienced increased lung cancer mortality. We studied a neighborhood around such a plant in the central Japanese city of Hashima. From 1943 to 1991 this plant produced insulation and packing material using amosite- and chrysotile-type asbestos fibers. The study group was comprised of 577 households. We obtained demographic information by a questionnaire and determined the underlying cause of death for deceased household members from death certificates. Using hourly meteorological data from local observatories, we estimated relative asbestos concentrations in the plant's vicinity, determined the quartile boundaries, and designated each study subject's quartile of ambient exposure. Finally, we calculated standardized mortality ratios to evaluate the association of residential asbestos with lung cancer risk. Our findings strongly suggest that neighborhood asbestos exposure can increase the risk of lung cancer mortality in men and probably in women.

  10. Manufacturing Economics of Plant-Made Biologics: Case Studies in Therapeutic and Industrial Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tusé, Daniel; McDonald, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant biologics in plants has received considerable attention as an alternative platform to traditional microbial and animal cell culture. Industrially relevant features of plant systems include proper eukaryotic protein processing, inherent safety due to lack of adventitious agents, more facile scalability, faster production (transient systems), and potentially lower costs. Lower manufacturing cost has been widely claimed as an intuitive feature of the platform by the plant-made biologics community, even though cost information resides within a few private companies and studies accurately documenting such an advantage have been lacking. We present two technoeconomic case studies representing plant-made enzymes for diverse applications: human butyrylcholinesterase produced indoors for use as a medical countermeasure and cellulases produced in the field for the conversion of cellulosic biomass into ethanol as a fuel extender. Production economics were modeled based on results reported with the latest-generation expression technologies on Nicotiana host plants. We evaluated process unit operations and calculated bulk active and per-dose or per-unit costs using SuperPro Designer modeling software. Our analyses indicate that substantial cost advantages over alternative platforms can be achieved with plant systems, but these advantages are molecule/product-specific and depend on the relative cost-efficiencies of alternative sources of the same product. PMID:24977145

  11. Manufacturing economics of plant-made biologics: case studies in therapeutic and industrial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tusé, Daniel; Tu, Tiffany; McDonald, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant biologics in plants has received considerable attention as an alternative platform to traditional microbial and animal cell culture. Industrially relevant features of plant systems include proper eukaryotic protein processing, inherent safety due to lack of adventitious agents, more facile scalability, faster production (transient systems), and potentially lower costs. Lower manufacturing cost has been widely claimed as an intuitive feature of the platform by the plant-made biologics community, even though cost information resides within a few private companies and studies accurately documenting such an advantage have been lacking. We present two technoeconomic case studies representing plant-made enzymes for diverse applications: human butyrylcholinesterase produced indoors for use as a medical countermeasure and cellulases produced in the field for the conversion of cellulosic biomass into ethanol as a fuel extender. Production economics were modeled based on results reported with the latest-generation expression technologies on Nicotiana host plants. We evaluated process unit operations and calculated bulk active and per-dose or per-unit costs using SuperPro Designer modeling software. Our analyses indicate that substantial cost advantages over alternative platforms can be achieved with plant systems, but these advantages are molecule/product-specific and depend on the relative cost-efficiencies of alternative sources of the same product.

  12. Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, B; Krishnamurthy, V; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2008-01-01

    A study to monitor and estimate respirable particulate matter (RPM), toxic trace metal concentrations in the work environment was carried out in different sections of an integrated steel manufacturing industry. The average RPM concentration observed varied according to the section blast furnace was 2.41 mg/m;{3}; energy optimization furnace, 1.87 mg/m;{3}; sintering plant, 0.98 mg/m;{3}; continuous casting machine, 1.93 mg/m;{3}. The average trace metal concentration estimated from the RPM samples like iron, manganese, lead and chromium did not exceed ACGIH prescribed levels.

  13. Jernberg Industries, Inc.: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Energy Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh

  14. Evaluation of biological treatability of soil contaminated with manufactured gas plant waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, J.S.; Sims, R.C.; Murarka, I.P.

    1995-12-31

    The biological treatability of subsurface soil contaminated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) waste was evaluated. Mineralization assays incorporating {sup 14}C-phenanthrene were used to evaluate the biotransformation potential of indigenous microorganisms at the site. Multi-phase laboratory microcosms were used to evaluate the interphase transfer potential and chemical mass distribution of phenanthrene mineralization was influenced by nutrient addition and by the amount of contamination. The chemical mass distribution of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene indicated that volatilization may be an important transport mechanism for chemicals residing in, or migrating to the vadose zone of soil. Following removal of the coal-tar waste source at the site, the toxicity of water soluble extracts of the site soil decreased to a non-toxic response based upon Microtox{trademark} assay results. Parent compound compound concentrations at the site also decreased with time subsequent to source removal. Results of this study indicate that natural in situ bioremediation may be an important treatment process at a former manufactured gas plant waste site in New York. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Occupational health services in South Carolina manufacturing plants: results of a survey.

    PubMed Central

    Chovil, A C; Alexander, G R; Gibson, J J; Altekruse, J M

    1983-01-01

    A mailed survey of occupational health and safety practices in industrial manufacturing plants with more than 50 employees was carried out in South Carolina, with a response rate of 60 percent. The responding plants represented 73 percent of the total workforce in the industries. Data were analyzed in relation to the types of industry as delineated by the Standard Industrial Code. Eighty-three percent of the responding plants (a percentage that represented more than 92 percent of the total workforce in the industries) had some arrangements for the medical or nursing care of employees. For the study, occupational health services were defined at three levels: basic (mandatory), secondary (beneficial to management), and tertiary (health promotion-preventive medicine). The basic services provided by most of the industries surveyed appeared to be adequate. Secondary services were well developed except in the apparel and lumber industries. Tertiary services, in terms of five selected preventive programs, were moderately developed only in the paper, petroleum, and chemical industries. Only alcohol abuse control programs were commonly offered in the other types of industry. The size of the workforce in a plant partly dictated the level of occupational health services it offered but did not always account for all inter-industry variation. PMID:6419275

  16. Study of the respiratory health of employees in seven European plants that manufacture ceramic fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Trethowan, W N; Burge, P S; Rossiter, C E; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the relation between occupational exposure to ceramic fibres during manufacture and respiratory health. METHODS--The respiratory health of 628 current employees in the manufacture of ceramic fibres in seven European plants in three countries was studied with a respiratory questionnaire, lung function tests, and chest radiography. Simultaneous plant hygiene surveys measured subjects' current exposure to airborne ceramic fibres from personal samples with optical microscopy fibre counts. The measured exposures were combined with occupational histories to derive estimates of each subject's cumulative exposure to respirable fibres. Symptoms were related to current and cumulative exposure to ceramic fibres and lung function and findings from chest radiographs were related to cumulative exposure. RESULTS--The mean duration of employment was 10.2 years and mean (range) cumulative exposure was 3.84 (0-22.94) (f.ml-1.y). Eye and skin symptoms were frequent in all plants and increased significantly, as did breathlessness and wheeze, with increasing current exposure. Dry cough and stuffy nose were less common in the least exposed group but did not increase with increasing exposure. After adjustment for the effects of age, sex, height, smoking, and past occupational exposures to respiratory hazards, there was a significant decrease in both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced midexpiratory flow related to cumulative exposure in current smokers (P < 0.05) and in FEV1 in ex-smokers (P < 0.05). Small opacities were found in 13% of the chest radiographs; their prevalence was not related to cumulative exposure to ceramic fibres. CONCLUSIONS--It is concluded that exposure to ceramic fibres is associated with irritant symptoms similar to those seen in other exposures to man made mineral fibres (MMMFs) and that cumulative exposure to respirable ceramic fibres may cause airways obstruction by promoting the effects of cigarette smoke. PMID:7757174

  17. Radionuclide fluxes at a plant manufacturing dicalcium phosphate for domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Gäfvert, T; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2001-01-01

    We have studied a phosphate rock plant which produces dicalcium phosphate (DCP), used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for domestic animals. A by-product in the manufacturing process is calcium chloride which is used in the oil industry, the food industry and as road-salt. The objectives of our study were to describe the fluxes of radionuclides from the 238U decay series and to estimate the radiation doses to workers at the plant. The radionuclides in the phosphate rock were found to be in secular radioactive equilibrium with 238U, with an average activity concentration of 837 Bq kg-1. Separation and concentration processes were observed at different stages in the plant. Most of the 226Ra was found in the calcium chloride, while the major part of the 238U, about 950 Bq kg-1, was found in the dicalcium phosphate. The annual occupational effective dose to the workers was found to be below the 1 mSv limit recommended by ICRP (1991a) for the public. This study has shown a good example of an important non-nuclear industry with a high input of natural radionuclides with several conceivable pathways to man.

  18. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Angelini, Tana; Masanet, Eric

    2010-07-27

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy consumption are available, and this Energy Guide discusses energy-efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be applied over a broad spectrum of companies. Strategies in the guide address hot water and steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, fans, lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This guide includes descriptions of expected energy and cost savings, based on real-world applications, typical payback periods, and references to more detailed information. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers achieve cost-effective energy reductions while maintaining product quality. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  19. Ascorbic acid in diet supplements: loss in the manufacturing process and storage.

    PubMed

    Giménez, R; Cabrera, C; Olalla, M; Ruiz, M D; López, M C

    2002-11-01

    The ascorbic acid content was determined in 25 different diet supplements commercially available to the consumer in two pharmaceutical forms (pills and ampoules). These products are widely consumed by several population groups (elderly people, sportsmen, adolescents, children, etc.). High-performance liquid chromatography was used as the analytical technique. The proposed method has been validated with good linearity, reproducibility, recovery and accuracy, and can be used in routine analyses and in quality control. The ascorbic acid content in pills ranged from 15.62 to 50.16 mg/g, and in that ampoules from 2.12 to 8.83 mg/ml. Depending on the dosage rates, these levels would represent approximately 20-50% of the daily dietary intake recommended by the National Research Council. Possible losses in the manufacturing process and stability during storage for 30 days at 40 +/- 2 degrees C without light, were tested. In relation to the ascorbic acid concentrations stated on the labels, a loss of 12.0-21.9% in pills and of 11.7-18.0% in ampoules was detected. In relation to the stability conditions, the losses are of 1.8-24.8% in pills and of 10.4-19.3% in ampoules. The pasteurisation and sterilisation processes produced a mean loss of ascorbic acid in ampoules of 2.1 and 1.4%, respectively. A statistically significant direct correlation was observed between ascorbic acid loss and content in proteins, humidity, ash, and fructose. The influence of the pharmaceutical form was also tested. Data revealed that the control of losses during the manufacturing and commercialisation process of these products is necessary to ensure the intake of vitamin C from these products by the consumer.

  20. Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids at Former Manufactured Gas Plants: Challenges to Modeling and Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Birak, P.S.; Miller, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    The remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in porous media continues to be one of the most challenging problems facing environmental scientists and engineers. Of all the environmentally relevant DNAPLs, tars in the subsurface at former manufactured gas plants (FMGP’s) pose one of the biggest challenges due to their complex chemical composition and tendency to alter wettability. To further our understanding of these complex materials, we consulted historic documentation to evaluate the impact of gas manufacturing on the composition and physicochemical nature of the resulting tars. In the recent literature, most work to date has been focused in a relatively narrow portion of the expected range of tar materials, which has yielded a bias toward samples of relatively low viscosity and density. In this work, we consider the dissolution and movement of tars in the subsurface, models used to predict these phenomena, and approaches used for remediation. We also explore the open issues and detail important gaps in our fundamental understanding of these extraordinarily complex systems that must be resolved to reach a mature level of understanding. PMID:19176266

  1. Assessment of Occupational Health and Safety for a Gas Meter Manufacturing Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Ece; Iskender, Gulen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the occupational health and safety for a gas meter manufacturing plant. The risk assessment and management study is applied to plastic injection and mounting departments of the factory through quantitative Fine Kinney method and the effect of adopting 5S workplace organization procedure on risk assessment is examined. The risk assessment reveals that there are 17 risks involved; 14 grouped in high risk class (immediate improvement as required action); 2 in significant (measures to be taken as required action) and one in possible risk class (monitoring as required action). Among 14 high risks, 4 can be reduced by 83 % to be grouped under possible class when 5S is applied. One significant risk is observed to be lowered by 78 % and considered as possible risk due to the application of 5S. As a result of either 67 or 50 % reductions in 7 high risks, these risks are converted to be members of significant risk group after 5S implications.

  2. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  3. 77 FR 48433 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ10 New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants AGENCY... performance standards (NSPS) for nitric acid plants. Nitric acid plants include one or more nitric acid... standards for nitric acid plants, contact Mr. Nathan Topham, Sector Policies and Program Division, Office...

  4. Historical reconstruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures for workers in a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Nancy B.; Ruder, Avima M.; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a semiquantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a capacitor manufacturing plant from 1946 to 1977. In a recently updated mortality study, mortality of prostate and stomach cancer increased with increasing levels of cumulative exposure estimated with this JEM (trend p values=0.003 and 0.04, respectively). Capacitor manufacturing began with winding bales of foil and paper film, which were placed in a metal capacitor box (pre-assembly), and placed in a vacuum chamber for flood-filling (impregnation) with dielectric fluid (PCBs). Capacitors dripping with PCB residues were then transported to sealing stations where ports were soldered shut before degreasing, leak testing, and painting. Using a systematic approach, all 509 unique jobs identified in the work histories were rated by predetermined process- and plant-specific exposure determinants; then categorized based on the jobs’ similarities (combination of exposure determinants) into 35 job exposure categories. The job exposure categories were ranked followed by a qualitative PCB exposure rating (baseline, low, medium, and high) for inhalation and dermal intensity. Category differences in other chemical exposures (solvents, etc.) prevented further combining of categories. The mean of all available PCB concentrations (1975 and 1977) for jobs within each intensity rating was regarded as a representative value for that intensity level. Inhalation (in microgram per cubic milligram) and dermal (unitless) exposures were regarded as equally important. Intensity was frequency adjusted for jobs with continuous or intermittent PCB exposures. Era-modifying factors were applied to the earlier time periods (1946–1974) because exposures were considered to have been greater than in later eras (1975–1977). Such interpolations, extrapolations, and modifying factors may introduce non-differential misclassification; however, we do believe our rigorous method

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark near a former manufacturing plant in Anniston, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Johnson, Glenn W

    2007-05-01

    Tree bark samples were collected to identify the relative amounts and congener profiles of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls dissolved into bark lipids from the gas phase in Anniston, Alabama, USA, where PCBs were manufactured from the 1920s until 1971. The area is heavily contaminated with PCBs: At least 4550 metric tons (mt) of PCB and 14000 mt of PCB distillation residue, known as Montar, remain buried in two landfills near the plant site. A minimum of 20.5 mt of PCBs were emitted to the atmosphere by the plant between 1953 and 1971 based on emissions figures for 1970. Bark results show that total PCB concentrations range over more than three orders of magnitude from 171927 ng/g lipid near the plant/landfill area, dropping exponentially to 35 ng/g lipid at a distance of about 7 km. The exponential trend is highly correlated (r=-0.77) and significant (p<0.05). The most concentrated tree started growing after 1971 showing that atmospheric PCB concentrations remained high after PCB production ended. All PCB congener profiles show persistent congeners 31+28, 52, 66, 153, 138, and 180. Congener profiles from trees growing near the plant/landfill all have somewhat similar profiles but those growing during PCB production show high molecular mass compounds not usually found in the atmosphere and not found in younger trees, even in the most concentrated sample. We believe that high-temperature Montar disposal released high molecular mass PCBs into the gas phase which were dissolved into older tree bark lipids.

  6. Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-07-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis.

  7. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, J C; Loewus, F A

    1975-08-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-(14)C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants.

  8. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  9. Application of organic acids for plant protection against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Dedyukhina, Emilia G; Chistyakova, Tatiana I; Lunina, Julia N; Mironov, Alexey A; Stepanova, Nadezda N; Shemshura, Olga N; Vainshtein, Mikhail B

    2017-02-01

    The basic tendency in the field of plant protection concerns with reducing the use of pesticides and their replacement by environmentally acceptable biological preparations. The most promising approach to plant protection is application of microbial metabolites. In the last years, bactericidal, fungicidal, and nematodocidal activities were revealed for citric, succinic, α-ketoglutaric, palmitoleic, and other organic acids. It was shown that application of carboxylic acids resulted in acceleration of plant development and the yield increase. Of special interest is the use of arachidonic acid in very low concentrations as an inductor (elicitor) of protective functions in plants. The bottleneck in practical applications of these simple, nontoxic, and moderately priced preparations is the absence of industrial production of the mentioned organic acids of required quality since even small contaminations of synthetic preparations decrease their quality and make them dangerous for ecology and toxic for plants, animals, and human. This review gives a general conception on the use of organic acids for plant protection against the most dangerous pathogens and pests, as well as focuses on microbiological processes for production of these microbial metabolites of high quality from available, inexpensive, and renewable substrates.

  10. A collaborative effort to model plant response to acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.; Irving, P.; Kuja, A.; Lee, J.; Shriner, D.; Troiano, J.; Perrigan, S.; Cullinan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Radish plants were exposed three times per week to simulated acidic rain at pH values of 2.6 to 5.4 over the course of four weeks in trials performed at Argonne, Illinois; Ithaca and Upton, New York; Corvallis, Oregon; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and Toronto, Canada. Uniform genotype, soil media and planting techniques, treatment procedures, biological measurements, and experimental design were employed. Growth of plants differed among trials as a result of variation in greenhouse environmental conditions according to location and facilities. Larger plants underwent greater absolute but lower relative reductions in biomass after exposure to the higher levels of acidity. A generalized Mitscherlich function was used to model the effects of acidity of simulated rain on dry mass of hypocotyls using data from three laboratories that performed duplicate trials. The remaining data, from three other laboratories that performed only one trial each, were used to test the model. 14 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide digestion of soil and plant materials for selenium determination

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, A.; Rendig, V.V.; Burau, R.G.; Besga, G.S.

    1987-11-15

    A mixture of phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide has been proposed as an alternative to the use of the nitric/perchloric acid mixture to digest biological fluids to determine their selenium (Se) content. The purpose of the studies reported here was to test the applicability of this digestion method for the determination of Se in soil and plant materials.

  12. MTBE concentration profiles near MTBE manufacturing plant: modeling approach and modeling uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ken-Hui; Chen, Chien-Hung

    2009-06-01

    The methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentration profiles near a MTBE manufacturing plant were monitored on two occasions. The US EPA's atmospheric dispersion model (industrial source complex short-term) was used to model the ambient MTBE levels with the input of local meteorological data as well as MTBE emissions from the plant. The measured ambient MTBE concentrations range from 6 to 76 microgm(-3) with the average value about 33 microgm(-3). These values are similar to those values reported in ambient air in the vicinity of service stations of 4-12 microgm(-3) and tollbooths at a highway of 10-22 microgm(-3), but lower than those values reported in ambient air near gas stations of 50-690 microgm(-3), and higher than those values reported in atmospheric of 0.9-3.0 microgm(-3). Since the model has not been validated for the simulated MTBE profiles, there exist differences between the observed and mode-predicted data. The sensitivity and uncertainty of model parameters were then analyzed. The effects of wind direction, wind velocity and atmospheric stability are discussed in terms of their impact on model sensitivity/uncertainty.

  13. Superiority of reproductive histories to sperm counts in detecting infertility at a dibromochloropropane manufacturing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Blunden, P.B.; DalCorso, R.D.; Starr, T.B.; Ross, C.E.

    1983-08-01

    Sperm count distributions among exposed and control groups at a dibromochloropropane (DBCP) manufacturing plant were remarkably similar. Yet reproductive histories from 60 exposed men obtained in conjunction with the semen analyses indicated that fertility had been reduced during exposure. Ratios of observed to expected births or standardized fertility ratios (SFRs) were computed for reproductive experience at parities of 1 or greater. The SFR for the period at risk from DBCP exposure (SFR . 0.63) was significantly lower than those derived from the entire not-at-risk period (SFR . 1.21) or the portion related to nonexposed employment at the plant preceding exposure (SFR . 1.33). Significant reductions would have been evident at least 18 years prior to the year in which the histories were obtained. The effect on fertility seems to have been greatest during the initial period of DBCP production. Most fertility reduction occurred after 3.5 years of exposure. Fertility returned to normal following cessation of exposure (SFR . 1.18), although it appeared to remain subnormal for about two years. Wherever there is concern about the potential for adverse reproductive effects in the workplace, data suitable for fertility analyses should be collected during annual medical examinations.

  14. Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

  15. Estimates of the occupational exposure to tenorm in the phosphoric acid production plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Vasheghani Farahani, M; Moradi, M; Hadadi, B

    2012-09-01

    Phosphate rock is used world wide for manufacturing phosphoric acid and several chemical fertilisers. It is known that the phosphate rock contains various concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium and their daughters. The subject of this study is the evaluation of the radiation exposure to workers in the phosphoric acid production plant due to technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials that can result from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in phosphate ores used in the manufacturing of phosphoric acid. Radiation exposure due to direct gamma radiation, dust inhalation and radon gas has been investigated and external and internal doses of exposed workers have been calculated. Natural radioactivity due to (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th have been measured in phosphate rock, phosphogypsum, chemical fertilisers and other samples by gamma spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium. The average concentrations of (226)Ra and (40)K observed in the phosphate rock are 760 and 80 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.673 mSv y(-1). Dust sampling revealed greatest values in the storage area. The annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne was 0.113 mSv y(-1). Radon gas concentrations in the processing plant and storage area were found to be of the same value as the background. In this study the estimated annual effective doses to workers were below 1 mSv y(-1).

  16. Carnitine is associated with fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Benoîte; Adenier, Hervé; Perrin, Yolande

    2007-12-01

    The finding of acylcarnitines alongside free carnitine in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using tandem mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography shows a link between carnitine and plant fatty acid metabolism. Moreover the occurrence of both medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines suggests that carnitine is connected to diverse fatty acid metabolic pathways in plant tissues. The carnitine and acylcarnitine contents in plant tissues are respectively a hundred and a thousand times lower than in animal tissues, and acylcarnitines represent less than 2% of the total carnitine pool whereas this percentage reaches 30% in animal tissues. These results suggest that carnitine plays a lesser role in lipid metabolism in plants than it does in animals.

  17. Compressed Air System Overhaul Improves Production at a Powdered Metal Manufacturing Plant (GKN Sinter Metals in Salem, IN)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In 1998, GKN Sinter Metals completed a successful compressed air system improvement project at its Salem, Indiana manufacturing facility. The project was performed after GKN undertook a survey of its system in order to solve air quality problems and to evaluate whether the capacity of their compressed air system would meet their anticipated plant expansion. Once the project was implemented, the plant was able to increase production by 31% without having to add any additional compressor capacity.

  18. ACID/HEAVY METAL TOLERANT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 30. The objective of Project 30 was to select populations (i.e., ecotypes) from native, indigenous plant species that demonstrate superior growth characteristics and sustainability on...

  19. Manufactured gas plant sites: Characterization of wastes and IGT`s innovative remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGP)--often referred to as town gas plants--have existed in many parts of the world, including the United States, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Consequently, many of these plants disposed of process wastes and less valuable by-products onsite, contaminated with coal-tar wastes, light oils, naphthalene, etc. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are components of coal-tar wastes and other wastes that remain at many of these town gas sites. PAH- containing soils, as a result, represent the largest waste type at most MGP sites. Also, certain PAHs are recognized today as being potential animal and/or human carcinogens and, as such, represent an environmental hazard. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed and/or evaluated several techniques/processes to improve the biodegradation of PAHs present at MGP sites. As a result of extensive studies, IGT has successfully developed and demonstrated an integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) process that is capable of enhancing the rate as well as the extent of PAH degradation. This process combines two complementary as well as powerful remedial techniques: (1) chemical pretreatment using Fenton`s reagent and (2) a biological system using native aerobic microorganisms. This paper presents the general characteristics of MGP sites and wastes and the innovative IGT processes at various stages of development and demonstration. This paper also discusses the IGT/GRI treatability protocol that can be used to determine the potential of bioremediation for any MGP site soil within a 2 to 3-month period.

  20. Relational Inequality: Gender Earnings Inequality in U.S. and Japanese Manufacturing Plants in the Early 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avent-Holt, Dustin; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relational model of inequality using samples of employer-employee matched data from manufacturing plants in the United States and Japan. We argue that gender is a salient status characteristic in both the United States and Japan, but because of differences in gender politics, wage inequality will vary more across U.S. workplaces…

  1. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  2. A pilot study of workplace dermal exposures to cypermethrin at a chemical manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Timothy J; Geer, Laura A; Connor, Thomas H; Robertson, Shirley; Sammons, Deborah; Smith, Jerome; Snawder, John; Boeniger, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Exposure during the manufacture of pesticides is of particular concern due to their toxicity and because little is known about worker exposure, since most studies have focused on end-use application within agriculture or buildings. Even though dermal exposure can be expected to dominate for pesticides, little is known about workplace dermal exposures or even appropriate methods for their assessment. The current study begins to address this gap by evaluating alternative methods for assessing dermal exposure at a chemical manufacturing plant. For this pilot study, eight workers were recruited from a U.S. plant that produced the pesticide cypermethrin. Exposure was evaluated using three approaches: (1) survey assessment (questionnaire), (2) biological monitoring, and (3) workplace environmental sampling including ancillary measurements of glove contamination (interior and exterior). In each case, cypermethrin was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Environmental measurements identified two potential pathways of cypermethrin exposure: glove and surface contamination. Workplace exposure was also indicated by urine levels (specific gravity adjusted) of the parent compound, which ranged from 35 to 253 μg/L (median of 121 μg/L) with no clear trend in levels from pre- to post-shift. An exploratory analysis intended to guide future studies revealed a positive predictive association (Spearman correlation, p ≤ 0.10) between post-shift urine concentrations and a subset of survey questions evaluating worker knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions (KAP) of workplace dermal hazards, i.e., personal protective equipment self-efficacy, and inverse associations with behavior belief and information belief scales. These findings are valuable in demonstrating a variety of dermal exposure methods (i.e., behavioral attributes, external contamination, and biomarker) showing feasibility and providing measurement ranges and preliminary associations to support future and

  3. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1997-09-16

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  4. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  5. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  6. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1998-09-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  7. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment.

  9. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  10. Brominated flame retardants in the surrounding soil of two manufacturing plants in China: Occurrence, composition profiles and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Huo, Chun-Yan; Qiao, Li-Na; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Surface soil samples were collected surrounding two brominated flame retardants (BFRs) manufacturing plants in China in August 2014 and analyzed for 23 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 8 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). BDE209 and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the predominant compounds in soil with the median levels of 1600 and 560 ng/g dw, respectively. The PBDEs profiles in soil samples were consistent with that of commercial product (comDecaBDE). The percentage contributions to total PBDEs decreased from higher to lower brominated homologues. Lower concentrations of NBFRs (excluding DBDPE) were detected in soil surrounding the two plants, suggesting they are byproducts or degradation products of the manufacturing activities. The concentrations of most BFRs dropped exponentially within 3-5 km of the manufacturing plants, suggesting recent deposition of these compounds to the soil. Directional distribution indicated that PBDEs and DBDPE concentrations were highest in the north direction of Plants 1. Three-day air parcel forward trajectories confirmed that the air parcel was responsible for the higher concentration of BFRs in the soil of north direction of the plant.

  11. Microbial products trigger amino acid exudation from plant roots.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald A; Fox, Tama C; King, Maria D; Bhuvaneswari, T V; Teuber, Larry R

    2004-09-01

    Plants naturally cycle amino acids across root cell plasma membranes, and any net efflux is termed exudation. The dominant ecological view is that microorganisms and roots passively compete for amino acids in the soil solution, yet the innate capacity of roots to recover amino acids present in ecologically relevant concentrations is unknown. We find that, in the absence of culturable microorganisms, the influx rates of 16 amino acids (each supplied at 2.5 microm) exceed efflux rates by 5% to 545% in roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Medicago truncatula, maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Several microbial products, which are produced by common soil microorganisms such as Pseudomonas bacteria and Fusarium fungi, significantly enhanced the net efflux (i.e. exudation) of amino acids from roots of these four plant species. In alfalfa, treating roots with 200 microm phenazine, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, or zearalenone increased total net efflux of 16 amino acids 200% to 2,600% in 3 h. Data from (15)N tests suggest that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol blocks amino acid uptake, whereas zearalenone enhances efflux. Thus, amino acid exudation under normal conditions is a phenomenon that probably reflects both active manipulation and passive uptake by microorganisms, as well as diffusion and adsorption to soil, all of which help overcome the innate capacity of plant roots to reabsorb amino acids. The importance of identifying potential enhancers of root exudation lies in understanding that such compounds may represent regulatory linkages between the larger soil food web and the internal carbon metabolism of the plant.

  12. Nucleic acid and protein elimination during the sugar manufacturing process of conventional and transgenic sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Klein, J; Altenbuchner, J; Mattes, R

    1998-02-26

    The fate of cellular DNA during the standard purification steps of the sugar manufacturing process from conventional and transgenic sugar beets was determined. Indigenous nucleases of sugar beet cells were found to be active during the first extraction step (raw juice production) which was carried out at 70 degrees C. This and the consecutive steps of the manufacturing process were validated in terms of DNA degradation by competitive PCR of added external DNA. Each step of the process proved to be very efficient in the removal of nucleic acids. Taken together, the purification steps have the potential to reduce the amount of DNA by a factor of > 10(14), exceeding by far the total amount of DNA present in sugar beets. Furthermore, the gene products of the transgenes neomycin phosphotransferase and BNYVV (rhizomania virus) coat protein CP21 were shown to be removed during the purification steps, so that they could not be detected in the resulting white sugar. Thus, sugar obtained from conventional and transgenic beets is indistinguishable or substantially equivalent with respect to purity.

  13. Collaborative effort to model plant response to acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.; Kuja, A.; Shriner, D.; Perrigan, S.; Irving, P.; Lee, J.; Troiano, J.; Cullinan, V.

    1988-06-01

    Radish plants were exposed three times per week to simulated acidic rain at pH values of 2.6 to 5.4 over the course of four weeks in trials performed at Argonne, Illinois; Ithaca and Upton, New York; Corvallis, Oregon; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and Toronto, Canada. Uniform genotype, soil media and planting techniques, treatment procedures, biological measurements, and experimental design were employed. Growth of plants differed among trials as a result of variation in greenhouse environmental conditions according to location and facilities. Larger plants underwent greater absolute but lower relative reductions in biomass after exposure to the higher levels of acidity. A generalized Mitscherlich function was used to model the effects of acidity of simulated rain or dry mass of hypocotyls using data from three laboratories that performed duplicate trials. The remaining data, from three other laboratories that performed only one trial each, were used to test the model. When the laboratory by trial effect was removed, lack of fit to the Mitscherlich function was insignificant. Thus, a single mathematical model satisfactorily characterized the relationship between acidity and mean plant response.

  14. Risk characterization of vapor intrusion in former manufactured gas plant sites.

    PubMed

    DeHate, Robin B; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2011-03-01

    Soil vapor intrusion (SVI) has recently garnered much interest as a potential exposure route for occupants of properties overlying and surrounding former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs). This investigation evaluates SVI at 10 commercial buildings and 26 single family and multi-family residential properties overlying and/or adjacent to three former MGPs. SVI was evaluated in three categories according to thickness of the vadose zones: no vadose zone; 0-6 feet thick, and 6-25 feet thick. Indoor and outdoor air, and soil vapor samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Comparative risks were evaluated based on maximum and mean concentrations for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes relative to background levels. All calculated Hazard Indices were less than 1 or were comparable to mean and maximum background levels. Cancer risks for exposure to benzene ranged from 9.75×10(-6) to 4.52×10(-4). Comparative background cancer risk from benzene exposure not related to former MGP sites ranged from 9.9×10(-6) to 3.59×10(-3). The results did not identify evidence of MGP-related soil vapor intrusion from any of the 36 sites. No increased public health risks were associated with occupied residential or commercial properties overlying or surrounding MGPs.

  15. Biodiversity and characterization of Staphylococcus species isolated from a small manufacturing dairy plant in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Soares, José C; Marques, M Rosário; Tavaria, Freni K; Pereira, Joana O; Malcata, F Xavier; Pintado, Manuela M

    2011-03-30

    The level and the diversity of the staphylococcal community occurring in the environment and dairy products of a small manufacturing dairy plant were investigated. Species identification was performed using different molecular methods, viz. Multiplex-PCR, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and sodA gene sequencing. The main species encountered corresponded to Staphylococcus equorum (41 isolates, 39.0%), S. saprophyticus (28 isolates, 26.7%) and S. epidermidis (15 isolates, 14.3%). Additionally, low incidence of enterotoxin genes was obtained, with only 9 strains (8.6%) being positive for one or more toxin genes. With regard to antimicrobial resistance, 57.1% of the isolates showed at least resistance against one antibiotic, and 28.6% were multi-resistant, which might accomplish resistance for up to 6 antibiotics simultaneously. These results provided evidence that the presence of Staphylococcus species in dairy environment are mostly represented by S. equorum and S. saprophyticus, and illustrate that carrying antimicrobial resistance genes has become reasonably widespread in cheese and dairy environment.

  16. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio.

  17. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  18. Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1999-12-15

    Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater.

  19. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Multicomponent adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Manufactured Gas Plant soils

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, O.F.; Phelps, T.J.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Adsorption is an important process in the bioremediation of Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) soils contaminated with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Over 2,000 sites nationwide exist that are contaminated with complex mixtures of PAH and other pollutants. Many PAH are classified as EPA priority pollutants. The adsorption properties of weathered contaminated soils are difficult to measure using pulse or step perturbations due to heterogeneous contaminant distributions and heterogeneous soil physical structure. This study compares the use of cyclical perturbations with step change perturbations to analyze these complex soil systems. The sinusoidal method proved to be more robust than the step perturbation method. Sinusoidal response was easier to interpret and was continuous. The step change method produced a transient response that was more difficult to interpret. Two parameters, period and amplitude, were available when using sinusoidal perturbation methods while only one parameter, magnitude of the step function, was available for dynamic studies using traditional step perturbation methods. Displacement behavior was observed with both sinusoidal and step experiments. Simulations are presented using favorable isotherms for an adsorption system using a sinusoidal feed input. Automated on-line high performance liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography systems developed for analysis are also described.

  1. Cosolvent Flushing for the Remediation of PAHs from Former Manufactured Gas Plants

    PubMed Central

    Birak, P.S.; Newman, A.P.; Richardson, S.D.; Hauswirth, S.C.; Pedit, J.A.; Aitken, M.D.; Miller, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Cosolvent flushing is a technique that has been proposed for the removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the subsurface. Cosolvents have been shown to dramatically increase the solubility of such compounds compared to the aqueous solubility; however, limited data are available on the effectiveness of cosolvents for field-contaminated media. In this work, we examine cosolvent flushing for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil from a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP). Batch studies confirmed that the relationship between the soil-cosolvent partitioning coefficient (Ki) and the volume fraction of cosolvent (fc) followed a standard log-linear equation. Using methanol at an fc of 0.95, column studies were conducted at varying length scales, ranging from 11.9 to 110 cm. Removal of PAH compounds was determined as a function of pore volumes (PVs) of cosolvent flushed. Despite using a high fc, rate and chromatographic effects were observed in all the columns. PAH effluent concentrations were modeled using a common two-site sorption model. Model fits were improved by using MeOH breakthrough curves to determine fitted dispersion coefficients. Fitted mass-transfer rates were two to three orders of magnitude lower than predicted values based on published data using artificially contaminated sands. PMID:21871689

  2. Kemira selects outokumpu H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ plant for Harjavalta, Finland with acid distributor system featuring LEWMET alloy flow components

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, W.M.; Heinemann, H.C.; Pimia, E.

    1986-01-01

    With a population of 5 million people, Finland ranks as one of Europe's leading fertilizer producers. Thus, it is not surprising that per capita production of sulphuric acid, used in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer, is among the highest in the world. Finland's leading fertilizer and sulphuric acid producer is Kemira Oy. When a new acid plant was under consideration for their complex at Harjavalta, the decision was made to use the best available technology. Replacing a 25-year old facility, the new plant was to operate on copper smelter SO/sub 2/ gas and have a capacity of 330,000 metric tons of sulphuric acid per year.

  3. Emissions of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in a Textile Manufacturing Plant in China and Their Relevance for Workers' Exposure.

    PubMed

    Heydebreck, Franziska; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2016-10-04

    The manufacturing of high-performance fabrics requires numerous chemical treatment steps that involve the use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to protect apparel against water, stain, and oil penetration. However, air and wastewater emissions of PFASs generated during this manufacturing are a potential threat to both factory workers and the environment. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of PFASs in wastewater, air, airborne particles, and settled dust in a textile manufacturing plant in China. PFOA and PFDA or their precursor compounds 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH were the dominant compounds in all environmental media tested, revealing that long-chain PFASs were preferably used for the manufacturing of functional garments. Besides, PFASs were detected along the textile manufacturing chain, indicating that they were used as durable water repellents and as surfactants in, for example, coating agents. The workers' exposure to FTOHs via air inhalation was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than the background exposure of the general western population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing information regarding the emission of PFASs during the manufacturing of textiles via various environmental media.

  4. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  5. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance.

  6. Abscisic acid controlled sex before transpiration in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; Hedrich, Rainer; Atallah, Nadia M; Cai, Chao; Geringer, Michael A; Lind, Christof; Nichols, David S; Stachowski, Kye; Geiger, Dietmar; Sussmilch, Frances C

    2016-10-26

    Sexual reproduction in animals and plants shares common elements, including sperm and egg production, but unlike animals, little is known about the regulatory pathways that determine the sex of plants. Here we use mutants and gene silencing in a fern species to identify a core regulatory mechanism in plant sexual differentiation. A key player in fern sex differentiation is the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which regulates the sex ratio of male to hermaphrodite tissues during the reproductive cycle. Our analysis shows that in the fern Ceratopteris richardii, a gene homologous to core ABA transduction genes in flowering plants [SNF1-related kinase2s (SnRK2s)] is primarily responsible for the hormonal control of sex determination. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway has transitioned from determining the sex of ferns to controlling seed dormancy in the earliest seed plants before being co-opted to control transpiration and CO2 exchange in derived seed plants. By tracing the evolutionary history of this ABA signaling pathway from plant reproduction through to its role in the global regulation of plant-atmosphere gas exchange during the last 450 million years, we highlight the extraordinary effect of the ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway in plant evolution and vegetation function.

  7. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L.

  8. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  10. Temporal and spatial characteristics of lead emissions from the lead-acid battery manufacturing industry in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Jinping; Chen, Lujun; Guo, Yang

    2017-01-01

    An inventory of lead emissions was established for the lead-acid battery (LAB) manufacturing industry in China from 2000 to 2014. The lead emissions from the LAB manufacturing industry increased from 133 t in 2000 to a peak at 281 t in 2010 with the rapid development of LAB industry. Since 2011, a mandatory national clean action on LAB industry and a series of retrofitting measures have been implemented in China. As a result, more than 80% of small and low-efficient LAB manufacturers were closed, and technical-environmental performance of the industry has been improved significantly. Thus the lead emissions from the industry declined to 113 t in 2014. Geographically, lead emissions were attributed to several provinces with intensive LAB manufacturers, including Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Hebei Province. Spatial transfer of the LAB manufacturing industry from developed areas to developing areas in China was manifest due to strict environmental regulation, posing potential environmental risks to the areas undertaking the industry transfer. In light of the effectiveness of the national clean action, the LAB manufacturing industry will reduce lead emissions further by implementing the entry criteria strictly, adopting policy of total lead emissions control, and establishing a long-term regulatory mechanism for LAB manufacturers. The local authorities in some developing areas should improve abilities of environmental supervision and environmental risk prevention to deal with the spillover of lead emissions.

  11. Immunomodulatory lipids in plants: plant fatty acid amides and the human endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Gertsch, Jürg

    2008-05-01

    Since the discovery that endogenous lipid mediators show similar cannabimimetic effects as phytocannabinoids from CANNABIS SATIVA, our knowledge about the endocannabinoid system has rapidly expanded. Today, endocannabinoid action is known to be involved in various diseases, including inflammation and pain. As a consequence, the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoid transport, as well as endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes represent targets to block or enhance cannabinoid receptor-mediated signalling for therapeutic intervention. Based on the finding that certain endocannabinoid-like fatty acid N-alkylamides from purple coneflower ( ECHINACEA spp.) potently activate CB2 cannabinoid receptors we have focused our interest on plant fatty acid amides (FAAs) and their overall cannabinomodulatory effects. Certain FAAs are also able to partially inhibit the action of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which controls the breakdown of endocannabinoids. Intriguingly, plants lack CB receptors and do not synthesize endocannabinoids, but express FAAH homologues capable of metabolizing plant endogenous N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). While the site of action of these NAEs in plants is unknown, endogenous NAEs and arachidonic acid glycerols in animals interact with distinct physiological lipid receptors, including cannabinoid receptors. There is increasing evidence that also plant FAAs other than NAEs can pharmacologically modulate the action of these endogenous lipid signals. The interference of plant FAAs with the animal endocannabinoid system could thus be a fortunate evolutionary cross point with yet unexplored therapeutic potential.

  12. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; Lind, Randall F.; Elkins, James G.; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Graham, David E.

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L-1, similar to small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  13. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; ...

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L-1, similar to small-scale batches. The 900-Lmore » pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.« less

  14. Manufacture of acid gels from skim milk using high-pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Hernández, A; Harte, F M

    2008-10-01

    The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) alone or in combination with a thermal treatment (TT) was investigated for the manufacture of acid gels from skim milk. Raw skim milk was subjected to HPH (0 to 350 MPa) or a TT (90 degrees C, 5 min), or both, in the following processing combinations: 1) HPH, 2) HPH followed by TT, 3) TT followed by HPH, 4) TT, and 5) raw milk (control). After treatments, L* (lightness) values were measured, and then skim milk was acidified with 3% glucono-delta-lactone and rheological properties (G' and gelation time), and whey holding capacity was evaluated. Treatments in which HPH and TT were combined showed greater L* values than those in which just HPH was applied. In all treatments, the L* values decreased as the pressure was increased up to 300 MPa with little change afterward. Gelation times were lower when HPH was combined with TT compared with the acid skim milk gels that were just pressure treated. The final G' in gels obtained from skim milk subjected to the combined process (HPH and TT) was greater and pressure-dependent compared with all other gels. A maximum G' (~320 Pa) was observed with skim milk subjected to a combination of thermal processing before or after HPH at 350 MPa. Acid gels obtained from HPH milk at 350 MPa showed a linear decrease in whey holding capacity over time, retaining 20% more whey after centrifugation for 25 min compared with samples treated at lower pressures and all other treatments. Our results suggest that HPH in combination with TT can be used to improve the rheological properties and stability of yogurt, thus decreasing the need for additives.

  15. Uptake of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) by several plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimang, Ralf; Folkers, Achim; Kleffmann, Jörg; Kleist, Einhard; Miebach, Marco; Wildt, Jürgen

    Uptake of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) by sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L. var. gigantheus), tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3), castor ( Rhicinus communis L. var. Carmencita), and birch ( Betula pendula L.) was studied under controlled conditions in a continuously stirred tank reactor. Exposing plants to HONO at concentrations between 60 ppt and 10 ppb led to significant uptake by the plants. The uptake was proportional to HONO concentrations and linearly related to stomatal conductivity. HONO losses at the cuticle were of minor importance. Our data imply a quick metabolism of HONO and it is concluded that the uptake of HONO by plants is only limited by diffusion of HONO through the plants stomata. Comparing results from measurements with and without plants in the chamber it is furthermore concluded that a compensation point for HONO uptake is below 20 ppt if it exists at all. Heterogeneous formation of HONO by reactions of NO 2 on the plant surfaces was either not effective or compensated by the stomatal uptake of HONO. The data of the present study imply that plant surfaces represent a sink for HONO. Therefore, it was concluded that processes on plant surfaces cannot explain HONO formation on ground surfaces as observed in field studies.

  16. Glutamate receptor-like channels in plants: a role as amino acid sensors in plant defence?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Plant glutamate receptor-like genes (GLRs) are homologous to the genes for mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), after which they were named, but in the 16 years since their existence was first revealed, progress in elucidating their biological role has been disappointingly slow. Recently, however, studies from a number of laboratories focusing on the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) have thrown new light on the functional properties of some members of the GLR gene family. One important finding has been that plant GLR receptors have a much broader ligand specificity than their mammalian iGluR counterparts, with evidence that some individual GLR receptors can be gated by as many as seven amino acids. These results, together with the ubiquity of their expression throughout the plant, open up the possibility that GLR receptors could have a pervasive role in plants as non-specific amino acid sensors in diverse biological processes. Addressing what one of these roles could be, recent studies examining the wound response and disease susceptibility in GLR knockout mutants have provided evidence that some members of clade 3 of the GLR gene family encode important components of the plant's defence response. Ways in which this family of amino acid receptors might contribute to the plant's ability to respond to an attack from pests and pathogens are discussed. PMID:24991414

  17. Isolation of lactic acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Jelena; Yüksel-Dadak, Aytül; Dröge, Stefan; König, Helmut

    2017-02-20

    Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related. A qualitative multiplex system and a real-time quantitative PCR could be developed for most isolates, realized by the selection of specific primers. Their role in biogas plants was discussed on the basis of the quantitative results and on physiological data of the isolates.

  18. Multivariate analysis of mixed contaminants (PAHs and heavy metals) at manufactured gas plant site soils.

    PubMed

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-06-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to provide an overview of the distribution pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site soils. PCA is the powerful multivariate method to identify the patterns in data and expressing their similarities and differences. Ten PAHs (naphthalene, acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene) and four toxic heavy metals - lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) - were detected in the site soils. PAH contamination was contributed equally by both low and high molecular weight PAHs. PCA was performed using the varimax rotation method in SPSS, 17.0. Two principal components accounting for 91.7% of the total variance was retained using scree test. Principle component 1 (PC1) substantially explained the dominance of PAH contamination in the MGP site soils. All PAHs, except anthracene, were positively correlated in PC1. There was a common thread in high molecular weight PAHs loadings, where the loadings were inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and molecular weight of individual PAHs. Anthracene, which was less correlated with other individual PAHs, deviated well from the origin which can be ascribed to its lower toxicity and different origin than its isomer phenanthrene. Among the four major heavy metals studied in MGP sites, Pb, Cd and Cr were negatively correlated in PC1 but showed strong positive correlation in principle component 2 (PC2). Although metals may not have originated directly from gaswork processes, the correlation between PAHs and metals suggests that the materials used in these sites may have contributed to high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn. Thus, multivariate analysis helped to identify the sources of PAHs, heavy metals and their association in MGP site, and thereby better characterise the site risk, which would not be possible if one uses chemical analysis

  19. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and cyanide in soils from manufactured gas plant sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, YiFong.

    1993-01-01

    The microbial clean-up of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the subject of this study. Cyanide was examined for its inhibition on microbial PAH degradation by an MGP-soil isolate identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by classical differential methods as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. A strong cyanide-degrading Bacillus pumilus (ATCC No. 7061) strain was used for facilitating cyanide degradation thereby enhancing PAH biodegradation in this soil. This research has validated cyanide interference with the PAH degrader and shown that adding Bacillus pumilus accomplishes the removal of cyanide which subsequently allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize PAHs. In addition to the biodegradation of cyanide and lower ring numbered PAHs, the microbial degradation of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using a mixed culture obtained from another former coal tar contaminated site was also studied. The rate of biotransformation and the abiotic loss due to volatilization were monitored. The 3-ring PAH used in this project was phenanthrene and the 4-ring PAHs used were fluoranthene and pyrene. The results showed that volatilization loss of naphthalene in the control system was substantial while volatilization of higher molecular weight PAH compounds (fluoranthene and pyrene) was negligible. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene are 6.56, 1.59 and 0.82 mg/L/day, respectively or 65.6, 15.9, 8.2 mg/gram of cells/day assuming 100 mg cells/L in the system. This study indicates that biodegradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs by mixed cultures obtained from PAH contaminated sites is very promising. These studies will contribute to the understanding of PAH and cyanide removal from MGP and provide information for the design of a bioremediation project to reclaim unusable land that was contaminated through the previous coal gasification process.

  20. Physicochemical Approaches for the Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars are one of the most challenging non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to remediate due to their complex chemical composition, high viscosities, and ability to alter wettability. In this work, we investigate several in situ remediation techniques for the removal of tar from porous media. Batch and column experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation remediation approaches. Alkaline (NaOH), surfactant (Triton X-100), and polymer (xanthan gum) agents were used in various combinations to reduce tar-water interfacial tension, increase flushing solution viscosity, and increase the solubilities of tar components. Base-activated sodium persulfate was used alone and in combination with surfactant to chemically oxidized tar components. The effectiveness of each method was assessed in terms of both removal of PAHs from the system and reduction of dissolved-phase effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. In column studies, alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solutions efficiently mobilized 81-93% and 95-96% of residual PAHs, respectively, within two pore volumes. The impact of AP flushing on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations was relatively low; however, the concentrations of several low molar mass PAHs were significantly reduced after ASP flushing. Surfactant-polymer (SP) solutions removed over 99% of residual PAHs through a combination of mobilization and solubilization, and reduced the post-remediation, dissolved-phase total PAH concentration by 98.4-99.1%. Degradation of residual PAHs by base-activated sodium persulfate was relatively low (30-50%), and had little impact on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations.

  1. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GUM...

  2. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GUM...

  3. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GUM AND...

  4. 76 FR 63878 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ10 New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants AGENCY... source performance standards (NSPS) for nitric acid plants. Nitric acid plants include one or more nitric acid production units. These proposed revisions include a change to the nitrogen oxides (NO...

  5. Bioprocessing of plant-derived virus-like particles of Norwalk virus capsid protein under current Good Manufacture Practice regulations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Huafang; Chen, Qiang

    2012-03-01

    Despite the success in expressing a variety of subunit vaccine proteins in plants and the recent stride in improving vaccine accumulation levels by transient expression systems, there is still no plant-derived vaccine that has been licensed for human use. The lack of commercial success of plant-made vaccines lies in several technical and regulatory barriers that remain to be overcome. These challenges include the lack of scalable downstream processing procedures, the uncertainty of regulatory compliance of production processes, and the lack of demonstration of plant-derived products that meet the required standards of regulatory agencies in identity, purity, potency and safety. In this study, we addressed these remaining challenges and successfully demonstrate the ability of using plants to produce a pharmaceutical grade Norwalk virus (NV) vaccine under current Good Manufacture Practice (cGMP) guidelines at multiple gram scales. Our results demonstrate that an efficient and scalable extraction and purification scheme can be established for processing virus-like particles (VLPs) of NV capsid protein (NVCP). We successfully operated the upstream and downstream NVCP production processes under cGMP regulations. Furthermore, plant-derived NVCP VLP demonstrates the identity, purity, potency and safety that meet the preset release specifications. This material is being tested in a Phase I human clinical trial. This research provides the first report of producing a plant-derived vaccine at scale under cGMP regulations in an academic setting and an important step for plant-produced vaccines to become a commercial reality.

  6. Toxicity of purified terephthalic acid manufacturing wastewater on reproductive system of male mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Sun, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Yao; Liu, Bo; Yang, Liu-Yan; Cheng, Shu-Pei

    2010-04-15

    Reproductive toxicity of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) manufacturing wastewater on the male mice (Mus musculus) was investigated after 35-day intragastric perfusion treatment with the wastewater. Fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining, and flow cytometry were used to assess the toxicity of PTA wastewater on spermatogenic cells. PTA wastewater induced significant variations in the relative percentages of immature haploid, diploid, tetraploid and S-phase spermatogonia. Percentage of viable spermatogenic cells was reduced from 93.1+/-2.3 in control group to 90.4+/-1.9 in the wastewater-treated group. Testicular histopathology revealed expansion of interstitial space and reduction in the number and size of Leydig cells induced by the wastewater, which was further certified by the decrease (10.6%) in relative testes weight and the increase (101.3%) in sperm shape abnormality in the wastewater-treated group. In this study, PTA wastewater was found to have reproductive toxicity on male mice, and public health problems may potentially arise from the discharge of the wastewater into the environment.

  7. Ultrasonication-assisted manufacture of cellulose nanocrystals esterified with acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lirong; Huang, Biao; Lu, Qilin; Wang, Siqun; Ou, Wen; Lin, Wenyi; Chen, Xuerong

    2013-01-01

    Esterified cellulose nanocrystals (E-CNCs) are cellulose derivatives that could be applied in biomedical and chemical industries. E-CNCs were prepared with cellulose pulp using a mixture of 17.5M acetic and 18.4M sulfuric acid with the aid of ultrasonication. The effects of esterification time (3-7h), ultrasonication time (with a frequency of 40 kHz, 0 to 6h) and temperature (68-75 °C) on the yield and degree of substitution (DS) of E-CNCs were evaluated. The sample obtained without ultrasonication had the lowest yield and DS value of 48.16% and 0.22, respectively, whereas ultrasonication for 5h at 70 °C resulted in a yield of 85.38% and a DS value of 0.46. Characterization indicated the successful esterification of hydroxyl groups of cellulose, and the width of rod-shaped E-CNCs was from 10 to 100 nm. The study provides a simple and convenient method to manufacture E-CNCs.

  8. Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion.

  9. Microcosm studies of subsurface PAH-degrading bacteria from a former manufactured gas plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durant, Neal D.; Wilson, Liza P.; Bouwer, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for natural in situ biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the subsurface at the site of a former manufactured gas plant. Fifty-seven samples of unconsolidated subsurface sediments were aseptically obtained from five boreholes across the site. Bacteria capable of aerobically degrading PAH's without an acclimation period were detected throughout shallow (2.7 m) and deep (24.7 m) areas of the subsurface in both relatively clean (<20 μg L -1 naphthalene) and contaminated (4400 μg L -1 naphthalene) zones. Significant ( p < 0.05) quantities of naphthalene (8±3% to 43±7%) and/or phenanthrene (3±1% to 31±3%) were mineralized in sediment-groundwater microcosms during 4 weeks of aerobic incubation at 22°C. Three samples out of 11 were able to aerobically mineralize significant quantities of benzene (6±2% to 24±1%). Of 11 samples tested for anaerobic mineralization, naphthalene biodegradation (7±1% to 13±2%) in the presence of N03 was observed in two samples. Compound removals were first order with respect to substrate concentration during the first 10-15 days of incubation. Compound biodegradation plateaued in the later stages of incubation (15-40 days), most likely from diminishing bioavailability and nutrient and oxygen depletion. Population densities in the sediments were typically low, with viable aerobic counts ranging from 0 to 10 5 CFU gdw -1, viable anaerobic counts ranging from 0 to 104 CFU gdw -1, and total counts (AODC) usually 10-fold greater than viable counts. Total counts exhibited a strong ( p < 0.01) positive correlation with sample grain size. Viable aerobic and anaerobic populations commonly occurred in the same sample, suggesting the presence of facultative anaerobes. Bacteria were metabolically active in samples from groundwaters with low pH (3.7) and high naphthalene concentrations (11,000 μg L -1). Data from these enumeration and microcosm studies suggest that natural

  10. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  11. Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Edgar P.

    2014-08-12

    The title of our project is “Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants”. Its goals are two-fold: to determine the molecular functions of glutamate receptor-like (GLR) proteins, and to elucidate their biological roles (physiological or developmental) in plants. Here is our final technical report. We were highly successful in two of the three aims, modestly successful in the third.

  12. Historical cancer incidence and mortality assessment in an Illinois community proximal to a former manufactured gas plant

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D; Jiang, Xiaohui; Bylsma, Lauren C; Garabrant, David H; Irvin, Sarah R; Fryzek, Jon P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Concern has been raised that the occurrence of cancer may be increased in neighbourhoods around a former manufactured gas plant in Champaign, Illinois, USA. Thus, we compared historical rates of cancer in this area to comparison communities as well as with nationally standardised rates. Design Retrospective population-based community cancer assessment during 1990–2010. Setting Champaign County, Illinois, USA, and zip codes encompassing the location of the former manufactured gas plant to counties that were similar demographically. Participants Residents of the counties and zip codes studied between 1990 and 2010. Main outcome measures The relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were used to compare cancer incidence and mortality in the areas near the gas compression site to the comparison counties. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare rates in the areas near the gas compression site to expected rates based on overall US cancer rates. Results Total cancer mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and incidence (RR=0.95, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97) were reduced significantly in Champaign County versus the comparison counties. Similarly, a reduced rate of total cancer was observed in analyses by zip code (proximal to the former gas plant) when compared with either similar counties (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.93) or national standardised rates of cancer (SIR=0.88, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.91). Conclusions This historical cancer assessment did not find an increased risk of total cancer or specific cancer types in communities near a former manufactured gas plant site. PMID:25534215

  13. Maintenance Carbon Cycle in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, William H.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.

    1985-01-01

    The reciprocal relationship between diurnal changes in organic acid and storage carbohydrate was examined in the leaves of three Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. It was found that depletion of leaf hexoses at night was sufficient to account quantitatively for increase in malate in Ananas comosus but not in Sedum telephium or Kalanchoë daigremontiana. Fructose and to a lesser extent glucose underwent the largest changes. Glucose levels in S. telephium leaves oscillated diurnally but were not reciprocally related to malate fluctuations. Analysis of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles from leaves of A. comosus and S. telephium revealed that vacuoles contain a large percentage (>50%) of the protoplast glucose, fructose and malate, citrate, isocitrate, ascorbate and succinate. Sucrose, a major constituent of intact leaves, was not detectable or was at extremely low levels in protoplasts and vacuoles from both plants. In isolated vacuoles from both A. comosus and S. telephium, hexose levels decreased at night at the same time malate increased. Only in A. comosus, however, could hexose metabolism account for a significant amount of the nocturnal increase in malate. We conclude that, in A. comosus, soluble sugars are part of the daily maintenance carbon cycle and that the vacuole plays a dynamic role in the diurnal carbon assimilation cycle of this Crassulacean acid metabolism plant. PMID:16664005

  14. Abscisic Acid: a versatile phytohormone in plant signaling and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Vives, Vicente; Zandalinas, Sara I; Manzi, Matias; Sanchez-Perez, Ana M; Perez-Clemente, Rosa M; Arbona, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants cannot escape from adverse conditions and, therefore, they have developed complex responses to the changing environment. Plant responses to abiotic cues involve changes in metabolism, photosynthesis, gene expression, ion levels, etc., and must be perfectly coordinated by phytohormones. The abscisic acid (ABA) is the main phytohormone involved in abiotic stress responses although it is nowadays clear that its signaling pathways are not isolated but interconnected with other hormone signals in complex networks. This article revises molecular mechanisms involved in the crosstalks of ABA with other phytohormones in response to different physiological processes. Moreover, ABA is not a molecule exclusive from plants but it can be found in many other organisms including bacteria, algae, fungi, animals, etc. Interestingly, it can be synthesized and secreted by a variety of human cells. These aspects that confer to the ABA a range of ubiquitous molecule will be also revised in this article.

  15. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase in Plants Exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism 1

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, P.; Campbell, Wilbur H.; Black, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase has been found in significant activities in a number of plants exhibiting Crassulacean acid metabolism. Thirty-five species were surveyed for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, ribulose diphosphate carboxylase, malic enzyme, and malate dehydrogenase (NAD). Plants which showed high activities of malic enzyme contained no detectable phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, while plants with high activities of the latter enzyme contained little malic enzyme. It is proposed that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase acts as a decarboxylase during the light period, furnishing CO2 for the pentose cycle and phosphoenolpyruvate for gluconeogenesis. Some properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in crude extracts of pineapple leaves were investigated. The enzyme required Mn2+, Mg2+, and ATP for maximum activity. About 60% of the activity could be pelleted, along with chloroplasts and mitochondria, in extracts from leaves kept in the dark overnight. PMID:16658562

  16. Protect nuclear plant fasteners from boric acid corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Moisidis, N.; Popescu, M.; Ratiu, M. )

    1992-03-01

    Boric acid corrosion of pump and valve fasteners in pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants can be prevented by implementing appropriate fastener steel replacement and extended inspections to detect and correct the cause of leakage. In this paper a three-phase corrosion protection program based on system operability, outage-related accessibility, and cost of fastener replacement versus maintenance frequency increase is presented. A selection criteria for fastener material is also presented. Degradation or failure of pressure retaining fasteners at pumps and valves has been reported in several areas exposed to leakage of closures in long-term service. The resulting boric acid corrosion experienced in PWR systems is defined as an accelerated process produced when water evaporates from leaking coolant. The primary detrimental effect of boric acid leakage is wastage (or general dissolution corrosion) of low-alloy carbon steel fasteners.

  17. Manufactured gas plants and the National Priorities List: A technical review. Topical report, August 1988-July 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wargo, L.E.; Unites, D.F.; Menzie, C.

    1989-07-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are between 1,000 and 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in the United States. Many of these sites are listed in the Comprehensive Environmental Compensation and Liability Act Information System (CERCLIS), and eight sites are listed on or proposed for the National Priorities List (NPL). Seven of the eight MGP sites that are listed or proposed for the NPL are contaminated with tar associated with the manufacture of coal gas. A research project under the Gas Research Institute program for the management of MGP sites seeks to determine why these seven MGP sites were proposed for the NPL. The study explores factors that triggered the discovery of each site and identifies those factors that confirm the sites as NPL candidates. The objective of the study is to assist in defining key risk issues and technology options at MGP sites and developing site-management strategies.

  18. Solar Heating and Cooling for a Controls Manufacturing Plant Lumberton, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Comprehensive report documents computer-controlled system which has separate solar-collector and cooling-tower areas located away from building and is completely computer controlled. System description, test data, major problems and resolution, performance, operation and maintenance, manufacturer's literature and drawing comprise part of 257-page report.

  19. 75 FR 9442 - Lonza, Inc., Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ..., Custom Manufacturing Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Lab Support, Aerotek, Job Exchange... workers of Lab Support, Aerotek, Job Exchange, and Synerfac, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, who are engaged..., including on-site leased workers of Lab Support, Aerotek, Job Exchange, and Synerfac,...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  1. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  2. Optimization of a biotechnological multiproduct batch plant design for the manufacture of four different products: A real case scenario.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Gabriela; Espinoza, Daniel; Figueroa, Nicolas; Asenjo, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    In this work a biotechnological multiproduct batch plant that manufactures four different recombinant proteins for human application is described in some detail. This batch plant design is then optimized with regards to the size of equipment using a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation recently developed by us in order to find a hypothetical new biotechnological batch plant based on the information of real known processes for the production of the four recombinant protein products. The real plant was divided for practical purposes into two sub-processes or facilities: a fermentation facility and a purification facility. Knowing the specific steps conforming the downstream processing of each product, size, and time factors were computed and used as parameters to solve the aforementioned MILP reformulation. New constraints were included to permit the selection of some equipment-such as centrifuges and membrane filters-in a discrete set of sizes. For equipment that can be built according to customer needs-such as reactors-the original formulation was retained. Computational results show the ability of this optimization methodology to deal with real data giving reliable solutions for a multi-product batch plant composed of 44 unit operations in a relatively small amount of time showing that in the case studied it is possible to save up to a 66% of the capital investment in equipment given the cost data used. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;9999: 1-12.

  3. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Saroj K.; Reddy, Kambham R.; Li, Jiaxu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a primary threat to fulfill the demand of agricultural production to feed the world in coming decades. Plants reduce growth and development process during stress conditions, which ultimately affect the yield. In stress conditions, plants develop various stress mechanism to face the magnitude of stress challenges, although that is not enough to protect them. Therefore, many strategies have been used to produce abiotic stress tolerance crop plants, among them, abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone engineering could be one of the methods of choice. ABA is an isoprenoid phytohormone, which regulates various physiological processes ranging from stomatal opening to protein storage and provides adaptation to many stresses like drought, salt, and cold stresses. ABA is also called an important messenger that acts as the signaling mediator for regulating the adaptive response of plants to different environmental stress conditions. In this review, we will discuss the role of ABA in response to abiotic stress at the molecular level and ABA signaling. The review also deals with the effect of ABA in respect to gene expression. PMID:27200044

  4. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. PMID:26076971

  5. Signalling of abscisic acid to regulate plant growth.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelbach, A; Iten, M; Grill, E

    1998-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) mediated growth control is a fundamental response of plants to adverse environmental cues. The linkage between ABA perception and growth control is currently being unravelled by using different experimental approaches such as mutant analysis and microinjection experiments. So far, two protein phosphatases, ABI1 and ABI2, cADPR, pH, and Ca2+ have been identified as main components of the ABA signalling pathway. Here, the ABA signal transduction pathway is compared to signalling cascades from yeast and mammalian cells. A model for a bifurcated ABA signal transduction pathway exerting a positive and negative control mechanism is proposed. PMID:9800207

  6. Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    A mortality study of workers at four organochlorine pesticide manufacturing factories was updated through 1987. The cohorts included all white male workers employed for at least 6 months before December 31, 1964 at the four factories. The workers had been exposed to the following organochlorine pesticides: chlordane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Workers at one factory had been exposed to the organobromine pesticide dibromochloropropane. The total number of deaths for the period from 1976 through 1987 was 650. Mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms was lower than expected at each of the factories. Cerebrovascular disease mortality was elevated for three of the four factories. The most important result was the statistically significant increase in liver/biliary tract cancer among workers at the facility where aldrin and dieldrin were the primary organochlorine pesticides produced and the nonsignificant increase at the facility where DDT was manufactured.

  7. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  8. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages.

  9. Ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan Aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Manufactured gas plants produced gas for heating and lighting in the United States from as early as 1816 into the 1960's. By-products including, but not limited to, oil residues and tar, were generated during the gas-manufacturing process. Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) were detected in water in the upper water-bearing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Albany, Georgia, during an earlier investigation in 1990. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected from five existing monitoring wells in 1991 verify the presence of hydrocarbons and metals in the upper water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. One well was drilled into the lower water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in 1991 for water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. Analyses of ground water sampled from this well did not show evidence of benzene, toluene, xylene, napthalene, acenaphthlene, or other related compounds detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Low concentrations of tetrachloroethane, trichloromethane, and l,2-cisdichloroethene were detected in a water sample from the deeper well; however, these compounds were not detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Inorganic constituent concentrations also were substantially lower in the deeper well. Overall, ground water sampled from the lower water-bearing zone had lower specific conductance and alkalinity; and lower concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, and manganese compared to ground water sampled from the upper water-bearing zone. Water levels for the upper and lower water-bearing zones were similar throughout the study period.

  10. Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K

    2008-03-26

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any correlation of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in different plant species and their natural level of resistance to glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I 50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected leguminous and nonleguminous species treated with glyphosate at respective I 50 rates. Coffee senna [ Cassia occidentalis (L.) Link] was the most sensitive ( I 50 = 75 g/ha) and hemp sesbania [ Sesbania herbacea (P.Mill.) McVaugh] was the most resistant ( I 50 = 456 g/ha) to glyphosate. Hemp sesbania was 6-fold and Illinois bundleflower [ Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L.Robins. & Fern.] was 4-fold more resistant to glyphosate than coffee senna. Glyphosate was present in all plant species, and its concentration ranged from 0.308 to 38.7 microg/g of tissue. AMPA was present in all leguminous species studied except hemp sesbania. AMPA concentration ranged from 0.119 to 4.77 microg/g of tissue. Shikimate was present in all plant species treated with glyphosate, and levels ranged from 0.053 to 16.5 mg/g of tissue. Non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean accumulated much higher shikimate than glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. Although some leguminous species were found to be more resistant to glyphosate than others, and there was considerable variation between species in the glyphosate to AMPA levels found, metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA did not appear to be a common factor in explaining natural resistance levels.

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency at U.S. Plastics Manufacturing Plants Summary Report and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-06-25

    Industrial Technologies Program’s BestPractices report based on a comprehensive plant assessment project with ITP’s Industrial Assessment Center, The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and several of its member companies.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency at U.S. Plastics Manufacturing Plants: Summary Report and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Programs BestPractices report based on a comprehensive plant assessment project with ITP's Industrial Assessment Center, The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and several of its member companies.

  13. 75 FR 11916 - Chrysler LLC, Manufacturing Truck and Activity Division, Jefferson North Assembly Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... leased workers from Technical Engineering Consultants, Inc., and Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC... North Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Technical Engineering Consultants, Inc. and, Caravan Knight Facilities Management: Detroit, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

  14. Organic removals from highly proteinous wastewater from soya milk and tofu manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayan, Shanta; Venerkar, A P; Ramakant

    2004-01-01

    Combined wastewater from soya milk and tofu manufacturing industry was treated by physico-chemical method using conventional coagulants such as lime, alum. ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate in combination with synthetic cationic polyelectrolyte. The wastewater samples were analyzed as per the Standard Methods and the experiments were carried out using Jar test apparatus (Phipps & Birds). The ferric chloride in combination with synthetic cationic polymer (Oxyfloc-FL-11) in the ratio of 250:20 mg L(-1) resulted in very good removals of COD, BOD, and SS of 75.4, 79.8, and 96.0% respectively with complete removal of odor, color and turbidity.

  15. Plant Cell-Based Recombinant Antibody Manufacturing with a 200 L Orbitally Shaken Disposable Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Rasche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells are an attractive platform for the manufacture of a variety of biopharmaceutical proteins, including antibodies. Here, we describe the scaled-up cultivation of human IgG-secreting BY-2 cells in a 200 L orbitally shaken disposable bioreactor, resulting in cell growth and recombinant protein yields that are proportionately comparable with those obtained from cultivations in 500 mL shake flasks. Furthermore, we present an efficient downstream process for antibody recovery from the viscous spent culture medium using expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography.

  16. Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants.

    PubMed

    Turski, Michal P; Turska, Monika; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Bartnik, Magdalena; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2011-05-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as well as an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35. In this study, KYNA distribution and synthesis in plants as well as its absorption was researched. KYNA level was determined by means of the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. KYNA was found in leaves, flowers, and roots of tested medicinal herbs: dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), common nettle (Urtica dioica), and greater celandine (Chelidoniummajus). The highest concentration of this compound was detected in leaves of dandelion--a mean value of 0.49 µg/g wet weight. It was shown that KYNA can be synthesized enzymatically in plants from its precursor, L-kynurenine, or absorbed by plants from the soil. Finally, the content of KYNA was investigated in 21 herbal tablets, herbal tea, herbs in sachets, and single herbs in bags. The highest content of KYNA in a maximum daily dose of herbal medicines appeared in St. John's wort--33.75 µg (tablets) or 32.60 µg (sachets). The pharmacological properties of KYNA and its presence in high concentrations in medicinal herbs may suggest that it possesses therapeutic potential, especially in the digestive system and should be considered a new valuable dietary supplement.

  17. Differing Organic Acid Exudation Pattern Explains Calcifuge and Acidifuge Behaviour of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Germund; Ström, Lena

    1995-01-01

    Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of low-molecular organic acids is a major mechanism involved and show that germinating seeds and young seedlings of limestone plants exude considerably more di- and tricarboxylic acids than calcifuges, which mainly exude monocarboxylic acids. The tricarboxylic citric acid is a powerful extractor of Fe, and the dicarboxylic oxalic acid a very effective extractor of phosphate from limestone soils. Monocarboxylic acids are very weak in these respects. The study is based on ten species from limestone soils and ten species from acid silicate soils. PMID:21247915

  18. Growth and Survival of Acid-Resistant and Non-Acid-Resistant Shiga-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains during the Manufacture and Ripening of Camembert Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Montet, M. P.; Jamet, E.; Ganet, S.; Dizin, M.; Miszczycha, S.; Dunière, L.; Thevenot, D.; Vernozy-Rozand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR) and non-acid-resistant (NAR) Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were investigated during the manufacture and ripening of microfiltered milk Camembert cheeses. The induction of acid resistance of the STEC strains in cheeses was also studied. Six different mixtures of AR and/or NAR STEC strains were inoculated separately into microfiltered milk at a level of 103 CFU mL−1. The STEC counts (AR and NAR) initially increased by 1 to 2 log10 CFU g−1 during cheese-making. Thereafter, the populations stabilized during salting/drying and then decreased during the early stages of ripening. Exposing the STEC strains in artificially inoculated cheeses to simulated gastric fluid (SGF - pH: 2.0) reduced the number of NAR strains to undetectable levels within 40 minutes, versus 120 minutes for the AR STEC strains. AR and NAR STEC were able to survive during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese prepared from microfiltered milk with no evidence of induced acid tolerance in NAR STEC strains. PMID:20016668

  19. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studies the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study is conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it is found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  20. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studied the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study was conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16,000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it was found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  1. Perfluorinated acid isomer profiling in water and quantitative assessment of manufacturing source.

    PubMed

    Benskin, Jonathan P; Yeung, Leo W Y; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Martin, Jonathan W

    2010-12-01

    A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C(7)F(15)COO(-)) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-)) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.

  2. Extraterrestrial fiberglass production using solar energy. [lunar plants or space manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, D.; Sobon, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for fiberglass production systems in both lunar and space environments. The raw material, of lunar origin, will be plagioclase concentrate, high silica content slag, and calcium oxide. Glass will be melted by solar energy. The multifurnace in the lunar plant and the spinning cylinder in the space plant are unique design features. Furnace design appears to be the most critical element in optimizing system performance. A conservative estimate of the total power generated by solar concentrators is 1880 kW; the mass of both plants is 120 tons. The systems will reproduce about 90 times their total mass in fiberglass in 1 year. A new design concept would be necessary if glass rods were produced in space.

  3. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found.

  4. Solar heating for an electronics manufacturing plant--Blue Earth, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Partial space heating for 97,000 square foot plant is supplied by 360 flat plate solar collectors; energy is sorted as heat in indoor 20,000 gallon water tank. System includes all necessary control electronics for year round operation. During December 1978, solar energy supplied 24.4 percent of building's space heating load.

  5. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G. ); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. ); Browse, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. How to Do It. Plant Eco-Physiology: Experiments on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, Using Minimal Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Douglas J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Features of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants are presented. Investigations of a complex eco-physiological plant adaptation to the problems of growth in an arid environment are discussed. Materials and procedures for these investigations are described. (CW)

  7. Treatment of phosphoric acid plant wastewater using Fenton's reagent and coagulants.

    PubMed

    Nawghare, P; Rao, N N; Bejankiwar, R; Szyprkowicz, L; Kaul, S N

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatability studies viz., Fenton reaction and physico-chemical (coagulation) treatment using lime, alum, Fe salts and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) performed on wastewater generated from a unit manufacturing technical grade phosphoric acid are reported. Due to low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio and very low pH, this wastewater is not amenable for biological treatment. The treatability studies indicated that it is possible to remove 75-80% COD using Fenton's reagent at optimum doses of 1.0 g/L FeSO4 and 2 ml of 30% H2O2. Simultaneously, significant quantities of suspended solids, phosphate and fluoride are also removed. Polyaluminium chloride is found to be more effective towards suspended solids (SS), COD, phosphate and fluoride removal, when compared to other coagulants used in the present study. Addition of an anionic polyelectrolyte (Magnafloc 156) to PAC improved the performance further. A treatment scheme that consists of neutralization (pH 4) + Fenton's reagent + neutralization (pH 7.5) + PAC/Magnafloc 156 is found to be effective in treating phosphoric acid plant wastewater to meet marine discharge standards.

  8. Using an extractive Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for improving cleanroom air quality in a semiconductor manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Shou-Nan; Chang, Chin-Ta; Shih, Hui-Ya; Tang, Andy; Li, Alen; Chen, Yin-Yung

    2003-01-01

    A mobile extractive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was successfully used to locate, identify, and quantify the "odor" sources inside the cleanroom of a semiconductor manufacturing plant. It was found that ozone (O(3)) gas with a peak concentration of 120 ppm was unexpectedly releasing from a headspace of a drain for transporting used ozonized water and that silicon tetrafluoride (SiF(4)) with a peak concentration of 3 ppm was off-gassed from silicon wafers after dry-etching processing. When the sources of the odors was pinpointed by the FTIR, engineering control measures were applied. For O(3) control, a water-sealed pipeline was added to prevent the O(3) gas (emitting from the ozonized water) from entering the mixing unit. A ventilation system also was applied to the mixing unit in case of O(3) release. For SiF(4) mitigation, before the wafer-out chamber was opened, N(2) gas with a flow rate of 150 L/min was used for 100 sec to purge the wafer-out chamber, and a vacuum system was simultaneously activated to pump away the purging N(2). The effectiveness of the control measures was assured by using the FTIR. In addition, the FTIR was used to monitor the potential hazardous gas emissions during preventative maintenance of the semiconductor manufacturing equipment.

  9. Studies of manufacturing controlled-release graphene acid and catalyzing synthesis of chalcone with Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jihui; Feng, Jia; Li, Mei; Wang, Qiaolian; Su, Yumin; Jia, Zhixin

    2013-07-01

    In the paper, graphene acid (GA) was manufactured, using flake graphite as raw material, and the acidity and the structure of GA were characterized as well as. Then, chalcone was synthesized in the presence of GA, using acetophenone and benzaldehyde as the reactant. The results showed that the acidity of GA was for pH = 1.12 in aqueous solution, and it was structured by the graphene sheets with the spaces between the graphene sheet and the graphene sheet and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and acetic acid (CH3CO2H) inside the spaces. At the same time, the results also exhibited that the chalcone yield was able to reach 60.36% when GA dosage was 5 g, and the chalcone yields could attain apart 60.36, 52.05 and 31.16% when 5 g of GA was used thrice. This shows that GA is not only a high-performance catalyst, but also a controlled-release catalyst.

  10. A proportional mortality ratio study of workers in a construction equipment and diesel engine manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Mallin, K; Berkeley, L; Young, Q

    1986-01-01

    The mortality of 461 workers who were employed 10 or more years in a Midwest engine and construction equipment plant was examined, using the method of proportional mortality ratios. Both state and national deaths were used as the standard population. Major exposures in this plant included solvents, cutting oils, and metal fumes and dusts. However, precise exposure data were not available. Among white males, no significant deviations from expected deaths were found. Among black males, significant excess deaths were found for all malignant neoplasms combined, for cancer of the pancreas, and for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Proportional cancer mortality ratios produced similar results, although the excess of pancreatic cancer in blacks was only significant among those with 20 or more years of service. Although complete occupational histories were not available, these results may provide hypotheses for future studies of workers in heavy machinery production.

  11. New insights into the regulation of plant immunity by amino acid metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Besides defence pathways regulated by classical stress hormones, distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. Mutations in several genes involved in Asp-derived amino acid biosynthetic pathways can have profound impact on plant resistance to specific pathogen types. For instance, amino acid imbalances associated with homoserine or threonine accumulation elevate plant immunity to oomycete pathogens but not to pathogenic fungi or bacteria. The catabolism of Lys produces the immune signal pipecolic acid (Pip), a cyclic, non-protein amino acid. Pip amplifies plant defence responses and acts as a critical regulator of plant systemic acquired resistance, defence priming and local resistance to bacterial pathogens. Asp-derived pyridine nucleotides influence both pre- and post-invasion immunity, and the catabolism of branched chain amino acids appears to affect plant resistance to distinct pathogen classes by modulating crosstalk of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defence pathways. It also emerges that, besides polyamine oxidation and NADPH oxidase, Pro metabolism is involved in the oxidative burst and the hypersensitive response associated with avirulent pathogen recognition. Moreover, the acylation of amino acids can control plant resistance to pathogens and pests by the formation of protective plant metabolites or by the modulation of plant hormone activity.

  12. A Simple Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Fixation and Acid Production in CAM Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John R. L.; McWha, James A.

    1976-01-01

    Described is an experiment investigating carbon dioxide fixation in the dark and the diurnal rhythm of acid production in plants exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Included are suggestions for four further investigations. (SL)

  13. Perception of the plant immune signal salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shunping; Dong, Xinnian

    2014-08-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in plant innate immunity. The diverse functions of this simple phenolic compound suggest that plants may have multiple SA receptors. Several SA-binding proteins have been identified using biochemical approaches. However, genetic evidence supporting that they are the bona fide SA receptors has not been forthcoming. Mutant screens revealed that NPR1 is a master regulator of SA-mediated responses. Although NPR1 cannot bind SA in a conventional ligand-binding assay, its homologs NPR3 and NPR4 bind SA and function as SA receptors. During pathogen challenge, the SA gradient generated at the infection site is sensed by NPR3 and NPR4, which serve as the adaptors for the Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate NPR1 degradation. Consequently, NPR1 is degraded at the infection site to remove its inhibition on effector-triggered cell death and defense, whereas NPR1 accumulates in neighboring cells to promote cell survival and SA-mediated resistance.

  14. Hippuric Acid Levels in Paint Workers at Steel Furniture Manufacturers in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine hippuric acid levels in urine samples, airborne toluene levels, acute and chronic neurological symptoms, and to describe any correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene. Methods The hippuric acid concentration in the urine of 87 paint workers exposed to toluene at work (exposed group), and 87 nonexposed people (control group) was studied. Study participants were selected from similar factories in the same region. Urine samples were collected at the end of a shift and analyzed for hippuric acid by high performance liquid chromatography. Air samples for the estimation of toluene exposure were collected with diffusive personal samplers and the toluene quantified using gas–liquid chromatography. The two groups were also interviewed and observed about their work practices and health. Results The median of the 87 airborne toluene levels was 55 ppm (range, 12–198 ppm). The median urinary hippuric acid level was 800 mg/g creatinine (range, 90–2547 mg/g creatinine). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between airborne toluene exposure and urine hippuric acid levels (r = 0.548, p < 0.01). Workers with acute symptoms had significantly higher hippuric acid levels than those who did not (p < 0.05). It was concluded that there was a significant correlation between toluene exposure, hippuric acid levels, and health (p < 0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a significant correlation between workers exposure to toluene at work, their urine hippuric acid levels, and resulting symptoms of poor health. Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required at these workplaces. There was good correlation between urinary hippuric acid and airborne toluene levels. PMID:25516817

  15. Botanical species being used for manufacturing plant food supplements (PFS) and related products in the EU member states and selected third countries.

    PubMed

    Franz, Chlodwig; Chizzola, Remigius; Novak, Johannes; Sponza, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    A great wealth of plants and plant derived preparations are used in the intention to supplement the basic nutrition in order to sustain and promote health. They may be used directly or consumed as manufactured plant food supplements (PFS) in dosed form. The use of these plants may already have a long tradition as fruit, vegetable or (folk) medicinal plants. Due to globalisation, more and more plants originating from all over the world are now offered and marketed in European countries, including species from China, South Africa and the American continent. For reasons of security, EU wide lists of plants accepted or prohibited to be used in food supplements are in elaboration. A crucial point is the correct identification of the plant material. The identity can be assessed by morphological, chemical and DNA specific methods. The active substances usable in PFS are secondary plant products that are often characteristic for certain plant groups (taxa), species or plant parts. They comprise not only polyphenols, essential oils, carotenoids and phytosterols, but also glucosinolates or saponins. The quality of the plant material used for PFS depends on a variety of factors, including the natural phytochemical, intraspecific variation with the occurrence of chemotypes, the ontogenetic variation, the considered plant parts and environmental influences during plant growth. In the production of the raw materials for PFS international standards (good agricultural practice, fair trade) should be applied.

  16. The integrated assessment of occupational risks in a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Attaianese, Erminia; Duca, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical plants are usually characterized by workplaces with quality levels generally higher than in other manufactoring sectors since healthcare products need to be produced in special conditions, keeping under a strong control hygiene, chemical and biological contaminants, and giving a particular emphasis on equipment maintenance. Limited physical work load, a low rate of injuries and work related pathologies together with a high level of quality process control contribute to consider pharma work conditions as generally light and safe. In this kind of contexts risk assessment cannot be based on factors individually considered, neither work load can be essentially measured on material handling and physical effort. Risk assessment and work environment improvements, on the contrary, have to be studied by an integrated view point. The paper presents methodologies and results of the applied research project IntegrARE (INTEGRated Assessment of Risks within Ergonomics) aimed at analyzing, in a big solid forms pharmaceutical plant, three different risk categories - architectural, ergonomic and active pharmaceutical ingredients risks - in order to highlight possible interactions on workers health, safety and wellbeing. After a detailed risk situations survey, singularly analyzed by a number of ad-hoc procedures, the study presents a methodology for integrated assessment of risks, aimed at identifying and evaluating integrated effects increasing or triggering risk situations for workers.

  17. Relationship between industrial discharges and contamination of raw water resources by perfluorinated compounds: part II: Case study of a fluorotelomer polymer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Dauchy, Xavier; Boiteux, Virginie; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in effluents of a fluorotelomer polymer manufacturing plant and its wastewater treatment plant. A 50-fold increase between the two effluents mass flows was observed. The water quality of two drinking water treatment plants located downstream at 15 and 25 km from the manufacturing plant was examined. An increase of the sum of PFCs was observed between the river (30 ng/L) and an alluvial well (70 ng/L), and between the raw water (9 ng/L) and the outlet of a biological treatment (97 ng/L). These results indicate a possible degradation of fluorotelomers, occurring during wastewater treatment, sediment infiltration in the alluvial aquifer, and drinking water treatment.

  18. Project proposals on the creation of Russian-American joint enterprise for investigation, development and manufacture of power plants on the basis of solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smotrov, N.V.; Kleschev, Yu.N.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a joint Russian-American enterprise for performing scientific investigations, development, and manufacture of fuel cell power plants on the basis of the solid oxide fuel cell. RASOFCo. Russian-American Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Company. RASOFCo will provide the series output of the electrochemical generator (ECG) of 1kW power, then of 5kW and 10kW as well as the development and the output of 10kW power plant with the subsequent output of a power plant of greater power. An ECG based on solid oxide fuel cells uses methane as a fuel. Predicted technical characteristics, market analysis, assessment of potential demands for power plants of low power for Tyumentransgas, participants of the joint enterprise and their founding contributions, strategy for manufacture and financing, and management of RASOFCo are discussed.

  19. L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is as essential to plants as it is to animals. Ascorbic acid functions as a major redox buffer and as a cofactor for enzymes involved in regulating photosynthesis, hormone biosynthesis, and regenerating other antioxidants. Ascorbic acid regulates cell division and growth and is involved in signal transduction. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in animals, plants use multiple pathways to synthesize ascorbic acid, perhaps reflecting the importance of this molecule to plant health. Given the importance of ascorbic acid to human nutrition, several technologies have been developed to increase the ascorbic acid content of plants through the manipulation of biosynthetic or recycling pathways. This paper provides an overview of these approaches as well as the consequences that changes in ascorbic acid content have on plant growth and function. Discussed is the capacity of plants to tolerate changes in ascorbic acid content. The many functions that ascorbic acid serves in plants, however, will require highly targeted approaches to improve their nutritional quality without compromising their health. PMID:24278786

  20. Amino acid export in plants: a missing link in nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Okumoto, Sakiko; Pilot, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    The export of nutrients from source organs to parts of the body where they are required (e.g. sink organs) is a fundamental biological process. Export of amino acids, one of the most abundant nitrogen species in plant long-distance transport tissues (i.e. xylem and phloem), is an essential process for the proper distribution of nitrogen in the plant. Physiological studies have detected the presence of multiple amino acid export systems in plant cell membranes. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the molecular identity of amino acid exporters, partially due to the technical difficulties hampering the identification of exporter proteins. In this short review, we will summarize our current knowledge about amino acid export systems in plants. Several studies have described plant amino acid transporters capable of bi-directional, facilitative transport, reminiscent of activities identified by earlier physiological studies. Moreover, recent expansion in the number of available amino acid transporter sequences have revealed evolutionary relationships between amino acid exporters from other organisms with a number of uncharacterized plant proteins, some of which might also function as amino acid exporters. In addition, genes that may regulate export of amino acids have been discovered. Studies of these putative transporter and regulator proteins may help in understanding the elusive molecular mechanisms of amino acid export in plants.

  1. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. . Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

    1991-01-01

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  2. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A.; Seib, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  3. One manufacturer's approach to using nucleic acid testing for enhanced plasma-product safety.

    PubMed

    Liss, A

    2001-04-01

    Source plasma must contain the lowest possible pathogen bioburden so as to minimize the stress placed on subsequent viral reduction steps. Differences exist between European and US criteria for developing assays used to detect these viral pathogens. The approach used by 1 plasma-product manufacturer is described here. By adding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection techniques for various viral pathogens (including human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus) to the plasma screening process, this manufacturer maximizes the use of cutting-edge technology for plasma product safety while satisfying both European and US criteria and requirements for this process. The protocol begins with maxipool testing and eventually identifies any specific donor plasma that might be positive in the contributing minipools. The goal is to identify reactive donors for possible periodic monitoring and to use only nonreactive donations to continue producing a particular plasma product. Controversy surrounding the use of PCR to screen emerging organisms of questionable pathogenicity or known organisms that are of minimal pathogenicity for most of the population is also discussed, and possible solutions to this debate are provided.

  4. Data Presentation Report, Army Spill Sites, South Plants Manufacturing Complex. Version 3.2. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    M d C ’, pC c0 a, on 4. 10 C *0 o * ... 44 4. 14. 0 4 A. 0 tfl Vf M m Al 4, 1 Vam 77ey cS b. C tM 0 ’a .4 1 c 0 *ý 0 n 3* z aE~ c - aa42a 6%-E. a m...0 do I0 aa lp 4A - S CE 00 .1 .2.. .1.2 in .3 .2 .3 V)L 10. a MCA 6* . 6 6 mm 41 41 a 0 0 In 0 .0 4 a to0 ,C v I0 IP EEG %C.3 .3.3 .3.2 . C~~~- on 00...CLC2AThiodiglycol Thiodiglycol ( TDC ) TDGCL jAGET PRIO CHRQ D= Isopropylmethylphosphonic Isopropylmethylphosphonate IMPA acid ANIONS /IONCHROM Chloride Chloride CL

  5. Spatial and temporal distributions of hexabromocyclododecanes in the vicinity of an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Fei; Yao, Yiming

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the environmental fate of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), samples from various environmental media, including outdoor settled dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues (holly, cypress and pine) and marine species (shrimp, crab and fish) were obtained around an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China. The 3 main HBCD diastereoisomers were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 328 to 31,752 ng/g dry weight (dw), 2.91-1730 ng/g dw, 23.5-716 ng/g dw, 3.45-2494 ng/g dw, and 0.878-44.8 ng/g dw in the dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues, and marine species, respectively. This indicated that a point source of HBCDs could bring wide impact on its vicinal environment. A significant increasing trend of HBCDs concentrations was noted, as indicated by 12.9-41.6% of increasing rates in total concentrations of HBCDs at four sediment sites in the past five years. The diastereoisomer profiles were sorted into 3 groups: dust, soil and sediment, which had no statistical difference from commercial EPS-products (p > 0.05); plant tissues, which showed a moderate increase of α-isomer (22.9 ± 3.3%); and marine species, which were dominated by α-isomer (62.6 ± 2.8%). For α- and β-isomers, the results of enantiomeric analysis showed a preferential accumulation of the (+)-enantiomer in part of plant tissues and all marine organisms (p < 0.05). However, there was no enantioselectivity of the 3 isomers in dust, soil, and sediment samples (p > 0.05). Besides, marine food web magnification is observed for HBCDs, with trophic magnification factors close to 2. The daily intakes of HBCDs were estimated to be 0.058-5.84 ng/kg-bw/day for local residents through dust and soil ingestion and 0.048-8.43 ng/kg-bw/day for Tianjin citizens through seafood consumption.

  6. Experimental analysis of lead-in-air sources in lead-acid battery manufacture.

    PubMed

    Caplan, K J; Knutson, G W

    1979-07-01

    Plant-scale experimental sampling programs were carried out to determine the contribution to the lead-in-air exposure from (a) fork-truck transport of pasted plates in racks and (b) manual loading and unloading of plates from racks. Fork-truck transport was found not significant under "clean" conditions. Manual loading and unloading was found significant.

  7. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  8. Deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the vicinity of a steel manufacturing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Jin, Guangzhu; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-03-01

    Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) bulk deposition were investigated at four sites at and around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, South Korea from January 2008 to May 2009. The steel complex site showed the highest average deposition fluxes of 74.0, 2.1, and 41.6 ng m-2 day-1 for ∑tri-decaPCBs (Tri-DecaCBs), ∑12PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs), and ∑8PBDEs (8 PBDE congeners), respectively, indicating the steel complex is an important source of PCBs and PBDEs. The PCB deposition was dominated by Tri-TetraCBs and BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener. No clear seasonal variation of PCB and PBDE deposition was observed except at the steel complex site. Precipitation appeared to play an important role in the deposition distribution of PCBs, especially when the lowly chlorinated homologues dominated. In addition, the contribution of DL PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) to the total TEQ (toxicity equivalent quantity) showed a seasonal variation and should not be neglected in the vicinity of a steel complex.

  9. Deviation from niche optima affects the nature of plant-plant interactions along a soil acidity gradient.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Cheng, Lulu; Hu, Liangliang; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of niche optima in the shift of plant-plant interactions along environmental stress gradients. Here, we investigate whether deviation from niche optima would affect the outcome of plant-plant interactions along a soil acidity gradient (pH = 3.1, 4.1, 5.5 and 6.1) in a pot experiment. We used the acid-tolerant species Lespedeza formosa Koehne as the neighbouring plant and the acid-tolerant species Indigofera pseudotinctoria Mats. or acid-sensitive species Medicago sativa L. as the target plants. Biomass was used to determine the optimal pH and to calculate the relative interaction index (RII). We found that the relationships between RII and the deviation of soil pH from the target's optimal pH were linear for both target species. Both targets were increasingly promoted by the neighbour as pH values deviated from their optima; neighbours benefitted target plants by promoting soil symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, increasing soil organic matter or reducing soil exchangeable aluminium. Our results suggest that the shape of the curve describing the relationship between soil pH and facilitation/competition depends on the soil pH optima of the particular species.

  10. Structural and optical characterization of fresh water diatoms (Cyclotella sp.): nature's nanoporous silica manufacturing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Nirmal; Gogoi, Ankur; Buragohain, Alak K.; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-02-01

    Siliceous frustules were extracted from a representative fresh water diatom species (Cyclotella sp.) by treating with aqueous hydrochloric (HCl) acid. The structural characterizations of cleaned frustules were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microscopy images showed that the diatoms have a regular circular shape and are of almost equal size (average length is 9μm and average width is 3 μm). From energy dispersive X -ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) spot analysis it was confirmed that the frustules isolated from diatoms are composed mainly of silicon in the form of amorphous silica (SiO2). The bond information of chemical substances of diatom frustules was carried out at ambient temperature by means of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. FTIR spectrum as recorded in transmittance mode showed the characteristic peaks for diatom biosilica, including for Si-O-Si stretching vibration at 1057 and 776 cm-1. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of diatom frustules were performed at room temperature and it was observed that they emitted strong blue PL centered at 440nm when excited with ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

  11. Assessment of natural attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater near a former manufactured-gas plant, South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Petkewich, M.D.; Bradley, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Shallow, anaerobic groundwater near a former manufactured-gas plant (MGP) in Charleston, South Carolina, USA, contains mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs, respectively). Between 1994 and 1997, a combination of field, laboratory, and numerical-flow and transport-model investigations were made to assess natural attenuation processes affecting MAH and PAH distributions. This assessment included determination of adsorption coefficients (K(ad)) and first-order biodegradation rate constants (K(bio)) using aquifer material from the MGP site and adjacent properties. Naphthalene adsorption (K(ad) = 1.35 x 10-7 m3/mg) to aquifer sediments was higher than toluene adsorption (K(ad) = 9.34 x 10-10 m3/mg), suggesting preferential toluene transport relative to naphthalene. However, toluene and benzene distributions measured in January 1994 were smaller than the naphthalene distribution. This scenario can be explained, in part, by the differences between biodegradation rates of the compounds. Aerobic first-order rate constants of 14C-toluene, 14C-benzene, and 14C-naphthalene degradation were similar (-0.84, -0.03, and 0.88 day-1, respectively), but anaerobic rate constants were higher for toluene and benzene (-0.002 and -0.00014 day-1, respectively) than for naphthalene (-0.000046 day-1). Both areal and cross-sectional numerical simulations were used to test the hypothesis suggested by these rate differences that MAH compounds will be contained relative to PAHs. Predictive simulations indicated that the distributions of toluene and benzene reach steady-state conditions before groundwater flow lines discharge to an adjacent surface-water body, but do discharge low concentrations of naphthalene. Numerical predictions were 'audited' by measuring concentrations of naphthalene, toluene, and benzene at the site in early 1997. Measured naphthalene and toluene concentrations were substantially reduced and the areal extent of contamination smaller than was both

  12. Particle size and metals concentrations of dust from a paint manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siew Lai; Yin, Chun-Yang; Yap, Siaw Yang

    2010-02-15

    In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.

  13. How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F

    2017-03-23

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as resistance to (a)biotic stress. Efforts to identify SA effector proteins have revealed that SA binds to and alters the activity of multiple plant proteins-this represents a shift from the paradigm that hormones mediate their functions via one or a few receptors. SA and its derivatives also have multiple targets in animals; some of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with pathological processes. Together, these findings suggest that SA exerts its defense-associated effects in both kingdoms via a large number of targets.

  14. Pilot plant investigations on cleaning efficiencies to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination in industrial manufacture of cookies.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Ibach, Anja; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Janise, Annabella; Suwelack, Carola; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Shared equipment in industrial food manufacture has repeatedly been described as a potential source of unlabeled food allergens, i.e., hidden allergens. However, the impact of shared equipment on allergen cross-contamination is basically unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate systematically the extent of hazelnut cross-contamination in fine bakery wares as a model. A product change from cookies with 10% hazelnut to cookies without hazelnuts was simulated on pilot plant equipment. The extent of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each production device (kneaders, rotary molder, wire cutting machine, and steel band oven) and various cleaning procedures used between products. The experiments were performed repeatedly with finely ground hazelnuts and with roughly chopped hazelnut kernels. Cross-contamination from chopped kernels was distributed statistically but not homogeneously, and sampling and analysis with the ELISA was therefore not reproducible. Further analysis concentrated on homogenously distributed HNCC from ground hazelnut. Apart from product changes without intermediate cleaning, the highest HNCC was found after mechanical scraping: Up to 100 mg/kg hazelnut protein was found in the follow-up product after processing by one machine. After additional cleaning with hot water, the HNCC decreased regardless of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg/kg hazelnut protein. In our pilot plant study, the application of an appropriate wet cleaning procedure in combination with quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency reduced the hazelnut protein cross-contamination to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  15. Distribution of a Fatty Acid Cyclase Enzyme System in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmermann, Don C.

    1979-01-01

    Extracts from tissues of 24 plant species were tested for the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 13-l-hydroperoxy-cis-9,15-trans-11-octadecatrienoic acid to the cyclic fatty acid 12-oxo-cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid. The enzyme was detected in 15 of the 24 tissues examined, and was demonstrated in seedlings, leaves, and fruits. PMID:16660932

  16. Oxidative stress induced in Hyalella azteca by an effluent from a NSAID-manufacturing plant in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Romero-Romero, Rubí; Natividad-Rangel, Reyna; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; García-Medina, Sandra; Martínez-Vieyra, Catalina; Neri-Cruz, Nadia; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Production in the pharmaceutical industry has increased and along with it, the amount of wastewater of various characteristics and contaminant concentrations. The main chemicals in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants-such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)-and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress induced in the amphipod Hyalella azteca by the effluent from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. The median lethal concentration (72 h-LC50) was determined and H. azteca were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (0.0732 %) for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, and biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated [hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and the activity of the superoxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)]. Statistically significant increases with respect to the control group (P < 0.05) were observed in HPC, LPX and PCC in H. azteca at all exposure times. Antioxidant enzymes activity SOD, CAT and GPx activity also increased significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group. In conclusion, the industrial effluent analyzed in the present study contains NSAIDs and NaClO, and induces oxidative stress in H. azteca.

  17. Impact of effluents from a car battery manufacturing plant in Nigeria on water, soil, and food qualities.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Asomugha, Rose; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Anisi, C N; Obi, Ejeatuluchukwualo; Dioka, Chudi Emma

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of effluents from a car battery manufacturing plant in Nnewi, Nigeria, on water, soil, and food qualities. The authors analyzed heavy metals mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium and nickel in tap and cassava waters, soil, dried cassava tuber, and edible fruit samples from the company, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Other parameters the authors analyzed include pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity (SAL), total hardness (TH), biological oxygen demand (BOD), volatile and non-volatile solids, and bacterial and fungal loads of the soil samples. Results show that lead had the highest concentration in all the samples, with the soil samples having the highest lead concentration (38-12 ppm, 102 ppm) and the water samples having the lowest (0.02-0.20 ppm). Mercury had the lowest concentration (<0.0002 ppm) in all the samples. Soil sample B had the highest concentration of all the metals tested. Cassava water had higher levels of EC, SAL, TH, BOD, and volatile and nonvolatile solids, but lower pH than tap water. Bacterial loads were higher than fungal loads in all the soil samples. Because there was moderate contamination of the environment by some of the metals studied, with lead being exceptionally high and above the specified international standards, the authors recommend control measures to reduce lead exposure to the local populace within and around this industry.

  18. Role of weathered coal tar pitch in the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant site sediments.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Muhammad F; Ghosh, Upal; Kreitinger, Joseph P

    2006-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments are often associated with carbonaceous particles that reduce contaminant bioavailability. Although black carbon inclusive partitioning models have been proposed to describe elevated PAH partitioning behavior, questions remain on the true loading and association of PAHs in different particle types in industrially impacted sediments. In the studied MGP sediments, the light density organic particles (coal, coke, wood, and coal tar pitch) comprised 10-20% of the total mass and 70-95% of the PAHs. The remainder of the PAHs in sediment was associated with the heavy density particles (i.e., sand, silt, and clays). Among the different particle types, coal tar pitch (quantified by a quinoline extraction method) contributed the most to the bulk sediment PAH concentration. Aqueous partition coefficients for PAHs measured using a weathered pitch sample from the field were generally an order of magnitude higher than reported for natural organic matter partitioning, and match well with theoretical predictions based on a coal tar-water partitioning model. A pitch-partitioning inclusive model is proposed that gives better estimates of the measured site-specific PAH aqueous equilibrium values than standard estimation based on natural organic matter partitioning only. Thus, for MGP impacted sediments containing weathered pitch particles, the partitioning behavior may be dominated by the sorption characteristics of pitch and not by natural organic matter or black carbon.

  19. Predicting PAH bioaccumulation and toxicity in earthworms exposed to manufactured gas plant soils with solid-phase microextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Michiel T.O. Jonker; Stephan A. van der Heijden; Joseph P. Kreitinger; Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-11-01

    Soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are often heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current risk assessment methods that rely on total PAH concentrations likely overstate adverse effects of such soils since bioavailability is ignored. In this study, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied to estimate bioavailable PAH concentrations and toxicity in earthworms exposed to 15 MGP soils. In addition, PAH sorption to all soils (K{sub oc} values) was determined. The results showed a several orders of magnitude variation in K{sub oc} values, demonstrating that generic organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients will typically be over-conservative at MGP sites. SPME-predicted bioaccumulation generally was within a factor of 10 of measured bioaccumulation (in earthworm bioassays), in contrast to current risk assessment model estimates that over predicted bioaccumulation 10-10,000 times. Furthermore, on the basis of estimated total body residues of narcotic PAHs, SPME correctly predicted worm mortality observed during bioassays in the majority of cases. For MGP sites where current risk assessment procedures indicate concerns, SPME thus provides a useful tool for performing a refined, site-specific assessment. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Role of weathered coal tar pitch in the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant site sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad F. Khalil; Upal Ghosh; Joseph P. Kreitinger

    2006-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments are often associated with carbonaceous particles that reduce contaminant bioavailability. Although black carbon inclusive partitioning models have been proposed to describe elevated PAH partitioning behavior, questions remain on the true loading and association of PAHs in different particle types in industrially impacted sediments. In the studied MGP sediments, the light density organic particles (coal, coke, wood, and coal tar pitch) comprised 10-20% of the total mass and 70-95% of the PAHs. The remainder of the PAHs in sediment was associated with the heavy density particles (i.e., sand, silt, and clays). Among the different particle types, coal tar pitch (quantified by a quinoline extraction method) contributed the most to the bulk sediment PAH concentration. Aqueous partition coefficients for PAHs measured using a weathered pitch sample from the field were generally an order of magnitude higher than reported for natural organic matter partitioning, and match well with theoretical predictions based on a coal tar-water partitioning model. A pitch-partitioning inclusive model is proposed that gives better estimates of the measured site-specific PAH aqueous equilibrium values than standard estimation based on natural organic matter partitioning only. Thus, for MGP impacted sediments containing weathered pitch particles, the partitioning behavior may be dominated by the sorption characteristics of pitch and not by natural organic matter or black carbon. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Advanced treatment by chemical oxidation of pulp and paper effluent from a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper.

    PubMed

    Tünay, O; Erdeml, E; Kabdaşli, I; Olmez, T

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the applicability of chemical oxidation processes to polish biologically treated effluent of a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper to comply with the discharge limit of 120 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the first step, a chemically assisted settling was applied. The optimum results were obtained with alum plus lime with the alum dose of 200 mg l(-1). In the second step, chemically assisted settling effluent was fed into an activated sludge system and over 80% COD removal was achieved. In the last step of the experimental study, a series of ozone oxidation and Fenton oxidation methods were tested to remove residual COD. Ozone oxidation provided 80% COD removal. An ozone dose of 40 mg min(-1) with a reaction time of two hours was found to be optimum. Catalytic ozonation by using ferric iron, as well as high pH ozonation, Fenton process and H2O2/O3 oxidation did not prove to be more efficient than plain ozonation under these study conditions.

  2. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.

  3. Abscisic acid and other plant hormones: Methods to visualize distribution and signaling.

    PubMed

    Waadt, Rainer; Hsu, Po-Kai; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-12-01

    The exploration of plant behavior on a cellular scale in a minimal invasive manner is key to understanding plant adaptations to their environment. Plant hormones regulate multiple aspects of growth and development and mediate environmental responses to ensure a successful life cycle. To monitor the dynamics of plant hormone actions in intact tissue, we need qualitative and quantitative tools with high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we describe a set of biological instruments (reporters) for the analysis of the distribution and signaling of various plant hormones. Furthermore, we provide examples of their utility for gaining novel insights into plant hormone action with a deeper focus on the drought hormone abscisic acid.

  4. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  5. [Advances in studies of absorption and utilization of amino acids by plants: A review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-chuang; Wu, Liang-huan; Ma, Qing-xu; Jin, Qian-yu

    2015-03-01

    Plant can directly take up the intact amino acids, thus bypass the microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen. As an excellent carbon and nitrogen source, there exists competition for amino acid absorption between plant roots.and soil microorganisms. And the total flux of amino acids in soil may be enormous due to the extensive sources and short half-life. Studies on amino acid nitrogen nutritional contribution for plant by the technique of nitrogen isotopic tracer, has become a research topic in recent years ,which will help us better understand the principle of soil fertility. This paper summarized the recent researches on amino acid morphological characteristics in soil and its metabolic mechanism and nitrogen nutritional contribution for plant in different ecosystems, and discussed the present status and development trend of the amino acid circulation mechanism in the plant-soil-microorganism ecosystem and its bioavailability for plant. Finally, the topics of environmental regulating mechanism of amino acid bioavailability, amino acid carbon-nitrogen metabolism, and how to improve the field organic nitrogen management were all the core issues to be resolved.

  6. Chemical kinetics of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid in superheated steam: effect of isomerization on mate (Ilex paraguariensis) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zanoelo, Everton Fernando; Benincá, Cristina

    2009-12-23

    A set of experiments was carried out to investigate the chemical stability of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) in the presence of superheated steam. A batch cylindrical reactor made of glass and isothermally operated between 398 and 499 K was used in the experiments. A high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector was applied to monitor the 5-CQA concentrations. The conversions of 5-CQA were correctly reproduced with a simplified kinetic model represented by a reversible pseudofirst-order reaction of isomerization. The effect of temperature on the forward rate constant was represented by the Arrhenius equation with parameters tuned on experimental data. The heat of isomerization of 5-CQA and the equilibrium constant at 298 K were calculated by involving the integrated form of the van't Hoff equation. The observed reaction was revealed to not be detrimental for the quality of manufactured leaves and branches of mate because the content of total chlorogenic acids was not changed.

  7. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.

  8. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  9. Variation in the Carbon Isotope Composition of a Plant with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, J. C.; Deleens, Eliane; Nato, Aimé; Moyse, Alexis

    1974-01-01

    The content of 13C varies in plants with Crassulacean acid metabolism. Differences up to 3.5‰ in the 13C/12C ratios were observed between leaves of different age in the same plant of Bryophyllum daigremontianum. Soluble and insoluble carbon in the same leaf differed up to 8‰, the largest difference occurring in the leaves with the highest Crassulacean acid metabolism activity. Models to account for the isotope discrimination by C3, C4, and Crassulacean acid metabolism plants are proposed. PMID:16658746

  10. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Girisuta, B; Danon, B; Manurung, R; Janssen, L P B M; Heeres, H J

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T=150-175 degrees CH2SO4 = 0.1-1M, water hyacinth intake=1-5wt%). At high acid concentrations (>0.5M), LA was the major organic acid whereas at low acid concentrations (<0.1M) and high initial intakes of water hyacinth, the formation of propionic acid instead of LA was favoured. The highest yield of LA was 53mol% (35wt%) based on the amount of C6-sugars in the water hyacinth (T=175 degrees CH2SO4 =1M , water hyacinth intake=1wt%). The LA yield as a function of the process conditions was modelled using a kinetic model originally developed for the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of cellulose and good agreement between the experimental and modelled data was obtained.

  11. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  12. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, R M; Lee, S; Edwards, C A; Arancon, N Q; Metzger, J D

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1,000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates.

  13. Comparative analysis of phenolic acids in mistletoe plants from various hosts.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, M; Cisowski, W; Kaiser, P; Ochocka, R; Piotrowski, A

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic acids present in mistletoe plants collected from various hosts were analysed with the use of HPLC. The following numbers of compounds were found in the mistletoe plant material gathered from respective hosts: Sorbus aucuparia- 12 compounds; Acer plantanoides--14 compounds: Malus domestica, Pyrus communis and Populus nigra--13 compounds each; Quercus robur--15 compounds. Altogether 21 phenolic acids were chromatographically identified in the tested material. The compounds were either free or combined as esters or glycosides. Comparative chromatography revealed qualitative differences in the investigated compounds between the various plant materials. For example o-coumaric acid was only found in mistletoe hosted by Quercus robur. Digallic acid was only found in the plant material hosted by Acer plantanoides. Qualitative and quantitative composition of mistletoes hosted by Malus domestica and Pyrus communis showed considerable similarities as far as phenolic acids were concerned. Moreover. vanillic acid. absent in all other batches of plant material, seemed to be characteristic of the above mistletoes. Quantitative HPLC analysis demonstrated a considerable content of salicylic acid (39.55 mg%) in mistletoe hosted by Sorbus aucuparia. Apart from the above material, this compound was only present in small quantities in plants hosted by Populus nigra (15.63 mg%) and Quercus robur (2.63 mg%).

  14. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes.

  15. Biomass in the manufacture of industrial products—the use of proteins and amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Francisc; Sanders, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The depletion in fossil feedstocks, increasing oil prices, and the ecological problems associated with CO2 emissions are forcing the development of alternative resources for energy, transport fuels, and chemicals: the replacement of fossil resources with CO2 neutral biomass. Allied with this, the conversion of crude oil products utilizes primary products (ethylene, etc.) and their conversion to either materials or (functional) chemicals with the aid of co-reagents such as ammonia and various process steps to introduce functionalities such as -NH2 into the simple structures of the primary products. Conversely, many products found in biomass often contain functionalities. Therefore, it is attractive to exploit this to bypass the use, and preparation of, co-reagents as well as eliminating various process steps by utilizing suitable biomass-based precursors for the production of chemicals. It is the aim of this mini-review to describe the scope of the possibilities to generate current functionalized chemical materials using amino acids from biomass instead of fossil resources, thereby taking advantage of the biomass structure in a more efficient way than solely utilizing biomass for the production of fuels or electricity. PMID:17387469

  16. Biomass in the manufacture of industrial products--the use of proteins and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Scott, Elinor; Peter, Francisc; Sanders, Johan

    2007-06-01

    The depletion in fossil feedstocks, increasing oil prices, and the ecological problems associated with CO2 emissions are forcing the development of alternative resources for energy, transport fuels, and chemicals: the replacement of fossil resources with CO2 neutral biomass. Allied with this, the conversion of crude oil products utilizes primary products (ethylene, etc.) and their conversion to either materials or (functional) chemicals with the aid of co-reagents such as ammonia and various process steps to introduce functionalities such as -NH2 into the simple structures of the primary products. Conversely, many products found in biomass often contain functionalities. Therefore, it is attractive to exploit this to bypass the use, and preparation of, co-reagents as well as eliminating various process steps by utilizing suitable biomass-based precursors for the production of chemicals. It is the aim of this mini-review to describe the scope of the possibilities to generate current functionalized chemical materials using amino acids from biomass instead of fossil resources, thereby taking advantage of the biomass structure in a more efficient way than solely utilizing biomass for the production of fuels or electricity.

  17. Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Rasche, Stefan; Kuehn, Christoph; Anderlei, Tibor; Klöckner, Wolf; Schuster, Flora; Henquet, Maurice; Bosch, Dirk; Büchs, Jochen; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is a useful alternative to conventional stainless steel stirred-tank reactors, and orbitally-shaken bioreactors could provide further advantages such as simple bag geometry, scalability and predictable process settings. We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. Final cell fresh weights of 300-387 g/L and M12 yields of ∼20 mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we established an efficient downstream process for the recovery of M12 from the culture broth. The viscous spent medium prevented clarification using filtration devices, but we used expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with SP Sepharose as an alternative for the efficient capture of the M12 antibody. EBA was introduced as an initial purification step prior to protein A affinity chromatography, resulting in an overall M12 recovery of 75-85% and a purity of >95%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium.

  18. Greatly reduced bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Hyalella azteca in sediments from manufactured-gas plant sites.

    PubMed

    Kreitinger, Joseph P; Neuhauser, Edward F; Doherty, Francis G; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2007-06-01

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Hyalella azteca, was measured in 34 sediment samples collected from four manufactured-gas plant (MGP) sites ranging in total PAH16 (sum of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant PAHs) concentrations from 4 to 5700 mg/kg, total organic carbon content from 0.6 to 11%, and soot carbon from 0.2 to 5.1%. The survival and growth of H. azteca in 28-d bioassays were unrelated to total PAH concentration, with 100% survival in one sediment having 1,730 mg/kg total PAH16, whereas no survival was observed in sediment samples with concentrations as low as 54 mg/kg total PAH16. Twenty-five of the 34 sediment samples exceeded the probable effects concentration screening value of 22.8 mg/kg total PAH13 (sum of 13 PAHs) and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks for PAH mixtures (on the basis of the measurement of 18 parent PAHs and 16 groups of alkylated PAHs, [PAH34]); yet, 19 (76%) of the 25 samples predicted to be toxic were not toxic to H. azteca. However, the toxicity of PAHs to H. azteca was accurately predicted when either the rapidly released concentrations as determined by mild supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) or the pore-water concentrations were used to establish the bioavailability of PAHs. These results demonstrate that the PAHs present in many sediments collected from MGP sites have low bioavailability and that both the measurement of the rapidly released PAH concentrations with mild SFE and the dissolved pore-water concentrations of PAHs are useful tools for estimating chronic toxicity to H. azteca.

  19. An evaluation of the role of risk-based decision-making in a former manufactured gas plant site remediation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vikram M; Gochfeld, Michael G; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Lioy, Paul J; Sussman, Nancy R

    2006-02-01

    Environmental remediation decisions are driven by the need to minimize human health and ecological risks posed by environmental releases. The Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Sites enunciates the principles of exposure and risk assessment that are to be used for reaching remediation decisions for sites under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Experience with remediation management under CERCLA has led to recognition of some crucial infirmities in the processes for managing remediation: cleanup management policies are ad hoc in character, mandates and practices are strongly conservative, and contaminant risk management occurs in an artificially narrow context. The purpose of this case study is to show how a policy of risk-based decision-making was used to avoid customary pitfalls in site remediation. This case study describes the risk-based decision-making process in a remedial action program at a former manufactured gas plant site that successfully achieved timely and effective cleanup. The remediation process operated outside the confines of the CERCLA process under an administrative consent order between the utility and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. A residential use end state was negotiated as part of this agreement. The attendant uncertainties, complications, and unexpected contingencies were overcome by using the likely exposures associated with the desired end state to structure all of the remediation management decisions and by collecting site-specific information from the very outset to obtain a detailed and realistic characterization of human health risks that needed to be mitigated. The lessons from this case study are generalizable to more complicated remediation cases, when supported by correspondingly sophisticated technical approaches.

  20. Development of modified flyash as a permeable reactive barrier medium for a former manufactured gas plant site, Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, R.; Phillips, D. H.; McGeough, K. L.; Walsh, K. P.; Kalin, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    A sequential biological permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was determined to be the best option for remediating groundwater that has become contaminated with a wide range of organic contaminants (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (i.e., lead and arsenic), and cyanide at a former manufactured gas plant after 150 years of operation in Portadown, Northern Ireland. The objective of this study was to develop a modified flyash that could be used in the initial cell within a sequential biological PRB to filter complex contaminated groundwater containing ammonium. Flyash modified with lime (CaOH) and alum was subjected to a series of batch tests which investigated the modified cation exchange capacity (CEC) and rate of removal of anions and cations from the solution. These tests showed that a high flyash composition medium (80%) could remove 8.65 mol of ammonium contaminant for every kilogram of medium. The modified CEC procedure ruled out the possibility of cation exchange as the major removal mechanism. The medium could also adsorb anions as well as cations (i.e., Pb and Cr), but not with the same capacity. The initial mechanism for Pb and Cr removal is probably precipitation. This is followed by sorption, which is possibly the only mechanism for the removal of dichromate anions. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed very small (<1 μm) cubic highly crystalline precipitates on the flyash, although this new crystalline zeolite growth did not occur rapidly enough to enable productive zeolite formation. Surface area measurements showed that biofilm growth on the medium could be a major factor in the comparative reduction of surface area between real and synthetic contaminant groundwaters. The modified flyash was found to be a highly sorptive granular material that did not inhibit microbiological activity, however, leaching tests revealed that the medium would fail as a long-term barrier material.

  1. Chemistry, toxicology, and human health risk of cyanide compounds in soils at former manufactured gas plant sites.

    PubMed

    Shifrin, N S; Beck, B D; Gauthier, T D; Chapnick, S D; Goodman, G

    1996-04-01

    Cyanide-containing wastes are commonly found in soils at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, also known as town gas sites. The complex forms of cyanide are responsible for the blue-stained soils and rocks found at these sites. Most concentrations of cyanide at MGP sites are below 2000 ppm, although concentrations greater than 20,000 ppm have been observed. An understanding of the chemistry of the MGP cyanide-containing compounds, their fate, and transport as well as their toxicology is critical to accurately assessing potential human health risks from these compounds. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that the most prevalent types of cyanide compounds found at former MGP sites are the relatively nontoxic iron-complexed forms, such as ferric ferrocyanide, rather than the highly toxic free cyanide forms. Moreover, the chemical conditions at most former MGP sites limit the extent to which free cyanide may be released into air and water from complex cyanides. Using a screening analysis, the authors estimate potential risks from a multiroute exposure to complex and free cyanides in soil, air, and groundwater at former MGP sites and demonstrate that such risks are likely to be insignificant. Unfortunately, the lack of readily available measurement techniques to characterize cyanides in soil can result in erroneous conclusions about potential risks from cyanide compounds in soils at former MGP sites, particularly if health-based soil criteria for free cyanide (e.g., the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection criterion for free cyanide is 100 ppm (MA. DEP, 1995)) are applied. The authors recommend development of routine methods for field sampling and laboratory testing techniques to demonstrate that cyanides in soil at former MGP sites are predominated by iron-complexed species and that free cyanide is less than levels of concern.

  2. Prevalence of occupational asthma and immunologic sensitization to guar gum among employees at a carpet-manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Malo, J L; Cartier, A; L'Archevêque, J; Ghezzo, H; Soucy, F; Somers, J; Dolovich, J

    1990-10-01

    Guar gum is a high-molecular-weight agent that can cause occupational rhinitis and asthma. We surveyed the employees at a carpet-manufacturing plant in which guar gum is used to adhere the dye to the fiber; 162/177 of the employees (92%) participated in the first part of the survey that included a questionnaire and skin prick tests with common allergens and guar gum (1 mg/ml). IgE and IgG antibodies to guar gum were also measured in those subjects (133/162 or 82%) who agreed to blood tests. Thirty-seven subjects (23%) had a history suggestive of occupational asthma and 59 (36%), of occupational rhinitis. Eight subjects (5%) demonstrated immediate skin reactivity to guar gum. Eleven subjects (8.3%) had serum IgE antibodies to guar gum. All subjects, except one subject who had a history suggestive of occupational asthma (n = 37) or positive skin tests (n = 4), participated in the second part of the study. A methacholine-inhalation test was performed during a workshift or in the 3 to 4 hours after the workshift. Five subjects had a concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 of less than 16 mg/ml (significant bronchial hyperresponsiveness) and positive skin reactions to guar gum. Four of these subjects underwent specific inhalation challenges. The remaining subject had a history of severe bronchospastic reaction on exposure to guar gum, and his FEV1 of 1.6 L made specific challenges impossible. Two subjects had typical isolated immediate reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Fact Sheet: Revisions to New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Nitric Acid Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a May 2012 fact sheet with information regarding the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Nitric Acid Plants. This document provides a summary of the information for this NSPS.

  4. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Felipe; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; Meldau, Dorothea; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ischebeck, Till; Brodhun, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4) and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite. PMID:27907207

  5. The effect of rumen adaptation to oxalic acid on selection of oxalic-acid-rich plants by goats.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A J; Frutos, P; Young, S A

    2000-01-01

    Rumen microbial degradation is an important route for detoxification of secondary plant compounds encountered in the diets of free-grazing ruminants. Exposure to diets containing particular secondary plant compounds can lead to increased rates of secondary compound degradation in the rumen. An experiment was conducted to determine whether rumen adaptation to oxalic acid would influence the diet selection of goats offered choices between plant species differing in their oxalic acid content. Twelve adult female goats were divided into two groups of six animals each. One group received a daily oral dose, in gelatin capsules, of 0.6 mmol oxalic acid/kg live weight per d throughout the experiment while the other group received placebos consisting of empty gelatin capsules. After an adaptation period of 8 d, the animals were allowed to graze a mixture of spinach (rich in oxalic acid) and cabbage (low in oxalic acid) for 7 h/d on two consecutive days per week during four consecutive 1-week periods. Intervening days were spent on grass pasture. Diet composition and intake were measured using cuticular wax n-alkanes as internal markers. Results showed that adapted goats included a higher proportion of spinach in their diet (P < 0.05) although absolute intakes of spinach were the same for the two groups. Goats in the oxalic-acid-adapted group consumed less cabbage than control animals (P < 0.05) suggesting that adaptation to oxalic acid at the rumen level may have interfered with detoxification of cabbage-derived secondary plant compounds. Voluntary intake increased progressively through the four experimental periods (P < 0.001) with a tendency for higher intakes among control than among adapted animals (P < 0.1). The experiment demonstrates how differences in the rate of degradation of secondary plant compounds may influence diet selection in ruminants.

  6. Reduction of divinyl ether-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Rothe, Grit; Stumpe, Michael; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Rosahl, Sabine

    2007-03-01

    Oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesized via the lipoxygenase pathway play a role in plant responses to pathogen attack. In solanaceous plants, the preferential stimulation of the 9-lipoxygenase pathway in response to pathogen infection leads to the formation of the divinyl ether-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids colneleic and colnelenic acid, as well as hydroxy and trihydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids. To functionally assess the role of divinyl ethers, transgenic potato plants were generated which express an RNA interference construct directed against the pathogen-inducible 9-divinyl ether synthase. Efficient reduction of 9-divinyl ether synthase transcript accumulation correlated with reduced levels of colneleic and colnelenic acid. However, in response to infection with virulent Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, no significant differences in pathogen biomass could be detected suggesting that the levels of antimicrobial divinyl ethers are not critical for defense against Phytophthora infestans in a compatible interaction.

  7. Cloning and functional expression of the first plant fatty acid elongase specific for Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zank, T K; Zähringer, U; Lerchl, J; Heinz, E

    2000-12-01

    In order to elucidate the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plants we searched for a cDNA encoding a Delta(6)-specific PUFA elongase from Physcomitrella patens, which is known to contain high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4 Delta(5,8,11,14)). An EST clone from P. patens was identified by its low homology to the yeast gene ELO1, which is required for the elongation of medium-chain fatty acids. We functionally characterized this cDNA by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the presence of several fatty acids. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the transgenic yeast revealed that the cDNA encodes a protein that leads to the elongation of the C(18) Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 Delta(6,9,12)) and stearidonic acid (18:4 Delta(6,9,12,15)), which were recovered to 45-51% as their elongation products. In contrast, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids were hardly elongated and we could not measure any elongation of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (including 18:1 Delta(6)), indicating that the elongase is highly specific for the polyunsaturated nature of the fatty acid acting as substrate.

  8. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks.

    PubMed

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M

    2011-06-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth.

  9. Natural toxins that affect plant amino acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diverse range of natural compounds interfere with the synthesis and other aspects of amino acid metabolism. Some are amino acid analogues, but most are not. This review covers a number of specific natural phytotoxic compounds by molecular target site. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase is of part...

  10. Controlling plant architecture by manipulation of gibberellic acid signalling in petunia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone, regulates many crucial growth and developmental processes, including seed germination, leaf expansion, induction of flowering and stem elongation. A common problem in the production of ornamental potted plants is undesirably tall growth, so inhibitors of gibbe...

  11. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  12. Effects of the storage time on the folic acid added to ready-to-eat meat products manufactured by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, I.; García, M. L.; Selgas, M. D.

    2013-04-01

    Three different meat products enriched with folic acid (FA) (2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured: hamburgers, cooked and dry fermented sausages. They were prepared as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2 and 3 kGy) to ensure their safety. The stability of FA and sensory properties of the irradiated meat products were studied during three months of storage under freezing conditions for hamburgers and refrigeration conditions for cooked and dry fermented sausages. FA content was stable in non-irradiated and irradiated hamburgers and cooked sausages over the storage period, whereas it decreased 20% in non-irradiated dry fermented sausages and 12-8% in irradiated samples at 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Nevertheless, the final amount remained sufficient to provide the recommended daily intake. Panelists rated the sensory properties of the hamburger as satisfactory even after irradiation and 90 days of storage. The overall acceptability of RTE cooked and dry fermented sausages improved slightly with storage (P>0.05).

  13. Application of novel catalytic-ceramic-filler in a coupled system for long-chain dicarboxylic acids manufacturing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing; Dai, Bibo; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    To gain systematic technology for long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LDCA) manufacturing wastewater treatment, catalytic micro-electrolysis (CME) coupling with adsorption-biodegradation sludge (AB) process was studied. Firstly, novel catalytic-ceramic-filler was prepared from scrap iron, clay and copper sulfate solution and packed in the CME reactor. To remove residual n-alkane and LDCA, the CME reactor was utilized for LDCA wastewater pretreatment. The results revealed that about 94% of n-alkane, 98% of LDCA and 84% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed by the aerated CME reactor at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.0 h. In this process, catalysis from Cu and montmorillonites played an important role in improving the contaminants removal. Secondly, to remove residual COD in the wastewater, AB process was designed for the secondary biological treatment, about 90% of the influent COD could be removed by biosorption, bio-flocculation and biodegradation effects. Finally, the effluent COD (about 150 mg L(-1)) discharged from the coupled CME-AB system met the requirement of the national discharged standard (COD ≤ 300 mg L(-1)). All of these results suggest that the coupled CME-AB system is a promising technology due to its high-efficient performance, and has the potential to be applied for the real LDCA wastewater treatment.

  14. Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.W.; Blaylock, M.J.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in plants, and developed techniques to trigger U hyperaccumulation in plants. A key to the success of U phytoextraction is to increase soil U availability to plants. The authors have found that some organic acids can be added to soils to increase U desorption from soil to soil solution and to trigger a rapid U accumulation in plants. Of the organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid, and malic acid) tested, citric acid was the most effective in enhancing U accumulation in plants. Shoot U concentrations of Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a U-contaminated soil increased from less than 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1} to more than 5,000 mg kg{sup {minus}1} in citric acid-treated soils. To their knowledge, this is the highest shoot U concentration reported for plants grown on U-contaminated soils. Using this U hyperaccumulation technique, they are now able to increase U accumulation in shoots of selected plant species grown in two U-contaminated soils by more than 1,000-fold within a few days. The results suggest that U phytoextraction may provide an environmentally friendly alternative for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils.

  15. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  16. EFFECT OF INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, KINETIN, AND ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID ON PLANT GROWTH AND UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF LEAD, MICRONUTRIENTS, AND MACRONUTRIENTS IN ALFALFA PLANTS.

    PubMed

    López, Martha Laura; Peralta-Videa, José R; Parsons, Jason G; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Duarte-Gardea, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Alfalfa plants germinated and grown for 15 d in soil containing 80 mg Pb kg(-1) were treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 0.8 mM and indole-3-acetic acid-kinetin (IAA-KN) at 100 μM. Fifteen days after the treatment application, the concentration of lead (Pb), macronutrients, and micronutrients was determined using inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectroscopy. The chlorophyll content and plant growth were also measured. Roots of plants exposed to Pb alone, Pb-EDTA, and Pb-EDTA-IAA-KN had 160, 140, and 150 mg Pb kg(-1) DW, respectively. Pb was not detected in the stems of plants exposed to Pb alone; however, stems of plants treated with EDTA and EDTA-IAA-KN had 78 and 142 mg Pb kg(-1) DW, respectively. While the Pb concentration in leaves of plants treated with EDTA and EDTA-IAA-KN was 92 and 127 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. In addition, EDTA and EDTA-IAA-KN significantly increased the translocation of zinc and manganese to leaves. The x-ray absorption spectroscopic studies demonstrated that Pb(II) was transported from roots to leaves without a change in the oxidation state.

  17. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process.

  18. The dynamics of embolism refilling in abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Francesca; Perrone, Irene; Chitarra, Walter; Zwieniecka, Anna K; Lovisolo, Claudio; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-12-24

    Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant's refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants) were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA) or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant's capacity for refilling.

  19. U.S. EPA Requires Guardian Industries Corp. to Cut Harmful Air Pollution at Glass Manufacturing Plants in Seven States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES --The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Justice today announced a settlement with Guardian Industries Corp. that will resolve a Clean Air Act enforcement action involving Guardian's flat glass manufacturing facilit

  20. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. . Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

    1990-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum contains D-erythroascorbic acid (EAA) and a closely related reducing acid, possibly the open-chain form of EAA. The organism cleaves one of these products or possibly both to yield OA and D-glyceric acid. The OA is rapidly secreted into the medium. An analogy can be made between AA-linked OA biosynthesis in higher plants and EAA-linked OA biosynthesis in fungi as exemplified by S. sclerotiorum.

  1. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  2. Phenolic acids act as signaling molecules in plant-microbe symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic acids are the main polyphenols made by plants. These compounds have diverse functions and are immensely important in plant-microbe interactions/symbiosis. Phenolic compounds act as signaling molecules in the initiation of legumerhizobia symbioses, establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and can act as agents in plant defense. Flavonoids are a diverse class of polyphenolic compounds that have received considerable attention as signaling molecules involved in plant-microbe interactions compared to the more widely distributed, simple phenolic acids; hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, which are both derived from the general phenylpropanoid pathway. This review describes the well-known roles attributed to phenolic compounds as nod gene inducers of legume-rhizobia symbioses, their roles in induction of the GmGin1 gene in fungus for establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, their roles in inducing vir gene expression in Agrobacterium, and their roles as defense molecules operating against soil borne pathogens that could have great implications for rhizospheric microbial ecology. Amongst plant phenolics we have a lack of knowledge concerning the roles of phenolic acids as signaling molecules beyond the relatively well-defined roles of flavonoids. This may be addressed through the use of plant mutants defective in phenolic acids biosynthesis or knock down target genes in future investigations. PMID:20400851

  3. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects.

  4. Nematodes Associated with Plants from Naturally Acidic Wetlands Soil

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert John; Smart, Grover C.

    1994-01-01

    Four plants, Cyperus ochraceus, Eriocaulon compressum, Lythrum alatum, and Xyris jupicai, growing along the shoreline of an oligotrophic lake in north central Florida were sampled for nematodes. The nematodes recovered were placed in four trophic groups: bacterivores, herbivores, omnivores, and predators. When the nematodes on all plants were considered, 27% were bacterivores, 23% were herbivores, 7% were omnivores, and 43% were predators. Tripyla was the dominant predator and the dominant genus of all nematodes, and Malenchus was the dominant herbivore. Dominance was not clearly pronounced in the other trophic groups. PMID:19279927

  5. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  6. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. PMID:26672068

  7. [Process and mechanism of plants in overcoming acid soil aluminum stress].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tian-Long; Xie, Guang-Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Qiu, Lin-Quan; Wang, Na; Zhang, Su-Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum (Al) stress is one of the most important factors affecting the plant growth on acid soil. Currently, global soil acidification further intensifies the Al stress. Plants can detoxify Al via the chelation of ionic Al and organic acids to store the ionic Al in vacuoles and extrude it from roots. The Al extrusion is mainly performed by the membrane-localized anion channel proteins Al(3+)-activated malate transporter (ALMT) and multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE). The genes encoding ABC transporter and zinc-finger protein conferred plant Al tolerance have also been found. The identification of these Al-resistant genes makes it possible to increase the Al resistance of crop plants and enhance their production by the biological methods such as gene transformation and mark-associated breeding. The key problems needed to be solved and the possible directions in the researches of plant Al stress resistance were proposed.

  8. Very long chain fatty acid and lipid signaling in the response of plants to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Raffaele, Sylvain; Leger, Amandine

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that lipid signaling is essential for plant resistance to pathogens. Besides oxylipins and unsaturated fatty acids known to play important signaling functions during plant-pathogen interactions, the very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis pathway has been recently associated to plant defense through different aspects. VLCFAs are indeed required for the biosynthesis of the plant cuticle and the generation of sphingolipids. Elucidation of the roles of these lipids in biotic stress responses is the result of the use of genetic approaches together with the identification of the genes/proteins involved in their biosynthesis. This review focuses on recent observations which revealed the complex function of the cuticle and cuticle-derived signals, and the key role of sphingolipids as bioactive molecules involved in signal transduction and cell death regulation during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:19649180

  9. A Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...

  10. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacillus megaterium mj1212 Regulates Endogenous Plant Carbohydrates and Amino Acids Contents to Promote Mustard Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Lee, Ko-Eun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-01

    The current study was conducted to explore the potential of a phosphate solubilizing soil bacterium, Bacillus megaterium mj1212 for enhancing the growth of mustard plants. The newly isolated bacterial strain mj1212 was identified as B. megaterium using phylogenetic analysis and, its phosphate solubilization ability was shown by the clear zone formation on National Botanical Research Institute's Phosphate medium. Moreover, the phosphate solubilization ability of B. megaterium mj1212 was enhanced by optimal culture conditions at pH 7.0 and 35 °C which might be due to the presence of malic and quinic acid in the culture medium. The beneficial effect of B. megaterium mj1212 in mustard plants was determined by an increasing shoot length, root length and fresh weight of plants. In the biochemical analysis revealed that chlorophyll, sucrose, glucose, fructose and amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Cys, Val, Met, Ilu, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, His, Arg and Pro) were higher in B. megaterium mj1212 treated plants, when compared to their control. The result of present study suggests that B. megaterium mj1212 treatment could be act as phosphate biofertilizer to improve the plant growth.

  11. Development of disulfiram-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) wafers for the localised treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: a comparison of manufacturing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zembko, Iwona; Ahmed, Iram; Farooq, Aneesa; Dail, Jagdeep; Tawari, Patrica; Wang, Weiguang; Mcconville, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumour in adults with a very poor prognosis. This paper describes the development of disulfiram (DSF)-loaded biodegradable wafers manufactured using three standard techniques: compression, solvent casting and heat compression moulding. The paper demonstrates that neither technique has an adverse effect on the stability of the DSF within the wafers. However, the solvent casting technique results in an interaction between the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and the DSF. The physical state of the DSF within the wafers was dependent on the manufacturing technique, with the DSF in the wafers manufactured by compression or solvent casting retaining between 40% and 98% crystallinity, whereas the DSF in the wafers manufactured using heat compression moulding was completely amorphous. Release of DSF from the wafers is dependent on the degradation of the PLGA, the manufacturing technique used, and the DSF loading. DSF in the compressed and heat compression moulded wafers had a similar cytotoxicity against a GBM cell line compared with the unprocessed DSF control. However, the cytotoxicity of the DSF in the solvent-casted wafers was significantly lower than the unprocessed DSF.

  12. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  13. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  14. Jasmonic acid enhances plant cyanogenesis and resistance to herbivory in lima bean.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Stefanie; Trisel, Julie A; Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a natural plant hormone ubiquitously distributed in plants and centrally involved in the induction of direct and indirect plant defenses. Defenses up-regulated by this hormone include trichomes--a direct, mechanical defense--and alkaloids--a direct chemical defense--as well as two indirect chemical defenses: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). Plant cyanogenesis--the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from preformed cyanogenic precursors in fruits, leaves, and seeds of many plants--is recognized as a direct, constitutive plant defensive trait, and is among the most widely distributed of all direct chemical plant defenses. The cyanogenic system in plants is composed of three parameters: The cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic precursors), β-glucosidase activity, and cyanogenic capacity (HCNc; release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide). Here, we demonstrated that experimental application of aqueous solutions of JA ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 mmol L(-1), as well as insect herbivory significantly enhanced HCNc via the induction of β-glucosidase activity in wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). In choice feeding trials with JA induced and damaged leaves, adult Mexican bean beetles--natural herbivores of lima bean--rejected leaves with enhanced β-glucosidase activity and HCNc. Our findings suggest that jasmonic acid plays a critical role in regulating activity of β-glucosidases, which determines the rate of cyanogenesis, and thus mediates direct plant defense against herbivores.

  15. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Amjad Khan, Waleed; Chun-Mei, Hu; Khan, Nadeem; Iqbal, Amjad; Lyu, Shan-Wu; Shah, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  16. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Shan-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants. PMID:28316988

  17. Effects of root-zone acidity on utilization of nitrate and ammonium in tobacco plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. 'Coker 319') plants were grown for 28 days in flowing nutrient culture containing either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+ as the nitrogen source in a complete nutrient solution. Acidities of the solutions were controlled at pH 6.0 or 4.0 for each nitrogen source. Plants were sampled at intervals of 6 to 8 days for determination of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Specific rates of NO3- or NH4+ uptake (rate of uptake per unit root mass) were calculated from these data. Net photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area were measured on attached leaves by infrared gas analysis. When NO3- [correction of NO-] was the sole nitrogen source, root growth and nitrogen uptake rate were unaffected by pH of the solution, and photosynthetic activity of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were similar. When NH4+ was the nitrogen source, photosynthetic rate of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were not statistically different from NO3(-) -fed plants when acidity of the solution was controlled at pH 6.0. When acidity for NH4(+) -fed plants was increased to pH 4.0, however, specific rate of NH4+ uptake decreased by about 50% within the first 6 days of treatment. The effect of acidity on root function was associated with a decreased rate of accumulation of nitrogen in shoots that was accompanied by a rapid cessation of leaf development between days 6 and 13. The decline in leaf growth rate of NH4(+) -fed plants at pH 4.0 was followed by reductions in photosynthetic rate per unit leaf area. These responses of NH4(+) -fed plants to increased root-zone acidity are characteristic of the sequence of responses that occur during onset of nitrogen stress.

  18. Stepwise engineering to produce high yields of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guohai; Truksa, Martin; Datla, Nagamani; Vrinten, Patricia; Bauer, Joerg; Zank, Thorsten; Cirpus, Petra; Heinz, Ernst; Qiu, Xiao

    2005-08-01

    Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are valuable commodities that provide important human health benefits. We report the transgenic production of significant amounts of AA and EPA in Brassica juncea seeds via a stepwise metabolic engineering strategy. Using a series of transformations with increasing numbers of transgenes, we demonstrate the incremental production of VLCPUFAs, achieving AA levels of up to 25% and EPA levels of up to 15% of total seed fatty acids. Both fatty acids were almost exclusively found in triacylglycerols, with AA located preferentially at sn-2 and sn-3 positions and EPA distributed almost equally at all three positions. Moreover, we reconstituted the DHA biosynthetic pathway in plant seeds, demonstrating the practical feasibility of large-scale production of this important omega-3 fatty acid in oilseed crops.

  19. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Deficient Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Perrone, Irene; Chitarra, Walter; Zwieniecka, Anna K.; Lovisolo, Claudio; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants) were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA) or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling. PMID:23263667

  20. Abscisic acid substantially inhibits senescence of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) grown under low nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Oka, Mariko; Shimoda, Yousuke; Sato, Naoko; Inoue, Junya; Yamazaki, Teru; Shimomura, Norihiro; Fujiyama, Hideyasu

    2012-05-15

    Low nitrogen (N) availability such as that found in both dry land and tropical regions limits plant growth and development. The relationship between the level of abscisic acid (ABA) in a plant and its growth under low-N conditions was investigated. The level of ABA in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants under low-N conditions was significantly higher at 10 and 20 d after transplantation compared with that under sufficient-N conditions. Chlorophyll was preserved in the aerial parts of cucumber plants grown under low-N conditions in the presence of ABA, while there was no significant difference between control plants and ABA-applied plants under sufficient-N conditions. ABA suppressed the reduction of chlorophyll biosynthesis under low-N conditions but not under sufficient-N conditions. On the other hand, ABA decreased the expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene in older cucumber plants grown under both conditions. In addition, transcript and protein levels of a gene encoding a chlorophyll a/b binding protein were positively correlated with ABA concentration under low-N conditions. The chloroplasts in control plants were round, and the stack of thylakoid membranes was reduced compared with that of plants treated with ABA 10(-5) M. These results strongly suggest that ABA is accumulated in cucumber plants grown under low-N conditions and that accumulated ABA promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis and inhibits its degradation in those plants.

  1. Survey of boric acid corrosion of carbon steel components in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J. )

    1990-06-01

    A review has been performed on license responses (50) to Generic Letter 88-05. Joint Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and USNRC audits were performed on a series (10) of affected licensees. The plant audits showed a considerable variance in the mode and quality of boric acid corrosion prevention programs between utilities. The degree of importance of a boric acid corrosion control program also varied considerably between plants. In the plants where a reasonably high priority was given to the problem, the leaks were identified and corrective actions taken in a timely manner. Each of the plants audited had a boric acid corrosion prevention program in effect at the time of the plant visit. In many cases, the program consisted of modifications to existing leakage control procedures. Training of inspectors was accomplished by all audited licensees. In general, the inspectors were certified to the VT-2 qualification and in some instances to the EPRI visual inspection certifications. In general, all of the sites audited kept their plants relatively clean (with one exception). The majority of plants either cleaned their spills in short order and repaired the leaks or found methods of draining or containment of the liquids. All of the audited licensees satisfactorily addressed the four specified requirements of Generic Letter 88-05. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Concentrations and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils and plants from a deca-BDE manufacturing factory in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Shan; Hai, Reti; Li, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Residues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including eight PBDE congeners, were investigated in soils and plants from a deca-BDE manufacturing factory located in the Shandong province of China to evaluate and discuss their pollution level and distribution. Total concentrations in topsoil ranged from 17.0 to 146 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 58.7 μg g(-1) dw. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in soils, accounting for 55.63-99.27 % of the total PBDEs. Concentrations and congener patterns in soils varied among different soil depths. Concentration levels in topsoil are high and the heavy accumulation in deep soil also can be observed, even for some sites, the concentrations in 50-100 cm depth are higher than in topsoil. In plant samples, total PBDE concentrations and the proportion of BDE-209 were high (69.92-99.10 %). The extent of pollution by PBDEs in the deca-BDE production factory was higher than in other regions, and the environmental risk caused by the production of deca-BDE is of concern. This is the first study to report pollution of PBDEs in soils and plants from the vicinity of a deca-BDE manufacturing factory.

  3. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  4. Colonization by Phloem-Feeding Herbivore Overrides Effects of Plant Virus on Amino Acid Composition in Phloem of Chili Plants.

    PubMed

    Ángeles-López, Yesenia Ithaí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Heil, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The 'adaptive host manipulation' hypothesis predicts that parasites can enhance their transmission rates via manipulation of their host's phenotype. For example, many plant pathogens alter the nutritional quality of their host for herbivores that serve as their vectors. However, herbivores, including non-vectors, might cause additional alterations in the plant phenotype. Here, we studied changes in the amino acid (AA) content in the phloem of chilli (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) upon subsequent colonization with a non-vector, the phloem-feeding whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Virus infection alone caused an almost 30-fold increase in overall phloem AAs, but colonization by T. vaporariorum completely reversed this effect. At the level of individual AAs, contents of proline, tyrosine, and valine increased, and histidine and alanine decreased in PepGMV -infected as compared to control plants, whereas colonization by T. vaporariorum caused decreased contents of proline, tyrosine, and valine, and increased contents of histidine and alanine. Overall, the colonization by the whitefly had much stronger effects on phloem AA composition than virus infection. We conclude that the phloem composition of a virus-infected host plant can rapidly change upon arrival of an herbivore and that these changes need to be monitored to predict the nutritional quality of the plant in the long run.

  5. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products.

  6. Higher plant metabolism and energetics in hypogravity: Amino acid metabolism in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelis, M.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory's investigation into the amino acid metabolism of dwarf marigolds exposed to an environment of simulated hypogravity is summarized. Using both in vivo, and/or in vitro studies, the following effects of hypogravitational stress have been shown: (1) increased proline incorporation into cell wall protein, (2) inhibition of amino acid decarboxylation, (3) decrease in glutamic acid decarboxylase activity; and (4) decrease in the relative amount of a number of soluble amino acids present in deproteinized extracts of marigold leaves. It is concluded from these data there are several rapid, major alterations in amino acid metabolism associated with hypogravitational stress in marigolds. The mechanism(s) and generality of these effects with regard to other species is still unknown.

  7. Fatty acid constituents of Peganum harmala plant using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid contents of the Peganum harmala plant as a result of hexane extraction were analyzed using GC–MS. The saturated fatty acid composition of the harmal plant was tetradecanoic, pentadecanoic, tridecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, while the saturated fatty acid derivatives were 12-methyl tetradecanoic, 5,9,13-trimethyl tetradecanoic and 2-methyl octadecanoic acids. The most abundant fatty acid was hexadecanoic with concentration 48.13% followed by octadecanoic with concentration 13.80%. There are four unsaturated fatty acids called (E)-9-dodecenoic, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic and (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic. The most abundant unsaturated fatty acid was (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic with concentration 14.79% followed by (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic with concentration 10.61%. Also, there are eight non-fatty acid compounds 1-octadecene, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, (E)-15-heptadecenal, oxacyclohexadecan-2 one, 1,2,2,6,8-pentamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.1]dec-8-en-10-one, hexadecane-1,2-diol, n-heneicosane and eicosan-3-ol. PMID:27081366

  8. Fatty acid constituents of Peganum harmala plant using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Tarek A A; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid contents of the Peganum harmala plant as a result of hexane extraction were analyzed using GC-MS. The saturated fatty acid composition of the harmal plant was tetradecanoic, pentadecanoic, tridecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, while the saturated fatty acid derivatives were 12-methyl tetradecanoic, 5,9,13-trimethyl tetradecanoic and 2-methyl octadecanoic acids. The most abundant fatty acid was hexadecanoic with concentration 48.13% followed by octadecanoic with concentration 13.80%. There are four unsaturated fatty acids called (E)-9-dodecenoic, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic and (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic. The most abundant unsaturated fatty acid was (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic with concentration 14.79% followed by (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic with concentration 10.61%. Also, there are eight non-fatty acid compounds 1-octadecene, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, (E)-15-heptadecenal, oxacyclohexadecan-2 one, 1,2,2,6,8-pentamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.1]dec-8-en-10-one, hexadecane-1,2-diol, n-heneicosane and eicosan-3-ol.

  9. Tundra plant uptake of amino acid and NH{sub 4}{sup +} nitrogen in situ: Plants compete well for amino acid N{sup 1}

    SciTech Connect

    Schimel, J.P.; Chapin, F.S. III

    1996-10-01

    Traditional models of nutrient cycling assume that soil microorganisms must decompose organic matter, releasing inorganic N, to make N available to plants. Several lines of evidence have raised doubts about this assumption in arctic tundra, but no firm evidence existed. Here we demonstrate that Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex aquatilis, two tundra sedges, compete well for glycine and asparate N relative to NH{sub 4}{sup +} in situ. At relatively high concentrations (25 {mu}g N/g soil), during the peak of the season, E. vaginatum took up amino acid N more rapidly than NH{sub 4}{sup +}, while later in the season and at lower concentrations (2-4 {mu}g N/g soil) both E. vaginatum and C. aqualtilis took up glycine N and NH{sub 4}{sup +} at similar rates. These results are incompatible with a simple mechanism of amino acid mineralization followed by plant uptake of the released N. These results indicate that these tundra plants have active mechanisms for enhancing their access to amino acid N in situ. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., transporting, or handling of primers and all other occupations requiring the performance of any duties in the same building in which primers are manufactured. (iii) All occupations involved in the priming of..., black powder, blasting caps, fireworks, high explosives, primers, smokeless powder, and explosives...

  11. Good and bad protons: genetic aspects of acidity stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Physiological aspects of acidity stress in plants (synonymous with H(+) rhizotoxicity or low-pH stress) have long been a focus of research, in particular with respect to acidic soils where aluminium and H(+) rhizotoxicities often co-occur. However, toxic H(+) and Al(3+) elicit different response mechanisms in plants, and it is important to consider their effects separately. The primary aim of this review was to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the genetics of the specific reactions to low-pH stress in growing plants. A comparison of the results gleaned from quantitative trait loci analysis and global transcriptome profiling of plants in response to high proton concentrations revealed a two-stage genetic response: (i) in the short-term, proton pump H(+)-ATPases present the first barrier in root cells, allocating an excess of H(+) into either the apoplast or vacuole; the ensuing defence signaling system involves auxin, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate, which subsequently initiate expression of STOP and DREB transcription factors as well as chaperone ROF; (2) the long-term response includes other genes, such as alternative oxidase and type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, which act to detoxify dangerous reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, and help plants better manage the stress. A range of transporter genes including those for nitrate (NTR1), malate (ALMT1), and heavy metals are often up-regulated by H(+) rhizotoxicity. Expansins, cell-wall-related genes, the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt and biochemical pH-stat genes also reflect changes in cell metabolism and biochemistry in acidic conditions. However, the genetics underlying the acidity stress response of plants is complicated and only fragmentally understood.

  12. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context. PMID:26175738

  13. Responses of herbivore and predatory mites to tomato plants exposed to jasmonic acid seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Smart, Lesley E; Martin, Janet L; Limpalaër, Marlène; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A

    2013-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling can influence plant defense and the production of plant volatiles that mediate interactions with insects. Here, we tested whether a JA seed treatment could alter direct and indirect defenses. First, oviposition levels of herbivorous mites, Tetranychus urticae, on JA seed-treated and control tomato plants were compared. They were not significantly different on tomato cv. 'Moneymaker', however, there was a significant reduction in oviposition on treated plants in additional experiments with cv. 'Carousel'. Second, responses of predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were assessed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Volatiles from JA seed-treated tomato cv. 'Moneymaker' plants were significantly more attractive than volatiles from control plants. Volatiles collected from plants were analysed by GC/MS, and samples from JA seed-treated plants contained more methyl salicylate and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT) than samples from control plants. Our results indicate that JA seed treatment can make tomato plants more attractive to predatory mites, but that direct effects on herbivorous mites are variable and cultivar dependent.

  14. Nitro-fatty acids in plant signaling: New key mediators of nitric oxide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mata-Pérez, Capilla; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Padilla, María N; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Valderrama, Raquel; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies in animal systems have shown that NO can interact with fatty acids to generate nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs). They are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species and unsaturated fatty acids, and are considered novel mediators of cell signaling based mainly on a proven anti-inflammatory response. Although these signaling mediators have been described widely in animal systems, NO2-FAs have scarcely been studied in plants. Preliminary data have revealed the endogenous presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FAs in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), which appear to be contributing to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. Importantly, new findings have displayed the endogenous occurrence of nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the modulation of NO2-Ln levels throughout this plant's development. Furthermore, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq technology established a clear signaling role for this molecule, demonstrating that NO2-Ln was involved in plant-defense response against different abiotic-stress conditions, mainly by inducing the chaperone network and supporting a conserved mechanism of action in both animal and plant defense processes. Thus, NO2-Ln levels significantly rose under several abiotic-stress conditions, highlighting the strong signaling role of these molecules in the plant-protection mechanism. Finally, the potential of NO2-Ln as a NO donor has recently been described both in vitro and in vivo. Jointly, this ability gives NO2-Ln the potential to act as a signaling molecule by the direct release of NO, due to its capacity to induce different changes mediated by NO or NO-related molecules such as nitration and S-nitrosylation, or by the electrophilic capacity of these molecules through a nitroalkylation mechanism. Here, we describe the current state of the art regarding the advances performed in the field of NO2-FAs in plants and their implication in plant

  15. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  16. Lead sulfate nano- and microparticles in the acid plant blow-down generated at the sulfuric acid plant of the El Teniente mine, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barassi, Giancarlo M; Klimsa, Martin; Borrmann, Thomas; Cairns, Mathew J; Kinkel, Joachim; Valenzuela, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The acid plant 'blow-down' (also called weak acid) produced at El Teniente mine in Chile was characterized. This liquid waste (tailing) is generated during the cooling and cleaning of the smelter gas prior to the production of sulfuric acid. The weak acid was composed of a liquid and a solid phase (suspended solids). The liquid phase of the sample analyzed in this study mainly contained Cu (562 mg L(-1)), SO4(2-) (32 800 mg L(-1)), Ca (1449 mg L(-1)), Fe (185 mg L(-1)), As (6 mg L(-1)), K (467 mg L(-1)) and Al (113 mg L(-1)). Additionally, the sample had a pH-value and total acidity of 0.45 and 2970 mg L(-1) as CaCO3, respectively. Hence, this waste was classified as extremely acidic and with a high metal content following the Ficklin diagram classification. Elemental analysis using atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy showed that the suspended solids were anglesite (PbSO4) nano- and microparticles ranging from 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter.

  17. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  18. Aluminium-phosphorus interactions in plants growing on acid soils: does phosphorus always alleviate aluminium toxicity?

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong Fu; Zhang, Fu Lin; Zhang, Qi Ming; Sun, Qing Bin; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren Fang

    2012-03-30

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are considered to be the main constraints for crop production in acid soils, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Conventionally, P addition is regarded as capable of alleviating Al toxicity in plants. However, this field is still rife with unsubstantiated theories, especially for different plant species growing on acid soils. In this review, the responses of plants to different methods of Al-P treatments are briefly summarized, and possible reasons are proposed by considering recent results from our laboratory. It is shown that: (1) long-term Al-P alternate treatment is advantageous for studying Al-P interactions in plants; (2) under the long-term Al-P alternate treatment, the roles of P in Al phytotoxicity might be associated with the Al resistance capability and P use efficiency of the plant, and a P/Al molar ratio exceeding 5 in roots may be the threshold of P alleviating Al toxicity based on the calculation of the tested plants; (3) in acid soils, P application may be effective only after Al stress is overcome for Al-sensitive species. Thus it is concluded that P application does not always alleviate Al toxicity under long-term Al-P alternate treatment.

  19. Biostimulation of PAH degradation with plants containing high concentrations of linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haakrho; Crowley, David E

    2007-06-15

    Many plant species enhance the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which this occurs. This research identified phytochemicals that stimulate pyrene degradation using crushed roottissues from 43 plants that were screened in soil spiked with 100 ppm pyrene. Among the plants tested, root tissues from Apium graveolens (celery), Raphanus sativus (radish), Solanum tuberosum (potato), and Daucus carota (carrot) were most effective for promoting disappearance of pyrene within 40 days. Experiments with A. graveolens showed that plant culture in soil contaminated with pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene was as effective as addition of crushed root tissues. Comparison of the chemical compositions of the effective plants suggested that linoleic acid was the major substance that stimulated PAH degradation. This hypothesis was supported in experiments examining degradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soil amended with linoleate, whereas linolenic and palmitic acids did not stimulate degradation within a 20 day period. Antibiotic inhibitor studies implicated gram positive bacteria as a predominant group responding to linoleic acid. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which plants enhance degradation of PAHs, and have practical application for remediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  20. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  1. Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

    1991-04-01

    The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.

  2. Feasibility studies to establish at the Kazakhstan Ulba metallurgical plant the manufacturing capability to produce low-enriched uranium certified reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Nesuhoff, J; Cratto, P; Pfennigwerth, G; Mikhailenko, A; Maliutina, I; Nations, J

    2009-01-01

    One of the salient features of the transition plan that the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is presently implementing in the Former Soviet Union countries is the availability of uranium certified reference materials for calibration of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement equipment. To address this challenge, DOE/NNSA and U.S. national laboratories have focused their cooperative efforts on establishing a reliable source for manufacturing, certifying, and supplying of such standards. The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP), Kazakhstan, which processes large quantities of low-enriched uranium to produce ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear-powered reactors, is well situated to become a key supplier of low-enriched uranium certified reference materials for the country and Central Asia region. We have recently completed Phase I of a feasibility study to establish at UMP capabilities of manufacturing these standards. In this paper we will discuss details of a proposed methodology for uranium down-blending, material selection and characterization, and a proposed methodology of measurement by destructive (DA) and non-destructive (NDA) analysis to form a database for material certification by the competent State authorities in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, we will discuss the prospect for manufacturing of such standards at UMP.

  3. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P. syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll.

  4. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  5. Occurrence of several acidic drugs in sewage treatment plants in Switzerland and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Tauxe-Wuersch, A; De Alencastro, L F; Grandjean, D; Tarradellas, J

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence and fate of five acidic drugs (Mefenamic acid, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Clofibric acid) were analysed in three sewage treatment plants (STP) over 4-7 consecutive days. The results point out that the five substances were persistent in wastewater effluents after municipal wastewater treatment. At the most, half of Mefenamic acid was eliminated. Ibuprofen was well removed (80%) by one sewage treatment plant. The removal of Ibuprofen is dependent on the residence time of wastewater in the STPs. A long raining period induce an important decrease of removal of Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen. Removal rates showed a great variability according to sewage treatment plants and types of treatments (e.g. biological, physico-chemical). The concentrations of Ibuprofen, Mefenamic acid and Diclofenac were relatively high in the effluents (150-2000 ng/l), showing a potential contamination of surface water. An environmental risk assessment is presented. Mefenamic acid seems to present a risk for the aquatic environment, with a ratio PEC/PNEC higher than one.

  6. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  7. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed.

  8. Acid fuel cell technologies for vehicular power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, J.R.; Srinivasan, S.

    1982-08-01

    Fuel cells offer a number of significant advantages as vehicular power sources. These include high efficiency, virtually no pollution, and the ability to use nonpetroleum fuel. To date, most fuel cell systems have been designed for either utility or space applications, which have substantially different requirements than vehicular applications. Several fuel cell technologies were assessed specifically for vehicular applications. The results of these assessments were used to calculate the performance and fuel consumption of a fuel cell powered GM X car. Results indicate that the phosphoric acid technology, which has the most development experience, can power a vehicle with reasonable performance, with a range of over 350 miles on 20 gallons of methanol and with high energy efficiency. Solid polymer electrolyte technology, which is second in development experience, can provide performance approaching that of an ICE vehicle and an energy efficiency 149% higher than the ICE-powered version.

  9. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in an epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsen, Edward W J; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2012-09-01

    This study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in a species of the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm plant family. The tropical Australian endemic epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f., exhibits net CO(2) uptake in the dark and a concomitant accumulation of titratable acidity in plants in the field and in cultivation. Plants growing near Cardwell, in a north Queensland coastal seasonally dry forest of Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn., accumulated ~50 % of their 24 h carbon gain in the dark during the warm wet season. During the transition from the wet season to the dry season, 24 h carbon gain was reduced whilst the proportion of carbon accumulated during the dark increased. By mid dry season many plants exhibited zero net carbon uptake over 24 h, but CO(2) uptake in the dark was observed in some plants following localised rainfall. In a shade-house experiment, droughted plants in which CO(2) uptake in the light was absent and dark CO(2) uptake was reduced, were able to return to relatively high rates of CO(2) uptake in the light and dark within 12 h of rewatering.

  10. Occupational health education and collaboration for reducing the risk of lead poisoning of workers in a battery manufacturing plant in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lormphongs, Srirat; Morioka, Ikuharu; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroichi; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Thiramanus, Thirapong; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2004-10-01

    We provided occupational health education as training to all workers (N=31) and managers, and collaborated with them against reducing the risk of lead poisoning of workers at an assembly section in a battery manufacturing plant in Bangkok, Thailand in 2002. After occupational health education, many workers (80.6-100.0%) noticed and understood the toxicity of lead and the importance of protection against it. Many workers regularly wore long sleeved shirt and trousers, and used the appropriate mask all day long. They changed the attitude toward their work and improved personal hygiene, for example no smoking in the workplace, washing their hands by a detergent before drinking water or having lunch, and taking a bath after the work. They especially took off working clothes at an office outside the workplace and washed them everyday. The average blood lead level of the workers significantly (P=0.002) reduced from 32.7 microg/dl to 22.4 microg/dl, although airborne lead level in the workplace remained unchanged with before conditions. From these results occupational health education and collaboration between workers and managers were effective tools to reduce the risk of lead poisoning of workers in a battery manufacturing plant.

  11. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal.

  12. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.

  13. Abscisic acid has a key role in modulating diverse plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Hill, Lionel; Crooks, Casey; Doerner, Peter; Lamb, Chris

    2009-08-01

    We isolated an activation-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) line, constitutive disease susceptibility2-1D (cds2-1D), that showed enhanced bacterial growth when challenged with various Pseudomonas syringae strains. Systemic acquired resistance and systemic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 induction were also compromised in cds2-1D. The T-DNA insertion adjacent to NINE-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE5 (NCED5), one of six genes encoding the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic enzyme NCED, caused a massive increase in transcript level and enhanced ABA levels >2-fold. Overexpression of NCED genes recreated the enhanced disease susceptibility phenotype. NCED2, NCED3, and NCED5 were induced, and ABA accumulated strongly following compatible P. syringae infection. The ABA biosynthetic mutant aba3-1 showed reduced susceptibility to virulent P. syringae, and ABA, whether through exogenous application or endogenous accumulation in response to mild water stress, resulted in increased bacterial growth following challenge with virulent P. syringae, indicating that ABA suppresses resistance to P. syringae. Likewise ABA accumulation also compromised resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis, whereas resistance to the fungus Alternaria brassicicola was enhanced in cds2-1D plants and compromised in aba3-1 plants, indicating that ABA promotes resistance to this necrotroph. Comparison of the accumulation of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in the wild type, cds2-1D, and aba3-1 plants challenged with P. syringae showed that ABA promotes jasmonic acid accumulation and exhibits a complex antagonistic relationship with salicylic acid. Our findings provide genetic evidence that the abiotic stress signal ABA also has profound roles in modulating diverse plant-pathogen interactions mediated at least in part by cross talk with the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid biotic stress signal pathways.

  14. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  15. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reithmiller, Steven

    1995-07-01

    Sulfuric acid turned out to be one of the critical chemicals made in the South during the Civil War. It was necessary for the manufacture of mercury fulminate which was used in the production of percussion caps and sulfuric acid was used in the Daniells cell to produce electricity. Charles H. Winston, president of the Richmond Female Institute and later professor at the University of Richmond (VA) was instrumental in the establishment of a plant to manufacture sulfuric acid in Charlotte, North Carolina. His patent and method of manufacture plus the uses of sulfuric acid during the Civil War are discussed.

  16. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Hedychium bousigonianum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to induce somatic embryogenesis in Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain and assess the influence of salicylic acid (S) on somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos and subsequently regenerated plants were successfully obtained 30 days after transfer of embryogenic...

  17. Using heat pipe to make isotherm condition in catalytic converters of sulfuric acid plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, M.; Pahlavanzadeh, H.; Sadrameli, S. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, for the first time, it is tried to construct a pilot reactor, for surveying the possibility of creating isothermal condition in the catalytic convertors where SO2 is converted to SO3 in the sulfuric acid plants by heat pipe. The thermodynamic and thermo-kinetic conditions were considered the same as the sulfuric acid plants converters. Also, influence of SO2 gas flow rate on isothermal condition, has been studied. A thermo-siphon type heat pipe contains the sulfur + 5% iodine as working fluid, was used for disposing the heat of reaction from catalytic bed. Our results show that due to very high energy-efficiency, isothermal and passive heat transfer mechanism of heat pipe, it is possible to reach more than 95% conversion in one isothermal catalytic bed. As the results, heat pipe can be used as a certain piece of equipment to create isothermal condition in catalytic convertors of sulphuric acid plants. With this work a major evaluation in design of sulphuric acid plants can be taken place.

  18. Effect of acid solutions on plants studied by the optical beam deflection method.

    PubMed

    Nie, Liangjiao; Kuboda, Mitsutoshi; Inoue, Tomomi; Wu, Xingzheng

    2013-12-01

    The optical beam deflection method was applied to study the effects of acid solution on both a terrestial and aquatic plants Egeria and Cerastium, which are common aquatic plant and terrestial weed respectively. A probe beam from a He-Ne laser was passed through a vicinity of a leaf of the plants, which were put in culture dishes filled with acid solutions. Deflection signals of the probe beam were monitored and compared for acid solutions with different pH values. The results of Egria showed that the deflection signals changed dramatically when pH values of acid solutions were 2.0 and 3.0, while little at pH of 4.0 and 5.0. For Cerastium when pH were below 3.0, deflection signals changed greatly with time at the begining. After a certain period of time, deflection signals changed little with time. When pH value was above 4.0, deflection signals of Cerastium were still changing with time even after 20 hours. The results suggested that the damage threshold of pH was between 3.0 and 4.0 for both the land and aquatic plants.

  19. Fatty acid unsaturation, mobilization, and regulation in the response of plants to stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress acclimating plants respond to abiotic and biotic stress by remodeling membrane fluidity and the release of a-linolenic from membrane lipid. The adjustment of membrane lipid fluidity occurs through changes in unsaturated fatty acid levels, a function provided by the regulated activity of...

  20. Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model

    PubMed Central

    Aranega-Bou, Paz; de la O Leyva, Maria; Finiti, Ivan; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some alternative control strategies of currently emerging plant diseases are based on the use of resistance inducers. This review highlights the recent advances made in the characterization of natural compounds that induce resistance by a priming mechanism. These include vitamins, chitosans, oligogalacturonides, volatile organic compounds, azelaic and pipecolic acid, among others. Overall, other than providing novel disease control strategies that meet environmental regulations, natural priming agents are valuable tools to help unravel the complex mechanisms underlying the induced resistance (IR) phenomenon. The data presented in this review reflect the novel contributions made from studying these natural plant inducers, with special emphasis placed on hexanoic acid (Hx), proposed herein as a model tool for this research field. Hx is a potent natural priming agent of proven efficiency in a wide range of host plants and pathogens. It can early activate broad-spectrum defenses by inducing callose deposition and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. Later it can prime pathogen-specific responses according to the pathogen’s lifestyle. Interestingly, Hx primes redox-related genes to produce an anti-oxidant protective effect, which might be critical for limiting the infection of necrotrophs. Our Hx-IR findings also strongly suggest that it is an attractive tool for the molecular characterization of the plant alarmed state, with the added advantage of it being a natural compound. PMID:25324848

  1. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant cost model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost analysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant includes two parts: a method for estimation of system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost estimation. A FORTRAN computer has been developed for this cost analysis.

  2. A Continuous, Quantitative Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic acid O-Methyltransferases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant caffeic acid O-methyltransferases (COMTs) use s-adenosylmethionine (ado-met), as a methyl donor to transmethylate their preferred (phenolic) substrates in-vivo, and will generally utilize a range of phenolic compounds in-vitro. Collazo et al. (2005; Analytical Biochemistry 342: 86-92) have pu...

  3. Fatty acid profile of 25 plant oils and implications for industrial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of plant oils extracted from twenty-five alternative feedstocks were determined. This information was utilized to determine what industrial application(s) each oil is best suited for. The basis for the selection was the premise that FA composition influences properties o...

  4. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  5. A Potent Plant-Derived Antifungal Acetylenic Acid Mediates Its Activity by Interfering with Fatty Acid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Tripathi, Siddharth K.; Feng, Qin; Lorenz, Michael C.; Wright, Marsha A.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Mask, Melanie M.; Baerson, Scott R.; Li, Xing-Cong; Clark, Alice M.

    2012-01-01

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses were conducted using the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate its mechanism of action. 6-NDA elicited a transcriptome response indicative of fatty acid stress, altering the expression of genes that are required for yeast growth in the presence of oleate. Mutants of S. cerevisiae lacking transcription factors that regulate fatty acid β-oxidation showed increased sensitivity to 6-NDA. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated that 6-NDA inhibited the formation of fatty acids longer than 14 carbons in length. In addition, the growth inhibitory effect of 6-NDA was rescued in the presence of exogenously supplied oleate. To investigate the response of a pathogenic fungal species to 6-NDA, transcriptional profiling and biochemical analyses were also conducted in C. albicans. The transcriptional response and fatty acid profile of C. albicans were comparable to those obtained in S. cerevisiae, and the rescue of growth inhibition with exogenous oleate was also observed in C. albicans. In a fluconazole-resistant clinical isolate of C. albicans, a fungicidal effect was produced when fluconazole was combined with 6-NDA. In hyphal growth assays, 6-NDA inhibited the formation of long hyphal filaments in C. albicans. Collectively, our results indicate that the antifungal activity of 6-NDA is mediated by a disruption in fatty acid homeostasis and that 6-NDA has potential utility in the treatment of superficial Candida infections. PMID:22430960

  6. Nitro-Fatty Acids in Plant Signaling: Nitro-Linolenic Acid Induces the Molecular Chaperone Network in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, María N.; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Luque, Francisco; Melguizo, Manuel; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Peñas-Sanjuán, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species derived of nitric oxide (NO) and unsaturated fatty acids. In animal systems, NO2-FAs are considered novel signaling mediators of cell function based on a proven antiinflammatory response. Nevertheless, the interaction of NO with fatty acids in plant systems has scarcely been studied. Here, we examine the endogenous occurrence of nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln) in Arabidopsis and the modulation of NO2-Ln levels throughout this plant’s development by mass spectrometry. The observed levels of this NO2-FA at picomolar concentrations suggested its role as a signaling effector of cell function. In fact, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq technology established a clear signaling role for this molecule, demonstrating that NO2-Ln was involved in plant defense response against different abiotic-stress conditions, mainly by inducing heat shock proteins and supporting a conserved mechanism of action in both animal and plant defense processes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that NO2-Ln was also involved in the response to oxidative stress conditions, mainly depicted by H2O2, reactive oxygen species, and oxygen-containing compound responses, with a high induction of ascorbate peroxidase expression. Closely related to these results, NO2-Ln levels significantly rose under several abiotic-stress conditions such as wounding or exposure to salinity, cadmium, and low temperature, thus validating the outcomes found by RNA-seq technology. Jointly, to our knowledge, these are the first results showing the endogenous presence of NO2-Ln in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and supporting the strong signaling role of these molecules in the defense mechanism against different abiotic-stress situations. PMID:26628746

  7. Antimicrobial peptides incorporating non-natural amino acids as agents for plant protection.

    PubMed

    Ng-Choi, Iteng; Soler, Marta; Güell, Imma; Badosa, Esther; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Bardaji, Eduard; Montesinos, Emilio; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia

    2014-04-01

    The control of plant pathogens is mainly based on copper compounds and antibiotics. However, the use of these compounds has some limitations. They have a high environmental impact and the use of antibiotics is not allowed in several countries. Moreover, resistance has been developed to these pathogens. The identification of new agents able to fight plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi will represent an alternative to currently used antibiotics or pesticides. Antimicrobial peptides are widely recognized as promising candidates, however naturally occurring sequences present drawbacks that limit their development. These include susceptibility to protease degradation and low bioavailability. To overcome these problems, research has focused on the introduction of unnatural amino acids into lead peptide sequences. In particular, we have improved the biological profile of antimicrobial peptides active against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi by incorporating triazolyl, biaryl and D-amino acids into their sequence. These modifications and their influence on the biological activity are summarized.

  8. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  9. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles—especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  11. Effects of acid precipitation on reproduction in alpine plant species. [Erythronium grandiflorum; Aquilegia caerulea

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, M.A.; Hille-Salgueiro, M.; Musselman, R.C. Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO )

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to determine the impact of acid rain on plant reproductive processes, a critical component of a species life history. Research was carried out in herbaceous alpine communities at the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Forest Service Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site in the Snowy Mts. of Wyoming. A range of species were surveyed to monitor the sensitivity of pollen to acidification during germination and growth, and all species demonstrated reduced in vitro pollen germination in acidified media. Field pollinations were carried out in Erythronium grandiflorum and Aquilegia caerulea to determine the reproductive success of plants exposed to simulated ambient precipitation (pH 5.6) or simulated acid precipitation (pH 3.6) prior to pollination. In Erythronium, no differences were observed in seed set and seed weight of fruits resulting from the two pollination treatments. In Aquilegia, fruits resulting from the acid spray treatment produced fewer seeds and lighter seeds.

  12. Lipid and fatty acid composition of muga silkworm, Antheraea assama, host plants in relation to silkworm growth.

    PubMed

    Unni, B G; Kakoty, A C; Khanikor, D; Bhattacharya, P R; Pathak, M G; Pillai, K; Pillai, R; Choudhury, A; Saikia, P C; Ghosh, A C

    1996-05-01

    The lipid and fatty acid composition of the leaves (tender, medium and mature) of muga host plants, Machilus bombycina, Litsaea monopetala (primary food plants) and L. cubeba and L. salicifolia (family: Lauraceae) (secondary food plants) was investigated by standard procedures, gas chromatography after saponification and esterification. The total lipid content of M. bombycina and L. monopetala leaves was recorded to be higher (16 and 18 g%), respectively, than that of L. cubeba (10 g%) and L. salicifolia (12 g%). GC analysis identified the presence of eight fatty acids (C14 to C22) and the concentration varied from 0.0297 to 8.1572 g% dry leaf powder. Among the fatty acids, (C14 to C22), polyunsaturated fatty acids were recorded to be highest in concentration in mature leaves of the primary host plants. The concentrations of saturated and polyunsatuated fatty acids were found to be at a minimum level in all the types of leaves of secondary muga host plants.

  13. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  14. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  15. Fatty acids for controlled release applications: A comparison between prilling and solid lipid extrusion as manufacturing techniques.

    PubMed

    Vervaeck, A; Monteyne, T; Siepmann, F; Boone, M N; Van Hoorebeke, L; De Beer, T; Siepmann, J; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the solid state characteristics, drug release and stability of fatty acid-based formulations after processing via prilling and solid lipid extrusion. Myristic acid (MA), stearic acid (SA) and behenic acid (BA) were used as matrix formers combined with metoprolol tartrate (MPT) as model drug. The prilling process allowed complete dissolution of MPT in the molten fatty acid phase, generating semi-crystalline MPT and the formation of hydrogen bonds between drug and fatty acids in the solid prills. In contrast, as solid lipid extrusion (SLE) induced only limited melting of the fatty acids, molecular interaction with the drug was inhibited, yielding crystalline MPT. Although the addition of a low melting fatty acid allowed more MPT/fatty acid interaction during extrusion, crystalline MPT was detected after processing. Mathematical modeling revealed that the extrudates exhibited a higher apparent drug/water mobility than prills of the same composition, probably due to differences in the inner systems' structure. Irrespective of the processing method, mixed fatty acid systems (e.g. MA/BA) exhibited a lower matrix porosity, resulting in a slower drug release rate. Solid state analysis of these systems indicated that the crystalline structure of the fatty acids was maintained after SLE, while prilling generated a reduced MA crystallinity. Binary MPT/fatty acid systems processed via extrusion showed better stability during storage at 40 °C than the corresponding prills. Although mixed fatty acid systems were stable at 25 °C, stability problems were encountered during storage at 40 °C: a faster release was obtained from the prills, whereas drug release from the extrudates was slower.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  17. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Occupations Particularly Hazardous for... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations in or about plants or...

  18. Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze

    1998-12-31

    Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

  19. Functional analyses of carnivorous plant-specific amino acid residues in S-like ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Arai, Naoki; Nishimura, Emi; Kikuchi, Yo; Ohyama, Takashi

    2015-09-11

    Unlike plants with no carnivory, carnivorous plants seem to use S-like ribonucleases (RNases) as an enzyme for carnivory. Carnivorous plant-specific conserved amino acid residues are present at four positions around the conserved active site (CAS). The roles of these conserved amino acid residues in the enzymatic function were explored in the current study by preparing five recombinant variants of DA-I, the S-like RNase of Drosera adelae. The kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzymes revealed that among the four variants with a single mutation, the serine to glycine mutation at position 111 most negatively influenced the enzymatic activity. The change in the bulkiness of the amino acid residue side-chain seemed to be the major cause of the above effect. Modeling of the three dimensional (3D) structures strongly suggested that the S to G mutation at 111 greatly altered the overall enzyme conformation. The conserved four amino acid residues are likely to function in keeping the two histidine residues, which are essential for the cleavage of RNA strands, and the CAS in the most functional enzymatic conformation.

  20. Identification and biochemical characterization of plant acylamino acid-releasing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yasuo; Ejiri, Yukinori; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    Plant acylamino acid-releasing enzyme (AARE) catalyzing the N-terminal hydrolysis of N(alpha)-acylpeptides to release N(alpha)-acylated amino acids, was biochemically characterized using recombinant and native AAREs. A cDNA encoding a deduced Arabidopsis thaliana AARE (AtAARE) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded a 764 amino acid protein of 83.9 kDa, which was 31.8% identical with that of rat AARE. In particular, the proposed catalytic residues (Ser, Asp, and His) of AARE, called the "catalytic triad residues, " were completely conserved. Recombinant AtAARE was expressed in Escherichia coli and confirmed to be a functional AARE. Native AAREs were prepared from A. thaliana and cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L.) plants. Both native AAREs were tetrameric proteins of 350 kDa comprising four subunits of 82 kDa, and showed typical enzymological properties of other AAREs, i.e. sensitivity to diisopropyl fluorophosphate, an optimum pH of around 7.0, and an optimum temperature of 37 degrees C. Both the native and recombinant AAREs were immunochemically homologous. Intracelluar fractionation analysis showed that the AARE was mainly present in the stroma of chloroplasts. Native AARE degraded the glycated ribulose-1,5-bisphoshate carboxylase/oxygenase protein but not the native protein. Thus, plant AARE might be involved in not only catalysis of the N-terminal hydrolysis of N(alpha)-acylpeptides but also the elimination of glycated proteins.

  1. Characteristics of dioxin emissions from a Waelz plant with acid and basic kiln mode.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chen, Mei Lien; Chang, Moo Been

    2012-01-30

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in the flue gas of a Waelz plant operated in acid and basic modes, respectively. To abate (PCDD/F) and other pollutants, the plant operates with a post-treatment of flue gases by activated carbon injection and subsequent filtration. Relatively high PCDD/F discharge by fly ashes is found with acid kiln mode of the Waelz process. Therefore, basic kiln mode of the Waelz process is investigated and compared in this plant. With the adsorbent injection rate of 7 kg/h (95 mg/Nm(3)), the PCDD/F concentration in stack gas was measured as 0.123 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) in the basic operating mode. The added Ca(OH)(2) reacted with metal catalysts and HCl((g)) in the flue gas and thus effectively suppressed the formation of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F concentrations in fly ashes sampled from the dust settling chamber, cyclone, primary filter and secondary filter in basic kiln mode were significantly lower than that in acid kiln mode. Total PCDD/F emission on the basis of treating one kg of electric arc furnace dust in the basic operation mode was 269 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated which was significantly lower than that in acid mode (640 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated).

  2. Effects of acid rain, alone and in combination with gaseous pollutants, on growth and yield of crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.; Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field experiments were conducted to determine the response of crop plants to levels of acidity in simulated rain. The major objectives were: to determine the levels of acidity in rain that alter crop productivity; to evaluate varietal differences in crop response; and to determine the response of crop plants to the combined stress of acid rain and gaseous pollutants, primarily ozone. Results showed additive effects rather than synergistic ones.

  3. Comparison of the fatty acid profiles in cheeses from ewes fed diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Raúl; Manso, Teresa; Mantecón, Angel R; Juárez, Manuela; De la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Gómez-Cortés, Pilar

    2010-10-13

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a cheese from ewes milk with a healthier fatty acid (FA) profile. To achieve our aim, 48 ewes (12 per treatment) were fed diets supplemented with 3% of plant oils: palm (used as control), olive (OO), soybean (SO), and linseed (LO). Milk samples from each treatment were collected to manufacture cheeses. The cheesemaking process did not modify the dairy fat FA profile, but OO, SO, and LO did reduce the C12:0 + C14:0 + C16:0 content in dairy fat, thus decreasing the atherogenic index value in the cheeses. Percentages of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 in cheeses ranged from the 0.43 control value to 0.92, 1.64, and 2.71 with OO, LO, and SO respectively, following the same pattern as trans-11 C18:1. In contrast, trans-10 C18:1 levels were always below 1%. The lowest n-6/n-3 ratio obtained with LO (1.43) suggests that such lipid supplementation would be the most effective nutritional strategy for improving cheese FA profiles.

  4. Defense signaling among interconnected ramets of a rhizomatous clonal plant, induced by jasmonic-acid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Song; Lei, Ning-Fei; Liu, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Resource sharing between ramets of clonal plants is a well-known phenomenon that allows stoloniferous and rhizomatous species to internally transport water, mineral nutrients and carbohydrates from sites of high supply to sites of high demand. Moreover, vascular ramet connections are likely to provide an excellent means to share substances other than resources, such as defense signals. In a greenhouse experiment, the rhizomatous sedge Carex alrofusca, consisting of integrated ramets of different ages, was used to study the transmission of defense signals through belowground rhizome connections in response to local spray with jasmonic-acid. A feeding preference test with the caterpillar Gynaephora rnenyuanensis was employed to assess benefits of rhizome connections on defense signaling. Young ramets were more responsive to jasmonic-acid treatment than middle-aged or old ramets. Condensed tannin content in the foliage of young ramets showed a significant increase and soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen content showed marginally significant decreases in the 1 mM jasmonic-acid treatment but not in control and/or 0.0001 mM jasmonic-acid treatments. The caterpillar G. rnenyuanensis preferentially grazed young ramets. After a localized spray of 1 mM jasmonic-acid, the leaf area of young ramets consumed by herbivores was greatly reduced. We propose that defense signals may be transmitted through physical connections (stolon or rhizome) among interconnected ramets of clonal plants. Induced resistance to herbivory may selectively enhance the protection of more vulnerable and valuable plant tissues and confer a significant benefit to clonal plants by a modular risk-spreading strategy, equalizing ontogenetic differences of unevenly-aged ramets in chemical defense compounds and nutritional properties of tissue.

  5. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in plants: more than just the precursor of ethylene!

    PubMed Central

    Van de Poel, Bram; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is a simple two carbon atom molecule with profound effects on plants. There are quite a few review papers covering all aspects of ethylene biology in plants, including its biosynthesis, signaling and physiology. This is merely a logical consequence of the fascinating and pleiotropic nature of this gaseous plant hormone. Its biochemical precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is also a fairly simple molecule, but perhaps its role in plant biology is seriously underestimated. This triangularly shaped amino acid has many more features than just being the precursor of the lead-role player ethylene. For example, ACC can be conjugated to three different derivatives, but their biological role remains vague. ACC can also be metabolized by bacteria using ACC-deaminase, favoring plant growth and lowering stress susceptibility. ACC is also subjected to a sophisticated transport mechanism to ensure local and long-distance ethylene responses. Last but not least, there are now a few exciting studies where ACC has been reported to function as a signal itself, independently from ethylene. This review puts ACC in the spotlight, not to give it the lead-role, but to create a picture of the stunning co-production of the hormone and its precursor. PMID:25426135

  6. An eco-balance of a recycling plant for spent lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Roberta; Mondello, Fabio; Lanuzza, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2005-02-01

    This study applies Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to present an eco-balance of a recycling plant that treats spent lead-acid batteries. The recycling plant uses pyrometallurgical treatment to obtain lead from spent batteries. The application of LCA methodology (ISO 14040 series) enabled us to assess the potential environmental impacts arising from the recycling plant's operations. Thus, net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences were examined and hot spots inside the recycling plant were identified. A sensitivity analysis was also performed on certain variables to evaluate their effect on the LCA study. The LCA of a recycling plant for spent lead-acid batteries presented shows that this methodology allows all of the major environmental consequences associated with lead recycling using the pyrometallurgical process to be examined. The study highlights areas in which environmental improvements are easily achievable by a business, providing a basis for suggestions to minimize the environmental impact of its production phases, improving process and company performance in environmental terms.

  7. Nucleic acids encoding plant glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-03-29

    Glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) proteins, nucleic acid molecules encoding GPT proteins, and uses thereof are disclosed. Provided herein are various GPT proteins and GPT gene coding sequences isolated from a number of plant species. As disclosed herein, GPT proteins share remarkable structural similarity within plant species, and are active in catalyzing the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (2-oxoglutaramate), a powerful signal metabolite which regulates the function of a large number of genes involved in the photosynthesis apparatus, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism.

  8. Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

    2012-11-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  9. Expression of a cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase gene results in {gamma}-linolenic acid production in transgenic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.; Thomas, T.L.

    1996-05-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a nutritionally important fatty acid in human and animal diets, is not produced in oil seed crops. Many oil seed plants, however, produce significant quantities of linoleic acid, a fatty acid that could be converted to GLA by the enzyme {del}{sup 6}-desaturase if it were present. As a first step to producing GLA in oil seed crops, we have cloned a cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase gene. Expression of this gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in GLA accumulation. Octadecatetraenoic acid, a highly unsaturated, industrially important fatty acid, was also found in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase. This is the first example of engineering the production of `novel` polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Rapid and efficient isolation of high quality nucleic acids from plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Japelaghi, Reza Heidari; Haddad, Raheem; Garoosi, Ghasem-Ali

    2011-10-01

    Isolation of high quality nucleic acids from plant tissues rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols is often difficult. The presence of these substances can affect the quality and/or quantity of the nucleic acids isolated. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient nucleic acids extraction protocol that in contrast to other methods tested, effectively purify high quality nucleic acids from plant tissues rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds such as different grape tissues and fruit tissue of fruit trees. The nucleic acids isolated with this protocol were successfully used for many functional genomic based experiments including polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloning, and semiquantitative RT-PCR.

  11. Relationship between industrial discharges and contamination of raw water resources by perfluorinated compounds. Part I: Case study of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Dauchy, Xavier; Boiteux, Virginie; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. They are used in various applications and high levels have been found in water bodies located near highly industrialized sites. In the present study, 10 PFCs were quantitatively determined in water samples collected in the vicinity of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant and in drinking water resources located downstream. The release of PFHxA and PFNA to the receiving river was estimated at 10 and 4.5 tons/year, respectively. PFHxA (0.058-0.156 μg/L), PFNA (0.013-0.035 μg/L) and PFOA (0.007-0.025 μg/L) were predominant and prevalent in all the studied drinking water resources, confirming with the composition profile the impact of the industrial park release.

  12. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), cause and effect analysis, and Pareto diagram in conjunction with HACCP to a corn curl manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2007-01-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of corn curl manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snacks industry was attempted in an effort to exclude the presence of GMOs in the final product. This is of crucial importance both from the ethics and the legislation (Regulations EC 1829/2003; EC 1830/2003; Directive EC 18/2001) point of view. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis were used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (corn curls processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and the fishbone diagram). Finally, Pareto diagrams were employed towards the optimization of GMOs detection potential of FMEA.

  13. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  14. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  15. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... with regard to the maintenance, testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries...

  16. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts.

  17. The role of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the response to cold stress in soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Balestrasse, Karina B; Tomaro, María L; Batlle, Alcira; Noriega, Guillermo O

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the possibility of enhancing cold stress tolerance of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) by exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was investigated. ALA was added to the Hoagland solution at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 40 μM for 12 h. After ALA treatment, the plants were subjected to cold stress at 4°C for 48 h. ALA at low concentrations (5-10 μM) provided significant protection against cold stress compared to non-ALA-treated plants, enhancing chlorophyll content (Chl) as well as relative water content (RWC). Increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels was also prevented, whereas exposure to higher ALA concentrations (15-40 μM) brought about a dose dependent increase of these species, reaching a maximum of 117% in plants pre-treated with 40 μM ALA compared to controls. ALA pre-treatment also enhanced catalase (CAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activities. These findings indicate that HO-1 acts not only as the rate limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, but also as an antioxidant enzyme. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 5 μM ALA pre-treatment. Results show that ALA, which is considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator, could be used effectively to protect soybean plants from the damaging effects of cold stress by enhancing the activity of heme proteins, e.g., catalase (CAT) and by promoting heme catabolism leading to the production of the highly antioxidant biliverdin and carbon monoxide, without any adverse effect on the plant growth.

  18. A fatty acid glycoside from a marine-derived fungus isolated from mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Bo; Wang, Hui; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Zheng, Bo; Yang, Tao; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2012-03-01

    To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  19. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression.

  20. Principal transcriptional regulation and genome-wide system interactions of the Asp-family and aromatic amino acid networks of amino acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Less, Hadar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Tzin, Vered; Galili, Gad

    2010-10-01

    Amino acid metabolism is among the most important and best recognized networks within biological systems. In plants, amino acids serve multiple functions associated with growth. Besides their function in protein synthesis, the amino acids are also catabolized into energy-associated metabolites as well we into numerous secondary metabolites, which are essential for plant growth and response to various stresses. Despite the central importance of amino acids in plants growth, elucidation of the regulation of amino acid metabolism within the context of the entire system, particularly transcriptional regulation, is still in its infancy. The different amino acids are synthesized by a number of distinct metabolic networks, which are expected to possess regulatory cross interactions between them for proper coordination of their interactive functions, such as incorporation into proteins. Yet, individual amino acid metabolic networks are also expected to differentially cross interact with various genome-wide gene expression programs and metabolic networks, in respect to their functions as precursors for various metabolites with distinct functions. In the present review, we discuss our recent genomics, metabolic and bioinformatics studies, which were aimed at addressing these questions, focusing mainly on the Asp-family metabolic network as the main example and also comparing it to the aromatic amino acids metabolic network as a second example (Angelovici et al. in Plant Physiol 151:2058-2072, 2009; Less and Galili in BMC Syst Biol 3:14, 2009; Tzin et al. in Plant J 60:156-167, 2009). Our focus on these two networks is because of the followings: (i) both networks are central to plant metabolism and growth and are also precursors for a wide range of primary and secondary metabolites that are indispensable to plant growth; (ii) the amino acids produced by these two networks are also essential to the nutrition and health of human and farm animals; and (iii) both networks contain

  1. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  2. Mortality among 24,865 workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in three electrical capacitor manufacturing plants: A ten-year update

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Avima M.; Hein, Misty J.; Hopf, Nancy B.; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate mortality among a cohort of 24,865 capacitor-manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at plants in Indiana, Massachusetts, and New York and followed for mortality through 2008. Cumulative PCB exposure was estimated using plant-specific job-exposure matrices. External comparisons to US and state-specific populations used standardized mortality ratios, adjusted for gender, race, age and calendar year. Among long-term workers employed 3 months or longer, within-cohort comparisons used standardized rate ratios and multivariable Poisson regression modeling. Through 2008, more than one million person-years at risk and 8749 deaths were accrued. Among long-term employees, all-cause and all-cancer mortality were not elevated; of the a priori outcomes assessed only melanoma mortality was elevated. Mortality was elevated for some outcomes of a priori interest among subgroups of long-term workers: all cancer, intestinal cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (women); melanoma (men); melanoma and brain and nervous system cancer (Indiana plant); and melanoma and multiple myeloma (New York plant). Standardized rates of stomach and uterine cancer and multiple myeloma mortality increased with estimated cumulative PCB exposure. Poisson regression modeling showed significant associations with estimated cumulative PCB exposure for prostate and stomach cancer mortality. For other outcomes of a priori interest – rectal, liver, ovarian, breast, and thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease – neither elevated mortality nor positive associations with PCB exposure were observed. Associations between estimated cumulative PCB exposure and stomach, uterine, and prostate cancer and myeloma mortality confirmed our previous positive findings. PMID:23707056

  3. Amino acid sequences of heterotrophic and photosynthetic ferredoxins from the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Kamide, K; Sakai, H; Aoki, K; Sanada, Y; Wada, K; Green, L S; Yee, B C; Buchanan, B B

    1995-11-01

    Several forms (isoproteins) of ferredoxin in roots, leaves, and green and red pericarps in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were earlier identified on the basis of N-terminal amino acid sequence and chromatographic behavior (Green et al. 1991). In the present study, a large scale preparation made possible determination of the full length amino acid sequence of the two ferredoxins from leaves. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root were sequenced from the amino terminus to the 30th residue or beyond. The leaf ferredoxins were confirmed to be expressed in pericarp of both green and red fruit. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root appeared to be restricted to those tissue. The results extend earlier findings in demonstrating that ferredoxin occurs in the major organs of the tomato plant where it appears to function irrespective of photosynthetic competence.

  4. Plastidic aspartate aminotransferases and the biosynthesis of essential amino acids in plants.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael A; Pascual, M Belén; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2014-10-01

    In the chloroplasts and in non-green plastids of plants, aspartate is the precursor for the biosynthesis of different amino acids and derived metabolites that play distinct and important roles in plant growth, reproduction, development or defence. Aspartate biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), which catalyses the reversible transamination between glutamate and oxaloacetate to generate aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate. Plastids contain two aspartate aminotransferases: a eukaryotic-type and a prokaryotic-type bifunctional enzyme displaying aspartate and prephenate aminotransferase activities. A general overview of the biochemistry, regulation, functional significance, and phylogenetic origin of both enzymes is presented. The roles of these plastidic aminotransferases in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are discussed.

  5. Salicylic acid beyond defence: its role in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rivas-San Vicente, Mariana; Plasencia, Javier

    2011-06-01

    In recent years salicylic acid (SA) has been the focus of intensive research due to its function as an endogenous signal mediating local and systemic plant defence responses against pathogens. It has also been found that SA plays a role during the plant response to abiotic stresses such as drought, chilling, heavy metal toxicity, heat, and osmotic stress. In this sense, SA appears to be, just like in mammals, an 'effective therapeutic agent' for plants. Besides this function during biotic and abiotic stress, SA plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological and biochemical processes during the entire lifespan of the plant. The discovery of its targets and the understanding of its molecular modes of action in physiological processes could help in the dissection of the complex SA signalling network, confirming its important role in both plant health and disease. Here, the evidence that supports the role of SA during plant growth and development is reviewed by comparing experiments performed by exogenous application of SA with analysis of genotypes affected by SA levels and/or perception.

  6. Competing mechanisms for perfluoroalkyl acid accumulation in plants revealed using an Arabidopsis model system.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia E; LeFevre, Gregory H; Timofte, Anca E; Hussain, Fatima A; Sattely, Elizabeth S; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) bioaccumulate in plants, presenting a human exposure route if present in irrigation water. Curiously, accumulation of PFAAs in plant tissues is greatest for both the short-chain and long-chain PFAAs, generating a U-shaped relationship with chain length. In the present study, the authors decouple competing mechanisms of PFAA accumulation using a hydroponic model plant system (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to a suite of 10 PFAAs to determine uptake, depuration, and translocation kinetics. Rapid saturation of root concentrations occurred for all PFAAs except perfluorobutanoate, the least-sorptive (shortest-chain) PFAA. Shoot concentrations increased continuously, indicating that PFAAs are efficiently transported and accumulate in shoots. Tissue concentrations of PFAAs during depuration rapidly declined in roots but remained constant in shoots, demonstrating irreversibility of the translocation process. Root and shoot concentration factors followed the U-shaped trend with perfluoroalkyl chain length; however, when normalized to dead-tissue sorption, this relationship linearized. The authors therefore introduce a novel term, the "sorption normalized concentration factor," to describe PFAA accumulation in plants; because of their hydrophobicity, sorption is the determining factor for long-chain PFAAs, whereas the shortest-chain PFAAs are most effectively transported in the plant. The present study provides a mechanistic explanation for previously unexplained PFAA accumulation trends in plants and suggests that shorter-chained PFAAs may bioaccumulate more readily in edible portions.

  7. Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Argueso, Cristiana T.; Ferreira, Fernando J.; Epple, Petra; To, Jennifer P. C.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Schaller, G. Eric; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Kieber, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an important role for hormones in plant immunity. We are now beginning to understand the contribution of crosstalk among different hormone signaling networks to the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling involves a phosphorelay circuitry similar to two-component systems used by bacteria and fungi to perceive and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components of cytokinin signaling contribute to plant immunity. We demonstrate that cytokinin levels in Arabidopsis are important in determining the amplitude of immune responses, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. We show that high concentrations of cytokinin lead to increased defense responses to a virulent oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation of defense gene expression. Surprisingly, treatment with lower concentrations of cytokinin results in increased susceptibility. These functions for cytokinin in plant immunity require a host phosphorelay system and are mediated in part by type-A response regulators, which act as negative regulators of basal and pathogen-induced SA–dependent gene expression. Our results support a model in which cytokinin up-regulates plant immunity via an elevation of SA–dependent defense responses and in which SA in turn feedback-inhibits cytokinin signaling. The crosstalk between cytokinin and SA signaling networks may help plants fine-tune defense responses against pathogens. PMID:22291601

  8. Self-assembled polyhydroxy fatty acids vesicles: a mechanism for plant cutin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Benítez, José J; Heredia, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Despite its biological importance, the mechanism of formation of cutin, the polymeric matrix of plant cuticles, has not yet been fully clarified. Here, for the first time, we show the participation in the process of lipid vesicles formed by the self-assembly of endogenous polyhydroxy fatty acids. The accumulation and fusion of these vesicles (cutinsomes) at the outer part of epidermal cell wall is proposed as the mechanism for early cuticle formation.

  9. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  10. In situ detection of salicylic acid binding sites in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Wen; Deng, Da-Yi; Yu, Ying; Liu, Fang-Fei; Lin, Bi-Xia; Cao, Yu-Juan; Hu, Xiao-Gang; Wu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    The determination of hormone-binding sites in plants is essential in understanding the mechanisms behind hormone function. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to label SA-binding sites in plant tissues, a quantum dots (QDs) probe functionalized with a SA moiety was successfully synthesized by coupling CdSe QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (PAS), using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as the coupling agent. The probe was then characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, as well as UV/vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results confirmed the successful conjugation of PAS to CdSe QDs and revealed that the conjugates maintained the properties of the original QDs, with small core diameters and adequate dispersal in solution. The PAS-CdSe QDs were used to detect SA-binding sites in mung bean and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vitro and in vivo. The PAS-CdSe QDs were effectively transported into plant tissues and specifically bound to SA receptors in vivo. In addition, the effects of the PAS-CdSe QDs on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in the tips of A. thaliana seedlings were investigated. Both SA and PAS-CdSe QDs had similar effects on the trend in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations, suggesting that the PAS-CdSe QDs maintained the bioactivity of SA. To summarize, PAS-CdSe QDs have high potential as a fluorescent probe for the in vitro/in vivo labeling and imaging of SA receptors in plants.

  11. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  12. Assessment and comparison of 100-MW coal gasification phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1988-01-01

    One of the advantages of fuel cell (FC) power plants is fuel versatility. With changes only in the fuel processor, the power plant will be able to accept a variety of fuels. This study was performed to design process diagrams, evaluate performance, and to estimate cost of 100 MW coal gasifier (CG)/phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant systems utilizing coal, which is the largest single potential source of alternate hydrocarbon liquids and gases in the United States, as the fuel. Results of this study will identify the most promising integrated CG/PAFC design and its near-optimal operating conditions. The comparison is based on the performance and cost of electricity which is calculated under consistent financial assumptions.

  13. Profiling of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids in plant extracts using in-source CID fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Ádám; Abrankó, László

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids (HCQAs) are a major class of phenolic plant secondary metabolites, belonging to the chlorogenic acid family. Various health-beneficial properties of HCQAs have been shown, which has drawn interest for HCQA profiling in plants of human consumption. However, this task remains challenging, because several isomeric HCQAs can be present in the sample with identical molecular formulae and the limited availability of reference standards poses additional challenges to their identification. In the present work, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) method accompanied with an effective data filtering protocol is presented, which is shown to be suitable for the identification of HCQAs in plant materials in a non-targeted manner. Both collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation performed in a collision cell and in-source (CID) fragmentation were used to produce accurate mass fragments. It was shown that fragmentation characteristics required for identification of regio-isomers of HCQAs can be achieved with in-source CID fragmentation, enabling the use of a single-stage MS system with in-source fragmentation for convincing identification of HCQAs. Based on a thorough validation of identified HCQA compounds using coffee bean extracts as reference samples, comprehensive profiling of HCQAs in two apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes ('Preventa' and 'Gönci magyarkajszi') was carried out for the first time and the following 10 HCQAs were shown to be present in apricot fruit: 3-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), cis-3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, cis-5-CQA, 3,5-diCQA, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid (pCoQA), 4-pCoQA, 3-feruloylquinic acid (FQA) and cis-3-FQA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Plant secondary metabolites and gut health: the case for phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based diets contain a plethora of secondary metabolites that may impact on health and disease prevention. Much attention has been focused on the potential bioactivity and nutritional relevance of several classes of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, carotenoids, phyto-oestrogens and glucosinolates. Less attention has been paid to simple phenolic acids that are widely found in fruit, vegetables, herbs, spices and beverages. Daily intakes may exceed 100 mg. In addition, bacteria in the gut can perform reactions that transform more complex plant phenolics such as anthocyanins, procyanidins, flavanones, flavonols, tannins and isoflavones into simple phenolic metabolites. The colon is thus a rich source of potentially active phenolic acids that may impact both locally and systemically on gut health. Both the small and large intestine (colon) contain absorption sites for phenolic acids but low post-prandial concentrations in plasma indicate minimal absorption early in the gastrointestinal tract and/or rapid hepatic metabolism and excretion. Therefore, any bioactivity that contributes to gut health may predominantly occur in the colon. Several phenolic acids affect the expression and activity of enzymes involved in the production of inflammatory mediators of pathways thought to be important in the development of gut disorders including colon cancer. However, at present, we remain largely ignorant as to which of these compounds are beneficial to gut health. Until we can elucidate which pro-inflammatory and potentially carcinogenetic changes in gene expression can be moderated by simple phenolic acids, it is not possible to recommend specific plant-based foods rich in particular phenolics to optimise gut health.

  15. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  16. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  17. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  18. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  19. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  20. Stability of uncoated and fulvic acids coated manufactured CeO2 nanoparticles in various conditions: From ultrapure to natural Lake Geneva waters.

    PubMed

    Oriekhova, Olena; Stoll, Serge

    2016-08-15

    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in natural water and impact of water composition in changing conditions is of high importance to predict their fate once released into the environment. In this study we investigated the stability of uncoated and Suwannee River fulvic acids coated CeO2 manufactured nanoparticles in various environmental conditions. The effect of pH changes on the nanoparticle and coating stability was first studied in ultrapure water as well as the variation of zeta potentials and sizes with time in presence of fulvic acids at environmental pH. Then the stability of CeO2 in synthetic and natural Lake Geneva waters was investigated as a function of fulvic acids concentration. Our results indicate that the adsorption of environmentally relevant concentrations of Suwannee River fulvic acids promotes CeO2 stabilization in ultrapure water as well as synthetic water and that the coating stability is high upon pH variations. On the other hand in natural Lake Geneva water CeO2 NPs are found in all cases aggregated due to the effect of heterogeneous organic and inorganic compounds.

  1. Chemical genetics reveals negative regulation of abscisic acid signaling by a plant immune response pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Houn; Hauser, Felix; Ha, Tracy; Xue, Shaowu; Böhmer, Maik; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Munemasa, Shintaro; Hubbard, Katharine; Peine, Nora; Lee, Byeong-Ha; Lee, Stephen; Robert, Nadia; Parker, Jane E; Schroeder, Julian I

    2011-06-07

    Coordinated regulation of protection mechanisms against environmental abiotic stress and pathogen attack is essential for plant adaptation and survival. Initial abiotic stress can interfere with disease-resistance signaling [1-6]. Conversely, initial plant immune signaling may interrupt subsequent abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction [7, 8]. However, the processes involved in this crosstalk between these signaling networks have not been determined. By screening a 9600-compound chemical library, we identified a small molecule [5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione (DFPM) that rapidly downregulates ABA-dependent gene expression and also inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure. Transcriptome analyses show that DFPM also stimulates expression of plant defense-related genes. Major early regulators of pathogen-resistance responses, including EDS1, PAD4, RAR1, and SGT1b, are required for DFPM-and notably also for Pseudomonas-interference with ABA signal transduction, whereas salicylic acid, EDS16, and NPR1 are not necessary. Although DFPM does not interfere with early ABA perception by PYR/RCAR receptors or ABA activation of SnRK2 kinases, it disrupts cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling and downstream anion channel activation in a PAD4-dependent manner. Our findings provide evidence that activation of EDS1/PAD4-dependent plant immune responses rapidly disrupts ABA signal transduction and that this occurs at the level of Ca(2+) signaling, illuminating how the initial biotic stress pathway interferes with ABA signaling.

  2. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Pulido, Cristina; Cawthray, Gregory Robert; Colmer, Timothy David

    2011-04-01

    • Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO(2), and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf malate at dawn, compared with at dusk, and also by changes in the titratable acidity (μmol H(+) equivalents) of leaves. Leaves high in malate showed not only higher underwater net photosynthesis at low external CO(2) concentrations but also lower apparent photorespiration. Suppression by CAM of apparent photorespiration was evident at a range of O(2) concentrations, including values below air equilibrium. At a high O(2) concentration of 2.2-fold the atmospheric equilibrium concentration, net photosynthesis was reduced substantially and, although it remained positive in leaves containing high malate concentrations, it became negative in those low in malate. • CAM in aquatic plants enables higher rates of underwater net photosynthesis over large O(2) and CO(2) concentration ranges in floodwaters, via increased CO(2) fixation and suppression of photorespiration.

  3. Modeling the plant-soil interaction in presence of heavy metal pollution and acidity variations.

    PubMed

    Guala, Sebastián; Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F

    2013-01-01

    On a mathematical interaction model, developed to model metal uptake by plants and the effects on their growth, we introduce a modification which considers also effects on variations of acidity in soil. The model relates the dynamics of the uptake of metals from soil to plants and also variations of uptake according to the acidity level. Two types of relationships are considered: total and available metal content. We suppose simple mathematical assumptions in order to get as simple as possible expressions with the aim of being easily tested in experimental problems. This work introduces modifications to two versions of the model: on the one hand, the expression of the relationship between the metal in soil and the concentration of the metal in plants and, on the other hand, the relationship between the metal in the soil and total amount of the metal in plants. The fine difference of both versions is fundamental at the moment to consider the tolerance and capacity of accumulation of pollutants in the biomass from the soil.

  4. Differences in phytotoxicity and dissipation between ionized and nonionized oil sands naphthenic acids in wetland plants.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Germida, James J

    2009-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are composed of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids and, because they are acutely toxic to fish, are of toxicological concern. During the caustic hot-water extraction of oil from the bitumen in oil sands deposits, NAs become concentrated in the resulting tailings pond water. The present study investigated if dissipation of NAs occurs in the presence of hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus) to determine the potential for phytoremediation of these compounds. Plants were grown with oil sands NAs (pKa approximately 5-6) in medium at pH 7.8 (predominantly ionized NAs) and pH 5.0 (predominantly nonionized NAs) to determine if, by altering their chemical form, NAs may be more accessible to plants and, thus, undergo increased dissipation. Whereas the oil sands NA mixture in its nonionized form was more toxic to wetland plants than its ionized form, neither form appeared to be sequestered by wetland plants. The present study demonstrated that plants may selectively enhance the dissipation of individual nonionized NA compounds, which contributes to toxicity reduction but does not translate into detectable total NA dissipation within experimental error and natural variation. Plants were able to reduce the toxicity of a NA system over 30 d, increasing the median lethal concentration (LC50; % of hydroponic solution) of the medium for Daphnia magna by 23.3% +/- 8.1% (mean +/- standard error; nonionized NAs) and 37.0% +/- 2.7% (ionized NAs) as determined by acute toxicity bioassays. This reduction in toxicity was 7.3% +/- 2.6% (nonionized NAs) and 45.0% +/- 6.8% (ionized NAs) greater than that in unplanted systems.

  5. Evaluation of ergonomic physical risk factors in a truck manufacturing plant: case study in SCANIA Production Angers

    PubMed Central

    ZARE, Mohsen; MALINGE-OUDENOT, Agnes; HÖGLUND, Robert; BIAU, Sophie; ROQUELAURE, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to assess the ergonomic physical risk factors from practitioner’s viewpoint in a truck assembly plant with an in-house observational method and the NIOSH lifting equation, and 2) to compare the results of both methods and their differences. The in-house ergonomic observational method for truck assembly i.e. the SCANIA Ergonomics Standard (SES) and the NIOSH lifting equation were applied to evaluate physical risk factors and lifting of loads by operators. Both risk assessment approaches revealed various levels of risk, ranging from low to high. Two workstations were identified by the SES method as high risk. The NIOSH lifting index (LI) was greater than two for four lifting tasks. The results of the SES method disagreed with the NIOSH lifting equation for lifting tasks. Moreover, meaningful variations in ergonomic risk patterns were found for various truck models at each workstation. These results provide a better understanding of the physical ergonomic exposure from practitioner’s point of view in the automotive assembly plant. PMID:26423331

  6. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    PubMed

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream.

  7. How to eliminate the formation of chlorogenic acids artefacts during plants analysis? Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) in the HPLC analysis of chlorogenic acids and their native derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-09-01

    The analytical procedures for determining plant constituents involve the application of sample preparation methods to fully isolate and/or pre-concentrate the analyzed substances. High-temperature liquid extraction is still applied most frequently for this purpose. The present paper shows that high-temperature extraction cannot be applied for the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CQAs) and their derivatives in plants as it causes the CQAs transformation leading to erroneous quantitative estimations of these compounds. Experiments performed on different plants (black elder, hawthorn, nettle, yerba maté, St John's wort and green coffee) demonstrate that the most appropriate method for the estimation of CQAs/CQAs derivatives is sea sand disruption method (SSDM) because it does not induce any transformation and/or degradation processes in the analyzed substances. Owing to the SSDM method application we found that the investigated plants, besides four main CQAs, contain sixteen CQAs derivatives, among them three quinic acids. The application of SSDM in plant analysis not only allows to establish a true concentration of individual CQAs in the examined plants but also to determine which chlorogenic acids derivatives are native plant components and what is their concentration level. What is even more important, the application of SSDM in plant analysis allows to eliminate errors that may arise or might have arisen in the study of chlorogenic acids and their derivatives in plant metabolism.

  8. Cell organelles from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants : II. Compartmentation of enzymes of the crassulacean acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schnarrenberger, C; Groß, D; Burkhard, C; Herbert, M

    1980-02-01

    The intracellular distribution of enzymes involved in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) has been studied in Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Crassula lycopodioides Lam. After separation of cell organelles by isopycnic centrifugation, enzymes of the Crassulacean acid metabolism were found in the following cell fractions: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the chloroplasts; NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase in the mitochondria and in the supernatant; NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the chloroplasts; NADP-dependent malic enzyme in the supernatant and to a minor extent in the chloroplasts; NAD-dependent malic enzyme in the supernatant and to some degree in the mitochondria; and pyruvate; orthophosphate dikinase in the chloroplasts. The activity of the NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was due to three isoenzymes separated by (NH4)2SO4 gradient solubilization. These isoenzymes represented 17, 78, and 5% of the activity recovered, respectively, in the order of elution. The isoenzyme eluting first was associated with the mitochondria and the second isoenzyme was of cytosolic origin, while the intracellular location of the third isoenzyme was probably the peroxisome. Based on these findings, the metabolic path of Crassulacean acid metabolism within cells of CAM plants is discussed.

  9. Stearidonic acid, a plant-based dietary fatty acid, enhances the chemosensitivity of canine lymphoid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Ferniany, Glennie; Ashraf, Farah; Abbott, Kodye L; Smith, Bruce F; Coleman, Elaine S; Mansour, Mahmoud; Bird, R Curtis; Smith, Annette N; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-05-15

    Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs and humans, with similar pathogenesis and therapeutic responses. Anticancer drugs like vincristine (VCR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are often used in treating lymphoma. However, the cure rate is generally poor due to chemoresistance. Here, we sought to determine whether stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based dietary fatty acid, sensitizes chemoresistant canine lymphoid-tumor cells. GL-1 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were found to be highly sensitive to the antitumor-activity of VCR and DOX, while OSW T-cell and 17-71 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were moderately and fully resistant, respectively. SDA, at its non-toxic concentrations, significantly promoted the antitumor action of VCR and DOX in both OSW and 17-71 cells. SDA-mediated chemosensitization was associated with SDA inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. This was confirmed in HEK293 cells stably expressing P-gp as well as by increased binding-affinity of SDA to P-gp in P-gp docking analysis. SDA at its chemosensitizing concentrations did not affect the viability of healthy dog peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that SDA is non-toxic to normal dog peripheral blood leucocytes at its chemosensitizing concentrations. Our study identifies a novel dietary fatty acid that may be used as a dietary supplement in combination with chemotherapy to promote the antitumor efficacy of the chemotherapy drugs in dogs and possibly in humans with chemoresistant lymphoma.

  10. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  11. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  12. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  13. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  14. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  15. Relationships between Stomatal Behavior and Internal Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, William; Ting, Irwin P.; Sternberg, Leonel O.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of internal gas phase CO2 concentration, stomatal resistance, and acid content were made in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants growing under natural conditions. High CO2 concentrations, sometimes in excess of 2%, were observed during the day in a range of taxonomically widely separated plants (Opuntia ficus-indica L., Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigel., Agave desertii Engelm., Yucca schidigera Roezl. ex Ortiges, Ananas comosus [L.] Merr., Aloe vera L., Cattleya sp. and Phalanopsis sp.) and below ambient air concentrations were observed at night. Stomatal resistance was always high when CO2 concentration was high and experiments in which attempts were made to manipulate internal CO2 concentrations gave data consistent with stomatal behavior in Crassulacean acid metabolism being controlled by internal CO2 concentration. Exogenous CO2 applied in darkness at a concentration similar to those observed in the light caused stomatal resistance to increase. In pads of Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigel. subjected to severe water stress internal gas phase CO2 concentrations exhibited fluctuations opposite in phase to fluctuations in acid content. Stomatal resistance remained high and the opening response to low CO2 concentration was almost entirely eliminated. PMID:16660851

  16. Relationships between Stomatal Behavior and Internal Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, W

    1979-06-01

    Measurements of internal gas phase CO(2) concentration, stomatal resistance, and acid content were made in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants growing under natural conditions. High CO(2) concentrations, sometimes in excess of 2%, were observed during the day in a range of taxonomically widely separated plants (Opuntia ficus-indica L., Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigel., Agave desertii Engelm., Yucca schidigera Roezl. ex Ortiges, Ananas comosus [L.] Merr., Aloe vera L., Cattleya sp. and Phalanopsis sp.) and below ambient air concentrations were observed at night.Stomatal resistance was always high when CO(2) concentration was high and experiments in which attempts were made to manipulate internal CO(2) concentrations gave data consistent with stomatal behavior in Crassulacean acid metabolism being controlled by internal CO(2) concentration. Exogenous CO(2) applied in darkness at a concentration similar to those observed in the light caused stomatal resistance to increase.In pads of Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigel. subjected to severe water stress internal gas phase CO(2) concentrations exhibited fluctuations opposite in phase to fluctuations in acid content. Stomatal resistance remained high and the opening response to low CO(2) concentration was almost entirely eliminated.

  17. Photosynthesis and water relations in tomato plants cultivated long-term in media containing (+)-usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, E; Lechowski, Z; Bialczyk, J; Pilarski, J

    2006-09-01

    The influence of (+)-usnic acid on rates of gas exchange (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration) in long-term cultivation of tomato plants was studied. The effect was dose-dependent. Plants grown in media containing the maximum concentration of (+)-usnic acid (30 muM) had photosynthetic and respiration rates reduced by 41% and 80%, respectively. The effect on photosynthesis rate may be the result of a multidirectional effect at various stages of this process, which at the highest usnic acid concentration underwent reduction: content of chlorophylls by 30%, carotenoids by 35%, and Hill reaction activity by 75%. Usnic acid also raises the susceptibility of chlorophyll to photodegradation. Under some conditions, transpiration was reduced by 2.1-fold in light and 3.7-fold in dark. This result was correlated with (1) an increase in the diffusive resistance of the stomata (3.1-fold in upper and 1.5-fold in lower surface of leaf), (2) a reduction of stomata density (by 60% on upper and 40% on lower surface), and (3) a 12.3-fold decrease in root hydraulic conductance.

  18. Regulation of epinasty induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in pea and Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Pazmiño, D M; Rodríguez-Serrano, M; Sanz, M; Romero-Puertas, M C; Sandalio, L M

    2014-07-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) causes uncontrolled cell division and malformed growth in plants, giving rise to leaf epinasty and stem curvature. In this study, mechanisms involved in the regulation of leaf epinasty induced by 2,4-D were studied using different chemicals involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation (diphenyleniodonium, butylated hydroxyanisole, EDTA, allopurinol), calcium channels (LaCl3), protein phosphorylation (cantharidin, wortmannin) and ethylene emission/perception (aminoethoxyvinyl glycine, AgNO3). The effect of these compounds on the epinasty induced by 2,4-D was analysed in shoots and leaf strips from pea plants. For further insight into the effect of 2,4-D, studies were also made in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in ROS production (rbohD, rbohF, xdh), ethylene (ein 3-1, ctr 1-1, etr 1-1), abscisic acid (aba 3.1), and jasmonic acid (coi 1.1, jar 1.1, opr 3) pathways. The results suggest that ROS production, mainly ·OH, is essential in the development of epinasty triggered by 2,4-D. Epinasty was also found to be regulated by Ca2+, protein phosphorylation and ethylene, although all these factors act downstream of ROS production. The use of Arabidopsis mutants appears to indicate that abscisic and jasmonic acid are not involved in regulating epinasty, although they could be involved in other symptoms induced by 2,4-D.

  19. Regulation by organic acids of polysaccharide-mediated microbe-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Nakata, K; Kobayashi, T; Takiguchi, Y; Yamaguchi, T

    2000-10-01

    A polysaccharide flocculant of Klebsiella pneumoniae H12 has been suggested to mediate microbe-plant interactions with the aid of Ca2+ [K. Nakata et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 64, 459-465, 2000]. Here, two-way regulation of polysaccharide-mediated interactions between K. pneumoniae and Raphanus sativus was studied using organic acids. Namely, 10 mM equivalents of organic acids promoted production of the polysaccharide by the bacterium, but inhibited flocculation of bacterial cells by the polysaccharide. These phenomena were counterbalanced by equi-molar equivalents of Ca2+, suggesting competition for Ca2+ between the carboxylic residues of the polysaccharide and those of the aliphatic acids. By electron microscopy observations, bacterial cell aggregates were sparsely distributed over the main roots and root hairs, had various sizes, and seemed to tightly adhere to root tissues. Their shapes seemed to be distorted and abundant in cavities. In brief, these microscopical observations may be explained by a two-way regulation system of bacterial adhesion to a plant by organic acids.

  20. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  1. How do crop plants tolerate acid soils? Mechanisms of aluminum tolerance and phosphorous efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kochian, Leon V; Hoekenga, Owen A; Pineros, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Acid soils significantly limit crop production worldwide because approximately 50% of the world's potentially arable soils are acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring tolerance to acid soil stress has been a focus of intense research interest over the past decade. The primary limitations on acid soils are toxic levels of aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn), as well as suboptimal levels of phosphorous (P). This review examines our current understanding of the physiological, genetic, and molecular basis for crop Al tolerance, as well as reviews the emerging area of P efficiency, which involves the genetically based ability of some crop genotypes to tolerate P deficiency stress on acid soils. These are interesting times for this field because researchers are on the verge of identifying some of the genes that confer Al tolerance in crop plants; these discoveries will open up new avenues of molecular/physiological inquiry that should greatly advance our understanding of these tolerance mechanisms. Additionally, these breakthroughs will provide new molecular resources for improving crop Al tolerance via both molecular-assisted breeding and biotechnology.

  2. Removal characteristics of sulfuric acid aerosols from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Danping; Yang, Linjun; Wu, Hao; Huang, Rongting

    2017-03-01

    With increasing attention on sulfuric acid emission, investigations on the removal characteristics of sulfuric acid aerosols by the limestone gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system and the wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) were carried out in two coal-fired power plants, and the effects of the WFGD scrubber type and the flue gas characteristics were discussed. The results showed that it was necessary to install the WESP device after desulfurization, as the WFGD system was inefficient to remove sulfuric acid aerosols from the flue gas. The removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosols in the WFGD system with double scrubbers ranged from 50% to 65%, which was higher than that with a single scrubber, ranging from 30% to 40%. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of WESP on the sulfuric acid aerosols was from 47.9% to 52.4%. With increased concentrations of SO3 and particles in the flue gas, the removal efficiencies of the WFGD and the WESP on the sulfuric acid aerosols were increased.

  3. Application of microchip-CE electrophoresis to follow the degradation of phenolic acids by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongsheng; Garcia, Carlos D

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the separation and detection of six phenolic acids using an electrophoretic microchip with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). The selected phenolic acids are particularly important because of their biological activity. The analysis of these compounds is typically performed by chromatography or standard CE coupled with a wide variety of detection modes. However, these methods are slow, labor intensive, involve a multistep solvent extraction, require skilled personnel, or use bulky and expensive instrumentation. In contrast, microchip CE offers the possibility of performing simpler, less expensive, and faster analysis. In addition, integrated devices can be custom-fabricated and incorporated with portable computers to perform on-site analysis. In the present report, the effect of the separation potential, buffer pH and composition, injection time and PAD parameters were studied in an effort to optimize both the separation and detection of these phenolic acids. Using the optimized conditions, the analysis can be performed in less than 3 min, with detection limits ranging from 0.73 microM (0.10 microg/mL) for 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 2.12 microM (0.29 microg/mL) for salicylic acid. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the device, the degradation of a mixture of these acids by two aquatic plants was followed using the optimized conditions.

  4. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  5. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  6. Influence of Incubation Conditions on Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isolated from Dairy Products and Dairy Manufacturing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Chiara; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Goffredo, Elisa; Goga, Beniamino Terzo Cenci; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, biofilm formation of 64 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains isolated from milk, dairy products and dairy plants was compared. The strains were grown on Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with 0.2% of glucose, on polystyrene microplates at 10 and 30°C for 48 h. In general, 57/64 P. fluorescens strains formed biofilm, although with great variability at both tested temperatures. Moreover, our results evidenced that the biofilm-forming ability of the strains was temperature- and strain-dependent. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates to form biofilms was associated with the low temperature after 48 h. Our findings evidenced that temperature was more important than incubation time for biofilm formation. Considering the origin of the strains, it is relevant to underline the importance of performing accurate cleaning and disinfection procedures on food processing surfaces. PMID:27853712

  7. Accumulation of seleno-amino acids in legume and grass plant species grown in selenium-laden soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Guo, X.; Banuelos, G.S.

    1997-03-01

    Seleno-amino acid accumulation was studied for two legume and two grass species grown in Selenium (Se)-laden soils. An antagonistic relationship was found between the tissue Se-amino acid concentration and the corresponding sulfur-amino acid concentration. This relationship demonstrates a competitive interaction between Se and sulfate at the amino acid synthesis level. The nonsulfur-containing amino acids were not substantially affected by the increase of tissue Se concentration. Sour clover (Melilotus indica L.) was able to accumulate much greater tissue Se concentration than the other three species. Tissue methionine concentration of sour clover, rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was not significantly affected by the increase of tissue selenomethionine concentration, but a highly significant negative correlation was found in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). This discrepancy suggests that a less antagonistic effect on sulfur-amino acids under the increase of Se-amino acid analogues in the tissue might be able to minimize Se toxicity to the plant. Both Se-methylselenocysteine (nonprotein amino acid) and selenomethionine (protein amino acid) accumulated in the plants when grown in Se-laden soils. Possible effects of these Se-amino acids accumulated by plants on animal health should be tested before the plants are used for forage supplementation.

  8. Multiple Targets of Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Tian, Miaoying; Choi, Hyong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs), as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity of others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, high mobility group box protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms. PMID:27303403

  9. Phosphatidic Acid Produced by Phospholipase D Promotes RNA Replication of a Plant RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Taniguchi, Takako; Manabe, Yuki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+)RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids), but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+)RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate. PMID:26020241

  10. Biochemical Evaluation of the Decarboxylation and Decarboxylation-Deamination Activities of Plant Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylases*

    PubMed Central

    Torrens-Spence, Michael P.; Liu, Pingyang; Ding, Haizhen; Harich, Kim; Gillaspy, Glenda; Li, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzymes are capable of catalyzing either decarboxylation or decarboxylation-deamination on various combinations of aromatic amino acid substrates. These two different activities result in the production of arylalkylamines and the formation of aromatic acetaldehydes, respectively. Variations in product formation enable individual enzymes to play different physiological functions. Despite these catalytic variations, arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing AAADs are indistinguishable without protein expression and characterization. In this study, extensive biochemical characterization of plant AAADs was performed to identify residues responsible for differentiating decarboxylation AAADs from aldehyde synthase AAADs. Results demonstrated that a tyrosine residue located on a catalytic loop proximal to the active site of plant AAADs is primarily responsible for dictating typical decarboxylase activity, whereas a phenylalanine at the same position is primarily liable for aldehyde synthase activity. Mutagenesis of the active site phenylalanine to tyrosine in Arabidopsis thaliana and Petroselinum crispum aromatic acetaldehyde synthases primarily converts the enzymes activity from decarboxylation-deamination to decarboxylation. The mutation of the active site tyrosine to phenylalanine in the Catharanthus roseus and Papaver somniferum aromatic amino acid decarboxylases changes the enzymes decarboxylation activity to a primarily decarboxylation-deamination activity. Generation of these mutant enzymes enables the production of unusual AAAD enzyme products including indole-3-acetaldehyde, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethylamine. Our data indicates that the tyrosine and phenylalanine in the catalytic loop region could serve as a signature residue to reliably distinguish plant arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing AAADs. Additionally, the resulting data enables further insights into the mechanistic roles of active site

  11. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  12. Isolation and characterization of mutants of common ice plant deficient in crassulacean acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cushman, John C; Agarie, Sakae; Albion, Rebecca L; Elliot, Stewart M; Taybi, Tahar; Borland, Anne M

    2008-05-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that improves water use efficiency by shifting part or all of net atmospheric CO2 uptake to the night. Genetic dissection of regulatory and metabolic attributes of CAM has been limited by the difficulty of identifying a reliable phenotype for mutant screening. We developed a novel and simple colorimetric assay to measure leaf pH to screen fast neutron-mutagenized populations of common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), a facultative CAM species, to detect CAM-deficient mutants with limited nocturnal acidification. The isolated CAM-deficient mutants showed negligible net dark CO2 uptake compared with wild-type plants following the imposition of salinity stress. The mutants and wild-type plants accumulated nearly comparable levels of sodium in leaves, but the mutants grew more slowly than the wild-type plants. The mutants also had substantially reduced seed set and seed weight relative to wild type under salinity stress. Carbon-isotope ratios of seed collected from 4-month-old plants indicated that C3 photosynthesis made a greater contribution to seed production in mutants compared to wild type. The CAM-deficient mutants were deficient in leaf starch and lacked plastidic phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme critical for gluconeogenesis and starch formation, resulting in substrate limitation of nocturnal C4 acid formation. The restoration of nocturnal acidification by feeding detached leaves of salt-stressed mutants with glucose or sucrose supported this defect and served to illustrate the flexibility of CAM. The CAM-deficient mutants described here constitute important models for exploring regulatory features and metabolic consequences of CAM.

  13. Ability of crassulacean acid metabolism plants to overcome interacting stresses in tropical environments

    PubMed Central

    Lüttge, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Single stressors such as scarcity of water and extreme temperatures dominate the struggle for life in severely dry desert ecosystems or cold polar regions and at high elevations. In contrast, stress in the tropics typically arises from a dynamic network of interacting stressors, such as availability of water, CO2, light and nutrients, temperature and salinity. This requires more plastic spatio-temporal responsiveness and versatility in the acquisition and defence of ecological niches. Crassulacean acid metabolism The mode of photosynthesis of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is described and its flexible expression endows plants with powerful strategies for both acclimation and adaptation. Thus, CAM plants are able to inhabit many diverse habitats in the tropics and are not, as commonly thought, successful predominantly in dry, high-insolation habitats. Tropical CAM habitats Typical tropical CAM habitats or ecosystems include exposed lava fields, rock outcrops of inselbergs, salinas, savannas, restingas, high-altitude páramos, dry forests and moist forests. Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM phenotypes allow a wide ecophysiological amplitude of niche occupation in the tropics. Physiological and biochemical plasticity appear more responsive by having more readily reversible variations in performance than do morphological adaptations. This makes CAM plants particularly fit for the multi-factor stressor networks of tropical forests. Thus, while the physiognomy of semi-deserts outside the tropics is often determined by tall succulent CAM plants, tropical forests house many more CAM plants in terms of quantity (biomass) and quality (species diversity). PMID:22476063

  14. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  15. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  16. Depression and panic attacks related to phenol-formaldehyde composite material exposure in an aerospace manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Sparks, P J; Ayars, G H; Simon, G E; Katon, W J; Altman, L C; Johnson, R L

    1991-01-01

    In a case series study we evaluated 53 composite-materials workers in an aerospace plant who filed workers' compensation claims for illness allegedly related to phenol-formaldehyde resin exposure. Symptoms ranged from mucosal and skin irritation to depression and cognitive impairment. Certain health practitioners implying they had immunologic dysfunction and organic brain injury, led workers to believe they were chemically poisoned. Industrial hygiene evaluation failed to show levels of chemicals above permissible levels. Thorough evaluation by our multidisciplinary panel failed to find significant objective abnormalities by physical exam and laboratory testing. Thirty-nine percent of the workers had sensory irritation and/or skin complaints that generally resolved rapidly with removal from exposure. Psychiatric diagnoses (including major depression and/or panic attacks) were made in 74% of the workers, but only 26% of these had antecedent disease. Fourteen (26%) had multiple somatic complaints that generally persisted despite removal from exposure, but they also had long histories of significant pre-existing psychological illness. Detailed neuropsychologic testing failed to show any definite evidence or organic brain dysfunction in any of the workers tested. We speculate that sensory irritation from low-level volatile organic compounds with autonomic arousal, reinforced by the belief they were "chemically poisoned," led to psychogenic illness.

  17. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Anna; Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Diviccaro, Annamaria; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-05-15

    The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of some traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods were studied through culture-dependent method and pyrosequencing. Flours used for back slopping and sourdoughs were also biochemically characterized. Principal component analysis was applied to explore eventual correlations between process parameters applied during back slopping, some flour nutrients, profile of microbiota, and biochemical characteristics of sourdoughs. The median values of the cell density of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were 8.05 and 7.03 log CFU/g, respectively. As shown by culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo. For eleven sourdoughs, all the lactic acid bacteria isolates were allotted to this species. For Buccellato di Lucca, Mbriagotto, Pandoro, and Nadalin sourdoughs, at least 80% of the isolates was allotted to this species. Other lactic acid bacteria isolated with a relatively high frequence were Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc citreum. Pyrosequencing confirmed and complemented the culture-dependent approach, detecting L. sanfranciscensis also in Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Mbriagotto, Ciambella di Mosto and Pandolce Genovese. These latter sourdoughs harbored strains of Candida humilis, whereas five sourdoughs combined the presence of both yeast species. Positive correlations were found between time of back slopping and cell density and main metabolites of lactic acid bacteria. Percentage of sourdough used as inoculum was mainly correlated with the cell density of yeasts and the concentration of ethanol. This study provided a comprehensive and comparative approach to highlight the dominant microbiota of Italian sourdoughs, which could be exploited further to guarantee a highly

  18. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone.

  19. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  20. Salicylic acid and gentisic acid induce RNA silencing-related genes and plant resistance to RNA pathogens.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Granell, Pablo; Tárraga, Susana; López-Gresa, Pilar; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María; Rodrigo, Ismael; Lisón, Purificación

    2014-04-01

    We have observed that treatments with salicylic acid (SA) or gentisic acid (GA) induced resistance to RNA pathogens such as ToMV and CEVd in tomato and Gynura auriantiaca, respectively. Accumulation of SA and GA has been found to occur in plants infected by these pathogens, thus pointing out a possible defence role of both molecules. To study the molecular basis of the observed induced resistance to RNA pathogens the induction of silencing-related genes by SA and GA was considered. For that purpose, we searched for tomato genes which were orthologous to those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as AtDCL1, AtDCL2, AtDCL4, AtRDR1, AtRDR2 and AtRDR6, and we tracked their induction in tomato along virus and viroid infections. We observed that CEVd significantly induced all these genes in tomato, with the exception of ToRDR6, being the induction of ToDCL4 the most outstanding. Regarding the ToMV asymptomatic infection, with the exception of ToRDR2, we observed a significant induction of all the indicated silencing-related genes, being ToDCL2 the most induced gene. Subsequently, we analyzed their transcriptional activation by SA and at the time when ToMV was inoculated on plants. ToDCL2, ToRDR1 and ToRDR2 were significantly induced by both SA and GA, whereas ToDCL1 was only induced by SA. Such an induction resulted more effective by SA treatment, which is in agreement with the stronger SA-induced resistance observed. Our results suggest that the observed delay in the RNA pathogen accumulation could be due to the pre-induction of RNA silencing-related genes by SA or GA.

  1. Occurrence of carboxylic acids in different steps of two drinking-water treatment plants using different disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2014-03-15

    The occurrence of 35 aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids within two full scale drinking-water treatment plants was evaluated for the first time in this research. At the intake of each plant (raw water), the occurrence of carboxylic acids varied according to the quality of the water source although in both cases 13 acids were detected at average concentrations of 6.9 and 4.7 μg/L (in winter). In the following steps in each treatment plant, the concentration patterns of these compounds differed depending on the type of disinfectant applied. Thus, after disinfection by chloramination, the levels of the acids remained almost constant (average concentration, 6.3 μg/L) and four new acids were formed (butyric, 2-methylbutyric, 3-hydroxybenzoic and 2-nitrobenzoic) at low levels (1.1-5 μg/L). When ozonation/chlorination was used, the total concentration of the carboxylic acids in the raw water sample (4.7 μg/L) increased up to 6 times (average concentration, 26.3 μg/L) after disinfection and 6 new acids (mainly aromatic) were produced at high levels (3.5-100 μg/L). Seasonal variations of the carboxylic acids under study showed that in both plants, maximum levels of all the analytes were reached in the coldest months (autumn and winter), aromatic acids only being found in those seasons.

  2. Lipidomic Analysis of Oxidized Fatty Acids in Plant and Algae Oils.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Christine E; Hennebelle, Marie; Otoki, Yurika; Zamora, Daisy; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Taha, Ameer Y

    2017-03-08

    Linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in plant or algae oils are precursors to oxidized fatty acid metabolites known as oxylipins. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxylipins in soybean, corn, olive, canola, and four high-oleic acid algae oils at room temperature or after heating for 10 min at 100 °C. Flaxseed oil oxylipin concentrations were determined in a follow-up experiment that compared it to soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil. Published consumption data for soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil were used to estimate daily oxylipin intake. The LA and ALA fatty acid composition of the oils was generally related to their respective oxylipin metabolites, except for olive and flaxseed oil, which had higher LA derived monohydroxy and ketone oxylipins than other oils, despite their low LA content. Algae oils had the least amount of oxylipins. The change in oxylipin concentrations was not significantly different among the oils after short-term heating. The estimated oxylipin intake from nonheated soybean, canola, corn, and olive oil was 1.1 mg per person per day. These findings suggest that oils represent a dietary source of LA and ALA derived oxylipins and that the response of oils to short-term heating does not differ among the various oils.

  3. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease.

  4. Oxalic acid enhances Cr tolerance in the accumulating plant Leersia hexandra Swartz.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dunqiu; Zhang, Xuehong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yinian; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Aili; Jin, Xiaodan

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between oxalic acid and Cr tolerance in an accumulating plant Leersia hexandra Swartz. The plants grown in hydroponics were exposed to Cr at 0, 5, 30, and 60 mg/L (without oxalate), and 0, 40, and 80 mg/L concentrations of Cr (with 70 mg/L oxalate or without oxalate). The results showed that more than 50% of Cr in shoots was found in HCl-extracted fraction (chromium oxalate) when the plants were exposed to Cr. Cr supply significantly increased oxalate concentration in shoots of L. hexandra (p < 0.05), but did not increase oxalate concentration in roots. Under 80 mg/L Cr stress, electrolyte leakages from roots and shoots with oxalate treatment were both significantly lower than those without oxalate treatment (p < 0.05), indicating exogenous oxalate supply alleviated Cr-induced membrane damage. Oxalate added to growth solution ameliorated reduction of biomass and inhibition of root growth induced by Cr, which demonstrated that application of oxalate helped L. hexandra tolerate Cr stress. However, oxalate supply did not affect the Cr concentrations both in roots and shoots of L. hexandra. These results suggest that oxalic acid may act as an important chelator and takes part in detoxifying chromium in internal process of L. hexandra.

  5. Transporters for ammonium, amino acids and peptides are expressed in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Frommer, W B; Ward, J M

    1999-03-01

    Insect capture and digestion contribute substantially to the nitrogen budget of carnivorous plants. In Nepenthes, insect-derived nitrogenous compounds are imported from the pitcher fluid and transported throughout the plant via the vascular tissue to support growth. Import and distribution of nutrients may require transmembrane nitrogen transporters. Representatives of three classes of genes encoding transporters for the nitrogenous compounds ammonium, amino acids and peptides were identified in Nepenthes pitchers. The expression at the cellular level of an ammonium transporter gene, three amino acid transporter genes, and one peptide transporter gene were investigated in the insect trapping organs of Nepenthes. Expression of the ammonium transporter gene NaAMT1 was detected in the head cells of digestive glands in the lower part of the pitcher where NaAMT1 may function in ammonium uptake from the pitcher fluid. One amino acid transporter gene, NaAAP1, was expressed in bundle sheath cells surrounding the vascular tissue. To understand the locations where transmembrane transport could be required within the pitcher, symplasmic and apoplasmic continuity was probed using fluorescent dyes. Symplasmic connections were not found between cortical cells and vascular bundles. Therefore, the amino acid transporter encoded by NaAAP1 may be involved in transport of amino acids into the vascular tissue. In contrast, expression of the peptide transporter gene NaNTR1 was detected in phloem cells of the vascular tissue within pitchers. NaNTR1 may function in the export of nitrogen from the pitcher by loading peptides into the phloem.

  6. Plant growth inhibition by cis-cinnamoyl glucosides and cis-cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiradate, Syuntaro; Morita, Sayaka; Furubayashi, Akihiro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Harada, Jiro

    2005-03-01

    Spiraea thunbergii Sieb. contains 1-O-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (CG) and 6-O-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-1-O-cis-cinnamoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (BCG) as major plant growth inhibiting constituents. In the present study, we determined the inhibitory activity of CG and BCG on root elongation of germinated seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), red clover (Trifolium pratense), timothy (Phleum pratense), and bok choy (Brassica rapa var chinensis) in comparison with that of two well-known growth inhibitors, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and (+)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid (cis-ABA), as well as two related chemicals of CG and BCG, cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) and trans-cinnamic acid (trans-CA). The EC50 values for CG and BCG on lettuce were roughly one-half to one-quarter of the value for cis-ABA. cis-Cinnamic acid, which is a component of CG and BCG, possessed almost the same inhibitory activity of CG and BCG, suggesting that the essential chemical structure responsible for the inhibitory activity of CG and BCG is cis-CA. The cis-stereochemistry of the methylene moiety is apparently needed for high inhibitory activity, as trans-CA had an EC50 value roughly 100 times that of CG, BCG, and cis-CA. Growth inhibition by CG, BCG, and cis-CA was influenced by the nature of the soil in the growing medium: alluvial soil preserved the bioactivity, whereas volcanic ash and calcareous soils inhibited bioactivity. These findings indicate a potential role of cis-CA and its glucosides as allelochemicals for use as plant growth regulators in agricultural fields.

  7. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices. PMID:27818730

  8. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices.

  9. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  10. Effect of aluminium uptake on physiology, phenols and amino acids in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef

    2010-06-15

    Chamomile is a widely used medicinal plant and, as observed in our previous studies, also accumulates some metals in its above-ground biomass. We therefore tested selected metabolic responses after treatments with 60 and 120 microM Al for 7 days. Shoot Al content was not elevated in comparison with control (12.3-14.1 microg g(-1) DW) while total root Al increased strongly, reaching 2680 and 4400 microg g(-1) DW in 60 and 120 microM treatments, respectively. "Intra-root" Al represented 83.6 (60 microM treatment) and 75.8% (120 microM treatment) of total root Al. Soluble proteins were not significantly affected. Free amino acids were almost unaffected in shoots while in roots the highest content was found in 60 microM Al. Ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase activities were the highest in 60 microM Al-exposed roots. On the other hand, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total soluble phenols, flavonoids, a sum of 13 phenolic acids and partially two flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) increased in the shoots. Present study has shown lower Al toxicity and unaltered shoot Al content seems to be the most positive outcome in comparison with previously tested metals (Cd, Ni and Cu). Our results indicate that phenols in shoots and free amino acids in roots are influenced by Al excess in chamomile plants. Possible mechanisms in the context of available literature are suggested and discussed.

  11. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Backor, Martin; Strnad, Miroslav; Repcák, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) doses of 50 and 250 microM, for a period of up to 7 days, on selected physiological aspects and the phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants was studied. SA exhibited both growth-promoting (50 microM) and growth-inhibiting (250 microM) properties, the latter being correlated with decrease of chlorophylls, water content and soluble proteins. In terms of phenolic metabolism, it seems that the higher SA dose has a toxic effect, based on the sharp increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity (24 h after application), which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics, lignin accumulation and the majority of the 11 detected phenolic acids. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity was elevated throughout the experiment in 250 microM SA-treated plants. In turn, some responses can be explained by mechanisms associated with oxidative stress tolerance; these mitigate acute SA stress (which is indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde content). However, PAL activity decreased with prolonged exposure to SA, indicating its inhibition. Accumulation of coumarin-related compounds (umbelliferone and herniarin) was not affected by SA treatments, while (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids increased in the 250 microM SA-treated rosettes. Free SA content in the rosettes increased significantly only in the 250 microM SA treatment, with levels tending to decrease towards the end of the experiment and the opposite trend was observed in the roots.

  12. Expanded perlite insulation selected for process piping in $80 million boric acid plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nannini, L.; Gaines, A.

    1982-03-01

    U.S. Borax's new $80 million chemical facility in Boron, California utilizes the most modern technology to produce 200,000 tons per year of boric acid that is used in texyile fiber glass, various types of heat resistant glasses, metallurgy, drugs and cosmetics. The boric acid plant contains thousands of feet of pipe to convey liquors to mixing tanks, clarifiers, crystallizers, centrifuges and other equipment for the refining process. Steel pipe lined with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used for a major portion of the piping system to avoid corrosion problems and assure products free of contaminants. The process lines were insulated with a lightweight, asbestos-free product made of expanded perlite containing millions of air cells for low thermal conductivity, bonded together by special binders and reinforcing fibers for good compressive strength. The rigid, molded, insulation can withstand continuous and cycling temperatures to 1500/sup 0/F with minimal shrinkage, and contains less than 150 ppm chlorides to avoid stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels. The boric acid plant, which is one of the world's largest, began operations in August 1980, and the performance of the expanded perlite pipe insulation in maintaining process temperatures is considered very satisfactory. Any line leakage that occurred during start-up or normal operation has not affected the heat barrier efficiency or structural integrity of the insulation. The combined strength of the insulation and PVC jacket has prevented any serious damage to the pipe covering when struck or scraped.

  13. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner-exposed work in manufacturing plants, Japan: pulmonary function, blood cells, and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, H; Terunuma, N; Kurosaki, S; Hata, K; Ide, R; Kuga, H; Kakiuchi, N; Masuda, M; Totsuzaki, T; Osato, A; Uchino, B; Kitahara, K; Iwasaki, A; Yoshizumi, K; Morimoto, Y; Kasai, H; Murase, T; Higashi, T

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between toner-exposed work and health indices related to respiratory disorders and to confirm the baseline of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure in manufacturing plants. Subjects were 1614 male workers (809 toner-exposed workers and 805 referents) who were engaged in toner manufacturing plants in Japan (Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd). The age of subjects was from 19 to 59 years, and the average age was 40.2 years(median 40 years, SD 7.67). We conducted a pulmonary function test (PEFR, VC, FVC, FEV(1.0)%, V25/Ht) and a blood cell test (RBC, Hb, Hct, Plt, WBC, cell contents of WBC) and measured biochemical indices in blood (ALT, AST, gamma-GTP, CRP, IgE) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine. Student t-test and logistic regression analysis were applied to compare between the toner-exposed workers and the referents and to analyze the relationship among indices of effects and independent factors. There was no significant difference between the two groups in blood cell count and biochemical indices. Inflammation- and allergy-related markers such as 8OHdG and IgE also showed no significant difference between toner-exposed workers and the referents. The influence of smoking on pulmonary function indices was observed, but there was no relationship between the pulmonary function and toner-exposed work. In this article, we report a preliminary cross-sectional analysis in the subjects of a cohort study. No difference in pulmonary function indices was observed between the toner-exposed workers and the referents, and there was no consistent relationship between the exposure status and examined indices; however, the prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms was higher in the exposed workers as presented in another report. Further analysis is important in the ongoing cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on respiratory systems.

  14. Pathogen-induced systemic activation of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis follows a salicylic acid-independent pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Penninckx, I A; Eggermont, K; Terras, F R; Thomma, B P; De Samblanx, G W; Buchala, A; Métraux, J P; Manners, J M; Broekaert, W F

    1996-01-01

    A 5-kD plant defensin was purified from Arabidopsis leaves challenged with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and shown to possess antifungal properties in vitro. The corresponding plant defensin gene was induced after treatment of leaves with methyl jasmonate or ethylene but not with salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When challenged with A. brassicicola, the levels of the plant defensin protein and mRNA rose both in inoculated leaves and in nontreated leaves of inoculated plants (systemic leaves). These events coincided with an increase in the endogenous jasmonic acid content of both types of leaves. Systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene was unaffected in Arabidopsis transformants (nahG) or mutants (npr1 and cpr1) affected in the salicylic acid response but was strongly reduced in the Arabidopsis mutants eln2 and col1 that are blocked in their response to ethylene and methyl jasmonate, respectively. Our results indicate that systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis is independent of salicylic acid but requires components of the ethylene and jasmonic acid response. PMID:8989885

  15. A Reliable and Inexpensive Method of Nucleic Acid Extraction for the PCR-Based Detection of Diverse Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from several plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. By the combined use of a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol and a semi-automatic homogen...

  16. Rosmarinic acid is a homoserine lactone mimic produced by plants that activates a bacterial quorum-sensing regulator.

    PubMed

    Corral-Lugo, Andrés; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Ortega, Alvaro; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-05

    Quorum sensing is a bacterial communication mechanism that controls genes, enabling bacteria to live as communities, such as biofilms. Homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules function as quorum-sensing signals for Gram-negative bacteria. Plants also produce previously unidentified compounds that affect quorum sensing. We identified rosmarinic acid as a plant-derived compound that functioned as an HSL mimic. In vitro assays showed that rosmarinic acid bound to the quorum-sensing regulator RhlR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and competed with the bacterial ligand N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). Furthermore, rosmarinic acid stimulated a greater increase in RhlR-mediated transcription in vitro than that of C4-HSL. In P. aeruginosa, rosmarinic acid induced quorum sensing-dependent gene expression and increased biofilm formation and the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and elastase. Because P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection induces rosmarinic acid secretion from plant roots, our results indicate that rosmarinic acid secretion is a plant defense mechanism to stimulate a premature quorum-sensing response. P. aeruginosa is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects plants and animals; therefore, identification of rosmarinic acid as an inducer of premature quorum-sensing responses may be useful in agriculture and inform human therapeutic strategies.

  17. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  18. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. PMID:26450705

  19. Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

    2014-01-01

    Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism.

  20. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2016-12-09

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA.

  1. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  2. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  3. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection.

  4. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants.

  5. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    PubMed

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots.

  6. Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Youl; Peterson, Francis C; Mosquna, Assaf; Yao, Jin; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2015-04-23

    Rising temperatures and lessening fresh water supplies are threatening agricultural productivity and have motivated efforts to improve plant water use and drought tolerance. During water deficit, plants produce elevated levels of abscisic acid (ABA), which improves water consumption and stress tolerance by controlling guard cell aperture and other protective responses. One attractive strategy for controlling water use is to develop compounds that activate ABA receptors, but agonists approved for use have yet to be developed. In principle, an engineered ABA receptor that can be activated by an existing agrochemical could achieve this goal. Here we describe a variant of the ABA receptor PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1 (PYR1) that possesses nanomolar sensitivity to the agrochemical mandipropamid and demonstrate its efficacy for controlling ABA responses and drought tolerance in transgenic plants. Furthermore, crystallographic studies provide a mechanistic basis for its activity and demonstrate the relative ease with which the PYR1 ligand-binding pocket can be altered to accommodate new ligands. Thus, we have successfully repurposed an agrochemical for a new application using receptor engineering. We anticipate that this strategy will be applied to other plant receptors and represents a new avenue for crop improvement.

  7. Australia lacks stem succulents but is it depauperate in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)?

    PubMed

    Holtum, Joseph Am; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Crisp, Michael D; Crayn, Darren M; Sage, Rowan; Winter, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the flora of Australia, the driest vegetated continent, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), the most water-use efficient form of photosynthesis, is documented in only 0.6% of native species. Most are epiphytes and only seven terrestrial. However, much of Australia is unsurveyed, and carbon isotope signature, commonly used to assess photosynthetic pathway diversity, does not distinguish between plants with low-levels of CAM and C3 plants. We provide the first census of CAM for the Australian flora and suggest that the real frequency of CAM in the flora is double that currently known, with the number of terrestrial CAM species probably 10-fold greater. Still unresolved is the question why the large stem-succulent life - form is absent from the native Australian flora even though exotic large cacti have successfully invaded and established in Australia.

  8. Fatty acid biosynthesis redirected to medium chains in transgenic oilseed plants

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, T.A.; Worrell, A.C.; Anderson, L.; Bleibaum, J.; Fan, C.; Hawkins, D.J.; Radke, S.E.; Davies, H.M. )

    1992-07-03

    Medium-chain fatty acids (FAs), found in storage lipids of certain plants, are an important renewable resource. Seeds of undomesticated California bay accumulate laurate (12:0), and a 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase (BTE) has been purified from this tissue. Sequencing of BTE enabled the cloning of a complementary DNA coding for a plastid-targeted preprotein. Expression of the complementary DNA in the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in BTE activity, and medium chains accumulated at the expense of long-chain ({ge}16) FAs. Laurate became the most abundant FA species and was deposited in the storage triacylglycerols. These results demonstrate a mechanism for medium-chain FA synthesis in plants.

  9. Activation of the Jasmonic Acid Plant Defence Pathway Alters the Composition of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Tyson, Gene W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling plays a central role in plant defences against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, which afflict both roots and shoots. This pathway is also activated following the interaction with beneficial microbes that may lead to induced systemic resistance. Activation of the JA signalling pathway via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the composition of carbon containing compounds released by roots, which are implicated as key determinants of rhizosphere microbial community structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of the JA defence signalling pathway activation in Arabidopsis thaliana on the structure of associated rhizosphere bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Application of MeJA did not directly influence bulk soil microbial communities but significant changes in rhizosphere community composition were observed upon activation of the jasmonate signalling pathway. Our results suggest that JA signalling may mediate plant-bacteria interactions in the soil upon necrotrophic pathogen and herbivorous insect attacks. PMID:23424661

  10. Mechanistic Basis for Plant Responses to Drought Stress : Regulatory Mechanism of Abscisic Acid Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in the rapid adaptation of plants to environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Accumulated ABA in plant cells promotes stomatal closure in guard cells and transcription of stress-tolerant genes. Our understanding of ABA responses dramatically improved by the discovery of both PYR/PYL/RCAR as a soluble ABA receptor and inhibitory complex of a protein phospatase PP2C and a protein kinase SnRK2. Moreover, several structural analyses of PYR/PYL/RCAR revealed the mechanistic basis for the regulatory mechanism of ABA signaling, which provides a rational framework for the design of alternative agonists in future.

  11. Effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzymes in Syzygium cumini plant.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ramkishan; Saroha, Ajaya Eesha; Swarnkar, P L

    2012-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C. 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; E.C. 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; E.C. 1.11.1.11) in Syzygium cumini plant. The varying concentrations of ABA (2-8 mM/l) and H2O2 (2-8 mM/l) modulated enzyme activities differently. In general, some concentrations of the ABA and H2O2 stimulated the activities of all the three enzymes except that there was a dose dependent reduction in catalase activity in the plants treated with ABA.

  12. A conserved amino acid residue critical for product and substrate specificity in plant triterpene synthases

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Melissa; Thimmappa, Ramesha B.; Minto, Robert E.; Melton, Rachel E.; O’Maille, Paul E.; Hemmings, Andrew M.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes are structurally complex plant natural products with numerous medicinal applications. They are synthesized through an origami-like process that involves cyclization of the linear 30 carbon precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene into different triterpene scaffolds. Here, through a forward genetic screen in planta, we identify a conserved amino acid residue that determines product specificity in triterpene synthases from diverse plant species. Mutation of this residue results in a major change in triterpene cyclization, with production of tetracyclic rather than pentacyclic products. The mutated enzymes also use the more highly oxygenated substrate dioxidosqualene in preference to 2,3-oxidosqualene when expressed in yeast. Our discoveries provide new insights into triterpene cyclization, revealing hidden functional diversity within triterpene synthases. They further open up opportunities to engineer novel oxygenated triterpene scaffolds by manipulating the precursor supply. PMID:27412861

  13. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Xu, Hui; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Zhang, Dapeng; Zhu, Xujun; Li, Xinghui; Fang, Wanping

    2014-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant under drought stress is essential to develop drought-tolerant tea genotypes, along with crop management practices that can mitigate drought stress. The objective of the present investigation is evaluation of effects of exogenous ABA on the leaf proteome in tea plant exposed to drought stress. Leaf protein patterns of tea plants under simulated drought stress [(polyethylene glycol (PEG)-treated] and exogenous ABA treatment were analyzed in a time-course experiment using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Among the 72 protein spots identified by MALDI-TOF MS, 16 proteins were downregulated and two were upregulated by exogenous ABA. The upregulated proteins have roles in glycolysis and photosystem II stabilization. Twenty-one protein spots were responsive to drought stress and most participate in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, control of reactive oxygen species (ROS), defense, signaling or nucleic acid metabolism. The combined treatments of exogenous ABA and drought showed upregulation of 10 protein spots at 12 h and upregulation of 11 proteins at 72 h after initiation of drought stress. The results support the importance of the role that ABA plays in the tea plant during drought stress, by improving protein transport, carbon metabolism and expression of resistance proteins.

  14. Efficacy of using multiple open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers in an odor emission episode investigation at a semiconductor manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chang-Fu; Chang, Pao-Erh; Chen, Shin-Yu; Hwang, Yaw-Huei

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park. There was a combined total odor rate of 43.9% for the three monitoring paths, each comprised of 736 continuous 5-minute monitoring records and containing detectable odor compounds, such as ammonia, ozone, butyl acetate, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). The results of the logistic regression model indicated that the prevailing south wind and the OP-FTIR monitoring path closest to the emission source in down-wind direction resulted in a high efficacy for detecting odorous samples with odds ratios (OR) of 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-5.0) and 5.1 (95% CI: 3.6-7.2), respectively. Meanwhile, the odds ratio for detecting ammonia odorous samples was 7.5 for Path II, which was downwind closer to the possible source, as compared to Path III, downwind far away from the possible source. PGMEA could not be monitored at Path II but could be at Path III, indicating the importance of the monitoring path and flow ejection velocities inside the stacks on the monitoring performance of OP-FTIR. Besides, an odds ratio of 5.1 for odorous sample detection was obtained with south prevailing wind comprising 65.0% of the monitoring time period. In general, it is concluded that OP-FTIR operated with multiple paths simultaneously shall be considered for investigation on relatively complicated episodes such as emergency of chemical release, multiple-source emission and chemical monitoring for odor in a densely populated plant area to enhance the efficacy of OP-FTIR monitoring.

  15. Effect of phytoremediation on concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, James E.; Effinger, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site near Charleston, South Carolina, USA, have been monitored since the installation of a phytoremediation system of hybrid poplar trees in 1998. Between 2000 and 2014, the concentrations of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene (BT&N) in groundwater in the planted area have decreased. For example, in the monitoring well containing the highest concentrations of BT&N, benzene concentrations decreased from 10,200 µg/L to less than 4000 µg/L, toluene concentrations decreased from 2420 µg/L to less than 20 µg/L, and naphthalene concentrations decreased from 6840 µg/L to less than 3000 µg/L. Concentrations of BT&N in groundwater in all wells were observed to be lower during the summer months relative to the winter months of a particular year during the first few years after installing the phytoremediation system, most likely due to increased transpiration and contaminant uptake by the hybrid poplar trees during the warm summer months; this pathway of uptake by trees was confirmed by the detection of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene in trees during sampling events in 2002, and later in the study in 2012. These data suggest that the phytoremediation system affects the groundwater contaminants on a seasonal basis and, over multiple years, has resulted in a cumulative decrease in dissolved-phase contaminant concentrations in groundwater. The removal of dissolved organic contaminants from the aquifer has resulted in a lower demand on dissolved oxygen supplied by recharge and, as a result, the redox status of the groundwater has changed from anoxic to oxic conditions. This study provides much needed information for water managers and other scientists on the viability of the long-term effectiveness of phytoremediation in decreasing groundwater contaminants and increasing dissolved oxygen at sites contaminated by benzene, toluene, and naphthalene.

  16. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant optimization model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    An optimized cost and performance model for a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system was derived and developed into a modular FORTRAN computer code. Cost, energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses were combined to develop a mathematical model for optimizing the steam to methane ratio in the reformer, hydrogen utilization in the PAFC plates per stack. The nonlinear programming code, COMPUTE, was used to solve this model, in which the method of mixed penalty function combined with Hooke and Jeeves pattern search was chosen to evaluate this specific optimization problem.

  17. Endiandric Acid Derivatives and Other Constituents of Plants from the Genera Beilschmiedia and Endiandra (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ndjakou Lenta, Bruno; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the Lauraceae family are widely used in traditional medicine and are sources of various classes of secondary metabolites. Two genera of this family, Beilschmiedia and Endiandra, have been the subject of numerous investigations over the past decades because of their application in traditional medicine. They are the only source of bioactive endiandric acid derivatives. Noteworthy is that their biosynthesis contains two consecutive non-enzymatic electrocyclic reactions. Several interesting biological activities for this specific class of secondary metabolites and other constituents of the two genera have been reported, including antimicrobial, enzymes inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. This review compiles information on the structures of the compounds described between January 1960 and March 2015, their biological activities and information on endiandric acid biosynthesis, with 104 references being cited. PMID:26117852

  18. Effects of ammonium on elemental nutrition of red spruce and indicator plants grown in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelldampf, B.; Barker, A.V. )

    1993-01-01

    Decline of high elevation red spruce forests in the northeastern United States has been related to acid rain, particularly with respect to the deposition of nitrogenous materials. Ca and Mg deficiencies may be induced by input of air-borne nitrogenous nutrients into the forest ecosystem. This research investigated the effects of N nutrition on mineral nutrition of red spruce and radish, as an indicator plant, grown in acid forest soil. Red spruce and radishes in the greenhouse were treated with complete nutrient solutions with 15 mM N supplied as 0, 3.75, 7.5, 11.25, or 15 mM NH[sub 4][sup +] with the remainder being supplied as NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  19. Amino acid transporter mutants of Arabidopsis provides evidence that a non-mycorrhizal plant acquires organic nitrogen from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Ganeteg, Ulrika; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Jämtgård, Sandra; Aguetoni-Cambui, Camila; Inselsbacher, Erich; Svennerstam, Henrik; Schmidt, Susanne; Näsholm, Torgny

    2017-03-01

    Although organic nitrogen (N) compounds are ubiquitous in soil solutions, their potential role in plant N nutrition has been questioned. We performed a range of experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana genetically modified to enhance or reduce root uptake of amino acids. Plants lacking expression of the Lysine Histidine Transporter 1 (LHT1) displayed significantly lower contents of (13) C and (15) N label and of U-(13) C5 ,(15) N2 L-glutamine, as determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry when growing in pots and supplied with dually labelled L-glutamine compared to wild type plants and LHT1-overexpressing plants. Slopes of regressions between accumulation of (13) C-labelled carbon and (15) N-labelled N were higher for LHT1-overexpressing plants than wild type plants, while plants lacking expression of LHT1 did not display a significant regression between the two isotopes. Uptake of labelled organic N from soil tallied with that of labelled ammonium for wild type plants and LHT1-overexpressing plants but was significantly lower for plants lacking expression of LHT1. When grown on agricultural soil plants lacking expression of LHT1 had the lowest, and plants overexpressing LHT1 the highest C/N ratios and natural δ(15) N abundance suggesting their dependence on different N pools. Our data show that LHT1 expression is crucial for plant uptake of organic N from soil.

  20. Evidence for very tight sequestration of BTEX compounds in manufactured gas plant soils based on selective supercritical fluid extraction and soil/water partitioning.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Miller, David J

    2003-08-15

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from eight manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils from sites that had been abandoned for several decades. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure carbon dioxide demonstrated the presence of BTEX compounds that were highly sequestered in both coal gas and oil gas MGP soils and soots. Benzene was generally the slowest compound to extract from all samples and was even more difficult to extract than most two- to five-ring PAHs found on the same samples. Since the solubility of benzene in carbon dioxide is 2-5 orders of magnitude higher than the solubilities of PAHs, these results demonstrate that benzene was more tightly sequestered than toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, or the multi-ring PAHs. Additional evidence for very tight binding was based on the fact that BTEX concentrations determined using either SFE or with methylene chloride sonication were much higher than those obtained by the U.S. EPA purge-and-trap method, especially for benzene (whose concentration was underestimated by as much as 1000-fold by the EPA method). However, soil/water desorption showed little benzene mobility, and Kd values for benzene were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated based on literature sorption K(OC) values. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of benzene may be better represented by mild extraction methods than by methods capable of extracting tightly bound benzene.